Sample records for observed significantly higher

  1. Magnitude and Significance of the Higher-Order Reduced Density

    E-print Network

    Herbert, John

    Magnitude and Significance of the Higher-Order Reduced Density Matrix Cumulants JOHN M. HERBERT minimal and extended basis sets, we examine the absolute magnitude and energetic significance of various, the 3-RDM cumulant (3-RDMC). Minimal basis sets are shown to suppress the magnitude of the 3-RDMC

  2. Reported Significant Observation (RSO) studies. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Eicher, R.W.

    1992-12-01

    The Reported Significant Observation (RSO) study used in the field of safety is an information-gathering technique where employee-participants describe situations they have personally witnessed involving good and bad practices and safe and unsafe conditions. This information is useful in the risk assessment process because it focuses on hazards and thereby facilitates their elimination. However, RSO cannot be the only component in a risk assessment program. Used by the Air Force in their aviation psychology program and further developed by John C. Flanagan, RSO is more commonly known as the ``Critical Incident Technique.`` However, the words ``Critical`` and ``Incident`` had other connotations in nuclear safety, prompting early users within the Aerojet Nuclear Company to coin the more fitting title of ``Reported Significant Observations.`` The technique spread slowly in the safety field primarily because the majority of users were researchers interested in after-the-fact data, with application to everyday problems and behavioral factors. RSO was formally recognized as a significant hazard reduction tool during the development of the Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) program for the US Atomic Energy Commission. The Department of Energy (DOE) has, in turn, adopted MORT for its system safety program, and this has resulted in RSO being a modern and viable technique for DOE contractor safety programs.

  3. Bilaterian Origins: Significance of New Experimental Observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin J. Peterson; R. Andrew Cameron; Eric H. Davidson

    2000-01-01

    Several recent laboratory observations that bear on the origin of the Bilateria are reviewed and interpreted in light of our set-aside cell theory for bilaterian origins. We first discuss new data concerning the phylogeny of bilaterian phyla. Next, we use systematic, molecular, and paleontological lines of evidence to argue that the latest common ancestor of echinoderms plus hemichordates used a

  4. Earth observations and photography experiment: Summary of significant results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Baz, F.

    1978-01-01

    Observation and photographic data from the Apollo Soyuz Test Project are analyzed. The discussion is structured according to the fields of investigation including: geology, desert studies, oceanography, hydrology, and meteorology. The data were obtained by: (1) visual observations of selected Earth features, (2) hand-held camera photography to document observations, and (3) stereo mapping photography of areas of significant scientific interest.

  5. Academic Entrepreneurship (Re)defined: Significance and Implications for the Scholarship of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mars, Matthew M.; Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades higher education scholars have conducted a significant amount of research aimed at understanding the implications of enhanced interactions between the academy and the private marketplace. Accordingly, a voluminous literature that includes conceptualizations and discussions of "academic entrepreneurship" has emerged.…

  6. The Inception of the Meaning and Significance of Endowment in American Higher Education, 1890-1930

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Bruce A.; Johnson, Benjamin Ashby

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Endowments of institutions of higher education in the United States have attracted widespread attention in recent decades due to their meteoric rise in value and their precipitous decline during the recent recession. But there has been little research on the beginnings of the significant interest in and importance of…

  7. Docosahexaenoic acid content is significantly higher in ghrita prepared by traditional Ayurvedic method

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Kalpana S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ghee (clarified butter) also known as ghrita, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda. Ghee is mostly prepared by traditional method in Indian households or by direct cream method at industry level. Ayurvedic classics mention that ghrita made from cow milk is superior. However, there is no scientific comparison available on preparation methods and essential fatty acids content of ghrita. Objective: To investigate fatty acid composition of ghrita prepared by traditional/Ayurvedic method and commercial method (direct cream method). Materials and Methods: Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) extracted from ghrita samples were analysed on Gas Chromatography (GC) Shimadzu B using capillary column BPX70 (0.32 mm*60 m, ID of 0.25 mm). The fatty acids in the samples were identified by comparing peaks with the external standard 68A (Nu-Chek-Prep, Inc.USA). Significant differences between the experimental groups were assessed by analysis of variance. Results: Distribution of fatty acids was compared in ghrita samples prepared by traditional method and direct cream method which is commercially used. Saturated fatty acids were predominant in both the groups. Mono unsaturated fatty acids and poly unsaturated fatty acids were in the range of 17-18% and 3-6% respectively. DHA content was significantly higher in ghee prepared by traditional method using curd starter fermentation. Conclusion: The findings suggested that ghrita prepared by traditional ayurvedic methods contains higher amount of DHA; Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which is a major component of retinal and brain tissues and remains important in prevention of various diseases. PMID:24948858

  8. Higher resolution stimulus facilitates depth perception: MT+ plays a significant role in monocular depth perception.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Yoshiaki; Komine, Kazuteru; Sawahata, Yasuhito; Hiruma, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Today, we human beings are facing with high-quality virtual world of a completely new nature. For example, we have a digital display consisting of a high enough resolution that we cannot distinguish from the real world. However, little is known how such high-quality representation contributes to the sense of realness, especially to depth perception. What is the neural mechanism of processing such fine but virtual representation? Here, we psychophysically and physiologically examined the relationship between stimulus resolution and depth perception, with using luminance-contrast (shading) as a monocular depth cue. As a result, we found that a higher resolution stimulus facilitates depth perception even when the stimulus resolution difference is undetectable. This finding is against the traditional cognitive hierarchy of visual information processing that visual input is processed continuously in a bottom-up cascade of cortical regions that analyze increasingly complex information such as depth information. In addition, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results reveal that the human middle temporal (MT+) plays a significant role in monocular depth perception. These results might provide us with not only the new insight of our neural mechanism of depth perception but also the future progress of our neural system accompanied by state-of- the-art technologies. PMID:25327168

  9. Higher resolution stimulus facilitates depth perception: MT+ plays a significant role in monocular depth perception

    PubMed Central

    Tsushima, Yoshiaki; Komine, Kazuteru; Sawahata, Yasuhito; Hiruma, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Today, we human beings are facing with high-quality virtual world of a completely new nature. For example, we have a digital display consisting of a high enough resolution that we cannot distinguish from the real world. However, little is known how such high-quality representation contributes to the sense of realness, especially to depth perception. What is the neural mechanism of processing such fine but virtual representation? Here, we psychophysically and physiologically examined the relationship between stimulus resolution and depth perception, with using luminance-contrast (shading) as a monocular depth cue. As a result, we found that a higher resolution stimulus facilitates depth perception even when the stimulus resolution difference is undetectable. This finding is against the traditional cognitive hierarchy of visual information processing that visual input is processed continuously in a bottom-up cascade of cortical regions that analyze increasingly complex information such as depth information. In addition, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results reveal that the human middle temporal (MT+) plays a significant role in monocular depth perception. These results might provide us with not only the new insight of our neural mechanism of depth perception but also the future progress of our neural system accompanied by state-of- the-art technologies. PMID:25327168

  10. Significantly Higher Cytokine and Chemokine Levels in Patients with Japanese Spotted Fever than in Those with Tsutsugamushi Disease

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Hiromichi; Ikegaya, Satoshi; Takada, Nobuhiro; Tamaki, Yukiko; Tabara, Kenji; Ueda, Takanori

    2014-01-01

    Tetracyclines are administered to cure Japanese spotted fever (JSF) and tsutsugamushi disease (TD). It is generally said that the clinical course of JSF is worse than that of TD despite antibiotic treatment. The precise mechanism underlying the more severe clinical course of JSF is not fully understood. We therefore examined whether the differential cytokine profile between these two infectious diseases contributes to the difference in clinical severity. The serum concentrations of various cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-?], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and gamma interferon [IFN-?]) and chemokines (IL-8, interferon-inducible protein 10 [IP-10], monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1], macrophage inflammatory protein 1? [MIP-1?], MIP-1?, and eotaxin) were measured in 32 TD and 21 JSF patients. The results showed that serum levels of TNF-? in the acute phases of TD and JSF were significantly increased, with a higher concentration of TNF-? in patients with JSF (mean, 39.9 pg/ml) than in those with TD (mean, 13.8 pg/ml). Comparatively higher levels of other cytokines and chemokines (IL-6, IFN-?, IL-8, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1?, and MIP-1?) were also observed in the acute phase of JSF. The clinical severity score (3.67 ± 1.71) of JSF patients was higher than that of TD patients (1.47 ± 0.77). Our findings revealed that the cytokine and chemokine levels in the acute phase of JSF were significantly higher than those in the acute phase of TD. The differential cytokine levels may be related to the difference in clinical severity between JSF and TD. PMID:24671792

  11. The Importance and Impact of Three Significant Political Decisions upon Higher Education in Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, Nashville.

    Three key political decisions made in Tennessee higher education that have brought about major changes in structure and have implications for the future are discussed. The decisions are: creation of the Tennessee Higher Education Commission (THEC) in 1967, the creation of the State Board of Regents (SBR) in 1972, and the establishment of the…

  12. The study of higher origin of facial artery and its surgical significance.

    PubMed

    Mangalgiri, Ashutosh; Namdev, Laxmi Narayan; Mahore, Devendra; Kapre, Madan

    2015-03-01

    Facial artery plays a key role in blood supply of the face. Facial artery one of the anterior branches of the external carotid artery originates within the carotid triangle. Variation in the origin of the facial artery was observed on two sides out of 60 sides in 30 cadavers. Facial artery was observed originating at the level just below the maxillary artery within the parotid gland. Facial artery may originate as linguo-facial trunk or thyro-linguo-facial trunk. Other developmental variations have also been described in the literature like, agenesis of facial artery, enlarged facial artery, hypoplastic facial artery. Variability in situation may complicate the surgery. Therefore maxillofacial surgeon, plastic surgeons and head & neck surgeon should be aware of such variation. PMID:25621238

  13. Coping with the Sluggish Economy: State Responses to Revenue Shortfalls and Their Significance for Public Schools and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Gale

    Responses of southern states to revenue shortfalls and their significance for public schools and higher education are examined in this report. Many different actions have been take to address state fiscal problems: most strategies require changes in revenue polices that increase taxes and fees or reallocate funds, and many have mandated spending…

  14. Higher potency statins and the risk of new diabetes: multicentre, observational study of administrative databases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the incremental increase in new onset diabetes from higher potency statins compared with lower potency statins when used for secondary prevention. Design Eight population based cohort studies and a meta-analysis. Setting Six Canadian provinces and two international databases from the UK and US. Participants 136 966 patients aged ?40 years newly treated with statins between 1 January 1997 and 31 March 2011. Methods Within each cohort of patients newly prescribed a statin after hospitalisation for a major cardiovascular event or procedure, we performed as-treated, nested case-control analyses to compare diabetes incidence in users of higher potency statins with incidence in users of lower potency statins. Rate ratios of new diabetes events were estimated using conditional logistic regression on different lengths of exposure to higher potency versus lower potency statins; adjustment for confounding was achieved using high dimensional propensity scores. Meta-analytic methods were used to estimate overall effects across sites. Main outcome measures Hospitalisation for new onset diabetes, or a prescription for insulin or an oral antidiabetic drug. Results In the first two years of regular statin use, we observed a significant increase in the risk of new onset diabetes with higher potency statins compared with lower potency agents (rate ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.26). The risk increase seemed to be highest in the first four months of use (rate ratio 1.26, 1.07 to 1.47). Conclusions Higher potency statin use is associated with a moderate increase in the risk of new onset diabetes compared with lower potency statins in patients treated for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Clinicians should consider this risk when prescribing higher potency statins in secondary prevention patients. PMID:24874977

  15. Serum concentration of alpha-1 antitrypsin is significantly higher in colorectal cancer patients than in healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency and colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently controversial. The present study compares AAT serum concentrations and gene frequencies between a group of CRC patients and a control group of healthy unrelated people (HUP). Methods 267 CRC subjects (63% males, 72?±?10 years old) were enlisted from a Hospital Clinic setting in Asturias, Spain. The HUP group comprised 327 subjects (67% males, mean age 70?±?7.5 years old) from the same geographical region. Outcome measures were AAT serum concentrations measured by nephelometry, and AAT phenotyping characterization by isoelectric focusing. Results Significantly higher serum concentrations were found among CRC (208?±?60) than in HUP individuals (144?±?20.5) (p?=?0.0001). No differences were found in the phenotypic distribution of the Pi*S and Pi*Z allelic frequencies (p?=?0.639), although the frequency of Pi*Z was higher in CRC (21%) than in HUP subjects (15%). Conclusions The only statistically significant finding in this study was the markedly higher AAT serum concentrations found in CRC subjects compared with HUP controls, irrespective of whether their Pi* phenotype was normal (Pi*MM) or deficient (Pi*MS, Pi*MZ and Pi*SZ). Although there was a trend towards the more deficient Pi* phenotype the more advanced the tumor, the results were inconclusive due to the small sample size. Consequently, more powerful studies are needed to reach firmer conclusions on this matter. PMID:24886427

  16. DHA Serum Levels Were Significantly Higher in Celiac Disease Patients Compared to Healthy Controls and Were Unrelated to Depression

    PubMed Central

    van Hees, Nathalie J. M.; Giltay, Erik J.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Janssen, Nadine; van der Does, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Celiac disease (CD), a genetically predisposed intolerance for gluten, is associated with an increased risk of major depressive disorder (MDD). We investigated whether dietary intake and serum levels of the essential n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) found in fatty fish play a role in this association. Methods Cross-sectional study in 71 adult CD patients and 31 healthy volunteers, matched on age, gender and level of education, who were not using n-3 PUFA supplements. Dietary intake, as assessed using a 203-item food frequency questionnaire, and serum levels of EPA and DHA were compared in analyses of covariance, adjusting for potential confounders. Serum PUFA were determined using gas chromatography. Results Mean serum DHA was significantly higher in CD patients (1.72 mass%) than controls (1.28 mass%) after multivariable adjustment (mean diff. 0.45 mass%; 95% CI: 0.22–0.68; p?=?0.001). The mean intake of EPA plus DHA did not differ between CD patients and controls after multivariable adjustment (0.15 and 0.22 g/d, respectively; p?=?0.10). There were no significant differences in intake or serum levels of EPA and DHA between any of the CD patient groups (never depressed, current MDD, minor/partially remitted MDD, remitted MDD) and controls. Conclusions Patients on a long term gluten-free diet had similar intakes of EPA plus DHA compared to controls. Contrary to expectations, DHA serum levels were significantly higher in CD patients compared to healthy controls and were unrelated to MDD status. PMID:24841484

  17. Observation of a Significant Excess of pi0pi0 Events in B Meson Decays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Aubert; R. Barate; D. Boutigny; J.-M. Gaillard; A. Hicheur; Y. Karyotakis; J. P. Lees; P. Robbe; V. Tisserand; A. Zghiche; A. Palano; A. Pompili; J. C. Chen; N. D. Qi; G. Rong; P. Wang; Y. S. Zhu; G. Eigen; I. Ofte; B. Stugu; G. S. Abrams; A. W. Borgland; A. B. Breon; D. N. Brown; J. Button-Shafer; R. N. Cahn; E. Charles; C. T. Day; M. S. Gill; A. V. Gritsan; Y. Groysman; R. G. Jacobsen; R. W. Kadel; J. Kadyk; L. T. Kerth; Yu. G. Kolomensky; J. F. Kral; G. Kukartsev; C. Leclerc; M. E. Levi; G. Lynch; L. M. Mir; P. J. Oddone; T. J. Orimoto; M. Pripstein; N. A. Roe; A. Romosan; M. T. Ronan; V. G. Shelkov; A. V. Telnov; W. A. Wenzel; K. Ford; T. J. Harrison; C. M. Hawkes; D. J. Knowles; S. E. Morgan; R. C. Penny; A. T. Watson; N. K. Watson; K. Goetzen; T. Held; H. Koch; B. Lewandowski; M. Pelizaeus; K. Peters; H. Schmuecker; M. Steinke; N. R. Barlow; J. T. Boyd; N. Chevalier; W. N. Cottingham; M. P. Kelly; T. E. Latham; C. Mackay; F. F. Wilson; K. Abe; T. Cuhadar-Donszelmann; C. Hearty; T. S. Mattison; J. A. McKenna; D. Thiessen; P. Kyberd; A. K. McKemey; V. E. Blinov; A. D. Bukin; V. B. Golubev; V. N. Ivanchenko; E. A. Kravchenko; A. P. Onuchin; S. I. Serednyakov; Yu. I. Skovpen; E. P. Solodov; A. N. Yushkov; D. Best; M. Bruinsma; M. Chao; D. Kirkby; A. J. Lankford; M. Mandelkern; R. K. Mommsen; W. Roethel; D. P. Stoker; C. Buchanan; B. L. Hartfiel; B. C. Shen; D. del Re; H. K. Hadavand; E. J. Hill; D. B. Macfarlane; H. P. Paar; Sh. Rahatlou; V. Sharma; J. W. Berryhill; C. Campagnari; B. Dahmes; N. Kuznetsova; S. L. Levy; O. Long; A. Lu; M. A. Mazur; J. D. Richman; W. Verkerke; T. W. Beck; J. Beringer; A. M. Eisner; C. A. Heusch; W. S. Lockman; T. Schalk; R. E. Schmitz; B. A. Schumm; A. Seiden; M. Turri; W. Walkowiak; D. C. Williams; M. G. Wilson; J. Albert; E. Chen; G. P. Dubois-Felsmann; A. Dvoretskii; D. G. Hitlin; I. Narsky; F. C. Porter; A. Ryd; A. Samuel; S. Yang; S. Jayatilleke; G. Mancinelli; B. T. Meadows; M. D. Sokoloff; T. Abe; F. Blanc; P. Bloom; S. Chen; P. J. Clark; W. T. Ford; U. Nauenberg; A. Olivas; P. Rankin; J. Roy; J. G. Smith; W. C. van Hoek; L. Zhang; J. L. Harton; T. Hu; A. Soffer; W. H. Toki; R. J. Wilson; J. Zhang; D. Altenburg; T. Brandt; J. Brose; T. Colberg; M. Dickopp; R. S. Dubitzky; A. Hauke; H. M. Lacker; E. Maly; R. Müller-Pfefferkorn; R. Nogowski; S. Otto; J. Schubert; K. R. Schubert; R. Schwierz; B. Spaan; L. Wilden; D. Bernard; G. R. Bonneaud; F. Brochard; J. Cohen-Tanugi; P. Grenier; Ch. Thiebaux; G. Vasileiadis; M. Verderi; A. Khan; D. Lavin; F. Muheim; S. Playfer; J. E. Swain; M. Andreotti; V. Azzolini; D. Bettoni; C. Bozzi; R. Calabrese; G. Cibinetto; E. Luppi; M. Negrini; L. Piemontese; A. Sarti; E. Treadwell; F. Anulli; R. Baldini-Ferroli; M. Biasini; A. Calcaterra; R. de Sangro; D. Falciai; G. Finocchiaro; P. Patteri; I. M. Peruzzi; M. Piccolo; M. Pioppi; A. Zallo; A. Buzzo; R. Capra; R. Contri; G. Crosetti; M. Lo Vetere; M. Macri; M. R. Monge; S. Passaggio; C. Patrignani; E. Robutti; A. Santroni; S. Tosi; S. Bailey; M. Morii; E. Won; W. Bhimji; D. A. Bowerman; P. D. Dauncey; U. Egede; I. Eschrich; J. R. Gaillard; G. W. Morton; J. A. Nash; P. Sanders; G. P. Taylor; G. J. Grenier; S.-J. Lee; U. Mallik; J. Cochran; H. B. Crawley; J. Lamsa; W. T. Meyer; S. Prell; E. I. Rosenberg; J. Yi; M. Davier; G. Grosdidier; A. Höcker; S. Laplace; V. Lepeltier; A. M. Lutz; T. C. Petersen; S. Plaszczynski; M. H. Schune; L. Tantot; G. Wormser; V. Brigljevic; C. H. Cheng; D. J. Lange; D. M. Wright; A. J. Bevan; J. P. Coleman; J. R. Fry; E. Gabathuler; R. Gamet; M. Kay; R. J. Parry; D. J. Payne; R. J. Sloane; C. Touramanis; J. J. Back; P. F. Harrison; H. W. Shorthouse; P. Strother; P. B. Vidal; C. L. Brown; G. Cowan; R. L. Flack; H. U. Flaecher; S. George; M. G. Green; A. Kurup; C. E. Marker; T. R. McMahon; S. Ricciardi; F. Salvatore; G. Vaitsas; M. A. Winter; C. L. Davis; J. Allison; R. J. Barlow; A. C. Forti; P. A. Hart; M. C. Hodgkinson; F. Jackson; G. D. Lafferty; A. J. Lyon; J. H. Weatherall; J. C. Williams; A. Farbin; A. Jawahery; D. Kovalskyi; C. K. Lae; V. Lillard; D. A. Roberts; G. Blaylock; C. Dallapiccola; K. T. Flood; S. S. Hertzbach; R. Kofler; V. B. Koptchev; T. B. Moore; S. Saremi; H. Staengle; S. Willocq; R. Cowan; G. Sciolla; F. Taylor; R. K. Yamamoto; D. J. Mangeol; P. M. Patel; A. Lazzaro; F. Palombo; J. M. Bauer; L. Cremaldi; V. Eschenburg; R. Godang; R. Kroeger; J. Reidy; D. A. Sanders; D. J. Summers; H. W. Zhao; S. Brunet; D. Cote-Ahern; C. Hast; P. Taras; H. Nicholson; C. Cartaro; N. Cavallo; F. Fabozzi; C. Gatto; L. Lista; P. Paolucci; D. Piccolo; C. Sciacca; M. A. Baak; G. Raven; J. M. Losecco; T. A. Gabriel; B. Brau; K. K. Gan; K. Honscheid; D. Hufnagel; H. Kagan; R. Kass; T. Pulliam; Q. K. Wong; J. Brau; R. Frey; C. T. Potter; N. B. Sinev; D. Strom; E. Torrence; F. Colecchia; A. Dorigo; F. Galeazzi

    2003-01-01

    We present a study of the decay B0-->pi0pi0 based on a sample of 124×106 BBŻ pairs recorded by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. We observe 46±13±3 events, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic, corresponding to a significance of 4.2 standard deviations including systematic uncertainties. We measure the branching fraction

  18. Significantly higher expression levels of androgen receptor are associated with erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene related gene positive prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Jason; Drew, Sally; Huang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Erythroblastosis virus E26 related gene (ERG) overexpression is correlated with the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene, a rearrangement known to be present in about 50% of cases of prostate cancer. Androgen receptor (AR) is a known regulator of the TMPRSS2 gene. Despite knowledge of this relationship, limited data is available on the specific relationship of AR expression to TMPRSS2-ERG fusion (ERG) status in prostate cancer (PCa). We used multiplexed immunohistochemistry, multispectral imaging technology and tissue microarray (TMA) to elucidate this relationship. Two prostate tissue microarrays were created from two cohorts of hormonal naďve patients’ prostatectomy specimens: progression TMA (pTMA, from 95 PCa patients) and outcome TMA (oTMA, from 183 PCa patients with at least 5-year follow-up information). Each of the two TMAs were triple-stained with ERG, AR and E-cadherin antibodies and visualized with a different chromogen. We found marked difference in AR expression levels between ERG positive (ERG+) and ERG negative (ERG-) prostate cancer. The difference was significant in localized (pT2) prostate cancer. We also found that AR expression levels were significantly higher in PCa tissue compared to benign prostate tissue, with the highest expression levels in ERG+ metastatic cancer. Neither AR nor ERG expression was associated with clinical outcome. Our findings confirm that TMPRSS2-ERG fusion is AR-dependent and is associated with increased AR expression. Our data suggest that the AR pathway may play an important role in the development of ERG+ PCa and ERG status may be useful in stratifying PCa patients for hormonal therapy. PMID:25374927

  19. Volcanic activity before and after large tectonic earthquakes: Observations and statistical significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggert, Silke; Walter, Thomas R.

    2009-06-01

    The study of volcanic triggering and interaction with the tectonic surroundings has received special attention in recent years, using both direct field observations and historical descriptions of eruptions and earthquake activity. Repeated reports of clustered eruptions and earthquakes may imply that interaction is important in some subregions. However, the subregions likely to suffer such clusters have not been systematically identified, and the processes responsible for the observed interaction remain unclear. We first review previous works about the clustered occurrence of eruptions and earthquakes, and describe selected events. We further elaborate available databases and confirm a statistically significant relationship between volcanic eruptions and earthquakes on the global scale. Moreover, our study implies that closed volcanic systems in particular tend to be activated in association with a tectonic earthquake trigger. We then perform a statistical study at the subregional level, showing that certain subregions are especially predisposed to concurrent eruption-earthquake sequences, whereas such clustering is statistically less significant in other subregions. Based on this study, we argue that individual and selected observations may bias the perceptible weight of coupling. The activity at volcanoes located in the predisposed subregions (e.g., Japan, Indonesia, Melanesia), however, often unexpectedly changes in association with either an imminent or a past earthquake.

  20. Tribes and Territories in the 21st Century: Rethinking the Significance of Disciplines in Higher Education. International Studies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trowler, Paul, Ed.; Saunders, Murray, Ed.; Bamber, Veronica, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The "tribes and territories" metaphor for the cultures of academic disciplines and their roots in different knowledge characteristics has been used by those interested in university life and work since the early 1990s. This book draws together research, data and theory to show how higher education has gone through major change since then and how…

  1. Significance of the Difference Between an Observed Correlation Coefficient and a Hypothetical Value

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lowry, Richard

    Using the Fisher r-to-z transformation, this page will calculate a value of z that can be applied to assess the significance of the difference between r, the correlation observed within a sample of size n and rho, the correlation hypothesized to exist within the population of bivariate values from which the sample is randomly drawn. If r is greater than rho, the resulting value of z will have a positive sign; if r is smaller than rho, the sign of z will be negative.

  2. Clinical significance of white gastric crypt openings observed via magnifying endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Masashi; Sekine, Hitoshi; Abe, Shu; Shibuya, Daisuke; Kato, Katsuaki; Masuda, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-induced gastritis and white gastric mucosal crypt openings (COs) in the gastric corpus. METHODS: A total of 175 consecutive patients (including 69 patients with gastric cancer) were enrolled in this study. We used magnifying endoscopy (ME) to observe the mucosa microsurface of the lesser and greater curvature of the gastric corpus (350 areas in all). We focused on areas with a round pit microstructure (primarily observed in non-atrophied areas) and evaluated the white openings of these gastric pits. We classified the whiteness of the COs as the “white-edged dark spot” type (consisting of a dark spot bordered by white); the “white” type (pure white with no dark spot); and the “dense white pit (DWP)” type (dense white, resembling a snowball). Gastritis was also histologically evaluated according to the updated Sydney System. RESULTS: We detected round COs using ME in 246 of the 350 areas examined. The histological examination showed significantly more mononuclear cells and neutrophil infiltration in the “white” and “DWP” types than the “white-edged dark spot” type (P < 0.001). Furthermore, significantly high-grade inflammation and evidence of active H. pylori-induced gastritis was observed in the “DWP” type (P < 0.001). Significant differences were observed in the whiteness of COs between H. pylori-positive (n = 139) and negative (n = 36) patients (P < 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of the “white” and “DWP” types for predicting H. pylori infection were 78.5% and 81.7%, respectively. Of the patients with gastric cancer, 22.5% (18/80) had “white-edged dark spots”, 51.3% (41/80) had “white” COs, and 26.3% (21/80) had “DWP”-type COs. “DWPs” were frequently observed among patients with undifferentiated gastric cancer [45.7% (16/35)]. CONCLUSION: CO whiteness detected via ME was associated with histological evidence of gastritis and helps to predict the severity of inflammation and H. pylori-induced activity. PMID:24409067

  3. How Different Are Higher Education Institutions in the UK, US and Australia? The Significance of Government Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Governments in the UK and many other countries have long sought to promote the diversity of their higher education institutions. However, diversity is hard to define, harder to measure and even more difficult to compare between countries. Most empirical analyses of the diversity of higher education systems use categorical variables, which shape…

  4. Utilizing dimensional analysis with observed data to determine the significance of hydrodynamic solutions in coastal hydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, Eric D.; Decker, Jeremy D.; Hughes, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present an analysis of the magnitude of the temporal and spatial acceleration (inertial) terms in the surface-water flow equations and determine the conditions under which these inertial terms have sufficient magnitude to be required in the computations. Data from two South Florida field sites are examined and the relative magnitudes of temporal acceleration, spatial acceleration, and the gravity and friction terms are compared. Parameters are derived by using dimensionless numbers and applied to quantify the significance of the hydrodynamic effects. The time series of the ratio of the inertial and gravity terms from field sites are presented and compared with both a simplified indicator parameter and a more complex parameter called the Hydrodynamic Significance Number (HSN). Two test-case models were developed by using the SWIFT2D hydrodynamic simulator to examine flow behavior with and without the inertial terms and compute the HSN. The first model represented one of the previously-mentioned field sites during gate operations of a structure-managed coastal canal. The second model was a synthetic test case illustrating the drainage of water down a sloped surface from an initial stage while under constant flow. The analyses indicate that the times of substantial hydrodynamic effects are sporadic but significant. The simplified indicator parameter correlates much better with the hydrodynamic effect magnitude for a constant width channel such as Miami Canal than at the non-uniform North River. Higher HSN values indicate flow situations where the inertial terms are large and need to be taken into account.

  5. Magnitude and significance of observed trends in precipitation frequency over the U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, I.; Anderson, B. T.; Salvucci, G.; Gianotti, D.

    2012-12-01

    Observed trends in the frequency of precipitation and the length of longest dry and wet spells are documented over the U.S. for both wet and dry seasons and on an annual basis using historical daily precipitation data for 774 rain gauge stations from approximately 1900-2009. Stochastic Monte-Carlo simulations based on Markovian precipitation occurrence models are used as a null against which to test observed trends, providing a method to identify significant trends and regional expressions at individual stations without resorting to gridding or area-averaging. Most regions in the U.S. display geographically and seasonally consistent long-term trend patterns that involve an increase in frequency of precipitation and a decrease in the length of extreme dry spells. The Atlantic plain is an exception in terms of long-term trends in precipitation frequency, especially during the wet season, during which it experiences a marked decrease in frequency of precipitation and increase in extreme dry spell length. Geographically, our results are broadly consistent with previous analyses based on gridded data sets, but with significantly larger magnitudes (10 days per century spatial average as compared with 6 days per century). The observed trends are not consistent with climate model projections, which predict decreases in mid-latitude daily precipitation frequency in a warming atmosphere. Trends in the timing of the wet and dry seasons are also evident, particularly over the Ohio and Lower Mississippi (Missouri and Upper Mississippi) river valleys where the Fall (Winter) dry season is arriving earlier (later). These findings have important implications for water management systems, soil moisture, agriculture and ecology, all of which are sensitive to the frequency and seasonality of precipitation.

  6. A Critical Evaluation of Peer Review via Teaching Observation within Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Jacqueline A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a best practice framework for peer review via teaching observation as a method of appraising teaching performance within UK higher education (HE) institutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses secondary data analysis via the current literature on peer review and peer appraisal, as well as use of primary data obtained…

  7. Central adiposity is significantly higher in female compared to male in Pakistani type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Akhter, Omer; Fiazuddin, Faraz; Shaheryar, Ayesha; Niaz, Warda; Siddiqui, Danial; Awan, Safia; Ram, Nanik; Akhter, Jaweed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) rates are increasing rapidly in South Asians. Cardiovascular complications are more frequent and occur earlier in our patients than patients in many other ethnic groups. Reasons for this are not fully understood. Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the body total and central fat percentage in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients and to check correlation with BMI, waist circumference and metabolic profile. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study conducted at endocrine clinic, Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan, from May to December 2012. Materials and Methods: Patients of either gender with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly selected. A separate proforma for each patient was recorded for demographics, risk factors, bioelectrical impedance measurement for body fat and investigations. Statistical Analysis: Correlation between body fat and other covariate were compared by Pearson correlation coefficient test. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. SPSS19.0 was used to analyze the data. Results: One hundred and seventy five patients (95 male and 80 female) with mean age of 54.1 ± 12 years were evaluated. Mean duration of diabetes was 8.1 years, mean HbA1c was 8.1% and 53.7% were on oral agents and rest were on insulin with or without oral agents. Hypertension was present in 65.7%, 13.7% had known coronary artery disease and 2.3% had cerebrovascular disease. Mean BMI in males was 29.1 ± 4.74 kg/m2 and females 31.7 ± 5.3 kg/m2. Mean waist circumference in males was 107.3 ± 16.6 cm and 103 ± 12 cm in females. Total body fat percentage (%BF) in males was 30.9 ± 7.1% and females 40 ± 8.2% with 89% of the total cohort having total body fat percentage above the normal, less than 25% central fat percentage was 13.3 ± 5.2% in males and 14.6 ± 5.5% in females with 79.4% of cohort having increased central fat (normal <9%). Total and central body fat correlated with BMI (r = 0.68, P < 0.001) and waist circumference (r = 0.66, P < 0.001) but not with HbA1c, triglyceride level or with fasting or random blood glucose levels. Women had significantly higher total body fat percentage compared to men (P < 0.001) although central fat percentage was similar in both sexes. Conclusions: High body fat percentage, waist circumference are seen especially in woman and central body fat percentage in both sexes among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pakistan. Body fat percentage should be measured and followed as this may be an important contributing factor to the high macrovascular complication rate in this part of world. PMID:25593830

  8. Volcanic activity before and after large tectonic earthquakes: Observations and statistical significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggert, S.; Walter, T. R.

    2009-04-01

    The study of volcanic triggering and coupling to the tectonic surroundings has received special attention in recent years, using both direct field observations and historical descriptions of eruptions and earthquake activity. Repeated reports of volcano-earthquake interactions in, e.g., Europe and Japan, may imply that clustered occurrence is important in some regions. However, the regions likely to suffer clustered eruption-earthquake activity have not been systematically identified, and the processes responsible for the observed interaction are debated. We first review previous works about the correlation of volcanic eruptions and earthquakes, and describe selected local clustered events. Following an overview of previous statistical studies, we further elaborate the databases of correlated eruptions and earthquakes from a global perspective. Since we can confirm a relationship between volcanic eruptions and earthquakes on the global scale, we then perform a statistical study on the regional level, showing that time and distance between events follow a linear relationship. In the time before an earthquake, a period of volcanic silence often occurs, whereas in the time after, an increase in volcanic activity is evident. Our statistical tests imply that certain regions are especially predisposed to concurrent eruption-earthquake pairs, e.g., Japan, whereas such pairing is statistically less significant in other regions, such as Europe. Based on this study, we argue that individual and selected observations may bias the perceptible weight of coupling. Volcanoes located in the predisposed regions (e.g., Japan, Indonesia, Melanesia), however, indeed often have unexpectedly changed in association with either an imminent or a past earthquake.

  9. Higher Education in the United Arab Emirates: An Analysis of the Outcomes of Significant Increases in Supply and Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, several countries across the Middle and Far East have established higher education hubs, some of which have grown rapidly by attracting foreign universities to set up international branch campuses. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is by far the largest host of international branch campuses globally, having over 40 providers…

  10. Observation of warm, higher energy electrons transiting a double layer in a helicon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Yung-Ta; Li, Yan; Scharer, John E.

    2015-03-01

    Measurements of an inductive RF helicon argon plasma double layer with two temperature electron distributions including a fast (>80 eV) tail are observed at 0.17 mTorr Ar pressure. The fast, untrapped electrons observed downstream of the double layer have a higher temperature (13 eV) than the trapped (Te = 4 eV) electrons. The reduction of plasma potential and density observed in the double layer region would require an upstream temperature ten times the measured 4 eV if occurring via Boltzmann ambipolar expansion. The experimental observation in Madison helicon experiment indicates that fast electrons with substantial density fractions can be created at low helicon operating pressures.

  11. Random walker in temporally deforming higher-order potential forces observed in a financial crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kota; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2009-11-01

    Basic peculiarities of market price fluctuations are known to be well described by a recently developed random-walk model in a temporally deforming quadratic potential force whose center is given by a moving average of past price traces [M. Takayasu, T. Mizuno, and H. Takayasu, Physica A 370, 91 (2006)]. By analyzing high-frequency financial time series of exceptional events, such as bubbles and crashes, we confirm the appearance of higher-order potential force in the markets. We show statistical significance of its existence by applying the information criterion. This time series analysis is expected to be applied widely for detecting a nonstationary symptom in random phenomena.

  12. The National Emissions Inventory Significantly Overestimates NOx Emissions: Analysis of CMAQ and in situ observations from DISCOVER-AQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. C.; Dickerson, R. R.; Loughner, C.

    2013-12-01

    NOx and CO not only adversely impact human health, but they, along with associated VOCs, are also important precursors for O3 formation. While ambient NOx and CO concentrations have decreased dramatically over the past 10-20 years, O3 has remained a more recalcitrant problem, particularly in the Baltimore/Washington region. Reduction of O3 production requires that emissions inventories, such as the National Emissions Inventory (NEI), accurately capture total emissions of CO and NOx while also correctly apportioning them among different sectors. Previous evaluations of the NEI paint different pictures of its accuracy, with assertions that it overestimates either one or both of CO and NOx from anywhere between 25 percent to a factor of 2. These conflicting claims warrant further investigation. In this study, measurements of NOx and CO taken aboard the NOAA P3B airplane during the 2011 DISCOVER-AQ field campaign were used to determine the NOx/CO emissions ratio at 6 locations in the Washington/Baltimore region. An average molar emissions ratio of 12.8 × 1.2 CO/NOx was found by calculating the change in CO over the change in NOx from vertical concentration profiles in the planetary boundary layer. Ratios showed little variation with location. Observed values were approximately a factor of 1.35 - 1.75 times greater than that predicted by the annual, countywide emissions ratio from the 2008 NEI. When compared to a temporalized, gridded version of the inventory processed by SMOKE, ratio observations were greater than that predicted by inventories by up to a factor of 2. Comparison of the in situ measurements and remotely sensed observations from MOPITT of CO to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model agree within 10-35 percent, with the model higher on average. Measurements of NOy by two separate analytical techniques, on the other hand, show that CMAQ consistently and significantly overestimates NOy concentrations. Combined with the CO observations, this indicates that the NEI overestimates NOx emissions by approximately a factor of 2. Comparison of the temporalized NEI to continuous monitoring of NOx emissions from point sources shows that, on average, agreement between observations and the NEI were within 5 percent. In a region where the NEI estimates on-road emissions can account for 50-75 percent of total NOx, the most likely source of error in the NOx inventory is in the on-road sector. Assumptions about the lifetime and efficacy of catalytic converters in the MOVES model should be investigated as a possible source of this error.

  13. Teenagers' Significant Experiences in Aesthetic Areas: Some Empirical Observations Regarding the Role of Dramatic Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnas, Leif

    2008-01-01

    Fifteen sixteen-year-old Fenno-Swedish compulsory school pupils' descriptions and evaluations of significant, i.e. more or less "strong", experiences relating to dramatic art (film, theatre) were analysed and compared with reported experiences in other aesthetic areas (music, nature etc.). The drama area was represented in many experiences, but…

  14. Spectroscopic observation of higher vibrational levels of C2 through visible band systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Masakazu; Endo, Yasuki

    2013-12-01

    Higher vibrational levels of the C2 molecule than those observed so far were investigated for the X{}^1? _g^ +, A1?u, a3?u, c{}^3? _u^ +, and d3?g states through the Phillips, Swan, and d{}^3? _g - c{}^3? _u^ + band systems under a jet-cooled condition. The term values and the molecular constants for 21 new vibronic levels were determined from rotationally resolved excitation spectra. The determined term values and rotational constants were compared to those derived from high-level ab initio potential curves. Perturbations identified in low J levels of the d3?g(v = 8) state are most likely to be caused by the 15?g(v = 3) state.

  15. Geological significance of features observed in Colorado from orbital altitudes. [using EREP and LANDSAT imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawatzky, D. L.; Prost, G. L.; Lee, K.; Knepper, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Three major investigations using LANDSAT and Skylab imagery concerned with analyses of color anomalies and linear features of central Colorado are discussed. The studies conducted are concerned with the geological significance of spectral and spatial features on the images. Color anomalies in Skylab photographs were analyzed and evaluated for locating indicators of mineralization. The relationships were determined of all linear features in a LANDSAT image to the rock joint systems and the detectable larger geologic structures; techniques for extracting that geologic information are indicated. Some anomalous megalinear features in LANDSAT and Skylab images are analyzed which transect major structures and, their associated geologic features are described.

  16. Ecological observations on the molluscs of significance in the transmission of bilharziasis in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Teesdale, C.

    1962-01-01

    Further knowledge of the bionomics of bilharziasis vectors is necessary before more effective measures can be taken to control them. Such knowledge, acquired from long-term observations in a variety of habitats, should help to fill some of the gaps in knowledge of molluscan ecology. The present studies were conducted over a period of three to five years and included observations on the proved and suspected vectors of bilharziasis in Kenya. Records were kept of seasonal and regional distribution of the snails, population dynamics and infection rates. Seasonal distribution normally conformed to a definite pattern but was often so influenced by unseasonable weather and interference by man as to render it unrecognizable. Temperature, water fluctuations, types and amount of vegetation, dissolved oxygen and other physical and chemical characteristics of the water were recorded and an attempt was made to assess the importance of the changes in such environmental factors on the prevalence of the snails studied. No correlation could be found between vegetational changes in the habitat and the number of snails present, but complete coverage of the water surface with horizontal vegetation tended to an absence of snails. Except for torrential floods, water fluctuations seemed to have no effect on snail numbers and the chemical and physical properties of the water of negative habitats appeared to be within the range of tolerance of the species observed. It was not found possible to assess the effects of small temperature changes on reproduction in snails; it is suggested that further trials are justified. There was no obvious effect on numbers when snails were found with predators in the same habitat. Many otherwise adequate habitats were unintentionally rendered unsuitable for vector snails by direct interference by man. PMID:13980432

  17. Observational study of higher dimensional magnetic universe in non-linear electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjit, Chayan; Chakraborty, Shuvendu; Debnath, Ujjal

    2013-07-01

    In this work, we have considered the flat FRW model of the universe in ( n+2)-dimensions filled with the dark matter and the magnetic field. We present the Hubble parameter in terms of the observable parameters ? m0 and H 0 with the redshift z and the other parameters like B 0, ?, ? 0, ?, n, w m . The natures of magnetic field B, deceleration parameter q and operatorname{Om} diagnostic have also been analyzed for accelerating expansion of the universe. From Stern data set (12 points), we have obtained the bounds of the arbitrary parameters by minimizing the ? 2 test. The best-fit values of the parameters are obtained by 66 %, 90 % and 99 % confidence levels. Now to find the bounds of the parameters ( B 0, ?) and to draw the statistical confidence contour, we fixed four parameters ? 0, ?, n, w m . Here the parameter n determines the higher dimensions and we perform comparative study between three cases: 4D ( n=2), 5D ( n=3) and 6D ( n=4) respectively. Next due to joint analysis with BAO observation, we have also obtained the bounds of the parameters ( B 0, ?) by fixing other parameters ? 0, ?, n, w m for 4D, 5D and 6D. The best fit of distance modulus for our theoretical model and the Supernova Type Ia Union2 sample are drawn for different dimensions.

