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Sample records for observed significantly higher

  1. Competitive Intelligence: Significance in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Historically noncompetitive, the higher education sector is now having to adjust dramatically to new and increasing demands on numerous levels. To remain successfully operational within the higher educational market universities today must consider all relevant forces which can impact present and future planning. Those institutions that were

  2. Reported Significant Observation (RSO) studies. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Eicher, R.W.

    1992-12-01

    The Reported Significant Observation (RSO) study used in the field of safety is an information-gathering technique where employee-participants describe situations they have personally witnessed involving good and bad practices and safe and unsafe conditions. This information is useful in the risk assessment process because it focuses on hazards and thereby facilitates their elimination. However, RSO cannot be the only component in a risk assessment program. Used by the Air Force in their aviation psychology program and further developed by John C. Flanagan, RSO is more commonly known as the ``Critical Incident Technique.`` However, the words ``Critical`` and ``Incident`` had other connotations in nuclear safety, prompting early users within the Aerojet Nuclear Company to coin the more fitting title of ``Reported Significant Observations.`` The technique spread slowly in the safety field primarily because the majority of users were researchers interested in after-the-fact data, with application to everyday problems and behavioral factors. RSO was formally recognized as a significant hazard reduction tool during the development of the Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) program for the US Atomic Energy Commission. The Department of Energy (DOE) has, in turn, adopted MORT for its system safety program, and this has resulted in RSO being a modern and viable technique for DOE contractor safety programs.

  3. Observing the operational significance of discord consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Mile; Chrzanowski, Helen M.; Assad, Syed M.; Symul, Thomas; Modi, Kavan; Ralph, Timothy C.; Vedral, Vlatko; Lam, Ping Koy

    2012-09-01

    Coherent interactions that generate negligible entanglement can still exhibit unique quantum behaviour. This observation has motivated a search beyond entanglement for a complete description of all quantum correlations. Quantum discord is a promising candidate. Here, we demonstrate that under certain measurement constraints, discord between bipartite systems can be consumed to encode information that can only be accessed by coherent quantum interactions. The inability to access this information by any other means allows us to use discord to directly quantify this `quantum advantage'. We experimentally encode information within the discordant correlations of two separable Gaussian states. The amount of extra information recovered by coherent interaction is quantified and directly linked with the discord consumed during encoding. No entanglement exists at any point of this experiment. Thus we introduce and demonstrate an operational method to use discord as a physical resource.

  4. Earth observations and photography experiment: Summary of significant results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Baz, F.

    1978-01-01

    Observation and photographic data from the Apollo Soyuz Test Project are analyzed. The discussion is structured according to the fields of investigation including: geology, desert studies, oceanography, hydrology, and meteorology. The data were obtained by: (1) visual observations of selected Earth features, (2) hand-held camera photography to document observations, and (3) stereo mapping photography of areas of significant scientific interest.

  5. Circumnutation observed without a significant gravitational force in spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. H.; Chapman, D. K.

    1984-01-01

    For over half a century and especially since the 1960's a number of plant physiologists, seeking to explain the impressively ubiquitous mechanism that drives and regulates circumnutation in all growing plant organs, have been unable to agree on whether the differential growth process that leads to circumnutational oscillations is gravity dependent. There has been fairly general agreement that the question might be answered, if test plants could be deprived of all significant gravitational stimuli as would be possible in the near weightlessness or free fall environment of satellite orbit. Such an experiment was carried out during the Spacelab 1 mission. Circumnutational oscillations were observed which demonstrated that a protracted input of gravitational information from the environment was not required for initiation or maintenance of circumnutation in sunflower hypocotyls.

  6. The Significance of Australian Vocational Education Institutions in Opening Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie, Gavin; Wheelahan, Leesa

    2009-01-01

    Vocational education provides an educational but not a social ladder of opportunity to Australian higher education. The five dual-sector universities with significant enrolments in both vocational and higher education admit about twice the proportion of students transferring from vocational education as other universities. However, since the…

  7. Academic Entrepreneurship (Re)defined: Significance and Implications for the Scholarship of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mars, Matthew M.; Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades higher education scholars have conducted a significant amount of research aimed at understanding the implications of enhanced interactions between the academy and the private marketplace. Accordingly, a voluminous literature that includes conceptualizations and discussions of "academic entrepreneurship" has emerged.…

  8. Academic Entrepreneurship (Re)defined: Significance and Implications for the Scholarship of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mars, Matthew M.; Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades higher education scholars have conducted a significant amount of research aimed at understanding the implications of enhanced interactions between the academy and the private marketplace. Accordingly, a voluminous literature that includes conceptualizations and discussions of "academic entrepreneurship" has emerged.

  9. Filling missing observations in time series of significant wave height

    SciTech Connect

    Hidalgo, O.S.; Nieto Borge, J.C.; Cunha, C.C.; Guedes Soares, C.

    1995-12-31

    Missing values are frequently encountered in time series of wave measurements and this presents difficulties in the continuous application of autoregressive models to the series. In this paper, the use of autoregressive models to describe the time series of significant wave height is described and different methods are presented to fill missing values in the series. For small gaps it is possible to forecast from models adjusted to partial series, but for large gaps a method is proposed to account for the spatial correlation of the data. Application examples are provided for the time series of Figueira da Foz in Portugal and its correlation with data from Sines in Portugal and La Coruna in Spain.

  10. Higher topological invariants of magnetic field lines: observational aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illarionov, Egor; Smirnov, Alexander; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Sokoloff, Dmitry; Akhmet'ev, Peter

    Topology of magnetic field lines is directly involved in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theorems and equations. Being an invariant of motion in ideal MHD conditions, the magnetic field-line topology is a natural obstacle to the relaxation of magnetic field into a current-free (potential) field and contrariwise limits a dynamo generation. Usage of these conservational laws and writing of numerical relations require a quantification of topology. One of the simplest existing measures of magnetic topology is the mutual magnetic helicity, that expresses the combined action of interaction and linkage between different magnetic field lines. For practical purposes there exists the revised concept of relative magnetic helicity, that allows to estimate the complexity of field-line topology in case of open volume, i.e. when magnetic lines cross the boundaries of given 3D region. At the same time this concept remains a simple interpretation of linkage number in terms of individual lines. Our point however is that magnetic helicity is far from being unique or comprehensive quantification of magnetic field-line topology. To improve the situation we introduce a set of higher invariants which extends the idea of relative helicity and provides a new means to describe the magnetic field-line topology. To practically study the possibility of implementation of higher topological invariants we reconstruct several moments of mutual helicity from observed solar vector magnetograms with extrapolated magnetic field above the photosphere and discuss to what extent such knowledge could be instructive for understanding of the solar magnetic field evolution.

  11. Observation of higher stiffness in nanopolycrystal diamond than monocrystal diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanigaki, Kenichi; Ogi, Hirotsugu; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Kusakabe, Koichi; Nakamura, Nobutomo; Hirao, Masahiko; Ledbetter, Hassel

    2013-08-01

    Diamond is the stiffest known material. Here we report that nanopolycrystal diamond synthesized by direct-conversion method from graphite is stiffer than natural and synthesized monocrystal diamonds. This observation departs from the usual thinking that nanocrystalline materials are softer than their monocrystals because of a large volume fraction of soft grain-boundary region. The direct conversion causes the nondiffusional phase transformation to cubic diamond, producing many twins inside diamond grains. We give an ab initio-calculation twinned model that confirms the stiffening. We find that shorter interplane bonds along [111] are significantly strengthened near the twinned region, from which the superstiff structure originates. Our discovery provides a novel step forward in the search for superstiff materials.

  12. Lower uncarboxylated osteocalcin and higher sclerostin levels are significantly associated with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Lim, Soo; Moon, Jae Hoon; Jin, Hyunjin; Jung, Kyong Yeun; Shin, Chan Soo; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Choi, Sung Hee

    2016-02-01

    Systemic roles for bone-derived proteins have emerged from recent studies. In particular, the serum concentration of osteocalcin (OCN) or sclerostin was found to be associated with altered glucose metabolism or atherosclerosis. The aims of this study were to evaluate OCN and sclerostin levels in subjects who underwent coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery compared with those in normal controls and to analyze their relationships with atherosclerosis. This was an age- and sex-matched case-control study that included 61 male subjects who underwent CABG and 61 controls. Forty-six subjects (37.7%) with diabetes and 62 hypertensive subjects (50.8%) were included. Serum sclerostin, uncarboxylated OCN (ucOCN) and carboxylated OCN (cOCN) were measured. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) score was calculated according to Agatston's method, using a 64-slice multi-detector computed tomography scanner. The levels of serum ucOCN were significantly lower and sclerostin concentrations were higher in the CABG group than in the controls (p<0.05 for both), and these significances were maintained after adjusting for atherosclerotic risk factors in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients (p<0.05 in both groups). However, there was no difference in cOCN levels between CABG patients and controls. The group with abnormal CAC scores (CAC scores ?100) had significantly higher levels of serum sclerostin (p<0.05). In multiple logistic regression analysis, both lower ucOCN and higher sclerostin levels were independently associated with CABG (odds ratio [OR] 0.43, 95% CI 0.22-0.84, p<0.05 for log(ucOCN); and OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.08-4.05, p<0.05 for log(sclerostin)). In subjects with CAD who underwent CABG, the serum ucOCN level was decreased and the sclerostin level was increased compared with those in the controls, regardless of diabetic status. Longitudinal studies are warranted to establish the precise roles of ucOCN and sclerostin in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. PMID:26576474

  13. Higher comorbidity rates in unemployed patients may significantly impact the cost of spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Walid, Mohammad Sami; Robinson, Edward C M; Robinson, Joe Sam

    2011-05-01

    Chronic back pain is commonly associated with physical and mental comorbidities, which create a considerable burden on the healthcare system. We examined the differences in comorbidity rates of 619 spinal surgery patients of employment age, and the impact of comorbidity rates on length of hospital stay and cost. The charts of patients aged >25 years and <65 years were reviewed retrospectively. Type of surgery, employment status, comorbidities, length of stay and hospital charges were studied using chi-square, Fisher, Student's t-test, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test and multivariate analysis. The unemployment rate among employment-aged spinal surgery patients was 44.7%. Unemployed patients who underwent any of the three types of surgery (anterior cervical decompression and fusion, lumbar decompression and fusion, and lumbar microdiscectomy [LMD]) stayed longer in hospital but had higher hospital charges in the minimally invasive LMD group only. There were higher rates of some comorbidities in unemployed compared to employed patients: asthma (12.2% vs. 5.9%), coronary artery disease (20.4% vs. 12.8%), diabetes mellitus (58.0% vs. 47.3%), history of coronary artery bypass surgery or stent placement (18.2% vs. 11.6%), hypothyroidism (14.4% vs. 8.2%), knee joint disease (43.1% vs. 33.6%), chronic renal disease (12.9% vs. 2.9%) and opioid (55.2% vs. 45.9%) antidepressant (37.0% vs. 25.3%) anxiolytic (16.0% vs. 8.9%) use. Charlson comorbidity scores were significantly different (p<0.001) between unemployed (1.72 1.90) and employed patients (1.03 1.55). Multivariate analysis showed that a history of coronary artery bypass/stent procedure, chronic renal disease or preoperative opioid use had a significant impact on length of stay and hospital charges in unemployed spine surgery patients. Thus, unemployment in spinal surgery candidates is associated with higher comorbidity rates with a significant impact on healthcare cost. More research is needed into the relationship between unemployment and consumption of healthcare resources. PMID:21393000

  14. Significance of Pre-Radiographic MRI Lesions in Persons at Higher Risk for Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Leena; Chmiel, Joan S.; Almagor, Orit; Dunlop, Dorothy; Guermazi, Ali; Bathon, Joan; Eaton, Charles; Hochberg, Marc; Jackson, Rebecca; Kwoh, Kent; Mysiw, W. Jerry; Crema, Michel; Roemer, Frank; Nevitt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective Little is known about early knee osteoarthritis (OA). The significance of MRI lesions in older persons without radiographic OA is unclear. Our objectives were to determine extent of tissue pathology by MRI and evaluate its significance by testing the hypotheses: cartilage damage, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), and meniscal damage are associated with prevalent frequent knee symptoms and incident persistent symptoms; BMLs and meniscal damage are associated with incident tibiofemoral cartilage damage; BMLs are associated with incident patellofemoral cartilage damage. Methods In a cohort study of 849 OAI (Osteoarthritis Initiative) participants who had bilateral K/L 0, we assessed cartilage, BMLs, and meniscal damage using MOAKS, as well as prevalent frequent knee symptoms, incident persistent symptoms, and incident cartilage damage. Multiple logistic regression (one knee/person) was used to evaluate associations between MRI lesions and each of these outcomes. Results 76% had cartilage damage, 61% BMLs, 21% meniscal tears, and 14% meniscal extrusion. Cartilage damage (any; tibiofemoral and patellofemoral), BMLs (any; tibiofemoral and patellofemoral), meniscal extrusion, and BMI were associated with prevalent frequent symptoms. Cartilage damage (isolated patellofemoral; tibiofemoral and patellofemoral), BMLs (any; isolated patellofemoral; tibiofemoral and patellofemoral), meniscal tears, and BMI were associated with incident persistent symptoms. Hand OA but no individual lesion type was associated with incident tibiofemoral cartilage damage, and BMLs (any; any patellofemoral) with incident patellofemoral damage. Having more lesion types was associated with a greater risk of outcomes. Conclusions MRI-detected lesions are not incidental and may represent early disease in persons at higher risk for knee OA. PMID:24974824

  15. Reoxygenation of Asphyxiated Newborn Piglets: Administration of 100% Oxygen Causes Significantly Higher Apoptosis in Cortical Neurons, as Compared to 21%

    PubMed Central

    Faa, G.; Fanos, V.; Fanni, D.; Gerosa, C.; Faa, A.; Fraschini, M.; Pais, M. E.; Di Felice, E.; Papalois, A.; Varsami, M.; Xanthos, T.; Iacovidou, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Evaluation of neuronal changes in an animal experimental model of normocapnic hypoxia- reoxygenation. Materials and Methods. Fifty male piglets were the study subjects; normocapnic hypoxia was induced in 40 piglets and ten were sham-operated (controls). When bradycardia and/or severe hypotension occurred, reoxygenation was initiated. Animals were allocated in 4 groups according to the oxygen concentration, they were resuscitated with 18%, 21%, 40%, and 100% O2. Persisting asystole despite 10 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and return of spontaneous circulation were the endpoints of the experiment. Surviving animals were euthanized and brain cortex samples were collected, hematoxylin and eosin-stained, and examined for apoptotic bodies observing 10 consecutive high power fields. Results. Histological examination of the control group did not show any pathological change. On the contrary, apoptosis of neurons was found in 87.5% of treated animals. When specimens were examined according to the oxygen concentration used for resuscitation, we found marked intergroup variability; a higher percentage of apoptotic neurons was observed in piglets of group 4 (100% oxygen) compared to the others (P = 0.001). Conclusions. This preliminary data shows that normocapnic hypoxia and reoxygenation in Landrace/Large White piglets resulted in significant histological changes in the brain cortex. The degree of pathological changes in cortical neurons was significantly associated with the oxygen concentration used for reoxygenation, with a higher percentage of apoptotic neurons being observed in piglets reoxygenated with 100% compared to 18% O2 and to 21% O2. PMID:24783208

  16. Higher resolution stimulus facilitates depth perception: MT+ plays a significant role in monocular depth perception

    PubMed Central

    Tsushima, Yoshiaki; Komine, Kazuteru; Sawahata, Yasuhito; Hiruma, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Today, we human beings are facing with high-quality virtual world of a completely new nature. For example, we have a digital display consisting of a high enough resolution that we cannot distinguish from the real world. However, little is known how such high-quality representation contributes to the sense of realness, especially to depth perception. What is the neural mechanism of processing such fine but virtual representation? Here, we psychophysically and physiologically examined the relationship between stimulus resolution and depth perception, with using luminance-contrast (shading) as a monocular depth cue. As a result, we found that a higher resolution stimulus facilitates depth perception even when the stimulus resolution difference is undetectable. This finding is against the traditional cognitive hierarchy of visual information processing that visual input is processed continuously in a bottom-up cascade of cortical regions that analyze increasingly complex information such as depth information. In addition, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results reveal that the human middle temporal (MT+) plays a significant role in monocular depth perception. These results might provide us with not only the new insight of our neural mechanism of depth perception but also the future progress of our neural system accompanied by state-of- the-art technologies. PMID:25327168

  17. Higher Education in Balkan Region and its Contribution to the Earth Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisec, A.; Fras, M. K.

    2012-07-01

    The needs for spatial data as well as techniques of Earth Observation are changing, and new professional areas are developing very rapidly. In addition, scientific work and its connection with the teaching process have influenced the introduction of new cognitions into the higher education programs in general. Considering these facts, in the period shorter than one decade, the higher education institutions in the Balkan region, which have study programs in the fields of spatial data acquisition, analysis and spatial decisions, have made significant changes of the curricula. In our research, we have analyzed the current higher education programs in the Balkan region having focused on curricula related to the Earth Observation. Due to historical reasons, these curricula have its roots in surveying study programs in the most Balkan countries. The competences of classical surveying higher educational programs have been changing and nowadays include the wider area of spatial data acquisition, geoinformatics. In parallel, we present the current Earth Observation activities in the selected countries from the Balkan region. Based on the results of our research in the framework of the European program Observe, which aims to establish a new Balkan Earth Observation (EO) community of multilevel stakeholders that will make use of state of the art technological developments, products and knowhow from the existing European EO community and industry, we estimate the contribution of advanced higher educational programs to the Earth Observation activities in the selected countries.

  18. Seasonal climate forecasts significantly affected by observational uncertainty of Arctic sea ice concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunzel, Felix; Notz, Dirk; Baehr, Johanna; Müller, Wolfgang A.; Fröhlich, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    We investigate how observational uncertainty in satellite-retrieved sea ice concentrations affects seasonal climate predictions. To do so, we initialize hindcast simulations with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model every 1 May and 1 November from 1981 to 2011 with two different sea ice concentration data sets, one based on the NASA Team and one on the Bootstrap algorithm. For hindcasts started in November, initial differences in Arctic sea ice area and surface temperature decrease rapidly throughout the freezing period. For hindcasts started in May, initial differences in sea ice area increase over time. By the end of the melting period, this causes significant differences in 2 meter air temperature of regionally more than 3°C. Hindcast skill for surface temperatures over Europe and North America is higher with Bootstrap initialization during summer and with NASA Team initialization during winter. This implies that the observational uncertainty also affects forecasts of teleconnections that depend on northern hemispheric climate indices.

  19. Significantly Higher Cytokine and Chemokine Levels in Patients with Japanese Spotted Fever than in Those with Tsutsugamushi Disease

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Hiromichi; Ikegaya, Satoshi; Takada, Nobuhiro; Tamaki, Yukiko; Tabara, Kenji; Ueda, Takanori

    2014-01-01

    Tetracyclines are administered to cure Japanese spotted fever (JSF) and tsutsugamushi disease (TD). It is generally said that the clinical course of JSF is worse than that of TD despite antibiotic treatment. The precise mechanism underlying the more severe clinical course of JSF is not fully understood. We therefore examined whether the differential cytokine profile between these two infectious diseases contributes to the difference in clinical severity. The serum concentrations of various cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-?], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and gamma interferon [IFN-?]) and chemokines (IL-8, interferon-inducible protein 10 [IP-10], monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1], macrophage inflammatory protein 1? [MIP-1?], MIP-1?, and eotaxin) were measured in 32 TD and 21 JSF patients. The results showed that serum levels of TNF-? in the acute phases of TD and JSF were significantly increased, with a higher concentration of TNF-? in patients with JSF (mean, 39.9 pg/ml) than in those with TD (mean, 13.8 pg/ml). Comparatively higher levels of other cytokines and chemokines (IL-6, IFN-?, IL-8, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1?, and MIP-1?) were also observed in the acute phase of JSF. The clinical severity score (3.67 1.71) of JSF patients was higher than that of TD patients (1.47 0.77). Our findings revealed that the cytokine and chemokine levels in the acute phase of JSF were significantly higher than those in the acute phase of TD. The differential cytokine levels may be related to the difference in clinical severity between JSF and TD. PMID:24671792

  20. The Significance of Blackstone's Understanding of Sovereign Immunity for America's Public Institutions of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Brian A.; Thro, William E.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that from the perspective of America's public institutions of higher education, Blackstone's greatest legacy is his understanding of sovereign immunity. Explores the similarities between Blackstone's understanding of sovereign immunity and the current jurisprudence of the U.S. Supreme Court. (EV)

  1. 'Carriers of variant luteinizing hormone (V-LH) among 1593 Baltic men have significantly higher serum LH'.

    PubMed

    Punab, A M; Grigorova, M; Punab, M; Adler, M; Kuura, T; Poolamets, O; Vihljajev, V; Žilaitienė, B; Erenpreiss, J; Matulevičius, V; Laan, M

    2015-05-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a pituitary heterodimeric glycoprotein essential in male and female reproduction. Its functional polymorphic variant (V-LH) is determined by two missense mutations (rs1800447, A/G, Trp8Arg; rs34349826, A/G, Ile15Thr) in the LH β-subunit encoding gene (LHB; 19q13.3; 1111 bp; 3 exons). Among women, V-LH has been associated with higher circulating LH and reduced fertility, but the knowledge of its effect on male reproductive parameters has been inconclusive. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of V-LH on hormonal, seminal and testicular parameters in the Baltic young men cohort (n = 986; age: 20.1 ± 2.1 years) and Estonian idiopathic infertility patients (n = 607; 35.1 ± 5.9 years). V-LH was detected by genotyping of the underlying DNA polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP combined with resequencing of a random subset of subjects. Genetic associations were tested using linear regression under additive model and results were combined in meta-analysis. No significant difference was detected between young men and infertility patients for the V-LH allele frequency (11.0 vs. 9.3%, respectively). V-LH was associated with higher serum LH in both, the young men cohort (p = 0.022, allelic effect = 0.26 IU/L) and the idiopathic infertility group (p = 0.008, effect = 0.59 IU/L). In meta-analysis, the statistical significance was enhanced (p = 0.0007, resistant to Bonferroni correction for multiple testing; effect = 0.33 IU/L). The detected significant association of V-LH with increased serum LH remained unchanged after additional adjustment for the SNPs previously demonstrated to affect LH levels (FSHB -211G/T, FSHR Asn680Ser, FSHR -29A/G). Additionally, a suggestive trend for association with reduced testicular volume was observed among young men, and with lower serum FSH among infertility patients. The V-LH carrier status did not affect sperm parameters and other circulating reproductive hormones. For the first time, we show a conclusive contribution of V-LH to the natural variance in male serum LH levels. Its downstream clinical consequences are still to be learned. PMID:25820123

  2. A likelihood ratio test to assess the significance of source detections in imaging observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nievas-Rosillo, M.; Contreras, J. L.

    2015-05-01

    A new method to estimate the significance of point source observations carried out by Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes is presented. It is based on a likelihood ratio test procedure under the assumption of a well-known PSF and a smooth background. The method is tested with Monte Carlo simulations based on real observations and its sensitivity is compared to standard methods widely used in IACT Astronomy which do not incorporate PSF information.

  3. Sodium lidar observed gravity wave breaking event and its associated significant sodium sporadic layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, C.; Li, T.; Fang, X.; Dou, X.; Xiong, J.; Russell, J. M., III; Wu, Q.

    2014-12-01

    On the night of July 29th, 2013 (UT day 13210), the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) sodium temperature/wind lidar, located at Hefei, China (31N, 117E), observed a significant zonal wind shear of -60 m/s/km near ~100 km between 13:15 and 13:30UT, accompanied with a significant cooling near 96-100 km lasting for 1 hr (13:30-14:30 UT). This suggested a significant gravity wave breaking possibly induced by the dynamic instability. The lidar zonal wind is compared with the wind observed by a meteor radar located at Wuhan, ~200 km west of lidar site, and the lidar temperature is compared with SABER temperature, the results further confirmed this possible significant gravity wave breaking event. After the wave breaking, the sodium density was suddenly enhanced by 10-12 times near 94km. Unlike most sporadic sodium layer (SSL) reported in the literatures, this SSL propagated upward, and passed the west lidar beam around 2min earlier than the east lidar beam (~ 50 km separated in the MLT region). The propagate direction of SSL is agreed with enhanced meridional wind observed by Wuhan meteor radar, indicating that this enhanced sodium layer is likely transported from the north of Hefei.

  4. Serum concentration of alpha-1 antitrypsin is significantly higher in colorectal cancer patients than in healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency and colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently controversial. The present study compares AAT serum concentrations and gene frequencies between a group of CRC patients and a control group of healthy unrelated people (HUP). Methods 267 CRC subjects (63% males, 72??10years old) were enlisted from a Hospital Clinic setting in Asturias, Spain. The HUP group comprised 327 subjects (67% males, mean age 70??7.5years old) from the same geographical region. Outcome measures were AAT serum concentrations measured by nephelometry, and AAT phenotyping characterization by isoelectric focusing. Results Significantly higher serum concentrations were found among CRC (208??60) than in HUP individuals (144??20.5) (p?=?0.0001). No differences were found in the phenotypic distribution of the Pi*S and Pi*Z allelic frequencies (p?=?0.639), although the frequency of Pi*Z was higher in CRC (21%) than in HUP subjects (15%). Conclusions The only statistically significant finding in this study was the markedly higher AAT serum concentrations found in CRC subjects compared with HUP controls, irrespective of whether their Pi* phenotype was normal (Pi*MM) or deficient (Pi*MS, Pi*MZ and Pi*SZ). Although there was a trend towards the more deficient Pi* phenotype the more advanced the tumor, the results were inconclusive due to the small sample size. Consequently, more powerful studies are needed to reach firmer conclusions on this matter. PMID:24886427

  5. DHA Serum Levels Were Significantly Higher in Celiac Disease Patients Compared to Healthy Controls and Were Unrelated to Depression

    PubMed Central

    van Hees, Nathalie J. M.; Giltay, Erik J.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Janssen, Nadine; van der Does, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Celiac disease (CD), a genetically predisposed intolerance for gluten, is associated with an increased risk of major depressive disorder (MDD). We investigated whether dietary intake and serum levels of the essential n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) found in fatty fish play a role in this association. Methods Cross-sectional study in 71 adult CD patients and 31 healthy volunteers, matched on age, gender and level of education, who were not using n-3 PUFA supplements. Dietary intake, as assessed using a 203-item food frequency questionnaire, and serum levels of EPA and DHA were compared in analyses of covariance, adjusting for potential confounders. Serum PUFA were determined using gas chromatography. Results Mean serum DHA was significantly higher in CD patients (1.72 mass%) than controls (1.28 mass%) after multivariable adjustment (mean diff. 0.45 mass%; 95% CI: 0.220.68; p?=?0.001). The mean intake of EPA plus DHA did not differ between CD patients and controls after multivariable adjustment (0.15 and 0.22 g/d, respectively; p?=?0.10). There were no significant differences in intake or serum levels of EPA and DHA between any of the CD patient groups (never depressed, current MDD, minor/partially remitted MDD, remitted MDD) and controls. Conclusions Patients on a long term gluten-free diet had similar intakes of EPA plus DHA compared to controls. Contrary to expectations, DHA serum levels were significantly higher in CD patients compared to healthy controls and were unrelated to MDD status. PMID:24841484

  6. Observation of a significant excess of pi0pi0 events in B meson decays.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kral, J F; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Morgan, S E; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Barlow, N R; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Mackay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Shen, B C; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Kuznetsova, N; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; Van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Grenier, P; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Biasini, M; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Pioppi, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Won, E; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S-J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Brigljević, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Forti, A C; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Weatherall, J H; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Cote-Ahern, D; Hast, C; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; De La Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; Stark, J; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Del Gamba, V; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Tanaka, H A; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yeche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Grauges-Pous, E; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2003-12-12

    We present a study of the decay B0-->pi(0)pi(0) based on a sample of 124 x 10(6) BB pairs recorded by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. We observe 46+/-13+/-3 events, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic, corresponding to a significance of 4.2 standard deviations including systematic uncertainties. We measure the branching fraction B(B0-->pi(0)pi(0))=(2.1+/-0.6+/-0.3)x10(-6), averaged over B0 and B(0) decays. PMID:14683107

  7. The H3 antagonist ABT-288 is tolerated at significantly higher exposures in subjects with schizophrenia than in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Ahmed A; Haig, George; Florian, Hana; Locke, Charles; Gertsik, Lev; Dutta, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Aims ABT-288 is a potent and selective H3 receptor antagonist with procognitive effects in several preclinical models. In previous studies, 3 mg once daily was the maximal tolerated dose in healthy volunteers. This study characterized the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of ABT-288 in stable subjects with schizophrenia. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating study of ABT-288 (10 dose levels, from 1 to 60 mg once daily for 14 days) in stable subjects with schizophrenia treated with an atypical antipsychotic. In each dose group, five to seven and two to three participants were assigned to ABT-288 and placebo, respectively. Results Of the 67 participants enrolled, nine participants (on ABT-288) were prematurely discontinued, in seven of these due to adverse events. ABT-288 was generally safe and tolerated at doses up to 45 mg once daily. The most common adverse events, in decreasing frequency (from 31 to 5%), were abnormal dreams, headache, insomnia, dizziness, somnolence, dysgeusia, dry mouth, psychotic disorder, parosmia and tachycardia. Adverse events causing early termination were psychotic events (four) and increased creatine phosphokinase, pyrexia and insomnia (one each). The half-life of ABT-288 ranged from 28 to 51 h, and steady state was achieved by day 12 of dosing. At comparable multiple doses, ABT-288 exposure in subjects with schizophrenia was 45% lower than that previously observed in healthy subjects. At trough, ABT-288 cerebrospinal fluid concentrations were 40% of the total plasma concentrations. Conclusions ABT-288 was tolerated at a 15-fold higher dose and 12-fold higher exposures in subjects with schizophrenia than previously observed in healthy volunteers. The greater ABT-288 tolerability was not due to limited brain uptake. PMID:24215171

  8. Magnitude and significance of observed trends in precipitation frequency over the U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, I.; Anderson, B. T.; Salvucci, G.; Gianotti, D.

    2012-12-01

    Observed trends in the frequency of precipitation and the length of longest dry and wet spells are documented over the U.S. for both wet and dry seasons and on an annual basis using historical daily precipitation data for 774 rain gauge stations from approximately 1900-2009. Stochastic Monte-Carlo simulations based on Markovian precipitation occurrence models are used as a null against which to test observed trends, providing a method to identify significant trends and regional expressions at individual stations without resorting to gridding or area-averaging. Most regions in the U.S. display geographically and seasonally consistent long-term trend patterns that involve an increase in frequency of precipitation and a decrease in the length of extreme dry spells. The Atlantic plain is an exception in terms of long-term trends in precipitation frequency, especially during the wet season, during which it experiences a marked decrease in frequency of precipitation and increase in extreme dry spell length. Geographically, our results are broadly consistent with previous analyses based on gridded data sets, but with significantly larger magnitudes (10 days per century spatial average as compared with 6 days per century). The observed trends are not consistent with climate model projections, which predict decreases in mid-latitude daily precipitation frequency in a warming atmosphere. Trends in the timing of the wet and dry seasons are also evident, particularly over the Ohio and Lower Mississippi (Missouri and Upper Mississippi) river valleys where the Fall (Winter) dry season is arriving earlier (later). These findings have important implications for water management systems, soil moisture, agriculture and ecology, all of which are sensitive to the frequency and seasonality of precipitation.

  9. Utilizing dimensional analysis with observed data to determine the significance of hydrodynamic solutions in coastal hydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, Eric D.; Decker, Jeremy D.; Hughes, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present an analysis of the magnitude of the temporal and spatial acceleration (inertial) terms in the surface-water flow equations and determine the conditions under which these inertial terms have sufficient magnitude to be required in the computations. Data from two South Florida field sites are examined and the relative magnitudes of temporal acceleration, spatial acceleration, and the gravity and friction terms are compared. Parameters are derived by using dimensionless numbers and applied to quantify the significance of the hydrodynamic effects. The time series of the ratio of the inertial and gravity terms from field sites are presented and compared with both a simplified indicator parameter and a more complex parameter called the Hydrodynamic Significance Number (HSN). Two test-case models were developed by using the SWIFT2D hydrodynamic simulator to examine flow behavior with and without the inertial terms and compute the HSN. The first model represented one of the previously-mentioned field sites during gate operations of a structure-managed coastal canal. The second model was a synthetic test case illustrating the drainage of water down a sloped surface from an initial stage while under constant flow. The analyses indicate that the times of substantial hydrodynamic effects are sporadic but significant. The simplified indicator parameter correlates much better with the hydrodynamic effect magnitude for a constant width channel such as Miami Canal than at the non-uniform North River. Higher HSN values indicate flow situations where the inertial terms are large and need to be taken into account.

  10. Significantly higher expression levels of androgen receptor are associated with erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene related gene positive prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Jason; Drew, Sally; Huang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Erythroblastosis virus E26 related gene (ERG) overexpression is correlated with the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene, a rearrangement known to be present in about 50% of cases of prostate cancer. Androgen receptor (AR) is a known regulator of the TMPRSS2 gene. Despite knowledge of this relationship, limited data is available on the specific relationship of AR expression to TMPRSS2-ERG fusion (ERG) status in prostate cancer (PCa). We used multiplexed immunohistochemistry, multispectral imaging technology and tissue microarray (TMA) to elucidate this relationship. Two prostate tissue microarrays were created from two cohorts of hormonal nave patients prostatectomy specimens: progression TMA (pTMA, from 95 PCa patients) and outcome TMA (oTMA, from 183 PCa patients with at least 5-year follow-up information). Each of the two TMAs were triple-stained with ERG, AR and E-cadherin antibodies and visualized with a different chromogen. We found marked difference in AR expression levels between ERG positive (ERG+) and ERG negative (ERG-) prostate cancer. The difference was significant in localized (pT2) prostate cancer. We also found that AR expression levels were significantly higher in PCa tissue compared to benign prostate tissue, with the highest expression levels in ERG+ metastatic cancer. Neither AR nor ERG expression was associated with clinical outcome. Our findings confirm that TMPRSS2-ERG fusion is AR-dependent and is associated with increased AR expression. Our data suggest that the AR pathway may play an important role in the development of ERG+ PCa and ERG status may be useful in stratifying PCa patients for hormonal therapy. PMID:25374927

  11. Judgments of learning are significantly higher following feedback on relatively good versus relatively poor trials despite no actual learning differences.

    PubMed

    Carter, Michael J; Smith, Victoria; Ste-Marie, Diane M

    2016-02-01

    Studies have consistently shown that prospective metacognitive judgments of learning are often inaccurate because humans mistakenly interpret current performance levels as valid indices of learning. These metacognitive discrepancies are strongly related to conditions of practice. Here, we examined how the type of feedback (after good versus poor trials) received during practice and awareness (aware versus unaware) of this manipulation affected judgments of learning and actual learning. After each six-trial block, participants received feedback on their three best trials or three worst trials and half of the participants were made explicitly aware of the type of feedback they received while the other half were unaware. Judgments of learning were made at the end of each six-trial block and before the 24-h retention test. Results indicated no motor performance differences between groups in practice or retention; however, receiving feedback on relatively good compared to relatively poor trials resulted in significantly higher judgments of learning in practice and retention, irrespective of awareness. These results suggest that KR on relatively good versus relatively poor trials can have dissociable effects on judgments of learning in the absence of actual learning differences, even when participants are made aware of their feedback manipulation. PMID:26599371

  12. Tribes and Territories in the 21st Century: Rethinking the Significance of Disciplines in Higher Education. International Studies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trowler, Paul, Ed.; Saunders, Murray, Ed.; Bamber, Veronica, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The "tribes and territories" metaphor for the cultures of academic disciplines and their roots in different knowledge characteristics has been used by those interested in university life and work since the early 1990s. This book draws together research, data and theory to show how higher education has gone through major change since then and how

  13. Crista Terminalis, Musculi Pectinati, and Taenia Sagittalis: Anatomical Observations and Applied Significance

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Abu Ubaida; Daimi, Syed Rehan Hafiz; Gandhi, Kusum Rajendra; Siddiqui, Abu Talha; Trivedi, Soumitra; Sinha, Manisha B.; Rathore, Mrithunjay

    2013-01-01

    Background. The complex architecture of the right atrium, crista terminalis (CT), and the musculi pectinati (MP) poses enormous challenges in electrophysiology and cardiac conduction. Few studies have been undertaken to substantiate the gross features of MP, in relation to the CT, but there is still scarcity of data regarding this. We tried to reinvestigate the gross arrangement of muscle bundles in the right atrium. Methods. Utilizing 151 human hearts and orientation of MP and its variations and relationship to the CT were investigated along with taenia sagittalis (TS). Patterns of MP were grouped in 6 categories and TS under three groups. Result. A plethora of variations were observed. Analysis of all the specimen revealed that 68 samples (45%) were of type 1 category and 27 (18%) fell into type 2 category. Prominent muscular columns were reported in 12 samples (8%). 83 samples (55%) presented with a single trunk of TS. Multiple trunks of TS were reported in 38 samples (25%). Conclusion. Samples with type 6 MP and type B/type C TS, which have a more complex arrangement of fibers, have a tendency to be damaged during cardiac catheterization. Nonetheless, the area as a whole is extremely significant considering the pragmatic application during various cardiac interventions. PMID:25938104

  14. Antibody treatment against pulmonary exposure to abrin confers significantly higher levels of protection than treatment against ricin intoxication.

    PubMed

    Sabo, Tamar; Gal, Yoav; Elhanany, Eitan; Sapoznikov, Anita; Falach, Reut; Mazor, Ohad; Kronman, Chanoch

    2015-09-01

    Abrin, a potent plant-derived toxin bearing strong resemblance to ricin, irreversibly inactivates ribosomes by site-specific depurination, thereby precipitating cessation of protein synthesis in cells. Due to its high availability and ease of preparation, abrin is considered a biological threat, especially in context of bioterror warfare. To date, there is no established therapeutic countermeasure against abrin intoxication. In the present study, we examined the progress of pulmonary abrin intoxication in mice, evaluated the protective effect of antibody-based post-exposure therapy, and compared these findings to those observed for ricin intoxication and therapy. Salient features of abrin intoxication were found to be similar to those of ricin and include massive recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs, high levels of pro-inflammatory markers in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and damage of the alveolar-capillary barrier. In contrast, the protective effect of anti-abrin antibody treatment was found to differ significantly from that of anti-ricin treatment. While anti-ricin treatment efficiency was quite limited even at 24h post-exposure (34% protection), administration of polyclonal anti-abrin antibodies even as late as 72h post-exposure, conferred exceedingly high-level protection (>70%). While both anti-toxin antibody treatments caused neutrophil and macrophage levels in the lungs to revert to normal, only anti-abrin treatment brought about a significant decline in the pulmonary levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. The differential ability of the anti-toxin treatments to dampen inflammation caused by the two similar toxins, abrin and ricin, could explain the radically different levels of protection achieved following antibody treatment. PMID:26051443

  15. How Different Are Higher Education Institutions in the UK, US and Australia? The Significance of Government Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Governments in the UK and many other countries have long sought to promote the diversity of their higher education institutions. However, diversity is hard to define, harder to measure and even more difficult to compare between countries. Most empirical analyses of the diversity of higher education systems use categorical variables, which shape

  16. Observation of warm, higher energy electrons transiting a double layer in a helicon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, Yung-Ta Li, Yan; Scharer, John E.

    2015-03-15

    Measurements of an inductive RF helicon argon plasma double layer with two temperature electron distributions including a fast (>80 eV) tail are observed at 0.17 mTorr Ar pressure. The fast, untrapped electrons observed downstream of the double layer have a higher temperature (13 eV) than the trapped (T{sub e} = 4 eV) electrons. The reduction of plasma potential and density observed in the double layer region would require an upstream temperature ten times the measured 4 eV if occurring via Boltzmann ambipolar expansion. The experimental observation in Madison helicon experiment indicates that fast electrons with substantial density fractions can be created at low helicon operating pressures.

  17. The significance of some observations on African ocular onchocerciasis described by Jean Hissette (1888-1965).

    PubMed

    Kluxen, G; Hoerauf, A

    2008-01-01

    One of the most significant contributions to tropical medicine and ophthalmology was made by Jean Hissette: African ocular onchocerciasis. During his extensive investigations in the Babindi country, he found numerous adults with river blindness. Their eye disease was caused by the filaria Onchocerca volvulus Leuckart. He noticed the signs of interstitial keratitis and band keratopathy, faint iritis or iridocyclitis, posterior synechiae and often a downward distortion of the pupil. He was the first to describe chorioretinal scarring of the fundus, what became known as the Hissette-Ridley fundus. People reported to him their entoptic phenomena which he unequivocally interpreted to be the images of microfilariae in the patient's own eye. During his stay in Belgium in 1932, he elucidated the pathogenesis of blindness since he was able to provide histological proof of the presence of microfilariae in various ocular tissues of an enucleated eye from a patient living near the Sankuru river. Like other serious health impairments, the severe inflammatory lesions in the eye occurred only after the microfilariae had died. Hence he realized that dying microfilariae play a key role in the mechanisms leading to blindness. Hissette's precise descriptions were the logical fruit of his outstanding observational abilities and enabled him as a man of great intuition to speculate about causal relationships. He evidently benefited from the fact that he took the native Africans seriously and asked them their opinion. In 1933, his friend and teacher Dr. De Mets in Antwerp already wrote on Hissette's discovery in the Belgian Congo: "This study is of exceptional value to specialists which is not only a tribute to its author, but to our common native country (Belgium)." PMID:18546927

  18. 48 CFR 1553.216-70 - EPA Form 1900-41A, CPAF Contract Summary of Significant Performance Observation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Contract Summary of Significant Performance Observation. 1553.216-70 Section 1553.216-70 Federal... 1553.216-70 EPA Form 1900-41A, CPAF Contract Summary of Significant Performance Observation. As prescribed in 1516.404-278, EPA Form 1900-41A shall be used to document significant performance...

  19. 48 CFR 1553.216-70 - EPA Form 1900-41A, CPAF Contract Summary of Significant Performance Observation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Contract Summary of Significant Performance Observation. 1553.216-70 Section 1553.216-70 Federal... 1553.216-70 EPA Form 1900-41A, CPAF Contract Summary of Significant Performance Observation. As prescribed in 1516.404-278, EPA Form 1900-41A shall be used to document significant performance...

  20. 48 CFR 1553.216-70 - EPA Form 1900-41A, CPAF Contract Summary of Significant Performance Observation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Contract Summary of Significant Performance Observation. 1553.216-70 Section 1553.216-70 Federal... 1553.216-70 EPA Form 1900-41A, CPAF Contract Summary of Significant Performance Observation. As prescribed in 1516.404-278, EPA Form 1900-41A shall be used to document significant performance...

  1. 48 CFR 1553.216-70 - EPA Form 1900-41A, CPAF Contract Summary of Significant Performance Observation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Contract Summary of Significant Performance Observation. 1553.216-70 Section 1553.216-70 Federal... 1553.216-70 EPA Form 1900-41A, CPAF Contract Summary of Significant Performance Observation. As prescribed in 1516.404-278, EPA Form 1900-41A shall be used to document significant performance...

  2. 48 CFR 1553.216-70 - EPA Form 1900-41A, CPAF Contract Summary of Significant Performance Observation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Contract Summary of Significant Performance Observation. 1553.216-70 Section 1553.216-70 Federal... 1553.216-70 EPA Form 1900-41A, CPAF Contract Summary of Significant Performance Observation. As prescribed in 1516.404-278, EPA Form 1900-41A shall be used to document significant performance...

  3. Central adiposity is significantly higher in female compared to male in Pakistani type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Akhter, Omer; Fiazuddin, Faraz; Shaheryar, Ayesha; Niaz, Warda; Siddiqui, Danial; Awan, Safia; Ram, Nanik; Akhter, Jaweed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) rates are increasing rapidly in South Asians. Cardiovascular complications are more frequent and occur earlier in our patients than patients in many other ethnic groups. Reasons for this are not fully understood. Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the body total and central fat percentage in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients and to check correlation with BMI, waist circumference and metabolic profile. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study conducted at endocrine clinic, Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan, from May to December 2012. Materials and Methods: Patients of either gender with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly selected. A separate proforma for each patient was recorded for demographics, risk factors, bioelectrical impedance measurement for body fat and investigations. Statistical Analysis: Correlation between body fat and other covariate were compared by Pearson correlation coefficient test. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. SPSS19.0 was used to analyze the data. Results: One hundred and seventy five patients (95 male and 80 female) with mean age of 54.1 12 years were evaluated. Mean duration of diabetes was 8.1 years, mean HbA1c was 8.1% and 53.7% were on oral agents and rest were on insulin with or without oral agents. Hypertension was present in 65.7%, 13.7% had known coronary artery disease and 2.3% had cerebrovascular disease. Mean BMI in males was 29.1 4.74 kg/m2 and females 31.7 5.3 kg/m2. Mean waist circumference in males was 107.3 16.6 cm and 103 12 cm in females. Total body fat percentage (%BF) in males was 30.9 7.1% and females 40 8.2% with 89% of the total cohort having total body fat percentage above the normal, less than 25% central fat percentage was 13.3 5.2% in males and 14.6 5.5% in females with 79.4% of cohort having increased central fat (normal <9%). Total and central body fat correlated with BMI (r = 0.68, P < 0.001) and waist circumference (r = 0.66, P < 0.001) but not with HbA1c, triglyceride level or with fasting or random blood glucose levels. Women had significantly higher total body fat percentage compared to men (P < 0.001) although central fat percentage was similar in both sexes. Conclusions: High body fat percentage, waist circumference are seen especially in woman and central body fat percentage in both sexes among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pakistan. Body fat percentage should be measured and followed as this may be an important contributing factor to the high macrovascular complication rate in this part of world. PMID:25593830

  4. Image enhancement filters significantly improve reading performance for low vision observers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawton, T. B.

    1992-01-01

    As people age, so do their photoreceptors; many photoreceptors in central vision stop functioning when a person reaches their late sixties or early seventies. Low vision observers with losses in central vision, those with age-related maculopathies, were studied. Low vision observers no longer see high spatial frequencies, being unable to resolve fine edge detail. We developed image enhancement filters to compensate for the low vision observer's losses in contrast sensitivity to intermediate and high spatial frequencies. The filters work by boosting the amplitude of the less visible intermediate spatial frequencies. The lower spatial frequencies. These image enhancement filters not only reduce the magnification needed for reading by up to 70 percent, but they also increase the observer's reading speed by 2-4 times. A summary of this research is presented.

  5. Higher Education in the United Arab Emirates: An Analysis of the Outcomes of Significant Increases in Supply and Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, several countries across the Middle and Far East have established higher education hubs, some of which have grown rapidly by attracting foreign universities to set up international branch campuses. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is by far the largest host of international branch campuses globally, having over 40 providers

  6. Accreditation and Its Significance for Programs of Higher Education in Criminology and Criminal Justice: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Antony E.

    The development of minimum standards in higher education through the evolution of accreditation in specialized disciplines, and standard setting in criminology and criminal justice education are examined. The very different experiences with the concept of accreditation encountered in the fields of public administration and law are considered. Law

  7. No significant independent relationships with cardiometabolic biomarkers were detected in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study population?

    PubMed Central

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Shivappa, Nitin; Crichton, Georgina; Hbert, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been an influx of research interest regarding the anti-inflammatory role that diet has in chronic and metabolic diseases. A literature-based dietary inflammatory index (DII) that can be used to characterize the inflammation-modulating capacity of individuals diets has even been developed and validated in an American population. We hypothesized that the DII could predict levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), which is an important inflammatory marker, as well as metabolic measures that include the metabolic syndrome and its components in European adults. This hypothesis was tested according to data from 1352 participants from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study, a nationwide, cross-sectional survey based in Luxembourg. Statistical methods consisted of descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses. The DII ranged from a minimum of ?4.02 (most anti-inflammatory) to a maximum of 4.00 points, with a mean value of ?0.41. Participants with higher DII score were significantly younger and had lower body mass index, waist circumferences, and systolic blood pressure levels. Other cardiovascular biomarkers including diastolic blood pressure, CRP, lipids, and glycemic biomarkers did not vary significantly across DII tertiles. Participants with proinflammatory (>1) DII scores had increased adjusted odds (odds ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-2.13) of having a low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, compared with those with anti-inflammatory scores (DII ?1). There were no significant relationships between high-sensitivity CRP and the DII. This study, which tested the inflammatory capacity of the DII outside the United States, did not detect a significant independent relationship with cardiometabolic biomarkers, by using Food Frequency Questionnairecollected data. These results are informative and representative of a relevant step in directing future research for nutrition and diet quality. PMID:25190219

  8. Observation of Significant Quantum Efficiency Enhancement from a Polarized Photocathode with Distributed Brag Reflector

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shukui; Poelker, Matthew; Stutzman, Marcy L.; Chen, Yiqiao; Moy, Aaron

    2015-09-01

    Polarized photocathodes with higher Quantum efficiency (QE) would help to reduce the technological challenge associated with producing polarized beams at milliampere levels, because less laser light would be required, which simplifies photocathode cooling requirements. And for a given amount of available laser power, higher QE would extend the photogun operating lifetime. The distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) concept was proposed to enhance the QE of strained-superlattice photocathodes by increasing the absorption of the incident photons using a Fabry-Perot cavity formed between the front surface of the photocathode and the substrate that includes a DBR, without compromising electron polarization. Here we present recent results showing QE enhancement of a GaAs/GaAsP strained-superlattice photocathode made with a DBR structure. Typically, a GaAs/GaAsP strained-superlattice photocathode without DBR provides a QE of 1%, at a laser wavelength corresponding to peak polarization. In comparison, the GaAs/GaAsP strained-superlattice photocathodes with DBR exhibited an enhancement of over 2 when the incident laser wavelength was tuned to meet the resonant condition for the Fabry-Perot resonator.

  9. Teenagers' Significant Experiences in Aesthetic Areas: Some Empirical Observations Regarding the Role of Dramatic Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnas, Leif

    2008-01-01

    Fifteen sixteen-year-old Fenno-Swedish compulsory school pupils' descriptions and evaluations of significant, i.e. more or less "strong", experiences relating to dramatic art (film, theatre) were analysed and compared with reported experiences in other aesthetic areas (music, nature etc.). The drama area was represented in many experiences, but…

  10. Ecological observations on the molluscs of significance in the transmission of bilharziasis in Kenya.

    PubMed

    TEESDALE, C

    1962-01-01

    Further knowledge of the bionomics of bilharziasis vectors is necessary before more effective measures can be taken to control them. Such knowledge, acquired from long-term observations in a variety of habitats, should help to fill some of the gaps in knowledge of molluscan ecology. The present studies were conducted over a period of three to five years and included observations on the proved and suspected vectors of bilharziasis in Kenya. Records were kept of seasonal and regional distribution of the snails, population dynamics and infection rates. Seasonal distribution normally conformed to a definite pattern but was often so influenced by unseasonable weather and interference by man as to render it unrecognizable. Temperature, water fluctuations, types and amount of vegetation, dissolved oxygen and other physical and chemical characteristics of the water were recorded and an attempt was made to assess the importance of the changes in such environmental factors on the prevalence of the snails studied. No correlation could be found between vegetational changes in the habitat and the number of snails present, but complete coverage of the water surface with horizontal vegetation tended to an absence of snails. Except for torrential floods, water fluctuations seemed to have no effect on snail numbers and the chemical and physical properties of the water of negative habitats appeared to be within the range of tolerance of the species observed.It was not found possible to assess the effects of small temperature changes on reproduction in snails; it is suggested that further trials are justified.There was no obvious effect on numbers when snails were found with predators in the same habitat. Many otherwise adequate habitats were unintentionally rendered unsuitable for vector snails by direct interference by man. PMID:13980432

  11. Ecological observations on the molluscs of significance in the transmission of bilharziasis in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Teesdale, C.

    1962-01-01

    Further knowledge of the bionomics of bilharziasis vectors is necessary before more effective measures can be taken to control them. Such knowledge, acquired from long-term observations in a variety of habitats, should help to fill some of the gaps in knowledge of molluscan ecology. The present studies were conducted over a period of three to five years and included observations on the proved and suspected vectors of bilharziasis in Kenya. Records were kept of seasonal and regional distribution of the snails, population dynamics and infection rates. Seasonal distribution normally conformed to a definite pattern but was often so influenced by unseasonable weather and interference by man as to render it unrecognizable. Temperature, water fluctuations, types and amount of vegetation, dissolved oxygen and other physical and chemical characteristics of the water were recorded and an attempt was made to assess the importance of the changes in such environmental factors on the prevalence of the snails studied. No correlation could be found between vegetational changes in the habitat and the number of snails present, but complete coverage of the water surface with horizontal vegetation tended to an absence of snails. Except for torrential floods, water fluctuations seemed to have no effect on snail numbers and the chemical and physical properties of the water of negative habitats appeared to be within the range of tolerance of the species observed. It was not found possible to assess the effects of small temperature changes on reproduction in snails; it is suggested that further trials are justified. There was no obvious effect on numbers when snails were found with predators in the same habitat. Many otherwise adequate habitats were unintentionally rendered unsuitable for vector snails by direct interference by man. PMID:13980432

  12. Sediments of deep canadian shield lakes: observations of gross structure and biological significance.

    PubMed

    Emery, A R

    1973-08-17

    Sediments of deep Canadian shield lakes have a firm mud-water interface and an intricately structured, oxygenated surface. Surface relief is not uniform, but is broken by small ridges and upright chironomid tubes. The sedimentary material behaves like a weak jelly and becomes flocculent only when violently disturbed. Sculpins were observed to rest on and, when started, to hide in the oxygenated layers. Sequestering of nutrients in the bottom sediments is enhanced by the structuring of the substrate surface below 10 meters, and may inhibit nutrient recycling at overturn. PMID:17736979

  13. Significantly higher occurrence of Cryptosporidium infection in Roma children compared with non-Roma children in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Hasajová, A; Valenčáková, A; Malčeková, B; Danišová, O; Halán, M; Goldová, M; Sak, B; Květoňová, D; Kváč, M; Halánová, M

    2014-08-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is considered to be a widespread world zoonosis. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium species was investigated in Roma children in a district of Eastern Slovakia and, at the same time, also in children of non-Roma parents. In total, 103 children (54 boys and 49 girls) between 0 and 14 years of age were involved in this study. Fifty-three were Roma children and 50 children represented a non-Roma control group. Fecal samples were examined: immunologically [enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test to prove antigen in the feces] and by molecular analysis [nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR)]. After the sequencing of the PCR, the products were identified as species of Cryptosporidium muris. Based on the results, the relative risk (RR) of the Cryptosporidium infection occurrence was calculated and we came to the conclusion that the risk of Cryptosporidium infection was almost 12 times higher in the Roma children compared to the non-Roma children. PMID:24619113

  14. Avoidance tests with earthworms and springtails: defining the minimum exposure time to observe a significant response.

    PubMed

    Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Amorim, Mnica J B; Rmbke, Jrg; Sousa, Jos Paulo

    2008-10-01

    Based on the ability of organisms to avoid contaminated soils, avoidance tests have a great potential as early screening tools in lower tier levels of ERA schemes. Aiming at their standardization, the definition of the minimum exposure time necessary to observe an avoidance response to a contaminant is needed. To fill this gap, avoidance tests with earthworms (Eisenia andrei) and springtails (Folsomia candida), comparing distinct time periods (from 1-7 to 1-14 days, respectively), were performed using the artificial OECD soil and reference chemicals for each test organism. Results showed that for both organisms a clear response within 24 h of exposure can be obtained. This rapid response enhances the utility of the test for "on site" analysis to evaluate contaminated sites. PMID:18006058

  15. Experimental Observations on the Biological Significance of Hydrogen Sulfide in Carotid Body Chemoreception.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Martin, T; Agapito, T; Ramirez, M; Olea, E; Yubero, S; Rocher, A; Gomez-Nio, A; Obeso, A; Gonzalez, C

    2015-01-01

    The cascade of transduction of hypoxia and hypercapnia, the natural stimuli to chemoreceptor cells, is incompletely understood. A particular gap in that knowledge is the role played by second messengers, or in a most ample term, of modulators. A recently described modulator of chemoreceptor cell responses is the gaseous transmitter hydrogen sulfide, which has been proposed as a specific activator of the hypoxic responses in the carotid body, both at the level of the chemoreceptor cell response or at the level of the global output of the organ. Since sulfide behaves in this regard as cAMP, we explored the possibility that sulfide effects were mediated by the more classical messenger. Data indicate that exogenous and endogenous sulfide inhibits adenyl cyclase finding additionally that inhibition of adenylyl cyclase does not modify chemoreceptor cell responses elicited by sulfide. We have also observed that transient receptor potential cation channels A1 (TRPA1) are not regulated by sulfide in chemoreceptor cells. PMID:26303462

  16. Neuroacanthocytosis: Observations, Theories and Perspectives on the Origin and Significance of Acanthocytes

    PubMed Central

    Adjobo-Hermans, Merel J. W.; Cluitmans, Judith C. A.; Bosman, Giel J. C. G. M.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of acanthocytes in the blood is characteristic of patients suffering from neuroacanthocytosis (NA). Recent studies have described abnormal phosphorylation of the proteins involved in connecting the membrane and cytoskeleton in patient-derived erythrocytes. The involvement of lipids in the underlying signaling pathways and recent reports on in vitro disease-associated lipid alterations support renewed research into lipid composition, signal transduction, and metabolism in patient erythrocytes. In addition to morphology, changes in membrane organization affect erythrocyte function and survival. Patient erythrocytes may have a decreased ability to deform, and this may contribute to accelerated erythrocyte removal and a decreased oxygen supply, especially in vulnerable brain regions. The presently available data indicate that acanthocytes are likely to originate in the bone marrow, making erythropoiesis an obvious new focus in NA research. Moreover, new, detailed morphological observations indicate that acanthocytes may be the tip of the iceberg with regard to misshapen erythrocytes in the circulation of patients with NA. A systematic assessment of patient erythrocyte morphology, deformability, oxygen delivery, and metabolism will be instrumental in determining the putative contribution of erythrocyte function to NA clinical symptoms. PMID:26317043

  17. Significant reduction in arc frequency biased solar cells: Observations, diagnostics, and mitigation technique(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upschulte, B. L.; Weyl, G. M.; Marinelli, W. J.; Aifer, E.; Hastings, D.; Snyder, D.

    1991-01-01

    A variety of experiments were performed which identify key factors contributing to the arcing of negatively biased high voltage solar cells. These efforts have led to reduction of greater than a factor of 100 in the arc frequency of a single cell following proper remediation procedures. Experiments naturally lead to and focussed on the adhesive/encapsulant that is used to bond the protective cover slip to the solar cell. An image-intensified charge coupled device (CCD) camera system recorded UV emission from arc events which occurred exclusively along the interfacial edge between the cover slip and the solar cell. Microscopic inspection of this interfacial region showed a bead of encapsulant along this entire edge. Elimination of this encapsulant bead reduced the arc frequency by two orders of magnitude. Water contamination was also identified as a key contributor which enhances arcing of the encapsulant bead along the solar cell edge. Spectrally resolved measurements of the observable UV light shows a feature assignable to OH(A-X) electronic emission, which is common for water contaminated discharges. Experiments in which the solar cell temperature was raised to 85 C showed a reduced arcing frequency, suggesting desorption of H2O. Exposing the solar cell to water vapor was shown to increase the arcing frequency. Clean dry gases such as O2, N2, and Ar show no enhancement of the arcing rate. Elimination of the exposed encapsulant eliminates any measurable sensitivity to H2O vapor.

  18. Low Carbon Rice Farming Practices in the Mekong Delta Yield Significantly Higher Profits and Lower Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudek, J.; Van Sanh, N.; Tinh, T. K.; Tin, H. Q.; Thu Ha, T.; Pha, D. N.; Cui, T. Q.; Tin, N. H.; Son, N. N.; Thanh, H. H.; Kien, H. T.; Kritee, K.; Ahuja, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Vietnam Low-Carbon Rice Project (VLCRP) seeks to significantly reduce GHG emissions from rice cultivation, an activity responsible for more than 30% of Vietnam's overall GHG emissions, while improving livelihoods for the rice farmer community by decreasing costs and enhancing yield as well as providing supplemental farmer income through the sale of carbon credits. The Mekong Delta makes up 12% of Vietnam's land area, but produces more than 50% of the country's rice, including more than 90% of the rice for export. Rice cultivation is the main source of income for 80% of farmers in the Mekong Delta. VLCRP was launched in late 2012 in the Mekong Delta in two major rice production provinces, Kien Giang and An Giang. To date, VLCRP has completed 11 crop seasons (in Kien Giang and An Giang combined), training over 400 farmer households in applying VLCRP's package of practices (known as 1 Must - 6 Reductions) and building technical capacity to its key stakeholders and rice farmer community leaders. By adopting the 1 Must- 6 Reductions practices (including reduced seeding density, reduced fertilizer and pesticide application, and alternative wetting and drying water management), rice farmers reduce their input costs while maintaining or improving yields, and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. The VLCRP package of practices also deliver other environmental and social co-benefits, such as reduced water pollution, improved habitat for fishery resources and reduced health risks for farmers through the reduction of agri-chemicals. VLCRP farmers use significantly less inputs (50% reduction in seed, 30% reduction in fertilizer, 40-50% reduction in water) while improving yields 5-10%, leading to an increase in profit from 10% to as high as 60% per hectare. Preliminary results indicate that the 1 Must- 6 Reductions practices have led to approximately 40-65% reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, equivalent to 4 tons of CO2e/ha/yr in An Giang and 35 tons of CO2e/ha/yr in KienGiang. The greenhouse gas reductions in Kien Giang are the highest reductions we have been able to find in the literature. Both methane and nitrous oxide emissions were measured using chambers, on a weekly basis for methane and for 5 or more days for nitrous oxide following critical events, such as fertilizer application or soil dry down periods.

  19. Kimberlite-Clan-Rocks in India: Significance of new VGP, T, and GP Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggerty, S. E.

    2005-05-01

    Although India is acknowledged for the first description of diamond some 2000 BCE, it should also rightfully be credited for the 17th C recognition that diamond is a product of volcanism. With this extraordinary background, it is surprising that the host rocks remain controversial, being neither archetypical kimberlites, nor classic lamproites. Lacking affinities to micro-diamond-bearing UHPT metamorphic rocks and being unequivocally volcanic, the term Kimberlite-Clan-Rock (KCR) is applied. Over 200 KCR pipes and dikes, many of which are richly mineralized, have recently been discovered in the Diamond Corridor (1000 x 200 km) of the Eastern Dharwar Craton, and in adjoining cratons to the N and NE. From 32 absolute age determinations on KCRs, the remaining intrusions, in comparable stratigraphic settings, are assumed to be 1.1 Ga, equivalent to the Argyle lamproite (Australia, highest diamond grade), and the Premier kimberlite (RSA, largest known diamond). India has the largest number of known Proterozoic KCR intrusions that over the centuries have produced a wealth of famous diamonds. The primary source of these extraordinary stones, however, remains unknown, possibly because the unusual host rocks defy conventional exploration protocols. Six new observations make the setting even more unusual: (1) Coeval, large scale magmatism in the Kalahari (>2 m sq km) and Laurentian (>300 k cub km) Cratons at 1085-1112 Ma, during assembly of Rodinia, confirms the relation between and among KCR volcanism, LIPs, and supercontinents; Proterozoic Rodinia, into which the India KCRs, Argyle and Premier were intruded, was constructive, whereas the other, globally-wide, diamond-intrusive event, that occurred during the Mesozoic (80-120 Ma), was related to the breakup of Pangea and the dispersion of Gondwana; both events occurred during long period geomagnetic chrons implying a core relation, and superplume activity from the CMB. (2)The transcontinental Mumbai-Chennai gravity lineament that separates diamond (North) from barren (South) KCRs is interpreted as a sub-lithospheric, architectural discontinuity, with a shallow keel to the N and deeper penertration to the S. (3)An intrusive carbonatite stock into one KCR, and intensely carbonatized xenoliths in another, has rekindled the unsettled VGP debate of kimberlite-carbonatite relations; the new discoveries strongly support a kinship. (4) An eclogite xenolith from Kaliandurg has euhedral inclusions of re-equilibrated majorite in garnet; the assemblage has important implications for depths of origin (in or close to the TZ), and the controversial issue of Archean ocean crust recycling, recognizing that there are other ways to generate mantle eclogites. (5) Heterogeneities in the source regions of KCRs, and in the degrees of mantle melting, metasomatism and mixing, are well displayed in the Chigicherla KCR cluster; CC5 has unprecedented 2-10cm diameter autoliths (ol + cc + sp + perv), that are partially to totally assimilated in closely associated bodies, or are absent in others; (6)Groundmass olivine in KCRs from Naryanpet (non-diamond) and Wajrakur (diamond-bearing) have densely packed, crystal-oriented laths of rutile in association with blebs of metal + sulfide; these intergrowths bear on the unresolved solubility of Ti in olivine and its appeal to super high P-T conditions in diamond and coesite-bearing metamorphic terrains; the KCR settings, however, imply crystallization of olivine at low P, coupled with or followed by Ti metasomatism. With increased activities in diamond exploration many more VGP, T and GP mantle revelations are expected from this geologically classic and historically important part of the sub-continent.

  20. Acetic acid dimers in a nitrogen matrix: Observation of structures containing the higher-energy conformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Susy; Domanskaya, Alexandra V.; Räsänen, Markku; Khriachtchev, Leonid; Fausto, Rui

    2015-09-01

    Acetic acid (AA) dimers are studied experimentally by infrared spectroscopy in a N2 matrix and theoretically at the MP2/6-311++G(2d,2p) level of approximation. This work is focused on the first preparation and characterization of structures containing the higher-energy (cis) conformer of AA. Nine trans-trans, fourteen trans-cis, and six cis-cis dimers are theoretically predicted. Five trans-trans and a number of trans-cis dimers are identified in the experiments, but no indication of cis-cis dimers is found. Two trans-trans dimers and the trans-cis dimers are reported for the first time. One trans-cis dimer is prepared by selective vibrational excitation of the structurally related trans-trans dimer, which converts one of the trans subunits to the cis form. Several trans-cis dimers are obtained by annealing of a matrix containing both trans and cis monomers of AA. Tunneling-induced conversion of the trans-cis dimers into trans-trans forms (including two new trans-trans forms) is observed at low temperatures.

  1. Middle School Teams Increasing Access to General Education for Students with Significant Disabilities: Issues Encountered and Activities Observed across Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matzen, Katherine; Ryndak, Diane; Nakao, Taketo

    2010-01-01

    The experiences of three students with significant disabilities and their educational teams were studied during these students' first year of receiving general education services. Interviews were conducted with general educators, special educators, and parents to identify issues encountered during the year. Also, classroom observations were

  2. Using Teaching Observations to Reflect Upon and Improve Teaching Practice in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Douglas J.; Bolt, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve teaching and learning within a faculty, an action research intervention involving peer observation of teaching staff via an expert was designed and implemented. A total of ten staff (including the first author) were observed over the year. The process consisted of observation at class, a written report, discussion between…

  3. The Globalization of Higher Education: Some Observations Regarding the Free Market and the National Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderman, Geoffrey

    2001-01-01

    Explores how the globalization of higher education, for example through electronic delivery or franchising, has given rise to concerns, particularly about quality, but including cultural, economic, and political factors. Describes how some countries have made such efforts to regulate transnational offerings that they have created questionable

  4. Shifting goals: effects of active and observational experience on infants understanding of higher order goals

    PubMed Central

    Gerson, Sarah A.; Mahajan, Neha; Sommerville, Jessica A.; Matz, Lauren; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Action perception links have been argued to support the emergence of action understanding, but their role in infants perception of distal goals has not been fully investigated. The current experiments address this issue. During the development of means-end actions, infants shift their focus from the means of the action to the distal goal. In Experiment One, we evaluated whether this same shift in attention (from the means to the distal goal) when learning to produce multi-step actions is reflected in infants perception of others means-end actions. Eight-months-old infants underwent active training in means-end action production and their subsequent analysis of an observed means-end action was assessed in a visual habituation paradigm. Infants degree of success in the training paradigm was related to their subsequent interpretation of the observed action as directed at the means versus the distal goal. In Experiment Two, observational and control manipulations provided evidence that these effects depended on the infants active engagement in the means-end actions. These results suggest that the processes that give rise to means-end structure in infants motor behavior also support the emergence of means-end structure in their analysis of others goals. PMID:25852622

  5. Shifting goals: effects of active and observational experience on infants' understanding of higher order goals.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Sarah A; Mahajan, Neha; Sommerville, Jessica A; Matz, Lauren; Woodward, Amanda L

    2015-01-01

    Action perception links have been argued to support the emergence of action understanding, but their role in infants' perception of distal goals has not been fully investigated. The current experiments address this issue. During the development of means-end actions, infants shift their focus from the means of the action to the distal goal. In Experiment One, we evaluated whether this same shift in attention (from the means to the distal goal) when learning to produce multi-step actions is reflected in infants' perception of others' means-end actions. Eight-months-old infants underwent active training in means-end action production and their subsequent analysis of an observed means-end action was assessed in a visual habituation paradigm. Infants' degree of success in the training paradigm was related to their subsequent interpretation of the observed action as directed at the means versus the distal goal. In Experiment Two, observational and control manipulations provided evidence that these effects depended on the infants' active engagement in the means-end actions. These results suggest that the processes that give rise to means-end structure in infants' motor behavior also support the emergence of means-end structure in their analysis of others' goals. PMID:25852622

  6. Severe Septic Patients with Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup JT Show Higher Survival Rates: A Prospective, Multicenter, Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Martn, Mara M.; Lpez-Gallardo, Esther; Sol-Violn, Jordi; Blanquer, Jos; Labarta, Lorenzo; Daz, Csar; Borreguero-Len, Juan Mara; Jimnez, Alejandro; Montoya, Julio; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Objective In a previous cohort study (n=96), we found an association between mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplogroup JT and increased survival of severe septic patients, after controlling for age and serum lactic acid levels. The aim of this research was to increase the predictive accuracy and to control for more confounder variables in a larger cohort (n=196) of severe septic patients, to confirm whether mtDNA haplogroup JT influences short and medium-term survival in these patients. Methods We conducted a prospective, multicenter, observational study in six Spanish Intensive Care Units. We determined 30-day and 6-month survival and mtDNA haplogroup in this second cohort of 196 patients and in the global cohort (first and second cohorts combined) with 292 severe septic patients. Multiple logistic regression and Cox regression analyses were used to test for the association of mtDNA haplogroups JT with survival at 30-days and 6-months, controlling for age, sex, serum interleukin-6 levels and SOFA score. Results Logistic and Cox regression analyses showed no differences in 30-day and 6-month survival between patients with mtDNA haplogroup JT and other haplogroups in the first cohort (n=96). In the second cohort (n=196), these analyses showed a trend to higher 30-day and 6-month survival in those with haplogroup JT. In the global cohort (n=292), logistic and Cox regression analyses showed higher 30-day and 6-month survival for haplogroup JT. There were no significant differences between J and T sub-haplogroups in 30-day and 6-month survival. Conclusions The global cohort study (first and second cohorts combined), the largest to date reporting on mtDNA haplogroups in septic patients, confirmed that haplogroup JT patients showed increased 30-day and 6-month survival. This finding may be due to single nucleotide polymorphism defining the whole haplogroup JT and not separately for J or T sub-haplogroups. PMID:24069186

  7. Debundling by dilution: Observation of significant populations of individual MoSI nanowires in high concentration dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolosi, Valeria; Vengust, Damjan; Mihailovic, Dragan; Blau, Werner J.; Coleman, Jonathan N.

    2006-07-01

    In this work, we have demonstrated debundling of Molydenum-sulphur-iodine nanowires simply by diluting dispersions of nanowires in isopropanol. Using atomic force microscopy, we observe the bundle diameter distribution to decrease dramatically as a function of concentration. In addition, a significant population of individual nanowires is present at all concentrations. This population increases with decreasing concentration until one quarter of all dispersed objects are individual nanowires at a concentration of 4 10 -3 mg/ml. The partial concentration of individual nanowires also increases with decreasing concentration but actually peaks at a concentration of 4 10 -3 mg/ml. This represents an optimum concentration for finding individual nanowires.

  8. Observed increase in local cooling effect of deforestation at higher latitudes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Xuhui; Goulden, Michael L; Hollinger, David Y; Barr, Alan; Black, T Andrew; Bohrer, Gil; Bracho, Rosvel; Drake, Bert; Goldstein, Allen; Gu, Lianhong; Katul, Gabriel; Kolb, Thomas; Law, Beverly E; Margolis, Hank; Meyers, Tilden; Monson, Russell; Munger, William; Oren, Ram; Paw U, Kyaw Tha; Richardson, Andrew D; Schmid, Hans Peter; Staebler, Ralf; Wofsy, Steven; Zhao, Lei

    2011-11-17

    Deforestation in mid- to high latitudes is hypothesized to have the potential to cool the Earth's surface by altering biophysical processes. In climate models of continental-scale land clearing, the cooling is triggered by increases in surface albedo and is reinforced by a land albedo-sea ice feedback. This feedback is crucial in the model predictions; without it other biophysical processes may overwhelm the albedo effect to generate warming instead. Ongoing land-use activities, such as land management for climate mitigation, are occurring at local scales (hectares) presumably too small to generate the feedback, and it is not known whether the intrinsic biophysical mechanism on its own can change the surface temperature in a consistent manner. Nor has the effect of deforestation on climate been demonstrated over large areas from direct observations. Here we show that surface air temperature is lower in open land than in nearby forested land. The effect is 0.85 0.44 K (mean one standard deviation) northwards of 45 N and 0.21 0.53 K southwards. Below 35 N there is weak evidence that deforestation leads to warming. Results are based on comparisons of temperature at forested eddy covariance towers in the USA and Canada and, as a proxy for small areas of cleared land, nearby surface weather stations. Night-time temperature changes unrelated to changes in surface albedo are an important contributor to the overall cooling effect. The observed latitudinal dependence is consistent with theoretical expectation of changes in energy loss from convection and radiation across latitudes in both the daytime and night-time phase of the diurnal cycle, the latter of which remains uncertain in climate models. PMID:22094699

  9. Significant geomagnetic differences in both phase and amplitude observed at "conjugate" polar latitudes near the December 1903 Solstice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egeland, Alv; Deehr, Charles

    2014-05-01

    During Roald Amundsen's exploration of the Northwest Passage (1903-1906) he conducted systematic measurements of diurnal and seasonal variations of the north magnetic dip pole (NMDP) at Gjahavn (~ 68 N, 95 E). The NMDP variations have been largely interpreted as indicating control by the polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF); the Svalgard-Mansurov (S-M) effect. In Sir Robert Scott's Discovery expedition, geomagnetic observations were made in 1903 from Cape Armitage, Antarctica (~78 S, 168 E). Unwittingly, the measurements of Amundsen and Scott were acquired near conjugate ends of the same magnetic field lines. While their separation in solar local time is ~ 5 hours, they differ in magnetic local time less than 1/2 hour. However, up to this time no direct comparison of the two sets of magnetic observations has ever been made. This presentation contains an analysis of magnetic perturbations observed at both locations for comparison with contemporary and present day monthly-averaged diurnal variations, even if the overlap in data among these expeditions is somewhat limited. The near magnetic conjugacy of Gjahavn- Cape Armitage locations makes these measurements valuable. Our analysis shows: (1) While similar variations appeared at both ends of the joining magnetic field they manifest significant differences in both phase and amplitude, (2) present day NMDP variations appear consistent with the S-M effect analyses when compared with satellite measurements of solar wind/IMF measurements, (3) differences at the "conjugate" locations cannot be explained in terms of the S-M effect alone. The roles of lobe cell and ionospheric conductance at polar magnetically "conjugate" locations are used to explain the observed phase and amplitude differences.