  18. Significant reduction in arc frequency biased solar cells: Observations, diagnostics, and mitigation technique(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upschulte, B. L.; Weyl, G. M.; Marinelli, W. J.; Aifer, E.; Hastings, D.; Snyder, D.

    1991-01-01

    A variety of experiments were performed which identify key factors contributing to the arcing of negatively biased high voltage solar cells. These efforts have led to reduction of greater than a factor of 100 in the arc frequency of a single cell following proper remediation procedures. Experiments naturally lead to and focussed on the adhesive/encapsulant that is used to bond the protective cover slip to the solar cell. An image-intensified charge coupled device (CCD) camera system recorded UV emission from arc events which occurred exclusively along the interfacial edge between the cover slip and the solar cell. Microscopic inspection of this interfacial region showed a bead of encapsulant along this entire edge. Elimination of this encapsulant bead reduced the arc frequency by two orders of magnitude. Water contamination was also identified as a key contributor which enhances arcing of the encapsulant bead along the solar cell edge. Spectrally resolved measurements of the observable UV light shows a feature assignable to OH(A-X) electronic emission, which is common for water contaminated discharges. Experiments in which the solar cell temperature was raised to 85 C showed a reduced arcing frequency, suggesting desorption of H2O. Exposing the solar cell to water vapor was shown to increase the arcing frequency. Clean dry gases such as O2, N2, and Ar show no enhancement of the arcing rate. Elimination of the exposed encapsulant eliminates any measurable sensitivity to H2O vapor.

  19. Significant results from using earth observation satellites for mineral and energy resource exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, W. D.

    A large number of Earth-observation satellites orbit our world several times each day, providing new information about the land and sea surfaces and the overlying thin layer of atmosphere that makes our planet unique. Meteorological satellites have had the longest history of experimental use and most are now considered operational. The geologic information collected by the Landsat, Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (POGO), Magsat, Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) and Seasat land and ocean observation systems is being thoroughly tested, and some of these systems are now approaching operational use. Landsat multispectral images provide views of large areas of the Earth under uniform lighting conditions and can be obtained at a variety of scales and formats. Not only do the Landsat data provide highly useful images showing surficial materials and structures such as folds and faults, but also measurements and computer-derived ratios of the brightness of different rock types, alteration zones, and mineral associations. These data have led to the finding of a variety of new ore deposits. In addition, the combination of Landsat digital data and aeromagnetic data has extended the use of Landsat as an exploration tool which can be used to readily relate surface features to subsurface anomalies. Magsat data, now being collected, are helping refine information on major crustal anomalies that were first recognized during the analysis of POGO data. The more nearly circular orbit, lower altitude, and increased sophistication of its vector magnetometer enable Magsat to provide more precise information than POGO. Information of this type is required to develop crustal models. Although Magsat is designed to operate for only 4-8 months, the number of orbits that it should be able to make will be sufficient to accomplish its mission and to record a major magnetic storm expected in 1980. HCMM is a two-band visible to near-IR (0.55-1.1 ?m) and thermal infrared (10.2-12.5 ?m) system designed to measure reflected solar energy, determine the heat capacity of rocks and to monitor soil moisture, thermal effluents, plant canopy temperatures and snow cover. Launched in April 1978, it is in sun-synchronous, circular orbit at an altitude of 620 km. It is a relatively low-resolution system with an instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of 500-600 m and a swath width of 716 km. However, the system is designed to detect objects in the range of 260°-340° K with a sensitivity (NE?T) of 0.4°K at 280°. Recording the thermal radiation of urban heat islands and high thermal inertia of quartzite strata in the Appalachian region are two examples of its land applications. Launched in June 1978, Seasat operated for only 100 days, but successfully acquired much information over both sea and land. The collection of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery and radar altimetry was particularly important to geologists. Although there are difficulties in processing and distributing these data in a timely manner, initial evaluations indicate that the radar imagery supplements Landsat data by increasing the spectral range and offering a different look angle. The radar altimeter provides accurate profiles over narrow strips of land (1 km wide) and has demonstrated usefulness in measuring icecap surfaces (Greenland, Iceland, and Antarctica). The Salar of Uyuni in southern Bolivia served as a calibration site for the altimeter and has enabled investigators to develop a land-based smoothing algorithm that is believed to increase the accuracy of the system to 10 cm. Data from the altimeter are currently being used to measure subsidence resulting from ground water withdrawal in the Phoenix-Tucson area.

  20. Kimberlite-Clan-Rocks in India: Significance of new VGP, T, and GP Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggerty, S. E.

    2005-05-01

    Although India is acknowledged for the first description of diamond some 2000 BCE, it should also rightfully be credited for the 17th C recognition that diamond is a product of volcanism. With this extraordinary background, it is surprising that the host rocks remain controversial, being neither archetypical kimberlites, nor classic lamproites. Lacking affinities to micro-diamond-bearing UHPT metamorphic rocks and being unequivocally volcanic, the term Kimberlite-Clan-Rock (KCR) is applied. Over 200 KCR pipes and dikes, many of which are richly mineralized, have recently been discovered in the Diamond Corridor (1000 x 200 km) of the Eastern Dharwar Craton, and in adjoining cratons to the N and NE. From 32 absolute age determinations on KCRs, the remaining intrusions, in comparable stratigraphic settings, are assumed to be 1.1 Ga, equivalent to the Argyle lamproite (Australia, highest diamond grade), and the Premier kimberlite (RSA, largest known diamond). India has the largest number of known Proterozoic KCR intrusions that over the centuries have produced a wealth of famous diamonds. The primary source of these extraordinary stones, however, remains unknown, possibly because the unusual host rocks defy conventional exploration protocols. Six new observations make the setting even more unusual: (1) Coeval, large scale magmatism in the Kalahari (>2 m sq km) and Laurentian (>300 k cub km) Cratons at 1085-1112 Ma, during assembly of Rodinia, confirms the relation between and among KCR volcanism, LIPs, and supercontinents; Proterozoic Rodinia, into which the India KCRs, Argyle and Premier were intruded, was constructive, whereas the other, globally-wide, diamond-intrusive event, that occurred during the Mesozoic (80-120 Ma), was related to the breakup of Pangea and the dispersion of Gondwana; both events occurred during long period geomagnetic chrons implying a core relation, and superplume activity from the CMB. (2)The transcontinental Mumbai-Chennai gravity lineament that separates diamond (North) from barren (South) KCRs is interpreted as a sub-lithospheric, architectural discontinuity, with a shallow keel to the N and deeper penertration to the S. (3)An intrusive carbonatite stock into one KCR, and intensely carbonatized xenoliths in another, has rekindled the unsettled VGP debate of kimberlite-carbonatite relations; the new discoveries strongly support a kinship. (4) An eclogite xenolith from Kaliandurg has euhedral inclusions of re-equilibrated majorite in garnet; the assemblage has important implications for depths of origin (in or close to the TZ), and the controversial issue of Archean ocean crust recycling, recognizing that there are other ways to generate mantle eclogites. (5) Heterogeneities in the source regions of KCRs, and in the degrees of mantle melting, metasomatism and mixing, are well displayed in the Chigicherla KCR cluster; CC5 has unprecedented 2-10cm diameter autoliths (ol + cc + sp + perv), that are partially to totally assimilated in closely associated bodies, or are absent in others; (6)Groundmass olivine in KCRs from Naryanpet (non-diamond) and Wajrakur (diamond-bearing) have densely packed, crystal-oriented laths of rutile in association with blebs of metal + sulfide; these intergrowths bear on the unresolved solubility of Ti in olivine and its appeal to super high P-T conditions in diamond and coesite-bearing metamorphic terrains; the KCR settings, however, imply crystallization of olivine at low P, coupled with or followed by Ti metasomatism. With increased activities in diamond exploration many more VGP, T and GP mantle revelations are expected from this geologically classic and historically important part of the sub-continent.

  1. Developing Sustainable Development within the Higher Education Curriculum: Observations on the HEFCE Strategic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katayama, Junko; Gough, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores a particular contemporary instance of the implementation of central government policy linking higher education and sustainable development. The Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE)'s strategic plan for 2006-2011 (HEFCE 2006) includes a commitment to establish a baseline assessment of the contribution of the…

  2. Higher Maternal Prenatal Cortisol and Younger Age Predict Greater Infant Reactivity to Novelty at 4 Months: An Observation Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Elizabeth; Zhao, Yihong; Evans, Lynn; Kinsella, Michael; Kurzius, Laura; Altincatal, Arman; McDonough, Laraine; Monk, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Objective Distress–linked activation of the maternal HPA–axis is considered a pathway by which affect regulation impacts the fetal milieu and neurodevelopment. There is little direct evidence for this conceptual model. Methods In 103 women (mean age 27.45 (±5.65) years) at 36 – 38 weeks gestation, salivary cortisol was measured before/after stress tasks; distress questionnaires were completed. At 18.49 (±1.83) weeks, infants underwent the Harvard Infant Behavioral Reactivity Protocol assessing cry/motor responses to novelty; women reported on infant behavior and postnatal distress. Results Prenatal cortisol and distress were not significantly correlated (all ps >.10). Proportional odds logistic regressions showed that neither prenatal nor postnatal distress was associated with infant responses to the Harvard Protocol yet pre–stress cortisol and maternal age were: The odds of being classified as High Reactive were 1.60 times higher [95% CI: 1.04, 2.46] for each unit of added cortisol and 0.90 times lower [95% CI: 0.82, 0.99] for every additional year in maternal age. No associations were found between cortisol or prenatal distress and mother–rated infant behavior; postnatal distress was positively associated with mother–rated infant negative behavior (p = .03). Observer and mother–rated infant behavior were not associated (all ps > .05). Conclusions Based on independent observations of infants in contrast to maternal perceptions, these results lend support to the hypothesis that pregnant women’s HPA–axis activity influences infant behavior. The impact of maternal distress was not supported, except in so far as postnatal distress may increase the likelihood of making negative judgments about infant behavior. PMID:22778036

  3. Shifting goals: effects of active and observational experience on infants’ understanding of higher order goals

    PubMed Central

    Gerson, Sarah A.; Mahajan, Neha; Sommerville, Jessica A.; Matz, Lauren; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Action perception links have been argued to support the emergence of action understanding, but their role in infants’ perception of distal goals has not been fully investigated. The current experiments address this issue. During the development of means-end actions, infants shift their focus from the means of the action to the distal goal. In Experiment One, we evaluated whether this same shift in attention (from the means to the distal goal) when learning to produce multi-step actions is reflected in infants’ perception of others’ means-end actions. Eight-months-old infants underwent active training in means-end action production and their subsequent analysis of an observed means-end action was assessed in a visual habituation paradigm. Infants’ degree of success in the training paradigm was related to their subsequent interpretation of the observed action as directed at the means versus the distal goal. In Experiment Two, observational and control manipulations provided evidence that these effects depended on the infants’ active engagement in the means-end actions. These results suggest that the processes that give rise to means-end structure in infants’ motor behavior also support the emergence of means-end structure in their analysis of others’ goals. PMID:25852622

  4. Significant geomagnetic differences in both phase and amplitude observed at "conjugate" polar latitudes near the December 1903 Solstice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egeland, Alv; Deehr, Charles

    2014-05-01

    During Roald Amundsen's exploration of the Northwest Passage (1903-1906) he conducted systematic measurements of diurnal and seasonal variations of the north magnetic dip pole (NMDP) at Gjřahavn (~ 68 N, 95 E). The NMDP variations have been largely interpreted as indicating control by the polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF); the Svalgard-Mansurov (S-M) effect. In Sir Robert Scott's Discovery expedition, geomagnetic observations were made in 1903 from Cape Armitage, Antarctica (~78 S, 168 E). Unwittingly, the measurements of Amundsen and Scott were acquired near conjugate ends of the same magnetic field lines. While their separation in solar local time is ~ 5 hours, they differ in magnetic local time less than 1/2 hour. However, up to this time no direct comparison of the two sets of magnetic observations has ever been made. This presentation contains an analysis of magnetic perturbations observed at both locations for comparison with contemporary and present day monthly-averaged diurnal variations, even if the overlap in data among these expeditions is somewhat limited. The near magnetic conjugacy of Gjřahavn- Cape Armitage locations makes these measurements valuable. Our analysis shows: (1) While similar variations appeared at both ends of the joining magnetic field they manifest significant differences in both phase and amplitude, (2) present day NMDP variations appear consistent with the S-M effect analyses when compared with satellite measurements of solar wind/IMF measurements, (3) differences at the "conjugate" locations cannot be explained in terms of the S-M effect alone. The roles of lobe cell and ionospheric conductance at polar magnetically "conjugate" locations are used to explain the observed phase and amplitude differences.

  5. HIV-Positive Nigerian Adults Harbor Significantly Higher Serum Lumefantrine Levels than HIV-Negative Individuals Seven Days after Treatment for Plasmodium falciparum Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chijioke-Nwauche, Ifeyinwa; van Wyk, Albert; Nwauche, Chijioke; Beshir, Khalid B.; Kaur, Harparkash

    2013-01-01

    Management of coinfection with malaria and HIV is a major challenge to public health in developing countries, and yet potential drug-drug interactions between antimalarial and antiviral regimens have not been adequately investigated in people with both infections. Each of the constituent components of artemether-lumefantrine, the first-line regimen for malaria treatment in Nigeria, and nevirapine, a major component of highly active antiretroviral therapy, are drugs metabolized by the cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme system, which is also known to be induced by nevirapine. We examined potential interactions between lumefantrine and nevirapine in 68 HIV-positive adults, all of whom were diagnosed with asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections by microscopy. Post hoc PCR analysis confirmed the presence of P. falciparum in only a minority of participants. Day 7 capillary blood levels of lumefantrine were significantly higher in HIV-positive participants than in 99 HIV-negative controls (P = 0.0011). Associations between day 7 levels of lumefantrine and risk of persistent parasitemia could not be evaluated due to inadequate power. Further investigations of the impact of nevirapine on in vivo malaria treatment outcomes in HIV-infected patients are thus needed. PMID:23774430

  6. Prognostic significance of 25-hydroxivitamin D entirely explained by a higher comorbidity burden: Experience from a South-Eastern European Dialysis Cohort.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Adalbert; Apetrii, Mugurel; Onofriescu, Mihai; Siriopol, Dimitrie; Veisa, Gabriel; Schiller, Oana; Bob, Flaviu; Timar, Romulus; Mihaescu, Adelina; Kanbay, Mehmet; Covic, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is still a common problem particularly in the elderly and in individuals with various degrees of renal impairment. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D and death in a large cohort of prevalent patients on hemodialysis (HD) from south-east Romania, a typical Balkan region. This is an observational prospective study that included a total of 570 patients on maintenance HD. Study patients were classified into three groups by baseline 25(OH)D levels: (1) sufficient 25(OH)D-i.e., >30?ng/mL; (2) insufficient 25(OH)D-i.e., between 10 and 29?ng/mL; and (3) deficient 25(OH)D-i.e., <10?ng/mL. During the follow-up period of 14 months, 68 patients (11.9%) died, the Kaplan-Meier analysis showing significant differences in all-cause mortality for chronic kidney disease patients in different 25(OH)D groups (P?=?0.002). Unadjusted Cox regression analysis also showed significant differences in survival. The multivariate Cox regression model showed no significant differences in survival according to vitamin D levels. Hazard ratio for death in the "<10?ng/mL" group was 1.619 (P?=?0.190) and in the "10-30?ng/mL" group was 0.837 (P?=?0.609). In our dialysis population with a high comorbidity burden, low 25(OH)D concentration was not associated with mortality in the adjusted Cox model, suggesting that vitamin D deficiency could represent only a non-specific marker for a poor health status, with less impact on mortality. PMID:25251168

  7. THE JETS OF TeV BLAZARS AT HIGHER RESOLUTION: 43 GHz AND POLARIMETRIC VLBA OBSERVATIONS FROM 2005 TO 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Piner, B. Glenn; Pant, Niraj [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Whittier College, 13406 E. Philadelphia Street, Whittier, CA 90608 (United States); Edwards, Philip G., E-mail: gpiner@whittier.ed, E-mail: Philip.Edwards@csiro.a [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW 1710 (Australia)

    2010-11-10

    We present 23 new VLBA images of the six established TeV blazars Markarian 421, Markarian 501, H 1426+428, 1ES 1959+650, PKS 2155-304, and 1ES 2344+514, obtained from 2005 to 2009. Most images were obtained at 43 GHz (7 mm), and they reveal the parsec-scale structures of three of these sources (1ES 1959+650, PKS 2155-304, and 1ES 2344+514) at factors of 2-3 higher resolution than has previously been attained. These images reveal new morphological details, including a high degree of jet bending in the inner milliarcsecond in PKS 2155-304. This establishes strong apparent jet bending on VLBI scales as a common property of TeV blazars, implying viewing angles close to the line of sight. Most of the remaining images map the linear polarization structures at a lower frequency of 22 GHz (1 cm). We discuss the transverse structures of the jets as revealed by the high-frequency and polarimetric imaging. The transverse structures include significant limb brightening in Mrk 421, and 'spine-sheath' structures in the electric vector position angle and fractional polarization distributions in Mrk 421, Mrk 501, and 1ES 1959+650. We use new measured component positions to update measured apparent jet speeds, in many cases significantly reducing the statistical error over previously published results. With the increased resolution at 43 GHz, we detect new components within 0.1-0.2 mas of the core in most of these sources. No motion is apparent in these new components over the time span of our observations, and we place upper limits on the apparent speeds of the components near the core of <2c. From those limits, we conclude that {Gamma}{sub 2} < ({Gamma}{sub 1}){sup 1/2} at {approx}10{sup 5} Schwarzschild radii, where {Gamma}{sub 1} and {Gamma}{sub 2} are the bulk Lorentz factors in the TeV emitting and 43 GHz emitting regions, respectively, assuming that their velocity vectors are aligned.

  8. Observation and calculation of higher-order sideband transitions in a flux qubit coupled to a SQUID-based resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazu, Y.; Shirasaki, R.; Toda, S.; Yamanashi, H.

    2014-12-01

    Qubit-resonator coupled systems have been intensively studied because of their potential usefulness in quantum information processing. We investigated a superconducting flux qubit coupled to a resonator mode (SQUID plasma mode) associated with a dc SQUID used to read out the qubit state. Higher-order red and blue sideband transitions with |M| = 1, 2, and 3, where M represents the change in the quantum number of the resonator state, were clearly observed away from the symmetry point. We calculated the transition matrix elements between the dressed states and examined their dependence on both the coupling strength and the flux bias for the qubit. The observation of the sidebands up to |M| = 3 is consistent with the calculation results.

  9. Low-altitude ISIS 1 observations of auroral radio emissions and their significance to the cyclotron maser instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Robert F.; Wong, H. K.

    1987-01-01

    Low-altitude ISIS 1 observations are presented which support the cyclotron maser instability as the generation mechanism of most, but not all, auroral radio emissions. The observations confirm the ability of the mechanism to generate different wave modes and harmonics as the ratio of the plasma frequency to gyrofrequency f(N)/f(H) increases depending on the form of the energetic electron distribution function. The present observations correspond to conditions where f(N)/F(H) is always larger than 0.2 and is typically about 1.0. The observations and instability growth rate calculations indicate that second harmonic radiation in the extraordinary and the Z modes is directly generated at low altitudes. By far the most common signals observed near ISIS 1 perigee, however, are in the fundamental Z and whistler modes. The observations and calculations in the case of the Z mode suggest that the pertinent process involves a maser that does not saturate, i.e., that group velocity effects are important. The whistler mode is the most intense signal observed at low altitudes. Since the cyclotron maser generated whistler mode waves have peak growth rates for downward field-aligned propagation, they should be able to penetrate the ionosphere. This process may provide the explanation of occasional reports, dating back to the International Geophysical Year time period, of ground level detection of radio noise associated with the aurora.

  10. The significance of heart rate in free swimming cod, Gadus morhua: Some observations with ultra?sonic tags

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Wardle; J. W. Kanwisher

    1973-01-01

    Ultra sonic transmitters (cylindrical, 1.5 cm diameter × 7 cm long) with three?week battery life were used to examine the heart rate and electrocardiogram (ECG) of cod in swimming experiments. The maximum heart rate was observed when the period between the recovery (T) wave and the initial wave (P) of the ECG was zero and was limited by the P

  11. The NASA Earth Observing System Higher-Education Alliance Curriculum Development Project at Middle Tennessee State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolins, M. J.; Wylie, M.

    2008-12-01

    During the last three years, geodata-rich undergraduate curricula were developed at Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) with major support from the NASA Earth Observing System Higher-Education Alliance ("GeoBrain") and additional support from Tennessee Space Grant and the NSF StepMT program. These curricula fall into three broad categories: (1) GIS-based curricula, (2) the free on-line textbook "Physical Regions and Features of the United States," and (3) presentation graphics (primarily satellite images) for faculty involved in teaching and research outside the United States. All three incorporate Earth Observing System data as well as data from other public sources. Most data was obtained through the GeoBrain data download website, the USGS Seamless Data Distribution System, or the National Atlas of the United States website. The three categories of curricula exemplify the diverse educational applications of satellite images and other map data. The GIS-based curricula (1) are built around ESRI GIS software and include an asteroid impact activity and a volcano activity. The free on-line textbook (2) provides a broad overview of the physical features of the United States and is intended as a supplement for undergraduate geoscience courses. Presentation graphics (3) have been created for faculty investigating Scottish archeology and historical/cultural issues in Portugal and Morocco. The three categories represent three distinctly different ways to use remotely-sensed data to improve undergraduate instruction.

  12. Significant Association of Fracture of the Lumbar Spine with Mortality in Female Hemodialysis Patients: A Prospective Observational Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshifumi Maeno; Masaaki Inaba; Senji Okuno; Kaori Kohno; Kiyoshi Maekawa; Tomoyuki Yamakawa; Eiji Ishimura; Yoshiki Nishizawa

    2009-01-01

    Prevalent fracture of the lumbar spine is established as a predictor of increased mortality in the general population. To\\u000a examine whether this association is retained in hemodialysis patients, we conducted a single-center prospective observational\\u000a study in 635 hemodialysis patients (60.3 ± 12.0 years old, male\\/female 369\\/266). Patients were divided into two groups (with\\u000a and without lumbar fracture, assessed by simple lateral radiograph), and

  13. Lyman-break galaxies at z~5 -I. First significant stellar mass assembly in galaxies that are not simply z~3 LBGs at higher redshift

    E-print Network

    Aprajita Verma; Matthew D. Lehnert; Natascha M. Foerster Schreiber; Malcolm N. Bremer; Laura Douglas

    2007-01-25

    We determine the ensemble properties of z~5 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) selected as V-band dropouts to i(AB)70%), whereas they comprise <30% of LBG samples at z~3. This result is robust under all reasonable modelling assumptions. These intense starbursts appear to be experiencing their first (few) generations of large-scale star formation and are accumulating their first significant stellar mass. Their dominance in luminous LBG samples suggests that z~5 witnesses a period of wide-spread, recent galaxy formation. As such, z~5 LBGs are the likely progenitors of the spheroidal components of present-day massive galaxies. This is supported by their high stellar mass surface densities, their core phase-space densities, as well as the ages of stars in the bulge of our Galaxy and other massive systems. Their high star formation rates per unit area suggest that these systems host outflows or winds that enrich the intra- and inter-galactic media with metals. Their estimated young ages are consistent with inefficient metal-mixing on galaxy-wide scales. Therefore these galaxies may contain a significant fraction of metal-free stars as has been proposed for z~3 LBGs (Jimenez & Haiman 2006). [Abridged

  14. The Taxonomic Significance of Species That Have Only Been Observed Once: The Genus Gymnodinium (Dinoflagellata) as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Thessen, Anne E.; Patterson, David J.; Murray, Shauna A.

    2012-01-01

    Taxonomists have been tasked with cataloguing and quantifying the Earth’s biodiversity. Their progress is measured in code-compliant species descriptions that include text, images, type material and molecular sequences. It is from this material that other researchers are to identify individuals of the same species in future observations. It has been estimated that 13% to 22% (depending on taxonomic group) of described species have only ever been observed once. Species that have only been observed at the time and place of their original description are referred to as oncers. Oncers are important to our current understanding of biodiversity. They may be validly described species that are members of a rare biosphere, or they may indicate endemism, or that these species are limited to very constrained niches. Alternatively, they may reflect that taxonomic practices are too poor to allow the organism to be re-identified or that the descriptions are unknown to other researchers. If the latter are true, our current tally of species will not be an accurate indication of what we know. In order to investigate this phenomenon and its potential causes, we examined the microbial eukaryote genus Gymnodinium. This genus contains 268 extant species, 103 (38%) of which have not been observed since their original description. We report traits of the original descriptions and interpret them in respect to the status of the species. We conclude that the majority of oncers were poorly described and their identity is ambiguous. As a result, we argue that the genus Gymnodinium contains only 234 identifiable species. Species that have been observed multiple times tend to have longer descriptions, written in English. The styles of individual authors have a major effect, with a few authors describing a disproportionate number of oncers. The information about the taxonomy of Gymnodinium that is available via the internet is incomplete, and reliance on it will not give access to all necessary knowledge. Six new names are presented – Gymnodinium campbelli for the homonymous name Gymnodinium translucens Campbell 1973, Gymnodinium antarcticum for the homonymous name Gymnodinium frigidum Balech 1965, Gymnodinium manchuriensis for the homonymous name Gymnodinium autumnale Skvortzov 1968, Gymnodinium christenum for the homonymous name Gymnodinium irregulare Christen 1959, Gymnodinium conkufferi for the homonymous name Gymnodinium irregulare Conrad & Kufferath 1954 and Gymnodinium chinensis for the homonymous name Gymnodinium frigidum Skvortzov 1968. PMID:22952856

  15. The significance of recruiting underrepresented minorities in medicine: an examination of the need for effective approaches used in admissions by higher education institutions.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Obed

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the significance of recruiting underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM). This would include African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans. The research findings support the belief that URMs, upon graduating, are more likely to become practitioners in underserved communities, thereby becoming a resource that prompts us to find effective ways to help increase their college enrollments statewide. This paper analyzes the recruitment challenges for institutions, followed by a review of creative and effective approaches used by organizations and universities. The results have shown positive outcomes averaging a 50% increase in minority enrollments and retention. In other areas, such as cognitive development, modest gains were achieved in programs that were shorter in duration. The results nevertheless indicated steps in the right direction inspiring further program developments. PMID:25192970

  16. The significance of recruiting underrepresented minorities in medicine: an examination of the need for effective approaches used in admissions by higher education institutions

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Obed

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the significance of recruiting underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM). This would include African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans. The research findings support the belief that URMs, upon graduating, are more likely to become practitioners in underserved communities, thereby becoming a resource that prompts us to find effective ways to help increase their college enrollments statewide. This paper analyzes the recruitment challenges for institutions, followed by a review of creative and effective approaches used by organizations and universities. The results have shown positive outcomes averaging a 50% increase in minority enrollments and retention. In other areas, such as cognitive development, modest gains were achieved in programs that were shorter in duration. The results nevertheless indicated steps in the right direction inspiring further program developments. PMID:25192970

  17. Characteristics, distribution, origin, and significance of opaline silica observed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruff, S.W.; Farmer, J.D.; Calvin, W.M.; Herkenhoff, K.E.; Johnson, J.R.; Morris, R.V.; Rice, M.S.; Arvidson, R.E.; Bell, J.F., III; Christensen, P.R.; Squyres, S.W.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of outcrops and soil (regolith) rich in opaline silica (???65-92 wt % SiO2) in association with volcanic materials adjacent to the "Home Plate" feature in Gusev crater is evidence for hydrothermal conditions. The Spirit rover has supplied a diverse set of observations that are used here to better understand the formation of silica and the activity, abundance, and fate of water in the first hydrothermal system to be explored in situ on Mars. We apply spectral, chemical, morphological, textural, and stratigraphic observations to assess whether the silica was produced by acid sulfate leaching of precursor rocks, by precipitation from silica-rich solutions, or by some combination. The apparent lack of S enrichment and the relatively low oxidation state of the Home Plate silica-rich materials appear inconsistent with the originally proposed Hawaiian analog for fumarolic acid sulfate leaching. The stratiform distribution of the silica-rich outcrops and their porous and brecciated microtextures are consistent with sinter produced by silica precipitation. There is no evidence for crystalline quartz phases among the silica occurrences, an indication of the lack of diagenetic maturation following the production of the amorphous opaline phase. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. A Significant Amount of Crystalline Silica in Returned Cometary Samples: Bridging the Gap between Astrophysical and Meteoritical Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roskosz, Mathieu; Leroux, Hugues

    2015-03-01

    Crystalline silica (SiO2) is recurrently identified at the percent level in the infrared spectra of protoplanetary disks. By contrast, reports of crystalline silica in primitive meteorites are very unusual. This dichotomy illustrates the typical gap existing between astrophysical observations and meteoritical records of the first solids formed around young stars. The cometary samples returned by the Stardust mission in 2006 offer an opportunity to have a closer look at a silicate dust that experienced a very limited reprocessing since the accretion of the dust. Here, we provide the first extended study of silica materials in a large range of Stardust samples. We show that cristobalite is the dominant form. It was detected in 5 out of 25 samples. Crystalline silica is thus a common minor phase in Stardust samples. Furthermore, olivine is generally associated with this cristobalite, which put constraints on possible formation mechanisms. A low-temperature subsolidus solid–solid transformation of an amorphous precursor is most likely. This crystallization route favors the formation of olivine (at the expense of pyroxenes), and crystalline silica is the natural byproduct of this transformation. Conversely, direct condensation and partial melting are not expected to produce the observed mineral assemblages. Silica is preserved in cometary materials because they were less affected by thermal and aqueous alterations than their chondritic counterparts. The common occurrence of crystalline silica therefore makes the cometary material an important bridge between the IR-based mineralogy of distant protoplanetary disks and the mineralogy of the early solar system.

  19. The Barbarians at the Gate. Playing the Higher Education Game: Observations from the Periphery of the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Sheila Marie

    2012-01-01

    Higher education is considered by some to be synonymous with learning gained in an institution named as a university. The credentials gained from learning in such locations allow the holders to enter into the elite, which reproduces social exclusion to the benefit of that elite. In England, policy reform has opened up access to higher education to…

  20. Higher surface ozone concentrations over the Chesapeake Bay than over the adjacent land: Observations and models from the DISCOVER-AQ and CBODAQ campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Daniel L.; Loughner, Christopher P.; Tzortziou, Maria; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Marufu, Lackson T.; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2014-02-01

    Air quality models, such as the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, indicate decidedly higher ozone near the surface of large interior water bodies, such as the Great Lakes and Chesapeake Bay. In order to test the validity of the model output, we performed surface measurements of ozone (O3) and total reactive nitrogen (NOy) on the 26-m Delaware II NOAA Small Research Vessel experimental (SRVx), deployed in the Chesapeake Bay for 10 daytime cruises in July 2011 as part of NASA's GEO-CAPE CBODAQ oceanographic field campaign in conjunction with NASA's DISCOVER-AQ air quality field campaign. During this 10-day period, the EPA O3 regulatory standard of 75 ppbv averaged over an 8-h period was exceeded four times over water while ground stations in the area only exceeded the standard at most twice. This suggests that on days when the Baltimore/Washington region is in compliance with the EPA standard, air quality over the Chesapeake Bay might exceed the EPA standard. Ozone observations over the bay during the afternoon were consistently 10-20% higher than the closest upwind ground sites during the 10-day campaign; this pattern persisted during good and poor air quality days. A lower boundary layer, reduced cloud cover, slower dry deposition rates, and other lesser mechanisms, contribute to the local maximum of ozone over the Chesapeake Bay. Observations from this campaign were compared to a CMAQ simulation at 1.33 km resolution. The model is able to predict the regional maximum of ozone over the Chesapeake Bay accurately, but NOy concentrations are significantly overestimated. Explanations for the overestimation of NOy in the model simulations are also explored.

  1. Higher surface ozone concentrations over the Chesapeake Bay than over the adjacent land: Observations and models from the

    E-print Network

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    multiscale air quality (CMAQ) model a b s t r a c t Air quality models, such as the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, indicate decidedly higher ozone near the surface of large interior water bodies-CAPE CBODAQ oceanographic field campaign in conjunction with NASA's DISCOVER-AQ air quality field campaign

  2. Causal Attribution: Actor-Observer Bias in Academic Achievement among Students at an Institution of Higher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudhovozi, P.; Gumani, M.; Maunganidze, L.; Sodi, T.

    2010-01-01

    The study explores the attribution styles of in-group and out-group members. Eighty-four (42 female and 42 male) undergraduate students were randomly selected from the Faculty of Education at an institution of higher learning in Zimbabwe. A questionnaire was used to capture the opinions of the participants. The data was analysed using the…

  3. Tried and True: Thinking spatially--taking observation, classification, and communication skills to a higher level of reasoning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Douglas Llewellyn

    2009-02-01

    When students classify, they embark on observing and identifying the properties of the object, and then they categorize, sort, group, organize, arrange, or grade objects into smaller and similar clusters or divisions. Therefore, observing and classifying are fundamental skills for comparing and contrasting material objects. In addition, observing and classifying are skill-based stepping stones to helping students to think spatially. The following discussion focuses on three questions: (1) What is spatial thinking? (2) How do spatial-thinking skills apply to everyday problems and situations? and (3) How do spatial-thinking skills integrate into the science curriculum?

  4. HIF-1? 1772 C/T and 1790 G/A Polymorphisms Are Significantly Associated with Higher Cancer Risk: An Updated Meta-Analysis from 34 Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chi; Qin, Qin; Liu, Jia; Xu, Li-Ping; Zhao, Lian-Jun; Zhang, Qu; Cai, Jing; Ma, Jian-Xin; Cheng, Hong-Yan; Sun, Xin-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Background HIF-1 activates various genes in cancer progression and metastasis. HIF-1? 1772 C/T and 1790 G/A polymorphisms are reportedly associated with cancer risk; however, the results are inconclusive. Methodology/Principal Findings A meta-analysis of 34 studies that involved 7522 cases and 9847 controls for 1772 C/T and 24 studies that involved 4884 cases and 8154 controls for 1790 G/A was conducted to identify the association of C/T and G/A polymorphisms with cancer risk. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to assess the strength of association. HIF-1? 1772 C/T and 1790 G/A polymorphisms were associated with higher cancer risk in homozygote comparison (1772C/T: TT vs. CC: OR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.52, 3.96; Pheterogeneity = 0.028; 1790G/A: AA vs. GG: OR=4.74, 95% CI: 1.78, 12.6; Pheterogeneity < 0.01), dominant model (1772C/T: TT/CT vs. CC: OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.55; Pheterogeneity < 0.01, 1790G/A: AA/GA vs. GG: OR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.60; Pheterogeneity < 0.01), T allele versus C allele (T vs. C: OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.70; Pheterogeneity < 0.01), and A allele versus G allele (A vs. G: OR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.13, 2.96; Pheterogeneity < 0.01). On a subgroup analysis, the 1772 C/T polymorphism was significantly linked to higher risks for breast cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and cervical cancer, whereas the 1790 G/A polymorphism was significantly linked to higher risks for lung cancer and prostate cancer. A significantly increased cancer risk was found in both Asians and Caucasians for 1772C/T polymorphism, whereas a significantly increased cancer risk was found in Caucasians in the heterozygote comparison and recessive model for 1790G/A polymorphism. Conclusions HIF-1? 1772 C/T and 1790 G/A polymorphisms are significantly associated with higher cancer risk. PMID:24260383

  5. Observation of a brine layer on an ice surface with an environmental scanning electron microscope at higher pressures and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Krausko, Ján; Runštuk, Ji?í; Ned?la, Vilém; Klán, Petr; Heger, Dominik

    2014-05-20

    Observation of a uranyl-salt brine layer on an ice surface using backscattered electron detection and ice surface morphology using secondary-electron detection under equilibrium conditions was facilitated using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) at temperatures above 250 K and pressures of hundreds of Pa. The micrographs of a brine layer over ice grains prepared by either slow or shock freezing provided a complementary picture of the contaminated ice grain boundaries. Fluorescence spectroscopy of the uranyl ions in the brine layer confirmed that the species exists predominately in the solvated state under experimental conditions of ESEM. PMID:24761934

  6. The significance of phytoplankton photo-adaptation and benthic pelagic coupling to primary production in the South China Sea: Observations and numerical investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kon-Kee; Chen, Ying-Jie; Tseng, Chun-Mao; Lin, I.-I.; Liu, Hong-Bin; Snidvongs, Anond

    2007-07-01

    The primary production in the South China Sea (SCS) has been assessed by a coupled physical-biogeochemical model with a simple NPZD ecosystem [Liu et al., 2002. Monsoon-forced chlorophyll distribution and primary production in the SCS: observations and a numerical study. Deep-Sea Research I 49(8), 1387-1412]. In recent years there have been an increasing number of observations in the SCS that may be used to check the validity of the previous approach. The coupled model of the SCS mentioned above employs a photo-adaptation scheme for the phytoplankton growth and uses the simplest bottom boundary condition of an inert benthic layer. These adopted schemes are checked against observations at the South-East Asian Time-series Study (SEATS) Station in the northern SCS and in the Gulf of Thailand. Numerical experiments with or without photo-adaptation or active benthic processes are carried out in this study. Additional experiments are performed with different parameters used for these processes. The observations at the SEATS Station provide direct evidence for the variable chlorophyll-to-nitrogen ratio in phytoplankton as required by photo-adaptation. It is concluded that a photo-adaptation scheme is critical to the phytoplankton growth, especially for the development of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum (SCM). Without photo-adaptation, the average value of the vertically integrated primary production (IPP) over the whole SCS domain would be 35% lower. It is noted that, the modeled SCM occurs at depths shallower than observations due to physical as well as biological processes employed by the model. Increasing the upper limit of the chlorophyll-to-nitrogen ratio, as suggested by observations, enhances chlorophyll level in the lower part of the euphotic zone and raises primary productivity in areas with rich nutrient supply. The observed values of the IPP in the Gulf of Thailand clearly demonstrate the importance of the benthic-pelagic coupling to the nutrient cycle. Without benthic nutrient regeneration the model grossly underestimates primary production due to failure to build up the nutrient reserve in the Gulf. On the other hand, a fully regenerated flux of particulate organic nitrogen at the sea floor without denitrification produces too strong a primary production. The improved model uses a higher upper limit for the chlorophyll-to-phytoplankton ratio of 3.5 g Chl/mol N and adopts benthic processes of a coupled nitrification-denitrification scheme with denitrification consuming 14% of the detritus flux at the bottom. The model predicts a mean annual IPP value of 406 mg C m -2 d -1 for the SCS, which is 44% higher than that predicted by the original model. The increase can be broken down to 39% attributed to the benthic nutrient regeneration and 5% to the enhanced photo-adaptation. The average IPP is 390 mg C m -2 d -1 for the basin region (>200 m) and 429 mg C m -2 d -1 for the shelf region (<200 m), both of which compare favorably with observed mean values. The model also predicts a mean nitrogen removal flux of 0.16 mmol N m -2 d -1 during denitrification for the shelf region.

  7. Significant concentrations of nitryl chloride observed in rural continental Europe associated with the influence of sea salt chloride and anthropogenic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, G. J.; Tang, M. J.; Thieser, J.; Brickwedde, B.; Schuster, G.; Crowley, J. N.

    2012-04-01

    Recent observations of significant concentrations of nitryl chloride (ClNO2) over the North American continent, far from coastal regions, have highlighted a potentially important source of reactive halogens in the continental lower troposphere. Nitryl chloride, formed nocturnally by the heterogeneous reaction of N2O5 with aqueous-phase chloride, is readily photolysed producing NO2 and chlorine radical. We report measurement of significant quantities of nitryl chloride, up to 800 pptv, during the Particles and Radicals: Diel observations of the impact of urban and biogenic Emissions (PARADE) measurement campaign at a mountaintop field site in Hessen Germany, 350 km from the nearest coastline, using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS). ClNO2 was detected during the majority of nights between the 15th August and 16th September 2011, the largest mixing fractions of ClNO2 being associated with air masses influenced by sea salt and anthropogenic emissions. ClNO2 persisted in measurable quantities until early afternoons on days with foggy conditions and low photolysis frequencies.

  8. High prevalence of asthma symptoms in Warao Amerindian children in Venezuela is significantly associated with open-fire cooking: a cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) reported a prevalence of asthma symptoms in 17 centers in nine Latin American countries that was similar to prevalence rates reported in non-tropical countries. It has been proposed that the continuous exposure to infectious diseases in rural populations residing in tropical areas leads to a relatively low prevalence of asthma symptoms. As almost a quarter of Latin American people live in rural tropical areas, the encountered high prevalence of asthma symptoms is remarkable. Wood smoke exposure and environmental tobacco smoke have been identified as possible risk factors for having asthma symptoms. Methods We performed a cross-sectional observational study from June 1, 2012 to September 30, 2012 in which we interviewed parents and guardians of Warao Amerindian children from Venezuela. Asthma symptoms were defined according to the ISAAC definition as self-reported wheezing in the last 12 months. The associations between wood smoke exposure and environmental tobacco smoke and the prevalence of asthma symptoms were calculated by means of univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results We included 630 children between two and ten years of age. Asthma symptoms were recorded in 164 of these children (26%). The prevalence of asthma symptoms was associated with the cooking method. Children exposed to the smoke produced by cooking on open wood fires were at higher risk of having asthma symptoms compared to children exposed to cooking with gas (AOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.18 - 3.84). Four percent of the children lived in a household where more than ten cigarettes were smoked per day and they had a higher risk of having asthma symptoms compared to children who were not exposed to cigarette smoke (AOR 2.69, 95% CI 1.11 - 6.48). Conclusion Our findings suggest that children living in rural settings in a household where wood is used for cooking or where more than ten cigarettes are smoked daily have a higher risk of having asthma symptoms. PMID:23870058

  9. An Intermediate-Mass Black Hole in the Globular Cluster G1: Improved Significance from New Keck and Hubble Space Telescope Observations

    E-print Network

    Karl Gebhardt; R. Michael Rich; Luis C. Ho

    2005-08-10

    We present dynamical models for the massive globular cluster G1. The goal is to measure or place a significant upper limit on the mass of any central black hole. Whether or not globular clusters contain central massive black holes has important consequences for a variety of studies. We use new kinematic data obtained with Keck and new photometry from the Hubble Space Telescope. The Keck spectra allow us to obtain kinematics out to large radii that are required to pin down the mass-to-light ratio of the dynamical model and the orbital structure. The Hubble Space Telescope observations give us a factor of two better spatial resolution for the surface brightness profile. By fitting non-parametric, spherical, isotropic models we find a best-fit black hole mass of 1.7(+-0.3)e4 Msun. Fully general axisymmetric orbit-based models give similar results, with a black hole mass of 1.8(+-0.5)e4 Msun. The no-black hole model has Delta_chi^2=5 (marginalized over mass-to-light ratio), implying less than 3% significance. We have taken into account any change in the mass-to-light ratio in the center due to stellar remnants. These results are consistent with our previous estimate in Gebhardt, Rich & Ho (2002), and inconsistent with the analysis of Baumgardt et al. (2003) who claim that G1 does not show evidence for a black hole. These new results make G1 the best example of a cluster that contains an intermediate-mass black hole.

  10. Tectonic activity as a significant source of crustal tetrafluoromethane emissions to the atmosphere: Observations in groundwaters along the San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeds, Daniel A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Mühle, Jens; Weiss, Ray F.