  10. Observation of a significant influence of Earth's motion on the velocity of photons in our terrestrial laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mnera, Hctor A.; Hernndez-Deckers, Daniel; Arenas, Germn; Alfonso, Edgar

    2007-08-01

    The paper reports the positive results obtained with a stationary Michelson-Morley interferometer operating during two consecutive years (2003-2005) in Bogota, Colombia. After subtracting the environmental periodical effects, there is still a periodic residual that is no longer correlated to the environmental variables. There is, however, a significant correlation between the daily fringe-shift residuals for each month and the velocity of motion of the earth relative to the center of our galaxy at that particular time. This hints to a possible dependence of the velocity of light in our terrestrial laboratory and the velocity of the earth. This result is contrary to the current model for the photon that postulates a constant speed of light. From our data we have calculated the solar velocity consistent with our observations: 500 km/s, right ascension 16h-40 min, declination -75.

  11. Validation of SARAL/AltiKa significant wave height and wind speed observations over the North Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, U. Mahesh; Swain, D.; Sasamal, S. K.; Reddy, N. Narendra; Ramanjappa, T.

    2015-12-01

    SARAL/AltiKa, a joint Ka-band altimetry mission of the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was successfully launched on February 25, 2013. The main purpose of this mission is to explore the ocean surface topography. As it is a Ka-band altimeter mission unlike other altimeters which were primarily in Ku-band, it is essential to calibrate and validate AltiKa data products before using the data for oceanographic applications. With this objective, two important geophysical parameters, Significant Wave Height (SWH) and Wind Speed (WS) from SARAL/AltiKa are inter-compared with those from 18 moored buoy stations in the North Indian Ocean (NIO) for a two year period from March 2013 to March 2015. SARAL/AltiKa GDR-T patch-2 version products are collocated with moored buoy observations with a collocation criteria of spatio-temporal window of 50 km radius about the buoy location and 30 min time for all the altimeter measurements. Following this, linear regression relations are developed and statistical analyses carried out to assess the performance of SARAL/AltiKa. The correlation between SARAL/AltiKa derived SWHs and those from moored buoys is 0.98 m with a bias of -0.02 m and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 0.15 m at 95% confidence level. The WSs derived from SARAL/AltiKa Ka-band correlates reasonably well with buoy observations with a correlation coefficient of 0.91, bias of -0.28 m/s and RMSE of 1.13 m/s. The inter-comparison results are found to be interesting with a good agreement between SARAL/AltiKa and moored buoys observations of SWH and WS in the NIO where SWHs are less than ?4 m and WS are less than ?13 m/s during the entire analysis period.

  12. Significance of higher drug concentration in erythrocytes of mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum and treated orally with mefloquine at single doses.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yi; Xue, Jian; Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Hao-Bing; Xiao, Shu-Hua

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study is to understand the pharmacokinetic feature of mefloquine measured by erythrocytes and plasma in Schistosoma japonicum (S. j.)-infected mice and non-infected mice after oral administration of the drug at single doses. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used to measure the plasma and erythrocyte concentrations of mefloquine at varying intervals posttreatment. Our results demonstrated that in non-infected mice treated orally with mefloquine at an ineffective dose of 50mg/kg or effective dose of 200mg/kg for 2-72h, the erythrocyte-to-plasma ratios of mefloquine were 5.8-11.2 or 2-14.2. On the other hand, in S. j.-infected mice treated with the same single doses of the drug, the erythrocyte and plasma drug concentration ratios were 3.1-4.6 or 2.9-8.5, manifesting that either in infected mice or in non-infected mice that received oral mefloquine resulted in higher concentration of mefloquine in erythrocytes than that in plasma. Unexpectedly, under oral administration of mefloquine at a higher single dose of 200mg/kg, the pharmacokinetic parameter C max values for plasma from S. j.-infected and non-infected mice were 1.6??0.3 and 2.0??0.4?g/mL, respectively, which were below the determined in vitro LC50 (50% lethal concentration) value of 4.93?g/mL. Therefore, the plasma concentration of mefloquine may display a little effect against schistosomes during the treatment. Although the values of T 1/2 and AUC0-? for erythrocytes were significantly longer and higher in infected mice than those of corresponding non-infect mice that received the same single mefloqine dose of 50mg/kg, the C max value was only 2.6??0.4?g/mL lower than the determined in vitro LC50, which may explain why this low single dose is ineffective against schistosomes in vivo. After administration of higher mefloquine dose of 200mg/kg, the C max value for erythrocytes in infected mice was 30% (7.4??0.7 versus 10.7??2.7?g/mL) lower than that in the corresponding non-infected mice, but its level was above the determined in vitro LC95 (95% lethal concentration) value of 6.12?g/mL. Meanwhile, longer T 1/2 value of 159.2??129.3h in infected mice led to significant increase in AUC0-? value (1969.3??1057.7 vs 486.4??53.0?g/mLh), relative to corresponding non-infected mice. In addition, the mean residence time (MRT0-?) in infected mice was also significantly longer than that in non-infected mice. All these results may beneficial for the treatment. According to the results, we suggest that higher ratios of mefloquine concentration in erythrocytes to plasma may offer a way to transport mefloquine to the worm gut through ingestion of erythrocytes by the worms, where the gut is the site for displaying the effect by mefloquine. PMID:26341799

  13. A retrospective observational study of low-level viraemia and its immunological and virological significance: which outcome to expect

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Joana; Pereira, Karen; Rijo, Joao; Alberto, Teresa; Cabanas, Joaquim; Gomes, Perpetua; Farinha, Helena; Mansinho, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Low-level viraemia (LLV) is observed in some patients with HIV-1 infection on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART). The significance of these findings remains controversial as it conflicts with traditional optimal clinic outcome. This study aims to evaluate the effect of LLV on the establishment of virological failure (VF) and immune deterioration. Methods Retrospective observational study of a cohort of HIV-1 infected patients of an Infectious Diseases Clinic, who presented an HIV-1 viral load of 20 to 200 cp/mL, during the year 2012. Patients who were not on ART or non-adherent in the previous 6 months were excluded. Compliance was quantified by clinical and pharmaceutical records. Adherence was defined as ?95% compliance rate. Demographic, clinical, immunological and therapeutic data were collected from clinical records. LLV was defined as a range of 20200 cp/mL and stratified as transient (T-LLV): only one measurement, persistent (P-LLV): 2 consecutive measurements with an interval ?3 months and recurrent (R-LLV): ?1 T-LLV during an 18-month follow-up. Statistical analysis was performed with Microsoft Office Excel 2012. KolmogorovSmirnov test, t-test and chi-square test were performed for a significant p value <0.05. Results During 2012, 2161 HIV-1 infected patients were evaluated at our Clinic, 93% of which were on ART. LLV was documented in 378 (19%), adherence was verified in 151 (52%). The analysis of this cohort (n=151) revealed: 77 (51%) T-LLV, 13 (8.6%) R-LLV and 61 (40%) P-LLV. Mean viral load was 46 cp/mL. Mean TCD4 count was 665 cells/L with a variation of +63 cells/L during the study period. There was no VF documented. ART regimens were switched in 16 (11%) patients. Gastrointestinal disturbance was found in 13 (9%). Analysis showed no statistical differences between the analyzed variables (CD4 variation, time of diagnosis and treatment, duration of LLV persistence (less than or more than one year), number of ART regimens, ART regimen and type of NRTI backbone) for all groups (T-LLV, R-LLV, P-LLV), except for mean viral load that showed significant superiority in the T-LLV(38 cp/mL) and R-LLV(36 cp/mL) vs P-LLV(58 cp/mL) (p=0.01 and p<0.01, respectively). Conclusions The absence of significant differences in immunological and virological outcomes in this cohort and the absence of VF in all groups, suggests a scarce impact of LLV in patient's prognosis. Prospective studies, with longer follow-up could bring more accurate information. PMID:25397418

  14. Significance of the CC chemokine RANTES in patients with haematological malignancy: results from a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Michael; al-Ramadi, Basel; Hedstrm, Ulla; Frampton, Chris; Alizadeh, Hussain; Kristensen, Jorgen

    2005-02-01

    Regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) serum concentrations were explored in a prospective observational study of haematological-malignancy patients undergoing chemotherapy. During systemic inflammatory response syndrome/sepsis or severe sepsis/septic shock mean concentrations were 3394 or 2939 pg/ml, respectively, significantly lower than those prior to fever (6031 pg/ml) (P < 0.01) or at bone-marrow recovery (6433 pg/ml, P < 0.001). Levels during febrile-bacteraemia were lower compared with febrile-non-bacteraemia (3022 pg/ml vs. 5111 pg/ml, respectively, P < 0.01). Sixty-three of 67 infection episodes resolved despite low RANTES concentrations, suggesting RANTES is not a prerequisite for recovering from most infection events. However, in four patients dying from septic shock associated with aspergillosis, candidosis, pneumonia or infectious colitis, RANTES concentrations were persistently and extremely low (1629 pg/ml), compared with four matched patients who recovered (6780 pg/ml). RANTES concentrations were highly correlated to platelet counts [median correlation coefficient 0.82 (inter-quartile range, 0.72-0.89)]. RANTES concentrations rose 4.5 d before platelet counts (P < 0.001), suggesting an additional extra-platelet source for RANTES. A nested mixed model regression analysis demonstrated that platelet level was the only independent variable associated with RANTES concentration (P < 0.001) among steroids, haematopoietic-colony-stimulating-factor, recombinant-human-interleukin-11, sepsis status, and neutropenia. A significant 'hypo-RANTES' serum environment occurs following chemotherapy, is driven by thrombocytopenia, but does not affect the ability of most patients to recover from infection. PMID:15686455

  15. THE JETS OF TeV BLAZARS AT HIGHER RESOLUTION: 43 GHz AND POLARIMETRIC VLBA OBSERVATIONS FROM 2005 TO 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Piner, B. Glenn; Pant, Niraj; Edwards, Philip G. E-mail: Philip.Edwards@csiro.a

    2010-11-10

    We present 23 new VLBA images of the six established TeV blazars Markarian 421, Markarian 501, H 1426+428, 1ES 1959+650, PKS 2155-304, and 1ES 2344+514, obtained from 2005 to 2009. Most images were obtained at 43 GHz (7 mm), and they reveal the parsec-scale structures of three of these sources (1ES 1959+650, PKS 2155-304, and 1ES 2344+514) at factors of 2-3 higher resolution than has previously been attained. These images reveal new morphological details, including a high degree of jet bending in the inner milliarcsecond in PKS 2155-304. This establishes strong apparent jet bending on VLBI scales as a common property of TeV blazars, implying viewing angles close to the line of sight. Most of the remaining images map the linear polarization structures at a lower frequency of 22 GHz (1 cm). We discuss the transverse structures of the jets as revealed by the high-frequency and polarimetric imaging. The transverse structures include significant limb brightening in Mrk 421, and 'spine-sheath' structures in the electric vector position angle and fractional polarization distributions in Mrk 421, Mrk 501, and 1ES 1959+650. We use new measured component positions to update measured apparent jet speeds, in many cases significantly reducing the statistical error over previously published results. With the increased resolution at 43 GHz, we detect new components within 0.1-0.2 mas of the core in most of these sources. No motion is apparent in these new components over the time span of our observations, and we place upper limits on the apparent speeds of the components near the core of <2c. From those limits, we conclude that {Gamma}{sub 2} < ({Gamma}{sub 1}){sup 1/2} at {approx}10{sup 5} Schwarzschild radii, where {Gamma}{sub 1} and {Gamma}{sub 2} are the bulk Lorentz factors in the TeV emitting and 43 GHz emitting regions, respectively, assuming that their velocity vectors are aligned.

  16. Observational Study: Familial Relevance and Oncological Significance of Revised Bethesda Guidelines in Colorectal Patients That Have Undergone Curative Resection

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Won Beom; Kim, Chan Wook; Yoon, Yong Sik; Park, In Ja; Lim, Seok-Byung; Yu, Chang Sik; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Amsterdam criteria for the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) exclude most suspect cases of possible hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC). By contrast, revised Bethesda guidelines excessively broaden the disease spectrum. The aim of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the cliniciopathilogical characteristics of patients fulfilling the revised Bethesda guidelines and to review the efficacy and limitations of the revised guidelines. This retrospective study enrolled 3609 patients who underwent curative surgery for primary CRC. Patients were classified into the Bethesda group or the control group according to whether they fulfilled the revised Bethesda guidelines. Patients were further categorized when they fulfilled a minimum of 2 items of the revised guidelines. Individual items were analyzed for deficient mismatch repair (d-MMR). The median follow-up was 82.9 (interquartile range, 72–101) months. Patients in the Bethesda group were younger and had a higher rate of reduced mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression, microsatellite instability, and right colonic involvement (all P < 0.001) than the control group. As a predictor of d-MMR, the revised Bethesda guidelines showed a sensitivity of 63.0% and a specificity of 72.6%. Items 1 and 2, respectively, or the item pair 1 and 2, were independent predictors of d-MMR (all P < 0.001). Patients fulfilling the Bethesda guidelines showed clinicopathological features of HNPCC. The revised Bethesda guidelines appear to be a competent predictor of d-MMR. Specifically, items 1 and 2 are significant predictors of d-MMR and may be relevant to the application of the revised Bethesda guidelines. PMID:26871811

  17. Observational Study: Familial Relevance and Oncological Significance of Revised Bethesda Guidelines in Colorectal Patients That Have Undergone Curative Resection.

    PubMed

    Jung, Won Beom; Kim, Chan Wook; Yoon, Yong Sik; Park, In Ja; Lim, Seok-Byung; Yu, Chang Sik; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2016-02-01

    Amsterdam criteria for the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) exclude most suspect cases of possible hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC). By contrast, revised Bethesda guidelines excessively broaden the disease spectrum. The aim of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the cliniciopathilogical characteristics of patients fulfilling the revised Bethesda guidelines and to review the efficacy and limitations of the revised guidelines.This retrospective study enrolled 3609 patients who underwent curative surgery for primary CRC. Patients were classified into the Bethesda group or the control group according to whether they fulfilled the revised Bethesda guidelines. Patients were further categorized when they fulfilled a minimum of 2 items of the revised guidelines. Individual items were analyzed for deficient mismatch repair (d-MMR).The median follow-up was 82.9 (interquartile range, 72-101) months. Patients in the Bethesda group were younger and had a higher rate of reduced mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression, microsatellite instability, and right colonic involvement (all P?significant predictors of d-MMR and may be relevant to the application of the revised Bethesda guidelines. PMID:26871811

  18. Observation of New Photoluminescence Emission in the YAG Structure and Its significant Effects on the Material Optical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selim, Farida; Varney, Chhristopher; Reda, Sherif; Mackay, David

    2012-02-01

    Yttrium Aluminum Garnets, Y3Al5O12 (YAG) are widely used as host materials for transition and rare earth elements in laser, optoelectronic and scintillation applications. They are the most important solid state laser host materials and the most promising scintillation materials. New photoluminescence peaks were observed at 700 and 800 nm in undoped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) single crystals. This luminescence has great effects on the optical properties of rare-earth doped YAG crystals and their performance in laser and scintillation applications. Photoluminescence measurements revealed a number of luminescence peaks in all YAG crystals regardless of the growth conditions due to native defects and low-level impurities. The strong 700 and 800 nm emissions were attributed to low level of iron impurities as confirmed by Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry analysis. This study reveals that iron is a native impurity in all YAG crystals that plays a significant role on modifying the optical and scintillation properties of this important class of photonic materials.

  19. Protected Graft Copolymer Excipient Leads to a Higher Acute Maximum Tolerated Dose and Extends Residence Time of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Significantly Better than Sterically Stabilized Micelles

    PubMed Central

    Reichstetter, Sandra; Castillo, Gerardo M.; Rubinstein, Israel; Nishimoto-Ashfield, Akiko; Lai, ManShun; Jones, Cynthia C.; Banjeree, Aryamitra; Lyubimov, Alex; Bloedow, Duane C.; Bogdanov, Alexei; Bolotin, Elijah M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine and compare pharmacokinetics and toxicity of two nanoformulations of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP). Methods VIP was formulated using a micellar (Sterically Stabilized Micelles, SSM) and a polymer-based (Protected Graft Copolymer, PGC) nanocarrier at various loading percentages. VIP binding to the nanocarriers, pharmacokinetics, blood pressure, blood chemistry, and acute maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of the formulations after injection into BALB/c mice were determined. Results Both formulations significantly extend in vivo residence time compared to unformulated VIP. Formulation toxicity is dependent on loading percentage, showing major differences between the two carrier types. Both formulations increase in vivo potency of unformulated VIP and show acute MTDs at least 140 times lower than unformulated VIP, but still at least 100 times higher than the anticipated highest human dose, 1–5 μg/kg. These nanocarriers prevented a significant drop in arterial blood pressure compared to unformulated VIP. Conclusions While both carriers enhance in vivo residence time compared to unformulated VIP and reduce the drop in blood pressure immediately after injection, PGC is the excipient of choice to extend residence time and improve the safety of potent therapeutic peptides such as VIP. PMID:23224976

  20. Open heavy-flavor observables at the LHC and the importance of higher-order flow harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahrgang, Marlene; Aichelin, Jörg; Gossiaux, Pol Bernard; Werner, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Heavy-quark dynamics in the quark-gluon plasma provide information about the medium properties and the details of the heavy-quark-medium interaction. Traditional observables like the nuclear modification factor and the elliptic flow of D mesons have shown suppression at intermediate and high momenta and collective flow at low momenta. Thanks to the improving accuracy of the experimental data a combined analysis of these two observables starts to have discriminating power between different heavy-quark transport coefficients or features of the energy-loss models. In this overview, we summarize the modern strategy of describing heavy-quark dynamics and show how recent advances to include more differential observables such as azimuthal correlations and higher-order flow harmonics can help us understand the properties of heavy-flavor transport.

  1. Prognostic significance of 25-hydroxivitamin D entirely explained by a higher comorbidity burden: experience from a South-Eastern European Dialysis Cohort.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Adalbert; Apetrii, Mugurel; Onofriescu, Mihai; Siriopol, Dimitrie; Veisa, Gabriel; Schiller, Oana; Bob, Flaviu; Timar, Romulus; Mihaescu, Adelina; Kanbay, Mehmet; Covic, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is still a common problem particularly in the elderly and in individuals with various degrees of renal impairment. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D and death in a large cohort of prevalent patients on hemodialysis (HD) from south-east Romania, a typical Balkan region. This is an observational prospective study that included a total of 570 patients on maintenance HD. Study patients were classified into three groups by baseline 25(OH)D levels: (1) sufficient 25(OH)D--i.e., >30?ng/mL; (2) insufficient 25(OH)D--i.e., between 10 and 29?ng/mL; and (3) deficient 25(OH)D--i.e., <10?ng/mL. During the follow-up period of 14 months, 68 patients (11.9%) died, the Kaplan-Meier analysis showing significant differences in all-cause mortality for chronic kidney disease patients in different 25(OH)D groups (P?=?0.002). Unadjusted Cox regression analysis also showed significant differences in survival. The multivariate Cox regression model showed no significant differences in survival according to vitamin D levels. Hazard ratio for death in the "<10?ng/mL" group was 1.619 (P?=?0.190) and in the "10-30?ng/mL" group was 0.837 (P?=?0.609). In our dialysis population with a high comorbidity burden, low 25(OH)D concentration was not associated with mortality in the adjusted Cox model, suggesting that vitamin D deficiency could represent only a non-specific marker for a poor health status, with less impact on mortality. PMID:25251168

  2. Low-altitude ISIS 1 observations of auroral radio emissions and their significance to the cyclotron maser instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Robert F.; Wong, H. K.

    1987-01-01

    Low-altitude ISIS 1 observations are presented which support the cyclotron maser instability as the generation mechanism of most, but not all, auroral radio emissions. The observations confirm the ability of the mechanism to generate different wave modes and harmonics as the ratio of the plasma frequency to gyrofrequency f(N)/f(H) increases depending on the form of the energetic electron distribution function. The present observations correspond to conditions where f(N)/F(H) is always larger than 0.2 and is typically about 1.0. The observations and instability growth rate calculations indicate that second harmonic radiation in the extraordinary and the Z modes is directly generated at low altitudes. By far the most common signals observed near ISIS 1 perigee, however, are in the fundamental Z and whistler modes. The observations and calculations in the case of the Z mode suggest that the pertinent process involves a maser that does not saturate, i.e., that group velocity effects are important. The whistler mode is the most intense signal observed at low altitudes. Since the cyclotron maser generated whistler mode waves have peak growth rates for downward field-aligned propagation, they should be able to penetrate the ionosphere. This process may provide the explanation of occasional reports, dating back to the International Geophysical Year time period, of ground level detection of radio noise associated with the aurora.

  3. Dysphoric students show higher use of the observer perspective in their retrieval of positive versus negative autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Nelis, Sabine; Debeer, Elise; Holmes, Emily A; Raes, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Autobiographical memories are retrieved as images from either a field perspective or an observer perspective. The observer perspective is thought to dull emotion. Positive affect is blunted in depressed mood. Consequently, are positive events recalled from an observer perspective in depressed mood? We investigated the relationship between memory vantage perspective and depressive symptoms in a student sample. Participants completed the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986) and assessed the perspective accompanying each memory. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) and the Responses to Positive Affect questionnaire (RPA; Feldman, Joormann, & Johnson, 2008) were administered. The results showed a small positive association between depressive symptoms and the use of an observer perspective for positive autobiographical memories, but not for negative memories. Furthermore, comparing a subgroup with clinically significant symptom levels (dysphoric students) with non-dysphoric individuals revealed that dysphoric students used an observer perspective more for positive memories compared with negative memories. This was not the case for non-dysphoric students. The observer perspective in dysphorics was associated with a dampening cognitive style in response to positive experiences. PMID:23083015

  4. The Taxonomic Significance of Species That Have Only Been Observed Once: The Genus Gymnodinium (Dinoflagellata) as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Thessen, Anne E.; Patterson, David J.; Murray, Shauna A.

    2012-01-01

    Taxonomists have been tasked with cataloguing and quantifying the Earth’s biodiversity. Their progress is measured in code-compliant species descriptions that include text, images, type material and molecular sequences. It is from this material that other researchers are to identify individuals of the same species in future observations. It has been estimated that 13% to 22% (depending on taxonomic group) of described species have only ever been observed once. Species that have only been observed at the time and place of their original description are referred to as oncers. Oncers are important to our current understanding of biodiversity. They may be validly described species that are members of a rare biosphere, or they may indicate endemism, or that these species are limited to very constrained niches. Alternatively, they may reflect that taxonomic practices are too poor to allow the organism to be re-identified or that the descriptions are unknown to other researchers. If the latter are true, our current tally of species will not be an accurate indication of what we know. In order to investigate this phenomenon and its potential causes, we examined the microbial eukaryote genus Gymnodinium. This genus contains 268 extant species, 103 (38%) of which have not been observed since their original description. We report traits of the original descriptions and interpret them in respect to the status of the species. We conclude that the majority of oncers were poorly described and their identity is ambiguous. As a result, we argue that the genus Gymnodinium contains only 234 identifiable species. Species that have been observed multiple times tend to have longer descriptions, written in English. The styles of individual authors have a major effect, with a few authors describing a disproportionate number of oncers. The information about the taxonomy of Gymnodinium that is available via the internet is incomplete, and reliance on it will not give access to all necessary knowledge. Six new names are presented – Gymnodinium campbelli for the homonymous name Gymnodinium translucens Campbell 1973, Gymnodinium antarcticum for the homonymous name Gymnodinium frigidum Balech 1965, Gymnodinium manchuriensis for the homonymous name Gymnodinium autumnale Skvortzov 1968, Gymnodinium christenum for the homonymous name Gymnodinium irregulare Christen 1959, Gymnodinium conkufferi for the homonymous name Gymnodinium irregulare Conrad & Kufferath 1954 and Gymnodinium chinensis for the homonymous name Gymnodinium frigidum Skvortzov 1968. PMID:22952856

  5. Characteristics, distribution, origin, and significance of opaline silica observed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruff, S.W.; Farmer, J.D.; Calvin, W.M.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Morris, R.V.; Rice, M.S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J.F., III; Christensen, P.R.; Squyres, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of outcrops and soil (regolith) rich in opaline silica (???65-92 wt % SiO2) in association with volcanic materials adjacent to the "Home Plate" feature in Gusev crater is evidence for hydrothermal conditions. The Spirit rover has supplied a diverse set of observations that are used here to better understand the formation of silica and the activity, abundance, and fate of water in the first hydrothermal system to be explored in situ on Mars. We apply spectral, chemical, morphological, textural, and stratigraphic observations to assess whether the silica was produced by acid sulfate leaching of precursor rocks, by precipitation from silica-rich solutions, or by some combination. The apparent lack of S enrichment and the relatively low oxidation state of the Home Plate silica-rich materials appear inconsistent with the originally proposed Hawaiian analog for fumarolic acid sulfate leaching. The stratiform distribution of the silica-rich outcrops and their porous and brecciated microtextures are consistent with sinter produced by silica precipitation. There is no evidence for crystalline quartz phases among the silica occurrences, an indication of the lack of diagenetic maturation following the production of the amorphous opaline phase. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. The NASA Earth Observing System Higher-Education Alliance Curriculum Development Project at Middle Tennessee State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolins, M. J.; Wylie, M.

    2008-12-01

    During the last three years, geodata-rich undergraduate curricula were developed at Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) with major support from the NASA Earth Observing System Higher-Education Alliance ("GeoBrain") and additional support from Tennessee Space Grant and the NSF StepMT program. These curricula fall into three broad categories: (1) GIS-based curricula, (2) the free on-line textbook "Physical Regions and Features of the United States," and (3) presentation graphics (primarily satellite images) for faculty involved in teaching and research outside the United States. All three incorporate Earth Observing System data as well as data from other public sources. Most data was obtained through the GeoBrain data download website, the USGS Seamless Data Distribution System, or the National Atlas of the United States website. The three categories of curricula exemplify the diverse educational applications of satellite images and other map data. The GIS-based curricula (1) are built around ESRI GIS software and include an asteroid impact activity and a volcano activity. The free on-line textbook (2) provides a broad overview of the physical features of the United States and is intended as a supplement for undergraduate geoscience courses. Presentation graphics (3) have been created for faculty investigating Scottish archeology and historical/cultural issues in Portugal and Morocco. The three categories represent three distinctly different ways to use remotely-sensed data to improve undergraduate instruction.

  7. Stages in the Making of the Competence Approach and Its Significance to Teaching Medical Disciplines at Institutions of Higher Medical Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayev, Igor V.; Dautova, Olga B.; Dicheva, Diana T.; Andreyev, Dmitry N.; Goncharenko, Aleksandra Yu.; Kucheryavy, Yury A.; Aleksandrova, Kseniya O.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the preconditions and origins of the competence approach and various approaches to apprehending the essence of competencies: personal, functional, and cognitive. The authors cover the major stages in the making of the competence approach at institutions of higher medical learning.

  8. Significant Labor and Employment Law Issues in Higher Education During the Past Decade and What To Look for Now: A Union Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Rachel

    2000-01-01

    A union perspective of major issues in higher education labor law in the 1990s includes the 11th Circuit Court cases on whether Congress abrogated states' 11th Amendment immunity for suits under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) and under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Analyzes contract issues of protection around age

  9. Significant Labor and Employment Law Issues in Higher Education During the Past Decade and What to Look for Now: The Perspective of an Academician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodah, Matthew M.

    2000-01-01

    An academician explores major issues in higher education labor law during the 1990s: union organizing by graduate teaching assistants, bargaining and workload issues, developments concerning grievance arbitration, and rights of individual faculty members within unions. Issues likely to arise in the next decade include alternatives to tenure,

  10. Significant Labor and Employment Law Issues in Higher Education During the Past Decade and What To Look for Now: A Union Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Rachel

    2000-01-01

    A union perspective of major issues in higher education labor law in the 1990s includes the 11th Circuit Court cases on whether Congress abrogated states' 11th Amendment immunity for suits under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) and under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Analyzes contract issues of protection around age…

  11. SIGNIFICANT FOREGROUND UNRELATED NON-ACOUSTIC ANISOTROPY ON THE 1 DEGREE SCALE IN WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE 5-YEAR OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Bizhu; Zhang Shuangnan; Lieu, Richard; Wakker, Bart

    2010-01-01

    The spectral variation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as observed by WMAP was tested using foreground reduced WMAP5 data, by producing subtraction maps at the 1 deg. angular resolution between the two cosmological bands of V and W, for masked sky areas that avoid the Galactic disk. The resulting V - W map revealed a non-acoustic signal over and above the WMAP5 pixel noise, with two main properties. First, it possesses quadrupole power at the approx1 muK level which may be attributed to foreground residuals. Second, it fluctuates also at all values of l> 2, especially on the 1 deg. scale (200 approx< l approx< 300). The behavior is random and symmetrical about zero temperature with an rms approx7 muK, or 10% of the maximum CMB anisotropy, which would require a 'cosmic conspiracy' among the foreground components if it is a consequence of their existence. Both anomalies must be properly diagnosed and corrected if 'precision' cosmology is the claim. The second anomaly is, however, more interesting because it opens the question on whether the CMB anisotropy genuinely represents primordial density seeds.

  12. High-resolution satellite turbidity and sea surface temperature observations of river plume interactions during a significant flood event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brando, V. E.; Braga, F.; Zaggia, L.; Giardino, C.; Bresciani, M.; Matta, E.; Bellafiore, D.; Ferrarin, C.; Maicu, F.; Benetazzo, A.; Bonaldo, D.; Falcieri, F. M.; Coluccelli, A.; Russo, A.; Carniel, S.

    2015-11-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) and turbidity (T) derived from Landsat 8 (L8) imagery were used to characterize river plumes in the northern Adriatic Sea (NAS) during a significant flood event in November 2014. Circulation patterns and sea surface salinity (SSS) from an operational coupled ocean-wave model supported the interpretation of the plumes' interaction with the receiving waters and among them. There was a good agreement of the SSS, T, and SST fields at the sub-mesoscale and mesoscale delineation of the major river plumes. L8 30 m resolution also enabled the description of smaller plume structures. The different plumes' reflectance spectra were related to the lithological fingerprint of the sediments in the river catchments. Sharp fronts in T and SST delimited each single river plume. The isotherms and turbidity isolines' coupling varied among the plumes due to differences in particle loads and surface temperatures in the discharged waters. The surface expressions of all the river plumes occurring in NAS were classified based on the occurrence of the plume dynamical regions in the L8 30 m resolution imagery.

  13. Significant Efficacy of Tramadol/Acetaminophen in Elderly Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain Uncontrolled by NSAIDs: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Chronic low back pain (LBP) is a common condition and is generally treated using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID); however, chronic NSAID use can decrease renal function. Tramadol, a weak opioid agonist, may improve chronic LBP and disability, while avoiding adverse effects such as gastrointestinal and renal toxicity. However, few studies have evaluated the short-term efficacy of opioids in Asian patients with chronic LBP. In this study, 24 patients with chronic LBP unresponsive to NSAIDs (10 men, 14 women; mean age, 65.1 ± 12.1 years) were prescribed tramadol/acetaminophen (37.5 mg/325 mg; four tablets daily) for 1 month. Then, the following parameters were assessed at baseline and after 1 week and 1 month of treatment: leg pain and LBP (Visual Analog Score [VAS]); activity of daily life (Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire [RDQ]); and disability (Oswestry Disability Index [ODI]). Leg pain resolved within 1 week (p = 0.00093); however, LBP was relieved only at 1 month (p = 0.00034). The mean RDQ (p = 0.015) and ODI (p = 0.0032) scores were improved at 1 month. A total 41.6% of patients reported nausea and floating sensation beginning tramadol/acetaminophen treatment, and 12.5% (four patients) discontinued treatment as a result. LBP did not improve in 25% of patients administered tramadol/acetaminophen. Because this was an observational study, rather than a comparative study, further investigation is needed to evaluate the long-term efficacy of tramadol/acetaminophen in elderly patients with chronic LBP unresponsive to NSAIDs. PMID:26157527

  14. Primary bacteraemia is associated with a higher mortality risk compared with pulmonary and intra-abdominal infections in patients with sepsis: a prospective observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mansur, Ashham; Klee, Yvonne; Popov, Aron Frederik; Erlenwein, Joachim; Ghadimi, Michael; Beissbarth, Tim; Bauer, Martin; Hinz, José

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether common infection foci (pulmonary, intra-abdominal and primary bacteraemia) are associated with variations in mortality risk in patients with sepsis. Design Prospective, observational cohort study. Setting Three surgical intensive care units (ICUs) at a university medical centre. Participants A total of 327 adult Caucasian patients with sepsis originating from pulmonary, intra-abdominal and primary bacteraemia participated in this study. Primary and secondary outcome measures The patients were followed for 90 days and mortality risk was recorded as the primary outcome variable. To monitor organ failure, sepsis-related organ failure assessment (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, SOFA) scores were evaluated at the onset of sepsis and throughout the observational period as secondary outcome variables. Results A total of 327 critically ill patients with sepsis were enrolled in this study. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the 90-day mortality risk was significantly higher among patients with primary bacteraemia than among those with pulmonary and intra-abdominal foci (58%, 35% and 32%, respectively; p=0.0208). To exclude the effects of several baseline variables, we performed multivariate Cox regression analysis. Primary bacteraemia remained a significant covariate for mortality in the multivariate analysis (HR 2.10; 95% CI 1.14 to 3.86; p=0.0166). During their stay in the ICU, the patients with primary bacteraemia presented significantly higher SOFA scores than those of the patients with pulmonary and intra-abdominal infection foci (8.5±4.7, 7.3±3.4 and 5.8±3.5, respectively). Patients with primary bacteraemia presented higher SOFA-renal score compared with the patients with other infection foci (1.6±1.4, 0.8±1.1 and 0.7±1.0, respectively); the patients with primary bacteraemia required significantly more renal replacement therapy than the patients in the other groups (29%, 11% and 12%, respectively). Conclusions These results indicate that patients with sepsis with primary bacteraemia present a higher mortality risk compared with patients with sepsis of pulmonary or intra-abdominal origins. These results should be assessed in patients with sepsis in larger, independent cohorts. PMID:25564146

  15. The significance of recruiting underrepresented minorities in medicine: an examination of the need for effective approaches used in admissions by higher education institutions

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Obed

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the significance of recruiting underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM). This would include African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans. The research findings support the belief that URMs, upon graduating, are more likely to become practitioners in underserved communities, thereby becoming a resource that prompts us to find effective ways to help increase their college enrollments statewide. This paper analyzes the recruitment challenges for institutions, followed by a review of creative and effective approaches used by organizations and universities. The results have shown positive outcomes averaging a 50% increase in minority enrollments and retention. In other areas, such as cognitive development, modest gains were achieved in programs that were shorter in duration. The results nevertheless indicated steps in the right direction inspiring further program developments. PMID:25192970

  16. Low Vitamin D Levels Are Associated with Higher Opioid Dose in Palliative Cancer Patients Results from an Observational Study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Peter; Sperneder, Susanne; Hijer, Jonas; Bergqvist, Jenny; Bjrkhem-Bergman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Background Vitamin D deficiency is common among palliative cancer patients and has been connected to an increased risk for pain, depressions and infections. Therefore we wanted to test the hypothesis that low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels are associated with higher opioid dose, higher infectious burden and impaired quality of life in palliative cancer patients. The secondary aim was to investigate the association between 25OHD-levels and survival time. Method In this prospective, observational study in palliative cancer-patients (n = 100) we performed univariate and multiple linear regression analysis to assess the association of 25OHD levels with opioid dose, infectious burden (antibiotic consumption), quality of life (Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale, ESAS) and survival time, controlling for potential confounding factors. Results The median 25OHD level was 40 nmol/L (range 8-154 nmol/L). There was a significant association between 25OHD levels and opioid dose, beta coefficient -0.67; p=0.02; i.e. a low 25OHD level was associated with a higher opioid dose. This association remained significant after adjustment for stage of the cancer disease in a multivariate analysis, beta coefficient -0.66; p = 0.04. There was no association between 25OHD levels and antibiotic use or quality of life. Univariate cox regression analysis showed a weak correlation between survival time and 25OHD levels (p<0.05). However, decreased albumin levels and increased CRP levels were superior markers to predict survival time; p<0.001 for both analyses. Conclusion Low 25OHD-levels are associated with increased opioid consumption in palliative cancer patients. Future interventional studies are needed to investigate if pain can be reduced by vitamin D supplementation in these patients. In addition, this study confirms previous findings that low albumin and increased CRP levels are useful markers for survival time in palliative cancer patients. PMID:26018761

  17. Some Observations from a Very Telling Innocuous Query: An Essay on the State of Higher Education in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Jos; Wakefield, Michael; LeMaster, Jane

    2010-01-01

    We present a self-reflective assessment of higher education from the perspective of educators and administrators prompted by a common question addressed to many of us, perhaps hundreds of times in the year; "What's my grade?" Upon some scrutiny, we find a series of troubling interrelated issues that more or less depict a system of higher

  18. Treatment-associated polymorphisms in protease are significantly associated with higher viral load and lower CD4 count in newly diagnosed drug-naive HIV-1 infected patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The effect of drug resistance transmission on disease progression in the newly infected patient is not well understood. Major drug resistance mutations severely impair viral fitness in a drug free environment, and therefore are expected to revert quickly. Compensatory mutations, often already polymorphic in wild-type viruses, do not tend to revert after transmission. While compensatory mutations increase fitness during treatment, their presence may also modulate viral fitness and virulence in absence of therapy and major resistance mutations. We previously designed a modeling technique that quantifies genotypic footprints of in vivo treatment selective pressure, including both drug resistance mutations and polymorphic compensatory mutations, through the quantitative description of a fitness landscape from virus genetic sequences. Results Genotypic correlates of viral load and CD4 cell count were evaluated in subtype B sequences from recently diagnosed treatment-naive patients enrolled in the SPREAD programme. The association of surveillance drug resistance mutations, reported compensatory mutations and fitness estimated from drug selective pressure fitness landscapes with baseline viral load and CD4 cell count was evaluated using regression techniques. Protease genotypic variability estimated to increase fitness during treatment was associated with higher viral load and lower CD4 cell counts also in treatment-naive patients, which could primarily be attributed to well-known compensatory mutations at highly polymorphic positions. By contrast, treatment-related mutations in reverse transcriptase could not explain viral load or CD4 cell count variability. Conclusions These results suggest that polymorphic compensatory mutations in protease, reported to be selected during treatment, may improve the replicative capacity of HIV-1 even in absence of drug selective pressure or major resistance mutations. The presence of this polymorphic variation may either reflect a history of drug selective pressure, i.e. transmission from a treated patient, or merely be a result of diversity in wild-type virus. Our findings suggest that transmitted drug resistance has the potential to contribute to faster disease progression in the newly infected host and to shape the HIV-1 epidemic at a population level. PMID:23031662

  19. Higher surface ozone concentrations over the Chesapeake Bay than over the adjacent land: Observations and models from the DISCOVER-AQ and CBODAQ campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Daniel L.; Loughner, Christopher P.; Tzortziou, Maria; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Marufu, Lackson T.; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2014-02-01

    Air quality models, such as the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, indicate decidedly higher ozone near the surface of large interior water bodies, such as the Great Lakes and Chesapeake Bay. In order to test the validity of the model output, we performed surface measurements of ozone (O3) and total reactive nitrogen (NOy) on the 26-m Delaware II NOAA Small Research Vessel experimental (SRVx), deployed in the Chesapeake Bay for 10 daytime cruises in July 2011 as part of NASA's GEO-CAPE CBODAQ oceanographic field campaign in conjunction with NASA's DISCOVER-AQ air quality field campaign. During this 10-day period, the EPA O3 regulatory standard of 75 ppbv averaged over an 8-h period was exceeded four times over water while ground stations in the area only exceeded the standard at most twice. This suggests that on days when the Baltimore/Washington region is in compliance with the EPA standard, air quality over the Chesapeake Bay might exceed the EPA standard. Ozone observations over the bay during the afternoon were consistently 10-20% higher than the closest upwind ground sites during the 10-day campaign; this pattern persisted during good and poor air quality days. A lower boundary layer, reduced cloud cover, slower dry deposition rates, and other lesser mechanisms, contribute to the local maximum of ozone over the Chesapeake Bay. Observations from this campaign were compared to a CMAQ simulation at 1.33 km resolution. The model is able to predict the regional maximum of ozone over the Chesapeake Bay accurately, but NOy concentrations are significantly overestimated. Explanations for the overestimation of NOy in the model simulations are also explored.

  20. Higher Surface Ozone Concentrations Over the Chesapeake Bay than Over the Adjacent Land: Observations and Models from the DISCOVER-AQ and CBODAQ Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Daniel L.; Loughner, Christopher P.; Tzortziou, Maria; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Marufu, Lackson T.; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2013-01-01

    Air quality models, such as the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, indicate decidedly higher ozone near the surface of large interior water bodies, such as the Great Lakes and Chesapeake Bay. In order to test the validity of the model output, we performed surface measurements of ozone (O3) and total reactive nitrogen (NOy) on the 26-m Delaware II NOAA Small Research Vessel experimental (SRVx), deployed in the Chesapeake Bay for 10 daytime cruises in July 2011 as part of NASA's GEO-CAPE CBODAQ oceanographic field campaign in conjunction with NASA's DISCOVER-AQ air quality field campaign. During this 10-day period, the EPA O3 regulatory standard of 75 ppbv averaged over an 8-h period was exceeded four times over water while ground stations in the area only exceeded the standard at most twice. This suggests that on days when the Baltimore/Washington region is in compliance with the EPA standard, air quality over the Chesapeake Bay might exceed the EPA standard. Ozone observations over the bay during the afternoon were consistently 10-20% higher than the closest upwind ground sites during the 10-day campaign; this pattern persisted during good and poor air quality days. A lower boundary layer, reduced cloud cover, slower dry deposition rates, and other lesser mechanisms, contribute to the local maximum of ozone over the Chesapeake Bay. Observations from this campaign were compared to a CMAQ simulation at 1.33 km resolution. The model is able to predict the regional maximum of ozone over the Chesapeake Bay accurately, but NOy concentrations are significantly overestimated. Explanations for the overestimation of NOy in the model simulations are also explored

  1. Sino-U.S. Transnational Education--"Buying" an American Higher Education Program: A Participant Observation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nix, Jerry Vincent

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the social, political, economic, and cultural dimensions of a U.S.-based transnational education (TNE) program in China. TNE refers to education programs provided by an institution located in another country, and this study focused on higher (tertiary) education. Six questions provided the focus for this study: (1) What are

  2. Sino-U.S. Transnational Education--"Buying" an American Higher Education Program: A Participant Observation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nix, Jerry Vincent

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the social, political, economic, and cultural dimensions of a U.S.-based transnational education (TNE) program in China. TNE refers to education programs provided by an institution located in another country, and this study focused on higher (tertiary) education. Six questions provided the focus for this study: (1) What are…

  3. Red and Processed Meat Intake Is Associated with Higher Gastric Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chi; Zhu, Chen; Tao, Guangzhou; Zhao, Lianjun; Tang, Shaowen; Shu, Zheng; Cai, Jing; Dai, Shengbin; Qin, Qin; Xu, Liping; Cheng, Hongyan; Sun, Xinchen

    2013-01-01

    Background Red and processed meat was concluded as a limited-suggestive risk factor of gastric cancer by the World Cancer Research Fund. However, recent epidemiological studies have yielded inconclusive results. Methods We searched Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from their inception to April 2013 for both cohort and case-control studies which assessed the association between red and/or processed meat intake and gastric cancer risk. Study-specific relative risk estimates were polled by random-effect or fixed-effect models. Results Twelve cohort and thirty case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. Significant associations were found between both red (RR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.221.73) and processed (RR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.261.65) meat intake and gastric cancer risk generally. Positive findings were also existed in the items of beef (RR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.041.57), bacon (RR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.171.61), ham (RR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.002.06), and sausage (RR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.161.52). When conducted by study design, the association was significant in case-control studies (RR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.331.99) but not in cohort studies (RR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.901.17) for red meat. Increased relative risks were seen in high-quality, adenocarcinoma, cardia and European-population studies for red meat. And most subgroup analysis confirmed the significant association between processed meat intake and gastric cancer risk. Conclusions Our findings indicate that consumption of red and/or processed meat contributes to increased gastric cancer risk. However, further investigation is needed to confirm the association, especially for red meat. PMID:23967140

  4. Acetic acid-water complex: The first observation of structures containing the higher-energy acetic acid conformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Susy; Fausto, Rui; Khriachtchev, Leonid

    2016-02-01

    Non-covalent interaction of acetic acid (AA) and water is studied experimentally by IR spectroscopy in a nitrogen matrix and theoretically at the MP2 and coupled-cluster with single and double and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)]/6-311++G(2d,2p) levels of theory. This work is focused on the first preparation and characterization of complexes of higher-energy (cis) conformer of AA with water. The calculations show three 1:1 structures for the trans-AA⋯H2O complexes and three 1:1 structures for the cis-AA⋯H2O complexes. Two trans-AA⋯H2O and two cis-AA⋯H2O complexes are found and structurally assigned in the experiments. The two cis-AA⋯ ṡ H2O complexes are obtained by annealing of a matrix containing water and cis-AA molecules prepared by selective vibrational excitation of the ground-state trans form. The less stable trans-AA⋯H2O complex is obtained by vibrational excitation of the less stable cis-AA⋯H2O complex. In addition, the 1:2 complexes of trans-AA and cis-AA with water molecules are studied computationally and the most stable forms of the 1:2 complexes are experimentally identified.

  5. High prevalence of asthma symptoms in Warao Amerindian children in Venezuela is significantly associated with open-fire cooking: a cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) reported a prevalence of asthma symptoms in 17 centers in nine Latin American countries that was similar to prevalence rates reported in non-tropical countries. It has been proposed that the continuous exposure to infectious diseases in rural populations residing in tropical areas leads to a relatively low prevalence of asthma symptoms. As almost a quarter of Latin American people live in rural tropical areas, the encountered high prevalence of asthma symptoms is remarkable. Wood smoke exposure and environmental tobacco smoke have been identified as possible risk factors for having asthma symptoms. Methods We performed a cross-sectional observational study from June 1, 2012 to September 30, 2012 in which we interviewed parents and guardians of Warao Amerindian children from Venezuela. Asthma symptoms were defined according to the ISAAC definition as self-reported wheezing in the last 12 months. The associations between wood smoke exposure and environmental tobacco smoke and the prevalence of asthma symptoms were calculated by means of univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results We included 630 children between two and ten years of age. Asthma symptoms were recorded in 164 of these children (26%). The prevalence of asthma symptoms was associated with the cooking method. Children exposed to the smoke produced by cooking on open wood fires were at higher risk of having asthma symptoms compared to children exposed to cooking with gas (AOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.18 - 3.84). Four percent of the children lived in a household where more than ten cigarettes were smoked per day and they had a higher risk of having asthma symptoms compared to children who were not exposed to cigarette smoke (AOR 2.69, 95% CI 1.11 - 6.48). Conclusion Our findings suggest that children living in rural settings in a household where wood is used for cooking or where more than ten cigarettes are smoked daily have a higher risk of having asthma symptoms. PMID:23870058

  6. Observations of a rapidly flowing and significantly retreated Jakobshavn Isbrae and the proglacial ice mlange from a ground based radar interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassotto, R. K.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Amundson, J. M.; Truffer, M.; de la Pena, S.; Joughin, I. R.

    2012-12-01

    Jakobshavn Isbrae has experienced several changes in seasonal behavior over the last decade. During the period of floating ice tongue loss and late summer grounded calving from 2000-2010, the calving front experienced a seasonally modulated ~5km advance and retreat as calving ceased during the winter and re-initiated in the spring. During that time the glacier doubled its speed and the terminus retreated ~14 km. The glacier entered a new seasonal pattern in 2010 when it continued to calve throughout the winter and subsequently failed to significantly re-advance. The glacier continues to evolve into 2012; it is now moving at a new maximum speed and the terminus has already reached a new minimum position in mid-summer, far earlier than in previous years. The calving style has changed from full glacier thick icebergs that calve as episodic events at one week to few week intervals to smaller sub-kilometer icebergs that calve more frequently. A two-week field campaign was conducted observing the terminus and proglacial ice mlange during in August 2012. A group of ground based radar interferometers were deployed to monitor changes in speed and surface deformation in response to calving events and tidal cycles, helping to illustrate the new style of calving, which leads to significantly smaller icebergs in the fjord. Observations are compared against GPS instruments deployed along the terminus as well as time-lapse photography and satellite data. The radars not only capture the motion of glacier ice, but are also well suited to document the response of the ice melange to calving events. The effects of atmospheric variability on ground based radar interferometry can be important.

  7. Tectonic activity as a significant source of crustal tetrafluoromethane emissions to the atmosphere: Observations in groundwaters along the San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeds, Daniel A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Mühle, Jens; Weiss, Ray F.

    2015-02-01

    Tetrafluoromethane (CF4) concentrations were measured in 14 groundwater samples from the Cuyama Valley, Mil Potrero and Cuddy Valley aquifers along the Big Bend section of the San Andreas Fault System (SAFS) in California to assess whether tectonic activity in this region is a significant source of crustal CF4 to the atmosphere. Dissolved CF4 concentrations in all groundwater samples but one were elevated with respect to estimated recharge concentrations including entrainment of excess air during recharge (Cre; ∼30 fmol kg-1 H2O), indicating subsurface addition of CF4 to these groundwaters. Groundwaters in the Cuyama Valley contain small CF4 excesses (0.1-9 times Cre), which may be attributed to an in situ release from weathering and a minor addition of deep crustal CF4 introduced to the shallow groundwater through nearby faults. CF4 excesses in groundwaters within 200 m of the SAFS are larger (10-980 times Cre) and indicate the presence of a deep crustal flux of CF4 that is likely associated with the physical alteration of silicate minerals in the shear zone of the SAFS. Extrapolating CF4 flux rates observed in this study to the full extent of the SAFS (1300 km × 20-100 km) suggests that the SAFS potentially emits (0.3- 1) ×10-1 kg CF4 yr-1 to the Earth's surface. For comparison, the chemical weathering of ∼ 7.5 ×104km2 of granitic rock in California is estimated to release (0.019- 3.2) ×10-1 kg CF4 yr-1. Tectonic activity is likely an important, and potentially the dominant, driver of natural emissions of CF4 to the atmosphere. Variations in preindustrial atmospheric CF4 as observed in paleo-archives such as ice cores may therefore represent changes in both continental weathering and tectonic activity, including changes driven by variations in continental ice cover during glacial-interglacial transitions.

  8. Sediment grain size and surface textural observations of quartz grains in late quaternary lacustrine sediments from Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica: Paleoenvironmental significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warrier, Anish Kumar; Pednekar, Hemant; Mahesh, B. S.; Mohan, Rahul; Gazi, Sahina

    2016-03-01

    In this study we report the sediment grain size parameters and surface textural observations (using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)) of quartz grains from sediments of Sandy Lake, Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica. The sediment core spans the last 43 cal ka B.P. The statistical parameters of grain size data (sorting, skewness, kurtosis, mean grain size, D10, D50, D90 and SPAN index) indicate that the sediments are primarily transported by melt-water streams and glaciers. However, during the last glacial period, sediments seem to be transported due to wind activity as evident by the good correlation between rounded quartz data and dust flux data from EPICA ice-core data. The mean grain size values are low during the last glacial period indicating colder climatic conditions and the values increase after the last glacial maximum suggesting an increase in the energy of the transporting medium, i.e., melt-water streams. The sediments are poorly sorted and finely skewed and show different modes of grain size distribution throughout the last 43 cal ka B.P. SEM studies of selected quartz grains and analyses of various surface textures indicate that glacigenic conditions must have prevailed at the time of their transport. Semi-quantitative analyses of mineral (quartz, feldspar, mica, garnet and rock fragments & other minerals) counts suggest a mixed population of minerals with quartz being the dominant mineral. Higher concentration of quartz grains over other minerals indicates that the sediments are compositionally mature. The study reveals the different types of physical weathering, erosive signatures, and chemical precipitation most of them characteristic of glacial environment which affected these quartz grains before final deposition as lake sediments. The palaeoclimatic signals obtained from this study show similarities with ice-core and lake sediment records from Schirmacher Oasis and other ice-free regions in East Antarctica.

  9. A significant decrease of the fundamental Schumann resonance frequency during the solar cycle minimum of 2008-9 as observed at Modra Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondrášková, Adriena; Ševčík, Sebastián; Kostecký, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    The Schumann resonances (SR) are electromagnetic eigenmodes of the resonator bounded by the Earth's surface and the lower ionosphere. The SR frequency variability has been studied for more than 4 decades. Using data from the period 1988 to 2002, Sátori et al. (2005) showed that the SR fundamental mode frequency decreased on the 11-year time scale by 0.07 - 0.2 Hz, depending on which component of the field was used for estimation and likely also on the location of the observer. A decrease by 0.30 Hz from the latest solar cycle maximum to the minimum of 2009 is found in data from Modra Observatory. This extraordinary fall of the fundamental mode frequency can be attributed to the unprecedented drop in the ionizing radiation in X-ray frequency band. Although the patterns of the daily and seasonal variations remain the same in the solar cycle minimum as in the solar cycle maximum, they are significantly shifted to lower frequencies during the minimum. Analysis of the daily frequency range suggests that the main thunderstorm regions during the north hemisphere summer are smaller in the solar cycle minimum than in the maximum.

  10. Tectonic activity as a significant source of crustal tetrafluoromethane emissions to the atmosphere: observations in groundwaters along the San Andreas Fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deeds, Daniel A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Muhle, Jens; Weiss, Ray F.

    2015-01-01

    Tetrafluoromethane (CF4) concentrations were measured in 14 groundwater samples from the Cuyama Valley, Mil Potrero and Cuddy Valley aquifers along the Big Bend section of the San Andreas Fault System (SAFS) in California to assess whether tectonic activity in this region is a significant source of crustal CF4 to the atmosphere. Dissolved CF4 concentrations in all groundwater samples but one were elevated with respect to estimated recharge concentrations including entrainment of excess air during recharge (CreCre; ?30 fmol?kg?1 H2O), indicating subsurface addition of CF4 to these groundwaters. Groundwaters in the Cuyama Valley contain small CF4 excesses (0.19 times CreCre), which may be attributed to an in situ release from weathering and a minor addition of deep crustal CF4 introduced to the shallow groundwater through nearby faults. CF4 excesses in groundwaters within 200 m of the SAFS are larger (10980 times CreCre) and indicate the presence of a deep crustal flux of CF4 that is likely associated with the physical alteration of silicate minerals in the shear zone of the SAFS. Extrapolating CF4 flux rates observed in this study to the full extent of the SAFS (1300 km 20100 km) suggests that the SAFS potentially emits (0.31)10?1 kg(0.31)10?1 kg CF4 yr?1 to the Earth's surface. For comparison, the chemical weathering of ?7.5104 km2?7.5104 km2 of granitic rock in California is estimated to release (0.0193.2)10?1 kg(0.0193.2)10?1 kg CF4 yr?1. Tectonic activity is likely an important, and potentially the dominant, driver of natural emissions of CF4 to the atmosphere. Variations in preindustrial atmospheric CF4 as observed in paleo-archives such as ice cores may therefore represent changes in both continental weathering and tectonic activity, including changes driven by variations in continental ice cover during glacialinterglacial transitions.

  11. The initial errors that induce a significant "spring predictability barrier" for El Nio events and their implications for target observation: results from an earth system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Wansuo; Hu, Junya

    2015-08-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Earth System Model is used to study the "spring predictability barrier" (SPB) problem for El Nio events from the perspective of initial error growth. By conducting perfect model predictability experiments, we obtain two types of initial sea temperature errors, which often exhibit obvious season-dependent evolution and cause a significant SPB when predicting the onset of El Nio events bestriding spring. One type of initial errors possesses a sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) pattern with negative anomalies in the central-eastern equatorial Pacific, plus a basin-wide dipolar subsurface temperature anomaly pattern with negative anomalies in the upper layers of the eastern equatorial Pacific and positive anomalies in the lower layers of the western equatorial Pacific. The other type consists of an SSTA component with positive anomalies over the southeastern equatorial Pacific, plus a large-scale zonal dipole pattern of the subsurface temperature anomaly with positive anomalies in the upper layers of the eastern equatorial Pacific and negative anomalies in the lower layers of the central-western equatorial Pacific. Both exhibit a La Nia-like evolving mode and cause an under-prediction for Nio-3 SSTA of El Nio events. For the former initial error type, the resultant prediction errors grow in a manner similar to the behavior of the growth phase of La Nia; while for the latter initial error type, they experience a process that is similar to El Nio decay and transition to a La Nia growth phase. Both two types of initial errors cause negative prediction errors of Nio-3 SSTA for El Nio events. The prediction errors for Nio-3 SSTA are mainly due to the contribution of initial sea temperature errors in the large-error-related regions in the upper layers of the eastern tropical Pacific and/or in the lower layers of the western tropical Pacific. These regions may represent ``sensitive areas'' for El Nio-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) predictions, thereby providing information for target observations to improve the forecasting skill of ENSO.

  12. Higher Body Iron Is Associated with Greater Depression Symptoms among Young Adult Men but not Women: Observational Data from the Daily Life Study

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Aimee C.; Heath, Anne-Louise M.; Haszard, Jillian J.; Polak, Maria A.; Houghton, Lisa A.; Conner, Tamlin S.

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating possible associations between iron status and mood or depressive symptoms have reported inconsistent results. However, they have neither used body iron to measure iron status nor measured mood using daily measures. We investigated whether body iron was associated with depressive symptoms, daily mood, daily tiredness, difficulty concentrating, and stress in young adult women and men. Young adult (1725 years) women (n = 562) and men (n = 323) completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, then reported negative and positive mood, and other states daily for 13 days. Non-fasting venous blood was collected to determine hemoglobin, serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (to calculate body iron), C-reactive protein, and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein concentration. Regression models tested linear associations between body iron and the outcome variables, controlling for possible confounders. No associations were found between body iron and the outcome variables in women. However, higher body iron was associated with more depressive symptoms in men (3.4% more per body iron mg/kg; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.8%, 5.9%). In young adult women, body iron is unlikely to be associated with significant deficits in mood or depressive symptoms. However, higher body iron may be associated with more depressive symptoms in young adult men. PMID:26213963

  13. Significant Networks and Meaningful Conversations Observed in the First-Round Applicants for the Teachers' Academy at a Research-Intensive University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyörälä, Eeva; Hirsto, Laura; Toom, Auli; Myyry, Liisa; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari

    2015-01-01

    The University of Helsinki established a Teachers' Academy to reward excellence in teaching. This study focuses on teachers' significant networks and their meaningful conversations about teaching and learning before the establishment of the Teachers' Academy. The research data consisted of answers to open-ended questions, and were examined using…

  14. Significant Networks and Meaningful Conversations Observed in the First-Round Applicants for the Teachers' Academy at a Research-Intensive University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyrl, Eeva; Hirsto, Laura; Toom, Auli; Myyry, Liisa; Lindblom-Ylnne, Sari

    2015-01-01

    The University of Helsinki established a Teachers' Academy to reward excellence in teaching. This study focuses on teachers' significant networks and their meaningful conversations about teaching and learning before the establishment of the Teachers' Academy. The research data consisted of answers to open-ended questions, and were examined using

  15. Significantly Higher Peripheral Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Levels in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder or Bipolar Disorder Than in Healthy Controls: A Meta-Analysis and Review Under Guideline of PRISMA.

    PubMed

    Tu, Kun-Yu; Wu, Ming-Kung; Chen, Yen-Wen; Lin, Pao-Yen; Wang, Hung-Yu; Wu, Ching-Kuan; Tseng, Ping-Tao

    2016-01-01

    An increasing amount of research has focused on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) because of multiple neurotrophic effects, including neurogenesis, remyelination, and synaptogenesis. In addition, IGF-1 can mediate an antidepressant effect in patients with major affective disorder, and its levels in the cerebrospinal fluid have been found to vary with antidepressant treatment. Furthermore, it has been proven to crossover the blood-brain barrier, with a reciprocal feedback loop being the central effect. However, recent studies have reported inconclusive findings about the role of IGF-1 in major affective disorder.The aim of the current study was to conduct a thorough meta-analysis of changes in peripheral IGF-1 levels in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD). We conducted a thorough literature search and compared peripheral IGF-1 levels in patients with MDD or BD and in healthy controls, and investigated clinical variables through meta-regression.Electronic research was conducted through platform of PubMed.We used inclusion criteria as clinical trials discussing comparisons of peripheral IGF-1 protein levels in patients with MDD or BD and those in healthy controls.We analyzed the cases from 9 studies with the random-effect model.The main finding was that peripheral IGF-1 levels in the patients were significantly higher than in the healthy controls (P?significant inverse association with duration of illness (P?=?0.03). In meta-analysis comparing peripheral IGF-1 levels in patients with BD or MDD before and after treatment, there was no significant change in peripheral IGF-1 levels after treatment (P?=?0.092).The small numbers of studies and lack of correlation data with growth hormone in current studies are the main limitations of this meta-analysis.Our results indicated that peripheral IGF-1 levels may not be an indicator of disease severity, but may be a disease trait marker or an indicator of cognition. However, further investigations on the correlation between cognitive function and peripheral IGF-1 levels are needed to explore the role of IGF-1 in the pathophysiology of MDD and BD. PMID:26825882

  16. Review of the Observations which have Accumulated with regard to the Significance of Diphtheria Types in the Last Four Years (1931-1935)

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, K. E.; Happold, F. C.; McLeod, J. W.; De C. Woodcock, H. E.

    1936-01-01

    1. In a series of more than 6,000 cases of diphtheria gathered from many parts of the country and from Germany during the last five years, at least 95% of the strains have fallen within three principal types described in 1933 as Gravis, Intermediate, and Mitis. 2. Of these the Gravis strains have been found to be associated with the highest case death-rate and the greatest incidence of paralysis. The Intermediate strains are more nearly related to Gravis than to Mitis in respect of their case death-rate, and at least equal to Gravis in tending to produce hmorrhagic phenomena. The Mitis strains are the most likely of all to produce lesions extending to the larynx and lungs, but apart from such complications are rarely the cause of death. 3. The suggested nomenclature for the types is further justified by observations on the incidence of diphtheria in the immunized and on diphtheria mortality in areas in which different types predominate. Also, it is justified though not so definitely by observations on animal pathogenicity. 4. Typical Gravis strains are so constantly pathogenic to animals that virulence tests with such strains are superfluous. 5. The stability of the types both in the animal and in the human body is marked although a number of observations are extant suggesting fluctuation of type in vitro. 6. It seems most probable, although open to question, that the fluctuations of type observed in many areas over a period of years are due to the waxing and waning of virulence of a number of independent races, rather than to mutations from one to another. 7. The discrepancy between the clinical severity of Gravis infections and their poor capacity to produce toxin in vitro has not yet received any adequate explanation. 8. The nasal carrier is the most important factor in the spread of diphtheria. 9. Clauberg's suggestion that the variants from the three well-defined types which are met may best be explained by rough to smooth variation within the types, the rougher strains representing the more virulent forms in each type, receives a good deal of support from a wide survey of the accumulated observations. A considerable group of freely growing and rough-non-starch fermenting forms which are non-pathogenic would form an exception to this rule as these would be classified as rough Mitis. These may, however, eventually prove with further investigation to be diphtheroid strains distinct from Mitis. PMID:19990761

  17. Laboratory polarization and permittivity measurements to interpret dust polarimetric observations and in-situ radar studies. Significance for Rosetta mission at 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Brouet, Yann; Hadamcik, Edith; Heggy, Essam; Hines, Dean; Lasue, Jérémie; Renard, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-08-01

    Polarimetric astronomical observations on dust clouds and regolithic surfaces require laboratory simulations on samples to provide information on properties (size distribution, porosity, refractive index) of the scattering media. Similarly, in-situ radar investigations in the solar system require laboratory studies on samples to infer physical properties (e.g. porosity, ice/dust ratio) of sub-surfaces and interiors. Recent developments are illustrated with present studies related to the Rosetta mission, which begun its rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimeko (C-G) and landed the Philae module on its nucleus in 2014.We will summarize laboratory simulations with the PROGRA2 suite of instruments that study (in the visible to near IR domain) the polarimetric properties of dust samples in microgravity conditions or on surfaces [1], with emphasis on the interpretation of polarimetric observations of C-G, during its previous perihelion passages from Earth observatories, and currently from HST [2,3]. The presence of large dust particles in the pre-perihelion coma previously inferred from remote observations agrees with Rosetta ground truth [4]. We will also present measurements on the permittivity (in the millimeter to meter domain) of various dust samples, with emphasis on porous samples [5,6]. Results provide constraints on the properties of the subsurface and interior of C-G, as explored by MIRO on Rosetta and CONSERT on Philae.Such studies are relevant for the interpretation of polarimetric observations of other dust clouds (e.g. debris disks, interplanetary dust cloud, clouds in planetary atmospheres) and surfaces (e.g. planets, moons), as well as for those of other radar characterization studies (e.g. Mars, moons, asteroids).[1] Levasseur-Regourd et al. In Polarization of stars and planetary systems, Cambridge UP, in press 2015.[2] Hadamcik et al. A&A 517 2010.[3] Hines and Levasseur-Regourd, PSS submitted 2015.[4] Schulz et al. Nature 518 2015.[5] Heggy et al. 2012, Icarus 221 2012.[6] Brouet et al. A&A submitted 2015.

  18. Is statistical significance always significant?

    PubMed

    Koretz, Ronald L

    2005-06-01

    One way in which we learn new information is to read the medical literature. Whether or not we do primary research, it is important to be able to read literature in a critical fashion. A seemingly simple concept in reading is to interpret p values. For most of us, if we find a p value that is <.05, we take the conclusion to heart and quote it at every opportunity. If the p value is >.05, we discard the paper and look elsewhere for useful information. Unfortunately, this is too simplistic an approach. The real utility of p values is to consider them within the context of the experiment being performed. Defects in study design can make an interpretation of a p value useless. One has to be wary of type I (seeing a "statistically significant" difference just because of chance) and type II (failing to see a difference that really exists) errors. Examples of the former are publication bias and the performance of multiple analyses; the latter refers to a trial that is too small to demonstrate the difference. Finding significant differences in surrogate or intermediate endpoints may not help us. We need to know if those endpoints reflect the behavior of clinical endpoints. Selectively citing significant differences and disregarding studies that do not find them is inappropriate. Small differences, even if they are statistically significant, may require too much resource expenditure to be clinically useful. This article explores these problems in depth and attempts to put p values in the context of studies. PMID:16207667

  19. Nipple discharge: is its significance as a risk factor for breast cancer fully understood? Observational study including 915 consecutive patients who underwent selective duct excision.

    PubMed

    Montroni, Isacco; Santini, Donatella; Zucchini, Giorgia; Fiacchi, Monica; Zanotti, Simone; Ugolini, Giampaolo; Manaresi, Alessio; Taffurelli, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Nipple discharge (ND) is a common symptom seen in breast cancer clinics. The primary aim of this study was to identify preoperative risk factors for breast cancer in patients with pathologic ND. The secondary aim was to assess the clinical and pathological effectiveness of physical examination, galactography, cytological examination of the discharge, selective duct excision and ductoscopy. All patients operated on between 1975 and 2008 who presented with ND as their only symptom was analyzed. Discharge's characteristics, cytological data and galactography reports were recorded. The relationship between each individual finding and the risk of breast cancer was calculated. For each diagnostic tool, the sensitivity, specificity and complication rates were calculated and compared. Nine-hundred-fifteen patients underwent selective duct excision. Two-hundred-nineteen patients (23.9%) were found to be affected by carcinoma. In 100/330 (30.3%) patients with bloody discharge and in 42/239 (17.6%) patients with serous secretion cancer was detected (P = 0.004, P = 0.013, respectively). Patients with sero-sanguinous or coloured discharge had the same risk of cancer as the population analyzed (23.9%, P = NS). Galactographic finding of irregular stenosis seemed to be associated with a higher risk of cancer (P = 0.0001). Cytological findings C5 and C4 were associated with cancer (P = 0.001). Selective duct excision showed highest sensitivity and specificity. In conclusion, the well established role of bloody secretion is confirmed. The supposed benign aetiology of serous, coloured or sero-sanguinous discharge is questionable. The high specificity of the cytological exam justifies routine examination of the ND. Selective duct excision can be considered as the diagnostic gold-standard. PMID:20354781

  20. Observations from the central equatorial Pacific Experiment and their significance to siting and modeling objectives of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Corral, J. del; Boer, E.; Collins, W.; Conant, W.; Lubin, D.; McFarquhar, G.; Ramanathan, V.; Sherwood, S.; Grassl, H.; Heymsfield, A.

    1995-04-01

    The Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) was motivated by the fact that sea surface temperatures (SST) in the world`s oceans exhibit significant spatial gradients except for those regions where the SST exceed 27 (degrees)C (or 300K). In such warm oceans, the gradients diminish such that the maximum SST is within a few degrees of 27 (degrees)C. The tropical western Pacific is an important example of this outstanding and, as yet, unexplained phenomenon and is referred to as the western Pacific warm pool. Recent work suggests that the link between the warm ocean, deep convection, cirrus formation, and reduction of sea surface solar heating regulate maximum SSTs like a thermostat. CEPEX was conducted from March 5 to April 7, 1993 and utilized buoy measurements, aircraft measurements, vaisala sonde, dropsonde, and FTIR spectrography. One of the most powerful analysis tools to come out of CEPEX is the CEPEX Integrated Data System (CIDS). This system is an ongoing effort to provide scientists with a self-contained software and data system that will allow them to collocate any measurement taken during CEPEX, analyzed fields, and model results. CIDS will also provide a gridded synoptic scale estimate of the atmospheric column heat budget terms, binned by SST and convective activity. These estimates will be derived from all the available CEPEX measurements. This information will give GCM modelers more understanding of the tropical Pacific.

  1. Ritonavir and Efavirenz Significantly Alter the Metabolism of Erlotiniban Observation in Primary Cultures of Human Hepatocytes That Is Relevant to HIV Patients with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Venkateswaran C.; Parise, Robert A.; Christner, Susan M.; Gramignoli, Roberto; Strom, Stephen C.; Rudek, Michelle A.; Beumer, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    Erlotinib is approved for the treatment of nonsmall cell lung and pancreatic cancers, and is metabolized by CYP3A4. Inducers and inhibitors of CYP3A enzymes such as ritonavir and efavirenz, respectively, may be used as part of the highly active antiretroviral therapy drugs to treat patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). When HIV patients with a malignancy need treatment with erlotinib, there is a potential of as-yet-undefined drug-drug interaction. We evaluated these interactions using human hepatocytes benchmarked against the interaction of erlotinib with ketoconazole and rifampin, the archetype cytochrome P450 inhibitor and inducer, respectively. Hepatocytes were treated with vehicle [0.1% dimethylsulfoxide, ritonavir (10 ?M)], ketoconazole (10 ?M), efavirenz (10 ?M), or rifampin (10 ?M) for 4 days. On day 5, erlotinib (5 ?M) was incubated with the above agents for another 2448 hours. Concentrations of erlotinib and O-desmethyl erlotinib were quantitated in collected samples (combined lysate and medium) using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The half-life (t1/2) of erlotinib increased from 10.6 2.6 to 153 80 and 23.9 4.8 hours, respectively, upon treatment with ritonavir and ketoconazole. The apparent intrinsic clearance (CLint, app) of erlotinib was lowered 16-fold by ritonavir and 1.9-fold by ketoconazole. Efavirenz and rifampin decreased t1/2 of erlotinib from 10.3 1.1 to 5.0 1.5 and 3.4 0.2 hours, respectively. Efavirenz and rifampin increased the CLint, app of erlotinib by 2.2- and 2-fold, respectively. Our results suggest that to achieve desired drug exposure, the clinically used dose (150 mg daily) of erlotinib may have to be significantly reduced (25 mg every other day) or increased (300 mg daily), respectively, when ritonavir or efavirenz is coadministered. PMID:23913028

  2. Solid Surface Combustion Experiment Yields Significant Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Koudelka, John M.; Vergilii, Franklin

    1999-01-01

    The spread of a flame over solid fuel is not only a fundamental textbook combustion phenomenon, but also the central element of destructive fires that cause tragic loss of life and property each year. Throughout history, practical measures to prevent and fight fires have been developed, but these have often been based on lessons learned in a costly fire. Since the 1960 s, scientists and engineers have employed powerful tools of scientific research to understand the details of flame spread and how a material can be rendered nonflammable. High-speed computers have enabled complex flame simulations, whereasand lasers have provided measurements of the chemical composition, temperature, and air velocities inside flames. The microgravity environment has emerged as the third great tool for these studies. Spreading flames are complex combinations of chemical reactions and several physical processes including the transport of oxygen and fuel vapor to the flame and the transfer of heat from the flame to fresh fuel and to the surroundings. Depending on its speed, air motion in the vicinity of the flame can affect the flame in substantially different ways. For example, consider the difference between blowing on a campfire and blowing out a match. On Earth, gravity induces air motion because of buoyancy (the familiar rising hot gases); this process cannot be controlled experimentally. For theoreticians, buoyant air motion complicates the problem modeling of flame spread beyond the capacity of modern computers to simulate. The microgravity environment provides experimental control of air motion near spreading flames, with results that can be compared with detailed theory. The Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE) was designed to obtain benchmark flame spreading data in quiescent test atmospheres--the limiting case of flames spreading. Professor Robert Altenkirch, Vice President for Research at Mississippi State University, proposed the experiment concept, and the NASA Lewis Research Center designed, built, and tested the SSCE hardware. It was the first microgravity science experiment built by Lewis for the space shuttle and the first combustion science experiment flown in space.