    2015-02-01

    Tetrafluoromethane (CF4) concentrations were measured in 14 groundwater samples from the Cuyama Valley, Mil Potrero and Cuddy Valley aquifers along the Big Bend section of the San Andreas Fault System (SAFS) in California to assess whether tectonic activity in this region is a significant source of crustal CF4 to the atmosphere. Dissolved CF4 concentrations in all groundwater samples but one were elevated with respect to estimated recharge concentrations including entrainment of excess air during recharge (Cre; ?30 fmol kg-1 H2O), indicating subsurface addition of CF4 to these groundwaters. Groundwaters in the Cuyama Valley contain small CF4 excesses (0.1-9 times Cre), which may be attributed to an in situ release from weathering and a minor addition of deep crustal CF4 introduced to the shallow groundwater through nearby faults. CF4 excesses in groundwaters within 200 m of the SAFS are larger (10-980 times Cre) and indicate the presence of a deep crustal flux of CF4 that is likely associated with the physical alteration of silicate minerals in the shear zone of the SAFS. Extrapolating CF4 flux rates observed in this study to the full extent of the SAFS (1300 km × 20-100 km) suggests that the SAFS potentially emits (0.3- 1) ×10-1 kg CF4 yr-1 to the Earth's surface. For comparison, the chemical weathering of ? 7.5 ×104km2 of granitic rock in California is estimated to release (0.019- 3.2) ×10-1 kg CF4 yr-1. Tectonic activity is likely an important, and potentially the dominant, driver of natural emissions of CF4 to the atmosphere. Variations in preindustrial atmospheric CF4 as observed in paleo-archives such as ice cores may therefore represent changes in both continental weathering and tectonic activity, including changes driven by variations in continental ice cover during glacial-interglacial transitions.

  11. Clinical significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin M Ogles; Kirk M Lunnen; Kyle Bonesteel

    2001-01-01

    The meaningfulness of psychotherapy outcome as measured in therapy research is a persistent and important issue. Following a period of emphasis on statistically significant findings for treated versus control groups, many researchers are renewing efforts to investigate the meaningfulness of individual change. Several statistical methods are available to evaluate the meaningfulness of clients' changes occurring as a result of treatment.

  12. In situ endoscopic observation of higher-order mode conversion in a microwave mode converter based on an electro-optic probe system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ingeun; Lee, Dong-Joon; Choi, EunMi

    2014-11-01

    Visualizing the electromagnetic field transformation inside a microwave mode conversion region has been considered to be only realizable by simulation studies. For the first time, we present a comprehensive experimental observation of the electric field transformation occurring inside a metallic waveguide TE(01)-to-TE(02) mode converter. An efficient electro-optic (EO) probe and its associated probing system were used for measuring the electric field pattern in the external near-field region as well as in the internal and penetrated region of the mode converter. Utilizing the optically measured field patterns at the aperture of the mode converter, the conversion performance from the TE(01) mode to the TE(02) mode can be also evaluated. Experimentally measured field patterns near the apertures show excellent agreement with simulation data. The mode conversion to the next higher-order mode (TE(01) to TE(02)) was experimentally demonstrated with phase-stabilized and field-animated post processing. The presented in situ endoscopic photonic measurement technique for the field evolution inside a semi-enclosed structure could be used for visually inspecting manufacturing errors in fabricated structures, and could be of great interest for research on higher-order mode formation and transmission. PMID:25401901

  13. An Intermediate-Mass Black Hole in the Globular Cluster G1: Improved Significance from New Keck and Hubble Space Telescope Observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl Gebhardt; R. Michael Rich; Luis C. Ho

    2005-01-01

    We present dynamical models for the massive globular cluster G1. The goal is\\u000ato measure or place a significant upper limit on the mass of any central black\\u000ahole. Whether or not globular clusters contain central massive black holes has\\u000aimportant consequences for a variety of studies. We use new kinematic data\\u000aobtained with Keck and new photometry from the

  14. Significant RF-EMF and thermal levels observed in a computational model of a person with a tibial plate for grounded 40?MHz exposure.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Robert L; Iskra, Steve; Anderson, Vitas

    2014-05-01

    Using numerical modeling, a worst-case scenario is considered when a person with a metallic implant is exposed to a radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF). An adult male standing on a conductive ground plane was exposed to a 40?MHz vertically polarized plane wave field, close to whole-body resonance where maximal induced current flows are expected in the legs. A metal plate (50-300?mm long) was attached to the tibia in the left leg. The findings from this study re-emphasize the need to ensure compliance with limb current reference levels for exposures near whole-body resonance, and not just rely on compliance with ambient electric (E) and magnetic (H) field reference levels. Moreover, we emphasize this recommendation for someone with a tibial plate, as failure to comply may result in significant tissue damage (increases in the localized temperature of 5-10?°C were suggested by the modeling for an incident E-field of 61.4?V/m root mean square (rms)). It was determined that the occupational reference level for limb current (100?mA?rms), as stipulated in the 1998 guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), is satisfied if the plane wave incident E-field levels are no more than 29.8?V/m?rms without an implant and 23.4?V/m?rms for the model with a 300?mm implant. PMID:24578303

  15. Ritonavir and Efavirenz Significantly Alter the Metabolism of Erlotinib—an Observation in Primary Cultures of Human Hepatocytes That Is Relevant to HIV Patients with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Venkateswaran C.; Parise, Robert A.; Christner, Susan M.; Gramignoli, Roberto; Strom, Stephen C.; Rudek, Michelle A.; Beumer, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    Erlotinib is approved for the treatment of non–small cell lung and pancreatic cancers, and is metabolized by CYP3A4. Inducers and inhibitors of CYP3A enzymes such as ritonavir and efavirenz, respectively, may be used as part of the highly active antiretroviral therapy drugs to treat patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). When HIV patients with a malignancy need treatment with erlotinib, there is a potential of as-yet-undefined drug-drug interaction. We evaluated these interactions using human hepatocytes benchmarked against the interaction of erlotinib with ketoconazole and rifampin, the archetype cytochrome P450 inhibitor and inducer, respectively. Hepatocytes were treated with vehicle [0.1% dimethylsulfoxide, ritonavir (10 ?M)], ketoconazole (10 ?M), efavirenz (10 ?M), or rifampin (10 ?M) for 4 days. On day 5, erlotinib (5 ?M) was incubated with the above agents for another 24–48 hours. Concentrations of erlotinib and O-desmethyl erlotinib were quantitated in collected samples (combined lysate and medium) using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The half-life (t1/2) of erlotinib increased from 10.6 ± 2.6 to 153 ± 80 and 23.9 ± 4.8 hours, respectively, upon treatment with ritonavir and ketoconazole. The apparent intrinsic clearance (CLint, app) of erlotinib was lowered 16-fold by ritonavir and 1.9-fold by ketoconazole. Efavirenz and rifampin decreased t1/2 of erlotinib from 10.3 ± 1.1 to 5.0 ± 1.5 and 3.4 ± 0.2 hours, respectively. Efavirenz and rifampin increased the CLint, app of erlotinib by 2.2- and 2-fold, respectively. Our results suggest that to achieve desired drug exposure, the clinically used dose (150 mg daily) of erlotinib may have to be significantly reduced (25 mg every other day) or increased (300 mg daily), respectively, when ritonavir or efavirenz is coadministered. PMID:23913028

  16. Self-report and Direct Observer's Perceived Leadership Practices of Chief Student Affairs Officers in Selected Institutions of Higher Education in the United States

    E-print Network

    Rozeboom, David John

    2009-05-15

    in empowering their organizations to higher levels of excellence and in achieving greater influence in their institutions. Additionally, the researcher examined the relationship between the leadership practices of chief student affairs officers and the leaders...

  17. Solid Surface Combustion Experiment Yields Significant Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Koudelka, John M.; Vergilii, Franklin

    1999-01-01

    The spread of a flame over solid fuel is not only a fundamental textbook combustion phenomenon, but also the central element of destructive fires that cause tragic loss of life and property each year. Throughout history, practical measures to prevent and fight fires have been developed, but these have often been based on lessons learned in a costly fire. Since the 1960 s, scientists and engineers have employed powerful tools of scientific research to understand the details of flame spread and how a material can be rendered nonflammable. High-speed computers have enabled complex flame simulations, whereasand lasers have provided measurements of the chemical composition, temperature, and air velocities inside flames. The microgravity environment has emerged as the third great tool for these studies. Spreading flames are complex combinations of chemical reactions and several physical processes including the transport of oxygen and fuel vapor to the flame and the transfer of heat from the flame to fresh fuel and to the surroundings. Depending on its speed, air motion in the vicinity of the flame can affect the flame in substantially different ways. For example, consider the difference between blowing on a campfire and blowing out a match. On Earth, gravity induces air motion because of buoyancy (the familiar rising hot gases); this process cannot be controlled experimentally. For theoreticians, buoyant air motion complicates the problem modeling of flame spread beyond the capacity of modern computers to simulate. The microgravity environment provides experimental control of air motion near spreading flames, with results that can be compared with detailed theory. The Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE) was designed to obtain benchmark flame spreading data in quiescent test atmospheres--the limiting case of flames spreading. Professor Robert Altenkirch, Vice President for Research at Mississippi State University, proposed the experiment concept, and the NASA Lewis Research Center designed, built, and tested the SSCE hardware. It was the first microgravity science experiment built by Lewis for the space shuttle and the first combustion science experiment flown in space.

  18. Observations of Co4+ in a Higher Spin State and the Increase in the Seebeck Coefficient of Thermoelectric Ca3Co4O9

    SciTech Connect

    Klie, Robert F [University of Illinois, Chicago; Qiao, Q. [University of Illinois, Chicago; Paulauskas, T. [University of Illinois, Chicago; Gulec, A. [University of Illinois, Chicago; Rebola, A. [University of Illinois, Chicago; Ogut, Serdar [University of Illinois, Chicago; Prange, Micah P [Vanderbilt University; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C [ORNL; Pantelides, Sokrates T. [Vanderbilt University; Kolesnik, S. [Northern Illinois University; Dabrowski, B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ozdemir, M. [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; Boyraz, C. [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; Mazumdar, Dipanjan [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; Gupta, Dr. Arunava [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa

    2012-01-01

    Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} has a unique structure that leads to exceptionally high thermoelectric transport. Here we report the achievement of a 27% increase in the room-temperature in-plane Seebeck coefficient of Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} thin films. We combine aberration-corrected Z-contrast imaging, atomic-column resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and density-functional calculations to show that the increase is caused by stacking faults with Co4+-ions in a higher spin state compared to that of bulk Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9}. The higher Seebeck coefficient makes the Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} system suitable for many high temperature waste-heat-recovery applications.

  19. Observations of Co4+ in a higher spin state and the increase in the Seebeck coefficient of thermoelectric Ca3Co4O9.

    PubMed

    Klie, R F; Qiao, Q; Paulauskas, T; Gulec, A; Rebola, A; Ö?üt, S; Prange, M P; Idrobo, J C; Pantelides, S T; Kolesnik, S; Dabrowski, B; Ozdemir, M; Boyraz, C; Mazumdar, D; Gupta, A

    2012-05-11

    Ca3Co4O9 has a unique structure that leads to exceptionally high thermoelectric transport. Here we report the achievement of a 27% increase in the room-temperature in-plane Seebeck coefficient of Ca3Co4O9 thin films. We combine aberration-corrected Z-contrast imaging, atomic-column resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and density-functional calculations to show that the increase is caused by stacking faults with Co4+-ions in a higher spin state compared to that of bulk Ca3Co4O9. The higher Seebeck coefficient makes the Ca3Co4O9 system suitable for many high temperature waste-heat-recovery applications. PMID:23003068

  20. ANEUPLOIDY IN HIGHER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews the significance and frequency of naturally occurring aneuploidy in higher plants. The role and mechanism of induction of aneuploidy by radiation, chemicals, thermal shocks, and self hybridization of polyploids and aneuploids in generating primary and secondary ...

  1. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    Litigation in 1987 was very brisk with an increase in the number of higher education cases reviewed. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under four major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining and denial of employee benefits; (3)…

  2. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Finnegan, Dorothy E.

    The higher education case law in 1988 is extensive. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under five major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining, and denial of employee benefits; (3) students, involving admissions, financial aid, First…

  3. The Differential Impact of Observational Learning and Practice-Based Learning on the Development of Oral Presentation Skills in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Grez, Luc; Valcke, Martin; Roozen, Irene

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on the design and evaluation of an innovative instructional approach to developing oral presentation skills. The intervention builds on the observational learning theoretical perspective. This perspective is contrasted with the traditional training and practice approach. Two sequencing approaches--learners starting with…

  4. Higher anthraxolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, M. M.; Cherevko, N. K.; Golubev, E. A.

    2007-12-01

    Recent years have been marked by progress in studying the structure of natural X-ray amorphous substances, anthraxolites included, by scanning electron and atomic power microscopy. Integration of the available data on molecular and supramolecular structure of higher anthraxolites from Karelia, Novaya Zemlya, and the Urals allowed elaboration of new classification criteria for solid bitumen, namely, degree of structure perfection and micromineral composition. This approach will help to eliminate disadvantages of traditional investigation of solid bitumen.

  5. Measures of Clinical Significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HELENA CHMURA KRAEMER; GEORGE A. MORGAN; NANCY L. LEECH; JEFFREY A. GLINER; JERRY J. VASKE; ROBERT J. HARMON

    2003-01-01

    Behavioral scientists are interested in answering three basic questions when examining the relationships between vari- ables (Kirk, 2001). First, is an observed result real or should it be attributed to chance (i.e., statistical significance)? Sec- ond, if the result is real, how large is it (i.e., effect size)? Third, is the result large enough to be meaningful and useful (i.e.,

  6. Adaptive Significance of Floral Movement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng-Jiang Ruan

    2011-01-01

    Since Darwin observed the reconfiguration of pollinia in orchards and referred to it as a function to reduce self-pollination, diverse floral movements have been investigated and various hypotheses have been proposed to explain their adaptive significance. However, adaptive significance of floral movement in some species has yet to be fully explained. Increasing evidence suggests that some floral movements, which have

  7. Inside Higher Ed

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The wide, wide, wide world of higher education has found a new chronicler in the form of the Inside Higher Ed website. The group was founded in 2004 by three higher education journalism and recruitment executives who felt that "the time was right for new models of providing information and career services for professionals in academe." First-time visitors should consider signing up to receive the electronic updates, or just browsing through some of the latest news stories. Also, each news story has a place where visitors can chime in with their own opinions, if they so desire. The site also has a good job posting area, so persons looking to make a career move (or secure a first-time position) will want to look at this area of the site closely. Finally, the "Views" section contains some first-hand observations about such topics as blogs, the importance of jobs in far-flung places, and Saul Bellow.

  8. Minimizing Significant Figure Fuzziness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Lawrence D.; Hawkes, Stephen J.

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the principles and problems associated with the use of significant figures. Explains uncertainty, the meaning of significant figures, the Simple Rule, the Three Rule, and the 1-5 Rule. Also provides examples of the Rules. (ML)

  9. Ecologically Significant Wetlands

    E-print Network

    Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the Flathead, Stillwater, and Swan River Valleys FINAL REPORT Also: Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the North Fork of the Flathead River Valley Appendix 29b #12;Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the Flathead, Stillwater, and Swan River Valleys JUNE 1, 1999 DEQ

  10. Tests of Significance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lacey, Michelle

    This site gives an explanation, a definition of and an example for tests of significance. Topics include null and alternative hypotheses for population mean, one-sided and two-sided z and t tests, levels of significance, and matched pairs analysis. Overall, this is a nice presentation of significance tests for any mathematics classroom.

  11. Significant potential for lower costs.

    PubMed

    Renecle, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Switching to LED lighting has, specialist supplier of such technology, Exled maintains, 'proven to be one of the most significant cost-saving activities hospitals can undertake'. Alongside the financial gains, other benefits include higher levels of patient satisfaction with lighting 'quality' and ambience, and improved environmental credentials. Here Exled MD, Michael Renecle, discusses LED lighting in healthcare in some detail, offers useful pointers on specification, examines some of the 'significant savings and environmental improvements' available to those 'making the switch', and considers the positive experiences of a number of NHS Trusts who have done so. PMID:25282981

  12. The palatability of the diets containing milo corn was confirmed as well as the good beha-viour of the pigs in all groups since no statistically significant difference was observed with res-

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    The palatability of the diets containing milo corn was confirmed as well as the good beha- viour, pigs fed with milo corn exhibited a slightly higher food conversion ratio than these fed exclusively with maize. This reduction of feed efficiency when using milo corn was particularly marked during the growing

  13. Women in Higher Education, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenninger, Mary Dee, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This document consists of the 11 issues of a newsletter on women students, teachers, and administrators in higher education. Each issue includes features articles, news on higher education, profiles of significant people in the field, and job announcements. The issues' main article topics are: (1) pay equity for coaches, particularly a case at the…

  14. Women in Higher Education, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenniger, Mary Dee, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of the issues of a 1996 newsletter on women students, teachers, and administrators in higher education. Each issue includes feature articles, news on higher education, profiles of significant people in the field, and job announcements. The issues' main articles concern: (1) a successful campaign to increase female…

  15. Disruptive Technologies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of "disruptive" innovative technologies in higher education. In this country and elsewhere, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have invested significant sums in learning technologies, with Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) being more or less universal, but these technologies have not been universally adopted and…

  16. Women in Higher Education, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenninger, Mary Dee, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This document consists of the 12 monthly issues of a newsletter on women students, teachers, and administrators in higher education, issued in 1994. Each issue includes feature articles, news on higher education, profiles of significant people in the field, and job announcements. The issues' main article topics are: (1) campuses's changing…

  17. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  18. Clinical significance of translocation.

    PubMed Central

    Van Leeuwen, P A; Boermeester, M A; Houdijk, A P; Ferwerda, C C; Cuesta, M A; Meyer, S; Wesdorp, R I

    1994-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract, besides being the organ responsible for nutrient absorption, is also a metabolic and immunological system, functioning as an effective barrier against endotoxin and bacteria in the intestinal lumen. The passage of viable bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract through the epithelial mucosa is called bacterial translocation. Equally important may be the passage of bacterial endotoxin through the mucosal barrier. This article reviews the evidence that translocation of both endotoxin and bacteria is of clinical significance. It summarises recent published works indicating that translocation of endotoxin in minute amounts is a physiological important phenomenon to boost the reticuloendothelial system (RES), especially the Kupffer cells, in the liver. Breakdown of both the mucosal barrier and the RES capacity results in systemic endotoxaemia. Systemic endotoxaemia results in organ dysfunction, impairs the mucosal barrier, the clotting system, the immune system, and depresses Kupffer cell function. If natural defence mechanisms such as lipopolysaccharide binding protein, high density lipoprotein, in combination with the RES, do not respond properly, dysfunction of the gut barrier results in bacterial translocation. Extensive work on bacterial translocation has been performed in animal models and occurs notably in haemorrhagic shock, thermal injury, protein malnutrition, endotoxaemia, trauma, and intestinal obstruction. It is difficult to extrapolate these results to humans and its clinical significance is not clear. The available data show that the resultant infection remains important in the development of sepsis, especially in the critically ill patient. Uncontrolled infection is, however, neither necessary nor sufficient to account for the development of multiple organ failure. A more plausible sequelae is that bacterial translocation is a later phenomenon of multiple organ failure, and not its initiator. It is hypothesized that multiple organ failure is more probably triggered by the combination of tissue damage and systemic endotoxaemia. Endotoxaemia, as seen in trauma patients especially during the first 24 hours, in combination with tissue elicits a systemic inflammation, called Schwartzmann reaction. Interferon gamma, a T cell produced cytokine, is thought to play a pivotal part in the pathogenesis of this reaction. This reaction might occur only if the endotoxin induced cytokines like tumour necrosis factor and interleukin 1, act on target cells prepared by interferon gamma. After exposure to interferon gamma target cells become more sensitive to stimuli like endotoxin, thus boosting the inflammatory cycle. Clearly, following this line of reasoning, minor tissue damage or retroperitoneal haematoma combined with systemic endotoxaemia could elicit this reaction. The clinically observed failure of multiple organ systems might thus be explained by the interaction of tissue necrosis and high concentrations of endotoxin because of translocation. Future therapeutic strategies could therefore focus more on binding endotoxin in the gut before the triggering event, for example before major surgery. Such a strategy could be combined with the start of early enteral feeding, which has been shown in animal studies to have a beneficial effect on intestinal mucosal barrier function and in traumatized patients to reduce the incidence of septic complications. PMID:8125386

  19. Teaching Significant Figures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy H. Logan

    1964-01-01

    It is suggested that students would not be so careless about significant figures if they could actually see a demonstration of figures which are not significant. Such a demonstration is described, as is a simple teaching machine designed to give students facility in identifying insignificant figures in their calculations.

  20. Opportunities and Barriers: Gendered Reality in Chinese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Bohong; Li, Yani

    2010-01-01

    In the field of Chinese higher education, gender is still a significant issue, as is a general ignorance of gender discrimination against women. Issues related to gender can be observed throughout the process of education: at the time of entering an institution, during the educational process and as an outcome of education. The following seven…

  1. Significant lexical relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

  2. Propagation of Significant Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Lowell M.

    1985-01-01

    Shows that the rules of thumb for propagating significant figures through arithmetic calculations frequently yield misleading results. Also describes two procedures for performing this propagation more reliably than the rules of thumb. However, both require considerably more calculational effort than do the rules. (JN)

  3. Significance of brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The significance of brown dwarfs for resolving some major problems in astronomy is discussed. The importance of brown dwarfs for models of star formation by fragmentation of molecular clouds and for obtaining independent measurements of the ages of stars in binary systems is addressed. The relationship of brown dwarfs to planets is considered.

  4. Earthquake Induced Site Effect in the Algiers-Boumerdes Region: Relation Between Spectral Ratios Higher Peaks and Observed Damage During the May 21st M w 6.8 Boumerdes Earthquake (Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laouami, Nasser; Slimani, Abdennasser

    2013-11-01

    The Algiers-Boumerdes regions were hit by an M w 6.8 destructive earthquake on May 21, 2003. The accelerometric and seismometric networks successfully recorded the main shock and many aftershocks at some locations where the damage was most extensive. A microtremor measurement was performed in the same locations; some of them are localized on the Mitidja basin. In this paper, we propose to analyze earthquake-induced site effect derived from horizontal to vertical spectral ratio from ambient noise (noise horizontal to vertical—NHV), or from very weak, weak, moderate and strong ( peak ground acceleration—PGA >10 % g) seismic motions (EHV), and transfer function evaluation from soil velocity profile data at four sites. H/V spectral ratios are computed by using both Fourier and response spectra. Compared to the transfer function, the obtained results show that in the case of soft soils, NHV as well as EHV give a good estimation of the soil's fundamental frequency, whereas the NHV underestimate the H/V amplitude and the EHV amplitude increase with the seismic motion intensity. In the case of firm soils, whereas the NHV gives flat curves synonymous for a rock site or a bump, the EHV is more appropriate as seen by identifying clear peaks with non negligible amplitude. In the case of soft sites as well as in the case of firm sites, strong peaks at frequencies higher than the fundamental one are found from EHV curves. Those peaks would not be found when looking at NHV ratios alone, are evidenced by the computed transfer function as well as by an analytical formulation, and are in agreement with the observed distribution of damage during the M w 6.8 2003 Boumerdes earthquake. Finally, the same analysis is performed by using response spectra rather than Fourier spectra and leads to the same conclusions. Moreover, the calculation of the response spectra is more easily compared with the smoothing operation of the Fourier spectra.

  5. [Submitting studies without significant results].

    PubMed

    Texier, Gaëtan; Meynard, Jean-Baptiste; Michel, Rémy; Migliani, René; Boutin, Jean-Paul

    2007-03-01

    When a study finds that no exposure factor or therapy is significantly related to a given effect, researchers legitimately wonder if the results should be submitted for publication and to what journal. Clinical trials that report significant associations have a higher probability of publication, a phenomenon known as selective publication. The principal reasons of this selective publication include author self-censorship, peer-reviewing, trials not intended for publication, interpretation of the p value, cost of journal subscriptions, and policies. Subsequent reviews and meta-analyses are biased by the unavailability of nonsignificant results. Suggestions for preventing this risk include university training, trial registries, an international standard randomised controlled trial number (ISRCTN), Cochrane collaboration, and the gray literature. Journals (including electronic journals) interested in studies with nonsignificant results are listed. New technologies are changing the relations between publishers, libraries, authors and readers. PMID:17287106

  6. NASA: Higher Education

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-05-25

    NASA has a significant educational outreach mission, and this site dedicated to higher education is a wonderful find. The first notable feature on the site is the Read About It area, which contains profiles such as "Beginner's Guide to Aeronautics," "Commercial Space Transportation," and a complete archive of past items. Moving on, the Current Opportunities area contains archived lectures, webcasts, and online workshops on astronomy. Another fun piece of the site is the Do-It-Yourself Podcasts area, found on the lower left. Here visitors can take NASA audio and video files and create their own podcasts on rocket science, micro-g, lab safety, and other topics. The site also contains links to NASA Television and the Have You Seen? areas, the latter of which features video highlights from NASA programs and contests.

  7. Statistical Applets: Statistical Significance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Duckworth, William

    Created by authors Duckworth, McCabe, Moore and Sclove for W.H. Freeman of Co., this applet is designed to help students visualize the rejection region of a statistical test by allowing them to set null and alternate hypotheses, population parameters, sample statistics, and significance level. It accompanies "Â?Â?Practice of Business Statistics," but can be used without this text. Even though brief, this is a nice interactive resource for an introductory statistics course.

  8. Determining safe limits for significant task parameters during manual lifting.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ravindra Pratrap; Batish, Ajay; Singh, Tejinder Pal

    2014-04-01

    This experimental study investigated the effect of lifting task parameters (i.e., lifting weight, frequency, coupling, asymmetric angle, and vertical, horizontal, and travel distances) for various dynamic human lifting activities on the ground reaction forces of workers. Ten male workers loaded containers from different levels asymmetrically during experimental trials. The experimental design evolved using Taguchi's Fractional Factorial Experiments. Three factors (lifting weight, frequency, and vertical distance) were observed to be significant. The results showed that vertical reaction forces increase when workers lift weight from floor to shoulder height frequently. It was also observed that instantaneous loading rate increases with more weight, vertical distance, and frequency; a significant extra loading rate is required to change the lower level of load, frequency, and vertical distance to higher levels. Safe limits for significant factors were determined to result in optimal performance of the manual lifting task. PMID:24702682

  9. Reclaiming Our Soul: Democracy and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chickering, Arthur W.

    2003-01-01

    Explores how, as higher education faces new financial realities together with escalating demands for more accountability, a call to reclaim the soul of higher education and with it, the soul of democracy, will require significant institutional and personal transformations. (EV)

  10. Significant Earthquake Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Significant Earthquake Database is a global digital database containing information on more than 5,000 destructive earthquakes from 2150 B.C. to the present. Users can access these data in two different ways: via a two-volume CD collection, or on-line. Users searching on-line can query the database via the following parameters: the year of the event, geographical coordinates (latitude and longitude), country, state or province, magnitude, intensity, focal depth, number of deaths, and damage amount. A list of applicable earthquakes is then displayed.

  11. Higher Education Exchange, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  12. Higher Education Exchange, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  13. Historical Significant Events Imagery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Historical Significant Events Imagery database (HSEI) is maintained by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). It contains hundreds of selected satellite images capturing some of the more important weather and environmental events over the last 30 years. One can search for images of a specific type of event or for a specific date range, go to a " What's New" section for images added in the past 7 days, or visit a "Most Popular" section for frequently-requested images. The images can be viewed on-line or downloaded for free, or one can order hardcopy matte or glossy finish prints for a small fee. Image dates range from 1960 (the first image from space) to present, and cover phenomena such as dust storms, fire, floods, hurricanes, snow cover, oil spills, severe weather and volcanoes.

  14. Placental circulation: Clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Zygmunt, M

    2001-01-01

    Investigation of the mechanisms regulating development of new vessels is crucial to our understanding of both tumor biology and early pregnancy development. The placental vascular system develops through two distinct processes: vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. During vasculogenesis, endothelial progenitor cells angioblasts form a primitive vascular network. Angiogenesis represents the development of new vessels from preexisting vessels. Placental vascular growth begins as early as 21 days post conceptionem and continues throughout gestation. The development of villous capillaries from hemangioblastic cells can be observed until 10-12 weeks of gestation. From 12 weeks onwards, the capillaries coil, bulge, form sinusoids and protrude towards the trophoblastic layer. Although reliable signs of formation of new vessels are absent in the second half of pregnancy, some capillary sprouts can be seen. Human placenta is a rich source of angiogenic substances and these may play an important role in the regulation of placental vessel formation as well as in maternal vascular adaptation to pregnancy. Disturbances in the placental vascular development as demonstrated by reduced fetal capillary branching, maldevelopment of the villous tree and/or alterations in the expression of angiogenic factors in the fetomaternal unit, are associated with following pathologic conditions in pregnancy: early pregnancy losses preeclampsia intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) gestational diabetes and maternal diabetes mellitus Our understanding of the different molecular and functional aspects of the placental vessel formation during gestation might allow the establishment of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of pregnancy related pathology. PMID:11753521

  15. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  16. Women in Higher Education, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenniger, Mary Dee Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the twelve consecutive numbers of the newsletter "Women in Education", published during 1998. This newsletter focus on issues concerned with women students, women faculty, and women administrators in higher education. Each issue includes feature articles, news items, and profiles of significant people. Feature articles…

  17. Women in Higher Education, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenniger, Mary Dee, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The 12 issues of this newsletter focus on issues concerned with women students, faculty, and administrators in higher education. Each issue includes feature articles, news items, and profiles of significant people. The issues' main articles address: women in athletics; leadership development for women; the first year in academic administration;…

  18. Who Rules Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Sandi E.

    1979-01-01

    As long as the public authorities appear more anxious to save the "Lockheeds" of higher education and underwrite the middle class student, the future of public higher education in the City University of New York is grim. (Author/EB)

  19. Financing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermenev, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses problems related to financing of higher education in the Soviet Union and concludes that further study of higher education expenses is necessary in order to work out the most rational financing system. (Author/DB)

  20. ASCA Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, David J.

    1998-01-01

    This recently expired grant has supported the work of the PI, his students, and his collaborators on a variety of ASCA projects over the past four years. Annual reports have summarized much of the work accomplished; here we provide a brief review of the work resulting from this effort, and a summary of the personnel who have benefited from the grant's support. Starburst Galaxies with Extreme X-ray Luminosities This project began as a careful examination of the claims of Boller et al. (1992) that there were dozens of "normal" galaxies in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey that had X-ray luminosities in excess of 1042 erg sec, higher than that seen in the hundreds of non-AGN galaxies observed with Einstein. If true, this suggested that X-ray emission associated with star formation activity might have a significant contribution to make to the still unexplained cosmic X-ray background (XRB). Since some of our earlier work with the Einstein Observatory Deep Surveys had suggested a similar possibility and several sets of authors over the years had modelled the starburst XRB contribution, these claims were worth pursuing. Our work expanded the examination beyond the RASS to include earlier claims of high-luminosity galaxies powered by starburst emission (selected in this case on the basis of the far-IR luminosities). The result of extensive followup observations under several programs using ROSAT, ASCA, and ground-based facilities was to show that nearly all of these objects in fact have hidden AGN at their cores, and that their luminosities are not in any way extraordinary.

  1. The detection of clinically significant erythrocyte alloantibodies using a human mononuclear phagocyte assay

    SciTech Connect

    Schanfield, M.S.; Stevens, J.O.; Bauman, D.

    1981-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) allo- or autoantibodies, which markedly reduce the survival of transfused or autologous RBC, are considered to be clinically significant antibodies. The occurrence of antibodies against high-incidence antigens, which are occasionally associated with clinically significant RBC destruction or are of unknown clinical significance, often creates delays in providing blood to patients. In the majority of cases these antibodies are benign; however, clinically significant examples of these antibodies have been reported. An in vitro homologous human mononuclear phagocyte assay (MPA) was used to study antibodies directed against specificities associated with variable clinical significance. Two antibodies reported to be clinically significant and 25 antibodies known to be clinically insignificant were tested by MPA. The results indicate that clinically significant antibodies have a significantly higher score than do clinically insignificant antibodies, with no overlap observed between the two groups. An additional eight antibodies with unknown clinical significance were tested. None of these antibodies had scores in the clinically significant range.

  2. The significance of gamma ray observations for neutrino astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.

    1978-01-01

    Celestial gamma-rays and neutrinos are formed in some of the same astrophysical interactions, but have important different properties. Measurements of these radiations were used to study the presence and dynamic effects of energetic charged cosmic ray particles, element synthesis and particle acceleration. In addition, since gamma-rays in the energy range from several MeV to at least 10 to the 12th power eV and neutrinos both have very low interaction cross sections, they have a very high penetrating power and reach the earth from almost any part of the galaxy or universe. Therefore, they retain the detailed imprint of spectral, directional and temporal features imposed at their birth, even if they were born in regions opaque to visible light and X-rays.

  3. Methane conversion to higher hydrocarbons in a corona discharge over metal oxide catalysts with OH groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changjun Liu; Abdulathim Marafee; Richard Mallinson; Lance Lobban

    1997-01-01

    The gas discharge promoted oxidative conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons over various metal oxide and zeolite catalysts was investigated over a wide range of temperatures (373–973 K). The most significant gas discharge effects were observed over catalysts containing polar OH groups. Significant methane conversions and C2 yields were achieved at temperatures sufficiently low that no intrinsic catalytic activity for

  4. India's Higher Education Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream…

  5. State Priorities in Higher Education: 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenth, Charles S.

    The report provides information on the current issues, financial priorities, and legislative concerns faced by higher education at the state level, based upon observations of State Higher Education Executive Officers in all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia. The most important tasks facing higher education were identified as…

  6. Higher Education Resource Hub

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Developed and maintained by James Forest, the Higher Education Resource Hub is a fine source of information about the field of higher education within the United States and around the world. Most of the site's sections can be reached from the home page, and deal with such topics as assessment in higher education, news, and recent publications that feature research on higher education. Another helpful feature is a collection of links to the syllabi for courses at the college and graduate level that address the topic of higher education. The history of higher education is particularly helpful, as it contains a number of primary documents including the text of the GI Bill, the Morrill Land Grant Acts, some rather trenchant commentaries from John Henry Newman, and Thorstein Veblen's scathing critique of American higher education published in 1918. The site also has a section devoted to job resources in higher education, and is completed with information about the reference work, "Higher Education in the United States: An Encyclopedia," which is co-edited by Mr. Forest and Kevin Kinser of SUNY-Albany.

  7. Higher Education Doctorof Philosophy

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    Higher Education Doctorof Philosophy Program Handbook College of Education Graduate Education and Research Texas Tech University Box 41071 Lubbock, TX 79409-1071 (806) 742-1997 Fax (806) 742-2197 www.educ.ttu.edu Effective Fall 2011a #12;2 Higher Education: Doctor

  8. Saving Higher Education's Soul.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the need to save the soul of higher education in the context of technology advances, globalization of markets, and new providers. Identifies traditional core attributes of higher education including: socializing students to the community, the life of the mind, and to a profession; the encouragement of social mobility; and providing…

  9. Higher Education Exchange, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume begins with an essay by Noelle McAfee, a contributor who is familiar to readers of Higher Education Exchange (HEX). She reiterates Kettering's president David Mathews' argument regarding the disconnect between higher education's sense of engagement and the public's sense of engagement, and suggests a way around the epistemological…

  10. Higher Education Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume begins with an essay by Noelle McAfee, a contributor who is familiar to readers of Higher Education Exchange (HEX). She reiterates Mathews' argument regarding the disconnect between higher education's sense of engagement and the public's sense of engagement, and suggests a way around the epistemological conundrum of "knowledge produced…

  11. Minorities in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justiz, Manuel J., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 19 papers on efforts to increase the participation of members of minority groups in higher education. The papers are: (1) "Demographic Trends and the Challenges to American Higher Education" (Manuel Justiz); (2) "Three Realities: Minority Life in the United States--The Struggle for Economic Equity (adapted by Don M. Blandin);…

  12. Higher-Dimensional Categories

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Eugenia

    Higher-Dimensional Categories: an illustrated guide book Eugenia Cheng and Aaron Lauda University, are we even climbing the same mountain? This work is an illustrated guide book to the world of higher- dimensional categories. A map would be more detailed and precise. An encyclopedia would be more comprehensive

  13. HigherDimensional Categories

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Eugenia

    Higher­Dimensional Categories: an illustrated guide book Eugenia Cheng and Aaron Lauda University, are we even climbing the same mountain? This work is an illustrated guide book to the world of higher­ dimensional categories. A map would be more detailed and precise. An encyclopedia would be more comprehensive

  14. Quality in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruben, Brent D., Ed.

    This volume contains 21 new and classic papers and readings on quality philosophies and concepts, first, as they have been applied in business and industry but primarily as they relate to and can be applied in higher education. The introduction is titled "The Quality Approach in Higher Education: Context and Concepts for Change" by Brent D. Ruben.…

  15. Higher Education Exchange 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Contributors to this issue of the Higher Education Exchange debate the issues around knowledge production, discuss the acquisition of deliberative skills for democracy, and examine how higher education prepares, or does not prepare, students for citizenship roles. Articles include: (1) "Foreword" (Deborah Witte); (2) "Knowledge, Judgment and…

  16. Chicanos in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Juan M., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This "special theme" journal issue focuses on higher education of Chicanos and Latinos. The journal includes the following articles: (1) "Dilemmas of Chicano and Latino Professors in U.S. Universities" (Hisauro Garza); (2) "Analysis of Tenure Among Hispanic Higher Education Faculty" (Richard R. Verdugo); (3) "Experiences of Multiple Marginality: A…

  17. Reinventing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Higher education institutions are in the battle of a lifetime as they are coping with political and economic uncertainties, threats to federal aid, declining state support, higher tuition rates and increased competition from for-profit institutions. Amid all these challenges, these institutions are pressed to keep up with technological demands,…

  18. Comparative Higher Education: Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardozier, V. R.

    This comparative higher education bibliography from the graduate program in Higher Education at University of Texas at Austin provides references with publication dates through 1990 under the following categories: "General and Canada" (85); "Africa (Sub-Sahara)" (23); "Asia" (122); "Australia and New Zealand" (25); "Western Europe" (168); "Great…

  19. Reinventing Continuing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshok, Mary Lindenstein

    2012-01-01

    Re-inventing continuing higher education is about finding ways to be a more central player in a region's civic, cultural, and economic life as well as in the education of individuals for work and citizenship. Continuing higher education will require data gathering, analytical tools, convening authority, interpretive skills, new models of delivery,…

  20. Prognostic Significance of Erythropoietin in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Verena; Giese, Thomas; Bergmann, Frank; Hinz, Ulf; Keleg, Shereen; Heller, Anette; Sipos, Bence; Klingmüller, Ursula; Büchler, Markus W.; Werner, Jens; Giese, Nathalia A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Erythropoietin (Epo) administration has been reported to have tumor-promoting effects in anemic cancer patients. We investigated the prognostic impact of endogenous Epo in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Methodology The clinico-pathological relevance of hemoglobin (Hb, n?=?150), serum Epo (sEpo, n?=?87) and tissue expression of Epo/Epo receptor (EpoR, n?=?104) was analyzed in patients with PDAC. Epo/EpoR expression, signaling, growth, invasion and chemoresistance were studied in Epo-exposed PDAC cell lines. Results Compared to donors, median preoperative Hb levels were reduced by 15% in both chronic pancreatitis (CP, p<0.05) and PDAC (p<0.001), reaching anemic grade in one third of patients. While inversely correlating to Hb (r?=??0.46), 95% of sEPO values lay within the normal range. The individual levels of compensation were adequate in CP (observed to predicted ratio, O/P?=?0.99) but not in PDAC (O/P?=?0.85). Strikingly, lower sEPO values yielding inadequate Epo responses were prominent in non-metastatic M0-patients, whereas these parameters were restored in metastatic M1-group (8 vs. 13 mU/mL; O/P?=?0.82 vs. 0.96; p<0.01)—although Hb levels and the prevalence of anemia were comparable. Higher sEpo values (upper quartile ?16 mU/ml) were not significantly different in M0 (20%) and M1 (30%) groups, but were an independent prognostic factor for shorter survival (HR 2.20, 10 vs. 17 months, p<0.05). The pattern of Epo expression in pancreas and liver suggested ectopic release of Epo by capillaries/vasa vasorum and hepatocytes, regulated by but not emanating from tumor cells. Epo could initiate PI3K/Akt signaling via EpoR in PDAC cells but failed to alter their functions, probably due to co-expression of the soluble EpoR isoform, known to antagonize Epo. Conclusion/Significance Higher sEPO levels counteract anemia but worsen outcome in PDAC patients. Further trials are required to clarify how overcoming a sEPO threshold ?16 mU/ml by endogenous or exogenous means may predispose to or promote metastatic progression. PMID:21829709

  1. The Perry Preschool Project: Significant Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinhart, Lawrence J.; Weikart, David P.

    2002-01-01

    Describes results from the Perry Preschool Project, which began in 1962 to assess whether high-quality preschool programs would provide short- and long-term benefits to impoverished African American students. Longitudinal data indicated that compared to nonparticipants, participants had significantly higher earnings, percentages of home and second…

  2. Nevada System Higher Education

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    Nevada System of Higher Education State Operating Budget Budget to Actual Comparison 20122013 System Administration University of Nevada, Reno University of Nevada, Las Vegas College of Southern Nevada Great Basin College Truckee Meadows Community College Western Nevada College Desert

  3. Nevada System Higher Education

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    Nevada System of Higher Education State Operating Budget Budget to Actual Comparison 20112012 System Administration University of Nevada, Reno University of Nevada, Las Vegas College of Southern Nevada Great Basin College Truckee Meadows Community College Western Nevada College Desert

  4. Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the

    E-print Network

    Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the North Fork Flathead River Watershed Prepared See Also: Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the Flathead, Stillwater, & Swan River Valleys Appendix 29 #12;Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the North Fork Flathead River Watershed Prepared

  5. Higher spin entanglement entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Jiang

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we develop a perturbation formulation to calculate the single interval higher spin Rényi and entanglement entropy for two dimensional conformal field theory with symmetry. The system is at finite temperature and is deformed by higher spin chemical potential. We manage to compute higher spin Rényi entropy with various spin deformations up to order . For spin 3 deformation, we calculate exact higher spin Rényi and entanglement entropy up to . When ? = 3, in the large c limit, we find perfect match with tree level holographic higher spin entanglement entropy up to order ? 4 obtained by the Wilson line prescription. We also find quantum corrections to higher spin entanglement entropy which is beyond tree level holographic results. The quantum correction is universal at order ? 4 in the sense that it is independent of ?. Our computation relies on a multi-valued conformal map from n-sheeted Riemann surface to complex plane and correlation functions of primary fields on complex plane. The method can be applied to general conformal field theories with symmetry.