  3. Higher Education: Schools' Use of the Antitrust Exemption Has Not Significantly Affected College Affordability or Likelihood of Student Enrollment to Date. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-06-963

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Cornelia M.

    2006-01-01

    In 1991 the U.S. Department of Justice sued nine colleges and universities, alleging that they had restrained competition by making collective financial aid determinations for students accepted to more than one of these schools. Against the backdrop of this litigation, Congress enacted a temporary exemption from antitrust laws for higher education

  4. Observations of Co4+ in a Higher Spin State and the Increase in the Seebeck Coefficient of Thermoelectric Ca3Co4O9

    SciTech Connect

    Klie, Robert F; Qiao, Q.; Paulauskas, T.; Gulec, A.; Rebola, A.; Ogut, Serdar; Prange, Micah P; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Kolesnik, S.; Dabrowski, B.; Ozdemir, M.; Boyraz, C.; Mazumdar, Dipanjan; Gupta, Dr. Arunava

    2012-01-01

    Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} has a unique structure that leads to exceptionally high thermoelectric transport. Here we report the achievement of a 27% increase in the room-temperature in-plane Seebeck coefficient of Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} thin films. We combine aberration-corrected Z-contrast imaging, atomic-column resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and density-functional calculations to show that the increase is caused by stacking faults with Co4+-ions in a higher spin state compared to that of bulk Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9}. The higher Seebeck coefficient makes the Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} system suitable for many high temperature waste-heat-recovery applications.

  5. The Differential Impact of Observational Learning and Practice-Based Learning on the Development of Oral Presentation Skills in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Grez, Luc; Valcke, Martin; Roozen, Irene

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on the design and evaluation of an innovative instructional approach to developing oral presentation skills. The intervention builds on the observational learning theoretical perspective. This perspective is contrasted with the traditional training and practice approach. Two sequencing approaches--learners starting with…

  6. Biomagnification of higher brominated PBDE congeners in an urban terrestrial food web in north China based on field observation of prey deliveries.

    PubMed

    Yu, Le-Huan; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Liu, Li-Yu; Song, Jie; Sun, Quan-Hui; Zhang, Xiu-Lan; Chen, Da; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2011-06-15

    As an important group of brominated flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) persist in the wildlife food webs. However, the biomagnification of PBDEs has not been adequately studied in the terrestrial food webs. In this study, a terrestrial food web composed of common kestrels, sparrows, rats, grasshoppers, and dragonflies in the urban environment from northern China was obtained. A field prey delivery study, reinforced by ?C and ??N analyses, indicates that sparrows are the primary prey items of common kestrels. Concentrations of PBDEs were in the following order: common kestrel > sparrow > rat > grasshopper and dragonfly with BDE-209 as the dominant congener. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) were calculated as the ratio between the lipid normalized concentrations in the predator and prey. The highest BMF (6.9) was determined for BDE-153 in sparrow/common kestrel food chain. Other higher brominated congeners, such as BDE-202, -203, -154, -183, -197, and -209, were also biomagnified in this terrestrial food chain with BMF of 1.3-4.7. BDE-47, -99, and -100 were found to be biodiluted from sparrow to common kestrel (BMFs < 1). Measured BMF values for BDE-153, -47, -99, and -100 were consistent with predicted values from a nonsteady-state model in American kestrels from another study. Retention factors and metabolism of BDE congeners may be confounding factors influencing the measured BMFs in this current study. PMID:21612266

  7. Significant Developments in Continuing Higher Education. Occasional Paper Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liveright, A. A.; Goldman, Freda H.

    This paper, published in 1965, identifies contemporary developments in adult and continuing education in three categories: a new climate and milieu, institutional changes, and new program developments. The following evidence of a new climate and milieu is discussed: broader scope and wider acceptance of adult education; more federal activity in…

  8. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This eighth chapter of "The Yearbook of School Law, 1986" summarizes and analyzes over 330 state and federal court cases litigated in 1985 in which institutions of higher education were involved. Among the topics examined were relationships between postsecondary institutions and various governmental agencies; discrimination in the employment of…

  9. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Gregory, Dennis E.

    Decisions made by federal and state courts during 1983 concerning higher education are reported in this chapter. Issues of employment and the treatment of students underlay the bulk of the litigation. Specific topics addressed in these and other cases included federal authority to enforce regulations against age discrimination and to revoke an

  10. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    Higher education case law in 1990 is discussed in this chapter under nine major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) discrimination in employment; (3) faculty employment; (4) administrators and staff; (5) students; (6) liability; (7) antitrust; (8) patents; and (9) estates and wills. Questions of the authority of federal, state, and local

  11. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality

  12. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Finnegan, Dorothy E.

    Themes in 1989 higher education case law reflect the difficulty in reducing the federal deficit, increased service demands on state budgets, and an economic condition of marginal growth. The interpretation of constitutional rights in relationships between the institution and students, employees, and communities continues to be heavily litigated.…

  13. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Finnegan, Dorothy E.

    The higher education case law in 1988 is extensive. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under five major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining, and denial of employee benefits; (3) students, involving admissions, financial aid, First…

  14. Significant Tsunami Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  15. Observance of the 20th Anniversary of the Higher Education Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session (San Marcos, Texas).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    The purposes, accomplishments, and future of the Higher Education Act are considered in hearings of the U.S. House of Representatives. A brief history of the Higher Education Act over the 20 years since its inception in 1965 is traced, and the role of the federal government in higher education is addressed. The centerpiece of the legislation was

  16. Clinical significance of translocation.

    PubMed Central

    Van Leeuwen, P A; Boermeester, M A; Houdijk, A P; Ferwerda, C C; Cuesta, M A; Meyer, S; Wesdorp, R I

    1994-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract, besides being the organ responsible for nutrient absorption, is also a metabolic and immunological system, functioning as an effective barrier against endotoxin and bacteria in the intestinal lumen. The passage of viable bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract through the epithelial mucosa is called bacterial translocation. Equally important may be the passage of bacterial endotoxin through the mucosal barrier. This article reviews the evidence that translocation of both endotoxin and bacteria is of clinical significance. It summarises recent published works indicating that translocation of endotoxin in minute amounts is a physiological important phenomenon to boost the reticuloendothelial system (RES), especially the Kupffer cells, in the liver. Breakdown of both the mucosal barrier and the RES capacity results in systemic endotoxaemia. Systemic endotoxaemia results in organ dysfunction, impairs the mucosal barrier, the clotting system, the immune system, and depresses Kupffer cell function. If natural defence mechanisms such as lipopolysaccharide binding protein, high density lipoprotein, in combination with the RES, do not respond properly, dysfunction of the gut barrier results in bacterial translocation. Extensive work on bacterial translocation has been performed in animal models and occurs notably in haemorrhagic shock, thermal injury, protein malnutrition, endotoxaemia, trauma, and intestinal obstruction. It is difficult to extrapolate these results to humans and its clinical significance is not clear. The available data show that the resultant infection remains important in the development of sepsis, especially in the critically ill patient. Uncontrolled infection is, however, neither necessary nor sufficient to account for the development of multiple organ failure. A more plausible sequelae is that bacterial translocation is a later phenomenon of multiple organ failure, and not its initiator. It is hypothesized that multiple organ failure is more probably triggered by the combination of tissue damage and systemic endotoxaemia. Endotoxaemia, as seen in trauma patients especially during the first 24 hours, in combination with tissue elicits a systemic inflammation, called Schwartzmann reaction. Interferon gamma, a T cell produced cytokine, is thought to play a pivotal part in the pathogenesis of this reaction. This reaction might occur only if the endotoxin induced cytokines like tumour necrosis factor and interleukin 1, act on target cells prepared by interferon gamma. After exposure to interferon gamma target cells become more sensitive to stimuli like endotoxin, thus boosting the inflammatory cycle. Clearly, following this line of reasoning, minor tissue damage or retroperitoneal haematoma combined with systemic endotoxaemia could elicit this reaction. The clinically observed failure of multiple organ systems might thus be explained by the interaction of tissue necrosis and high concentrations of endotoxin because of translocation. Future therapeutic strategies could therefore focus more on binding endotoxin in the gut before the triggering event, for example before major surgery. Such a strategy could be combined with the start of early enteral feeding, which has been shown in animal studies to have a beneficial effect on intestinal mucosal barrier function and in traumatized patients to reduce the incidence of septic complications. PMID:8125386

  17. Significant potential for lower costs.

    PubMed

    Renecle, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Switching to LED lighting has, specialist supplier of such technology, Exled maintains, 'proven to be one of the most significant cost-saving activities hospitals can undertake'. Alongside the financial gains, other benefits include higher levels of patient satisfaction with lighting 'quality' and ambience, and improved environmental credentials. Here Exled MD, Michael Renecle, discusses LED lighting in healthcare in some detail, offers useful pointers on specification, examines some of the 'significant savings and environmental improvements' available to those 'making the switch', and considers the positive experiences of a number of NHS Trusts who have done so. PMID:25282981

  18. Significance of Interleukin-6 in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kobawala, Toral P.; Trivedi, Trupti I.; Gajjar, Kinjal K.; Patel, Darshita H.; Patel, Girish H.

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to reveal the significance of IL-6 in papillary thyroid carcinoma by determining its circulating levels, tumoral protein, and mRNA expressions. As compared to the healthy individuals, serum IL-6 was significantly higher in patients with benign thyroid diseases and PTC. Further, its level was significantly higher in PTC patients as compared to patients with benign thyroid diseases. ROC curves also confirmed a good discriminatory efficacy of serum IL-6 between healthy individuals and patients with benign thyroid diseases and PTC. The circulating IL-6 was significantly associated with poor overall survival in PTC patients. IL-6 immunoreactivity was significantly high in PTC patients as compared to the benign thyroid disease patients. Significantly higher IL-6 mRNA expression was also observed in the primary tumour tissues of PTC patients than the adjacent normal tissues. The protein expression of IL-6 at both the circulating and tissue level correlated with disease aggressiveness in PTC patients. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was observed between the IL-6 protein and mRNA expression in the primary tumours of PTC patients. Finally in conclusion, IL-6 has an important role in thyroid cancer progression. Thus targeting IL-6 signalling can help in clinical management of thyroid carcinoma patients.

  19. ASCA Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, David J.

    1998-01-01

    This recently expired grant has supported the work of the PI, his students, and his collaborators on a variety of ASCA projects over the past four years. Annual reports have summarized much of the work accomplished; here we provide a brief review of the work resulting from this effort, and a summary of the personnel who have benefited from the grant's support. Starburst Galaxies with Extreme X-ray Luminosities This project began as a careful examination of the claims of Boller et al. (1992) that there were dozens of "normal" galaxies in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey that had X-ray luminosities in excess of 1042 erg sec, higher than that seen in the hundreds of non-AGN galaxies observed with Einstein. If true, this suggested that X-ray emission associated with star formation activity might have a significant contribution to make to the still unexplained cosmic X-ray background (XRB). Since some of our earlier work with the Einstein Observatory Deep Surveys had suggested a similar possibility and several sets of authors over the years had modelled the starburst XRB contribution, these claims were worth pursuing. Our work expanded the examination beyond the RASS to include earlier claims of high-luminosity galaxies powered by starburst emission (selected in this case on the basis of the far-IR luminosities). The result of extensive followup observations under several programs using ROSAT, ASCA, and ground-based facilities was to show that nearly all of these objects in fact have hidden AGN at their cores, and that their luminosities are not in any way extraordinary.

  20. Significant lexical relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R.

    1996-12-31

    Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

  1. Lack of Statistical Significance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Kawano, Takuji

    2007-01-01

    Criticism has been leveled against the use of statistical significance testing (SST) in many disciplines. However, the field of school psychology has been largely devoid of critiques of SST. Inspection of the primary journals in school psychology indicated numerous examples of SST with nonrandom samples and/or samples of convenience. In this

  2. Statistical Significance Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, James E., Ed.; Kaufman, Alan S., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The controversy about the use or misuse of statistical significance testing has become the major methodological issue in educational research. This special issue contains three articles that explore the controversy, three commentaries on these articles, an overall response, and three rejoinders by the first three authors. They are: (1)

  3. Significance of brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The significance of brown dwarfs for resolving some major problems in astronomy is discussed. The importance of brown dwarfs for models of star formation by fragmentation of molecular clouds and for obtaining independent measurements of the ages of stars in binary systems is addressed. The relationship of brown dwarfs to planets is considered.

  4. Women in Higher Education, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenninger, Mary Dee, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This document consists of the 12 monthly issues of a newsletter on women students, teachers, and administrators in higher education, issued in 1994. Each issue includes feature articles, news on higher education, profiles of significant people in the field, and job announcements. The issues' main article topics are: (1) campuses's changing…

  5. Disruptive Technologies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of "disruptive" innovative technologies in higher education. In this country and elsewhere, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have invested significant sums in learning technologies, with Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) being more or less universal, but these technologies have not been universally adopted and

  6. Disruptive Technologies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of "disruptive" innovative technologies in higher education. In this country and elsewhere, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have invested significant sums in learning technologies, with Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) being more or less universal, but these technologies have not been universally adopted and…

  7. Women in Higher Education, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenniger, Mary Dee, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of the issues of a 1996 newsletter on women students, teachers, and administrators in higher education. Each issue includes feature articles, news on higher education, profiles of significant people in the field, and job announcements. The issues' main articles concern: (1) a successful campaign to increase female…

  8. The significance of gamma ray observations for neutrino astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.

    1978-01-01

    Celestial gamma-rays and neutrinos are formed in some of the same astrophysical interactions, but have important different properties. Measurements of these radiations were used to study the presence and dynamic effects of energetic charged cosmic ray particles, element synthesis and particle acceleration. In addition, since gamma-rays in the energy range from several MeV to at least 10 to the 12th power eV and neutrinos both have very low interaction cross sections, they have a very high penetrating power and reach the earth from almost any part of the galaxy or universe. Therefore, they retain the detailed imprint of spectral, directional and temporal features imposed at their birth, even if they were born in regions opaque to visible light and X-rays.

  9. [Submitting studies without significant results].

    PubMed

    Texier, Gatan; Meynard, Jean-Baptiste; Michel, Rmy; Migliani, Ren; Boutin, Jean-Paul

    2007-03-01

    When a study finds that no exposure factor or therapy is significantly related to a given effect, researchers legitimately wonder if the results should be submitted for publication and to what journal. Clinical trials that report significant associations have a higher probability of publication, a phenomenon known as selective publication. The principal reasons of this selective publication include author self-censorship, peer-reviewing, trials not intended for publication, interpretation of the p value, cost of journal subscriptions, and policies. Subsequent reviews and meta-analyses are biased by the unavailability of nonsignificant results. Suggestions for preventing this risk include university training, trial registries, an international standard randomised controlled trial number (ISRCTN), Cochrane collaboration, and the gray literature. Journals (including electronic journals) interested in studies with nonsignificant results are listed. New technologies are changing the relations between publishers, libraries, authors and readers. PMID:17287106

  10. Tumor significant dose

    SciTech Connect

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/.

  11. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  12. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors influencing their growth and the various susceptible commodities that are contaminated. Finally, decision trees are included to assist the user in making informed choices about the likely mycotoxins present in the various crops. PMID:23477193

  13. Higher Education Exchange, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.

  14. Higher Education Exchange, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.

  15. Higher Education Exchange, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The "Higher Education Exchange" is part of a movement to strengthen higher education's democratic mission and foster a more democratic culture throughout American society. Working in this tradition, the "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic…

  16. Higher Education Exchange, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  17. Higher Education Exchange, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The Higher Education Exchange is part of a movement to strengthen higher education's democratic mission and foster a more democratic culture throughout American society. Working in this tradition, the Higher Education Exchange publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic…

  18. Higher Education Exchange, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  19. Higher Education Exchange, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that not only does higher education not see the public; when the public, in turn, looks at higher education, it sees mostly malaise, inefficiencies, expense, and unfulfilled promises. Yet, the contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" tell of bright spots in higher education where experiments in working

  20. Opportunities and Barriers: Gendered Reality in Chinese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Bohong; Li, Yani

    2010-01-01

    In the field of Chinese higher education, gender is still a significant issue, as is a general ignorance of gender discrimination against women. Issues related to gender can be observed throughout the process of education: at the time of entering an institution, during the educational process and as an outcome of education. The following seven

  1. Preheating with higher dimensional interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enomoto, Seishi; Maekawa, Nobuhiro; Matsuda, Tomohiro

    2015-05-01

    Particle production caused by the oscillation after inflation is important since it explains reheating after inflation. On the particle theory side, we know that effective action may have additional higher dimensional terms (usually called nonrenormalizable terms) suppressed by the cutoff scale. Moreover, interaction between the inflaton and so-called moduli field will be higher dimensional. Therefore, if such higher dimensional interaction is significant for resonant particle production, one cannot avoid the effect in a preheating study. We explicitly calculated the required number of oscillations for the energy transfer. Consequently, cosmological history of an oscillating field and the moduli problem can be reconsidered.

  2. The Hesburgh Papers: Higher Values in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesburgh, Theodore M.

    In this book the president of Notre Dame University responds to the critics who see the teaching of religion and values as a hindrance to institutions of higher learning, suggesting that no university is truly a university unless it is universal and moves every scholar to look to the total universe. The significance of values in education is…

  3. Evolution in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohn, Reinhard

    1991-01-01

    In preparation for the awarding of an international prize, a foundation reviewed the situation of higher education in Europe and developed a model for assessing higher education policy and practice. The resulting model and conclusions concerning effective strategies for change in higher education are reported. (MSE)

  4. Disorders in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Clarence C.; Bolman, Frederick deW.

    Conditions affecting the moral and intellectual integrity of American colleges and universities are discussed in a series of papers collected from the 56th American Assembly on "The Integrity of Higher Education." An erosion of public confidence in higher education is noted and it is suggested that the expectations of higher education have not

  5. Reclaiming Our Soul: Democracy and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chickering, Arthur W.

    2003-01-01

    Explores how, as higher education faces new financial realities together with escalating demands for more accountability, a call to reclaim the soul of higher education and with it, the soul of democracy, will require significant institutional and personal transformations. (EV)

  6. Women in Higher Education, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenniger, Mary Dee Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the twelve consecutive numbers of the newsletter "Women in Education", published during 1998. This newsletter focus on issues concerned with women students, women faculty, and women administrators in higher education. Each issue includes feature articles, news items, and profiles of significant people. Feature articles…

  7. Women in Higher Education, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenniger, Mary Dee, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The 12 issues of this newsletter focus on issues concerned with women students, faculty, and administrators in higher education. Each issue includes feature articles, news items, and profiles of significant people. The issues' main articles address: women in athletics; leadership development for women; the first year in academic administration;

  8. Employment Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustoles, Thomas P.; Griffin, Oren R.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court decisions related to employment discrimination in higher education. The most significant development was a series of cases affirming that Eleventh Amendment immunity from private money damage claims brought pursuant to various federal employment discrimination statutes applied to state colleges and universities. (SLD)

  9. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court cases in 1999 related to disability discrimination in higher education focusing on the Americans with Disabilities Act and section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The "Garrett" case regarding Eleventh Amendment immunity is the case most likely to be significant in the development of the law of disability discrimination. (SLD)

  10. How significant is nocturnal sap flow?

    PubMed

    Forster, Michael A

    2014-07-01

    Nocturnal sap flow (Qn) has been found to occur across many taxa, seasons and biomes. There is no general understanding as to how much Qn occurs and whether it is a significant contribution to total daily sap flow (Q). A synthesis of the literature and unpublished data was made to determine how significant is Qn, as a proportion of Q (%Qn), across seasons, biomes, phylogenetic groups and different thermometric sap flow methods. A total of 98 species were analysed to find that %Qn, on average, was 12.03% with the highest average dataset of 69.00%. There was significantly less %Qn in winter than in other temperate seasons, and significantly less %Qn in the wet season than in the dry season. The equatorial and tropical biomes had significantly higher %Qn than the warm temperate and nemoral biomes. The heat ratio method (HRM) and the thermal dissipation (TDP) method had significantly higher %Qn than the heat balance method. Additional analysis between HRM and TDP found HRM to have significantly higher %Qn in winter, wet season and various biomes. In all but one out of 246 cases Qn occurred, demonstrating that Qn is significant and needs to be carefully considered in sap flow and related studies. PMID:24990866

  11. Hypermedia and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke, Jay L.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses changes in higher education that are resulting from the use of hypermedia. Topics addressed include the structure of traditional texts; a distributed model for academic communication; independent learning as a model for higher education; skills for hypermedia literacy; database searching; information retrieval; authoring skills; design

  12. Higher Education Exchange, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume begins with an essay by Noelle McAfee, a contributor who is familiar to readers of Higher Education Exchange (HEX). She reiterates Kettering's president David Mathews' argument regarding the disconnect between higher education's sense of engagement and the public's sense of engagement, and suggests a way around the epistemological

  13. Reinventing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Higher education institutions are in the battle of a lifetime as they are coping with political and economic uncertainties, threats to federal aid, declining state support, higher tuition rates and increased competition from for-profit institutions. Amid all these challenges, these institutions are pressed to keep up with technological demands,

  14. Higher Education Exchange 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Contributors to this issue of the Higher Education Exchange debate the issues around knowledge production, discuss the acquisition of deliberative skills for democracy, and examine how higher education prepares, or does not prepare, students for citizenship roles. Articles include: (1) "Foreword" (Deborah Witte); (2) "Knowledge, Judgment and

  15. Reimagining Christian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, E. Eileen; Groom, David E., Jr.; Heltzel, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The challenges facing higher education continue to mount. The shifting of the U.S. ethnic and racial demographics, the proliferation of advanced digital technologies and data, and the move from traditional degrees to continuous learning platforms have created an unstable environment to which Christian higher education must adapt in order to remain

  16. Reinventing Continuing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshok, Mary Lindenstein

    2012-01-01

    Re-inventing continuing higher education is about finding ways to be a more central player in a region's civic, cultural, and economic life as well as in the education of individuals for work and citizenship. Continuing higher education will require data gathering, analytical tools, convening authority, interpretive skills, new models of delivery,

  17. Higher Education Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume begins with an essay by Noelle McAfee, a contributor who is familiar to readers of Higher Education Exchange (HEX). She reiterates Mathews' argument regarding the disconnect between higher education's sense of engagement and the public's sense of engagement, and suggests a way around the epistemological conundrum of "knowledge produced…

  18. Gender and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational

  19. Higher Education Exchange 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    A foreword and nine articles discuss issues on the role of institutions of higher education in the rebuilding of a public life involving citizens across the country. After the foreword by David Brown and Deborah Witte, the papers are: (1) "The Public and Its Colleges: Reflections on the History of American Higher Education (R. Claire Snyder),…

  20. Prognostic Significance of Erythropoietin in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Verena; Giese, Thomas; Bergmann, Frank; Hinz, Ulf; Keleg, Shereen; Heller, Anette; Sipos, Bence; Klingmüller, Ursula; Büchler, Markus W.; Werner, Jens; Giese, Nathalia A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Erythropoietin (Epo) administration has been reported to have tumor-promoting effects in anemic cancer patients. We investigated the prognostic impact of endogenous Epo in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Methodology The clinico-pathological relevance of hemoglobin (Hb, n = 150), serum Epo (sEpo, n = 87) and tissue expression of Epo/Epo receptor (EpoR, n = 104) was analyzed in patients with PDAC. Epo/EpoR expression, signaling, growth, invasion and chemoresistance were studied in Epo-exposed PDAC cell lines. Results Compared to donors, median preoperative Hb levels were reduced by 15% in both chronic pancreatitis (CP, p<0.05) and PDAC (p<0.001), reaching anemic grade in one third of patients. While inversely correlating to Hb (r = −0.46), 95% of sEPO values lay within the normal range. The individual levels of compensation were adequate in CP (observed to predicted ratio, O/P = 0.99) but not in PDAC (O/P = 0.85). Strikingly, lower sEPO values yielding inadequate Epo responses were prominent in non-metastatic M0-patients, whereas these parameters were restored in metastatic M1-group (8 vs. 13 mU/mL; O/P = 0.82 vs. 0.96; p<0.01)—although Hb levels and the prevalence of anemia were comparable. Higher sEpo values (upper quartile ≥16 mU/ml) were not significantly different in M0 (20%) and M1 (30%) groups, but were an independent prognostic factor for shorter survival (HR 2.20, 10 vs. 17 months, p<0.05). The pattern of Epo expression in pancreas and liver suggested ectopic release of Epo by capillaries/vasa vasorum and hepatocytes, regulated by but not emanating from tumor cells. Epo could initiate PI3K/Akt signaling via EpoR in PDAC cells but failed to alter their functions, probably due to co-expression of the soluble EpoR isoform, known to antagonize Epo. Conclusion/Significance Higher sEPO levels counteract anemia but worsen outcome in PDAC patients. Further trials are required to clarify how overcoming a sEPO threshold ≥16 mU/ml by endogenous or exogenous means may predispose to or promote metastatic progression. PMID:21829709

  1. Hemodynamic significance of increased lung uptake of thallium-201

    SciTech Connect

    Tamaki, N.; Itoh, H.; Ishii, Y.; Yonekura, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Torizuka, K.; Konishi, Y.; Hikasa, Y.; Kambara, H.; Kawai, C.

    1982-02-01

    To determine the hemodynamic significance of increased lung thallium-201 uptake, resting thallium images in 23 normal subjects and 90 patients with various cardiac diseases were reviewed. Significant thallium uptake in the lung was observed in 60 cases and was especially frequently in mitral valvular disease (19 of 19 cases) and in myocardial infarction (25 of 37 cases). Chest radiographs of most of these patients showed pulmonary congestion or edema (50 or 69 cases). Pulmonary wedge pressure was measured in 25 of these patients and was significantly higher than in those of normal thallium uptake in the lung. Assessment of lung thallium uptake at the time of myocardial imaging can be used as a noninvasive means for evaluation of pulmonary venous hypertension.

  2. India's Higher Education Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream

  3. India's Higher Education Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream…

  4. Forecasting Higher Education's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyken, Don; Buck, Tina S.; Kollie, Ellen; Przyborowski, Danielle; Rondinelli, Joseph A.; Hunter, Jeff; Hanna, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Offers predictions on trends in higher education to accommodate changing needs, lower budgets, and increased enrollment. They involve campus construction, security, administration, technology, interior design, athletics, and transportation. (EV)

  5. Planning for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Caj-Gunnar

    1984-01-01

    Decision processes for strategic planning for higher education institutions are outlined using these parameters: institutional goals and power structure, organizational climate, leadership attitudes, specific problem type, and problem-solving conditions and alternatives. (MSE)

  6. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  7. The Perry Preschool Project: Significant Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinhart, Lawrence J.; Weikart, David P.

    2002-01-01

    Describes results from the Perry Preschool Project, which began in 1962 to assess whether high-quality preschool programs would provide short- and long-term benefits to impoverished African American students. Longitudinal data indicated that compared to nonparticipants, participants had significantly higher earnings, percentages of home and second

  8. Karyological observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, A. D.; O'Connor, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Root tips prepared for metaphase chromosome analysis from seedlings germinated under microgravity on the Space Shuttle (oats and mung bean) or which were exposed to space flight as very young seedlings (sunflower) have been examined. Experimental constraints did not permit pre-fixation in space with a cytostatic agent but arrest was achieved in the first division cycle on Earth after recovery. The number of cells in division was significantly depressed in all three species. Several chromosomal abnormalities were encountered in flight material. Bridge formation was seen in sunflower, as was aneuploidy. Breakage and fracture of chromosomes was prevalent in oats. No aberrant features could be detected in the chromosomes of mung bean. These results, although preliminary, should serve to alert investigators of the need to assess carefully as many aspects of cell division in higher plants exposed to space flight conditions as possible.

  9. "Clinical" Significance: "Clinical" Significance and "Practical" Significance are NOT the Same Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Lisa S.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical significance is an important concept in research, particularly in education and the social sciences. The present article first compares clinical significance to other measures of "significance" in statistics. The major methods used to determine clinical significance are explained and the strengths and weaknesses of clinical significance…

  10. Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pifer, Alan

    Women have traditionally been discriminated against in higher education in both the attainment of degrees and in employment after earning degrees. It has been felt that women are not as capable, reliable, or effective as men in administrative and classroom situations. Statistics show that even at the present time women are underemployed and

  11. Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Sheryl, Ed.; Shaver, Barbara, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Articles on women's studies and females in higher education are presented in this publication. A University of North Dakota project that sought to promote the integration of new research and scholarship results into the curriculum is described in "Women's Equity Committee Offers a Model Project," (Leola Furman, Robert Young). Historical

  12. Higher Education Exchange, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    This annual collection focuses on the obligation of higher education to democracy. Scholars from a variety if disciplines explore this question and related issues, such as the civic mission of the university, what it means to be an "engaged" university, and how a university can itself by a "good citizen." Following a foreword by Deborah Witte, the

  13. Higher Education Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    This collection of 10 articles and stories highlights ongoing experiments in colleges and universities which address the relationship of higher education institutions and citizenship responsibility. Following a foreword by Deborah White, articles are: "The Civic Roots of Academic Social Science Scholarship in American" (R. Claire Snyder), which…

  14. Financing Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Carol Herrnstadt

    This report opens with a brief review of the various solutions proposed to meet the financial crisis in higher education. These include: (1) formula grants; (2) student loans; (3) institutional grants; (4) state aid; (5) bank plans, such as the Educational Opportunity Bank; (6) scholarships and tax credits; and (7) proposals for a national center

  15. Entrepreneurship and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Jonathan, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Stimulating innovative and growth-oriented entrepreneurship is a key economic and societal challenge to which universities and colleges have much to contribute. This book examines the role that higher education institutions are currently playing through teaching entrepreneurship and transferring knowledge and innovation to enterprises and…

  16. California's Future: Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hans

    2015-01-01

    California's higher education system is not keeping up with the changing economy. Projections suggest that the state's economy will continue to need more highly educated workers. In 2025, if current trends persist, 41 percent of jobs will require at least a bachelor's degree and 36 percent will require some college education short of a bachelor's

  17. Efficiency in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granzow, Hermann

    1979-01-01

    Discusses problems of economic management in higher education and suggests solutions indispensable for economic autonomy and independent planning. Changes in management methods include incentive systems, transparency in functional goals and performance, and more clarity, rationality, and fairness in appraisals. (Author/KC)

  18. NEXUS: Digitizing Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Camille

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of digital technology in the context of higher education planning considers how these technologies change teaching; the digital divide; the costs of information technology; hard wiring the campus; material consequences of information technology; digitally enabled crimes and misdemeanors; and libraries and scholarly publishing. Concludes…

  19. Networks for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interuniversity Communications Council (EDUCOM), Princeton, NJ.

    EDUCOM, the Inter University Communications Council, Inc., planned its 1972 spring conference as a forum for presentations, discussions, and informal meetings to review the present state and the future possibilities of computer networks for higher education. Speeches presented were specifically related to: (1) the current status and future plans

  20. Microcomputers in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Robert S., Ed.; McLean, Ruth W., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the areas in which Ontario educators currently employ microcomputers in higher education are addressed in several articles, bibliographies, and book reviews. Various uses of computer-managed instruction and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) at Humber College of Applied Arts and Technology are outlined by Frank A. Ford. Microcomputer CAI

  1. Understanding Higher Education Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middaugh, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    Public discussion of higher education costs frequently confuses price with expenditure. This article examines factors associated with increases in the sticker price of a college education and the expenditures incurred by institutions in delivering that education. The discussion suggests that while growth in college tuition is real, access to

  2. Valuing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Gerald J.

    2009-01-01

    The question of the value of higher education is today set in the context of an unprecedented banking and financial crisis. In this context of fundamental change and financial realignment, it is important that we as members of the university remake our case for why the university deserves to be considered alongside all those other worthy causes

  3. Higher Education Exchange, 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The Kettering Foundation's research has been focused on putting the public back into the public's business for more than thirty years. Some questions that have recently been useful to Kettering researchers as the foundation focuses on its work with institutional actors--especially higher education and its relationship with the public--have

  4. Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Sheryl, Ed.; Shaver, Barbara, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Articles on women's studies and females in higher education are presented in this publication. A University of North Dakota project that sought to promote the integration of new research and scholarship results into the curriculum is described in "Women's Equity Committee Offers a Model Project," (Leola Furman, Robert Young). Historical…

  5. Higher Education Exchange 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.

    Nine articles discuss the relationship between the higher education community and the public. The articles are: (1) "On a Certain Blindness in Teaching" by Michael S. Roth, who stresses the necessity of political citizenship education for a healthy democracy; (2) "Monocultural Perspectives and Campus Diversity" by Jane Fried, who explores the…

  6. Shell Higher Olefins Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, E. F.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how olefin isomerization and the exotic olefin metathesis reaction can be harnessed in industrial processes. Indicates that the Shell Higher Olefins Process makes use of organometallic catalysts to manufacture alpha-olefins and internal carbon-11 through carbon-14 alkenes in a flexible fashion that can be adjusted to market needs. (JN)

  7. Higher Education in Scotland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neave, Guy; Cowper, Henry

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes higher education in Scotland in terms of its history and administrative structure and in light of the myths and beliefs about the traditional Scottish university. Differences from English universities are stressed. Journal available from Editor, Gabriel Fragniere, Institute of Education, 60 rue de la Concorde, B-1050, Brussels, Belgium.

  8. European Higher Education Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcal-Grilo, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    In his paper, the author--an academic and former Minister of Education for Portugal--traces the origins of the Bologna Declaration of 1999 and its follow-up studies leading to the Prague Conference of Higher Education Ministers in May 2001. He summarises the outcomes of the Prague Conference, and draws conclusions on the crucial role of…

  9. Leadership in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles, Harriett J.

    This paper examines leadership in higher education, specifically in community colleges. The first section reviews current definitions and theories of education, including transactional leadership (where there is an exchange between the leader and the follower) and transformational leadership (where the leader tries to change the framework itself

  10. Microcomputers in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Robert S., Ed.; McLean, Ruth W., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the areas in which Ontario educators currently employ microcomputers in higher education are addressed in several articles, bibliographies, and book reviews. Various uses of computer-managed instruction and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) at Humber College of Applied Arts and Technology are outlined by Frank A. Ford. Microcomputer CAI…

  11. Creativity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaspar, Drazena; Mabic, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents results of research related to perception of creativity in higher education made by the authors at the University of Mostar from Bosnia and Herzegovina. This research was based on a survey conducted among teachers and students at the University. The authors developed two types of questionnaires, one for teachers and the other…

  12. Black at Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadi-Hanifi, Karima

    2013-01-01

    This is an exploratory paper, drawing on the author's experiences as well as those of three other black lecturers in Higher Education (HE). Three interviews were carried out, asking the same five questions around themes of concern to the author. These are about the learning and teaching approaches used by these lecturers; their experiences of

  13. Unraveling Higher Education's Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Gus; Charles, Maria

    1998-01-01

    The activity-based costing (ABC) method of analyzing institutional costs in higher education involves four procedures: determining the various discrete activities of the organization; calculating the cost of each; determining the cost drivers; tracing cost to the cost objective or consumer of each activity. Few American institutions have used the

  14. Interdisciplinarity in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanisch, Thor Einar; Vollmann, Wolfgang, Ed.