  6. Significant role of estrogen in maintaining cardiac mitochondrial functions.

    PubMed

    Rattanasopa, Chutima; Phungphong, Sukanya; Wattanapermpool, Jonggonnee; Bupha-Intr, Tepmanas

    2015-03-01

    Increased susceptibility to stress-induced myocardial damage is a significant concern in addition to decreased cardiac performance in postmenopausal females. To determine the potential mechanisms underlying myocardial vulnerability after deprivation of female sex hormones, cardiac mitochondrial function is determined in 10-week ovariectomized rats (OVX). Significant mitochondrial swelling in the heart of OVX rats is observed. This structural alteration can be prevented with either estrogen or progesterone supplementation. Using an isolated mitochondrial preparation, a decrease in ATP synthesis by complex I activation in an OVX rat is completely restored by estrogen, but not progesterone. At basal activation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from the mitochondria is not affected by the ovariectomy. However, after incubated in the presence of either high Ca(2+) or antimycin-A, there is a significantly higher mitochondrial ROS production in the OVX sample compared to the control. This increased stress-induced ROS production is not observed in the preparation isolated from the hearts of OVX rats with estrogen or progesterone supplementation. However, deprivation of female sex hormones has no effect on the protein expression of electron transport chain complexes, mitofusin 2, or superoxide dismutase 2. Taken together, these findings suggest that female sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, play significant regulatory roles in maintaining normal mitochondrial properties by stabilizing the structural assembly of mitochondria as well as attenuating mitochondrial ROS production. Estrogen, but not progesterone, also plays an important role in modulating mitochondrial ATP synthesis. PMID:25448746

  7. "Clinical" Significance: "Clinical" Significance and "Practical" Significance are NOT the Same Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Lisa S.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical significance is an important concept in research, particularly in education and the social sciences. The present article first compares clinical significance to other measures of "significance" in statistics. The major methods used to determine clinical significance are explained and the strengths and weaknesses of clinical significance

  8. Higher Education Research Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Founded in 1973, the Higher Education Research Institute (HERI) is located within UCLA's Graduate School of Education & Information Studies. Researchers at the HERI are interested in examining leadership development, institutional transformation, faculty performance, and educational equity. First-time visitors should check out the "Surveys" area first, as it contains information about some of their very well-known longitudinal surveys, such as the Freshmen Year Survey and the College Senior Survey. Most visitors with a general interest in higher education trends will want to look through the "Publications" section, as it contains reports on spirituality in higher education, the gender gap in colleges, and the impact of single-gender high schools on students' transition to college.

  9. Higher Spin Cosmology

    E-print Network

    Chethan Krishnan; Avinash Raju; Shubho Roy; Somyadip Thakur

    2014-02-10

    We construct cosmological solutions of higher spin gravity in 2+1 dimensional de Sitter space. We show that a consistent thermodynamics can be obtained for their horizons by demanding appropriate holonomy conditions. This is equivalent to demanding the integrability of the Euclidean boundary CFT partition function, and reduces to Gibbons-Hawking thermodynamics in the spin-2 case. By using a prescription of Maldacena, we relate the thermodynamics of these solutions to those of higher spin black holes in AdS_3.

  10. Higher Spin Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chi-Ming

    This dissertation splits into two distinct halves. The first half is devoted to the study of the holography of higher spin gauge theory in AdS 3. We present a conjecture that the holographic dual of W N minimal model in a 't Hooft-like large N limit is an unusual "semi-local" higher spin gauge theory on AdS3 x 1. At each point on the S1 lives a copy of three-dimensional Vasiliev theory, that contains an infinite tower of higher spin gauge fields coupled to a single massive complex scalar propagating in AdS3. The Vasiliev theories at different points on the S1 are correlated only through the AdS3 boundary conditions on the massive scalars. All but one single tower of higher spin symmetries are broken by the boundary conditions. This conjecture is checked by comparing tree-level two- and three-point functions, and also one-loop partition functions on both side of the duality. The second half focuses on the holography of higher spin gauge theory in AdS 4. We demonstrate that a supersymmetric and parity violating version of Vasiliev's higher spin gauge theory in AdS4 admits boundary conditions that preserve N = 0,1,2,3,4 or 6 supersymmetries. In particular, we argue that the Vasiliev theory with U( M) Chan-Paton and N = 6 boundary condition is holographically dual to the 2+1 dimensional U(N) k x U(M) -k ABJ theory in the limit of large N, k and finite M. In this system all bulk higher spin fields transform in the adjoint of the U(M) gauge group, whose bulk t'Hooft coupling is M/N. Our picture suggests that the supersymmetric Vasiliev theory can be obtained as a limit of type IIA string theory in AdS4 x CP3, and that the non-Abelian Vasiliev theory at strong bulk 't Hooft coupling smoothly turn into a string field theory. The fundamental string is a singlet bound state of Vasiliev's higher spin particles held together by U(M) gauge interactions.

  11. The trophic significance of Phaeocystis blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisse, T.; Tande, K.; Verity, P.; Hansen, F.; Gieskes, W.

    1994-04-01

    Both colonies and solitary cells of the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis are ingested by a wide array of marine vertebrates. Grazers include protozoa, bivalves, amphipods, euphausiids and many copepod species. Common fish species such as mackerel ( Scomber scombrus) and flounder ( Pleuronectus flesus) have also been reported to feed upon Phaeocystis. While qualitative observations on the potential trophic significance of Phaeocystis exist for a long time, attempts to quantify feeding rates on Phaeocystis have begun only during the last decade. In feeding experiments, copepods have received most attention. Many copepod species appear to consume Phaeocystis colonies and solitary cells in the North Atlantic and in polar seas. Ingestion rates are highly variable depending on size and physiological state of Phaeocystis as well as on copepod species. Within the same species, large variations in individual feeding rates have been reported from different areas and investigators. When Phaeocystis co-occurs with larger amounts of diatoms, the latter seem to be preferred by some copepod species while others do not select against Phaeocystis. At present it is unclear whether this is primarily due to unsuitable size of Phaeocystis or because it is poor quality food. The relative nutritive value of Phaeocystis single cells and colonies should be investigated in more detail. Feeding of protozoa on Phaeocystis has been little studied. Ciliates and the giant dinoflagellate Noctiluca are known to consume Phaeocystis solitary cells. Protozoa might efficiently control Phaeocystis blooms during their initial phases when the share of solitary cells relative to total Phaeocystis biomass is higher than during later stages of the bloom. By switching their food preference towards heterotrophic food, copepods might benefit from enhanced protozoan biomass during Phaeocystis blooms. The potential succession of protozoan and metazoan grazers in the course of a Phaeocystis bloom awaits further research.

  12. Higher-Level Features in Speaker Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Shriberg

    2007-01-01

    Higher-level features based on linguistic or long-range information have attracted significant attention in automatic speaker recognition. This article briefly summarizes approaches to using higher-level features for text-independent speaker verification over the last decade. To clarify how each approach uses higher-level information, features are described in terms of their type, tempo- ral span, and reliance on automatic speech recognition for both

  13. How External Misfortunes Shaped Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkodashvili, Mariam

    2008-01-01

    The essay makes an attempt to trace the influences that external political and socioeconomic factors like World Wars I, II and Great Depression had on higher education in the U.S. Higher education - autonomous and self - contained system - proved to be one of the center points of main societal developments, at the same time being significantly

  14. Theorising Student Engagement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Peter E.

    2014-01-01

    Student engagement has become problematic following the rise of mass and universal forms of higher education. Significant attention has been devoted to identifying factors that are associated with higher levels of engagement, but it remains the case that the underlying reasons for student engagement and, indeed, the notion itself of "student…

  15. Evaluation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bognar, Branko; Bungic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    One of the means of transforming classroom experience is by conducting action research with students. This paper reports about the action research with university students. It has been carried out within a semester of the course "Methods of Upbringing". Its goal has been to improve evaluation of higher education teaching. Different forms…

  16. Entrepreneurship and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Jonathan, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Stimulating innovative and growth-oriented entrepreneurship is a key economic and societal challenge to which universities and colleges have much to contribute. This book examines the role that higher education institutions are currently playing through teaching entrepreneurship and transferring knowledge and innovation to enterprises and…

  17. Higher Education Exchange, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    This annual collection focuses on the obligation of higher education to democracy. Scholars from a variety if disciplines explore this question and related issues, such as the civic mission of the university, what it means to be an "engaged" university, and how a university can itself by a "good citizen." Following a foreword by Deborah Witte, the…

  18. Valuing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Gerald J.

    2009-01-01

    The question of the value of higher education is today set in the context of an unprecedented banking and financial crisis. In this context of fundamental change and financial realignment, it is important that we as members of the university remake our case for why the university deserves to be considered alongside all those other worthy causes…

  19. Free Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Jr., Adolph; Szymanski, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    The crisis of affordability in higher education is intensifying. Illustrations of its resonance abound: from the frequent news articles describing and amplifying the crisis and its sources to legislators' and candidates' proposed responses. Republicans' responses tend to be mainly punitive toward institutions; Democrats' proposals are more…

  20. Benchmarking for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Norman, Ed.; Lund, Helen, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection explore the concept of benchmarking as it is being used and developed in higher education (HE). Case studies and reviews show how universities in the United Kingdom are using benchmarking to aid in self-regulation and self-improvement. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction to Benchmarking" (Norman Jackson and Helen…

  1. Higher Education: Whose Investment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    1996-01-01

    Issues in the financing of higher education are discussed, including concern about rapidly increasing student debt, the decline in state student financial aid, rising student costs, college presidents' assessment of the damage in various areas of college operations caused by these changes, and predicted legislative response. Issues are considered…

  2. Higher education in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Seybolt

    1974-01-01

    This paper discusses the system of higher education in China today. Eight years after the beginning of the upheaval known as the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, educational principles and practice are still considered experimental. New types of schools have been established, and old ones have been reoriented to conform to recent ideological imperatives. The administrative system has gone through a

  3. Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Sheryl, Ed.; Shaver, Barbara, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Articles on women's studies and females in higher education are presented in this publication. A University of North Dakota project that sought to promote the integration of new research and scholarship results into the curriculum is described in "Women's Equity Committee Offers a Model Project," (Leola Furman, Robert Young). Historical…

  4. Higher Education Exchange 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.

    Nine articles discuss the nature and structure of public scholarship. The articles are: (1) "Divided No More" by Parker J. Palmer, who urges academics to act publicly on their convictions; (2) "The Public Intellectual as Transgressor?" by William M. Sullivan, who urges the reinvention of a "public" orientation to intellectual life within higher

  5. Online Higher Education Commodity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chau, Paule

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the current trend towards online education. It examines some of the reasons for the trend and the ramifications it may have on students, faculty and institutions of higher learning. The success and profitability of online programs and institutions such as the University of Phoenix has helped to make the move towards online…

  6. Workstations in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Ronald F. E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Five articles discuss various aspects of workstations and their applications in higher education. Highlights include microcomputers and workstations; UNIX operating system; campus-wide networks; software; Project SOCRATES and the interdisciplinary aspect of engineering; mechanical system design and simulation; and the Creation Station, a…

  7. Barriers to Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY.

    This report includes the papers presented at the Colluquium and the responses to these papers. The papers dealt primarily with the most critical and urgent problems involved in equalizing opportunity for the minority/poverty groups in the United States and include: "Educational Opportunity and the Organization of Higher Education," by Warren W.…

  8. Higher spins and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Per; Ross, Simon F.

    2013-05-01

    The principles of quantum mechanics and relativity impose rigid constraints on theories of massless particles with nonzero spin. Indeed, Yang-Mills theory and General Relativity are the unique solution in the case of spin-1 and spin-2. In asymptotically flat spacetime, there are fundamental obstacles to formulating fully consistent interacting theories of particles of spin greater than 2. However, indications are that such theories are just barely possible in asymptotically anti-de Sitter or de Sitter spacetimes, where the non-existence of an S-matrix provides an escape from the theorems restricting theories in Minkowski spacetime. These higher spin gravity theories are therefore of great intrinsic interest, since they, along with supergravity, provide the only known field theories generalizing the local invariance principles of Yang-Mills theory and General Relativity. While work on higher spin gravity goes back several decades, the subject has gained broader appeal in recent years due to its appearance in the AdS/CFT correspondence. In three and four spacetime dimensions, there exist duality proposals linking higher spin gravity theories to specific conformal field theories living in two and three dimensions respectively. The enlarged symmetry algebra of the conformal field theories renders them exactly soluble, which makes them excellent laboratories for understanding in detail the holographic mechanism behind AdS/CFT duality. Steady progress is also being made on better understanding the space of possible higher spin gravity theories and their physical content. This work includes classifying the possible field multiplets and their interactions, constructing exact solutions of the nonlinear field equations, and relating higher spin theories to string theory. A full understanding of these theories will involve coming to grips with the novel symmetry principles that enlarge those of General Relativity and Yang-Mills theory, and one can hope that this will provide some insight into the unification of gravity with the other forces of nature. Per Kraus and Simon F RossGuest Editors

  9. Prospects for European Integration: Turkish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizikaci, Fatma

    2005-01-01

    The development of higher education and research constitutes a possible pathway to innovation and global competitiveness. Nation states, however, often seek the quickest adaptations, with minimum investment, ignoring essential political and structural changes. Turkey maintains its highly centralized system of higher education observing the…

  10. ChemTeacher: Significant Figures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-19

    ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Significant Figures page includes resources for teaching students about understanding and using significant figures in calculations.

  11. String Cosmologies in Higher Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, S.; Banerjee, N.; Bhui, B.

    We extend to higher dimensions an earlier work of Letelier where a Bianchi type I cosmological model with massive strings as source term is studied. Exact solutions are obtained assuming either an equation of state between the energy density and tension density of the string or an explicit form of one of the metric coefficients. The dynamical behavior of the models is studied and a comparison is made with the analogous four-dimensional case where it is interestingly observed that the string dominated phase lasts a longer period in multidimensional models compared to its four-dimensional analogs. The Kantowski-Sachs type of metric is also briefly discussed.

  12. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

  13. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-02-28

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the l

  14. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

  15. Biological significance of soluble IL-2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Candore, Giuseppina; Cigna, Diego; Colucci, Antonio Tobia; Modica, Maria Assunta

    1993-01-01

    A NUMBER of receptors for growth factors and differentiation antigens have been found to be secreted or released by cells. Following mononuclear cell (MNC) activation and interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) expression, a soluble form of the Alpha;-chain of IL-2R (sIL-2R) is released. The sIL-2R has been shown to be present in the culture supernatants of activated MNCs as well as in normal sera and, in higher amounts, in sera from subjects affected by several diseases including neoplastic, infectious and autoimmune ones, and in sera from transplanted patients suffering allograft rejection. The blood sIL-2R levels depend on the number of producing cells and the number of molecules per cell, so that sIL-2R blood values may represent an index of the number and the functional state of producing cells, both normal and neoplastic. Thus, monitoring of the immune system, mostly T-cells and haematological malignancies might be targets for the measurement of sIL-2R. Since many conditions may influence sIL-2R production, little diagnostic use may result from these measurements. However, since blood sIL-2R levels may correlate with disease progression and/or response to therapy, their measurement may be a useful index of activity and extent of disease. The precise biological role of the soluble form of the IL-2R is still a matter of debate. However, we know that increased sIL-2R levels may be observed in association with several immunological abnormalities and that sIL-2R is able to bind IL-2. It is conceivable then that in these conditions the excess sIL-2R released in vivo by activated lymphoid cells or by neoplastic cells may somehow regulate IL-2-dependent processes. On the other hand, it cannot exclude that sIL-2R is a by-product without biological significance. Finally, it is puzzling that in many conditions in which an increase of blood sIL-2R values has been observed, MNCs display a decreased in vitro capacity to produce sIL-2R. These seemingly contrasting findings are discussed in the light of the data showing that sIL-2R production correlates with IL-2 production. PMID:18475497

  16. PROMOTED ZINC CHROMITE CATALYSTS FOR HIGHER ALCOHOL SYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Ms. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts

    2000-12-20

    During this reporting period, a ''zinc chromite'' catalyst promoted with 6 wt.% cesium (Cs) was evaluated at the following operating conditions: Temperature - 375 C and 400 C; Total Pressure--13.6 MPa (2000 psig); Gas Hourly Space Velocity (GHSV) - 5000 standard liters/kg(cat)-hr; and H{sub 2}/CO feed ratio--0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mole/mole. Decahydronaphthalene (DHN) was used as the slurry liquid. The experiment lasted for twelve days of continuous operation. Unpromoted zinc chromite catalyst then was re-examined under the same operating conditions. Reproducible data was achieved with a continuous liquid make-up. Compared with unpromoted zinc chromite catalyst, 6 wt.% Cs-promoted catalyst shifted the product distribution from methanol to higher alcohols, even though methanol was still the major product. The effect of operating conditions was less important than the addition of promoter. However, it was observed that higher temperature favors higher alcohol synthesis, and that a higher H{sub 2}/CO ratio leads to lower oxygenates selectivity and higher hydrocarbons selectivity. These trends showed clearly with the Cs-promoted catalyst, but were not as prominent with the unpromoted catalyst. The slurry liquid did not decompose or alkylate to a measurable extent during either continuous, 12 - day experiment, even with the higher reactor temperature (400 C). There was a relatively significant loss of catalyst surface area during the experiment with the promoted catalyst, but not with the unpromoted catalyst.

  17. Higher Education Jobs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    For those Scout Report readers who may be looking for a job in the vast world of higher education, the Higher Education Jobs website will be a real find. Online since 1996, the website serves as a clearinghouse of available job opportunities, ranging from such positions as a custodial engineer in a small college in western New York to an assistant professor of Egyptology at a major research university in California. Visitors to the site can begin by searching the new job listings by date, location, institution, or title. Of course, they may also perform more detailed searches as well, courtesy of the nice search engine made available here. Another option is for visitors to post their resume or vita so that employers seeking out new employees will have access to this information.

  18. Generalized structure of higher order nonclassicality

    E-print Network

    Amit Verma; Anirban Pathak

    2009-01-21

    A generalized notion of higher order nonclassicality (in terms of higher order moments) is introduced. Under this generalized framework of higher order nonclassicality, conditions of higher order squeezing and higher order subpoissonian photon statistics are derived. A simpler form of the Hong-Mandel higher order squeezing criterion is derived under this framework by using an operator ordering theorem introduced by us in [J. Phys. A. 33 (2000) 5607]. It is also generalized for multi-photon Bose operators of Brandt and Greenberg. Similarly, condition for higher order subpoissonian photon statistics is derived by normal ordering of higher powers of number operator. Further, with the help of simple density matrices, it is shown that the higher order antibunching (HOA) and higher order subpoissonian photon statistics (HOSPS) are not the manifestation of the same phenomenon and consequently it is incorrect to use the condition of HOA as a test of HOSPS. It is also shown that the HOA and HOSPS may exist even in absence of the corresponding lower order phenomenon. Binomial state, nonlinear first order excited squeezed state (NLESS) and nonlinear vacuum squeezed state (NLVSS) are used as examples of quantum state and it is shown that these states may show higher order nonclssical characteristics. It is observed that the Binomial state which is always antibunched, is not always higher order squeezed and NLVSS which shows higher order squeezing does not show HOSPS and HOA. The opposite is observed in NLESS and consequently it is established that the HOSPS and HOS are two independent signatures of higher order nonclassicality

  19. Polyesters in Higher Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pappachan E. Kolattukudy

    Polyesters occur in higher plants as the structural component of the cuticle that covers the aerial parts of plants. This\\u000a insoluble polymer, called cutin, attached to the epidermal cell walls is composed of interesterified hydroxy and hydroxy epoxy\\u000a fatty acids. The most common chief monomers are 10, 16-dihydroxy C16 acid, 18-hydroxy-9, 10 epoxy C18 acid, and 9, 10, 18-trihydroxy C18

  20. Happiness, health, and religiosity: Significant relations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed M. Abdel-Khalek

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to test for an association between, and gender differences in, happiness, physical health, mental health, and religiosity. Four separate self-rating scales of these variables with good retest reliability were used. The sample comprised 2,210 male (n?=?1,056) and female (n?=?1,154) volunteer Kuwaiti undergraduates. Males had a significantly higher self-rating mean score of happiness and

  1. Over-reporting significant figures—a significant problem?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Hawkins; Tony Badrick; Peter E. Hickman

    2007-01-01

    BackgroundExcessive use of significant figures in numerical data gives a spurious impression of laboratory imprecision to clinicians. We describe reporting practices in 24 Asia-Pacific laboratories, assess whether these reporting formats and those used in the literature can be justified based on actual laboratory performance and outline how to choose the appropriate number of significant places.

  2. On higher spin partition functions

    E-print Network

    Beccaria, M

    2015-01-01

    We observe that the partition function of the set of all free massless higher spins s=0,1,2,3,... in flat space is equal to one: the ghost determinants cancel against the "physical" ones or, equivalently, the (regularized) total number of degrees of freedom vanishes. This reflects large underlying gauge symmetry and suggests analogy with supersymmetric or topological theory. The Z=1 property extends also to the AdS background, i.e. the 1-loop vacuum partition function of Vasiliev theory is equal to 1 (assuming a particular regularization of the sum over spins); this was noticed earlier as a consistency requirement for the vectorial AdS/CFT duality. We find that Z=1 is also true in the conformal higher spin theory (with higher-derivative d^{2s} kinetic terms) expanded near flat or conformally flat S^4 background. We also consider the partition function of free conformal theory of symmetric traceless rank s tensor field which has 2-derivative kinetic term but only scalar gauge invariance in flat space. This non...

  3. Clinical and prognostic significance of hyperfibrinogenemia in cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    D'Erasmo, E; Pisani, D; Romagnoli, S; Ragno, A; Acca, M

    1998-01-01

    In order to evaluate the clinical and prognostic significance of early hyperfibrinogenemia in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) and ischemic cerebral infarction (ICI), we analyzed the relationships between plasma fibrinogen, brain damage severity, clinical status on admission and intra-hospital mortality. Vascular damage severity was estimated by measuring the necrotic area by computed axial tomography (CT) and indirectly by means of changes in some plasma enzymes (CK, LDH, GPT/ALT, and GOT/AST). Plasma fibrinogen levels were statistically higher in ICI than in TIA and control subjects (p < 0.0005; analysis of variance). Moreover, plasma fibrinogen was directly related to the extension of the necrotic area at CT scan (p < 0.05) and in ICI patients was positively correlated with CK (r = 0.50, p < 0.01), LDH (r = 0.41, p < 0.05) and GOT/AST (r = 0.42, p < 0.05) serum levels, but not with GPT/ALT. A higher plasma fibrinogen value was observed in patients with stupor or coma compared with those with alert consciousness (p < 0.05). In patients who died during hospitalization, fibrinogen levels were higher than those of subjects who were discharged (p < 0.005). The results indicate that in the early phase of cerebral ischemia, plasma fibrinogen levels are related to the severity of the clinical status and to the extension of the brain vascular damage, thus representing a negative clinical and prognostic factor of the disease. PMID:9865453

  4. Oral symptoms significantly higher among long-term khat (Catha edulis) users in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Astatkie, Ayalew; Demissie, Meaza; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Associations between khat (Catha edulis) chewing and different adverse oral-dental health conditions have been reported, yet evidence is still lacking. This study was designed to investigate the association between long-term regular khat chewing and self-reported oral symptoms. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 1,255 university students in southern Ethiopia. Data on khat chewing status, a range of oral symptoms and other pertinent variables were collected using self-administered questionnaires. The association between long-term regular khat chewing and oral symptom count was investigated using negative binomial regression. RESULTS: The mean oral symptom count among long-term regular khat chewers was 1.75 (standard deviation [SD], 2.18; standard error [SE], 0.31), whereas that among those who were not long-term regular khat chewers was 1.18 (SD, 1.68; SE, 0.10). After adjustment for other variables, long-term regular khat chewers had approximately 50% more oral symptoms than those who were not long-term chewers did (adjusted count ratio, 1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.12 to 2.10). CONCLUSIONS: Long-term khat chewing negatively affects the oral health of young university students. PMID:25773437

  5. Significance of two distinct types of tryptophan synthase beta chain in Bacteria, Archaea and higher plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Xie; Christian Forst; Carol Bonner; Roy A Jensen

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tryptophan synthase consists of two subunits, ? and ?. Two distinct subgroups of ? chain exist. The major group (TrpEb_1) includes the well-studied ? chain of Salmonella typhimurium. The minor group of ? chain (TrpEb_2) is most frequently found in the Archaea. Most of the amino-acid residues important for catalysis are highly conserved between both TrpE subfamilies. RESULTS: Conserved

  6. Higher order Bezier circles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Jin

    1993-01-01

    Rational Bezier and B-spline representations of circles have been heavily publicized. However, all the literature assumes the rational Bezier segments in the homogeneous space are both planar and (equivalent to) quadratic. This creates the illusion that circles can only be achieved by planar and quadratic curves. Circles that are formed by higher order rational Bezier curves which are nonplanar in the homogeneous space are shown. The problem of whether it is possible to represent a complete circle with one Bezier curve is investigated. In addition, some other interesting properties of cubic Bezier arcs are discussed.

  7. The direct observation of cosmic ray composition in JACEE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, T. H.; Dake, S.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.; Fuki, M.

    1989-01-01

    No significant changes in spectral index for protons up to 500 TeV and higher intensity for helium above 2 TeV were observed. For heavier elements, a general tendency of intensity enhancement of medium heavies in the relative abundance above about 10 TeV/amu was observed.

  8. The direct observation of cosmic ray composition in JACEE

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, T.H.; Iwai, J.; Lord, J.J. (Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105 (USA)); Dake, S.; Oda, H. (Department of Physics, Kobe University, Kobe 657 (Japan)); Derrickson, J.H.; Fountain, W.F. (Space Science Laboratory, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL (USA)); Fuki, M. (Matsusho Gakuen Junior College, Matsumoto 390-12 (Japan)); Gregory, J.C.; Hayashi, T. (College of Science, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (USA)); Holynski, R.; Jurak, A. (Institute of Nuclear Physics, PL-30-055 Krakow (Poland)); Jones, W.V. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge LA 70803 (USA)); Miyamura, O. (Department of Applied Mathematics, Osaka University, Osaka 560 (Japan))

    1989-03-01

    No significant changes in spectral index for protons up to 500 TeV and higher intensity for helium above 2 TeV were observed. For heavier elements, a general tendency of intensity enhancement of medium heavies in the relative abundance above about 10 TeV/amu was observed.

  9. Higher Spin Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Alfredo; Tempo, David; Troncoso, Ricardo

    We review some relevant results in the context of higher spin black holes in three-dimensional spacetimes, focusing on their asymptotic behaviour and thermodynamic properties. For simplicity, we mainly discuss the case of gravity nonminimally coupled to spin-three fields, being nonperturbatively described by a Chern-Simons theory of two independent {sl} (3, {R} ) gauge fields. Since the analysis is particularly transparent in the Hamiltonian formalism, we provide a concise discussion of their basic aspects in this context; and as a warming up exercise, we briefly analyze the asymptotic behaviour of pure gravity, as well as the BTZ black hole and its thermodynamics, exclusively in terms of gauge fields. The discussion is then extended to the case of black holes endowed with higher spin fields, briefly signaling the agreements and discrepancies found through different approaches. We conclude explaining how the puzzles become resolved once the fall off of the fields is precisely specified and extended to include chemical potentials, in a way that it is compatible with the asymptotic symmetries. Hence, the global charges become completely identified in an unambiguous way, so that different sets of asymptotic conditions turn out to contain inequivalent classes of black hole solutions being characterized by a different set of global charges.

  10. P Values and Statistical Significance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hopkins, Will G.

    This resource, created by author Will G. Hopkins, defines what a p-value is, why .05 is significant, and when to use it. It also covers related topics such as one-tailed/two-tailed tests and hypothesis testing. Overall, this is a wonderful resource for students wanting to learn more about statistics, and more specially, significant testing.

  11. Significant Scales in Community Structure

    PubMed Central

    Traag, V. A.; Krings, G.; Van Dooren, P.

    2013-01-01

    Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of “significance” of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine “good” resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationality plays no role. PMID:24121597

  12. Spirituality in Higher Education

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    There has always been a great interest in the spiritual beliefs of young people, and in the past few decades, an increasing interest in the beliefs of those young people in colleges and universities around the United States. One group that is intently interested in this topic is the Higher Education Research Institute (HERI) at the University of California at Los Angeles. The Institute's primary agenda includes generating empirically based insights on "the trends, patterns, and principles of spiritual growth during the college years" and disseminating its research findings to various stakeholders. The pilot survey (which was first administered in 2003) is available for the Web-browsing public's consideration here, along with a newsletter and some preliminary findings based on data from the surveys.

  13. Family background, financial constraints and higher education attendance in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenli Li

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the 2004 China College Student Survey, conducted by the author, this paper finds that long-term factors such as scholastic ability and parental education are significantly correlated with higher education attendance. By contrast, short-term financial constraints are also significantly associated with higher education access, but to a lesser degree. Furthermore, in recent years China's higher education expansion has

  14. SIGNIFICANT NATURAL HERITAGE AREAS (NC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, developed the Significant Natural Heritage Areas digital data to determine the a...

  15. Higher-Order Nonlinearities Revisited and Their Effect on Harmonic Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerawarne, Darshana L.; Gao, Xiaohui; Gaeta, Alexander L.; Shim, Bonggu

    2015-03-01

    We report on harmonic generation experiments and calculations in air to investigate the theoretical prediction of Kolesik et al. [Opt. Lett. 35, 2550 (2010)] for testing the recently proposed higher-order Kerr effect model. Our observations show that although the fifth-order nonlinearity is non-negligible, the overall defocusing effect via the higher-order nonlinearities is sufficiently small that plasma formation should be a main defocusing mechanism in high power filamentation. We also explore cross-phase modulation via the optical Kerr effect, and find that the higher-order nonlinearities can significantly alter the phase matching of harmonic generation.

  16. Korean Higher Education Reforms and Changes since the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Yun Suk

    2011-01-01

    Korean higher education has experienced significant changes since the 1990s. Terms like quality, excellence, competition, efficiency, restructuring, and accountability have become dominant in higher education discourse. These changes are integral parts of higher education reforms implemented by the South Korean government and higher educational…

  17. Access and Equity in Higher Education in Antigua and Barbuda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewlett-Thomas, Elsie

    2009-01-01

    Across the international higher education spectrum access represents a significant issue. The literature is replete with analyses of access in various higher education systems. Low and inequitable patterns of participation in higher education are particularly prominent in developing countries. This dissertation is a case study of the higher

  18. Statistical Significance vs. Practical Significance: An Exploration through Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Brittany L.; DeMaria, Andrea L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between statistical and practical significance, including strengths and criticisms of both methods, as well as provide information surrounding the application of various effect sizes and confidence intervals within health education research. Provided are recommendations, explanations and…

  19. Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Andrew H.; Knoblauch, Nicholas W.; Hefti, Marco M.; Kaplan, Jennifer; Schnitt, Stuart J.; Culhane, Aedin C.; Schroeder, Markus S.; Risch, Thomas; Quackenbush, John; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    A major goal in translational cancer research is to identify biological signatures driving cancer progression and metastasis. A common technique applied in genomics research is to cluster patients using gene expression data from a candidate prognostic gene set, and if the resulting clusters show statistically significant outcome stratification, to associate the gene set with prognosis, suggesting its biological and clinical importance. Recent work has questioned the validity of this approach by showing in several breast cancer data sets that “random” gene sets tend to cluster patients into prognostically variable subgroups. This work suggests that new rigorous statistical methods are needed to identify biologically informative prognostic gene sets. To address this problem, we developed Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures (SAPS) which integrates standard prognostic tests with a new prognostic significance test based on stratifying patients into prognostic subtypes with random gene sets. SAPS ensures that a significant gene set is not only able to stratify patients into prognostically variable groups, but is also enriched for genes showing strong univariate associations with patient prognosis, and performs significantly better than random gene sets. We use SAPS to perform a large meta-analysis (the largest completed to date) of prognostic pathways in breast and ovarian cancer and their molecular subtypes. Our analyses show that only a small subset of the gene sets found statistically significant using standard measures achieve significance by SAPS. We identify new prognostic signatures in breast and ovarian cancer and their corresponding molecular subtypes, and we show that prognostic signatures in ER negative breast cancer are more similar to prognostic signatures in ovarian cancer than to prognostic signatures in ER positive breast cancer. SAPS is a powerful new method for deriving robust prognostic biological signatures from clinically annotated genomic datasets. PMID:23365551

  20. Significance of resistin expression in acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    XUE, LE-NING; WANG, XIAO-YONG; TAN, YONG; LIN, MIN; ZHANG, WEI; XU, KE-QUN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to detect the expression of resistin in rats with acute pancreatitis (AP) and investigate its significance in the pathogenesis of AP. In total, 40 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=10), including the normal control, sham-operated, acute edematous pancreatitis (AEP) and acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) groups. Following the establishment of animal models, the levels of serum resistin, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin (IL)-1? were measured using ELISA. Resistin expression in the pancreatic tissues was detected using an immunohistochemical method. In addition, the mRNA expression of resistin in the pancreatic tissues was analyzed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The levels of serum amylase, serum resistin, TNF-?, IL-1? and CRP were all significantly higher in the AEP and ANP groups when compared with the control and sham-operated groups (P<0.01), as were the pancreas/body weight ratios and pathological scores of the pancreas. These increases were more significant in the ANP group than in the AEP group (P<0.05). The mRNA expression levels of resistin in the pancreatic tissues were markedly higher in the AEP and ANP groups when compared with the control and sham-operated groups (P<0.01), particularly in the pancreatic tissues of the ANP group, which exhibited notably higher levels compared with the AEP group. The serum resistin level was found to positively correlate with the serum levels of CRP, TNF-? and IL-1?, and the pathological scores of the pancreatic tissues. In conclusion, the results indicated that resistin may be associated with the occurrence and development of AP; thus, the protein may be a valuable indicator for assessing the severity of AP. PMID:25780448

  1. Rotating Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    E-print Network

    Burkhard Kleihaus; Jutta Kunz; Francisco Navarro-Lerida

    2007-11-07

    The properties of higher-dimensional black holes can differ significantly from those of black holes in four dimensions, since neither the uniqueness theorem, nor the staticity theorem or the topological censorship theorem generalize to higher dimensions. We first discuss black holes of Einstein-Maxwell theory and Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory with spherical horizon topology. Here new types of stationary black holes are encountered. We then discuss nonuniform black strings and present evidence for a horizon topology changing transition.

  2. Significant Figures in Speed Records

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Dines

    1929-01-01

    I HAD hoped that someone more competent than myself would have replied to Col. O'Gorman's letter, in which, in NATURE of Mar. 30, he offered an apologia for recording Sir Henry Segrave's speed to 8 significant figures, but probably most readers of this journal do not consider that motor speed records form a subject with which they are intimately concerned.

  3. Statistical significance for genomewide studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Storey; Robert Tibshirani

    2003-01-01

    With the increase in genomewide experiments and the sequencing of multiple genomes, the analysis of large data sets has become commonplace in biology. It is often the case that thousands of features in a genomewide data set are tested against some null hypothesis, where a number of features are expected to be significant. Here we propose an approach to measuring

  4. People Who Study Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harland, Tony

    2009-01-01

    The study of higher education can seem extraordinarily complex because what counts as knowledge is contestable and the higher education research community is, like Hemingway's Paris, a moveable feast. A lack of epistemological precision and field uncertainty is partly due to the fact that those who study higher education tend to work in higher

  5. Higher Education in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeao, Jose Raymundo Martins

    2003-01-01

    Presents an analysis of, and proposals for, international cooperation in higher education. Focuses on Latin American higher education, its current situation, and the expected transformation of the goals of higher education in the context of international cooperation. Describes the challenges that globalization poses to Latin American higher

  6. Higher Education and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, John

    2008-01-01

    An agenda for future higher education research is proposed which incorporates four interconnected elements: changing social contexts; their implications for higher education; mechanisms of interaction between higher education and society; higher education's impact on society. The role of comparative research in investigating these topics is…

  7. Lumbosacral Transition Vertebra: Prevalence and Its Significance

    PubMed Central

    Amritanand, Rohit; Krishnan, Venkatesh; David, Kenny Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective analysis of radiological images. Purpose To determine the prevalence of lumbosacral transition vertebra (LSTV) and to study its significance with respect to clinically significant spinal symptoms, disc degeneration and herniation. Overview of Literature LSTV is the most common congenital anomaly of the lumbosacral spine. The prevalence has been debated to vary between 7% and 30%, and its relationship to back pain, disc degeneration and herniation has also not been established. Methods The study involved examining the radiological images of 3 groups of patients. Group A consisted of kidney urinary bladder (KUB) X-rays of patients attending urology outpatient clinic. Group B consisted of X-rays with or without magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of patients at-tending a spine outpatient clinic, and group C consisted of X-rays and MRI of patients who had undergone surgery for lumbar disc herniation. One thousand patients meeting the inclusion criteria were selected to be in each group. LSTV was classified by Castellvi's classification and disc degeneration was assessed by Pfirrmann's grading on MRI scans. Results The prevalence of LSTV among urology outpatients, spine outpatients and discectomy patients was 8.1%, 14%, and 16.9% respectively. LSTV patients showed a higher Pfirrmann's grade of degeneration of the last mobile disc. Results were found to be significant statistically. Conclusions The prevalence of LSTV in spinal outpatients and discectomy patients was significantly higher as compared to those attending the urology outpatient clinic. There was a definite causal relationship between the transitional vertebra and the degeneration of the disc immediately cephalad to it. PMID:24596605

  8. "How to Strike the Right Balance between Quality Assurance and Quality Control in the Perceptions of Individual Lecturers": A Comparison of UK and Dutch Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teelken, Christine; Lomas, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the way lecturers observe, feel restrained by and cope with quality management systems that have been implemented in the higher education systems of the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. As two sides of the same coin, quality enhancement and quality control are of increased significance in European Higher Education…

  9. Karyological observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, A. D.; O'Connor, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Root tips prepared for metaphase chromosome analysis from seedlings germinated under microgravity on the Space Shuttle (oats and mung bean) or which were exposed to space flight as very young seedlings (sunflower) have been examined. Experimental constraints did not permit pre-fixation in space with a cytostatic agent but arrest was achieved in the first division cycle on Earth after recovery. The number of cells in division was significantly depressed in all three species. Several chromosomal abnormalities were encountered in flight material. Bridge formation was seen in sunflower, as was aneuploidy. Breakage and fracture of chromosomes was prevalent in oats. No aberrant features could be detected in the chromosomes of mung bean. These results, although preliminary, should serve to alert investigators of the need to assess carefully as many aspects of cell division in higher plants exposed to space flight conditions as possible.

  10. Higher-order ionosphere modeling for CODE's next reprocessing activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, S.; Schaer, S.; Meindl, M.; Dach, R.; Steigenberger, P.

    2009-12-01

    CODE (the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe) is a joint venture between the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB, Bern, Switzerland), the Federal Office of Topography (swisstopo, Wabern, Switzerland), the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG, Frankfurt am Main, Germany), and the Institut für Astronomische und Phsyikalische Geodäsie of the Technische Universität München (IAPG/TUM, Munich, Germany). It acts as one of the global analysis centers of the International GNSS Service (IGS) and participates in the first IGS reprocessing campaign, a full reanalysis of GPS data collected since 1994. For a future reanalyis of the IGS data it is planned to consider not only first-order but also higher-order ionosphere terms in the space geodetic observations. There are several works (e.g. Fritsche et al. 2005), which showed a significant and systematic influence of these effects on the analysis results. The development version of the Bernese Software used at CODE is expanded by the ability to assign additional (scaling) parameters to each considered higher-order ionosphere term. By this, each correction term can be switched on and off on normal-equation level and, moreover, the significance of each correction term may be verified on observation level for different ionosphere conditions.

  11. Numerical modeling of higher order magnetic moments in UXO discrimination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanchez, V.; Yaoguo, L.; Nabighian, M.N.; Wright, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    The surface magnetic anomaly observed in unexploded ordnance (UXO) clearance is mainly dipolar, and consequently, the dipole is the only magnetic moment regularly recovered in UXO discrimination. The dipole moment contains information about the intensity of magnetization but lacks information about the shape of the target. In contrast, higher order moments, such as quadrupole and octupole, encode asymmetry properties of the magnetization distribution within the buried targets. In order to improve our understanding of magnetization distribution within UXO and non-UXO objects and to show its potential utility in UXO clearance, we present a numerical modeling study of UXO and related metallic objects. The tool for the modeling is a nonlinear integral equation describing magnetization within isolated compact objects of high susceptibility. A solution for magnetization distribution then allows us to compute the magnetic multipole moments of the object, analyze their relationships, and provide a depiction of the anomaly produced by different moments within the object. Our modeling results show the presence of significant higher order moments for more asymmetric objects, and the fields of these higher order moments are well above the noise level of magnetic gradient data. The contribution from higher order moments may provide a practical tool for improved UXO discrimination. ?? 2008 IEEE.

  12. Where boosted significances come from

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plehn, Tilman; Schichtel, Peter; Wiegand, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    In an era of increasingly advanced experimental analysis techniques it is crucial to understand which phase space regions contribute a signal extraction from backgrounds. Based on the Neyman-Pearson lemma we compute the maximum significance for a signal extraction as an integral over phase space regions. We then study to what degree boosted Higgs strategies benefit ZH and ttŻH searches and which transverse momenta of the Higgs are most promising. We find that Higgs and top taggers are the appropriate tools, but would profit from a targeted optimization towards smaller transverse momenta. MadMax is available as an add-on to MadGraph 5.

  13. Higher Education in Turkey. Monographs on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrows, Leland C. Ed.

    This monograph examines the state of higher education in Turkey. Thirteen chapters cover: (1) "General Information on Turkey"; (2) "The Historical Development of Higher Education"; (3) "Administrative Structure"; (4) "The Teaching Staff"; (5) "Access to Higher Education"; (6) "Content and Organization of Course Programmes"; (7) "Diplomas and…

  14. Higher Education and Work. Higher Education Policy Series 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, John, Ed.; And Others

    The relationship between higher education and the world of work is examined in terms of the changing structures of higher education institutions and the effect of the relationship on curricula. An international perspective is provided on the changing nature of employment and the labor market; the increasing diversification of higher education…

  15. Public Health Significance of Neuroticism

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    The personality trait of neuroticism refers to relatively stable tendencies to respond with negative emotions to threat, frustration, or loss. Individuals in the population vary markedly on this trait, ranging from frequent and intense emotional reactions to minor challenges to little emotional reaction even in the face of significant difficulties. Although not widely appreciated, there is growing evidence that neuroticism is a psychological trait of profound public health significance. Neuroticism is a robust correlate and predictor of many different mental and physical disorders, comorbidity among them, and the frequency of mental and general health service use. Indeed, neuroticism apparently is a predictor of the quality and longevity of our lives. Achieving a full understanding of the nature and origins of neuroticism, and the mechanisms through which neuroticism is linked to mental and physical disorders, should be a top priority for research. Knowing why neuroticism predicts such a wide variety of seemingly diverse outcomes should lead to improved understanding of commonalities among those outcomes and improved strategies for preventing them. PMID:19449983

  16. Staff Development Needs in Pakistan Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullah, Muhammad Hameed; Khan, Muhammad Naeem Ullah; Murtaza, Ali; Ud Din, Muhammad Naseer

    2011-01-01

    Staff development is very significant for the achievement of overall goals of higher education in Pakistan. The success of innovations depends largely upon the skills of instructors; but in Pakistan, the people with a simple masters degree (without any pedagogical training) are inducted as teaching staff at the university level, so it is time to…

  17. Higher Education for Sustainable Development in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niu, Dongjie; Jiang, Dahe; Li, Fengting

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the significance of developments across Chinese higher education in the field of education and learning for sustainable development (SD) and to assess the relative impact of these initiatives. Design/methodology/approach: This is a review of policy and practice to examine developments, challenges,…

  18. Higher education for sustainable development in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongjie Niu; Dahe Jiang; Fengting Li

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the significance of developments across Chinese higher education in the field of education and learning for sustainable development (SD) and to assess the relative impact of these initiatives. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This is a review of policy and practice to examine developments, challenges, and prospects for education for sustainable development (ESD)

  19. Financing higher education: lessons from China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Fengliang

    2012-01-01

    In China, debates about higher education finance led to the introduction of a cost-sharing model, whereby students were required to pay tuition fees, over a decade ago. However, there is still significant resistance towards such a system within the broader society. In order to share insights into the development of the cost-sharing policy in China with international readers and scholars,

  20. Financing Higher Education: Lessons from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fengliang, Li

    2012-01-01

    In China, debates about higher education finance led to the introduction of a cost-sharing model, whereby students were required to pay tuition fees, over a decade ago. However, there is still significant resistance towards such a system within the broader society. In order to share insights into the development of the cost-sharing policy in China…

  1. Private initiatives in higher education in Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Owen Eisemon

    1992-01-01

    Africa's higher education crisis has prompted the growth of private institutions. Enrollments are very low and in most African countries do not account for a significant proportion of university enrollments. The largest number of private institutions are in Kenya which is the subject of a case study. Private institutions provide professional training in fields of employment opportunity but also offer

  2. Mark Edwards: Mission Impossible in Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santora, Joseph C.; Sarros, James C.