    The advantages of an interdisciplinary approach to college instruction and research are examined, based in part on a 1983 symposium of the European Centre for Higher Education. Six case studies are also presented. It is noted that interdisciplinarity opens up possibilities of exchange between individual disciplines and encourages the development…

  15. Workstations in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Ronald F. E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Five articles discuss various aspects of workstations and their applications in higher education. Highlights include microcomputers and workstations; UNIX operating system; campus-wide networks; software; Project SOCRATES and the interdisciplinary aspect of engineering; mechanical system design and simulation; and the Creation Station, a

  16. Entrepreneurship and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Jonathan, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Stimulating innovative and growth-oriented entrepreneurship is a key economic and societal challenge to which universities and colleges have much to contribute. This book examines the role that higher education institutions are currently playing through teaching entrepreneurship and transferring knowledge and innovation to enterprises and

  17. Benchmarking for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Norman, Ed.; Lund, Helen, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection explore the concept of benchmarking as it is being used and developed in higher education (HE). Case studies and reviews show how universities in the United Kingdom are using benchmarking to aid in self-regulation and self-improvement. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction to Benchmarking" (Norman Jackson and Helen

  18. Marketing in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalili, Farid

    The use of marketing activities by educational institutions and the transfer of marketing activities from business to higher education are considered. Market analysis helps colleges and universities determine what programs, scheduling, or services are strong and to which student market the institution should appeal. It is suggested that the

  19. Free Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Jr., Adolph; Szymanski, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    The crisis of affordability in higher education is intensifying. Illustrations of its resonance abound: from the frequent news articles describing and amplifying the crisis and its sources to legislators' and candidates' proposed responses. Republicans' responses tend to be mainly punitive toward institutions; Democrats' proposals are more

  20. Free Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Jr., Adolph; Szymanski, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    The crisis of affordability in higher education is intensifying. Illustrations of its resonance abound: from the frequent news articles describing and amplifying the crisis and its sources to legislators' and candidates' proposed responses. Republicans' responses tend to be mainly punitive toward institutions; Democrats' proposals are more…

  1. Benchmarking for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Norman, Ed.; Lund, Helen, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection explore the concept of benchmarking as it is being used and developed in higher education (HE). Case studies and reviews show how universities in the United Kingdom are using benchmarking to aid in self-regulation and self-improvement. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction to Benchmarking" (Norman Jackson and Helen…

  2. Higher spins and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Per; Ross, Simon F.

    2013-05-01

    The principles of quantum mechanics and relativity impose rigid constraints on theories of massless particles with nonzero spin. Indeed, Yang-Mills theory and General Relativity are the unique solution in the case of spin-1 and spin-2. In asymptotically flat spacetime, there are fundamental obstacles to formulating fully consistent interacting theories of particles of spin greater than 2. However, indications are that such theories are just barely possible in asymptotically anti-de Sitter or de Sitter spacetimes, where the non-existence of an S-matrix provides an escape from the theorems restricting theories in Minkowski spacetime. These higher spin gravity theories are therefore of great intrinsic interest, since they, along with supergravity, provide the only known field theories generalizing the local invariance principles of Yang-Mills theory and General Relativity. While work on higher spin gravity goes back several decades, the subject has gained broader appeal in recent years due to its appearance in the AdS/CFT correspondence. In three and four spacetime dimensions, there exist duality proposals linking higher spin gravity theories to specific conformal field theories living in two and three dimensions respectively. The enlarged symmetry algebra of the conformal field theories renders them exactly soluble, which makes them excellent laboratories for understanding in detail the holographic mechanism behind AdS/CFT duality. Steady progress is also being made on better understanding the space of possible higher spin gravity theories and their physical content. This work includes classifying the possible field multiplets and their interactions, constructing exact solutions of the nonlinear field equations, and relating higher spin theories to string theory. A full understanding of these theories will involve coming to grips with the novel symmetry principles that enlarge those of General Relativity and Yang-Mills theory, and one can hope that this will provide some insight into the unification of gravity with the other forces of nature. Per Kraus and Simon F RossGuest Editors

  3. The trophic significance of Phaeocystis blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisse, T.; Tande, K.; Verity, P.; Hansen, F.; Gieskes, W.

    1994-04-01

    Both colonies and solitary cells of the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis are ingested by a wide array of marine vertebrates. Grazers include protozoa, bivalves, amphipods, euphausiids and many copepod species. Common fish species such as mackerel ( Scomber scombrus) and flounder ( Pleuronectus flesus) have also been reported to feed upon Phaeocystis. While qualitative observations on the potential trophic significance of Phaeocystis exist for a long time, attempts to quantify feeding rates on Phaeocystis have begun only during the last decade. In feeding experiments, copepods have received most attention. Many copepod species appear to consume Phaeocystis colonies and solitary cells in the North Atlantic and in polar seas. Ingestion rates are highly variable depending on size and physiological state of Phaeocystis as well as on copepod species. Within the same species, large variations in individual feeding rates have been reported from different areas and investigators. When Phaeocystis co-occurs with larger amounts of diatoms, the latter seem to be preferred by some copepod species while others do not select against Phaeocystis. At present it is unclear whether this is primarily due to unsuitable size of Phaeocystis or because it is poor quality food. The relative nutritive value of Phaeocystis single cells and colonies should be investigated in more detail. Feeding of protozoa on Phaeocystis has been little studied. Ciliates and the giant dinoflagellate Noctiluca are known to consume Phaeocystis solitary cells. Protozoa might efficiently control Phaeocystis blooms during their initial phases when the share of solitary cells relative to total Phaeocystis biomass is higher than during later stages of the bloom. By switching their food preference towards heterotrophic food, copepods might benefit from enhanced protozoan biomass during Phaeocystis blooms. The potential succession of protozoan and metazoan grazers in the course of a Phaeocystis bloom awaits further research.

  4. Oral symptoms significantly higher among long-term khat (Catha edulis) users in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Astatkie, Ayalew; Demissie, Meaza; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Associations between khat (Catha edulis) chewing and different adverse oral-dental health conditions have been reported, yet evidence is still lacking. This study was designed to investigate the association between long-term regular khat chewing and self-reported oral symptoms. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 1,255 university students in southern Ethiopia. Data on khat chewing status, a range of oral symptoms and other pertinent variables were collected using self-administered questionnaires. The association between long-term regular khat chewing and oral symptom count was investigated using negative binomial regression. RESULTS: The mean oral symptom count among long-term regular khat chewers was 1.75 (standard deviation [SD], 2.18; standard error [SE], 0.31), whereas that among those who were not long-term regular khat chewers was 1.18 (SD, 1.68; SE, 0.10). After adjustment for other variables, long-term regular khat chewers had approximately 50% more oral symptoms than those who were not long-term chewers did (adjusted count ratio, 1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.12 to 2.10). CONCLUSIONS: Long-term khat chewing negatively affects the oral health of young university students. PMID:25773437

  5. Children with Sickle Cell Disease Had Significantly Higher Medical Costs Than Those without SCD

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Stages & Populations Travelers' Health Workplace Safety & Health Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates To ... choose to search for a specific topic . Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates To ...

  6. Significantly higher frequency of Helicobacter suis in patients with idiopathic parkinsonism than in control patients

    PubMed Central

    Blaecher, C; Smet, A; Flahou, B; Pasmans, F; Ducatelle, R; Taylor, D; Weller, C; Bjarnason, I; Charlett, A; Lawson, A J; Dobbs, R J; Dobbs, S M; Haesebrouck, F

    2013-01-01

    Background There is increased proportional mortality from Parkinson's disease amongst livestock farmers. The hypokinesia of Parkinson's disease has been linked to Helicobacter pylori. H. suis is the most common zoonotic helicobacter in man. Aim To compare the frequency of H. suis, relative to H. pylori, in gastric biopsies of patients with idiopathic parkinsonism (IP) and controls from gastroenterology services. Methods DNA extracts, archived at a Helicobacter Reference Laboratory, from IP patient and gastroenterology service biopsies were examined anonymously for H. suis, using species-specific RT-PCR. Results Relative risk of having H. suis in 60 IP patients compared with 256 controls was 10 times greater than that of having H. pylori. In patients with IP and controls, respectively, frequencies of H. suis were 27 (exact binomial 95% C.I. 15, 38) and 2 (0, 3)%, and of H. pylori, 28 (17, 40) and 16 (12, 21)%. Excess of H. suis in IP held when only the antral or corporal biopsy was considered. Of 16 IP patients with H. suis, 11 were from 19 with proven H. pylori eradication, 3 from 17 pre-H. pylori eradication, 2 from 24 H. pylori culture/PCR-negative. Frequency was different between groups (P = 0.001), greatest where H. pylori had been eradicated. Even without known exposure to anti-H. pylori therapy, H. suis was more frequent in IP patients (5/41) than in controls (1/155) (P = 0.002). Partial multilocus sequence typing confirmed that strains from IP patients (6) and control (1) differed from RT-PCR standard strain. Conclusions Greater frequency of H. suis in idiopathic parkinsonism appears exaggerated following H. pylori eradication. Multilocus sequence testing comparison with porcine strains may clarify whether transmission is from pigs/porcine products or of human-adapted, H. suis-like, bacteria. PMID:24117797

  7. Higher spin dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asorey, M.; García-Álvarez, D.

    2010-06-01

    We analyze the role of spin three gauge fields as dark matter candidates. The relevant feature of these higher spin fields is that they do not couple directly to Standard Model particles. Their only direct coupling is to the gravitational field which explains the very weak interactions with other fields and enhances their qualities as realistic candidates for dark matter. The mass of these particles is provided by a Higgs-like mechanism with the gravitational field playing the role of Higgs field.

  8. Higher order Bezier circles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Jin

    1993-01-01

    Rational Bezier and B-spline representations of circles have been heavily publicized. However, all the literature assumes the rational Bezier segments in the homogeneous space are both planar and (equivalent to) quadratic. This creates the illusion that circles can only be achieved by planar and quadratic curves. Circles that are formed by higher order rational Bezier curves which are nonplanar in the homogeneous space are shown. The problem of whether it is possible to represent a complete circle with one Bezier curve is investigated. In addition, some other interesting properties of cubic Bezier arcs are discussed.

  9. Prospects for European Integration: Turkish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizikaci, Fatma

    2005-01-01

    The development of higher education and research constitutes a possible pathway to innovation and global competitiveness. Nation states, however, often seek the quickest adaptations, with minimum investment, ignoring essential political and structural changes. Turkey maintains its highly centralized system of higher education observing the

  10. Higher Spin Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prez, Alfredo; Tempo, David; Troncoso, Ricardo

    We review some relevant results in the context of higher spin black holes in three-dimensional spacetimes, focusing on their asymptotic behaviour and thermodynamic properties. For simplicity, we mainly discuss the case of gravity nonminimally coupled to spin-three fields, being nonperturbatively described by a Chern-Simons theory of two independent {sl} (3, {R} ) gauge fields. Since the analysis is particularly transparent in the Hamiltonian formalism, we provide a concise discussion of their basic aspects in this context; and as a warming up exercise, we briefly analyze the asymptotic behaviour of pure gravity, as well as the BTZ black hole and its thermodynamics, exclusively in terms of gauge fields. The discussion is then extended to the case of black holes endowed with higher spin fields, briefly signaling the agreements and discrepancies found through different approaches. We conclude explaining how the puzzles become resolved once the fall off of the fields is precisely specified and extended to include chemical potentials, in a way that it is compatible with the asymptotic symmetries. Hence, the global charges become completely identified in an unambiguous way, so that different sets of asymptotic conditions turn out to contain inequivalent classes of black hole solutions being characterized by a different set of global charges.

  11. Higher than Everest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, Paul

    2001-08-01

    Tired of exploring planet Earth? Have you ever imagined what it would be like to explore the Moon? Ever wonder about the topography of Mars? In this unique guidebook all of your extraterrestrial wanderlust can be fulfilled as Paul Hodge takes you on a virtual tour of the most spectacular sites in the Solar System. Hodge includes the latest information about the Solar System into his vivid descriptions of imaginary, challenging expeditions. Imagine: -- Descending into a fabulous canyon on Mars, one that dwarfs the Earth's Grand Canyon; -- Trekking up Venus' precipitous and scorching Mt. Maxwell; -- Journeying through the snows of Saturn's rings and the incredibly high, icy cliff of Miranda, the moon closest to Uranus. A compelling, extensively illustrated introduction to such otherworldly environments, Higher than Everest makes you believe that someday these adventures may actually take place. Paul Hodge is Professor of Astronomy at the University of Washington, Seattle, and Editor-in-Chief of the Astronomical Journal. Higher than Everest is based on a popular undergraduate course on the planets that he has taught for many years. Hodge's research has spanned from interplanetary dust to the extragalactic distance scale and currently includes star-formation and galactic evolution, using the Hubble Space Telescope to investigate nearby galaxies. He has written several books, most recently Meteorite Craters and Impact Structures of the Earth (Cambridge 1994).

  12. On higher spin partition functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beccaria, Matteo; Tseytlin, Arkady A.

    2015-07-01

    We observe that the partition function of the set of all free massless higher spins s = 0, 1, 2, 3,... in flat space is equal to one: the ghost determinants cancel against the ‘physical’ ones or, equivalently, the (regularized) total number of degrees of freedom vanishes. This reflects large underlying gauge symmetry and suggests analogy with supersymmetric or topological theory. The Z = 1 property extends also to the AdS background, i.e. the 1-loop vacuum partition function of Vasiliev theory is equal to 1 (assuming a particular regularization of the sum over spins); this was noticed earlier as a consistency requirement for the vectorial AdS/CFT duality. We find that Z = 1 is true also in the conformal higher spin theory (with higher-derivative {\\partial }2s kinetic terms) expanded near flat or conformally flat S4 background. We also consider the partition function of free conformal theory of symmetric traceless rank s tensor field which has 2-derivative kinetic term but only scalar gauge invariance in flat 4d space. This non-unitary theory has Weyl-invariant action in curved background and it corresponds to ‘partially massless’ field in AdS5. We discuss in detail the special case of s = 2 (or ‘conformal graviton’), compute the corresponding conformal anomaly coefficients and compare them with previously found expressions for generic representations of conformal group in 4 dimensions.

  13. SIGNIFICANT NATURAL HERITAGE AREAS (NC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, developed the Significant Natural Heritage Areas digital data to determine the a...

  14. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonia, I.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  15. Significant Decisions in Labor Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monthly Labor Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Several significant court decisions involving labor cases are discussed including a series of decisions concerning constitutional protections afforded aliens; the First Amendment and national labor relations laws; and the bifurcated backpay rule. (BM)

  16. Technology Use in Higher Education Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elzarka, Sammy

    2012-01-01

    The significance of integrating technology use in higher education instruction is undeniable. The benefits include those related to access to instruction by underserved populations, adequately preparing students for future careers, capitalizing on best instructional practices, developing higher order thinking activities, and engaging students…

  17. Technology Use in Higher Education Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elzarka, Sammy

    2012-01-01

    The significance of integrating technology use in higher education instruction is undeniable. The benefits include those related to access to instruction by underserved populations, adequately preparing students for future careers, capitalizing on best instructional practices, developing higher order thinking activities, and engaging students

  18. Changes and Challenges in Spanish Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora, Jose-Gines

    1999-01-01

    Significant political and sociological changes have occurred in Spain in the last two decades which have considerably affected higher education. Currently, Spain's higher education has to cope with new challenges in order to place the system at a desired level of quality. The main changes that have occurred and the current challenges in Spain's

  19. Statistical Significance vs. Practical Significance: An Exploration through Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Brittany L.; DeMaria, Andrea L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between statistical and practical significance, including strengths and criticisms of both methods, as well as provide information surrounding the application of various effect sizes and confidence intervals within health education research. Provided are recommendations, explanations and…

  20. Semistrict higher gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jur?o, Branislav; Smann, Christian; Wolf, Martin

    2015-04-01

    We develop semistrict higher gauge theory from first principles. In particular, we describe the differential Deligne cohomology underlying semistrict principal 2-bundles with connective structures. Principal 2-bundles are obtained in terms of weak 2-functors from the ?ech groupoid to weak Lie 2-groups. As is demonstrated, some of these Lie 2-groups can be differentiated to semistrict Lie 2-algebras by a method due to evera. We further derive the full description of connective structures on semistrict principal 2-bundles including the non-linear gauge transformations. As an application, we use a twistor construction to derive superconformal constraint equations in six dimensions for a non-Abelian tensor multiplet taking values in a semistrict Lie 2-algebra.

  1. Higher prices in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    1982-03-01

    Price increases in the Jamaica CSM program went into effect on August 31, 1981. The program began in 1975. While the need for higher prices has been under discussion for the past 3 years, this is the 1st time the requisite approval from the Jamaica Price Commission has been obtained. The Jamaica National Family Planning Board (JNFPB) reports that the Panther 3-pack (condom) is up US$0.15 to US$0.30. Each Perle package (oral contraceptive) was increased by US$0.20. Single cycle Perle now sells for US$0.50, and 3-pack Perle sells for US$1.10. The 6-year price stagnation experienced by the CSM program resulted in a decreasing operational budget as program costs continued to rise. Marketing costs alone during this period escalated by 100-300%. For example, Panther pop-up display cartons cost the project US 16U each in 1975. By 1979 the same product cost US 49U. Newspaper advertisements have increased from the 1975 cost of US$68.00 to nearly $200.00 per placement. The overall inflation rate in Jamaica during the last 5 years has averaged more than 20% annually. In the face of these rising costs, outlet expansion for Perle has been prevented, wholesaler margins have been unavailable, and new retailer training has been discontinued. It is projected that the new prices will result in an annual increased revenues of US$80,000 which will be used to reinstate these essential marketing activities. The JNFPB is also planning to introduce a Panther 12-pack and Panther strips to the CSM product line. According to Marketing Manager Aston Evans, "We believe the public is now ready for this type of packaging" which is scheduled to be available soon. Panther is presently only available in a 3-pack, but annual sales have been steady. The new 12-pack will be stocked on supermarket shelves to provide higher product visibility and wider distribution. The selling price has been set as US$1.20 and is expected to yield a 25% increase in sales during the 1st year. A complete sales promotion and advertising campaign will accompany the 12-pack introduction. The marketing plan for Panther strips emphasizes placement in government and private sector offices and factories throughout the country. In the deep rural areas the strips will be available for sale in shops, bars, nightclubs, and other distribution points. PMID:12264179

  2. Status and Significance of Credentialing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musgrave, Dorothea

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the current status, significance, and future of credentialing in the field of environmental health. Also discusses four phases of a Bureau of Health Professions (BHP) Credentialing Program and BHP-funded projects related to their development and implementation. Phases include role delineation, resources development, examination

  3. Tevatron higher energy testing

    SciTech Connect

    Theilacker, Jay; /Fermilab

    1995-10-01

    A cryogenic system upgrade was installed in 1993 to lower the temperature of the Tevatron in order to achieve higher operating energies. Centrifugal cold helium vapor compressors were used to lower the temperature of the two-phase circuit of the Tevatron. A cold compressor (CC) is used at each of the twenty-four satellite refrigerators, allowing each satellite to be individually tuned to the temperature necessary for the magnets. Initial testing took place in December, 1993 and January, 1994. During that time, they uniformly tuned the Tevatron for 11 psia (3.93 K) cold compressor operation. fifteen quenches were achieved. All of them were ramp-to-quench from either a 900 GeV ramp or the QBS test ramp. Approximately ten of the quenches appeared to be training quenches. The ultimate ramp-to-quench energy achieved was 998 GeV. The second major testing sequence took place in July, 1995, just prior to a two month shutdown. Again, the entire Tevatron was tuned for a uniform cold compressor temperature of 11 psia (3.93 K). Two changes were made compared to the 1993/94 testing. First, the helium flow in the magnets was kept constant when pumping down from the nominal 19 psia to 11 psia. During previous testing, the magnet JT valves were kept locked, resulting in considerably higher flows at 11 psia operation. Second, instead of ramp-to-quench testing, ramping at a lower energy was started and the flattop energy was increased 5 GeV after three successful ramps. These two changes resulted in a lower peak quench energy of 990 GeV. An attempt was made to uniformly tune the cold compressor temperatures down to 8.5 psia to investigate the increase in quench energy. A failure in a turbine at CHL cold box II put an end to the test prior to powering the Tevatron. Uniform operation at 8.5 psia (3.69 K) is not possible steady state due to capacity limits of CHL cold box II. During this test, they were slowly consuming liquid from storage in order to make up the difference. Previous testing in A sector showed that some magnet strings perform better at 11 psia operation than others perform at 8 psia. Individually tuning the temperature at each of the twenty-four satellites allows us to conserve CHL capacity for magnet strings that exhibit the poorest quench performance. As a result, the goal of the recent testing in October, 1995, was to determine the quench energy of the Tevatron while individually tuning the operating temperature of each satellite system until a lower temperature limit was reached in the quench limiting house.

  4. [Significance of FGF23 measurement].

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Seiji

    2012-10-01

    Excess and deficient actions of FGF23 cause hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia and hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis, respectively. There are two kinds of assays for FGF23. Full-length assay detects only full-length FGF23 with biological activity. In contrast, C-terminal assay measures both full-length FGF23 and processed C-terminal fragment of FGF23. FGF23 measurement is useful for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with FGF23-related hypophosphatemic diseases. In addition, full-length assay can be used for the differential diagnosis of hypophosphatemic diseases. Furthermore, many epidemiological studies indicated the association between FGF23 levels and several adverse events including higher mortality, cardiovascular diseases and progression of CKD especially in patients with CKD. Therefore, it is possible that FGF23 can be a new marker in the risk assessment of patients with CKD. PMID:23023632

  5. [Autoantibodies in vitiligo. Clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Morgan, M; Castells, A; Ramrez, A

    1986-01-01

    The occurrence of circulating autoantibodies was determined by indirect immunofluorescence in patients with vitiligo. In addition we determined the existence of anti-melanocytic antibodies by an immunofluorescence complement fixation technique, immunoglobulins in achromic and perilesional skin, complement (C3 and C4) and immunoglobulins in serum by immunoelectrophoresis. The results only indicate that a significant occurrence of circulating autoantibodies exists, especially antithyroid autoantibodies, which, moreover, are related to the vitiligos which affect important areas of the cutaneous surface (generalized vitiligo). PMID:3528710

  6. Evaluation of the significance of inverse oxidation for HTGR graphites

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.S.; Heiser, J. III; Sastre, C.

    1983-01-01

    The inverse oxidation refers to a higher mass loss inside the graphite than the outside. In 1980, Wichner et al reported this phenomenon (referred to as inside/out corrosion) observed in some H451 graphites, and offered an explanation that a catalyst (almost certainly Fe) is activated by the progressively increasing reducing conditions found in the graphite interior. Recently, Morgan and Thomas (1982) investigated this phenomenon is PGX graphites, and agreed on the existing mechanism to explain this pheomenon. They also called for attention to the possibility that this phenomenon may occur under HTGR (High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor) operating conditions. The purpose of this paper is to confirm the above mentioned explanation for this phenomenon and to evaluate the significance of this effect for HTGR graphites under realistic reactor conditions.

  7. Clinical significance of neonatal menstruation.

    PubMed

    Brosens, Ivo; Benagiano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Past studies have clearly shown the existence of a spectrum of endometrial progesterone responses in neonatal endometrium, varying from proliferation to full decidualization with menstrual-like shedding. The bleedings represent, similar to what occurs in adult menstruation, a progesterone withdrawal bleeding. Today, the bleeding is completely neglected and considered an uneventful episode of no clinical significance. Yet clinical studies have linked the risk of bleeding to a series of events indicating fetal distress. The potential link between the progesterone response and major adolescent disorders requires to be investigated by prospective studies. PMID:26685798

  8. Significant drug-nutrient interactions.

    PubMed

    Kirk, J K

    1995-04-01

    Many nutrients substantially interfere with pharmacotherapeutic goals. The presence of certain nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract affects the bioavailability and disposition of many oral medications. Drug-nutrient interactions can also have positive effects that result in increased drug absorption or reduced gastrointestinal irritation. Knowing the significant drug-nutrient interactions can help the clinician identify the nutrients to avoid with certain medications, as well as the therapeutic agents that should be administered with food. This information can be used to educate patients and optimize pharmacotherapy. PMID:7709893

  9. Significances of Multimedia Technologies Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fulei

    The use of multimedia technologies in education has enabled teachers to simulate final outcomes and assist s-tudents in applying knowledge learned from textbooks, thereby compensating for the deficiency of traditional teach- ing methods. It is important to examine how effective these technologies are in practical use. This study developed online learning-teaching resource platforms using Flash multimedia, providing interactive and integrated features in an easy-to-use user interface, in order to discuss Computer-Aided Drawing (CAD). The study utilized a teaching experiment with a non-equivalent pretest-posttest control group design to test and discuss students' professional cognition, operating skill cognition, and level of learning satisfaction during the learning process. No significant differences emerged between the groups in regards to professional cognition or operation skills cognition. However, a significant difference in learning satisfaction was noted, indicating that the coursework with multimedia Flash produced greater satisfaction than with traditional learning methods. Results are explained in detail and recommendations for further research provided.

  10. Public Health Significance of Neuroticism

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    The personality trait of neuroticism refers to relatively stable tendencies to respond with negative emotions to threat, frustration, or loss. Individuals in the population vary markedly on this trait, ranging from frequent and intense emotional reactions to minor challenges to little emotional reaction even in the face of significant difficulties. Although not widely appreciated, there is growing evidence that neuroticism is a psychological trait of profound public health significance. Neuroticism is a robust correlate and predictor of many different mental and physical disorders, comorbidity among them, and the frequency of mental and general health service use. Indeed, neuroticism apparently is a predictor of the quality and longevity of our lives. Achieving a full understanding of the nature and origins of neuroticism, and the mechanisms through which neuroticism is linked to mental and physical disorders, should be a top priority for research. Knowing why neuroticism predicts such a wide variety of seemingly diverse outcomes should lead to improved understanding of commonalities among those outcomes and improved strategies for preventing them. PMID:19449983

  11. Higher-level motor processes.

    PubMed

    Rumiati, Raffaella Ida; Papeo, Liuba; Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Corrado

    2010-03-01

    Traditionally the motor system was thought of as a movement output device that, after brain damage, can impede patients from correctly planning and executing an action. In the last 20 years neuropsychological observations have contributed to the development of a new view that attributes higher-level functions to this system. Rapidly, this area of investigation has grown very popular, with motor representations being considered critical for action and object recognition, imagery and even language understanding. At present, we can distinguish between embodied and disembodied theories. The former predominantly are built on associations of deficits in these abilities whereas the latter rely on dissociations between deficits. Neuroimaging research has also showed that different action-related functions activate either overlapping or discrete regions, thus sustaining either association-based or dissociation-based models. Although no convincing theory is, to date, available to explain both sets of observations, cognitive neuroscientists have begun to explore this intermediate hypothesis space. Here we suggest that concepts like strategy and simulation seem promising in explaining how the cognitive system alternates between action-related functions. PMID:20392283

  12. [Current significance of keratopathia neuroparalytica].

    PubMed

    Weidlich, R; Burkert, W

    1980-01-01

    Among the complications after surgical interventions carried out on the Ganglion semilunare because of a trigeminal neuralgia the reason why Keratopathia neuroparalytica plays a role is the fact that it very frequently leads to partial or total blindness of the affected eye. The pathogenesis of the keratopathy is still being disputed. The appraisal of the various surgical methods in trigeminal neuralgia always includes the frequent occurrence of a keratopathy. Among the 171 patients who were operated on in Halle because of trigeminal neuralgia in the last ten years no keratopathy was observed. In 12 cases a reduction or removal of the corneal reflex was brought about. On 8 patients a postganglionic intradural operation was carried out, all others received an electro-coagulation. The co-operation with the ophthalmologist is indispensable both prophylactically and therapeutically. PMID:6970469

  13. Lumbosacral Transition Vertebra: Prevalence and Its Significance

    PubMed Central

    Amritanand, Rohit; Krishnan, Venkatesh; David, Kenny Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective analysis of radiological images. Purpose To determine the prevalence of lumbosacral transition vertebra (LSTV) and to study its significance with respect to clinically significant spinal symptoms, disc degeneration and herniation. Overview of Literature LSTV is the most common congenital anomaly of the lumbosacral spine. The prevalence has been debated to vary between 7% and 30%, and its relationship to back pain, disc degeneration and herniation has also not been established. Methods The study involved examining the radiological images of 3 groups of patients. Group A consisted of kidney urinary bladder (KUB) X-rays of patients attending urology outpatient clinic. Group B consisted of X-rays with or without magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of patients at-tending a spine outpatient clinic, and group C consisted of X-rays and MRI of patients who had undergone surgery for lumbar disc herniation. One thousand patients meeting the inclusion criteria were selected to be in each group. LSTV was classified by Castellvi's classification and disc degeneration was assessed by Pfirrmann's grading on MRI scans. Results The prevalence of LSTV among urology outpatients, spine outpatients and discectomy patients was 8.1%, 14%, and 16.9% respectively. LSTV patients showed a higher Pfirrmann's grade of degeneration of the last mobile disc. Results were found to be significant statistically. Conclusions The prevalence of LSTV in spinal outpatients and discectomy patients was significantly higher as compared to those attending the urology outpatient clinic. There was a definite causal relationship between the transitional vertebra and the degeneration of the disc immediately cephalad to it. PMID:24596605

  14. Yawning and its physiological significance

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sharat; Mittal, Shallu

    2013-01-01

    Although yawning is a commonly witnessed human behavior, yet it has not been taught in much detail in medical schools because, until the date, no particular physiological significance has been associated with it. It is characterized by opening up of mouth which is accompanied by a long inspiration, with a brief interruption of ventilation and followed by a short expiration. Since time immemorial, yawning has been associated with drowsiness and boredom. However, this age old belief is all set to change as the results of some newer studies have pointed out that yawning might be a way by which our body is trying to accomplish some more meaningful goals. In this review, we have tried to put together some of the important functions that have been proposed by a few authors, with the hope that this article will stimulate the interest of newer researchers in this hitherto unexplored field. PMID:23776833

  15. Inviting Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Spencer D.

    2010-01-01

    Monthly meetings and a peer-observation program help novice teachers overcome isolation and practice new skills that support improved student learning. Peer observation is not without its difficulties. Above all else, the point of the program is to make teachers more comfortable observing, sharing instructional ideas, and learning from one…

  16. Higher levels of erythrocyte membrane microviscosity in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Baba, Y; Kai, M; Kamada, T; Setoyama, S; Otsuji, S

    1979-12-01

    Significantly higher levels of erythrocyte membrane microviscosity (MV) [n-: 5.22 +/- 0.17 (4.70--5.92), mean +/- SD (range), poise, N = 67, P less than 0.005] measured by fluorescence depolarization using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene as a fluorescent probe were found in diabetic patients when compared with normal controls [5.05 +/- 0.15 (4.70--5.29), N = 22]. No significant differences in MV existed between males and females, nor was MV significantly correlated with diabetic age, duration of diabetes, plasma cholesterol, cholesterol/phsopholipid ratios, and plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activities. No significant difference in MV was observed between groups with or without diabetic retinopathy. There was, however, significantly higher MV [5.29 +/- 0.19 (5.00--5.92), N = 20, P less than 0.05] in the group with fasting blood glucose (FBG) greater than or equal to 140 mg/dl than that [5.19 +/- 0.15 (4.70--5.46), N = 47] in the group with FBG less than 140 mg/dl. The changes in erythrocyte membrane MV presented in this study appear to be related to the current metabolic control of diabetic patients and are considered to be one of the factors responsible for the reduced erythrocyte deformability in diabetes. PMID:510812

  17. Higher Education and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, John

    2008-01-01

    An agenda for future higher education research is proposed which incorporates four interconnected elements: changing social contexts; their implications for higher education; mechanisms of interaction between higher education and society; higher education's impact on society. The role of comparative research in investigating these topics is

  18. Higher Education in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeao, Jose Raymundo Martins

    2003-01-01

    Presents an analysis of, and proposals for, international cooperation in higher education. Focuses on Latin American higher education, its current situation, and the expected transformation of the goals of higher education in the context of international cooperation. Describes the challenges that globalization poses to Latin American higher

  19. Women in Virginia Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New University Conference, Hampton, VA. Peninsula Chapter.

    This document explores how Virginia higher education perpetuates stereotypic social roles, the evolution of sexually segregated schools, the current evidences of sexual discrimination towards faculty, staff and students, the State Council of Higher Education's 1967 plan for higher education, the status of Virginia higher education under the law…

  20. People Who Study Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harland, Tony

    2009-01-01

    The study of higher education can seem extraordinarily complex because what counts as knowledge is contestable and the higher education research community is, like Hemingway's Paris, a moveable feast. A lack of epistemological precision and field uncertainty is partly due to the fact that those who study higher education tend to work in higher

  1. Clinical significance of TMPRSS4 in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Guohai; Yang, Xiaoqun; Dai, Bo; Zhang, Hailiang; Shen, Yijun; Zhu, Yao; Zhu, Yiping; Xiao, Wenjun; Ma, Chunguang; Wen, Linguo; Qin, Xiaojian; Cao, Dalong; Ye, Dingwei

    2014-01-01

    Transmembrane protease serine 4 (TMPRSS4) is a type-II transmembrane serine protease that plays an important role in the migration of cancer cells. This study aimed to investigate both the expression of TMPRSS4 and its clinical significance in prostate cancer. The expression of TMPRSS4 was evaluated in 73 pairs of prostate cancer and adjacent non-cancerous tissues by immunohistochemistry. The level of TMPRSS4 in prostate cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in adjacent non-cancerous tissues. High TMPRSS4 expression was significantly associated with advanced TNM stage and LNM. No association between TMPRSS4 expression and progression-free survival was observed in all patients. Stratified analyses according to clinical features revealed that patients with low TMPRSS4 expression had poor prognosis compared with those with high TMPRSS4 expression in subjects not receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In conclusion, TMPRSS4 showed abnormal expression in prostate cancer tissues. TMPRSS4 may be a potential prognostic biomarker for prostate cancer patients who did not undergo neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:25550850

  2. Significance of blood pressure variability in patients with sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Nishant Raj; Bian, Yu-yao; Shou, Song-tao

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to observe the characteristics of blood pressure variability (BPV) and sepsis and to investigate changes in blood pressure and its value on the severity of illness in patients with sepsis. METHODS: Blood parameters, APACHE II score, and 24-hour ambulatory BP were analyzed in 89 patients with sepsis. RESULTS: In patients with APACHE II score>19, the values of systolic blood pressure (SBPV), diasystolic blood pressure (DBPV), non-dipper percentage, cortisol (COR), lactate (LAC), platelet count (PLT) and glucose (GLU) were significantly higher than in those with APACHE II score ≤19 (P<0.05), whereas the values of procalcitonin (PCT), white blood cell (WBC), creatinine (Cr), PaO2, C-reactive protein (CRP), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Correlation analysis showed that APACHE II scores correlated significantly with SBPV and DBPV (P<0.01, r=0.732 and P<0.01, r=0.762). SBPV and DBPV were correlated with COR (P=0.018 and r=0.318; P=0.008 and r=0.353 respectively). However, SBPV and DBPV were not correlated with TNF-α, IL-10, and PCT (P>0.05). Logistic regression analysis of SBPV, DBPV, APACHE II score, and LAC was used to predict prognosis in terms of survival and non-survival rates. Receiver operating characteristics curve (ROC) showed that DBPV was a better predictor of survival rate with an AUC value of 0.890. However, AUC of SBPV, APACHE II score, and LAC was 0.746, 0.831 and 0.915, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The values of SBPV, DBPV and non-dipper percentage are higher in patients with sepsis. DBPV and SBPV can be used to predict the survival rate of patients with sepsis. PMID:25215146

  3. Inconsistent handers show higher psychopathy than consistent handers.

    PubMed

    Shobe, Elizabeth; Desimone, Kailey

    2016-03-01

    Three hundred and forty-two university students completed the Short Dark Triad (SD3) and the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (EHI). Inconsistent handers showed higher psychopathy scores than consistent handers, and no handedness differences were observed for narcissism or Machiavellianism. Participants were further subdivided by quartile into low, moderately low, moderately high, and high psychopathy groups (non-clinical). Absolute EHI scores were equally distributed among low and moderate groups, but were significantly lower for the high psychopathy group. These findings suggest that inconsistent handedness is only associated with the upper quartile of psychopathy scores. Also, males showed significantly higher psychopathy scores than females, and the ratio of male to female inconsistent handers decreased as psychopathy score increased. No gender × handedness interaction indicated that both female and male inconsistent handers have higher psychopathy scores than consistent handers. Although significant, the effects were small and 99.6% of participants were not in the range of a potential clinical diagnosis. The reader, therefore, is strongly cautioned against equating inconsistent handedness with psychopathy. PMID:26430938

  4. Astrobiological Significance of Chemolithoautotrophic Acidophiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2003-01-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithoautotrophic bacteria) a dilemma in microbiology has concerned life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modem biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithohetherotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organoautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant role on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur- oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  5. Astrobiological significance of chemolithoautotrophic acidophiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-02-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithautotrophic bacteria) there has been a dilemma in microbiology about life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modern biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithoheterotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant roel on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  6. [Sarcopenia: prevalence, detection, clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Bezdenezhnykh, A V; Sumin, A N

    2012-01-01

    Population aging is a most important demographic process in the recent decades. The elderly subjects constitute an increasingly greater fraction of the patients staying at multifield hospitals. They are characterized not only by having multiple pathologies but also by age-related changes in peripheral tissues. These physiological changes may considerably aggravate the clinical conditions of the patients. One of the processes accompanying aging is sarcopenia or the loss of muscular mass leading to deterioration of the quality of life and physical independence, disablement and a poor life prognosis. Sarcopenia has been extensively studied in recent decades with reference to it social and economic consequences. At the same time the efficacy of measures designed to control sarcopenia is impaired by concomitant diseases and age-related changes in the muscular tissue. The problem of sarcopenia is insufficiently dealt with in the Russian-language literature despite its clinical significance. This review is intended for a wide circle of clinicians dealing with aged patients in their practical work. PMID:23285756

  7. Polysaccharides: Occurrence, Significance, and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemiller, James N.

    Polysaccharides are properties present significance in all living organisms where they carry out one or more of their diverse functions. While there is no specific category or definition of a complex polysaccharide, most are structurally complex. Polysaccharides contain 1-5 different monosaccharide (sugar) units. The different sugar units may have different anomeric configurations and/or be joined by different glycosidic linkages. Polysaccharides may be linear or branched. Branches may be short saccharide units on a linear backbone or the molecule may have a branch-on-branch structure; in either case, the branches may be isolated or clustered. Polysaccharides may contain non-carbohydrate groups. Esters or cyclic acetal groups, when present, can be removed by appropriate treatments. All polysaccharides are polydisperse, i. e., are present in a range of molecular weights rather than having a single molecular weight. Most are polymolecular, i. e., differ in fine structure from molecule to molecule. So most polysaccharides can be said to be structurally complex. They may be attached to protein molecules or to other polysaccharide molecules. They are solvated by water. Most dissolve in aqueous systems, especially if they are alkaline. Polysaccharides can be depolymerized by acids and heat, specific enzymes, and high pH systems following oxidation. Their hydroxyl groups can be esterified (acylated), etherified (alkylated), and oxidized. Amino groups can be acylated (and deacylated). Carboxyl groups can be converted into esters, amides, and amines. Structural modification makes the molecules even more complex and polymolecular and, perhaps, polydisperse.