    2008-01-01

    This case chronicles some of the problems a corporate executive encountered on his transition from the private sector to the deanship of the College of Business in a university of higher education. His deanship, which resulted from the recent reorganization at State University, gave him significant responsibility for undergraduate and graduate…

  3. Possibility of higher dimensional anisotropic compact star

    E-print Network

    Piyali Bhar; Farook Rahaman; Saibal Ray; Vikram Chatterjee

    2014-10-29

    We have provided here a new class of interior solutions for anisotropic stars admitting conformal motion in higher dimensional noncommutative spacetime. The Einstein fields equations are solved by choosing a particular density distribution function of Lorentzian type \\cite{Nozari} under noncommutative geometry. Several cases with dimensions $4D$ and higher, e.g. $5D$, $6D$ and $11D$ have been discussed separately. An overall observation is that the model parameters, such as density, radial pressure, transverse pressure, anisotropy all are well behaved and represent a compact star with radius $4.17$ km. However, emphasis has been given on the acceptability of the model from physical point of view. As a consequence it is observed that higher dimensions, i.e. beyond $4D$ spacetime, exhibit several interesting yet bizarre features which are not at all untenable for a compact stellar model of strange quark type and thus dictates a possibility of its extra dimensional existence.

  4. Exact Gravitational Waves in Higher Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podolský, Ji?í Svarc, Robert

    2015-01-01

    General properties of gravitational waves in Einstein gravity theory extended to any higher number of dimensions D are investigated. Using the equation of geodesic deviation, evaluated with respect to an observer's natural orthonormal frame, exact spacetimes representing gravitational waves can be identified by specific purely transverse effects on free test particles. There are D(D - 3)/2 independent polarization states due to the corresponding transverse components of the gravitational field typical for spacetimes of algebraic type N. As an explicit example, we study a complete family of exact ppwaves and discuss the resulting measurable effects on particles. With higher dimensions there occur some completely new effects. For example, the tidal deformations caused by higher-dimensional gravitational waves need not be tracefree, when they are observed by a detector located in four-dimensional physical subspace.

  5. Higher Education Bibliography Yearbook, 1987. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, Kent, Ed.

    This annotated bibliography covers 34 topics and over 100 subtopics in the field of higher education and emphasizes observations, findings, and recommendations prepared by more than 80 contributers. The majority of the materials are published books and major journal articles. A subject taxonomy and author index are provided. Major categories are…

  6. The Political Dynamics of Higher Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dar, Luciana

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a framework informed by spatial models of politics to explain the dynamics of political competition in higher education policy and, in particular, the observed instability in the relationship between political variables and policy outcomes. To this end, I explore competing hypotheses for the relationship between government…

  7. Yawning and its physiological significance

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sharat; Mittal, Shallu

    2013-01-01

    Although yawning is a commonly witnessed human behavior, yet it has not been taught in much detail in medical schools because, until the date, no particular physiological significance has been associated with it. It is characterized by opening up of mouth which is accompanied by a long inspiration, with a brief interruption of ventilation and followed by a short expiration. Since time immemorial, yawning has been associated with drowsiness and boredom. However, this age old belief is all set to change as the results of some newer studies have pointed out that yawning might be a way by which our body is trying to accomplish some more meaningful goals. In this review, we have tried to put together some of the important functions that have been proposed by a few authors, with the hope that this article will stimulate the interest of newer researchers in this hitherto unexplored field. PMID:23776833

  8. Prognostic Significance of DR-70 Levels in Dysplastic Colorectal Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Yesil, Atakan; Babacan Abanonu, Gul; Colak, Yasar; Paker, Nurcan; Gonen, Can

    2013-01-01

    Background. To investigate the relationship between DR-70 serum levels and dysplastic colon polyps. Materials and Methods. A total of 130 patients with adenomatous polyps detected by colonoscopy and divided into two groups including low versus high grade polyp, along with 50 healthy blood donors were included in the study. Blood samples from each participant were analyzed for serum CEA and DR-70 levels. Results. No statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of age or gender. The median DR-70 level was 0.5??g/mL in the healthy control group and 1.1??g/mL in group 1b (i.e., the high grade polyp) (P < 0.001). DR-70 was higher in group 1b as compared to group 1a (P < 0.001). However, the median DR-70 values for the low grade polyp group (i.e., group 1a) and the control group were similar (P = 0.067). In order to determine independent predictors of high grade dysplasia, CEA, DR-70, polyp size, and age parameters were subjected to multiple logistical regression analyses via the Enter method; the model was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusions. DR-70, a marker used to measure FDP, which is generated by all major cancers, is a potential marker to identify patients with advanced adenomatous polyps, that is, precursors of colorectal cancer. PMID:24348532

  9. Diagnostic significance of indium-111 granulocyte scintigraphy in febrile patients

    SciTech Connect

    Syrjaelae, M.T.Va.; Valtonen, V.; Liewendahl, K.; Myllylae, G.

    1987-02-01

    Sixty-eight patients with fever of unknown origin, 32 patients with postoperative fever, and 26 patients with therapy-resistant fever after bacteremia were investigated with (/sup 111/In) granulocyte scintigraphy for the detection of abscesses. The results showed that the value of (/sup 111/In)granulocyte scintigraphy in the detection of infectious foci vary in these three types of febrile conditions. The overall sensitivity and specificity were 86.5% and 87.8%, respectively. We observed, however, a relatively low predictive value of a positive result in the fever of unknown origin group (73.1%), and also a low predictive value of a negative result in the bacteremia group (66.7%). The C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in patients with a true-positive scintigram were significantly (p less than 0.001) higher than in patients with a true-negative scintigram. There was also a significant positive correlation (p less than 0.01) between the serum CRP concentration and the intensity of the granulocyte accumulations. There was no correlation between the peripheral leukocyte count or the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and the intensity of the granulocyte uptake. Therefore CRP, but not the leukocyte count or ESR, appears useful for selecting the patients who benefit most from granulocyte scintigraphy.

  10. Stenting versus surgery for significant left main disease.

    PubMed

    Harskamp, Ralf E; Park, Duk-Woo

    2015-04-01

    For decades, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been the choice of revascularization strategy for significant left main coronary artery (LMCA) disease. However, with marked technological advances in less invasive percutaneous strategies, such as drug-eluting stents, and potent adjunctive pharmacology, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been increasingly accepted as an alternative to CABG for selected cases with LMCA disease. The available evidence from randomized clinical trials and adequately sized, real-world registries suggest that hard clinical endpoints (death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) were comparable between two treatment strategies at short- and mid-term follow-up, while higher rate of repeat revascularization are observed after PCI. Current guidelines state that PCI for LMCA disease is reasonable in patients with low to intermediate anatomic complexity and those who are at increased surgical risk. Ongoing large-sized clinical trials comparing newer-generation drug-eluting stents and CABG would provide important clinical insights to guide optimal strategy for patients with significant LMCA disease in the (near) future. PMID:25702314

  11. Adaptive significance of root grafting in trees

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.; Jones, R.

    1988-12-31

    Root grafting has long been observed in forest trees but the adaptive significance of this trait has not been fully explained. Various authors have proposed that root grafting between trees contributes to mechanical support by linking adjacent root systems. Keeley proposes that this trait would be of greatest advantage in swamps where soils provide poor mechanical support. He provides as evidence a greenhouse study of Nyssa sylvatica Marsh in which seedlings of swamp provenance formed between-individual root grafts more frequently than upland provenance seedlings. In agreement with this within-species study, Keeley observed that arid zone species rarely exhibit grafts. Keeley also demonstrated that vines graft less commonly than trees, and herbs never do. Since the need for mechanical support coincides with this trend, these data seem to support his model. In this paper, the authors explore the mechanisms and ecological significance of root grafting, leading to predictions of root grafting incidence. Some observations support and some contradict the mechanical support hypothesis.

  12. Higher Education Tuition Assistance And

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Higher Education Tuition Assistance And Work In West Virginia 2008 Results For PROMISE Scholarship and West Virginia Higher Education Grant Recipients October 2009 Revised: November 2009 Prepared for the West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission By George W. Hammond, Associate Director Adam Hoffer

  13. Higher Education Learning Agreement form

    E-print Network

    Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

    6 Higher Education Learning Agreement form Annex 1: Guidelines The purpose of the Learning. It is recommended to use this template. However, if the higher education institution already has an IT system hours and whether a third party is also involved, such as a higher education institution

  14. Higher Education Studies in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Motohisa

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of higher education in the postwar period has given rise to various problems, and higher education studies in Japan have developed in response to them. What have been the major issues, and how did academic research respond to them, in postwar Japan? This article delineates an outline of higher education studies in general,…

  15. Higher Education and Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Policy debate about whether to maintain public subsidies for higher education has stimulated reconsideration of the public mission of higher education institutions, especially those that provide student places conferring private benefits. If the work of higher education institutions is defined simply as the aggregation of private interests, this…

  16. Economic Trends and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottinger, Cecilia A.

    1992-01-01

    This research brief highlights current and projected economic trends that affect higher education and discusses some of their implications. The brief is organized into three sections: (1) national economic conditions affecting higher education, which presents data on gross national product, inflation, the Higher Education Price Index, the federal…

  17. A Tax for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Higher education pays off handsomely for society. Yet on a nationwide basis, states' support for higher education per full-time-equivalent student has fallen to just $6,290, the lowest in 15 years. A dedicated source of funds for higher education is problematic. But what if state and federal lawmakers applied the impeccable logic of the gas tax to…

  18. Contacts in Higher Education. Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This guide lists the names and addresses of the 132 universities and colleges funded by the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE). The guide is divided into these sections: (1) universities; (2) higher education colleges; (3) universities and higher education colleges by region; (4) further education college funded by the HEFCE; and…

  19. Contacts in Higher Education. Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This guide lists the names and addresses of the 132 universities and colleges funded the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE). The guide is divided into these sections: (1) universities; (2) higher education colleges; (3) universities and higher education colleges by region; (4) further education colleges funded by the HEFCE; and…

  20. The Impact of Significant Other Expressed Emotion on Patient Outcomes in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Previous literature has identified the importance of interpersonal processes for patient outcomes in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME), particularly in the context of significant other relationships. The current study investigated expressed emotion (EE), examining the independent effects of critical comments and emotional overinvolvement (EOI) in association with patient outcomes. Method: Fifty-five patients with CFS/ME and their significant others were recruited from specialist CFS/ME services. Significant other EE status was coded from a modified Camberwell Family Interview. Patient outcomes (fatigue severity, disability, and depression) were derived from questionnaire measures. Forty-four patients (80%) completed follow-up questionnaires 6-months after recruitment. Results: Significant other high-EE categorized by both high levels of critical comments and high EOI was predictive of worse fatigue severity at follow-up. High-critical EE was associated with higher levels of patient depressive symptoms longitudinally; depressive symptoms were observed to mediate the relationship between high critical comments and fatigue severity reported at follow-up. There were higher rates of high-EE in parents than in partners, and this was because of higher rates of EOI in parents. Conclusions: Patients with high-EE significant others demonstrated poorer outcomes at follow-up compared with patients in low-EE dyads. One mechanism for this appears to be as a result of increased patient depression. Future research should seek to further clarify whether the role of interpersonal processes in CFS/ME differs across different patient-significant other relationships. The development of significant other-focused treatment interventions may be particularly beneficial for both patients and significant others. PMID:25180548

  1. The significance of methane ebullition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, K.; Draluk, D. A.; Zimov, S. A.; Chapin, T.

    2003-12-01

    Ebullition is often the dominant pathway of methane release from aquatic ecosystems, yet it has seldom been carefully measured, due to heterogeneity in the spatial distribution and episodic release of gas bubbles. This likely results in an underestimation of total methane emission. We took advantage of ice formation over lake surfaces in NE Siberia to map patterns of ebullition. As ice forms in autumn, bubbles released from lake sediments are continually trapped under the ice at the water surface resulting in stacks of bubbles separated by thin films of ice called `koshkas'. Mapping the distribution of koshkas enabled us to identify `background' patterns of ebullition. In addition, we located `hot-spot' ebullition sites that remain permanently open throughout winter due to exceptionally high rates of methane bubbling. We used random and selective placement of underwater/ under-ice chambers to measure `background' and `hot-spot' fluxes annually. The combination of mapping and chamber measurements among different types of lakes and along lake margins varying in intensity of thermokarst erosion or aquatic plant growth enabled us to 1) improve estimates of total methane emissions from NE Siberian lakes, and to 2) identify landscape processes (thermokarst erosion vs. wetland mat formation) that enhance methane production and emission. Ignoring the contribution from hotspots, background ebullition comprised more than 75% of total methane emissions from lakes. From hotspot sites we measured up to 10-L m-2 of methane per day in early summer. Although hotspots comprised roughly 0.05% of the area along thermokarst margins, where they were most common, ebullition from hotspots contributed approximately 69% of the total ebullition flux. Including the flux from hotspots could increase estimates of CH4 ebullition from thermokarst margins 300%! Thermokarst lakes in Russia comprise a large proportion of the world's high latitude lakes; yet they are understudied. North Siberian lakes differ from most lakes in Alaska and Canada because they are surrounded by ice-rich (50-90% ice) permafrost that facilitates intense thermokarst erosion along lake margins. In turn, organic-rich (~2%) mineral soil subsides into anaerobic lake bottoms, providing a fresh, labile substrate for methanogenesis. Increased thermokarst erosion with climate warming would provide a positive feedback to methane production and emission from lakes. Although thermokarst activity likely results in higher emissions of methane via ebullition from North Siberian lakes than from other northern lakes, results from this study suggest ebullition may be a more important pathway of methane emission than what has been reported to date.

  2. Astrobiological significance of chemolithoautotrophic acidophiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-02-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithautotrophic bacteria) there has been a dilemma in microbiology about life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modern biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithoheterotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant roel on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  3. Significance levels in genome scans.

    PubMed

    Thomson, G

    2001-01-01

    Genome-wide linkage scans using affected sibpair families are being conducted on many complex diseases, such as type 1 and type 2 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, schizophrenia, asthma, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and alcoholism. Despite extensive efforts by many groups, progress has been exceedingly slow, and only a few genes and some genomic regions involved in complex diseases have been identified. The general picture is one of difficulty in locating disease genes and replication of reported linkages. This results from the fact that complex diseases and traits may result principally from genetic variation that is relatively common in the general population involving a large number of genes, environmental factors, and their interactions. Genome-wide association studies are now feasible through the use of PCR methodologies with pooled DNA samples and microsatellite variation, and more recently single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variation. Issues relating to significance levels in genome-wide linkage and association scans are discussed, and suggestions for dealing with false positive (type I) errors proposed. PMID:11037336

  4. Astrobiological Significance of Chemolithoautotrophic Acidophiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2003-01-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithoautotrophic bacteria) a dilemma in microbiology has concerned life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modem biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithohetherotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organoautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant role on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur- oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  5. Functional Significance of Serotonin Receptor Dimerization

    PubMed Central

    Herrick-Davis, Katharine

    2013-01-01

    The original model of G protein activation by a single G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) is giving way to a new model wherein two protomers of a GPCR dimer interact with a single G protein. This article will review the evidence suggesting that 5-HT receptors form dimers/oligomers and will compare the findings with results obtained from studies with other biogenic amine receptors. Topics to be covered include the origin or biogenesis of dimer formation, potential dimer interface(s), and oligomer size (dimer versus tetramer or higher order). The functional significance will be discussed in terms of G-protein activation following ligand binding to one or two protomers in a dimeric structure, the formation of heterodimers and the development of bivalent ligands. PMID:23811735

  6. Costs and Difficulties on the Way to a Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogil'chak, E. L.

    2012-01-01

    A higher education continues to be a significant value to young people; this is manifested clearly in the growth of the numbers enrolled in higher educational institutions of Russia. This article examines "the process by which young people achieve their goal"--obtaining a higher education--as a set of stages linked to specific kinds of costs. The…

  7. Higher Education No Panacea for Weak Rural Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killian, Molly S.; Parker, Timothy S.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of effects of local educational levels on employment growth found that growth benefits of higher schooling levels during the 1970s were 14 times greater for metro than nonmetro commuting zones. During the 1980s, higher education levels did not significantly affect employment growth in metro or nonmetro zones; higher dropout rates were…

  8. Access to Higher Education in China: Differences in Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Houxiong

    2011-01-01

    Access to higher education in China has opened up significantly in the move towards a mass higher education system. However, aggregate growth does not necessarily imply fair or reasonable distribution of opportunity. In fact, the expansion of higher education has a rather more complex influence on opportunity when admissions statistics are viewed…

  9. Inclusion in Higher Education: Issues in University-School Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, D.; Cairnduff, A.

    2012-01-01

    The significant under-representation of people from low socio-economic backgrounds in higher education in Australia has been placed squarely at the front of the Australian Federal Government's higher education agenda. The barriers for students from low socio-economic backgrounds to access higher education are broad and multi-causal. The…

  10. The Conditioning Role of State Higher Education Governance Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandberg, David A.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a study that examined whether the presence of a consolidated governing board for higher education conditions the impact various political factors have on state support for higher education. The existence of a consolidated governing board is shown to significantly alter the politics of the state higher education…

  11. Significant Results from SUMER/SOHO

    E-print Network

    B. N. Dwivedi

    2006-11-08

    We briefly outline recent observations by solar spacecraft such as Yohkoh, SOHO, TRACE, and RHESSI, which have revolutionized what we know and don't know about the Sun. We then present some significant results, mainly from SUMER/SOHO but also complimentary from the other SOHO's experiments, such as CDS, EIT, UVCS, and LASCO. In particular, we present density-temperature structures, explosive events, velocity anisotropy, wave activity, coronal holes and the solar wind etc. These results have provided valuable clues to a better understanding of the two of the SOHO's principal scientific objectives namely, how the Sun's magnetic energy heats its million-degree corona, and feeds the solar wind.

  12. Glacial marine sedimentation: Paleoclimatic significance

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.B.; Ashley, G.M. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    This publication resulted from a symposium held during the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America. Many, but not all, contributors to the symposium have papers in this volume. This Special Paper consists of 14 chapters and a Subject/Geographic index. Each chapter has is own list of references. The papers cover a wide range of modem climate/ ocean environments, including papers on glacial marine sediments from Antarctica, the fiords of Alaska, and sediments from the Canadian High Arctic. In addition, three papers discuss [open quote]old[close quotes] glacial marine records (i.e., pre-Tertiary), and one paper discusses the Yakataga Formation of the Gulf of Alaska which is a Miocene-to-late-Pleistocene sequence. The last chapter in the book includes a survey and summary of the evidence for the paleoclimatic significance of glacial marine sediments by the two editors, John Anderson and Gail Ashley. It is worth noting that Anderson and Domack state in the Foreword that there is a considerable variation in terminology; hence they employ a series of definitions which they urge the other authors to employ. They define and explain what they mean by [open quotes]polar ice cap,[close quotes] [open quote]polar tundra (subpolar),[close quotes] and [open quotes]temperate oceanic and boreal[close quotes] in terms of the dominant glacial and glacial marine processes. Although one might quarrel with the terminology, the broad differences between these three glaciological regimes are indeed fundamental and need to be sought in the geological record. The flavor of the volume can be judged by some of the chapter titles. Contributions on Antarctica include a paper by Anderson and other entitled [open quote]Sedimentary facies associated with Antarctica's floating ice masses[close quotes] and a companion paper by Anderson and Domack which deals with the extremely complex glacial marine facies (13 facies are delimited) in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica.

  13. The Nature of Work and the Stress of Higher Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieman, Scott; Whitestone, Yuko Kurashina; Van Gundy, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Are occupational and work conditions associated with work-to-home conflict? If so, do those associations vary by gender? Among a sample of adults in Toronto, Canada, we found that men and women in higher-status occupations reported higher levels of work-to-home conflict than workers in lower-status jobs. In addition, we observed higher levels of…

  14. Internationalization in Higher Education in China: A Practitioner's Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yibing

    2008-01-01

    Since higher education reforms were started in the mid-1980s, higher education in China has experienced significant transformations. Changes have not only been revealed by the increase in numbers of undergraduates, but also by a significant expansion in postgraduate education in mainland China. In order to enhance its global competitiveness, the…

  15. Family Background, Financial Constraints and Higher Education Attendance in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wenli

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the 2004 China College Student Survey, conducted by the author, this paper finds that long-term factors such as scholastic ability and parental education are significantly correlated with higher education attendance. By contrast, short-term financial constraints are also significantly associated with higher education access, but to…

  16. The Demand for Higher Education in Turkey and Open Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cekerol, Kamil

    2012-01-01

    Failure to meet considerably high demand for higher education in Turkey has always been one of the most significant concerns of Turkish Higher Education System for many years. In this respect, Anadolu University Open Education Faculty has played a significant role in the attempts to overcome this problem in Turkey for the last three decades. In…

  17. Change of Higher Education in Response to European Pressures: Conceptualization and Operationalization of Europeanization of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukasovic, Martina

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on change in higher education in response to environmental pressures, more specifically pressures coming from European integration initiatives with respect to higher education, e.g. the Bologna Process. Significant research attention has so far been focused on the supposed impact of European initiatives on higher education…

  18. Astrobiological Significance of Microbial Extremophiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    The microflora of the cryosphere of planet Earth provides the best analogs for life forms that might be found in the permafrost or polar ice caps of Mars, near the surface of the cometary nuclei, or in the liquid water beneath and the ice crusts of icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The importance of study alkaliphilic microorganisms for astrobiology was enhanced by the findings of abundant carbonates and carbonate globules rimmed with possibly biogenic magnetites in association with the putative microfossils in the ALH84001 meteorite. Although the ALH84001 "nanofossils" were to small and simple to be unambiguously recognized as biogenic, they stimulated Astrobiology research and studies of microbial extremophiles and biomarkers in ancient rocks and meteorites. Recent studies of CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites have resulted in the detection of the well-preserved mineralized remains of coccoidal and filamentous microorganisms in cyanobacterial mats. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis has shown anomalous biogenic element ratios clearly indicating they are not recent biological contaminants. This paper reviews microbial extremophiles in context of their significance to Astrobiology. The study of halophilic microorganisms was started from work with saline soils and lakes, and one of the record of good growth for Haloferax mediterranei was shown at 30 percent NaC1. Although alkali-tolerant nitrifying bacteria had previously been reported, the first described alkaliphilic microorganism was the bacterium Streptococcus faecalis. Halophilic and alkaliphilic forms are relevant to conditions that might be found in closed impact basins and craters on Mars filled with evaporite deposits. The first obligately acidophilic bacterium described was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxydans (formally Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Later thermophilic lithotrophic acidophiles were found, and the hyperacidophilic moderately thermophilic species of the genus Picrophilus were found to grow at negative pH. The epoch of study of thermophilic microorganisms starts with the discovery of Thermus aquaticus, and presently the maximum temperature for growth at 113 C was found for Pyrolobus fumarii. The microorganisms capable of growth at high temperatures and in hyperacidic environments on Earth are good analogs for life that might be able to survive in hot acidic droplets in the upper regimes of the atmosphere of Venus. The study of barophiles was made possible by engineering achievements leading to the development of the submersible crafts used to study the Black Smokers of the Deep-sea Hydrothermal vents. The first described radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans can survive ionizing irradiation and other DNA-damaging assaults at doses that are lethal to all other organisms. These microbes are models for life that might endure high radiation environments in the ice near the surface of comets or on the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn and in the seafloor deep beneath icy crusts Europa and Enceladus. This paper presents ESEM and FESEM images showing intact microbes preserved in the deep ice cores extracted from just above Lake Vostok, Antarctica that are considered analogs for life forms that might survive on comets and icy moons.

  19. Higher order antibunching in intermediate states

    E-print Network

    A Verma; N K Sharma; A Pathak

    2007-06-05

    Since the introduction of binomial state as an intermediate state, different intermediate states have been proposed. Different nonclassical effects have also been reported in these intermediate states. But till now higher order antibunching or higher order subpoissonian photon statistics is predicted only in one type of intermediate state, namely shadowed negative binomial state. Recently we have shown the existence of higher order antibunching in some simple nonlinear optical processes to establish that higher order antibunching is not a rare phenomenon (J. Phys. B 39 (2006) 1137). To establish our earlier claim further, here we have shown that the higher order antibunching can be seen in different intermediate states, such as binomial state, reciprocal binomial state, hypergeometric state, generalized binomial state, negative binomial state and photon added coherent state. We have studied the possibility of observing the higher order subpoissonian photon statistics in different limits of intermediate states. The effect of different control parameters have also been studied in this connection and it has been shown that the depth of nonclassicality can be tuned by controlling various physical parameters.

  20. Observation of dispersive wave emission by temporal cavity solitons.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jae K; Erkintalo, Miro; Murdoch, Stuart G; Coen, Stéphane

    2014-10-01

    We examine a coherently-driven, dispersion-managed, passive Kerr fiber ring resonator and report, to the best of our knowledge, the first direct experimental observation of dispersive wave emission by temporal cavity solitons (CSs). Our observations are in excellent agreement with analytical predictions and they are fully corroborated by numerical simulations. These results lead to a better understanding of the behavior of temporal CSs under conditions where higher-order dispersion plays a significant role. Significantly, since temporal CSs manifest themselves in monolithic microresonators, our results are likely to explain the origins of spectral features observed in broadband Kerr frequency combs. PMID:25360913

  1. History of American Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Margaret Cain

    2011-01-01

    "History of American Higher Education" documents the fascinating evolution of American colleges and universities, touching on the historical events that shaped them, from the colonial era through the early twenty-first century. Throughout history, higher education has played an important role in the transmission of cultural identity from one…

  2. Effective Communication in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    The intent for this paper is to show that communication within the higher education field is a current problem. By looking first at the different styles, forms, and audiences for communication, the reader will hopefully gain perspective as to why this is such a problem in higher education today. Since the Millennial generation is the newest set of…

  3. Minority Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Asian Americans are entitled to equal access to all institutions of higher education. Ensuring greater access and participation by minorities in higher education is one of the most practical ways of moving America closer to the ideal of equal opportunity, which is the actualization of the American dream.…

  4. Higher Education Learning Agreement form

    E-print Network

    Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

    6 Higher Education Learning Agreement form Annex 1: Guidelines The purpose of the Learning that the student will receive recognition in his/her degree for the educational components successfully completed abroad. It is recommended to use this template. However, if higher education institutions already have

  5. Higher Education Doctor of Philosophy

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    Higher Education Doctor of Philosophy Program Handbook College of Education Graduate Education and Research Texas Tech University Box 1071 Lubbock, TX 79409-1071 (806) 742-1997 Fax (806) 742-2197 www.educ.ttu.edu Effective Fall 2012-2013 #12;2 Doctor of Philosophy Program Overview The Higher Education program

  6. Higher Education Doctor of Philosophy

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    Higher Education Doctor of Philosophy Program Handbook College of Education Graduate Education and Research Texas Tech University Box 1071 Lubbock, TX 79409-1071 (806) 742-1997 Fax (806) 742-2197 www.educ.ttu.edu Effective Fall 2013-2014 #12;2 Doctor of Philosophy Program Overview The Higher Education program

  7. Higher Education Learning Agreement form

    E-print Network

    Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

    Higher Education Learning Agreement form Student's name LEARNING AGREEMENT FOR STUDIES The Student look at Annex 1, for end notes please look at Annex 2. 1 #12;Higher Education Learning Agreement form of educational components in the student's degree that would normally be completed at the sending institution

  8. Tax Benefits and Higher Education

    E-print Network

    Gelfond, Michael

    Tax Benefits and Higher Education #12;Making Tax Benefits Work for You While"tax"and"benefit"seem like contradictory terms,the fact is that there are a number of tax incentives to help taxpayers offset the cost of higher education. You may be eligible for certain tax benefits if you,your spouse or your

  9. Philanthropic Support for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Nancy I.

    1995-01-01

    This report examines trends in voluntary support for higher education between 1980 and 1994 based on analysis of the Council for Aid to Education's annual survey on voluntary support of education. It reviews how philanthropic support for higher education compared with support for other charities and how this level of support changed over time. It…

  10. Theorising Quality in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise

    2004-01-01

    Britain now has the most heavily regulated higher education system in the world and institutions must deliver best educational value. This book explores the political and psychic economy of quality assurance in higher education and interrogates the discourse and practices associated with the audit culture in Britain. Following Acknowledgements and…

  11. Higher Education and Social Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasution, S.; Virasai, Banphot, Eds.

    The proceedings of the Regional Institute of Higher Education and Development's seminar and the meaning and implications of social commitment in higher education are reported. The welcoming address (S. Nasution) and the opening address (Y. B. Dato' Murad bin Mohd. Noor) welcome the participants and set the tone for the discussions to follow. The…

  12. Feminist Research in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ropers-Huilman, Rebecca; Winters, Kelly T.

    2011-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of feminist methodology and its potential to enhance the study of higher education. Foregrounding the multiple purposes and research relationships developed through feminist research, the essay urges higher education scholars to engage feminist theories, epistemologies, and methods to inform policy, research, and…

  13. The Outputs of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breneman, David W.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a review of efforts over the last several decades to assess the outputs of higher education, including economic and noneconomic, and public and private benefits. Recommends resisting the viewing of higher education merely in terms of its quantifiable economic returns because that line of reasoning diminishes its substantial intangible…

  14. Higher Education Trends and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    Most people in higher education believe in continuity, in respecting traditions. That makes it easy to miss the startling changes and compelling opportunities that confront the academic enterprise. In this article, the author presents a few trends that are dramatically altering higher education in New England: (1) more women than men are attending…

  15. Innovation processes in higher education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbro Berg; Bertil Östergren

    1979-01-01

    The paper contains a brief description of the research we have undertaken on innovations and innovation processes in higher education [1]. Within the framework of a larger project (a study of educational planning for Swedish Higher Education [2]), we have made seven case studies of innovation processes and tried to relate them to an attempt towards a general theory of

  16. Higher Education: A Closer Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gwen

    2009-01-01

    As the United States moves toward expanding programs for pre-kindergarten children, leaders in higher education are asking themselves some how-to questions about implementation. This article summarizes nine facts about higher education. One of these facts is the growing demand for teachers qualified with a bachelor's degree in Early Care and…

  17. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

  18. The Marketing of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooker, George; Noble, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Formal college and university marketing programs are challenging to develop and implement because of the complexity of the marketing mix, the perceived inappropriateness of a traditional marketing officer, the number of diverse groups with input, the uniqueness of higher education institutions, and the difficulty in identifying higher education…

  19. Econometric Studies of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    The econometrics of higher education emerged from the development of human capital theory and efforts to estimate rates of return to education in the 1960s and 1970s. This paper surveys the various strands of the literature on the econometrics of higher education that have developed during the last 40 years and indicates how a collection of papers…

  20. Directory of Higher Education, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

    This directory lists the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of members of higher education organizations in the state of Illinois. Included for the Illinois Board of Higher Education is an organization chart, list of board and staff members, and a list of members of the Illinois Century Network. Board members and administrative officers are…

  1. Tourism Higher Education in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen Zhang; Xixia Fan

    2006-01-01

    This paper first reviews the origins and development of tourism higher education in China, then elaborates on its present hierarchy of programs, regional distribution and mechanisms for operating schools. Based on an investigation, the paper also discusses the educational objectives, program setup, curriculum design, textbooks and reference materials. It summarizes the problems and challenges China's higher education studies in tourism

  2. Higher Education: Open for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilde, Christian, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses a problem in higher learning, which is newly recognized in the academic spotlight: the overcommercialization of higher education. The book asks that you, the reader, think about the following: Did you go to a Coke or Pepsi school? Do your children attend a Nike or Adidas school? Is the college in your town a Dell or Gateway…

  3. Innovations in Higher Education? Hah!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, Ann

    2012-01-01

    One can hardly mention higher education today without hearing the word "innovation," or its understudies "change," "reinvention," "transformation." Last summer the National Governors Association opened its meeting with a plenary session on higher education, innovation, and economic growth. But there is nothing funny about the need for innovation…

  4. Strategic Planning for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotler, Philip; Murphy, Patrick E.

    1981-01-01

    The framework necessary for achieving a strategic planning posture in higher education is outlined. The most important benefit of strategic planning for higher education decision makers is that it forces them to undertake a more market-oriented and systematic approach to long- range planning. (Author/MLW)

  5. Queering Transformation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Msibi, Thabo

    2013-01-01

    Transformation in higher education has tended to focus on race and sex, at the expense of other forms of discrimination. This article addresses the silencing of "queer" issues in higher education. Using queer theory as a framework, and drawing on current literature, popular media reports, two personal critical incidents and a project…

  6. The Higher Education Research Archipelago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macfarlane, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Ever since he stumbled into doing higher education research as a young academic in the 1980s, the author has been trying to understand it as a "field" of study. His career, as a former business lecturer, then an academic developer and now an associate professor for higher education working in an Education Faculty has given him opportunities to see…

  7. Duality completion of higher derivative corrections

    E-print Network

    Hadi Godazgar; Mahdi Godazgar

    2013-07-22

    We present a new method for completing higher derivative corrections for theories that exhibit duality symmetries under reduction. This proposal is based on the observation that duality symmetry in the reduced theory highly constrains the form of the unreduced theory. We apply this idea to closed bosonic string theory and complete the Riemann squared term to simply derive the known full tree-level effective action to order alpha'.

  8. OBSERVATIONAL OUTCOMES

    E-print Network

    OBSERVATIONAL MEDICAL OUTCOMES PARTNERSHIP 1 OBSERVATIONAL MEDICAL of the OMOP research team "The sole cause and root of almost every defect in the sciences is this." -- Novum Organum: Aphorisms [Book One], 1620, Sir Francis Bacon #12;OBSERVATIONAL MEDICAL OUTCOMES

  9. Standardized Observational Assessment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Combined and Predominantly Inattentive Subtypes. II. Classroom Observations

    PubMed Central

    McConaughy, Stephanie H.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Antshel, Kevin; Eiraldi, Ricardo B.; Dumenci, Levent

    2010-01-01

    Trained classroom observers used the Direct Observation Form (DOF; McConaughy & Achenbach, 2009) to rate observations of 163 6- to 11-year-old children in their school classrooms. Participants were assigned to four groups based on a parent diagnostic interview and parent and teacher rating scales: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)—Combined type (n = 64); ADHD—Inattentive type (n = 22); clinically referred without ADHD (n = 51); and nonreferred control children (n = 26). The ADHD—Combined group scored significantly higher than the referred without ADHD group and controls on the DOF Intrusive and Oppositional syndromes, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Problems scale, Hyperactivity-Impulsivity subscale, and Total Problems; and significantly lower on the DOF On-Task score. The ADHD—Inattentive group scored significantly higher than controls on the DOF Sluggish Cognitive Tempo and Attention Problems syndromes, Inattention subscale, and Total Problems; and significantly lower on the DOF On-Task score. Implications are discussed regarding the discriminative validity of standardized classroom observations for identifying children with ADHD and differentiating between the two ADHD subtypes. PMID:20802813

  10. Current Opinion in Genetics and Development Volume 11, Issue 2, 1 April 2001, Pages 162-166 Functional significance of histone deacetylase diversity

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    of HDACs in higher eukaryotes. The diversity of histone deacetylases has also been observed in plants is to evaluate how the diversity of HDACs could be linked to distinct functions in the animal kingdom. Functional-166 Functional significance of histone deacetylase diversity Saadi Khochbin* , André Verdel, Claudie Lemercier

  11. Higher-Dimensional Communication and S.E.T.I

    E-print Network

    Paul S. Wesson

    2014-06-07

    In cosmologies with more than four dimensions, of the type required for unification, it is possible for signals to have velocities in excess of that of light. Using a five-dimensional model which otherwise agrees with observations, two subjects are reviewed: (a) An exact solution of the field equations which describes a 4D spacetime with a large cosmological constant and waves travelling in ordinary 3D space with velocities exceeding lightspeed. (b) An example where the 4D interval or proper time is modulated by the systematic variation of the scalar field associated with the fifth dimension, providing a simple signalling method. These and related consequences of higher-dimensional cosmology have significant implications for astrophysics, and especially the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence.

  12. ‘But is the difference clinically significant?’

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derick Wade

    2005-01-01

    The statement that a difference or change found in a research study is statistically significant is frequently met with the response, ‘but is it clinically significant?’. This question seems entirely reasonable and uncontentious until one asks how to determine or define clinical significance. Significance must always have an object; significant to whom? Furthermore it needs elaboration; significant in what way?

  13. Are Carotid Stent Fractures Clinically Significant?

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Toca, Manuel; Rodriguez, Heron E.; Naughton, Peter A. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Division of Vascular Surgery (United States); Keeling, Aiofee [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States); Phade, Sachin V.; Morasch, Mark D.; Kibbe, Melina R.; Eskandari, Mark K., E-mail: meskanda@nmh.org [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Division of Vascular Surgery (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: Late stent fatigue is a known complication after carotid artery stenting (CAS) for cervical carotid occlusive disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical significance of carotid stent fractures. Materials and Methods: A single-center retrospective review of 253 carotid bifurcation lesions treated with CAS and mechanical embolic protection from April 2001 to December 2009 was performed. Stent integrity was analyzed by two independent observers using multiplanar cervical plain radiographs with fractures classified into the following types: type I = single strut fracture; type II = multiple strut fractures; type III = transverse fracture; and type IV = transverse fracture with dislocation. Mean follow-up was 32 months. Results: Follow-up imaging was completed on 106 self-expanding nitinol stents (26 closed-cell and 80 open-cell stents). Eight fractures (7.5%) were detected (type I n = 1, type II n = 6, and type III n = 1). Seven fractures were found in open-cell stents (Precise n = 3, ViVEXX n = 2, and Acculink n = 2), and 1 fracture was found in a closed-cell stent (Xact n = 1) (p = 0.67). Only a previous history of external beam neck irradiation was associated with fractures (p = 0.048). No associated clinical sequelae were observed among the patients with fractures, and only 1 patient had an associated significant restenosis ({>=}80%) requiring reintervention. Conclusions: Late stent fatigue after CAS is an uncommon event and rarely clinically relevant. Although cell design does not appear to influence the occurrence of fractures, lesion characteristics may be associated risk factors.

  14. Reliability of Bridges: Significant Addition to Civil Engineering Curriculum

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pablo, Reynaldo

    Rapid highway system development in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s has resulted in a large number of bridges reaching a stage in need of repair, rehabilitation, or replacement. Truck loads have also been steadily increasing since then. This has made the situation even worse. Many developed countries are currently experiencing a problem of aging and deteriorated bridge networks as well as observed growth of load in both magnitude and volume. These structures safety has been of concern. The bridges experiencing vehicular overloads are subjected to a higher risk of distress, damage, and even catastrophic failure that will jeopardize human lives. Evaluation, repair, and rehabilitation are necessary for the preservation of the load capacity and service performance of these existing bridges. To minimize cost of replacement or repair, the evaluation needs to accurately reveal the current load carrying capacity of the bridge and to cover future loads and further changes in the capacity. Note that this involves a significant amount of uncertainty. To this end, the reliability theory of structures can be a helpful tool to quantify the risk involved in this process of bridge assessment. Addition of a semester-long course on reliability of bridges in the civil engineering curriculum can greatly help the students understand the fundamental concepts of bridge safety. Civil engineering graduates will have the capability in evaluating bridge safety which they can confidently use in their future career. As a result, this will encourage students to specialize in the field of bridge reliability and eventually the nations bridge assessment experts will grow in number. These experts will have the technical know-how to help maintain bridge infrastructures to avoid catastrophic failures and most significantly of all, save lives.

  15. Differentiation of Higher Education Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazenave, P.; Lapointe, S.

    1983-01-01

    Historical and political influences in the trend toward diversification in French universities are traced. Related issues discussed include institutional versus governmental preferences, institutional functions (curriculum, vocational training, research), and implications for the quality and democratization of higher education. (MSE)

  16. Local Knowledge and Wisdom in Higher Education. Issues in Higher Education Series, Volume 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teasdale, G. R., Ed.; Rhea, Zane Ma, Ed.

    Papers in this collection, derived from several sessions of the Commission for Indigenous Education, contain insightful accounts of the role of indigenous knowledge in higher education institutions across a variety of societies. The contributors examine the move to reaffirm the significance of local knowledge and wisdom and the resulting…

  17. Higher-order Fibonacci numbers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milan Randi?; Daniel A. Morales; Oswaldo Araujo

    1996-01-01

    We consider a generalization of Fibonacci numbers that was motivated by the relationship of the HosoyaZ topological index to the Fibonacci numbers. In the case of the linear chain structures the new higher order Fibonacci numbershFn are directly related to the higher order Hosoya-typeZ numbers. We investigate the limitsFn\\/Fn-1 and the corresponding equations, the roots of which allow one to

  18. Enzymatic DNA oxidation: mechanisms and biological significance

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guo-Liang; Walsh, Colum P.