  8. Procalcitonin kinetics – prognostic and diagnostic significance in septic patients

    PubMed Central

    Mierzchała-Pasierb, Magdalena; Durek, Grażyna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Severe sepsis and septic shock are advanced clinical conditions representing the patient's response to infection and having a variable but high mortality rate. Early evaluation of sepsis stage and choice of adequate treatment are key factors for survival. Some study results suggest the necessity of daily procalcitonin (PCT) monitoring because of its prognostic and discriminative value. Material and methods An observational and prospective study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic and discriminative value of PCT kinetics in comparison to PCT absolute value measurements. In a group of 50 intensive care unit patients with diagnosis of severe sepsis or septic shock, serum PCT measurements were performed on admission, and on the 2nd, 3rd and 5th day of therapy. The level of PCT was determined with a commercially available test according to the manufacturer's protocol. Results The kinetics of PCT assessed by ΔPCT was statistically significant in the survivors vs. the non-survivors subgroup (ΔPCT3/1, p = 0.022; ΔPCT5/1, p = 0.021). ΔPCT has no statistical significance in the severe sepsis and septic shock subgroups for all analyzed days. Only the 5th day PCT level was significantly higher in the non-survivors vs. survivors group (p = 0.008). The 1st day PCT level in the severe sepsis vs. septic shock group has a discriminative impact (p = 0.009). Conclusions According to the results, single serum PCT measurement, regardless of absolute value, has a discriminative impact but no prognostic significance, during the first 2 days of therapy. The PCT kinetics is of prognostic value from the 3rd day and is of earlier prognostic significance in comparison to changes in the patient's clinical condition evaluated by SOFA score kinetics. PMID:26925126

  9. Glacial marine sedimentation: Paleoclimatic significance

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.B.; Ashley, G.M.

    1991-01-01

    This publication resulted from a symposium held during the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America. Many, but not all, contributors to the symposium have papers in this volume. This Special Paper consists of 14 chapters and a Subject/Geographic index. Each chapter has is own list of references. The papers cover a wide range of modem climate/ ocean environments, including papers on glacial marine sediments from Antarctica, the fiords of Alaska, and sediments from the Canadian High Arctic. In addition, three papers discuss [open quote]old[close quotes] glacial marine records (i.e., pre-Tertiary), and one paper discusses the Yakataga Formation of the Gulf of Alaska which is a Miocene-to-late-Pleistocene sequence. The last chapter in the book includes a survey and summary of the evidence for the paleoclimatic significance of glacial marine sediments by the two editors, John Anderson and Gail Ashley. It is worth noting that Anderson and Domack state in the Foreword that there is a considerable variation in terminology; hence they employ a series of definitions which they urge the other authors to employ. They define and explain what they mean by [open quotes]polar ice cap,[close quotes] [open quote]polar tundra (subpolar),[close quotes] and [open quotes]temperate oceanic and boreal[close quotes] in terms of the dominant glacial and glacial marine processes. Although one might quarrel with the terminology, the broad differences between these three glaciological regimes are indeed fundamental and need to be sought in the geological record. The flavor of the volume can be judged by some of the chapter titles. Contributions on Antarctica include a paper by Anderson and other entitled [open quote]Sedimentary facies associated with Antarctica's floating ice masses[close quotes] and a companion paper by Anderson and Domack which deals with the extremely complex glacial marine facies (13 facies are delimited) in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica.

  10. Higher Education and Work. Higher Education Policy Series 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, John, Ed.; And Others

    The relationship between higher education and the world of work is examined in terms of the changing structures of higher education institutions and the effect of the relationship on curricula. An international perspective is provided on the changing nature of employment and the labor market; the increasing diversification of higher education…

  11. Higher Education and Work. Higher Education Policy Series 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, John, Ed.; And Others

    The relationship between higher education and the world of work is examined in terms of the changing structures of higher education institutions and the effect of the relationship on curricula. An international perspective is provided on the changing nature of employment and the labor market; the increasing diversification of higher education

  12. Higher Education in Norway. Monographs on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bucharest (Romania). European Centre for Higher Education.

    The system of higher education of Norway is described. After tracing the history and present structure of the Norwegian higher education system, information is provided on: the administrative structure, staff, costs, library service, the content and organization of courses, research in higher education, adult education, teaching and evaluation

  13. Accretionary orogens: definition, character, significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cawood, P. A.; Kroener, A.; Windley, B. F.

    2003-04-01

    Classic models of orogens involve a Wilson cycle of ocean opening and closing with orogenesis related to continent-continent collision. Such models fail to explain the geological history of a significant number of orogenic belts throughout the world in which deformation, metamorphism and crustal growth took place in an environment of on-going plate convergence. These belts are termed accretionary orogens but have also been refereed to as non-collisional orogens, Pacific-type orogens, Turkic-type and exterior orogens. Accretionary orogens evolve in generally curvilinear belts comprising dominantly mafic to silicic igneous rocks and their sedimentary products and accumulated largely in marine settings. They are variably deformed and metamorphosed by tectono-thermal events aligned parallel to, and punctuating, facies trends. Accretionary orogens form at sites of subduction of oceanic lithosphere and consist of magmatic arcs systems along with material accreted from the downgoing plate and eroded from the upper plate. Deformational features include structures formed in extension and compressive environments during steady-state convergence (arc/backarc vs. accretionary prism) that are overprinted by short regional compressive orogenic events. Orogenesis takes place through coupling across the plate boundary with strain concentrated in zones of mechanical and thermal weakening such as the magmatic arc and back arc region. Potential driving mechanisms for coupling include accretion of buoyant lithosphere (terrane accretion), flat slab subduction, and rapid absolute upper plate motion over-riding the downgoing plate. The Circum-Pacific region provides outstanding examples of accretionary orogens. The Pacific formed during breakup of Rodinia in the Neoproterozoic and has never subsequently closed, resulting in a series of overall ocean-ward younging orogenic systems that have always faced an open ocean, yet have been the sites of repeated tectono-thermal events and continental growth. Accretionary orogens have been active throughout Earth history. They have been responsible for major growth of the continental lithosphere through the addition of juvenile magmatic products and include Archean greenstone belts, the Paleoproterozoic Birimian orogen (W. Africa), the Arabian-Nubian shield (Pan African) and Paleozoic orogens in Asia.

  14. Adaptive significance of root grafting in trees

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.; Jones, R.

    1988-12-31

    Root grafting has long been observed in forest trees but the adaptive significance of this trait has not been fully explained. Various authors have proposed that root grafting between trees contributes to mechanical support by linking adjacent root systems. Keeley proposes that this trait would be of greatest advantage in swamps where soils provide poor mechanical support. He provides as evidence a greenhouse study of Nyssa sylvatica Marsh in which seedlings of swamp provenance formed between-individual root grafts more frequently than upland provenance seedlings. In agreement with this within-species study, Keeley observed that arid zone species rarely exhibit grafts. Keeley also demonstrated that vines graft less commonly than trees, and herbs never do. Since the need for mechanical support coincides with this trend, these data seem to support his model. In this paper, the authors explore the mechanisms and ecological significance of root grafting, leading to predictions of root grafting incidence. Some observations support and some contradict the mechanical support hypothesis.

  15. Korean Higher Education Reforms and Changes since the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Yun Suk

    2011-01-01

    Korean higher education has experienced significant changes since the 1990s. Terms like quality, excellence, competition, efficiency, restructuring, and accountability have become dominant in higher education discourse. These changes are integral parts of higher education reforms implemented by the South Korean government and higher educational

  16. Astrobiological Significance of Microbial Extremophiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    The microflora of the cryosphere of planet Earth provides the best analogs for life forms that might be found in the permafrost or polar ice caps of Mars, near the surface of the cometary nuclei, or in the liquid water beneath and the ice crusts of icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The importance of study alkaliphilic microorganisms for astrobiology was enhanced by the findings of abundant carbonates and carbonate globules rimmed with possibly biogenic magnetites in association with the putative microfossils in the ALH84001 meteorite. Although the ALH84001 "nanofossils" were to small and simple to be unambiguously recognized as biogenic, they stimulated Astrobiology research and studies of microbial extremophiles and biomarkers in ancient rocks and meteorites. Recent studies of CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites have resulted in the detection of the well-preserved mineralized remains of coccoidal and filamentous microorganisms in cyanobacterial mats. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis has shown anomalous biogenic element ratios clearly indicating they are not recent biological contaminants. This paper reviews microbial extremophiles in context of their significance to Astrobiology. The study of halophilic microorganisms was started from work with saline soils and lakes, and one of the record of good growth for Haloferax mediterranei was shown at 30 percent NaC1. Although alkali-tolerant nitrifying bacteria had previously been reported, the first described alkaliphilic microorganism was the bacterium Streptococcus faecalis. Halophilic and alkaliphilic forms are relevant to conditions that might be found in closed impact basins and craters on Mars filled with evaporite deposits. The first obligately acidophilic bacterium described was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxydans (formally Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Later thermophilic lithotrophic acidophiles were found, and the hyperacidophilic moderately thermophilic species of the genus Picrophilus were found to grow at negative pH. The epoch of study of thermophilic microorganisms starts with the discovery of Thermus aquaticus, and presently the maximum temperature for growth at 113 C was found for Pyrolobus fumarii. The microorganisms capable of growth at high temperatures and in hyperacidic environments on Earth are good analogs for life that might be able to survive in hot acidic droplets in the upper regimes of the atmosphere of Venus. The study of barophiles was made possible by engineering achievements leading to the development of the submersible crafts used to study the Black Smokers of the Deep-sea Hydrothermal vents. The first described radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans can survive ionizing irradiation and other DNA-damaging assaults at doses that are lethal to all other organisms. These microbes are models for life that might endure high radiation environments in the ice near the surface of comets or on the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn and in the seafloor deep beneath icy crusts Europa and Enceladus. This paper presents ESEM and FESEM images showing intact microbes preserved in the deep ice cores extracted from just above Lake Vostok, Antarctica that are considered analogs for life forms that might survive on comets and icy moons.

  17. Observation Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how a teacher integrates science observations into the writing center. At the observation station, students explore new items with a science theme and use their notes and questions for class writings every day. Students are exposed to a variety of different topics and motivated to write in different styles all while

  18. Observation Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how a teacher integrates science observations into the writing center. At the observation station, students explore new items with a science theme and use their notes and questions for class writings every day. Students are exposed to a variety of different topics and motivated to write in different styles all while…

  19. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the

  20. History of Higher Education, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    History of Higher Education, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This annual compilation offers six articles on the history of higher education. In the first article, "The Historical Matrix of American Higher Education," Roger L. Geiger provides an overview of the history of American higher education. Following it, E. D. Duryea, Jurgen Herbst, and W. Bruce Leslie comment on his hypothesis which identifies eight…

  1. Higher Education and Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Policy debate about whether to maintain public subsidies for higher education has stimulated reconsideration of the public mission of higher education institutions, especially those that provide student places conferring private benefits. If the work of higher education institutions is defined simply as the aggregation of private interests, this…

  2. Higher Education and the Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Roger

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the author explores the answers to the following questions: (1) What does the "marketisation" of higher education mean? (2) What are the potential implications for United Kingdom higher education? and (3) How should everyone handle those implications? He also cites the three main reasons why higher education cannot simply be left to

  3. Higher Education Studies in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Motohisa

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of higher education in the postwar period has given rise to various problems, and higher education studies in Japan have developed in response to them. What have been the major issues, and how did academic research respond to them, in postwar Japan? This article delineates an outline of higher education studies in general,…

  4. Commitment to Higher Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imrie, Brad; And Others

    This publication is a history of the College of Higher Vocational Studies (CHVS) since it was established in 1991 and provides commentary on developments in higher vocational education in Hong Kong during a period of unprecedented change and development in the provision of the Higher Diploma. "Principal's Diary" (Bradford Imrie) describes the

  5. Advancing Diversity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Caroline S.

    2013-01-01

    This special section of the "Journal of Diversity in Higher Education" ("JDHE") on "Advancing Diversity in Higher Education" emerged from the 2012 Association for the Study of Higher Education Council on Ethnic Participation (ASHE-CEP) Pre-Conference Forum. CEP, a standing committee of ASHE, partnered with the

  6. Higher Education and Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Policy debate about whether to maintain public subsidies for higher education has stimulated reconsideration of the public mission of higher education institutions, especially those that provide student places conferring private benefits. If the work of higher education institutions is defined simply as the aggregation of private interests, this

  7. A Tax for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Higher education pays off handsomely for society. Yet on a nationwide basis, states' support for higher education per full-time-equivalent student has fallen to just $6,290, the lowest in 15 years. A dedicated source of funds for higher education is problematic. But what if state and federal lawmakers applied the impeccable logic of the gas tax to

  8. Higher Education Funding in Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Lori

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine perceptions of state legislators regarding funding of public higher education in the State of Missouri. To this end, I sought to determine how Missouri legislators perceive the purpose of higher education and the role the state government should play in funding it. The concept that higher

  9. Advancing Diversity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Caroline S.

    2013-01-01

    This special section of the "Journal of Diversity in Higher Education" ("JDHE") on "Advancing Diversity in Higher Education" emerged from the 2012 Association for the Study of Higher Education Council on Ethnic Participation (ASHE-CEP) Pre-Conference Forum. CEP, a standing committee of ASHE, partnered with the…

  10. Significant Warming of the Antarctic Winter Troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, J.; Lachlan-Cope, T. A.; Colwell, S.; Marshall, G. J.; Connolley, W. M.

    2006-03-01

    We report an undocumented major warming of the Antarctic winter troposphere that is larger than any previously identified regional tropospheric warming on Earth. This result has come to light through an analysis of recently digitized and rigorously quality controlled Antarctic radiosonde observations. The data show that regional midtropospheric temperatures have increased at a statistically significant rate of 0.5° to 0.7° Celcius per decade over the past 30 years. Analysis of the time series of radiosonde temperatures indicates that the data are temporally homogeneous. The available data do not allow us to unambiguously assign a cause to the tropospheric warming at this stage.

  11. Quality Assurance in Higher Education in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garwe, Evelyn Chiyevo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to furnish local and global stakeholders with detailed information regarding the development and current status of quality assurance in the Zimbabwean higher education sector. The study used document analysis, observation and interviews with key informants as sources of data. This paper addresses the dearth of…

  12. Higher Education Vertical Infrastructure Maintenance Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidner, Theodore J.

    To assist higher education facility officers in documenting their financial needs for renewing and renovating existing physical facilities, this study examined the accuracy against observed conditions of the tools used to identify vertical infrastructure maintenance needs in a large public university. Data developed for U.S. Army facilities is

  13. The significance of bacteriocin typing of Klebsiella strans.

    PubMed

    Israil, A M

    1981-01-01

    Out of three different methods used for bacteriocin sensitivity typing of Klebsiella strains, the "scarpe and streak" method was the most appropriate tool for its routine use in epidemiologic studies. The method is quite simple, reliable and does not imply any special requirements. Out of 533 Klebsiella strains tested by our set of seven bacteriocins 453 (85%) strains proved to be typable and 100 (15%) nontypable. The number of strains typable by bacteriocins was higher than of those typable by phages. In 14 of 19 outbreaks, the predominance of 1-2 distinct patterns of bacteriocin sensitivity was observed. Two large geographical areas have been delineated by two predominant distinct bacteriocin types of Klebsiella strains, each being observed in a high number of outbreaks as well as in sporadic cases belonging to the same area. Although it was not possible to establish any clear correlation between the pattern of bacteriocin sensitivity and the lysotype or serotype of the strains, The present findings offer strong reason to allow recommendation of the bacteriocin sensitivity pattern as a marker of high epidemiologic significance in monitoring Klebsiella cross-infections. Medical and auxiliary workers could play the role of reservoir to Klebsiella strains and for this reason the hospital personnel has to follow carefully strict procedures for ensuring a valid protection of patients especially when coming into direct contact with neonates, infants and debilitated patients. PMID:7198362

  14. Higher Education: A Time for Triage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-10-01

    Higher education faces unprecedented challenges. The confluence of changing economic and demographic tends; new patterns of federal and state spending; more explicit expectations by students and their families for affordable, accessible education; and heightened scrutiny by those who claim a legitimate interest in higher education is inescapably altering the environment in which this system operates. Higher education will never again be as it was before. Further, many believe that tinkering around the margins is no longer an adequate response to the new demands. Fundamental change is deemed necessary to meet the challenge of this melange of pressures. A number of commentators have observed that political and corporate America have responded to their challenges by instituting a fundamental restructuring of those institutions. The medical community is also in the midst of a similar basic restructuring of the health care delivery system in this country. Now its education's turn. People are questioning the historically expressed mission of higher education. They make the claim that we cost too much, spend carelessly, teach poorly, plan myopically, and when questioned, act defensively. Educational administrators, from department chairs up, are confronted with the task of simultaneously reforming and cutting back. They have no choice. They must establish politically sophisticated priority settings and effect a hard-nosed reallocation of resources in a social environment where competing public needs have equivalent--or stronger--emotional pulls. Triage in a medical context involves confronting an emergency in which the demand for attention far outstrips available assistance by establishing a sequence of care in which one key individual orchestrates the application of harsh priorities which have been designed to maximize the number of survivors. In recent years, the decisions that have been made in some centers of higher education bear a striking similarity. The literature is replete with descriptions of budget cuts and the resultant reallocation of monies. For example, as the budget cuts of the last decade accumulated, maintenance was deferred, and the funds saved were used to shore-up key existing parts of the educational process, such as faculty salaries. State budgets are generally smaller now than they were when the cuts were made, which means that preventive maintenance will continue to be deferred and other resources must be found for capital improvements. Triage often operates in an environment that does not permit promising possibilities to develop. For example, the promise of interactive digital technologies on the learning process may never be fully realized in many institutions if the associated capital and operating costs cannot be accommodated within the cost containment measures being adopted. In an effort to offset part of the lost state support, tuition and fees have been increased at public institutions at a rate that far exceeds growth of the cost of living index. All this is occurring in the face of an increasingly diverse student body and the beginning of "Tidal Wave II," as the surge of new students who are the children of the baby boomers has been called. These demands, along with the expectations for an historically, good American education, will have to be met with fewer dollars. Our ability to fund public higher education by the conventional mechanisms has been affected by a variety of tax reform initiatives. Although the details may vary locally, various kinds of initiatives, propositions, and referenda have severely limited the amount of revenue states can raise. Thus, caps on property taxes have transformed support patterns at the city and county levels. Initiatives, many of which have built-in escalators, that fix the percentages of state spending for various programs have created new kinds of budgetary entitlement groups. These mandates conspire to give government, i.e., governors and legislatures, less discretionary control over a dwindling portion of the state budget. Unfortunately, higher education often finds itself included in that ever-shrinking part of the budget. To keep businesses globally competitive there will be great pressure against raising corporate taxes. These pressures combined with the federal deficit and the growth in entitlements leave little hope for an infusion of the kinds of new public funds that have fueled previous changes in higher education. Some institutions have succeeded in deriving new resources through the establishment of public-private partnerships and vigorous fund raising, activities that have not played a significant role in funding public education in the past. Monies from private sources now account for more than 50% of the budget components in the case of some of the more successful state university initiatives. Successes of this kind raise some interesting questions. For example, how will the evolution of fiscal interactions with the state be affected? How will faculty work loads and compensation patterns be affected? It has become increasingly clear that a number of major issues need attention if we are to engage effectively in triage as a process to maximize what can--and should--be saved in higher education. The following list summarizes discussions that have appeared in a variety of disparate publications. Establish and prioritize the institution's educational goals. Establish value and reward systems for students and faculty that are consistent with the priority goals. Develop leverage and constraint mechanisms to effect change and improve student orientation to the new priorities. Establish a relationship between the price and cost of education and access to it, perhaps incorporating some sort of internal subsidy system. Develop a relationship between the demonstration of public accountability through the reallocation of resources and the measurement of tangible outcomes that justifies enhanced public and private investment. Devise a use of technology that improves productivity, which in turn requires the definition of productivity in an academic setting. Serious discussion of these issues and attempts to address them will undoubtedly prove uncomfortable, perhaps even threatening, to many in academia. Some may question whether the institutions of higher education that we now know as universities will still be "universities." But then, what is a university?

  15. Observations of turbulence generated by magnetic reconnection.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, J P; Phan, T D; Bale, S D; Tjulin, A

    2009-01-23

    Spacecraft observations of turbulence within a magnetic reconnection (guide field approximately 0) ion diffusion region are presented. In the inertial subrange, electric and magnetic fluctuations both followed a -5/3 power law; at higher frequencies, the spectral indices were -1 and -8/3, respectively. The dispersion relation was found to be consistent with fast-mode-whistler waves rather than kinetic Alfvn-ion cyclotron waves. Lower hybrid waves, which could be enhanced by whistler mode conversion, were observed, but the associated anomalous resistivity was not found to significantly modify the reconnection rate. PMID:19257361

  16. Retrofitting the 5045 Klystron for Higher Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Aaron; Fazio, Michael; Haase, Andy; Jongewaard, Erik; Kemp, Mark; Neilson, Jeff

    2015-04-15

    The 5045 klystron has been in production and accelerating particles at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory for over 25 years. Although the design has undergone some changes there are still significant opportunities for improvement in performance. Retrofitting the 5045 for higher efficiencies and a more mono-energetic spent beam profile is presented.

  17. Internationalization and Culture in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumby, Jacky; Foskett, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Internationalization has attained great significance in Higher Education, driven by both educational philosophy and commercial imperatives. Cultural change is implied as both a related process and as a goal. The article considers the multifaceted ways in which culture might be conceived and linked to different orientations to internationalization.

  18. Regional Plan for Texas Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This report was developed in response to Texas Education Code 61.051(i), requiring the Coordinating Board to develop a long-range plan for higher education, by region. A wide variety of factors, including educational attainment of the current population, existing degree programs, programs where significant unmet need may exist, programs provided

  19. Financing Higher Education: Lessons from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fengliang, Li

    2012-01-01

    In China, debates about higher education finance led to the introduction of a cost-sharing model, whereby students were required to pay tuition fees, over a decade ago. However, there is still significant resistance towards such a system within the broader society. In order to share insights into the development of the cost-sharing policy in China

  20. A Statistical Portrait of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Seymour E.

    This document presents 700 key tables from the thousands of tabulations made by Government agencies, private surveys, and extensive research projects, comments on their significance to the history and economy of higher education, and provides guidance to their sources. The 28 chapters cover questions relating to undergraduate and graduate student

  1. Taking Stock: The Higher Education Professoriate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, L. Jackson; Kuh, George D.

    1989-01-01

    Data from 1972, 1980, and 1986 reveal changes in the age, activities, research methods, and professionals of professors of higher education. Some significant scholarly differences between newly appointed and female faculty and more senior, male counterparts foreshadow changes in the professoriate. (Author/MSE)

  2. Peer Effects in Higher Education. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Gordon C.; Zimmerman, David J.

    This paper, prepared as a chapter for a forthcoming book, describes the potential significance of student peer effects for the economic structure and behavior of higher education. The existence of student peer effects would motivate much of the restricted supply, student queuing, and selectivity, and institutional competition via merit and honors

  3. Higher Education and the Corporate Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetar, Joseph M.

    Most of the people who are involved in higher education recognize that corporate interest in developing significant, job-related educational opportunities is growing. The motivation to provide corporate educational programs ranges from the need to improve skills to an interest in responding to legal and social responsibilities by expanding

  4. Improving Measurement of Productivity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Teresa A., Ed.; Mackie, Christopher, Ed.; Massy, William F., Ed.; Sinha, Esha, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Higher education is a linchpin of the American economy and society: Teaching and research at colleges and universities contribute significantly to the nation's economic activity, both directly and through their impact on future growth; federal and state governments support teaching and research with billions of taxpayers' dollars; and individuals,…

  5. Mark Edwards: Mission Impossible in Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santora, Joseph C.; Sarros, James C.

    2008-01-01

    This case chronicles some of the problems a corporate executive encountered on his transition from the private sector to the deanship of the College of Business in a university of higher education. His deanship, which resulted from the recent reorganization at State University, gave him significant responsibility for undergraduate and graduate

  6. Higher Education for Sustainable Development in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niu, Dongjie; Jiang, Dahe; Li, Fengting

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the significance of developments across Chinese higher education in the field of education and learning for sustainable development (SD) and to assess the relative impact of these initiatives. Design/methodology/approach: This is a review of policy and practice to examine developments, challenges,

  7. Asian American Giving to US Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsunoda, Kozue

    2010-01-01

    Asian Americans have had significant impacts on and within mainstream US society, and their great efforts and gifts in the name of charitable causes are no exception. This study aims to examine perceptions within American university development offices about Asian American giving to US higher education. The article begins with a literature review…

  8. A Statistical Portrait of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Seymour E.

    This document presents 700 key tables from the thousands of tabulations made by Government agencies, private surveys, and extensive research projects, comments on their significance to the history and economy of higher education, and provides guidance to their sources. The 28 chapters cover questions relating to undergraduate and graduate student…

  9. Outsourcing in Higher Education: An Empirical Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Atul; Herath, S. Kanthi; Mikouiza, Nathalie C.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To measure the degree of implementation and satisfaction level with the outsourcing initiatives from higher education institutions. Design/methodology/approach: Uses a survey questionnaire to measure the levels of satisfaction with the institutions' services and the questionnaire was based on six factors that are deemed significant in

  10. Financing Higher Education: Lessons from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fengliang, Li

    2012-01-01

    In China, debates about higher education finance led to the introduction of a cost-sharing model, whereby students were required to pay tuition fees, over a decade ago. However, there is still significant resistance towards such a system within the broader society. In order to share insights into the development of the cost-sharing policy in China…

  11. Staff Development Needs in Pakistan Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullah, Muhammad Hameed; Khan, Muhammad Naeem Ullah; Murtaza, Ali; Ud Din, Muhammad Naseer

    2011-01-01

    Staff development is very significant for the achievement of overall goals of higher education in Pakistan. The success of innovations depends largely upon the skills of instructors; but in Pakistan, the people with a simple masters degree (without any pedagogical training) are inducted as teaching staff at the university level, so it is time to

  12. Higher Education: A Rapidly Changing Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WorkAmerica, 2002

    2002-01-01

    In a world of constantly changing demands for knowledge and technical skills for the work world, higher education has been slow to change to meet these demands. The numbers of American students receiving bachelor's degrees in engineering, mathematics, and computer science fell significantly between 1987 and 1998, while the demand rose. In

  13. Improving Measurement of Productivity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Teresa A., Ed.; Mackie, Christopher, Ed.; Massy, William F., Ed.; Sinha, Esha, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Higher education is a linchpin of the American economy and society: Teaching and research at colleges and universities contribute significantly to the nation's economic activity, both directly and through their impact on future growth; federal and state governments support teaching and research with billions of taxpayers' dollars; and individuals,

  14. Internationalization and Culture in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumby, Jacky; Foskett, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Internationalization has attained great significance in Higher Education, driven by both educational philosophy and commercial imperatives. Cultural change is implied as both a related process and as a goal. The article considers the multifaceted ways in which culture might be conceived and linked to different orientations to internationalization.…

  15. Higher-order ionosphere modeling for CODE's next reprocessing activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, S.; Schaer, S.; Meindl, M.; Dach, R.; Steigenberger, P.

    2009-12-01

    CODE (the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe) is a joint venture between the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB, Bern, Switzerland), the Federal Office of Topography (swisstopo, Wabern, Switzerland), the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG, Frankfurt am Main, Germany), and the Institut für Astronomische und Phsyikalische Geodäsie of the Technische Universität München (IAPG/TUM, Munich, Germany). It acts as one of the global analysis centers of the International GNSS Service (IGS) and participates in the first IGS reprocessing campaign, a full reanalysis of GPS data collected since 1994. For a future reanalyis of the IGS data it is planned to consider not only first-order but also higher-order ionosphere terms in the space geodetic observations. There are several works (e.g. Fritsche et al. 2005), which showed a significant and systematic influence of these effects on the analysis results. The development version of the Bernese Software used at CODE is expanded by the ability to assign additional (scaling) parameters to each considered higher-order ionosphere term. By this, each correction term can be switched on and off on normal-equation level and, moreover, the significance of each correction term may be verified on observation level for different ionosphere conditions.

  16. Numerical modeling of higher order magnetic moments in UXO discrimination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanchez, V.; Yaoguo, L.; Nabighian, M.N.; Wright, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    The surface magnetic anomaly observed in unexploded ordnance (UXO) clearance is mainly dipolar, and consequently, the dipole is the only magnetic moment regularly recovered in UXO discrimination. The dipole moment contains information about the intensity of magnetization but lacks information about the shape of the target. In contrast, higher order moments, such as quadrupole and octupole, encode asymmetry properties of the magnetization distribution within the buried targets. In order to improve our understanding of magnetization distribution within UXO and non-UXO objects and to show its potential utility in UXO clearance, we present a numerical modeling study of UXO and related metallic objects. The tool for the modeling is a nonlinear integral equation describing magnetization within isolated compact objects of high susceptibility. A solution for magnetization distribution then allows us to compute the magnetic multipole moments of the object, analyze their relationships, and provide a depiction of the anomaly produced by different moments within the object. Our modeling results show the presence of significant higher order moments for more asymmetric objects, and the fields of these higher order moments are well above the noise level of magnetic gradient data. The contribution from higher order moments may provide a practical tool for improved UXO discrimination. ?? 2008 IEEE.

  17. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-02-28

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited range of the factors in the test matrix hindered the identification of individual component effects. Future work should involve broader factor ranges to identify the roles played by each of the components in the mix via thermal analyses, analytical microscopy, and characterization of phase formation.

  18. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited range of the factors in the test matrix hindered the identification of individual component effects. Future work should involve broader factor ranges to identify the roles played by each of the components in the mix via thermal analyses, analytical microscopy, and characterization of phase formation.

  19. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited range of the factors in the test matrix hindered the identification of individual component effects. Future work should involve broader factor ranges to identify the roles played by each of the components in the mix via thermal analyses, analytical microscopy, and characterization of phase formation.

  20. Clinicopathological Significance of Osteopontin in Cholangiocarcinoma Cases.

    PubMed

    Laohaviroj, Marut; Chamgramol, Yaovalux; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Mulvenna, Jason; Sripa, Banchob

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is generally a rare primary liver tumor of the bile duct with extremely poor clinical outcomes due to late diagnosis. Osteopontin (OPN) is the most abundant expressed gene in intrahepatic CCA and its involvement in tumor aggressiveness suggests it could be a useful prognostic biomarker. However, the prognostic significance of OPN expression in CCA is still controversial. We therefore immunohistochemically studied OPN expression in 354 resected CCAs and correlated the results with patient clinicopathological parameters. OPN expression was separately scored according to the percentage of cancer cells or degree of stromal tissue staining and classified as low (score 0-1) and high (score 2-3). OPN expression in CCA cells was found in 177 out of 354 patients (56.5%), whereas stroma was positive in 185 out of 354 patients (52.3%). Univariate analysis with several of the aforementioned parameters revealed that stromal but not cancer cell OPN expression was significantly associated with tumor size, tumor direct invasion into normal liver parenchyma, regional lymph node metastasis and higher staging. The combination of cancer cell and stromal OPN expression demonstrated a positive trend for linkage with lymph node metastasis. Multivariate analysis identified gender, the presence of lymphatic permeation and lymph node metastasis, but not OPN expression, as independent prognostic factors. This study confirms the presence of stromal OPN expression in tumor aggressiveness but not survival in CCA patients. PMID:26838210

  1. Reforming Higher Education. Higher Education Policy Series 50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Maurice; Hanney, Stephen

    This book examines the relationship between higher education policy and the state in the United Kingdom, discussing how changing concepts of the nature of the state and its role have affected the development of higher education policy. The book studies shifts from state-subsidized independence to ambiguous but increased dependence on state

  2. Alabama Commission on Higher Education. Occasional Papers on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Commission on Higher Education, Montgomery.

    Two papers on the funding formula of the Alabama Commission for Higher Education are presented. The first paper, by John F. Porter, Jr., "The Origins and Evolutions of the Funding Formula Model Utilized by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education, 1973-82," presents the historical antecedents for the existing formula elements and notes

  3. Babylonian observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. R.

    Cuneiform tablets from Babylonia record lunar and solar eclipses, the presence and movement of comets, meteors and meteor showers. These have provided historical astronomers with much valuable data, but caution must be exercised when using such records, for accuracy of observation often ceded to astrological intent. In the future, texts from Assyria may also provide useful data for historical astronomers.

  4. Babylonian observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D.

    Very few cuneiform records survive from Mesopotamia of datable astronomical observations made prior to the mid-eighth century BC. Those that do record occasional eclipses, and in one isolated case the dates of the heliacal rising and setting of Venus over a few years sometime in the first half of the second millennium BC. After the mid-eighth century BC the situation changes dramatically. Incomplete records of daily observations of astronomical and meteorological events are preserved from c. 747 BC until the Christian Period. These records are without accompanying ominous interpretation, although it is highly probable that they were compiled by diviners for astrological purposes. They include numerous observations of use to historical astronomers, such as the times of eclipses and occultations, and the dates of comet appearances and meteor showers. The question arises as to why such records do not survive from earlier times; celestial divination was employed as far back as the third millenium BC. It is surely not without importance that the earliest known accurate astronomical predictions accompany the later records, and that the mid-eighth century BC ushered in a period of centralised Assyrian control of Mesopotamia and the concomitant employment by the Assyrian ruler of large numbers of professional celestial diviners. The programme of daily observations evidently began when a high premium was first set on the accurate astronomical prediction of ominous events. It is in this light that we must approach this valuable source material for historical astronomy.