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation at cytosines (5mC) is a major epigenetic modification involved in the regulation of multiple biological processes in mammals. How methylation is reversed was until recently poorly understood. The family of dioxygenases commonly known as Ten-eleven translocation (Tet) proteins are responsible for the oxidation of 5mC into three new forms, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). Current models link Tet-mediated 5mC oxidation with active DNA demethylation. The higher oxidation products (5fC and 5caC) are recognized and excised by the DNA glycosylase TDG via the base excision repair pathway. Like DNA methyltransferases, Tet enzymes are important for embryonic development. We will examine the mechanism and biological significance of Tet-mediated 5mC oxidation in the context of pronuclear DNA demethylation in mouse early embryos. In contrast to its role in active demethylation in the germ cells and early embryo, a number of lines of evidence suggest that the intragenic 5hmC present in brain may act as a stable mark instead. This short review explores mechanistic aspects of TET oxidation activity, the impact Tet enzymes have on epigenome organization and their contribution to the regulation of early embryonic and neuronal development. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(11): 609-618] PMID:25341925

  19. Higher-spin theory and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaberdiel, Matthias; Vasiliev, Mikhail

    2013-05-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical reviews recent developments in higher-spin gauge theories and their applications to holographic dualities. The analysis of higher-spin theories has a very long history, but it took until the mid 1980s for the first consistent higher-spin interactions to be constructed by Bengtsson, Bengtsson and Brink [1] and Berends, Burgers and van Dam [2]. Somewhat later it was shown by Fradkin and Vasiliev [3] that consistent higher-spin gauge theories that involve gravity should necessarily be defined on a curved background. The first consistent interacting higher-spin theories were then formulated at the classical level by Vasiliev in the early 1990s [4]. These higher-spin theories involve an infinite number of massless higher-spin fields that support higher-spin gauge symmetries, and indeed, are largely characterized by this underlying gauge symmetry. The simplest examples are provided by higher-spin theories on (anti)-de Sitter spaces, and in a sense, this anticipated the AdS/CFT correspondence. Indeed, in the tensionless limit of string theory, the massive excitations of string theory become massless, and hence define higher-spin gauge fields. On the other hand, from the dual gauge theory perspective, this is the limit in which the field theory becomes free, and therefore has many conserved higher-spin currents. By the usual AdS/CFT dictionary, these are dual to the higher-spin gauge symmetries of the bulk description. Following this line of argument, Sundborg [5] and Witten [6] suggested in 2001 that a duality relating a higher-spin theory on AdSd to a weakly coupled (d - 1)-dimensional conformal field theory should exist. A concrete proposal was then made by Klebanov and Polyakov [7] who conjectured that the simplest version of a higher-spin gauge theory on AdS4 should be dual to the 3d O(N ) vector model. Recently, much support for this conjecture was obtained by Giombi and Yin [8], and in turn, this has triggered a significant amount of activity in this general area. Among other things, the constraints that are implied by the higher-spin symmetries were analysed (see the paper by Maldacena and Zhiboedov in this issue [9]), and a fairly concrete proposal for how higher-spin theories are related to string theory was made (see the paper by Chang, Minwalla, Sharma and Yin in this issue [10]). Furthermore, a lower dimensional version of the conjecture was put forward by Gaberdiel and Gopakumar [11] that was subsequently also checked in some detail. These dualities hold the promise of offering insights into the inner workings of the AdS/CFT correspondence since they are complex enough to capture the essence of the duality, while at the same time being sufficiently simple in order to allow for a detailed analysis. Moreover, the methods specifically developed in higher-spin theory may be useful for understanding a general mechanism underlying holography, both in higher-spin models and beyond (see the paper by Vasiliev in this issue [12]). Another fascinating aspect of these higher-spin theories lies in the fact that the higher-spin symmetries mix generically fields of different spin, and in particular, the spin-2 metric and higher-spin excitations are related to one another by gauge transformations. As a result, higher-spin theories require a modification of the standard framework of Riemannian geometry since the usual diffeomorphism-invariant tensors are not gauge invariant any longer. In particular, higher-spin theories may therefore open the way towards understanding fundamental concepts of space-time geometry; for example, they may well have key lessons in store for how string theory resolves space-time singularities. In this issue we have collected together a number of review papers, summarizing the aforementioned recent developments, as well as research papers indicating current directions of interest in the study of higher-spin gauge theories. We hope that it will be useful, both for beginners interested in an introduction to the subject, and for experts

  20. Revitalizing Higher Education. The Stanford Forum for Higher Education Futures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerson, Joel W., Ed.; Massy, William F., Ed.

    This volume contains six essays on higher education which provide lessons and successful techniques for meeting the challenges of the future. The first essay, "Academic Renewal at Michigan" (James Duderstadt), describes the modern research university as a complex corporate conglomerate in danger of diluting its core business. The successful…

  1. Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Started in 1993 after a government white paper called for more coherence in the reporting and collection of higher education statistics in the United Kingdom, the Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) is "the central source for higher education statistics." Not surprisingly, the site features a detailed area devoted to publications and data sets available from the HESA, some of which are available for no cost on the Web site, and others which may be ordered on CD-ROM. There are also a number of data sets available at no charge that may be viewed and printed, or downloaded for free. The data sets are mostly from 1994 to 2002, and include statistics on students (such as ethnicity, subject of study, and institution level), staff, and institutional incomes and expenditures. The site is rounded out with a collection of related links that lead to related government bodies and funding councils.

  2. Holographic holes in higher dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Robert C.; Rao, Junjie; Sugishita, Sotaro

    2014-06-01

    We extend the holographic construction of [1] from AdS3 to higher dimensions. In particular, we show that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of codimension-two surfaces in the bulk with planar symmetry can be evaluated in terms of the `differential entropy' in the boundary theory. The differential entropy is a certain quantity constructed from the entanglement entropies associated with a family of regions covering a Cauchy surface in the boundary geometry. We demonstrate that a similar construction based on causal holographic information fails in higher dimensions, as it typically yields divergent results. We also show that our construction extends to holographic backgrounds other than AdS spacetime and can accommodate Lovelock theories of higher curvature gravity.

  3. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Gary T.

    2012-04-01

    List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Black holes in four dimensions Gary Horowitz; Part II. Five Dimensional Kaluza-Klein Theory: 2. The Gregory-Laflamme instability Ruth Gregory; 3. Final state of Gregory-Laflamme instability Luis Lehner and Frans Pretorius; 4. General black holes in Kaluza-Klein theory Gary Horowitz and Toby Wiseman; Part III. Higher Dimensional Solutions: 5. Myers-Perry black holes Rob Myers; 6. Black rings Roberto Emparan and Harvey Reall; Part IV. General Properties: 7. Constraints on the topology of higher dimensional black holes Greg Galloway; 8. Blackfolds Roberto Emparan; 9. Algebraically special solutions in higher dimensions Harvey Reall; 10. Numerical construction of static and stationary black holes Toby Wiseman; Part V. Advanced Topics: 11. Black holes and branes in supergravity Don Marolf; 12. The gauge/gravity duality Juan Maldacena; 13. The fluid/gravity correspondence Veronika Hubeny, Mukund Rangamani and Shiraz Minwalla; 14. Horizons, holography and condensed matter Sean Hartnoll; Index.

  4. Increased diffuse radiation fraction does not significantly accelerate plant growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alon Angert; Nir Krakauer

    2010-01-01

    A recent modelling study (Mercado et al., 2009) claims that increased numbers of scattering aerosols are responsible for a substantial fraction of the terrestrial carbon sink in recent decades because higher diffuse light fraction enhances plant net primary production (NPP). Here we show that observations of atmospheric CO2 seasonal cycle and tree ring data indicate that the relation between diffuse

  5. Higher order antibunching in intermediate states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Amit; Sharma, Navneet K.; Pathak, Anirban

    2008-08-01

    Since the introduction of binomial state as an intermediate state, different intermediate states have been proposed. Different nonclassical effects have also been reported in these intermediate states. But till now higher order antibunching is predicted in only one type of intermediate state, which is known as shadowed negative binomial state. Recently we have shown that the higher order antibunching is not a rare phenomenon [P. Gupta, P. Pandey, A. Pathak, J. Phys. B 39 (2006) 1137]. To establish our earlier claim further, here we have shown that the higher order antibunching can be seen in different intermediate states, such as binomial state, reciprocal binomial state, hypergeometric state, generalized binomial state, negative binomial state and photon added coherent state. We have studied the possibility of observing the higher order subpoissonian photon statistics in different limits of intermediate states. The effects of different control parameters on the depth of non classicality have also been studied in this connection and it has been shown that the depth of nonclassicality can be tuned by controlling various physical parameters.

  6. Complex higher order derivative theories

    SciTech Connect

    Margalli, Carlos A.; Vergara, J. David [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, Mexico 04510 DF (Mexico)

    2012-08-24

    In this work is considered a complex scalar field theory with higher order derivative terms and interactions. A procedure is developed to quantize consistently this system avoiding the presence of negative norm states. In order to achieve this goal the original real scalar high order field theory is extended to a complex space attaching a complex total derivative to the theory. Next, by imposing reality conditions the complex theory is mapped to a pair of interacting real scalar field theories without the presence of higher derivative terms.

  7. 48 CFR 2110.7003 - Significant events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 true Significant events. 2110.7003 Section 2110...System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP... 2110.7003 Significant events. The contractor is required...officer of all significant...

  8. Clinical significance of aberrant mammalian target of rapamycin expression in stage IIIB colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    WEN, MEILING; LI, BAOXIU; CAO, XIAOFEI; WENG, CHENGYIN; WU, YONG; FANG, XISHENG; ZHANG, XIAOSHI; LIU, GUOLONG

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the significance of aberrant expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the activated form of mTOR kinase, phosphorylated mTOR (pmTOR), in human stage IIIB colon cancer. The expression of mTOR and pmTOR was detected by immunohistochemistry in the tumor tissue of stage IIIB colon cancer patients. The association between the expression of mTOR, pmTOR and clinicopathological parameters of patients was analyzed. The positive expression of mTOR and pmTOR was observed to be higher in 75.5% (80/106) and 76.4% (81/106) of the 106 colon cancer specimens, compared with the adjacent normal tissues. The high level of pmTOR expression was found to be significantly higher in the invasive tumor front cells and resulted in a higher risk of mortality. The results suggested that mTOR and pmTOR may be promising clinical markers and present novel molecular targets for designing novel therapeutic strategies to treat this malignancy. PMID:25120661

  9. Expression of OCT4 in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is significantly associated with poorer prognosis

    PubMed Central

    He, Wei; Li, Ke; Wang, Feng; Qin, Yan-Ru; Fan, Qing-Xia

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To explore the expression pattern of OCT4 in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and its significance in diagnosis and prognosis. METHODS: Using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blotting, immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry, the expression of OCT4 in three esophageal squamous cancer cell lines, KYSE70, KYSE140 and KYSE450, was characterized. OCT4 expression was investigated in a series of 153 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma samples using immunohistochemistry and explored its association with clinicopathological features. RESULTS: Immunohistochemically, OCT4 positive immunostaining was observed in cancer cell nuclei. OCT4 was variably expressed in three esophageal squamous cancer cell lines. Among 153 specimens, 105 (68.7%) were negative or weakly positive for OCT4 staining; 21 (13.7%) were moderately positive and 27 (17.6%) were strongly positive. Higher expression level of OCT4 was significantly associated with higher histological grade (P < 0.001) and poor clinic outcome (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The expression of OCT4 enables the tumor to have a higher degree of stemness, which in turn results in a poorer clinical outcome for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:22363145

  10. Subjective evaluation of higher dynamic range video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanhart, Philippe; Korshunov, Pavel; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2014-09-01

    High dynamic range (HDR) imaging is able to capture a wide range of luminance values, closer to what the human eye can perceive. However, for capture and display technologies, it is important to answer the question on the significance of higher dynamic range for user preference. This paper answers this question by investigating the added value of higher dynamic range via a rigorous set of subjective experiments using paired comparison methodology. Video sequences at four different peak luminance levels were displayed side-by-side on a Dolby Research HDR RGB backlight dual modulation display (aka `Pulsar'), which is capable of reliably displaying video content at 4000 cd=m2 peak luminance. The results of the subjective experiment demonstrate that the preference of an average viewer increases logarithmically with the increase in the maximum luminance level at which HDR content is displayed, with 4000 cd=m2 being the most attractive option.

  11. Novel higher order regularisation methods for image reconstruction

    E-print Network

    Papafitsoros, Konstantinos

    2015-01-06

    case, i.e., total variation regularisation, as classical artifacts such as the staircasing effect are significantly reduced or totally eliminated. Also in image inpainting the introduction of higher order derivatives in the regulariser turns out...

  12. Access to higher education in China: Differences in opportunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Houxiong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Access to higher education in China has opened up significantly in the move towards a mass higher education system. However,\\u000a aggregate growth does not necessarily imply fair or reasonable distribution of opportunity. In fact, the expansion of higher\\u000a education has a rather more complex influence on opportunity when admissions statistics are viewed by geographical region,\\u000a rural and urban environment, social

  13. Glutamine Synthetases of Higher Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Sheila F.; Hirel, Bertrand; Gadal, Pierre; Mann, A. Fred; Stewart, George R.

    1983-01-01

    The chromatographic properties of glutamine synthetase isoforms have been investigated in a wide range of higher plant leaves and shoots using ion exchange chromatography. Different patterns of glutamine synthetase isoform content were observed. Among higher plants, four patterns or groups could be recognized. The first group is characterized by having only cytosolic glutamine synthetase, whereas the second group is distinguished by having only chloroplastic glutamine synthetase. The third group is characterized by cytosolic glutamine synthetase being a minor component of the total leaf glutamine synthetase activity. The fourth group is distinct from the other groups in having high cytosolic and chloroplast glutamine synthetase activity. Immunological studies have been undertaken on a few species from each group to identify unambiguously both cytosolic and chloroplastic glutamine synthetases. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16662965

  14. Making Strangers at Home: Anthropologists Studying Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumar, Wesley

    2004-01-01

    This article seeks to isolate one major strand of work in American cultural anthropology together with its implications for the study of higher education. While the number of anthropologists who do research on higher education is fairly small, the importance of the field's theoretical and methodological contributions is significant. This article…

  15. Skill Development and Critical Thinking in Higher Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Walker; Nicholas Finney

    1999-01-01

    The development of ‘critical thinking’ is often put forward as an ideal of higher education. However, there is a significant contention over what is meant by the phrase. This paper looks at how a critical approach might be encouraged as an aspect of skills development in higher education. In the Master of Research (MRes), degree a variety of research orientated

  16. Physical Education in Higher Education: Chaos Out of Order

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl M. Newell

    1990-01-01

    The last 25 years have witnessed significant changes in the field of physical education in higher education that include the “disciplinarization” of the field of study and the generation of a broader front of professional options for physical activity than the single focus of teacher training. The field of physical education in higher education has not displayed uniformity in reacting

  17. The apparel higher education in China: Reform and development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiao-Ying Wu; Chun-Sheng Wu

    2010-01-01

    China's apparel higher education has experienced significant transformations to accommodate the development of society and economy. One purpose of this paper is to review the current changes in apparel higher education through reform and reconstruction during the past two decades in a historical perspective. Another purpose is to identify the new challenges and problems met in terms of globalization, mass

  18. Knowing Your "Lemons": Quality Uncertainty in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Paul

    2007-01-01

    In the UK and elsewhere, higher education is increasingly and controversially being construed, especially within political discourse, as a marketised commodity service to paying customers. Notions of quality, broadly construed, will be of central significance in the development of new markets in higher education in the UK and beyond. Drawing upon…

  19. Harmonious Expansion of China's Higher Education: A New Growth Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Jiafeng

    2012-01-01

    How can one country narrow the regional disparity during the tremendous expansion of higher education? This issue remains unexamined and critical analysis is needed to unveil the spatial dynamics behind expansion of higher education. The spatial analysis shows that there is significant strategic interaction among neighboring provinces in China…

  20. Education to the People: Higher Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shor, Ira

    1974-01-01

    An historical analysis from 1949 to the present, of the role of higher education in China, focusing on the significant changes since the Cultural Revolution in broadening the base of participation in higher education as well as the reorienting of curriculum and standards. (EH)

  1. Greening academia: Developing sustainable waste management at Higher Education Institutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Zhang; I. D. Williams; S. Kemp; N. F. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are often the size of small municipalities. Worldwide, the higher education (HE) sector has expanded phenomenally; for example, since the 1960s, the United Kingdom (UK) HE system has expanded sixfold to >2.4million students. As a consequence, the overall production of waste at HEIs throughout the world is very large and presents significant challenges as the associated

  2. Fiscal Issues in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigolot, Carol, Ed.

    Forty colleges and life insurance presidents met to discuss key historical and contemporary factors influencing fiscal management in higher education, including inflation, salaries, diminishing enrollment figures, energy costs, federal regulations and the increasing cost of research. Differences and similarities between business and academia were…

  3. 2011 Higher Education Sustainability Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Margo, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Looking through the lens of AASHE Bulletin stories in 2011, this year's review reveals an increased focus on higher education access, affordability, and success; more green building efforts than ever before; and growing campus-community engagement on food security, among many other achievements. Contributors include James Applegate (Lumina…

  4. American Higher Education in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    American higher education is in transition and if there ever was a "golden age" for faculty, it probably is behind us. The best historical data on the composition of faculty is collected annually by the American Mathematical Society. Between 1967 and 2009, the share of full-time faculty with PhDs remained constant at about 90 percent at doctoral…

  5. The Battle for Higher Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Tom; Rush, Mike; Gramer, Rod; Stewart, Roger

    2014-01-01

    To remain internationally competitive, states needed clearer, higher, and comparable K-12 learning standards aligned with college and career expectations, and as ambitious as those of the countries that lead the world in education. Idaho's old academic standards were not preparing students for postsecondary education, which contributed to the…

  6. Decision Making in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Edward J.; And Others

    The paper contains shortened versions of 5 addresses given at the 1968 Summer Conference of the American Association for Higher Education. The Duff-Berdahl Report on University Government in Canada recommends a change in the balance of power within the structure of Canadian university government. Its proposals for reform include less board and…

  7. Women in Higher Education Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth Secretariat, London (England).

    This volume contains 11 papers on the under-representation of women in higher education management in Bahrain, Finland, France, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Peru, the United States and Canada, the South Pacific and the West Indies. All papers were written by women vice-chancellors, presidents and senior managers of universities in those…

  8. Supercomplexity in Higher Education Kinesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Betty A.; Estes, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This article employs Barnett's (2004) specifications of the aspects that describe the times of "supercomplexity." This term characterizes the challenges universities are facing regarding the expanding and competing forces that are affecting higher education, particularly in the West. Outside forces related to globalization, digital technologies,…

  9. Higher Education Space: Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Paul; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of changing demands for space in United Kingdom (UK) higher education. Physical spaces that universities require are related to their functions in complex ways, and the connections between space and academic performance are not well understood. No simple algorithm can calculate a single university's space needs, but a…

  10. Transnational Higher Education in Uzbekistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sia, E. K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of transnational higher education (THE) in Uzbekistan. It includes a brief account of THE current and future market trends. The data, gathered from a literature search, show that the demand for THE (off-campus) is growing even faster than the demand for international (on-campus) programmes. This paper then provides…

  11. Mobile Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraga, Lucretia M.

    2012-01-01

    This mixed method research study investigated the beliefs of university faculty regarding mobile learning. As well as to determine if providing technology professional development to university faculty supports the increase of mobile learning opportunities in higher education. This study used the Beliefs About Mobile Learning Inventory (BAMLI) to…

  12. Higher Education Profiles & Trends 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The statute [T.C.A. Section 49-7-202(c)(7)] requires the Tennessee Higher Education Commission to prepare a biennial report for the governor and the general assembly, "commenting upon major developments, trends, new policies, budgets and financial considerations which in the judgment of the commission will be useful to the governor and to the…

  13. Gerontology Instruction in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, David A.; Bolton, Christopher R.

    Gerontology instruction at the college and university level is analyzed in light of various developments, major issues confronting the field, and specific needs of faculty and administrators. Chapters discuss: growth of interest in aging and gerontology; growing awareness of the aging in higher education; the literature of gerontology education;…

  14. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews developments in 2000 in the law of disability discrimination as it relates to higher education, which falls into five categories: (1) definition of a qualified individual; (2) accommodations, access, undue burden, and fundamental alteration of programs; (3) intentional discrimination, harassment, and retaliation; (4) Eleventh Amendment…

  15. Arbitration in American Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Bob Thompson, Ed.

    Areas of concern related to grievance arbitration in higher education are examined. Selected arbitration awards, court and National Labor Relation Board rulings, and related literature are reviewed, and probable patterns and trends in arbitration are identified. Potential conflicts between collective bargaining and collegiality (self-governance)…

  16. Epistemological Development in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John T. E.

    2013-01-01

    Research has been carried out on students' epistemological development in higher education for at least 50 years. Researchers on both sides of the Atlantic have converged on accounts that describe students' epistemological development in terms of a sequence or hierarchy of qualitatively distinct stages or positions. The rich qualitative data…

  17. Student Loans for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Charlene Wear

    2008-01-01

    Student loans are a rapidly growing $85 billion a year industry fueled by the substantial higher economic returns associated with a college education, increased demand from students and their parents, and grant and scholarship funds that have not kept pace with rising school tuition and fees. This report describes federally subsidized and…

  18. Simulation Models in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrisseau, James J.

    1973-01-01

    This paper, adapted from a Society for College and University Planning conference, discusses cost simulation models in higher education. Emphasis is placed on the art of management, mini-models vs. maxi-models, the useful model, the reporting problem, anatomy of failure, information vs. action, and words of caution. (MJM)

  19. Hofstadter problem in higher dimensions

    E-print Network

    Taro Kimura

    2014-09-29

    We investigate some generalizations of the Hofstadter problem to higher dimensions with Abelian and non-Abelian gauge field configurations. We numerically show the hierarchical structure in the energy spectra with several lattice models. It is also pointed out the equivalence betwee the \\pi-flux state and the staggered formalism of Dirac fermion.

  20. Academic Rewards in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Darrel R., Ed.; Becker, William E., Jr., Ed.

    A colloquium series in higher education at the University of Minnesota in the fall and winter of 1977-1978 examined the influence of academic reward systems on faculty behavior and academic productivity. These essays are the collective results of their findings and recommendations. Essays include: "Perspectives from Psychology: Financial…

  1. Qualitative Evaluation in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ermler, Kathy; Kovar, Susan

    Qualitative evaluation can be used to facilitate change in the immediate higher education professional environment. This evaluation method enriches the collection and interpretation of data by involving all groups and persons who have a share in the problem. In contrast to qualitative research, qualitative evaluation assists in situation-specific…

  2. Hofstadter problem in higher dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Taro

    2014-10-01

    We investigate some generalizations of the Hofstadter problem to higher dimensions with Abelian and non-Abelian gauge field configurations. We numerically show the hierarchical structure in the energy spectra with several lattice models. We also point out the equivalence between the ?-flux state and the staggered formalism of the Dirac fermion.

  3. Higher Education's Coming Leadership Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appadurai, Arjun

    2009-01-01

    The full impact of the current recession on American higher education remains uncertain, but drops in applications, faculty autonomy and job security, frozen salaries and hiring processes, and scaling back of new facilities and programs are already being seen. American colleges face tough times ahead for teaching, research, and capital projects…

  4. Rethinking Higher Education Capital Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, George A.

    1988-01-01

    Capital finance in institutions of higher education is analyzed in light of changes in the Tax Reform Act of 1986 affecting the ability of institutions to finance capital projects and the likelihood of changes in the government's view of tax-exempt financing. The options for colleges and universities are analyzed in the following areas: (1)…

  5. Stakeholder Relationships in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Juha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a stakeholder map to describe the most important stakeholders and the process of stakeholder relationships in higher education. According to the perspective of the balanced scorecard, the classification of stakeholders integrates stakeholders into strategic management. Stakeholder maps are essential in…

  6. Refocusing Higher Education Budget Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

    This report proposes changes to the current higher education budget development process in Illinois in order to provide more information to institutions and to make the process more inclusive and open. It argues that budget development should be goal-based and accountable, responsive, incentive-based, recognize diversity of institutions, stable…

  7. Catholic Higher Education as Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This article uses the work of Anthony J. Gittins to reframe our understanding of Catholic higher education as mission. The broad adoption of this framework would require a common intellectual foundation, the possibility of which is dismissed by many. An accessible ontology is implied, however, in the existential analysis and theology of Karl…

  8. Digital Storytelling in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLellan, Hilary

    2007-01-01

    Digital storytelling is a promising instructional strategy as well as an emerging field of study in higher education. Courses on digital storytelling are offered in communications and creative writing programs at a number of universities. However, the potential for digital storytelling extends far beyond the fields of communication and media…

  9. Sunshine Laws in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, James C.; Mclendon, Michael K.

    2005-01-01

    Every state in the union has "sunshine" laws that apply to public higher education, and the leaders of public institutions deal directly or indirectly with these laws almost daily. Sunshine statutes go to the very heart of institutional functioning, influencing presidential searches and selection, board deliberations, research and intellectual…

  10. Electronic Assessment in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Roelien; Lautenbach, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    Assessment is an important cornerstone of education. A world trend in staying abreast of the latest developments in the field of information and communication technology (ICT) has led to an increased demand for electronic assessment in education circles. The critical need and responsibility for higher education to stay on par with the latest…

  11. Project Management in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpert, Shannon Atkinson

    2011-01-01

    This study identified factors that influenced the use of project management in higher education research projects. Using a qualitative grounded theory approach that included in-depth interviews with assistant professors, the researcher examined how these individuals were using project management processes and tools and factors that enabled,…

  12. Higher Education and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry T.; Nordin, Virginia Davis

    The proliferation of laws, regulations, and judicial opinions affecting higher education and the nature of the impact of these laws on the academic community are examined. Designed for use by both students and practitioners, the book employs the "case method" design based on the belief that law cases furnish the best sources for study and review…

  13. RACE EQUALITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Gideon

    RACE EQUALITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION Achievements, Future Challenges and Possible Solutions FRIDAY 11 will support understanding and thinking in the area of race equality. The aims of the conference are to: » debate the subject of race equality and the challenges facing the sector; » raise awareness of race

  14. Grade Inflation in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The topic of grade inflation, the awarding of too many "A's" and "B's", is frequently mentioned in the literature on higher education. Many educational philosophies have suggested ways to evaluate students fairly. Some professors have used the bell-shaped curve as a model, giving grades according to the normal distribution curve regardless of the…

  15. Internal Audit in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Alison, Ed.; Brown, Sally, Ed.

    This book describes a range of examples of internal audit in higher education as part of a process of the exchange of good practice. The book recognizes well-established links with audit theory from other contexts and makes use of theoretical perspectives explored in the financial sector. The chapters are: (1) "Quality Audit Issues" (Sally Brown…

  16. Faith Guides for Higher Education

    E-print Network

    .SPECIFIC ISSUES IN HIGHER EDUCATION 17 KEY SENSITIVITIES 17 MORAL, ETHICAL AND SPIRITUAL ISSUES 17 Equality (Religion or Belief) Regulations 2003 suggested a broader social commitment in the UK to the creation of culturally inclusive places of work. Following their introduction, not only is there an ethical

  17. Characterization of lymph node metastasis and its clinical significance in the surgical treatment of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    ZUO, CHAO-HUI; XIE, HAILONG; LIU, JINGSHI; QIU, XIAO-XIN; LIN, JIN-GUAN; HUA, XIAO; QIN, ANG

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize lymph node metastasis and determine its clinical significance in the surgical treatment of gastric cancer. The medical charts of 920 gastric cancer patients who underwent radical surgical resection between March, 2010 and March, 2013, were retrospectively reviewed and statistically analyzed. Lymphatic metastasis was observed in 69.6% of the patients (640/920). The frequency of lymph node metastasis in patients with early-stage gastric cancer was 21.4% (18/84). Lymph node metastasis was observed in all the patients with stage IIIC-IV gastric cancer. The incidence of lymph node metastasis was higher among patients with tumors >7 cm in size. The most frequently affected lymph nodes in patients with proximal, central and distal gastric cancer were station no. 1 (34.2%), no. 3 (33.8%) and no. 6 (34.3%) lymph nodes, respectively. The frequency of lymph node metastasis in patients with Borrmann type IV cancer was significantly higher compared to that in patients with other Borrmann type cancers. Our study further demonstrated that lymphatic metastasis is closely correlated with TNM stage, location, depth of invasion and size of gastric tumors. Therefore, we recommend that a sufficient number of lymph nodes be examined from each patient to determine the extent of lymph node dissection based on Borrmann type, location, size, depth of invasion and histology of the cancer. PMID:25054052

  18. Higher order harmonic detection for exploring nonlinear interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Vasudevan, Rama K [ORNL; Okatan, M. B. [University of New South Wales; Rajapaksa, Indrajit [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Kim, Yunseok [ORNL; Marincel, Dan [Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan [Pennsylvania State University; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Nagarajan, Valanoor [University of New South Wales; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics underpin a vast array of physical phenomena ranging from interfacial motion to jamming transitions. In many cases, decoupling the contributions of competing or co-existing mechanisms to the system response can be achieved through investigation of higher order harmonics. Here, a method using band excitation scanning probe microscopy to investigate higher order harmonics of the electromechanical response, with nanometer scale spatial resolution is presented. The utility of the technique is demonstrated by probing the first three harmonics of strain for a well-known system, a model Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 ferroelectric capacitor. It is shown that the second order harmonic response is correlated with the first harmonic response, whereas the third harmonic is not. Additionally, nanoscale measurements of the second harmonic response with field reveal significant deviations from Rayleigh-type models in the form of a much more complicated field dependence than is observed in the spatially averaged data. These results illustrate the versatility of combining proximal probe techniques with nth harmonic detection methods in exploring and decoupling nonlinear dynamics in a wide variety of nanoscale materials.

  19. Higher-Twist Dynamics in Large Transverse Momentum Hadron Production

    SciTech Connect

    Arleo, Francois; /Annecy, LAPTH; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; Hwang, Dae Sung; /Sejong U.; Sickles, Anne M.; /Brookhaven

    2009-12-17

    A scaling law analysis of the world data on inclusive large-p{sub {perpendicular}} hadron production in hadronic collisions is carried out. A significant deviation from leading-twist perturbative QCD predictions at next-to-leading order is reported. The observed discrepancy is largest at high values of x{sub {perpendicular}} = 2p{sub {perpendicular}}/{radical}s. In contrast, the production of prompt photons and jets exhibits the scaling behavior which is close to the conformal limit, in agreement with the leading-twist expectation. These results bring evidence for a non-negligible contribution of higher-twist processes in large-p{sub {perpendicular}} hadron production in hadronic collisions, where the hadron is produced directly in the hard subprocess rather than by gluon or quark jet fragmentation. Predictions for scaling exponents at RHIC and LHC are given, and it is suggested to trigger the isolated large-p{sub {perpendicular}} hadron production to enhance higher-twist processes.

  20. Human cervical cancer oncogene-1 over expression in colon cancer and its clinical significance

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Kai; Yuan, Min; Xu, Shujian; Wang, Lifeng; Li, Zhe; Wang, Mingyu; Ma, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was to explore the expression of human cervical cancer oncogene-1 (HCCR-1) in colon cancer and its clinical significance. Methods: RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot assay were employed to detect HCCR-1 expression in 152 colon cancers, 43 adjacent non-cancerous tissues and 37 normal tissues. In addition, immunohistochemistry was done to detect CEA in colon cancers. Results: The mRNA expression of HCCR-1 in colon cancers was higher than that in the adjacent non-cancerous tissues (P < 0.05), and the mRNA expression of HCCR-1 in adjacent non-cancerous tissues was higher than that in normal tissues (P < 0.05). The positive rate of HCCR-1 in colon cancers was 80.9%, which was higher than that in adjacent non-cancerous tissues (P < 0.05). Almost no HCCR-1 expression was observed in normal tissues, weak expression in adjacent non-cancerous tissues and strong expression in colon cancers. The positive rate of HCCR-1 in colon cancer at Duke stage B-C was 87.3%, which was higher than that in stage A colon cancer (63.6%, P < 0.05). Conclusion: HCCR-1 is over-expressed in colon cancers, indicating that HCCR-1 may participate in occurrence and development of colon cancer and has a correlation with the pathological progress of colon cancer progression.

  1. The Hierarchical Face: Higher Rankings Lead to Less Cooperative Looks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Patricia; Myers, Christopher G.; Kopelman, Shirli; Garcia, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    In 3 studies, we tested the hypothesis that the higher ranked an individual's group is, the less cooperative the facial expression of that person is judged to be. Study 1 established this effect among business school deans, with observers rating individuals from higher ranked schools as appearing less cooperative, despite lacking prior knowledge…

  2. Prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in Asia: a viewpoint from nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Masako; Tomonaga, Masao

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is a known environmental risk factor for a variety of cancers including hematological malignancies, such as leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and multiple myeloma. Therefore, for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors (surviving victims who were exposed to ionizing radiation emitted from the nuclear weapons), several cancer-screening tests have been provided annually, with government support, to detect the early stage of malignancies. An M-protein screening test has been used to detect multiple myeloma at an early stage among atomic bomb survivors. In the screening process, a number of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), in addition to multiple myeloma, have been identified. In 2009 and 2011, we reported the age- and sex-specific prevalence of MGUS between 1988 and 2004 and the possible role of radiation exposure in the development of MGUS using the screening data of more than 1000 patients with MGUS among approximately 52,000 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The findings included: (1) a significant lower overall prevalence (2.1%) than that observed in Caucasian or African-origin populations; (2) a significantly higher prevalence in men than in women; (3) an age-related increase in the prevalence; (4) a significantly higher prevalence in people exposed to higher radiation doses only among those exposed at age 20 years or younger; and (5) a lower frequency of immunoglobulin M MGUS in Japanese patients than in patients in Western countries. The large study of MGUS among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors has provided important findings for the etiology of MGUS, including a possible role of radiation exposure on the cause of MGUS and an ethnicity-related difference in the characteristics of MGUS. PMID:24461807

  3. EDITORIAL: Deeper, broader, higher, better?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-07-01

    Honorary Editor The standard of educational achievement in England and Wales is frequently criticized, and it seems to be an axiom of government that schools and teachers need to be shaken up, kept on a tight rein, copiously inspected, shamed and blamed as required: in general, subjected to the good old approach of: ' Find out what Johnny is doing and tell him to stop.' About the only exception to this somewhat severe attitude is at A-level, where the standard is simply golden. Often, comparisons are made between the performance of, say, English children and that of their coevals in other countries, with different customs, systems, aims and languages. But there has been a recent comparison of standards at A-level with a non-A-level system of pre-university education, in an English-speaking country that both sends students to English universities and accepts theirs into its own, and is, indeed, represented in the UK government at well above the level expected from its ethnical weighting in the population. This semi-foreign country is Scotland. The conclusions of the study are interesting. Scotland has had its own educational system, with `traditional breadth', and managed to escape much of the centralized authoritarianism that we have been through south of the border. It is interesting to note that, while for the past dozen years or so the trend in A-level Physics entries has been downwards, there has been an increase in the take-up of Scottish `Highers'. Highers is a one-year course. Is its popularity due to its being easier than A-level? Scottish students keen enough to do more can move on to the Certificate of Sixth Year Studies, and will shortly be able to upgrade a Higher Level into an Advanced Higher Level. A comparability study [ Comparability Study of Scottish Qualifications and GCE Advanced Levels: Report on Physics January 1998 (free from SQA)] was carried out by the Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) with the aim (amongst others) of helping universities make a fair comparison between grades attained in A-Levels and Highers, CSYS and Advanced Highers. It was a fairly limited exercise, but a careful one, carried out by examiners and teachers rather than statisticians. They compared syllabuses, questions and candidates' answers. I quote: '... the two years of study for A-level perhaps means that there is a secure, consolidated grasp of the basics; more than the Higher candidate after one year. But there is no evidence of this from candidates' scripts.' Comparing syllabuses, the report noted a greater mathematical demand in Scotland: 'The rigour or depth of treatment is generally lower in the Syllabus Y [an A-level syllabus.] than in CSYS or Advanced Higher because many topics have a qualitative treatment rather than the mathematical treatment of CSYS and AH.' Adding a certain sting to its tail, the report concludes: `Many of the CSYS candidates will have achieved excellent grades at Higher... in four or five subjects before proceeding to CSYS. Scottish candidates tend to have qualifications in a broader range of subjects.' Perhaps this is why they get to be in charge everywhere.

  4. Higher mode stability in spheromak equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumlak, U.; Jarboe, T. R.

    1999-11-01

    Spheromak equilibria with current profiles varying from peaked to hollow are analyzed for higher mode stability using a linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code. For a cylindrical flux conserver with a radius equal to length the n=2, m=2 mode is found to be marginally unstable for the same hollow current profile as the n=1, m=1 mode. While the growth rate for this n=2 mode is much lower than the n=1 mode, the presence of the n=2 mode may explain experimentally observed relaxation phenomena involving short wavelength turbulence in spheromak equilibria with sufficiently hollow current profiles.

  5. PROMPT Ia SUPERNOVAE ARE SIGNIFICANTLY DELAYED

    SciTech Connect

    Raskin, Cody; Scannapieco, Evan; Rhoads, James [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Della Valle, Massimo [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello, 16-80131, Napoli (Italy)

    2009-12-10

    The time delay between the formation of a population of stars and the onset of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) sets important limits on the masses and nature of SN Ia progenitors. Here, we use a new observational technique to measure this time delay by comparing the spatial distributions of SNe Ia to their local environments. Previous work attempted such analyses encompassing the entire host of each SN Ia, yielding inconclusive results. Our approach confines the analysis only to the relevant portions of the hosts, allowing us to show that even so-called prompt SNe Ia that trace star formation on cosmic timescales exhibit a significant delay time of 200-500 million years. This implies that either the majority of Ia companion stars have main-sequence masses less than 3 M {sub sun}, or that most SNe Ia arise from double white dwarf binaries. Our results are also consistent with a SNe Ia rate that traces the white dwarf formation rate, scaled by a fixed efficiency factor.

  6. A significant "dream within a dream".

    PubMed

    Silber, A

    1983-01-01

    This brief clinical note is an attempt to clarify Freud's remarks regarding the significance of real occurrences of the "dream within a dream". There is affirmation of the reality of an actual event in the manifest dream (the "tickling" in adolescence). Certain representations regarding real events are alluded to in the manifest dream and are confirmed by the latent dream thoughts (the underlying homosexual theme involving the patient's mother and herself). Within the ongoing transference neurosis, a new understanding led this patient to experience intense sexual affects which were recalled for the first time during the course of an analytic session. The analyst's attention to this "dream within a dream" led to a facilitating active interpretation of the repressed sexual feelings. At the same time it was possible to observe a developmental arrest which had interfered with the consolidation of the patient's adolescent maturation begin to be undone by interpretation. The process of disengaging the patient from her unconscious bond with her mother (the undoing of the negative oedipal involvement) had been set in motion. The "dream within a dream" seems to represent a special defensive effort of the dream work to encapsulate the memory of one or more related actual events and the intense affects associated with them--affects whose pressure for discharge threaten to arouse the sleeper. The form the dream assumes is related to its hidden sexual origins and engages the active participation of both patient and analyst. PMID:6681437

  7. No Significant Difference in Service Learning Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGorry, Sue Y.

    2012-01-01

    Institutions of higher education are realizing the importance of service learning initiatives in developing awareness of students' civic responsibilities, leadership and management skills, and social responsibility. These skills and responsibilities are the foundation of program outcomes in accredited higher education business programs at…

  8. Low Parasitemia in Submicroscopic Infections Significantly Impacts Malaria Diagnostic Sensitivity in the Highlands of Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Eugenia; Zhou, Guofa; Oo, Winny; Afrane, Yaw; Githeko, Andrew; Yan, Guiyun

    2015-01-01

    Asymptomatic malaria infections represent a major challenge in malaria control and elimination in Africa. They are reservoirs of malaria parasite that can contribute to disease transmission. Therefore, identification and control of asymptomatic infections are important to make malaria elimination feasible. In this study, we investigated the extent and distribution of asymptomatic malaria in Western Kenya and examined how varying parasitemia affects performance of diagnostic methods including microscopy, conventional PCR, and quantitative PCR. In addition, we compared parasite prevalence rates and parasitemia levels with respect to topography and age in order to explore factors that influence malaria infection. Over 11,000 asymptomatic blood samples from children and adolescents up to 18 years old representing broad areas of Western Kenya were included. Quantitative PCR revealed the highest parasite positive rate among all methods and malaria prevalence in western Kenya varied widely from less than 1% to over 50%. A significantly lower parasitemia was detected in highland than in lowland samples and this contrast was also observed primarily among submicroscopic samples. Although we found no correlation between parasitemia level and age, individuals of younger age group (aged <14) showed significantly higher parasite prevalence. In the lowlands, individuals of aged 5–14 showed significantly higher prevalence than those under age 5. Our findings highlight the need for a more sensitive and time-efficient assay for asymptomatic malaria detection particularly in areas of low-transmission. Combining QPCR with microscopy can enhance the capacity of detecting submicroscopic asymptomatic malaria infections. PMID:25816298

  9. Salary Equity Issues in Higher Education: Where Do We Stand? AAHE-ERIC/Higher Education Research Currents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, James V.

    1982-01-01

    Salary equity issues in higher education are examined with reference to sex discrimination in faculty salaries, the law and its application, judicial deference toward higher education, and the nature of salary equity evidence. The basis for most salary equity studies has been the simple observation that salaries of male professors are generally…

  10. Diverse: Issues in Higher Education

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The online publication "Diverse: Issues in Higher Education" is a cornucopia of material related to diversity issues in higher education, including hiring practices, increasing the number of underrepresented faculty members on campus, and so on. The homepage includes an excellent jobs database where visitors can learn about new jobs, and employers can post their currently available positions. The "Special Reports" area is quite a find as well, and here visitors can watch interviews and learn about the work of notable educators like Norman Francis, the president of Xavier University in New Orleans. The "Multimedia" area contains slideshows, videos, and audio interviews titled "The Ultimate Insider-Outsider" and "Saving Lives in the Academy and Operating Room". The site is rounded out by their "Opinion" area which includes blogs entries on the stressful lives of college students, sexual violence on college campuses, and much more.

  11. The Economics of Higher Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose-Gines Mora; Luis E. Vila

    This chapter synthesises what economists have learned about a number of key topics related to the provision of higher education\\u000a and its roles in promoting economic development and well-being. The shift towards a global economy, as well as other economic\\u000a changes brought about by technological and institutional development, have raised new concerns about the importance of post-secondary\\u000a education in the

  12. Cosmic Censorship in Higher Dimensions

    E-print Network

    Rituparno Goswami; Pankaj S Joshi

    2004-05-10

    We show that the naked singularities arising in dust collapse from smooth initial data (which include those discovered by Eardley and Smarr, Christodoulou, and Newman) are removed when we make transition to higher dimensional spacetimes. The cosmic censorship is then restored for dust collapse which will always produce a black hole as the collapse end state for dimensions $D\\ge6$, under conditions to be motivated physically such as the smoothness of initial data from which the collapse develops.

  13. [The significance of folate metabolism in complications of pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka

    2013-05-01

    Proper metabolism of folates has a crucial role for body homeostasis. Folate metabolism regulates changing of amino acids (homocysteine and methionine), purine and pyrimidine synthesis and DNA methylation. These whole biochemical processes have significant influence on hematopoietic, cardiovascular and nervous system functions. The disturbances of folate cycle could result in chronic hypertension, coronary artery disease, higher risk of heart infarction, could promote cancers development, and psychic and neurodegenerative diseases. No less important is the connection with complications appearing in pregnant woman (recurrent miscarriages, preeclampsia, fetus hypotrophy intrauterine death, preterm placenta ablation, preterm delivery) and fetus defects (Down syndrome, spina bifida, encephalomeningocele, myelomeningocele). The complex process of folate metabolism requires adequate activity of many enzymes and presence of co-enzymes. A key enzyme in folate metabolism is methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR - methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase), and 677C>T polymorphism of MTHFR gene is connected with lower enzymatic activity In several researches it was indicated that 677C>T MTHFR polymorphism is an independent factor influencing homocysteine concentration in serum, and also folate concentration in serum and red blood cells. Nevertheless, it was also observed the correlation of 677C>T MTHFR polymorphism with Down syndrome, and neural tube defects appearance in fetus. In European populations frequency of mutated 677TT genotype ranges from a few to several percent. Women carriers of 677TT or 677CT MTHFR genotypes are exposed on folate metabolism disturbances and on the consequences of incorrect folate process during pregnancy Nowadays in this group of women folic acid supplementation is widely recommended. In the light of modern knowledge the attention was also focused on the importance of metafolin administration that omitted pathways of folic acid transformation after administration, and in pregnant women certainly is valuable complement of supplementation in this respect. PMID:23819405

  14. Development of temporary subtropical wetlands induces higher gas production

    PubMed Central

    Canterle, Eliete B.; da Motta Marques, David; Rodrigues, Lúcia R.

    2013-01-01

    Temporary wetlands are short-term alternative ecosystems formed by flooding for irrigation of areas used for rice farming. The goal of this study is to describe the development cycle of rice fields as temporary wetlands in southern Brazil, evaluating how this process affect the gas production (CH4 and CO2) in soil with difference % carbon and organic matter content. Two areas adjacent to Lake Mangueira in southern Brazil were used during a rice-farming cycle. One area had soil containing 1.1% carbon and 2.4% organic matter, and the second area had soil with 2.4% carbon and 4.4% organic matter. The mean rates of gas production were 0.04 ± 0.02 mg CH4 m?2 d?1 and 1.18 ± 0.30 mg CO2 m?2 d?1 in the soil area with the lower carbon content, and 0.02 ± 0.03 mg CH4 m?2 d?1 and 1.38 ± 0.41 mg CO2 m?2 d?1 in the soil area with higher carbon content. Our results showed that mean rates of CO2 production were higher than those of CH4 in both areas. No statistically significant difference was observed for production of CH4 considering different periods and sites. For carbon dioxide (CO2), however, a Two-Way ANOVA showed statistically significant difference (p = 0.05) considering sampling time, but no difference between areas. The results obtained suggest that the carbon and organic matter contents in the soil of irrigated rice cultivation areas may have been used in different ways by soil microorganisms, leading to variations in CH4 and CO2 production. PMID:23508352

  15. Significant gastrointestinal morbidity after sacrocolpopexy: The incidence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Yu Ri; Kim, Ji Young

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to quantify the risk of significant gastrointestinal (GI) morbidity after sacrocolpopexy (SCP), and to identify related risk factors. Methods A retrospective study was performed of 258 patients who underwent laparotomic SCP for symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse (POP) from November 2008 to August 2013. By the review of medical records, the frequency of significant GI morbidity that resulted in a prolonged initial hospitalization, readmission, or reoperation was assessed. Thereafter, risk factors for significant GI morbidity were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Ten patients (3.9%) were identified as having significant GI morbidity; nine (3.5%) had a prolonged initial hospital stay or were readmitted for the medical treatment of postoperative ileus and 1 (0.4%) underwent reoperation for small bowel obstruction. The occurrence of significant GI morbidity was significantly associated with patient's age and prior laparotomy. By multivariable logistic regression analysis, age (odds ratio [OR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.27; P=0.03) and prior laparotomy (OR, 6.82; 95% CI, 1.37-34.07; P=0.02) were found as independent risk factors for significant GI morbidity. Conclusion One in 25 (3.9%) women after SCP experiences significant GI morbidity. Particularly, women with older age and prior laparotomy have a higher risk for significant GI morbidity. This data will aid preoperative counseling for Korean POP patients undergoing SCP. PMID:25105104

  16. Significance of Image Guidance to Clinical Outcomes for Localized Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Qiuzi; Gao, Hong; Li, Gaofeng; Xiu, Xia; Wu, Qinhong; Li, Ming; Xu, Yonggang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To compare toxicity profiles and biochemical tumor control outcomes between patients treated with image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) and non-IGRT intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for clinically localized prostate cancer. Materials and Methods. Between 2009 and 2012, 65 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with IG-IMRT. This group of patients was retrospectively compared with a similar cohort of 62 patients who were treated between 2004 and 2009 with IMRT to the same dose without image guidance. Results. The median follow-up time was 4.8 years. The rectal volume receiving ?40 and ?70?Gy was significantly lower in the IG-IMRT group. Grade 2 and higher acute and late GI and GU toxicity rates were lower in IG-IMRT group, but there was no statistical difference. No significant improvement in biochemical control at 5 years was observed in two groups. In a Cox regression analysis identifying predictors for PSA relapse-free survival, only preradiotherapy PSA was significantly associated with biochemical control; IG-IMRT was not a statistically significant indicator. Conclusions. The use of image guidance in the radiation of prostate cancer at our institute did not show significant reduction in the rates of GI and GU toxicity and did not improve the biochemical control compared with IMRT. PMID:25110701

  17. Habitat Observations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this outdoor activity, learners discover the wonders of the habitat surrounding them. After reading "The Empty Lot," a picture book by Dale Fife, learners observe and record in writing what happens in the natural environment around them. Spending time outdoors observing nature can help learners better understand and appreciate the world in which we live.

  18. Spectroscopic Observations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a series of three activities about light and spectra. First, learners will construct their own spectroscope, observe common light sources, record the observed spectra, and compare their findings. Next, learners will use their spectroscopes to observe the spectra from different gas tubes and compare each observed spectrum to known spectra. Finally, they will observe a solar spectrum created by a prism, view a solar spectrum on paper, and attempt to determine the elements present in the Sun. This activity requires spectroscope posters and gratings available from the Stanford Solar Center (http://solar-center.stanford.edu/posters/), fluorescent and incandescent light sources, and emission lamps and power sources. This activity is from the Stanford Solar Center's All About the Sun: Sun and Stars activity guide for Grades 5-8 and can also accompany the Stanford Solar Center's Build Your Own Spectroscope activity.

  19. Making Sense of Biostatistics: Clinical Significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Rick Turner

    2008-01-01

    In the previous two columns, we discussed hypothesis testing and statistical significance. While consideration of statistical significance is informative and necessary in the clinical arena, it is not sufficient. Gardner and Altman (1986) noted that \\

  20. 40 CFR 1508.27 - Significantly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...in several contexts such as society as a whole (human...This refers to the severity of impact. Responsible officials...evaluating intensity: (1) Impacts that may be both beneficial...but cumulatively significant impacts. Significance exists if...

  1. 40 CFR 1508.27 - Significantly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...in several contexts such as society as a whole (human...This refers to the severity of impact. Responsible officials...evaluating intensity: (1) Impacts that may be both beneficial...but cumulatively significant impacts. Significance exists if...

  2. 40 CFR 1508.27 - Significantly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...in several contexts such as society as a whole (human...This refers to the severity of impact. Responsible officials...evaluating intensity: (1) Impacts that may be both beneficial...but cumulatively significant impacts. Significance exists if...

  3. 40 CFR 1508.27 - Significantly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...in several contexts such as society as a whole (human...This refers to the severity of impact. Responsible officials...evaluating intensity: (1) Impacts that may be both beneficial...but cumulatively significant impacts. Significance exists if...

  4. 40 CFR 1508.27 - Significantly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...in several contexts such as society as a whole (human...This refers to the severity of impact. Responsible officials...evaluating intensity: (1) Impacts that may be both beneficial...but cumulatively significant impacts. Significance exists if...

  5. Lithium observations in 47 Tucanae.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquini, L.; Molaro, P.

    1997-06-01

    We present high resolution observations (FWHM=15km/s) of the Li region in 5 stars belonging to the old (=~14Gyrs), metal rich ([Fe/H]=~-0.7) globular cluster 47 Tuc. At the ESO NTT telescope we obtained EMMI spectra for three V~17.4magnitude stars located at the turnoff with T_eff_ on the Spite plateau. In two of the turnoff stars the lithium line is clearly detected and the mean lithium content [Li]=2.37+/-0.08+/-0.07 is derived. This value is slightly higher than the Spite plateau at [Li]=2.19+/-0.016 for field halo stars obtained with the same T_eff_ scale by Bonifacio and Molaro (1997MNRAS.285..847B). For the third turnoff star only an upper limit could be derived: [Li]<2.19. This upper limit may suggest the presence of some dispersion on the plateau stars of 47 Tuc as it is observed in field stars of similar metallicity. When compared with field dwarfs of [Fe/H] =~-0.7 the Li content of 47 Tuc turnoff stars is among the highest observed. Considering the extreme age of 47 Tuc this suggests that no significant depletion affected these stars and it implies a mild Li Galactic enrichment between the epoch of Pop II formation and the formation of 47 Tuc stars with metallicities up to ~-0.7. Spallation reactions, as deduced from Be observations, can account for such an increase. The remaining two stars are evolved, and only upper limits could be placed at [Li]<0.7 and <-0.7. These very low values imply some extra depletion mechanism in addition to dilution as it is observed in evolved field stars by Pilachowki et al (1993ApJ...407..699P) and in NGC 6397 by Pasquini and Molaro (1996A&A...307..761P).

  6. Ricci identities in higher dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortaggio, M.; Pravda, V.; Pravdová, A.

    2007-03-01

    We explore connections between geometrical properties of null congruences and the algebraic structure of the Weyl tensor in n > 4 spacetime dimensions. First, we present the full set of Ricci identities on a suitable 'null' frame, thus completing the extension of the Newman Penrose formalism to higher dimensions. Then we specialize to geodetic null congruences and study specific consequences of the Sachs equations. These imply, for example, that Kundt spacetimes are of type II or more special (like for n = 4) and that for odd n a twisting geodetic WAND must also be shearing (in contrast to the case n = 4).

  7. Higher-derivative 3-algebras

    E-print Network

    Mohsen Alishahiha; Sunil Mukhi

    2008-09-05

    Starting with the N=8 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on D2-branes and incorporating higher-derivative corrections to lowest nontrivial order, we perform a duality to derive the Lorentzian 3-algebra theory along with a set of derivative corrections. We find that these corrections can be expressed entirely in terms of intrinsic 3-algebra quantities: the 3-bracket and covariant derivatives. Our analysis is performed for both bosonic and fermionic terms. We conjecture that the derivative corrections we obtain are relevant for Euclidean 3-algebra theories as well.

  8. EARTH OBSERVATIONS

    E-print Network

    unknown authors

    2013-01-01

    Each year, Federal agencies invest billions of dollars in civil Earth observations. Through these investments, the U.S. government ensures that the Nation’s decision makers have the information they need about climate and weather, disaster events, land-use change, ecosystem health, natural resources, and many other characteristics of the planet. Section 702 of the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, signed into law on October 11, 2010, instructs the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) to establish a mechanism to ensure greater coordination of civilian Earth observations, including the development of a strategic implementation plan that is updated at least every three years. In December 2010, I reported to Congress on the formation of a National Earth Observations Task Force to respond to this direction. The attached National Strategy for Civil Earth Observations, completed by the Task Force, establishes a three-year assessment and planning framework for Earth observations organized by major areas of societal benefit, initiates a prioritization of national observing systems according to those areas, and codifies guidelines for Federal agencies concerning the effective management of Earth observation data. As this National Strategy document describes, the Administration has begun a broad and

  9. Higher Gauge Theory and M-Theory

    E-print Network

    Sam Palmer

    2014-07-01

    In this thesis, the emerging field of higher gauge theory will be discussed, particularly in relation to problems arising in M-theory, such as selfdual strings and the so-called (2,0) theory. This thesis will begin with a Nahm-like construction for selfdual strings using loop space, the space of loops on spacetime. This construction maps solutions of the Basu-Harvey equation, the BPS equation arising in the description of multiple M2-branes, to solutions of a selfdual string equation on loop space. Furthermore, all ingredients of the construction reduce to those of the ordinary Nahm construction when compactified on a circle with all loops restricted to those wrapping the circle. The rest of this thesis, however, will not involve loop space. We will see a Nahm-like construction for the case of infinitely many selfdual strings, suspended between two M5-branes. This is possible since the limit taken renders the fields describing the M5-branes abelian. This avoids the problem which the rest of this thesis focuses on: What fields describe multiple M5-branes? The answer is likely to involve higher gauge theory, a categorification of gauge theory which describes the parallel transport of extended objects. Any theories which involves 3-algebras, including current M2-brane models and the Lambert-Papageorgakis M5-brane model, are examples of higher gauge theories. Recently, a class of models with N=(1,0) supersymmetry have been found, with significant overlap with algebraic structures in higher gauge theory. This overlap suggests that the full N=(2,0) theory could involve semistrict $L_\\infty$-algebras. Finally, we will see some explicit selfdual string solutions, which may fit into these frameworks.

  10. A Nonstochastic Interpretation of Reported Significance Levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Freedman

    1983-01-01

    Tests of significance are often made in situations where the standard assumptions underlying the probability calculations do not hold. As a result, the reported significance levels become difficult to interpret. This article sketches an alternative interpretation of a reported significance level, valid in considerable generality. This level locates the given data set within the spectrum of other data sets derived

  11. An overview of American higher education.

    PubMed

    Baum, Sandy; Kurose, Charles; McPherson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This overview of postsecondary education in the United States reviews the dramatic changes over the past fifty years in the students who go to college, the institutions that produce higher education, and the ways it is financed. The article, by Sandy Baum, Charles Kurose, and Michael McPherson, creates the context for the articles that follow on timely issues facing the higher education community and policy makers. The authors begin by observing that even the meaning of college has changed. The term that once referred primarily to a four-year period of academic study now applies to virtually any postsecondary study--academic or occupational, public or private, two-year or four-year-- that can result in a certificate or degree. They survey the factors underlying the expansion of postsecondary school enrollments; the substantial increases in female, minority, disadvantaged, and older students; the development of public community colleges; and the rise of for-profit colleges. They discuss the changing ways in which federal and state governments help students and schools defray the costs of higher education as well as more recent budget tensions that are now reducing state support to public colleges. And they review the forces that have contributed to the costs of producing higher education and thus rising tuitions. The authors also cite evidence on broad measures of college persistence and outcomes, including low completion rates at community and for-profit colleges, the increasing need for remedial education for poorly prepared high school students, and a growing gap between the earnings of those with a bachelor's degree and those with less education. They disagree with critics who say that investments in higher education, particularly for students at the margin, no longer pay off. A sustained investment in effective education at all levels is vital to the nation's future, they argue. But they caution that the American public no longer seems willing to pay more for more students to get more education. They therefore urge the higher education community to make every effort to find innovations, including creative uses of information technology, that can hold down costs while producing quality education. PMID:25522644

  12. Higher Education Report Card, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    For the graduating class of 2006, the average ACT score for all test takers in West Virginia was 20.6. While the rate is below the national average, scores have increased significantly for the second consecutive year. Research demonstrates that the best predictor of college success is a rigorous high school curriculum, and it is anticipated that…

  13. Global Contexts of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, Clara M.

    2013-01-01

    In his 2008 bestseller, "The Post-American World," Fareed Zakaria argued that the most significant development of the early 21st century is not, as others have predicted, the inevitable decline of the United States as the world's super-power but rather "the rise of the rest." In subsequent works, Zakaria and many others, including leading…

  14. Ramadan Observance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WNET

    2008-08-21

    In this video segment from Religion & Ethics Newsweekly, an American Muslim family observes Ramadan, the month in which Muslims fast daily from sunrise to sunset in order to demonstrate piety and develop self-restraint.

  15. Observing Objects

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Houghton Mifflin Science

    This self-contained module on materials and their composition includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

  16. Observe Clouds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    If you observe clouds in a portion of the sky, you may notice that they are not static. Clouds are composed of tiny particles of water and are constantly changing and moving. This video lets viewers observe clouds forming, moving, and changing shape. The segment is one minute thirty-three seconds in length. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

  17. Sources of Inspiration: The Role of Significant Persons in Young People's Choice of Science in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjaastad, Jorgen

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this article were to investigate to which extent and in what ways persons influence students' choice of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in tertiary education, and to assess the suitability of an analytical framework for describing this influence. In total, 5,007 Norwegian STEM students completed a…

  18. Governance of Higher Education in Britain: The Significance of the Research Assessment Exercises for the Funding Council Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapper, Ted; Salter, Brian

    2004-01-01

    This article uses the political struggles that have enveloped the research assessment exercises (RAEs) to interpret the UK's current funding council model of governance. Ironically, the apparently widespread improvement in the research performance of British universities, as demonstrated by RAE 2001, has made it more difficult to distribute…

  19. Higher-order Carmichael numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Everett W.

    We define a Carmichael number of order m to be a composite integer n such that nth-power raising defines an endomorphism of every Z/nZ-algebra that can be generated as a Z/nZ-module by m elements. We give a simple criterion to determine whether a number is a Carmichael number of order m, and we give a heuristic argument (based on an argument of Erdos for the usual Carmichael numbers) that indicates that for every m there should be infinitely many Carmichael numbers of order m. The argument suggests a method for finding examples of higher-order Carmichael numbers; we use the method to provide examples of Carmichael numbers of order 2.

  20. Grand Unification in Higher Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Lawrence J.; Nomura, Yasunori

    2002-12-10

    We have recently proposed an alternative picture for the physics at the scale of gauge coupling unification, where the unified symmetry is realized in higher dimensions but is broken locally by a symmetry breaking defect. Gauge coupling unification, the quantum numbers of quarks and leptons and the longevity of the proton arise as phenomena of the symmetrical bulk, while the lightness of the Higgs doublets and the masses of the light quarks and leptons probe the symmetry breaking defect. Moreover, the framework is extremely predictive if the effective higher dimensional theory is valid over a large energy interval up to the scale of strong coupling. Precise agreement with experiments is obtained in the simplest theory --- SU(5) in five dimensions with two Higgs multiplets propagating in the bulk. The weak mixing angle is predicted to be sin^2theta_w = 0.2313 \\pm 0.0004, which fits the data with extraordinary accuracy. The compactification scale and the strong coupling scale are determined to be M_c \\simeq 5 x 10^14 GeV and M_s \\simeq 1 x 10^17 GeV, respectively. Proton decay with a lifetime of order 10^{34} years is expected with a variety of final states such as e^+pi^0, and several aspects of flavor, including large neutrino mixing angles, are understood by the geometrical locations of the matter fields. When combined with a particular supersymmetry breaking mechanism, the theory predicts large lepton flavor violating mu -> e and tau -> mu transitions, with all superpartner masses determined by only two free parameters. The predicted value of the bottom quark mass from Yukawa unification agrees well with the data. This paper is mainly a review of the work presented in hep-ph/0103125, hep-ph/0111068 and hep-ph/0205067.

  1. Azimuthal anisotropy: The higher harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Poskanzer, Arthur M.; STAR Collaboration

    2004-03-12

    We report the first observations of the fourth harmonic (v{sub 4}) in the azimuthal distribution of particles at RHIC. The measurement was done taking advantage of the large elliptic flow generated at RHIC. The integrated v{sub 4} is about a factor of 10 smaller than v{sub 2}. For the sixth (v{sub 6}) and eighth (v{sub 8}) harmonics upper limits on the magnitudes are reported.

  2. Higher Education Literature Revisited: Citation Patterns Examined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, John M.; Magnuson, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    The discourse of the field of higher education is complex, as is its analysis. Citation analysis is means of examining communicative processes. This study investigates citations in the papers of three core journals in higher education, "Research in Higher Education, Review of Higher Education," and "Journal of Higher Education." The results…

  3. Analysis of autosomal genes reveals gene–sex interactions and higher total genetic risk in men with systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Travis; Adler, Adam; Merrill, Joan T; Kelly, Jennifer A; Kaufman, Kenneth M; Williams, Adrienne; Langefeld, Carl D; Gilkeson, Gary S; Sanchez, Elena; Martin, Javier; Boackle, Susan A; Stevens, Anne M; Alarcón, Graciela S; Niewold, Timothy B; Brown, Elizabeth E; Kimberly, Robert P; Edberg, Jeffrey C; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Petri, Michelle; Reveille, John D; Criswell, Lindsey A; Vilá, Luis M; Jacob, Chaim O; Gaffney, Patrick M; Moser, Kathy L; Vyse, Timothy J; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E; James, Judith A; Tsao, Betty P; Scofield, R Hal; Harley, John B; Richardson, Bruce C; Sawalha, Amr H

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a sexually dimorphic autoimmune disease which is more common in women, but affected men often experience a more severe disease. The genetic basis of sexual dimorphism in SLE is not clearly defined. A study was undertaken to examine sex-specific genetic effects among SLE susceptibility loci. Methods A total of 18 autosomal genetic susceptibility loci for SLE were genotyped in a large set of patients with SLE and controls of European descent, consisting of 5932 female and 1495 male samples. Sex-specific genetic association analyses were performed. The sex–gene interaction was further validated using parametric and nonparametric methods. Aggregate differences in sex-specific genetic risk were examined by calculating a cumulative genetic risk score for SLE in each individual and comparing the average genetic risk between male and female patients. Results A significantly higher cumulative genetic risk for SLE was observed in men than in women. (P = 4.52×10?8) A significant sex–gene interaction was seen primarily in the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) region but also in IRF5, whereby men with SLE possess a significantly higher frequency of risk alleles than women. The genetic effect observed in KIAA1542 is specific to women with SLE and does not seem to have a role in men. Conclusions The data indicate that men require a higher cumulative genetic load than women to develop SLE. These observations suggest that sex bias in autoimmunity could be influenced by autosomal genetic susceptibility loci. PMID:22110124

  4. Design Observer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Design Observer takes a catholic approach to discussing various aspects of design. Visitors to the homepage will realize this immediately, as they can find posts on architectural theory, furniture design, and the history of innovative trademarks. On the left-hand side of the homepage, visitors can check out the latest relevant Twitter posts, and also scroll down to the "Observed" area. Here visitors can read posts from Design Observer contributors. On the right-hand side of the page, those persons in the design fields can learn about various design competitions, conferences, fellowships, and social networking opportunities. Further down the right-hand side, visitors can take in the "Design Matters" audio program. Hosted by Debbie Millman, the show "combines a stimulating point of view about graphic design, branding and cultural anthropology." Featured guests have included Dave Eggers, Dan Pink, and Natalia Ilyin.

  5. OECD Observer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) publishes hundreds of technical reports, working papers, and development updates every year, and as a result it can be hard to stay on top of all the research the group is disseminating to the public. One way to stay on top of all of this material is by taking a close look at the OECD Observer, which is meant to complement the print version of the same name. Here visitors can browse such sections as economy, society, development, and government to find out the latest work being done at the OECD. Some of the more recent topics that have been addressed within the Observer's pages include the so-called knowledge economy, sustainable business practices, taxation, and governmental corruption. At the site, visitors may also sign up to receive email updates from the Observer.

  6. Solar Observations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is an activity involving observations of the Sun. Learners use pinhole cameras, solar telescopes, and/or solar viewing glasses to make solar observations, draw what they see, and identify sunspots, if they are present. Then, learners go online and compare their drawings to images obtained by the SOHO spacecraft. This activity requires the use a sunny outdoor location. This activity also require use of safe methods for observing the Sun, such as pinhole cameras, telescopes with proper solar filters attached, and/or viewing glasses that are designated for safe solar viewing. No one should look at the Sun unless one or more of these methods is used in a proper fashion.

  7. Clinical significance of DAPK promoter hypermethylation in lung cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Zhu, Min; Zhang, Xiaoju; Cheng, Dongjun; Ma, Xitao

    2015-01-01

    Death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK) is an important serine/threonine kinase involved in various cellular processes, including apoptosis, autophagy, and inflammation. DAPK expression and activity are deregulated in a variety of diseases including cancer. Methylation of the DAPK gene is common in many types of cancer and can lead to loss of DAPK expression. However, the association between DAPK promoter hypermethylation and the clinicopathological significance of lung cancer remains unclear. In this study, we searched the MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases, systematically investigated the studies of DAPK promoter hypermethylation in lung cancer and quantified the association between DAPK promoter hypermethylation and its clinicopathological significance by meta-analysis. We observed that the frequency of DAPK methylation was significantly higher in lung cancer than in non-malignant lung tissues (odds ratio 6.02, 95% confidence interval 3.17–11.42, P<0.00001). The pooled results also showed the presence of a prognostic impact of DAPK gene methylation in lung cancer patients (odds ratio 3.63, 95% confidence interval 1.09–12.06, P=0.04). In addition, we summarized these findings and discuss tumor suppressor function, clinicopathological significance, and potential drug targeting of DAPK in lung cancer.

  8. Minor hemobilia. Clinical significance and pathophysiological background.

    PubMed Central

    Sandblom, P; Mirkovitch, V

    1979-01-01

    Profuse hemorrhage into the biliary tract--major hemobilia,--is an alarming condition which attracts much attention. Minor hemobilia, often caused by gallstones or operative injury, is much more frequent, yet often neglected. Clinical observations indicate that minor hemobilia is not always an innocent condition with the blood remaining fluid and unobtrusively flowing into the intestine. Examples are given where clots from occult hemobilia have caused diagnostic errors or obstructed the bile flow, thus imitating gallstones for which they may be mistaken. Experiments have been performed to elucidate the pathophysiology of this clot formation: 1) A model of the biliary tract was constructed with bile flowing through it. When blood was injected forcefully to simulate a major hemorrhage, mixed clots of blood and bile were formed. When introduced gently, as in minor hemobilia, the blood flowed immiscibly to the lowest level where it formed a clot of pure blood. The clots dissolved under the influence of flowing bile, but remained intact when protected from the flow. 2) Mixed clots were mushy and dissolved spontaneously, while pure clots remained solid and stable. When clots containing increasing amounts of bile were incubated, increasing amounts of cleavage products of fibrinogen and fibrin were formed. 3) Blood clots were produced in gallbladders of 33 dogs. Pure clots remained solid and floating while mixed clots formed a mushy layer, strongly adherent to the mucosa. Both kinds of clots disappeared after two-four weeks, but remained if bile flow was diverted. These findings explain why under certain circumstances minor hemobilia acquires clinical significance by forming clots that may obstruct the flow or cause diagnostic errors. Successful dissolution of "retained stones" may occasionally have the simple explanation that blood clots, mistaken for calculi, have been fibrinolysed. Consequently, in biliary obstruction or when defects are found on cholangiography, the possibility of blood clots in the ducts should be considered even in the absence of overt gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. PMID:464695

  9. Molecular clouds. [significance in stellar evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaddeus, P.

    1977-01-01

    An attempt is made to understand star formation in the context of the dense interstellar molecular gas from which stars are made. Attention is given to how molecular observations (e.g., UV spectroscopy and radio 21-cm and recombination line observations) provide data on the physical state of the dense interstellar gas; observations of H II regions, stellar associations, and dark nebulae are discussed. CO clouds are studied with reference to radial velocity, temperature, density, ionization, magnetic field.

  10. Higher Order Squeezing and Higher Order Subpoissonian Photon Statistics in Intermediate States

    E-print Network

    Amit Verma; Anirban Pathak

    2010-04-10

    Recently simpler criteria for the Hong-Mandel higher order squeezing (HOS) and higher order subpossonian photon statistics (HOSPS) are provided by us [Phys. Lett. A 374 (2010) 1009]. Here we have used these simplified criteria to study the possibilities of observing HOSPS and HOS in different intermediate states, such as generalized binomial state, hypergeometric state, negative binomial state and photon added coherent state. It is shown that these states may satisfy the condition of HOS and HOSPS. It is also shown that the depth and region of nonclassicality can be controlled by controlling various parameters related to intermediate states. Further, we have analyzed the mutual relationship between different signatures of higher order nonclassicality with reference to these intermediate states. We have observed that the generalized binomial state may show signature of HOSPS in absence of HOS. Earlier we have shown that NLVSS shows HOS in absence of HOSPS. Consequently it is established that the HOSPS and HOS of same order are independent phenomenon.

  11. Significance Testing for Outcome Changes via Latent Growth Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jichuan

    2004-01-01

    In addition to assessing the rate of change in outcome measures, it may be useful to test the significance of outcome changes during specific time periods within an entire observation period under study. While discussing the delta method and bootstrapping, this study demonstrates how to use these 2 methods to estimate the standard errors of the…

  12. The adaptive significance of behavioural ontogeny in some. centrarchid fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph A. Brown

    1985-01-01

    Studies on the ontogeny of behaviour in fish have seldom considered the adaptive significance of the order of appearance of the behaviours. Results of laboratory studies and field observations on the ontogeny of feeding, predator-avoidance, and agonistic behaviour in largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris, and pumpkinseed, Lepomis gibbosus, young indicate that the order of appearance of the

  13. Arab observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatoohi, L. J.

    There are two main medieval Arab sources of astronomical observations: chronicles and astronomical treatises. Medieval Arabs produced numerous chronicles many of which reported astronomical events that the chroniclers themselves observed or were witnessed by others. Astronomical phenomena that were recorded by chroniclers include solar and lunar eclipses, cometary apparitions, meteors, and meteor showers. Muslim astronomers produced many astronomical treatises known as zijes. Zijes include records of mainly predictable phenomena, such as eclipses of the Sun and Moon. Unlike chronicles, zijes usually ignore irregular phenomena such as the apparitions of comets and meteors, and meteor showers. Some zijes include astronomical observations, especially of eclipses. Not unexpectedly, records in zijes are in general more accurate than their counterparts in chronicles. However, research has shown that medieval Arab chronicles and zijes both contain some valuable astronomical observational data. Unfortunately, much of the heritage of medieval Arab chroniclers and astronomers is still in manuscript form. Moreover, most of the huge numbers of Arabic manuscripts that exist in various libraries, especially in Arab countries, are still uncatalogued. Until now there is only one catalogue of zijes which was compiled in the fifties and which includes brief comments on 200 zijes. There is a real need for systematic investigation of medieval Arab historical and astronomical manuscripts which exist in many libraries all over the world.

  14. Observational Studies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Abebe, Asheber

    This lesson on observational studies discusses the nature of such studies, the relationships between various data sets, and regression. Graphs illustrate the relationships, and exercises at the end test the user's comprehension and understanding. It is taken from the online textbook for Western Michigan University online introductory stats course.

  15. Effect of free fall on higher plants.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, S. A.

    1973-01-01

    The influence of exposure to the free-fall state on the orientation, morphogenesis, physiology, and radiation response of higher plants is briefly summarized. It is proposed that the duration of the space-flight experiments has been to brief to permit meaningful effects of free fall on general biochemistry, growth, and development to appear. However, two types of significant effect did occur. The first is on differential growth - i.e., tropism and epinasty - resulting from the absence of a normal geostimulus. For these phenomena it is suggested that ground-based experiments with the clinostat would suffice to mimic the effect of the free-fall state. The second is an apparent interaction between the radiation response and some flight condition, yielding an enhanced microspore abortion, a disturbed spindle function, and a stunting of stamen hairs. It is suggested that this apparent interaction may be derived from a shift in the rhythm of the cell cycle, induced by the free fall.

  16. Measuring Clinical Significance in Rehabilitation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erica K.; Dow, Christian; Lynch, Ruth T.; Hermann, Bruce P.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement of clinically significant change is critical for rehabilitation research because it can enhance the credibility of rehabilitation efforts and guide evidence-based practices. The practical appeal of clinically significant change is that it can bridge research and clinical practice by focusing on individual rather than group differences.…

  17. Bluetongue: historical significance and recent developments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bluetongue is one of the most economically significant viral diseases of livestock in the USA, because of the cost of export restrictions. Bluetongue virus was initially discovered in Africa, but epizootics of bluetongue have caused significant loss in livestock throughout the tropical and temperate...

  18. The Vernier Caliper and Significant Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberhofer, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    Misconceptions occur because the caliper is often read with the same significant figures as a meter stick; however, the precision of the vernier caliper is greater than the precision of a meter stick. Clarification of scale reading, precision of both tools, and significant figures are discussed. (JN)

  19. Teaching Significant Figures Using a Learning Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guymon, E. Park; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes an instructional strategy based on the learning cycle for teaching the use of significant figures. Provides explanations of teaching activities for each phase of the learning cycle (exploration, invention, application). Compares this approach to teaching significant figures with the traditional textbook approach. (TW)

  20. Significant Reading Experiences of Superior English Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitman, Robert S.

    1964-01-01

    Superior high school students (975 finalists in the NCTE Achievement Awards Program) were surveyed to find what one book was most significant to each of them in their high school experiences, and the reason for the significance. In response to questionnaires, the students cited 416 different titles, 72% of which were novels. The top 10 books were…

  1. Evolution of the Significant Figure Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Ashley R.

    2013-01-01

    Today, almost all introductory physics textbooks include standardized "rules" on how to find the number of significant figures in a calculated value. And yet, 30 years ago these rules were almost nonexistent. Why have we increased the role of significant figures in introductory classes, and should we continue this trend? A look back at…

  2. Missing transverse energy significance at CMS

    E-print Network

    Nathan Mirman; Yimin Wang; James Alexander

    2014-09-10

    Missing transverse energy significance may be used to help distinguish real missing transverse energy due to undetected particles from spurious missing transverse energy due to resolution smearing. We present a description of the missing transverse energy significance variable, and assess its performance in Z$\\rightarrow\\mu\\mu$, dijet, and W$\\rightarrow e\

  3. Chromosomal replicons of higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Van't Hof, J.

    1987-03-16

    This brief discussion of replicons of higher plants offers a glimpse into the properties of chromosomal DNA replication. It gives evidence that the S phase of unrelated plant species is comprised of temporally ordered replicon families that increase in number with genome size. This orderly process, which assures a normal inheritance of genetic material to recipient daughter cells, is maintained at the level of replicon clusters by two mutually exclusive mechanisms, one involving the rate at which single replicons replicate their allotment of DNA, and another by means of the tempo-pause. The same two mechanisms are used by cells to alter the pattern of chromosomal DNA replication just prior to and during normal development. Both mechanisms are genetically determined and produce genetic effects when disturbed of disrupted by additional non-conforming DNAs. Further insight into how these two mechanisms operate requires more molecular information about the nature of replicons and the factors that govern when a replicon family replicates. Plant material is a rich and ideal source for this information just awaiting exploitation. 63 refs.

  4. Addressing Grand Challenges in Earth Observation Science: The Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, W.; Fröhlich, J.; Wotawa, G.; Stowasser, R.; Staudinger, M.; Hoffmann, C.; Walli, A.; Federspiel, C.; Aspetsberger, M.; Atzberger, C.; Briese, C.; Notarnicola, C.; Zebisch, M.; Boresch, A.; Enenkel, M.; Kidd, R.; von Beringe, A.; Hasenauer, S.; Naeimi, V.; Mücke, W.

    2014-09-01

    Earth observation is entering a new era where the increasing availability of free and open global satellite data sets combined with the computing power offered by modern information technologies opens up the possibility to process high-resolution data sets at global scale and short repeat intervals in a fully automatic fashion. This will not only boost the availability of higher level earth observation data in purely quantitative terms, but can also be expected to trigger a step change in the quality and usability of earth observation data. However, the technical, scientific, and organisational challenges that need to be overcome to arrive at this point are significant. First of all, Petabyte-scale data centres are needed for storing and processing complete satellite data records. Second, innovative processing chains that allow fully automatic processing of the satellite data from the raw sensor records to higher-level geophysical products need to be developed. Last but not least, new models of cooperation between public and private actors need to be found in order to live up to the first two challenges. This paper offers a discussion of how the Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring (EODC) - a catalyser for an open and international cooperation of public and private organisations - will address these three grand challenges with the aim to foster the use of earth observation for monitoring of global water resources.

  5. Clinical significance of first-trimester intrauterine haematomas detected in pregnancies achieved by IVF-embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Lan; Wei, Zhaolian; Wu, Juan; Zhou, Ping; Xiang, Huifen; Cao, Yunxia

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the clinical significance of first-trimester intrauterine haematomas (IUH) detected in pregnancies achieved by IVF-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) was evaluated. A retrospective case-control study was designed to compare obstetric and perinatal outcomes of 350 pregnancies with IUH and 350 matched controls without IUH. The incidence of first-trimester IUH detected in the IVF-ET pregnancies was 13.5%. In women who delivered after 28 weeks' gestation, the incidence of gestational hypertension (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.5 to 4.6), preeclampsia (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.5 to 5.0) and postpartum haemorrhage (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.8 to 5.3) was significantly higher in the IUH group. Compared with controls, placenta previa (OR, 8.7 95%; CI 3.4 to 22.2) and oligohydramninos (OR 5.8; 95% CI 2.4 to 14.0) were more common in the IUH group. The incidence of preterm delivery (<37 weeks' gestation) was significantly higher in the IUH group (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.4 to 3.0), although the incidence of preterm delivery before 34 weeks' gestation was not. No differences were observed in the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus, premature rupture of membranes and low birth weight. The presence of first-trimester IUH in IVF-ET pregnancies was associated with a higher risk of several pregnancy complications. PMID:25164168

  6. Higher order ionospheric effects in GNSS positioning in the European region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmas, Z. G.; Aquino, M.; Marques, H. A.; Monico, J. F. G.

    2011-08-01

    After removal of the Selective Availability in 2000, the ionosphere became the dominant error source for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), especially for the high-accuracy (cm-mm) demanding applications like the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) and Real Time Kinematic (RTK) positioning. The common practice of eliminating the ionospheric error, e.g. by the ionosphere free (IF) observable, which is a linear combination of observables on two frequencies such as GPS L1 and L2, accounts for about 99 % of the total ionospheric effect, known as the first order ionospheric effect (Ion1). The remaining 1 % residual range errors (RREs) in the IF observable are due to the higher - second and third, order ionospheric effects, Ion2 and Ion3, respectively. Both terms are related with the electron content along the signal path; moreover Ion2 term is associated with the influence of the geomagnetic field on the ionospheric refractive index and Ion3 with the ray bending effect of the ionosphere, which can cause significant deviation in the ray trajectory (due to strong electron density gradients in the ionosphere) such that the error contribution of Ion3 can exceed that of Ion2 (Kim and Tinin, 2007). The higher order error terms do not cancel out in the (first order) ionospherically corrected observable and as such, when not accounted for, they can degrade the accuracy of GNSS positioning, depending on the level of the solar activity and geomagnetic and ionospheric conditions (Hoque and Jakowski, 2007). Simulation results from early 1990s show that Ion2 and Ion3 would contribute to the ionospheric error budget by less than 1 % of the Ion1 term at GPS frequencies (Datta-Barua et al., 2008). Although the IF observable may provide sufficient accuracy for most GNSS applications, Ion2 and Ion3 need to be considered for higher accuracy demanding applications especially at times of higher solar activity. This paper investigates the higher order ionospheric effects (Ion2 and Ion3, however excluding the ray bending effects associated with Ion3) in the European region in the GNSS positioning considering the precise point positioning (PPP) method. For this purpose observations from four European stations were considered. These observations were taken in four time intervals corresponding to various geophysical conditions: the active and quiet periods of the solar cycle, 2001 and 2006, respectively, excluding the effects of disturbances in the geomagnetic field (i.e. geomagnetic storms), as well as the years of 2001 and 2003, this time including the impact of geomagnetic disturbances. The program RINEX_HO (Marques et al., 2011) was used to calculate the magnitudes of Ion2 and Ion3 on the range measurements as well as the total electron content (TEC) observed on each receiver-satellite link. The program also corrects the GPS observation files for Ion2 and Ion3; thereafter it is possible to perform PPP with both the original and corrected GPS observation files to analyze the impact of the higher order ionospheric error terms excluding the ray bending effect which may become significant especially at low elevation angles (Ioannides and Strangeways, 2002) on the estimated station coordinates.

  7. Pneumothorax: observation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhigang; Huang, Haidong; Li, Qiang; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Madesis, Athanasios; Diplaris, Konstantinos; Karaiskos, Theodoros; Zaric, Bojan; Branislav, Perin

    2014-01-01

    Pneumothorax based on the cause, it can be divided into two large categories; primary and secondary. The staging of pneumothorax plays a crucial role for treatment. Currently both thoracic surgeons and pulmonary physicians can handle efficiently treatment. Pulmonary physicians with the minimally medical thoracoscopy while thoracic surgeons with a more extensive intervention. Experience defines the outcome in most situations and not the method. In our current work we will present data regarding the observation of pneumothorax from a panel of experts. PMID:25337398

  8. Asia Observer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This "start page for observers of Asian affairs" complements resources such as Asia Society (described in the January 2, 1998 Scout Report) by providing an omnibus of links to news outlets, government resources, special topics and academic Websites, Asian newspapers, reference texts, human rights organizations, and more. In addition, the Find an Expert section allows users to access two large databases of scholars and researchers in Asian policy and Asian history and culture.

  9. Higher order harmonic detection for exploring nonlinear interactions with nanoscale resolution

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, R. K.; Okatan, M. Baris; Rajapaksa, I.; Kim, Y.; Marincel, D.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Jesse, S.; Valanoor, N.; Kalinin, S. V.

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics underpin a vast array of physical phenomena ranging from interfacial motion to jamming transitions. In many cases, insight into the nonlinear behavior can be gleaned through exploration of higher order harmonics. Here, a method using band excitation scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to investigate higher order harmonics of the electromechanical response, with nanometer scale spatial resolution is presented. The technique is demonstrated by probing the first three harmonics of strain for a Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 (PZT) ferroelectric capacitor. It is shown that the second order harmonic response is correlated with the first harmonic response, whereas the third harmonic is not. Additionally, measurements of the second harmonic reveal significant deviations from Rayleigh-type models in the form of a much more complicated field dependence than is observed in the spatially averaged data. These results illustrate the versatility of nth order harmonic SPM detection methods in exploring nonlinear phenomena in nanoscale materials. PMID:24045269

  10. Observer variation in ophthalmology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R A Gibson; H F Sanderson

    1980-01-01

    Data collected by clinicians and nurses from patients with clinically diagnosed lens opacities revealed that there was poor repeatability of the description of the position of lens opacities, statistically significant observer variation in determining visual acuity, and good repeatability as to what visual tasks the patient can perform. It is suggested that clinicans should give more weight to the visual

  11. Observation of single top-quark production.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Bu, X B; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calfayan, P; Calpas, B; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Carrera, E; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Cheu, E; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cuplov, V; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; DeVaughan, K; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Escalier, M; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jamin, D; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Mättig, P; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mitrevski, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Orduna, J; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero Y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padilla, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H

    2009-08-28

    We report observation of the electroweak production of single top quarks in pp[over ] collisions at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV based on 2.3 fb(-1) of data collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. Using events containing an isolated electron or muon and missing transverse energy, together with jets originating from the fragmentation of b quarks, we measure a cross section of sigma(pp[over ]--> tb + X, tqb + X) = 3.94 + or - 0.88 pb. The probability to measure a cross section at this value or higher in the absence of signal is 2.5 x 10(-7), corresponding to a 5.0 standard deviation significance for the observation. PMID:19792787

  12. Observation of Single Top Quark Production

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, B.; /Oklahoma U.; Abolins, M.; /Michigan State U.; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; /Tata Inst.; Adams, M.; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Aguilo, E.; /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U.; Ahsan, M.; /Kansas State U.; Alexeev, G.D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, Andrew K.; /Michigan State U. /Northeastern U.

    2009-03-01

    We report first observation of the electroweak production of single top quarks in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV based on 2.3 fb{sup ?1} of data collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. Using events containing an isolated electron or muon and missing transverse energy, together with jets originating from the fragmentation of b quarks, we measure a cross section of {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} tb + X, tqb + X) = 3.94 {+-} 0.88 pb. The probability to measure a cross section at this value or higher in the absence of signal is 2.5 x 10{sup ?7}, corresponding to a 5.0 standard deviation significance for the observation.

  13. Prognostic Significance of DNA and Histone Methylation

    Cancer.gov

    Nutritional Science Research Group Recently Funded Projects Prognostic Significance of DNA and Histone Methylation Principal Investigator: Piyathilake, Chandrika J Institution: University of Alabama at Birmingham   NCI/DCP Program Director: Ross, Sharon

  14. HEALTH SIGNIFICANCE OF PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the sensitivity and precision of functional tests improves, we become increasingly able to measure responses to pollutant exposures with little, if any, demonstrable health significance. Proper interpretation of such functional responses generally requires an ability to evalua...

  15. Significant Figure Rules for General Arithmetic Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    Provides some significant figure rules used in chemistry including the general theoretical basis; logarithms and antilogarithms; exponentiation (with exactly known exponents); sines and cosines; and the extreme value rule. (YP)

  16. 32 CFR 1280.3 - Significant changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Significant changes. 1280.3 Section 1280.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS INVESTIGATING AND PROCESSING CERTAIN NONCONTRACTUAL CLAIMS AND REPORTING RELATED LITIGATION §...

  17. 32 CFR 1290.6 - Significant changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Significant changes. 1290.6 Section 1290.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

  18. 32 CFR 1290.6 - Significant changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Significant changes. 1290.6 Section 1290.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

  19. 32 CFR 1280.3 - Significant changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Significant changes. 1280.3 Section 1280.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS INVESTIGATING AND PROCESSING CERTAIN NONCONTRACTUAL CLAIMS AND REPORTING RELATED LITIGATION §...

  20. 32 CFR 1280.3 - Significant changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Significant changes. 1280.3 Section 1280.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS INVESTIGATING AND PROCESSING CERTAIN NONCONTRACTUAL CLAIMS AND REPORTING RELATED LITIGATION §...

  1. 32 CFR 1280.3 - Significant changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Significant changes. 1280.3 Section 1280.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS INVESTIGATING AND PROCESSING CERTAIN NONCONTRACTUAL CLAIMS AND REPORTING RELATED LITIGATION §...

  2. 32 CFR 1290.6 - Significant changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Significant changes. 1290.6 Section 1290.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

  3. 32 CFR 1290.6 - Significant changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Significant changes. 1290.6 Section 1290.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

  4. 32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...would violate existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility for substantial periods; or cause irreparable harm to...Significant beneficial effects also occur and must...

  5. 32 CFR 1290.6 - Significant changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Significant changes. 1290.6 Section 1290.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

  6. 32 CFR 1280.3 - Significant changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Significant changes. 1280.3 Section 1280.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS INVESTIGATING AND PROCESSING CERTAIN NONCONTRACTUAL CLAIMS AND REPORTING RELATED LITIGATION §...

  7. Operational Significant Event Imagery: A History

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    New satellite images of "significant environmental events" are posted frequently at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)'s Operational Significant Event Imagery (OSEI) Website. Remotely-sensed data include "high-resolution, detailed imagery" of dust storms, fires, floods, icebergs, oceanic events, severe weather, snow cover, storm systems, tropical cyclones, volcanoes, and other current events. Users may search the site for the most recent images by date or by topic. A Daily Report section provides brief descriptions of the latest images.

  8. Higher Learning, Greater Good: The Private and Social Benefits of Higher Education by Walter W. McMahon

    E-print Network

    Shulenburger, David E.

    2009-01-01

    KU ScholarWorks | http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu Higher Learning, Greater Good: The Private and Social Benefits of Higher Education by Walter W. McMahon 2009 Reviewed by David Shulenburger This work has been made available by the University... . . . growing very significantly since 1980” (pp. 115-116). McMahon readily rules out the possibility that these differentials are attributable to screening or to job market signaling by referring to both empirical work and common sense economics: “[F...

  9. Plasmodium falciparum Infection Significantly Impairs Placental Cytokine Profile in HIV Infected Cameroonian Women

    PubMed Central

    Kfutwah, Anfumbom; Mary, Jean Yves; Lemen, Brigitte; Leke, Robert; Rousset, Dominique; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Nerrienet, Eric; Menu, Elisabeth; Ayouba, Ahidjo

    2009-01-01

    Background Placental cytokines play crucial roles in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy as well as protecting the foetus from infections. Previous studies have suggested the implication of infections such as P. falciparum and HIV in the stimulation of placental cytokines. This study assessed the impact of P. falciparum on placental cytokine profiles between HIV-1 positive and negative women. Materials and Methods P. falciparum infection was checked in peripheral and placental blood of HIV-1 negative and positive women by the thick blood smear test. Cytokines proteins and messenger RNAs were quantified by ELISA and real time PCR, respectively. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical analyses. Results Placental and peripheral P. falciparum infections were not significantly associated with HIV-1 infection (OR: 1.4; 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 0.5–4.2; p?=?0.50 and OR: 0.6; 95%CI: 0.3–1.4; p?=?0.26, respectively). Conversely, placental P. falciparum parasitemia was significantly higher in the HIV-1 positive group (p?=?0.04). We observed an increase of TNF-? mRNA median levels (p?=?0.02) and a trend towards a decrease of IL-10 mRNA (p?=?0.07) in placenta from HIV-1 positive women compared to the HIV negative ones leading to a median TNF-?/IL-10 mRNA ratio significantly higher among HIV-1 positive than among HIV-1 negative placenta (p?=?0.004; 1.5 and 0.8, respectively). Significant decrease in median secreted cytokine levels were observed in placenta from HIV-1 positive women as compared to the HIV negative however these results are somewhat indicative since it appears that differences in cytokine levels (protein or mRNA) between HIV-1 positive and negative women depend greatly on P.falciparum infection. Within the HIV-1 positive group, TNF-? was the only cytokine significantly associated with clinical parameters linked with HIV-1 MTCT such as premature rupture of membranes, CD4 T-cell number, plasma viral load and delay of NVP intake before delivery. Conclusions These results show that P. falciparum infection profoundly modifies the placenta cytokine environment and acts as a confounding factor, masking the impact of HIV-1 in co-infected women. This interplay between the two infections might have implications in the in utero MTCT of HIV-1 in areas where HIV-1 and P. falciparum co-circulate. PMID:19956547

  10. Clinical Significance of Amyloid Precursor Protein in Patients with Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yuta; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Satoru; Takayama, Kenichi; Urano, Tomohiko; Murata, Taro; Obinata, Daisuke; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Homma, Yukio; Inoue, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The biological role of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is not well understood, especially in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the immunoreactivity (IR) and expression of APP in TGCTs and evaluated its clinical relevance. Materials and Methods. We performed an analysis of immunohistochemistry and mRNA expression of APP in 64 testicular specimens and 21 snap-frozen samples obtained from 1985 to 2004. We then evaluated the association between APP expression and clinicopathological status in TGCTs. Results. Positive APP IR was observed in 9.8% (4/41) of seminomatous germ cell tumors (SGCTs) and 39.1% (9/23) of nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NGCTs). NGCTs showed significantly more cases of positive IR (P = 0.00870) and a higher mRNA expression level compared with those of SGCTs (P = 0.0140). Positive APP IR was also significantly associated with ?-fetoprotein (?FP) elevation (P = 0.00870) and venous invasion (P = 0.0414). Conclusion. We observed an elevated APP expression in TGCTs, especially in NGCTs. APP may be associated with a more aggressive cancer in TGCTs. PMID:23662100

  11. Massless higher spins and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezgin, E.; Sundell, P.

    2002-11-01

    We treat free large N superconformal field theories as holographic duals of higher spin (HS) gauge theories expanded around AdS spacetime with radius R. The HS gauge theories contain massless and light massive AdS fields. The HS current correlators are written in a crossing symmetric form including only exchange of other HS currents. This and other arguments point to the existence of a consistent truncation to massless HS fields. A survey of massless HS theories with 32 supersymmetries in D=4,5,7 (where the 7D results are new) is given and the corresponding composite operators are discussed. In the case of AdS4, the cubic couplings of a minimal bosonic massless HS gauge theory are described. We examine high energy/small tension limits giving rise to massless HS fields in the type IIB string on AdS5× S5 and M-theory on AdS4/7× S7/4. We discuss breaking of HS symmetries to the symmetries of ordinary supergravity, and a particularly natural Higgs mechanism in AdS5× S5 and AdS4× S7 where the HS symmetry is broken by finite gYM. In AdS5× S5 it is shown that the supermultiplets of the leading Regge trajectory cross over into the massless HS spectrum. We propose that gYM2=0 corresponds to a critical string tension of order 1/ R2 and a finite string coupling of order 1/ N. In AdS7× S4 we give a rotating membrane solution coupling to the massless HS currents, and describe these as limits of Wilson surfaces in the AN-1 (2,0) SCFT, expandable in terms of operators with anomalous dimensions that are asymptotically small for large spin. The minimal energy configurations have semi-classical energy E= s for all s and the geometry of infinitely stretched strings with energy and spin density concentrated at the endpoints.

  12. A Strategic Vision for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellings, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    Where is the manual on American higher education in the 21st century? In this article, the author argues that there is none and that it is up to the federal government and higher education leaders to provide this strategic vision. She further states that the federal government and higher education leaders must have the vision to see where higher

  13. Redefining External Stakeholders in Nordic Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musial, Kazimierz

    2010-01-01

    Present higher education reforms in the Nordic countries diminish the role and influence of the state on the governance of higher education institutions. While still providing a framework for the management of higher education, in general, the state supervises rather than controls higher education institutions (HEIs). The rhetoric of change…

  14. Research on informationization of higher education management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang-ming Xu; Yi-min Liu; Jin Wu; Fang Min

    2010-01-01

    Informationization of higher education management is an outcome of rapid development and wide application of modern information technology in the field of higher education. It plays an important role in management philosophy and management efficiency in higher education. In this paper, we introduce the concepts of informationization and informationization of higher education management at first. Then, after analyzing the state

  15. Quality Assurance in Chinese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Quality assurance has been integrated into the fabric of higher education in China, with the issue of quality in higher education--how to evaluate it and how to enhance it--now taking centre stage in Chinese higher education. In the past decade, the development of quality assurance in Chinese higher education has covered a broad spectrum of…

  16. The Strategic Significance of Global InequalityThe Strategic Significance of Global InequalityThe Strategic Significance of Global InequalityThe Strategic Significance of Global InequalityThe Strategic Significance of Global Inequality By Jeffrey D. Sachs

    E-print Network

    ). Is there a "strategic significance" to global inequalities in income levels and economic growth? And, if so, which27 The Strategic Significance of Global InequalityThe Strategic Significance of Global InequalityThe Strategic Significance of Global InequalityThe Strategic Significance of Global InequalityThe Strategic

  17. Alternative Energy for Higher Education

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Cherney, PhD

    2012-02-22

    This project provides educational opportunities creating both a teaching facility and center for public outreach. The facility is the largest solar array in Nebraska. It was designed to allow students to experience a variety of technologies and provide the public with opportunities for exposure to the implementation of an alternative energy installation designed for an urban setting. The project integrates products from 5 panel manufacturers (including monocrystalline, polycrystalline and thin film technologies) mounted on both fixed and tracking structures. The facility uses both micro and high power inverters. The majority of the system was constructed to serve as an outdoor classroom where panels can be monitored, tested, removed and replaced by students. As an educational facility it primarily serves students in the Creighton University and Metropolitan Community College, but it also provides broader educational opportunities. The project includes a real-time â??dashboardâ?ť and a historical database of the output of individual inverters and the corresponding meteorological data for researcher and student use. This allows the evaluation of both panel types and the feasibility of installation types in a region of the country subject to significant temperature, wind and precipitation variation.

  18. The Identification and Significance of Orographically Induced Clouds Observed by TIROS Satellites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John H. Conover

    1964-01-01

    Orographic cloud patterns photographed by satellites are classified as wave-like, isolated lenticular, fibrous plume, and large single-line. Other orographic patterns consisting of rotor or cap clouds are not included because they cannot be resolved by the present satellite systems. Characteristics of form (i.e., cumuliform or fibrous), brightness pattern (i.e., bands, eddies, etc.), size and wavelength, when applicable, are used in

  19. Multiple Comparisons of Observation Means--Are the Means Significantly Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahidy, T. Z.

    2009-01-01

    Several currently popular methods of ascertaining which treatment (population) means are different, via random samples obtained under each treatment, are briefly described and illustrated by evaluating catalyst performance in a chemical reactor.

  20. Delayed strut fracture of sirolimus-eluting stent: A significant problem or an occasional observation?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pil-Ki Min; Young-Won Yoon; Hyuck Moon Kwon

    2006-01-01

    In-stent restenosis after implantation of sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) still occur in some cases and stent fracture was recently suggested as a new potential mechanism of restenosis. We report a case of delayed stent strut fracture after percutaneous coronary intervention with SES. Until now, three cases regarding Cypher stent fracture have been reported in the literature. Further investigation should be performed

  1. Electrical properties of rocks and their significance for lunar radar observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Campbell; Juris Ulrichs

    1969-01-01

    A wide variety of terrestrial rocks has been investigated to determine the range of variation of the high-frequency electrical properties. Both solid rocks and powders of various types have been measured at frequencies of 450 MHz and 35 GHz; some measurements have been made at elevated temperatures. Solid materials show wide variations in permittivity and absorption length, but apart from

  2. Significant results from using earth observation satellites for mineral and energy resource exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, William D.

    1981-01-01

    Launched in June 1978, Seasat operated for only 100 days, but successfully acquired much information over both sea and land. The collection of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery and radar altimetry was particularly important to geologists. Although there are difficulties in processing and distributing these data in a timely manner, initial evaluations indicate that the radar imagery supplements Landsat data by increasing the spectral range and offering a different look angle. The radar altimeter provides accurate profiles over narrow strips of land (1 km wide) and has demonstrated usefulness in measuring icecap surfaces (Greenland, Iceland, and Antarctica). The Salar of Uyuni in southern Bolivia served as a calibration site for the altimeter and has enabled investigators to develop a land-based smoothing algorithm that is believed to increase the accuracy of the system to 10 cm. Data from the altimeter are currently being used to measure subsidence resulting from ground water withdrawal in the Phoenix-Tucson area.

  3. Meteorological significance of frontal thin-line angel echoes observed by CPS-9 radar

    E-print Network

    Miller, Donald Bradford

    1959-01-01

    ), College Station, Texas were available for all the case studies. Bryan Air Force Base (BIT) WEAN forms were available for the period through 16 20 June 1958. 13 See Saucier [(45), p. 389 q for examples of horizontal time sections. 14 WBAN signifies U. S...

  4. Observational Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Robert H.

    I discuss the classical cosmological tests, i.e., angular size-redshift, flux-redshift, and galaxy number counts, in the light of the cosmology prescribed by the interpretation of the CMB anisotropies. The discussion is somewhat of a primer for physicists, with emphasis upon the possible systematic uncertainties in the observations and their interpretation. Given the curious composition of the Universe inherent in the emerging cosmological model, I stress the value of searching for inconsistencies rather than concordance, and suggest that the prevailing mood of triumphalism in cosmology is premature.

  5. Fishy Observations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2006-01-01

    In this activity (page 1 of the PDF), learners will visit a zoo, aquarium, or pet store to view a variety of fish. Learners sketch the different body types as well as observe where each fish spends most of its time in the aquarium and how it swims. Based on this data, learners write a one or two sentence summary of how its body shape helps each fish swim as it does and live where it does. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV: Rabbits.

  6. Higher Education: A Time for Triage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-10-01

    Higher education faces unprecedented challenges. The confluence of changing economic and demographic tends; new patterns of federal and state spending; more explicit expectations by students and their families for affordable, accessible education; and heightened scrutiny by those who claim a legitimate interest in higher education is inescapably altering the environment in which this system operates. Higher education will never again be as it was before. Further, many believe that tinkering around the margins is no longer an adequate response to the new demands. Fundamental change is deemed necessary to meet the challenge of this melange of pressures. A number of commentators have observed that political and corporate America have responded to their challenges by instituting a fundamental restructuring of those institutions. The medical community is also in the midst of a similar basic restructuring of the health care delivery system in this country. Now its education's turn. People are questioning the historically expressed mission of higher education. They make the claim that we cost too much, spend carelessly, teach poorly, plan myopically, and when questioned, act defensively. Educational administrators, from department chairs up, are confronted with the task of simultaneously reforming and cutting back. They have no choice. They must establish politically sophisticated priority settings and effect a hard-nosed reallocation of resources in a social environment where competing public needs have equivalent--or stronger--emotional pulls. Triage in a medical context involves confronting an emergency in which the demand for attention far outstrips available assistance by establishing a sequence of care in which one key individual orchestrates the application of harsh priorities which have been designed to maximize the number of survivors. In recent years, the decisions that have been made in some centers of higher education bear a striking similarity. The literature is replete with descriptions of budget cuts and the resultant reallocation of monies. For example, as the budget cuts of the last decade accumulated, maintenance was deferred, and the funds saved were used to shore-up key existing parts of the educational process, such as faculty salaries. State budgets are generally smaller now than they were when the cuts were made, which means that preventive maintenance will continue to be deferred and other resources must be found for capital improvements. Triage often operates in an environment that does not permit promising possibilities to develop. For example, the promise of interactive digital technologies on the learning process may never be fully realized in many institutions if the associated capital and operating costs cannot be accommodated within the cost containment measures being adopted. In an effort to offset part of the lost state support, tuition and fees have been increased at public institutions at a rate that far exceeds growth of the cost of living index. All this is occurring in the face of an increasingly diverse student body and the beginning of "Tidal Wave II," as the surge of new students who are the children of the baby boomers has been called. These demands, along with the expectations for an historically, good American education, will have to be met with fewer dollars. Our ability to fund public higher education by the conventional mechanisms has been affected by a variety of tax reform initiatives. Although the details may vary locally, various kinds of initiatives, propositions, and referenda have severely limited the amount of revenue states can raise. Thus, caps on property taxes have transformed support patterns at the city and county levels. Initiatives, many of which have built-in escalators, that fix the percentages of state spending for various programs have created new kinds of budgetary entitlement groups. These mandates conspire to give government, i.e., governors and legislatures, less discretionary control over a dwindling portion of the state budget. Unfortunately, hig

  7. A Proposed Fourth Measure of Significance: The Role of Economic Significance in Educational Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy L. Leech; Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine economic significance as a fourth measure of significance. In addition to describing and operationalising the concept of economic significance, a typology of economic significance indices is presented, including an example of how to compute these measures, as well as how to utilise them in applied research. We demonstrate how interventions that yield

  8. A Proposed Fourth Measure of Significance: The Role of Economic Significance in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine economic significance as a fourth measure of significance. In addition to describing and operationalising the concept of economic significance, a typology of economic significance indices is presented, including an example of how to compute these measures, as well as how to utilise them in applied research.…

  9. Effects of metals on chromosomes of higher organisms.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A; Talukder, G

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of the available data on the clastogenic effects of metals and their compounds on higher organisms indicates some general trends. Following chronic exposure to subtoxic doses, a decrease in mitotic frequency and an increase in the number of chromosomal abnormalities are observed. These effects are usually directly proportional to the dose applied and the duration of treatment within the threshold limits. Recovery after acute treatment is inversely related to the dosage. The ultimate expression of the effects depends on certain factors, including the mode and vehicle of administration; the form administered; the test system used; the rate of detoxification, distribution, and retention in the different tissues; and interaction with foreign and endogenous substances as well as the mode of action with the biological macromolecules. In mammals, the clastogenic activity of the metals within each vertical group of the periodic table is directly proportional to the increase in atomic weight, electropositivity, and solubility of the metallic cations in water and lipids, except for Li and Ba. This pattern of inherent cytotoxicity increases with successive periods in the horizontal level. It is enhanced by the formation of covalent and coordinate covalent complexes by heavy metals with the biological macromolecules. In plants, the solubility of the metals in water is of much greater importance. The degree of dissociation of metallic salts and the rate of absorption affect significantly the frequency of chromosomal aberrations. In assessing the effects of environmental metal pollution, the presence of other metals and toxic chemicals and the level of nutrition should be taken into account, since in nature, metals occur in combination and these factors modify the cytotoxic effects to a significant extent. PMID:3545801

  10. Meaning reconstruction in bereavement: sense and significance.

    PubMed

    Hibberd, Rachel

    2013-08-01

    Recently there has been growing empirical and theoretical attention to the role of meaning in grief along with increased recognition of the need for more sophisticated definitions of meaning. The present article highlights philosophical issues inherent in the study of meaning and grief reviews the place of meaning in current theories of grief and provides a brief overview of the ways that meaning has been operationalized by grief researchers, including sense-making, benefit finding, identity change, and purpose in life. It is argued that, in our focus on the ways mourners make sense of loss, we have neglected an important aspect of meaning: life significance. Life significance is the felt perception that some aspect of one's life experience "matters." The construct is explored as a potentially important outcome of bereavement; mourners may lose life significance along with their lost loved one, or they may develop new avenues to life significance as they confront mortality and rebuild shattered worldviews. Related literature, such as appreciation of life as a facet of posttraumatic growth, is surveyed for clues as to the role of life significance in grief. Suggestions for future study are offered. PMID:24520967

  11. Higher psychological and psychovegetative strain in adolescents with atypical pigment naevi.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Michael; Egger, Josef Wilhelm; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Trapp, Eva-Maria; Rohrer, Peter Michael; Hörlesberger, Nina; Schwantzer, Gerold; Komericki, Peter; Linder, Michael Dennis; Lvov, Andrey; Baulmann, Johannes; Richtig, Erika

    2015-01-01

    An observational, exploratory, cross-sectional study was performed to assess whether the presence of atypical naevi (AN) in adolescents is associated with psychological and psychovegetative stress parameters. Fifty-one students of a secondary school in Graz, Austria, completed a defined test procedure consisting of an initial period of rest, a standardised mental stress task, another period rest and a questionnaire, the change-sensitive symptom list (ASS-SYM). Electrocardiogram and blood pressure were recorded continuously. The study population was divided in two groups: probands without AN (NAN, n?=?33), and probands with at least one AN (n?=?18). We found higher values for the AN group in all scales of ASS-SYM, reaching statistical significance in the dimensions "nervousness and mental tension" (p?=?0.025), "psychophysiological dysregulation" (p?=?0.020), burden of pain" (p?=?0.023) and "general symptoms and problems" (p?=?0.031). Regarding physiological parameters, the AN group showed higher vegetative strain reflected in heart rate and heart rate varibility during the periods of rest as well as a reduced baroreceptor sensitivity. On the basis of our results, the presence of AN in adolescents seems to be associated with a higher vegetative arousal. Additionally, participants with AN complained significantly more often about stress-associated general psychological symptoms and problems. PMID:24604032

  12. Clinicopathological significance and potential drug target of p15INK4B in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Bi, Lintao; Lin, Yumei; Lu, Zhenxia; Hou, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal malignancy characterized by the proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow and the production of monoclonal immunoglobulin. In addition to genetic changes, gene hypermethylation is an alternative mechanism of tumor suppressor gene inactivation in MM. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (CDKN2B or p15INK4B) gene lies adjacent to the tumor suppressor gene, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2 (CDKN2A), and is frequently mutated and deleted in a wide variety of tumors, including MM. However, there is a lack of systematic analysis of p15 epigenetic modification such as methylation in MM from different studies that can provide more powerful estimation of an effect. In this study, we have systematically reviewed the studies of p15INK4B promoter methylation in MM and quantified the association between p15INK4B promoter methylation and MM using meta-analysis methods. We observed that the frequency of p15INK4B methylation is significantly higher in MM patients than in normal healthy controls. The pooled odds ratio (OR) from ten studies including 394 MM and 99 normal individuals is 0.08, while confidence interval (CI) is 0.03–0.21 (P<0.00001). This indicates that p15INK4B inactivation through methylation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of MM. In addition, the frequency of p15INK4B methylation was significantly higher in patients with MM than in those with asymptomatic monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. The pooled OR from four studies is 0.40, 95% CI =0.21–0.78 (P=0.007). These results suggest that silencing of p15INK4B gene expression by epigenetic modification such as promoter hypermethylation plays a role not only in the initiation of MM but also in plasma cell malignant transformation, disease progression, and development. PMID:25382971

  13. Astrometric Masses of 26 Asteroids and Observations on Asteroid Porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, James; Chesley, Steven R.; Matson, Robert D.

    2011-05-01

    As an application of our recent observational error model, we present the astrometric masses of 26 main-belt asteroids. We also present an integrated ephemeris of 300 large asteroids, which was used in the mass determination algorithm to model significant perturbations from the rest of the main belt. After combining our mass estimates with those of other authors, we study the bulk porosities of over 50 main-belt asteroids and observe that asteroids as large as 300 km in diameter may be loose aggregates. This finding may place specific constraints on models of main-belt collisional evolution. Additionally, we observe that C-group asteroids tend to have significantly higher macroporosity than S-group asteroids.

  14. ASTROMETRIC MASSES OF 26 ASTEROIDS AND OBSERVATIONS ON ASTEROID POROSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, James [James Cook University, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Townsville, QLD 4811 (Australia); Chesley, Steven R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Matson, Robert D., E-mail: jimbaer1@earthlink.net, E-mail: steve.chesley@jpl.nasa.gov [Science Applications International Corporation, 3030 Old Ranch Pkwy., Ste. 250, Seal Beach, CA 90740 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    As an application of our recent observational error model, we present the astrometric masses of 26 main-belt asteroids. We also present an integrated ephemeris of 300 large asteroids, which was used in the mass determination algorithm to model significant perturbations from the rest of the main belt. After combining our mass estimates with those of other authors, we study the bulk porosities of over 50 main-belt asteroids and observe that asteroids as large as 300 km in diameter may be loose aggregates. This finding may place specific constraints on models of main-belt collisional evolution. Additionally, we observe that C-group asteroids tend to have significantly higher macroporosity than S-group asteroids.

  15. Capturing significant events with neural networks.

    PubMed

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Jenkins, Jeffrey; Willey, Jefferson; Landa, Joseph

    2012-05-01

    Smartphone video capture and transmission to the Web contributes to data pollution. In contrast, mammalian eyes sense all, capture only significant events, allowing us vividly recall the causalities. Likewise in our videos, we wish to skip redundancies and keep only significantly differences, as determined by real-time local medium filters. We construct a Picture Index (PI) of one's (center of gravity changes) among zeros (no changes) as Motion Organized Sparseness (MOS). Only non-overlapping time-ordered PI pair is admitted in the outer-product Associative Memory (AM). Another outer product between PI and its image builds Hetero-AM (HAM) for fault tolerant retrievals. PMID:22402410

  16. CGRO Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    1997-01-01

    This final report presents an investigation of the CGRO (Compton Gamma Ray Observatory) observations. The investigation includes: Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission at High Latitudes; and Echoes in X-Ray Novae; A Localized Excess of Gamma-Radiation; Transient Hard X-Ray Emission from Globular Clusters; and A Search for Be/X-Ray Binaries in Hard X-Rays; Hard X-Ray Emission from X-Ray Bursters; X-Ray Transients in Star-Forming Regions; Gamma-ray Emission from Globular Clusters; Shock High Energy Emission from Be-Star/Pulsar System PSR 1259-63m; Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy of Nearby OB Associations; Long Term Hard X-Ray Monitoring of X-Ray Busters; and Periodic Hard X-Ray Emission from GRO J1849-03.

  17. Significance of Algal Excretory Products for Growth of Epilimnetic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Thomas D.; Clyne, Jenny

    1984-01-01

    Light-stimulated uptake of 14CO2 and differential filtration through Nucleopore filters were used to estimate the significance of phytoplankton excretion as a source of bacterial carbon in water samples collected at different seasons of the year in Lake Mendota, Wis. On an annual basis, about 14% of the estimated bacterial production was accounted for by algal excretion, although at certain times of year the fraction of bacterial carbon derived from algal excretion was considerably higher. About 20% of the annual primary production was estimated to pass through the bacterial component. PMID:16346511

  18. Higher fine-scale genetic structure in peripheral than in core populations of a long-lived and mixed-mating conifer - eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fine-scale or spatial genetic structure (SGS) is one of the key genetic characteristics of plant populations. Several evolutionary and ecological processes and population characteristics influence the level of SGS within plant populations. Higher fine-scale genetic structure may be expected in peripheral than core populations of long-lived forest trees, owing to the differences in the magnitude of operating evolutionary and ecological forces such as gene flow, genetic drift, effective population size and founder effects. We addressed this question using eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) as a model species for declining to endangered long-lived tree species with mixed-mating system. Results We determined the SGS in two core and two peripheral populations of eastern white cedar from its Maritime Canadian eastern range using six nuclear microsatellite DNA markers. Significant SGS ranging from 15 m to 75 m distance classes was observed in the four studied populations. An analysis of combined four populations revealed significant positive SGS up to the 45 m distance class. The mean positive significant SGS observed in the peripheral populations was up to six times (up to 90 m) of that observed in the core populations (15 m). Spatial autocorrelation coefficients and correlograms of single and sub-sets of populations were statistically significant. The extent of within-population SGS was significantly negatively correlated with all genetic diversity parameters. Significant heterogeneity of within-population SGS was observed for 0-15 m and 61-90 m between core and peripheral populations. Average Sp, and gene flow distances were higher in peripheral (Sp = 0.023, ?g = 135 m) than in core (Sp = 0.014, ?g = 109 m) populations. However, the mean neighborhood size was higher in the core (Nb = 82) than in the peripheral (Nb = 48) populations. Conclusion Eastern white cedar populations have significant fine-scale genetic structure at short distances. Peripheral populations have several-folds higher within-population fine-scale genetic structure than core populations. Anthropogenic disturbances and population fragmentation presumably have significant effects on fine-scale genetic structure in eastern white cedar. Core populations have higher neighborhood size than peripheral populations, whereas gene flow distances are higher in peripheral than in core populations. The results of our study contribute to the knowledge of poorly-understood spatial genetic structure of core versus peripheral populations in plants. As well, the information is of significance for conservation of genetic resources of eastern white cedar and perhaps of other long-lived forest trees with mixed-mating system. PMID:22480185

  19. Validation of a behavioral observation tool to assess pig welfare.

    PubMed

    Smulders, D; Verbeke, G; Mormčde, P; Geers, R

    2006-10-30

    Accurately measuring and monitoring of animal behavior is an important factor when assessing on-farm animal welfare. First we developed a feasible and simple method aiming at consistently on-farm measuring of pig's behavior. This test should cover a broad range of welfare-related pig behavior. The reaction towards a novel object, startling, tail and ear biting, play and aggressive behavior, stereotypies, coughing, sneezing, skin lesions, defecation, urination and cleanliness of body and pen are included. The development of accurate measures of on-farm behavior first requires the reliability assessment of the procedure. Therefore, the methodology was tested in a first part by three observers scoring simultaneously and independently pre-defined behavioral characteristics of 108 group-housed fattening pigs. The inter-observer repeatability of the measures was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients, which ranged from 0.7 to 1. In a second part, the objective was to validate the behavioral characteristics against salivary cortisol, urinary epinephrine and norepinephrine and production traits. Salivary cortisol concentrations significantly increased in ear-bitten pigs and in pigs with tail lesions. Growth rate significantly dropped when cortisol levels rose. An age effect was also found. The percentage of animals approaching the novel object is positively correlated with the urinary epinephrine concentration. Pigs defecating during the test showed significantly higher epinephrine levels. Urinary norepinephrine concentration decreased significantly with age. Faster growing animals and animals with tail lesions showed significantly higher levels of norepinephrine. Pen dirtiness and number of animals per pen were associated with higher norepinephrine concentrations. Finally, barrows had higher norepinephrine concentrations than sows. PMID:16904137

  20. Enzymes extracted from apple peels have activity in reducing higher alcohols in Chinese liquors.

    PubMed

    Han, Qi'an; Shi, Junling; Zhu, Jing; Lv, Hongliang; Du, Shuangkui

    2014-10-01

    As the unavoidable byproducts of alcoholic fermentation, higher alcohols are unhealthy compounds widespread in alcoholic drinks. To investigate the activity of apple crude enzymes toward higher alcohols in liquors, five kinds of apple peels, namely, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Red Star, and Jonagold, were chosen to prepare enzymes, and three kinds of Chinese liquors, namely, Xifeng (containing 45% ethanol), Taibai (containing 50% ethanol), and Erguotou (containing 56% ethanol), were tested. Enzymes were prepared in the forms of liquid solution, powder, and immobilized enzymes using sodium alginate (SA) and chitosan. The treatment was carried out at 37 °C for 1 h. The relative amounts of different alcohols (including ethanol, 1-propanol, isobutanol, 1-butanol, isoamylol, and 1-hexanol) were measured using gas chromatography (GC). Conditions for preparing SA-immobilized Fuji enzymes (SA-IEP) were optimized, and the obtained SA-IEP (containing 0.3 g of enzyme) was continuously used to treat Xifeng liquor eight times, 20 mL per time. Significant degradation rates (DRs) of higher alcohols were observed at different degrees, and it also showed enzyme specificity according to the apple varieties and enzyme preparations. After five repeated treatments, the DRs of the optimized Fuji SA-IEP remained 70% for 1-hexanol and >15% for other higher alcohols. PMID:25238318

  1. Attached Segment Has Higher CD34(+) Cells and CFU-GM Than the Main Bag After Thawing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Ryun; Shin, Sue; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Roh, Eun Youn; Song, Eun Young; Han, Kyou Sup; Kim, Byoung Jae

    2015-01-01

    A contiguous segment attached to the cord blood unit (CBU) is required for verifying HLA types, cell viability, and, possibly, potency before transplantation since such a segment is considered to be representative of the CBU. However, little is known regarding the characteristics of contiguous segments in comparison to main bag units due to the difficulty experienced in accessing a large number of cryopreserved CBUs. In this study, we used 245 nonconforming CBUs for allogeneic transplantation. After thawing the cryopreserved CBU, the number of total nucleated cells (TNCs), CD34(+) cells, and CFUs in CB from main bags and segments, as well as cell viability and apoptosis, were examined. The comparative analysis showed that the number of TNCs was significantly higher in CB from main bags, whereas the numbers of CD34(+) cells and CFU-GM were significantly higher in CB from segments. While the cell viability of TNCs in segments was higher, the proportion of apoptotic TNCs was also higher. In contrast, no difference was observed between the proportion of apoptotic CD34(+) cells in main bags and segments. In the correlation analysis, the numbers of TNCs, CD34(+) cells, and CFU-GM in main bags were highly correlated with those in segments, indicating that CB from segments is indeed representative of CB in main bags. Taken together, we conclude that segments have higher CD34(+) cells and CFU-GM and lower TNCs than the main cryopreserved bag, although the two compartments are highly correlated with each other. PMID:24480482

  2. Dynamics of type 2 diabetes mellitus laboratory remission after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in patients with body mass index lower than 35 kg/m2 and higher than 35 kg/m2 in a 3-year observation period

    PubMed Central

    Proczko, Monika; Kobiela, Jarek; Stefaniak, Tomasz Jerzy; ?ledzinski, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Bariatric surgery as treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in morbidly obese patients is becoming common. Although a large number of studies demonstrating high efficacy of bariatric methods in diabetics with body mass index (BMI) < 35 kg/m2 have been published, this promising solution is still not accepted enough even in the era of a diabetes offensive. Aim To analyze the dynamics of T2DM remission in patients with BMI < 35 kg/m2 and > 35 kg/m2 after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Material and methods Data of 30 patients with BMI < 35 kg/m2 and 82 with BMI > 35 kg/m2 who underwent RYGB between 2007 and 2010 were collected from a prospectively designed database. The laboratory resolution of T2DM was determined by fasting plasma glucose (FPG ? 100 mg/dl) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c ? 6%). Results The T2DM regression was observed in 80% of the patients with BMI < 35 kg/m2 and 83% in a group with BMI > 35 kg/m2 1 year after RYGB and about 80% 2 and 3 years after the operation in both groups. Normalization of average HbA1c and FPG was observed in the BMI > 35 kg/m2 group after 3 months, while in the BMI < 35 kg/m2 group it was reached 6 months postoperatively. Changes in main markers of T2DM were parallel with the BMI decrease 3–12 months after RYGB, but early resolution in some patients was observed independently of weight loss. Conclusions The mid-term observation of patients after RYGB revealed the laboratory remission of T2DM. Ultimate evaluation of T2DM markers 3 years after surgery demonstrates high effectiveness of RYGB in managing T2DM in both groups. PMID:25561989

  3. Peritoneal Adhesions: Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Clinical Significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theodoros Liakakos; Nikolaos Thomakos; Paul M. Fine; Christos Dervenis; Ronald L. Young

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To summarize the most common etiologic factors and describe the pathophysiology in the formation of peritoneal adhesions, to outline their clinical significance and consequences, and to evaluate the pharmacologic, mechanical, and surgical adjuvant strategies to minimize peritoneal adhesion formation. Methods: We performed an extensive MEDLINE search of the internationally published English literature of all medical and epidemiological journal articles,

  4. Statistical Significance Testing and Clinical Trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Merton S. Krause

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of treatments is better expressed for clinical purposes in terms of these treatments' outcome distributions and their overlapping rather than in terms of the statistical significance of these distributions' mean differences, because clinical practice is primarily concerned with the outcome of each individual client rather than with the mean of the variety of outcomes in any group of

  5. Statistical Significance Testing and Clinical Effectiveness Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward A. Wise

    2011-01-01

    Effectiveness studies, by definition, must reflect patient and treatment variables that exist in the real world of practice. This includes identifying the covariates that contribute to both positive and negative outcomes. The use of clinically significant change and reliable change indices is reviewed to demonstrate that patient changes can be made on the basis of normative comparisons, using outcome relevant

  6. Acremonium kiliense: Reappraisal of Its Clinical Significance?

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ziauddin; Al-Obaid, Khaled; Ahmad, Suhail; Ghani, Amal Abdel; Joseph, Leena; Chandy, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    A case of Acremonium kiliense peritonitis is described. Diagnosis was established by repeated isolation of the fungus from peritoneal dialysate and by its identification on the basis of morphological characteristics and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). This report and available literature suggest that A. kiliense may have a greater clinical significance than hitherto recognized. PMID:21450966

  7. Social significance of community structure: statistical view.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Jia; Daniels, Jasmine J

    2015-01-01

    Community structure analysis is a powerful tool for social networks that can simplify their topological and functional analysis considerably. However, since community detection methods have random factors and real social networks obtained from complex systems always contain error edges, evaluating the significance of a partitioned community structure is an urgent and important question. In this paper, integrating the specific characteristics of real society, we present a framework to analyze the significance of a social community. The dynamics of social interactions are modeled by identifying social leaders and corresponding hierarchical structures. Instead of a direct comparison with the average outcome of a random model, we compute the similarity of a given node with the leader by the number of common neighbors. To determine the membership vector, an efficient community detection algorithm is proposed based on the position of the nodes and their corresponding leaders. Then, using a log-likelihood score, the tightness of the community can be derived. Based on the distribution of community tightness, we establish a connection between p-value theory and network analysis, and then we obtain a significance measure of statistical form . Finally, the framework is applied to both benchmark networks and real social networks. Experimental results show that our work can be used in many fields, such as determining the optimal number of communities, analyzing the social significance of a given community, comparing the performance among various algorithms, etc. PMID:25679651

  8. Distance Education: Looking Beyond "No Significant Difference."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maushak, Nancy J.; Chen, Hui-Hui; Martin, Laura; Shaw, Benny C., Jr.; Unfred, David

    2001-01-01

    A review of research in distance education indicates that results are consistent in that there is no significant difference in achievement attributable to the delivery system. This paper attempts to look beyond these studies by examining research related to: learner interaction and control, two different approaches to multiple learning styles, and…

  9. Defining ‘Evolutionarily Significant Units’ for conservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig Moritz

    1994-01-01

    w riting in the first issue of TREE, Ryder' brought the term 'Evolution- arily Significant Unit' (ESU) to the atten- tion of a broad audience of ecologists and evolutionary biologists. The ESU concept was developed to provide a rational basis for prioritizing taxa for conservation effort (e.g. captive breeding), given that resources are limited and that existing taxonomy may not

  10. Teaching Significant Figures Using Age Conversions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas D. Crute

    2005-01-01

    In this classroom activity the instructor provides increasingly precise values of the age in years of a famous person to have students calculate the age in days. An accurate age is readily determined using Julian dates. The activity provides a student-friendly, equipment-free entry to a discussion of estimated measurements, significant figures, exact numbers, rounding, and conversion factors.

  11. Teaching Significant Figures Using Age Conversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crute, Thomas D.

    2005-01-01

    Some useful approaches to assist students with the uncertainty of measurement and the necessity of significant figures through age conversion exercise and activity are presented. It showed that while two people might be born on the same date, they are not born at the same instant once, it considers the birth time to an appropriate number of…

  12. Significant Figures: A Collection of Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterridge, D. J., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Two responses to a prior report on significant figures and a discussion on outlining conventions for the accuracy of answers are included in this document. A clarification of the supposed error in the original report is noted at the beginning. (MP)

  13. Mass Spectra Alignments and their Significance

    E-print Network

    Lonardi, Stefano

    ¨ocker, Kaltenbach Mass Spectra Alignments CPM 2005 #12;Overview Mass Spectrometry in Proteomics Protein Alignments CPM 2005 #12;Overview Mass Spectrometry in Proteomics Protein Identification via MS Alignment Mass Spectrometry in Proteomics Protein Identification via MS Alignment of Spectra Score Significance

  14. How many spectral lines are statistically significant?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Freund

    1992-01-01

    When experimental line spectra are fitted with least squares techniques one frequently does not know whether n or n + 1 lines may be fitted safely. This paper shows how an F-test can be applied in order to determine the statistical significance of including an extra line into the fitting routine.

  15. The significance of protein sequence similarities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Collins; A. F. W. Coulson; A. Lyall

    1988-01-01

    A general method of assessing the significance of scored best local alignments, particularly suited to protein sequence com- parisons, is described. The method establishes the parameters describing the distribution of the best results from any search program, provided that the set is sufficiently large and the ma- jority of the alignments arise from unrelated sequences. The expected frequency of occurrence

  16. Extracting significant time varying features from text

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell C. Swan; James Allan

    1999-01-01

    We propose a simple statistical model for the frequency of occurrence of features in a stream of text. Adoption of this model allows us to use classical significance tests to filter the stream for interesting events. We tested the model by building a system and running it on a news corpus. By a subjective evaluation, the system worked remarkably well:

  17. Significance Tests in Parallel and in Series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. J. Good

    1958-01-01

    The advice is often given that significance tests should be selected before sampling evidence is examined. It is suggested here that this advice is appropriate only for inexperienced statisticians, and an approximate rule of thumb is tentatively proposed in the hope of provoking discussion, namely that the statistician could in some cases use a harmonic mean or weighted harmonic mean

  18. The Historical Significance of the Universal Declaration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eide, Asbjorn

    1998-01-01

    Explains the historical significance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Focuses on the initiative for the Declaration and its elaboration, the precursors to modern human rights, the foundation of the Declaration, the rights contained in the Universal Declaration, three modes of human rights analysis, and global governance and human…

  19. Scope and Significance of Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James E.; Eckert, Elke D.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the increasing prevalence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in many industrialized societies, and their association with significant morbidity and mortality. Discusses the genetic risks for the development of anorexia nervosa, and treatment strategies. Of these, pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, particularly those incorporating…

  20. Adaptive significance of amylase polymorphism in Drosophila.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Note Adaptive significance of amylase polymorphism in Drosophila. Analysis of the association between tissue-specific expression and specific activity in AmyS or AmyF genotypes of Drosophila in the midgut of adult Drosophila subobscura flies, homozygous for the Amys or AmyF allele, was analysed. The re