  5. "How to Strike the Right Balance between Quality Assurance and Quality Control in the Perceptions of Individual Lecturers": A Comparison of UK and Dutch Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teelken, Christine; Lomas, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the way lecturers observe, feel restrained by and cope with quality management systems that have been implemented in the higher education systems of the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. As two sides of the same coin, quality enhancement and quality control are of increased significance in European Higher Education

  6. Standardized Observational Assessment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Combined and Predominantly Inattentive Subtypes. II. Classroom Observations

    PubMed Central

    McConaughy, Stephanie H.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Antshel, Kevin; Eiraldi, Ricardo B.; Dumenci, Levent

    2010-01-01

    Trained classroom observers used the Direct Observation Form (DOF; McConaughy & Achenbach, 2009) to rate observations of 163 6- to 11-year-old children in their school classrooms. Participants were assigned to four groups based on a parent diagnostic interview and parent and teacher rating scales: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)Combined type (n = 64); ADHDInattentive type (n = 22); clinically referred without ADHD (n = 51); and nonreferred control children (n = 26). The ADHDCombined group scored significantly higher than the referred without ADHD group and controls on the DOF Intrusive and Oppositional syndromes, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Problems scale, Hyperactivity-Impulsivity subscale, and Total Problems; and significantly lower on the DOF On-Task score. The ADHDInattentive group scored significantly higher than controls on the DOF Sluggish Cognitive Tempo and Attention Problems syndromes, Inattention subscale, and Total Problems; and significantly lower on the DOF On-Task score. Implications are discussed regarding the discriminative validity of standardized classroom observations for identifying children with ADHD and differentiating between the two ADHD subtypes. PMID:20802813

  7. Innovation Processes in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Barbro; Ostergren, Bertil

    1979-01-01

    Innovation processes in the Swedish Higher Education System are described and related to a general theory of innovation. Using the theories of Kurt Lewin, characteristics of higher education as a social system and factors which determine the nature of the forces towards a certain type of change are defined. (JMF)

  8. Strategic Planning for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotler, Philip; Murphy, Patrick E.

    1981-01-01

    The framework necessary for achieving a strategic planning posture in higher education is outlined. The most important benefit of strategic planning for higher education decision makers is that it forces them to undertake a more market-oriented and systematic approach to long- range planning. (Author/MLW)

  9. Fact Book on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Joseph L.; Diaz, Alicia A.

    2009-01-01

    The "Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) Fact Book on Higher Education" is one of the nation's most comprehensive collections of comparative data on higher education. For decades, state leaders, policy-makers, researchers and journalists have used the "Fact Book" to find useful data quickly--and to learn more about long-term trends and

  10. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    1999-01-01

    Reviewed 1998 and early 1999 court decisions related to disability discrimination in higher education. This period witnessed major developments in the law of disability discrimination as it relates to higher education. A major focus was on whether persons whose impairments are ameliorated by treatment are individuals with disabilities covered by

  11. Higher Education: Open for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilde, Christian, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses a problem in higher learning, which is newly recognized in the academic spotlight: the overcommercialization of higher education. The book asks that you, the reader, think about the following: Did you go to a Coke or Pepsi school? Do your children attend a Nike or Adidas school? Is the college in your town a Dell or Gateway

  12. Effective Communication in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    The intent for this paper is to show that communication within the higher education field is a current problem. By looking first at the different styles, forms, and audiences for communication, the reader will hopefully gain perspective as to why this is such a problem in higher education today. Since the Millennial generation is the newest set of…

  13. Barriers to Universal Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrin, Richard I.

    This report was prepared as a background paper for a national study of changes in the accessibility of higher education fromm l958 to l968. It out- lines four major barriers to higher education: the financial, the academic, the motivational, and the geographic. Efforts to reduce these barriers have included (1) the creation of junior colleges; (2)

  14. Innovations in Higher Education? Hah!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, Ann

    2012-01-01

    One can hardly mention higher education today without hearing the word "innovation," or its understudies "change," "reinvention," "transformation." Last summer the National Governors Association opened its meeting with a plenary session on higher education, innovation, and economic growth. But there is nothing funny about the need for innovation

  15. Theorising Quality in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise

    2004-01-01

    Britain now has the most heavily regulated higher education system in the world and institutions must deliver best educational value. This book explores the political and psychic economy of quality assurance in higher education and interrogates the discourse and practices associated with the audit culture in Britain. Following Acknowledgements and

  16. The Future of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dede, Christopher

    The likely alternative futures that higher education may face in the next decade are discussed, and suggestions for developing a strategic planning capability in response are offered. It is argued that major demographic, economic, and political disruptions are likely in the 1980s. Demographic trends that will have a major impact on higher

  17. Alternative Models for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffrey, John G.

    Higher education is beset from all sides by criticism, fear, doubt, uncertainty, and prophecies of doom. While the young call for change, the faculty often resist anything that might reduce their privileges and prerogatives. Before alternative models to the present system of higher education can be considered, it is useful to question present

  18. Higher Education, Poverty and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

    2010-01-01

    There is a presumption among many policy makers that higher education is not necessary for economic growth and development; it is literacy and basic education and at best secondary education that are argued to be important. Estimates of internal rate of return contributed to strengthening of such a presumption. Accordingly, higher education has

  19. Institutional Change and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loomis, Steven; Rodriguez, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Institutional change includes the supplanting of the old model of production with a new one, the elimination of old markets and the emergence of new ones. As higher education around the world shifts from national markets to an integrated transnational market, and possibly toward a virtual market, Christian higher education, like other market

  20. The Economy and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Richard E.

    1988-01-01

    The macroeconomic trends shaping the United States economy and the effects of those trends on higher education are considered. Warning institutions of higher education about possible problems in the economy will place them in a better position to react if necessary. The economic environment is discussed in terms of productivity (goods and services…

  1. New Labour and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Alan

    2005-01-01

    The essay does not seek to add to the scholarly literature on UK higher education, so much as to give a sympathetic account of the dilemmas confronting a progressive government of almost any political stripe and especially one that faces the constraints of New Labour. It begins paradoxically by pointing out that serious investment in higher

  2. The Opening of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matkin, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    In a 1974 report presented to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Martin Trow laid out a framework for understanding large-scale, worldwide changes in higher education. Trow's essay also pointed to the problems that "arise out of the transition from one phase to another in a broad pattern of development of higher

  3. Queering Transformation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Msibi, Thabo

    2013-01-01

    Transformation in higher education has tended to focus on race and sex, at the expense of other forms of discrimination. This article addresses the silencing of "queer" issues in higher education. Using queer theory as a framework, and drawing on current literature, popular media reports, two personal critical incidents and a project…

  4. Systems of Higher Education: Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Alfonso Rangel

    This report on Mexico was prepared as part of a comparative study of higher education in 12 countries. After a brief historical statement, the concept of autonomy, which is most important to understanding Mexican higher education, is explained. The main part of the report is divided into three sections: a description of the growth and organization

  5. Higher Education in a Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poch, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how transfer students interact with a higher education setting that is reacting to new state-mandated accountability goals, and to understand higher education institutions and their environments when faced with new accountability measures. The larger purpose of the study is to develop a grounded

  6. Higher Education: A Closer Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gwen

    2009-01-01

    As the United States moves toward expanding programs for pre-kindergarten children, leaders in higher education are asking themselves some how-to questions about implementation. This article summarizes nine facts about higher education. One of these facts is the growing demand for teachers qualified with a bachelor's degree in Early Care and…

  7. Learning Entrepreneurship in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taatila, Vesa P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: There is a constant need to produce more entrepreneurial graduates from higher education institutions. This paper aims to present and discuss several successful cases of entrepreneurial learning environments in order to suggest some important aspects that higher education institutions should consider. Design/methodology/approach: The

  8. Higher Still in European Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffe, David

    1997-01-01

    In 1999, Scotland's "Higher Still" will incorporate all upper-secondary academic and vocational courses in a unified curriculum and assessment system for postcompulsory education. Higher Still's objectives, strategies, and "system architecture" are compared to those of Austria, England, Finland, France, Germany, Norway, and Sweden, studied by the

  9. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000

  10. Feminist Research in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ropers-Huilman, Rebecca; Winters, Kelly T.

    2011-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of feminist methodology and its potential to enhance the study of higher education. Foregrounding the multiple purposes and research relationships developed through feminist research, the essay urges higher education scholars to engage feminist theories, epistemologies, and methods to inform policy, research, and

  11. Innovations in Higher Education? Hah!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, Ann

    2012-01-01

    One can hardly mention higher education today without hearing the word "innovation," or its understudies "change," "reinvention," "transformation." Last summer the National Governors Association opened its meeting with a plenary session on higher education, innovation, and economic growth. But there is nothing funny about the need for innovation…

  12. The Marketing of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooker, George; Noble, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Formal college and university marketing programs are challenging to develop and implement because of the complexity of the marketing mix, the perceived inappropriateness of a traditional marketing officer, the number of diverse groups with input, the uniqueness of higher education institutions, and the difficulty in identifying higher education…

  13. "Accessions": Researching, Designing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    This brief viewpoint piece depicts educational (dis)engagements apparent in researching and (re)designing higher education in and through "Accessions". "Accessions", a collaborative research-design project, probed at how cultures, climates and conditions of higher education may be reproducing or reshaping social inequalities and divisions. Here,

  14. Minority Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Asian Americans are entitled to equal access to all institutions of higher education. Ensuring greater access and participation by minorities in higher education is one of the most practical ways of moving America closer to the ideal of equal opportunity, which is the actualization of the American dream.

  15. Unexploited Efficiencies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyring, Henry C.

    2011-01-01

    In "Unexploited Efficiencies in Higher Education," Henry C. Eyring, a junior majoring in Economics at Brigham Young University-Idaho, argues that one way that the U.S. can compete globally in college attainment is to decrease cost-per-graduate. He explains how many stakeholders in higher education stand to benefit from unexploited

  16. History of American Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Margaret Cain

    2011-01-01

    "History of American Higher Education" documents the fascinating evolution of American colleges and universities, touching on the historical events that shaped them, from the colonial era through the early twenty-first century. Throughout history, higher education has played an important role in the transmission of cultural identity from one

  17. Higher Education: Open for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilde, Christian, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses a problem in higher learning, which is newly recognized in the academic spotlight: the overcommercialization of higher education. The book asks that you, the reader, think about the following: Did you go to a Coke or Pepsi school? Do your children attend a Nike or Adidas school? Is the college in your town a Dell or Gateway…

  18. Leading Change in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRoy, Ian; Gibbs, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the situation in the UK higher education system and investigates specifically the leadership practice in a cluster of UK institutions as they changed their status. The research goes further to advocate a form of contextualized leadership that is relevant to higher institutions under change. (Contains 1 figure.)

  19. Higher Education: A Closer Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gwen

    2009-01-01

    As the United States moves toward expanding programs for pre-kindergarten children, leaders in higher education are asking themselves some how-to questions about implementation. This article summarizes nine facts about higher education. One of these facts is the growing demand for teachers qualified with a bachelor's degree in Early Care and

  20. Higher Education, Poverty and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

    2010-01-01

    There is a presumption among many policy makers that higher education is not necessary for economic growth and development; it is literacy and basic education and at best secondary education that are argued to be important. Estimates of internal rate of return contributed to strengthening of such a presumption. Accordingly, higher education has…

  1. Econometric Studies of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    The econometrics of higher education emerged from the development of human capital theory and efforts to estimate rates of return to education in the 1960s and 1970s. This paper surveys the various strands of the literature on the econometrics of higher education that have developed during the last 40 years and indicates how a collection of papers

  2. Empowering Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisker, Gina

    This book focuses on enabling and empowering women in higher education, and it draws both on research and experience with women-centered teaching and learning practices and professional development and training of women staff. The first section of the book concentrates on women students in higher education. Chapters include: "Women Students and

  3. Personnel Management in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millett, John D.; And Others

    This document on personnel management in higher education contains three papers that are designed to be used as guidelines for educational administrators. The first two papers, by John D. Millett, discuss the scope and problems of higher education administration and the problems associated with collective bargaining and tenure on college campuses.…

  4. Higher Education Marketing: A Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canterbury, Richard

    1999-01-01

    States that similarities between education and other services may not be sufficient to conclude that services marketing methods can be easily transferred to all markets in higher education. Article identifies and discusses why higher education marketing is a particular challenge. Suggests that understanding these challenges can help in making…

  5. Institutional Change and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loomis, Steven; Rodriguez, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Institutional change includes the supplanting of the old model of production with a new one, the elimination of old markets and the emergence of new ones. As higher education around the world shifts from national markets to an integrated transnational market, and possibly toward a virtual market, Christian higher education, like other market…

  6. Higher Education and Social Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasution, S.; Virasai, Banphot, Eds.

    The proceedings of the Regional Institute of Higher Education and Development's seminar and the meaning and implications of social commitment in higher education are reported. The welcoming address (S. Nasution) and the opening address (Y. B. Dato' Murad bin Mohd. Noor) welcome the participants and set the tone for the discussions to follow. The…

  7. Higher Education and Social Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasution, S.; Virasai, Banphot, Eds.

    The proceedings of the Regional Institute of Higher Education and Development's seminar and the meaning and implications of social commitment in higher education are reported. The welcoming address (S. Nasution) and the opening address (Y. B. Dato' Murad bin Mohd. Noor) welcome the participants and set the tone for the discussions to follow. The

  8. "Accessions": Researching, Designing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    This brief viewpoint piece depicts educational (dis)engagements apparent in researching and (re)designing higher education in and through "Accessions". "Accessions", a collaborative research-design project, probed at how cultures, climates and conditions of higher education may be reproducing or reshaping social inequalities and divisions. Here,…

  9. Sexual Harassment in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truax, Anne; And Others

    1989-01-01

    An article and three responses on sexual harassment in higher education are presented: "Sexual Harassment in Higher Education: What We've Learned" (Anne Truax); "Who Is Responsible for Sexual Harassment?" (Barbara G. Taylor); "The Feminist-Unionist Dilemma" (Sherna Berger Gluck); and "Sexual Harassment and Academic Power" (Loralee MacPike). (MLW)

  10. Canuck-Do Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how, like Australia, Canadian higher education has experienced large-scale cuts in government funding, the deregulation of tuition and general cost shifting to students, inability to accommodate increased student demand, faculty "brain drain" and shortages, and an erosion of public policy toward viewing higher education as a business.…

  11. The Nature of Work and the Stress of Higher Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieman, Scott; Whitestone, Yuko Kurashina; Van Gundy, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Are occupational and work conditions associated with work-to-home conflict? If so, do those associations vary by gender? Among a sample of adults in Toronto, Canada, we found that men and women in higher-status occupations reported higher levels of work-to-home conflict than workers in lower-status jobs. In addition, we observed higher levels of

  12. Are Carotid Stent Fractures Clinically Significant?

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Toca, Manuel; Rodriguez, Heron E.; Naughton, Peter A.; Keeling, Aiofee; Phade, Sachin V.; Morasch, Mark D.; Kibbe, Melina R.; Eskandari, Mark K.

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: Late stent fatigue is a known complication after carotid artery stenting (CAS) for cervical carotid occlusive disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical significance of carotid stent fractures. Materials and Methods: A single-center retrospective review of 253 carotid bifurcation lesions treated with CAS and mechanical embolic protection from April 2001 to December 2009 was performed. Stent integrity was analyzed by two independent observers using multiplanar cervical plain radiographs with fractures classified into the following types: type I = single strut fracture; type II = multiple strut fractures; type III = transverse fracture; and type IV = transverse fracture with dislocation. Mean follow-up was 32 months. Results: Follow-up imaging was completed on 106 self-expanding nitinol stents (26 closed-cell and 80 open-cell stents). Eight fractures (7.5%) were detected (type I n = 1, type II n = 6, and type III n = 1). Seven fractures were found in open-cell stents (Precise n = 3, ViVEXX n = 2, and Acculink n = 2), and 1 fracture was found in a closed-cell stent (Xact n = 1) (p = 0.67). Only a previous history of external beam neck irradiation was associated with fractures (p = 0.048). No associated clinical sequelae were observed among the patients with fractures, and only 1 patient had an associated significant restenosis ({>=}80%) requiring reintervention. Conclusions: Late stent fatigue after CAS is an uncommon event and rarely clinically relevant. Although cell design does not appear to influence the occurrence of fractures, lesion characteristics may be associated risk factors.

  13. Gains in Life Expectancy Associated with Higher Education in Men

    PubMed Central

    Bijwaard, Govert E.; van Poppel, Frans; Ekamper, Peter; Lumey, L. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many studies show large differences in life expectancy across the range of education, intelligence, and socio-economic status. As educational attainment, intelligence, and socio-economic status are highly interrelated, appropriate methods are required to disentangle their separate effects. The aim of this paper is to present a novel method to estimate gains in life expectancy specifically associated with increased education. Our analysis is based on a structural model in which education level, IQ at age 18 and mortality all depend on (latent) intelligence. The model allows for (selective) educational choices based on observed factors and on an unobserved factor capturing intelligence. Our estimates are based on information from health examinations of military conscripts born in 1944–1947 in The Netherlands and their vital status through age 66 (n = 39,798). Results Our empirical results show that men with higher education have lower mortality. Using structural models to account for education choice, the estimated gain in life expectancy for men moving up one educational level ranges from 0.3 to 2 years. The estimated gain in months alive over the observational period ranges from -1.2 to 5.7 months. The selection effect is positive and amounts to a gain of one to two months. Decomposition of the selection effect shows that the gain from selection on (latent) intelligence is larger than the gain from selection on observed factors and amounts to 1.0 to 1.7 additional months alive. Conclusion Our findings confirm the strong selection into education based on socio-economic status and intelligence. They also show significant higher life expectancy among individuals with higher education after the selectivity of education choice has been taken into account. Based on these estimates, it is plausible therefore that increases in education could lead to increases in life expectancy. PMID:26496647

  14. [Significance of liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Kaido, Toshimi; Uemoto, Shinji

    2014-03-01

    Liver transplantation(LT)plays a significant clinical role in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC), as it can cure not only HCC but also underlying liver diseases. Although various transplant criteria for HCC have been proposed, expanding the criteria is controversial. Extended criteria are justified when the recurrence rates are low. We performed retrospective analysis of 136 HCC patients who underwent living donor LT(LDLT)at our center between February 1999 and December 2006 to examine the risk factors for post-transplant recurrence. Based on the results of our multivariate analysis, we defined new criteria, which we call the Kyoto criteria. The new criteria are as follows: nC10, tumor diameter C5 cm, and serum desgamma- carboxy prothrombin levels of C400mAU/mL. The 5-year recurrence rate for patients who met the Kyoto criteria was significantly lower than that for patients who exceeded these criteria(3% vs 56%, p<0.001). This demonstrates that the Kyoto criteria can effectively exclude patients with biologically aggressive tumors prior to transplantation. We began to implement the Kyoto criteria in January 2007 and have started a prospective study to validate the feasibility of these criteria. As of December 2011, 62 patients with HCC have undergone LDLT. These patients had a 5-year overall survival rate of 82%, and a recurrence rate of 6%. Considering the higher morbidity and mortality rates associated with LT compared to those for other treatment modalities for HCC as well as risks to live donors, LDLT is better used as a second-line treatment option for HCC. PMID:24743271

  15. Institute of Higher Education: An Oral History (1964-2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron

    This oral history is part of the celebration planned by the University of Georgia Institute of Higher Education to honor Cameron Fincher for his service to the field of higher education and the Institute. Dr, Fincher was interviewed by Delmer D. Dunn about the significant changes that have occurred in higher education over the past 50 years.

  16. Costs and Difficulties on the Way to a Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogil'chak, E. L.

    2012-01-01

    A higher education continues to be a significant value to young people; this is manifested clearly in the growth of the numbers enrolled in higher educational institutions of Russia. This article examines "the process by which young people achieve their goal"--obtaining a higher education--as a set of stages linked to specific kinds of costs. The

  17. The Conditioning Role of State Higher Education Governance Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandberg, David A.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a study that examined whether the presence of a consolidated governing board for higher education conditions the impact various political factors have on state support for higher education. The existence of a consolidated governing board is shown to significantly alter the politics of the state higher education

  18. Inclusion in Higher Education: Issues in University-School Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, D.; Cairnduff, A.

    2012-01-01

    The significant under-representation of people from low socio-economic backgrounds in higher education in Australia has been placed squarely at the front of the Australian Federal Government's higher education agenda. The barriers for students from low socio-economic backgrounds to access higher education are broad and multi-causal. The

  19. Access and Equity in Higher Education in Antigua and Barbuda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewlett-Thomas, Elsie

    2009-01-01

    Across the international higher education spectrum access represents a significant issue. The literature is replete with analyses of access in various higher education systems. Low and inequitable patterns of participation in higher education are particularly prominent in developing countries. This dissertation is a case study of the higher…

  20. Internationalization of Higher Education in China and Its Development Direction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Dong

    2011-01-01

    The internationalization of higher education plays an important role in education, but from the perspective of the whole society, there is a higher level of significance. Combining with foreign experience, this paper holds that internationalization of higher education in China should be established to promote international education by…

  1. Significance of telomere capture in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Labib, Hany A; Elshorbagy, Sheren; Elantonuy, Neveen G

    2014-10-01

    Addition of telomeres to the ends of broken chromosomes has been observed in many malignant cells through the capture of the ends of other chromosomes as a result of nonreciprocal translocations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the percentage of nuclei with telomere capture (TC%) as a prognostic marker in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) patients. This study included 45 newly diagnosed MDS patients, 36 cases with denovo MDS and 9 cases with therapy-related MDS, and another 35 apparently healthy volunteers as a control group. Telomere capture percentage was investigated with fluorescent in situ hybridization technique using a probe for 15qter. We found that median TC% rate was significantly increased in those with bad cytogenetic abnormalities, patients with blast cells>10% in BM, and patients categorized as high risk according to WHO and IPSS classification; also, there was a significant negative correlation with progression-free survival. Telomere capture serves as a useful marker for the assessment of MDS patient's risk, and also it had a clinical importance for the early detection of disease progression. PMID:25195039

  2. Enzymatic DNA oxidation: mechanisms and biological significance

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guo-Liang; Walsh, Colum P.

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation at cytosines (5mC) is a major epigenetic modification involved in the regulation of multiple biological processes in mammals. How methylation is reversed was until recently poorly understood. The family of dioxygenases commonly known as Ten-eleven translocation (Tet) proteins are responsible for the oxidation of 5mC into three new forms, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). Current models link Tet-mediated 5mC oxidation with active DNA demethylation. The higher oxidation products (5fC and 5caC) are recognized and excised by the DNA glycosylase TDG via the base excision repair pathway. Like DNA methyltransferases, Tet enzymes are important for embryonic development. We will examine the mechanism and biological significance of Tet-mediated 5mC oxidation in the context of pronuclear DNA demethylation in mouse early embryos. In contrast to its role in active demethylation in the germ cells and early embryo, a number of lines of evidence suggest that the intragenic 5hmC present in brain may act as a stable mark instead. This short review explores mechanistic aspects of TET oxidation activity, the impact Tet enzymes have on epigenome organization and their contribution to the regulation of early embryonic and neuronal development. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(11): 609-618] PMID:25341925

  3. Enzymatic DNA oxidation: mechanisms and biological significance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guo-Liang; Walsh, Colum P

    2014-11-01

    DNA methylation at cytosines (5mC) is a major epigenetic modification involved in the regulation of multiple biological processes in mammals. How methylation is reversed was until recently poorly understood. The family of dioxygenases commonly known as Ten-eleven translocation (Tet) proteins are responsible for the oxidation of 5mC into three new forms, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). Current models link Tet-mediated 5mC oxidation with active DNA demethylation. The higher oxidation products (5fC and 5caC) are recognized and excised by the DNA glycosylase TDG via the base excision repair pathway. Like DNA methyltransferases, Tet enzymes are important for embryonic development. We will examine the mechanism and biological significance of Tet-mediated 5mC oxidation in the context of pronuclear DNA demethylation in mouse early embryos. In contrast to its role in active demethylation in the germ cells and early embryo, a number of lines of evidence suggest that the intragenic 5hmC present in brain may act as a stable mark instead. This short review explores mechanistic aspects of TET oxidation activity, the impact Tet enzymes have on epigenome organization and their contribution to the regulation of early embryonic and neuronal development. PMID:25341925

  4. Significant risk factors in elective colorectal surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Kingston, R. D.; Walsh, S.; Robinson, C.; Jeacock, J.; Keeling, F.

    1995-01-01

    A prospective study of 618 patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery performed in a district general hospital over a 10-year period is reported. Multivariate analysis has been used in an attempt to identify risk factors. The risk of wound infection was increased if septicaemia, respiratory sepsis or faecal contamination was present, if the surgeon was a consultant and if increased risk of serious complications if the patient was male and of poor physical status. Operative mortality was significantly associated with poor physical status, respiratory sepsis and intra-abdominal abscess. Only three risk factors could be identified preoperatively: patient gender, physical status and seniority of surgeon. However, procedures low in the pelvis are more difficult and in this study group are also associated with a higher risk of wound infection. The majority of these procedures are performed by consultants. In addition, this study group has proportionally more female patients of poor physical status who are selectively being operated on by the consultant, seemingly indicating the 'consultant' as a risk factor. PMID:7486765

  5. Prognostic significance of pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis histologic score.

    PubMed

    Matsui, K; Beasley, M B; Nelson, W K; Barnes, P M; Bechtle, J; Falk, R; Ferrans, V J; Moss, J; Travis, W D

    2001-04-01

    Correlations were made between clinical and follow-up data and histopathologic findings in 105 women (mean age +/- standard deviation, 38.3 +/- 9.0 years) with pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). The actuarial survival (to pulmonary transplantation or death) of the patients from the time of lung biopsy was 85.1% and 71.0% after 5 and 10 years respectively. The histologic severity of LAM, graded as a LAM histologic score (LHS), was determined on the basis of semiquantitative estimation of the percentage of tissue involvement by the two major features of LAM: the cystic lesions and the infiltration by abnormal smooth muscle cells (LAM cells) in each case: LHS-1, <25%; LHS-2, 25% to 50%; and LHS-3, >50%. Analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method revealed significant differences in survival for patients with LHS-1, -2, and -3 (p = 0.01). The 5-and 10-year survivals were 100% and 100% for LHS-1, 81.2% and 74.4% for LHS-2, and 62.8% and 52.4% for LHS-3. Increased degrees of accumulation of hemosiderin in macrophages also were associated with higher LHS scores (p = 0.029) and a worse prognosis (p = 0.0012). Thus, the current study suggests that the LHS may provide a basis for determining the prognosis of LAM. PMID:11257622

  6. Professional Development in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brancato, Vera C.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses challenges facing higher education faculty and considers faculty development in the context of the learning organization using its five components: personal mastery, team learning, mental models, shared vision, and systems thinking. (Contains 29 references.) (SK)

  7. Synthesis of higher monocarboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Taikov, B.F.; Novakovskii, E.M.; Zhelkovskaya, V.P.; Shadrova, V.N.; Shcherbik, P.K.

    1981-01-01

    Brown-coal and peat waxes contain higher monocarboxylic acids, alcohols and esters of them as their main components. In view of this, considerable interest is presented by the preparation of individual compounds among those mentioned above, which is particularly important in the study of the composition and development of the optimum variants of the chemical processing of the waxes. In laboratory practice, to obtain higher monocarboxylic acids use is generally made of electrosynthesis according to Kolbe which permits unbranched higher aliphatic acids with given lengths of the hydrocarbon chain to be obtained. The aim of the present work was to synthesize higher monocarboxylic acids: arachidic, behenic, lignoceric, pentacosanoic, erotic, heptacosanoic, montanic, nonacosanoic, melissic, dotriacontanoic and tetratriacontanoic, which are present in waxes. Characteristics of synthesized acids are tabulated. 20 refs.

  8. The Demand for Higher Education in Turkey and Open Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cekerol, Kamil

    2012-01-01

    Failure to meet considerably high demand for higher education in Turkey has always been one of the most significant concerns of Turkish Higher Education System for many years. In this respect, Anadolu University Open Education Faculty has played a significant role in the attempts to overcome this problem in Turkey for the last three decades. In…

  9. Family Background, Financial Constraints and Higher Education Attendance in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wenli

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the 2004 China College Student Survey, conducted by the author, this paper finds that long-term factors such as scholastic ability and parental education are significantly correlated with higher education attendance. By contrast, short-term financial constraints are also significantly associated with higher education access, but to

  10. Higher habitual intake of dietary fat and carbohydrates are associated with lower leptin and higher ghrelin concentrations in overweight and obese postmenopausal women with elevated insulin levels

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Angela; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Xiao, Liren; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; McTiernan, Anne; Foster-Schubert, Karen E.

    2009-01-01

    A highly regulated homeostatic system governs body weight; however, it is possible that this system might be impaired by the sustained intake of highly palatable foods. Short-term feeding studies suggest that the appetite stimulating hormone ghrelin is suppressed less effectively by dietary fat intake, and diets high in sucrose decrease levels of the adipose hormone leptin. We hypothesized that higher habitual intake of dietary fat and carbohydrate (CHO) would be associated with elevated concentrations of circulating plasma ghrelin and lower circulating leptin in humans, a hormonal profile which could promote weight gain. To test our hypothesis, we examined the cross sectional associations of ghrelin and leptin with the habitual macronutrient intake of 165 healthy overweight and obese sedentary women and tested the modifying role of insulin in these associations. We observed a significant inverse association between leptin concentrations and percent calories from CHO independent of body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, age, and intra-abdominal fat (=?0.11 p=0.04). No significant associations were observed between ghrelin and macronutrients or their subtypes among the total cohort. Among women with insulin concentrations at or above the median, we found a statistically significant positive association between intake of saturated fat and ghrelin concentrations, as well as additional statistically significant associations between leptin concentrations and macronutrients not observed among the total cohort. Our results provide some evidence that diets higher in fat and CHO are associated with a hormonal profile (i.e. lower leptin and higher ghrelin concentrations), which could enhance weight gain; particularly among individuals with higher circulating insulin concentrations. PMID:19932865

  11. Significance of the effect of mineral alteration of nuclide migration

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Takashi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Isobe, Hiroshi; Sato, Tsutomu; Yanase, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Hideo

    1994-12-31

    In order to clarify the effect of mineral alteration on nuclide migration, we examined the processes, mechanisms, and kinetics of chlorite weathering, and the uranium concentrations in minerals and rocks at Koongarra, Australia. The observed concentrations of uranium in rocks were compared to those calculated. The sequence of chlorite weathering may be simply expressed as a chlorite {yields} vermiculite {yields} kaolinite conversion. These minerals occur as a function of depth, which corresponds well to uranium concentrations on the meter scale. Iron minerals, closely related to the uranium redistribution, are released during the weathering. The first-order kinetic model of the weathering process suggests that the weathering rate is not constant but time-dependent. The uranium concentrations are qualitatively proportional to the extent of the weathering, the weathered part having higher uranium concentration. Uranium mainly occurs with iron minerals, and sub micron sized saleeite, a uranyl phosphate, is one of the most probable uranyl phases associated with the iron minerals. The uranium fixation mechanisms are probably saleeite microcrystal coprecipitation and sorption to the iron minerals. Our model, which describes uranium concentrations in rocks as a function of time, shows that the transition zone (a vermiculite dominant area) plays an important role in the uranium migration. We have established that weathering of chlorite has affected the redistribution of uranium for more than one million years. The present study demonstrates the significance of mineral alteration when we estimate nuclide migration for geologic time.

  12. Change of Higher Education in Response to European Pressures: Conceptualization and Operationalization of Europeanization of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukasovic, Martina

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on change in higher education in response to environmental pressures, more specifically pressures coming from European integration initiatives with respect to higher education, e.g. the Bologna Process. Significant research attention has so far been focused on the supposed impact of European initiatives on higher education

  13. Change of Higher Education in Response to European Pressures: Conceptualization and Operationalization of Europeanization of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukasovic, Martina

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on change in higher education in response to environmental pressures, more specifically pressures coming from European integration initiatives with respect to higher education, e.g. the Bologna Process. Significant research attention has so far been focused on the supposed impact of European initiatives on higher education…

  14. Pupal melanization is associated with higher fitness in Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sisi; Wang, Mo; Li, Xianchun

    2015-01-01

    Melanism has long been thought to be a habitat adaptation with a fitness cost. Here we reported a homozygous melanic strain (SEM) of Spodoptera exigua (Hbner) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) established with black pupae spontaneously occurring within a typical laboratory population (SEW). The melanization is expressed globally, and only in the pupal stage. After pupation, the melanic SEM pupae gradually accumulate melanin to become completely black within 6?hours, whereas the wild-type SEW pupae gradually turn yellow-brown. The melanic SEM strain exhibits faster development in all life stages, heavier pupa weight, more mating time, higher fecundity, and accordingly, higher net reproductive rate and population trend index. While no reproductive isolation was observed between the SEM and SEW strains, the mating times per female of the reciprocal crosses and the SEM intracrosses were significantly higher than those of the SEW intracrosses. This represents a rare case of melanization that has fitness gains, rather than costs. Analysis of the life-history traits of this case and 14 previously reported cases of insect melanism indicate that none of melanization origin, stage, space and variation type determining whether melanism will cause fitness gain or cost. PMID:26039886

  15. CGRO Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    1997-01-01

    This final report presents an investigation of the CGRO (Compton Gamma Ray Observatory) observations. The investigation includes: Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission at High Latitudes; and Echoes in X-Ray Novae; A Localized Excess of Gamma-Radiation; Transient Hard X-Ray Emission from Globular Clusters; and A Search for Be/X-Ray Binaries in Hard X-Rays; Hard X-Ray Emission from X-Ray Bursters; X-Ray Transients in Star-Forming Regions; Gamma-ray Emission from Globular Clusters; Shock High Energy Emission from Be-Star/Pulsar System PSR 1259-63m; Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy of Nearby OB Associations; Long Term Hard X-Ray Monitoring of X-Ray Busters; and Periodic Hard X-Ray Emission from GRO J1849-03.

  16. Prognostic significance of Versican expression in gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shen, X-H; Lin, W-R; Xu, M-D; Qi, P; Dong, L; Zhang, Q-Y; Ni, S-J; Weng, W-W; Tan, C; Huang, D; Ma, Y-Q; Zhang, W; Sheng, W-Q; Wang, Y-Q; Du, X

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the leading malignancy in the digestive system. Versican is a ubiquitous component of the extracellular matrix and has a role in tumor progression. We aim to examine the expression of Versican in GC and the relationship between Versican levels and patient survival. We detected the mRNA expression of Versican in tumorous pairs and adjacent normal tissues (ANTs) of 78 GC patients by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The protein expression of Versican in 101 cases of matched GC and ANT, as well as in 27 intraepithelial neoplastic (IN) samples, was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. We analyzed the correlation between Versican levels and clinical outcomes. Finally, we performed CCK-8 cell counting assay and transwell assay in GC cell lines. Versican mRNA expression was significantly greater in tumor tissues (P<0.001) than in ANT. Versican was majorly expressed in the stroma surrounding tumor epithelium and minorly some areas of tumor epithelium. The Versican expression level was higher in GC than in ANT (P=0.004), but no significant difference was observed between ANT and IN (P=0.517). The Versican mRNA and protein levels were consistent in GC. High Versican mRNA and protein expression correlated with greater tumor invasion depth (P=0.030, P=0.027). Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that patients with high Versican mRNA expression exhibited poor disease-specific survival (P<0.001). In vitro experiments showed that Versican overexpression promoted cell proliferation and invasion. Our data indicate that Versican may be a novel prognostic indicator in GC and may be a potential target for clinical diagnosis. PMID:26619403

  17. Prognostic significance of Versican expression in gastric adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shen, X-H; Lin, W-R; Xu, M-D; Qi, P; Dong, L; Zhang, Q-Y; Ni, S-J; Weng, W-W; Tan, C; Huang, D; Ma, Y-Q; Zhang, W; Sheng, W-Q; Wang, Y-Q; Du, X

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the leading malignancy in the digestive system. Versican is a ubiquitous component of the extracellular matrix and has a role in tumor progression. We aim to examine the expression of Versican in GC and the relationship between Versican levels and patient survival. We detected the mRNA expression of Versican in tumorous pairs and adjacent normal tissues (ANTs) of 78 GC patients by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The protein expression of Versican in 101 cases of matched GC and ANT, as well as in 27 intraepithelial neoplastic (IN) samples, was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. We analyzed the correlation between Versican levels and clinical outcomes. Finally, we performed CCK-8 cell counting assay and transwell assay in GC cell lines. Versican mRNA expression was significantly greater in tumor tissues (P<0.001) than in ANT. Versican was majorly expressed in the stroma surrounding tumor epithelium and minorly some areas of tumor epithelium. The Versican expression level was higher in GC than in ANT (P=0.004), but no significant difference was observed between ANT and IN (P=0.517). The Versican mRNA and protein levels were consistent in GC. High Versican mRNA and protein expression correlated with greater tumor invasion depth (P=0.030, P=0.027). Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that patients with high Versican mRNA expression exhibited poor disease-specific survival (P<0.001). In vitro experiments showed that Versican overexpression promoted cell proliferation and invasion. Our data indicate that Versican may be a novel prognostic indicator in GC and may be a potential target for clinical diagnosis. PMID:26619403

  18. Prognostic Significance of Tissue Leptin Expression in Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Woon Kyung; Baek, Seong Kyu; Kim, Mi Kyung; Kwon, Sun Young

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Leptin is encoded by the ob gene and is involved in the control of food intake and energy expenditure. Recent studies have implicated leptin expression to be an indicator of tumor features and prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of tissue expression of leptin with the clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcomes in colorectal cancer patients. Methods Patients who had undergone a curative surgical resection for a colorectal adenocarcinoma from 2000 to 2004 were included in the study. Immunohistochemical analyses of leptin expression were performed, and clinicopathological parameters were evaluated. Results Clinical data and tumor tissues of 146 patients were evaluated. The mean age was 68.6 11.3 years, and 61.0% were men. Immunohistochemically, the rates of negative, weak, moderate, and strong leptin expression were 2.7% (4 of 146), 5.5% (8 of 146), 43.2% (63 of 146), and 48.6% (71 of 146), respectively. We compared the negative, weak, and moderate expression group (group A) with the strong expression group (group B). Leptin expression was inversely associated with nodal stage (P = 0.007) between the two groups. Leptin expression was not significantly associated with differentiation (P = 0.37), T stage (P = 0.16), and American Joint Committee on Cancer stage (P = 0.49), and no significant differences in the disease-free and the overall survivals (P = 0.78 and P = 0.61) were observed. Conclusion Results demonstrated an inverse association of nodal stage with high leptin expression. Higher leptin expression level might predict better oncologic outcome. However, further studies are warranted to identify the exact role of leptin expression in colorectal cancer. PMID:26817017

  19. Higher Education in Bulgaria. Monographs on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgieva, Patricia

    Like other volumes in this series, this monograph follows a pattern that makes comparisons across systems easier. The history of the Bulgarian higher education system is given, focusing on the period after 1989. The legal basis for education in Bulgaria is analyzed, as is the evolving system of governance. The participation of Bulgarian education

  20. Observational exobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarter, J.

    1986-01-01

    The Earth's atmosphere absorbs partially or completely many ultraviolet, infrared and submillimeter wavelengths. Atmospheric seeing distorts small images, imposing a limit on the achievable angular resolution at optical and infrared wavelengths that is much poorer than the intrinsic capability of telescope optics. The atomic and molecular species of the atmosphere confuse or prevent the spectral studies of similar compounds outside of the terrestrial environment. Telescopes placed in orbit above the atmosphere avoid these problems and enjoy a unique view of the universe. There are many complex questions pertaining to the origin and evolution of the biogenic elements and compounds and the existence of terrestrial types of planets elsewhere that can be only tackled from orbiting facilities. The detailed nature of the spacecraft, platforms and instrumentation most likely to be launched by the United States and Europe in the near future in an attempt to determine what observational programs would be tractable and which areas of interest to exobiology required hardware capabilities beyond those currently envisioned are considered.

  1. Novalike cataclysmic variables are significant radio emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppejans, Deanne L.; Körding, Elmar G.; Miller-Jones, James C. A.; Rupen, Michael P.; Knigge, Christian; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Groot, Paul J.

    2015-08-01

    Radio emission from non-magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs, accreting white dwarfs) could allow detailed studies of outflows and possibly accretion flows in these nearby, numerous and non-relativistic compact accretors. Up to now, however, very few CVs have been detected in the radio. We have conducted a Very Large Array pilot survey of four close and optically bright novalike CVs at 6 GHz, detecting three, and thereby doubling the number of radio detections of these systems. TT Ari, RW Sex and the old nova V603 Aql were detected in both of the epochs, while V1084 Her was not detected (to a 3σ upper limit of 7.8 μ {Jy} {beam}^{-1}). These observations clearly show that the sensitivity of previous surveys was typically too low to detect these objects and that non-magnetic CVs can indeed be significant radio emitters. The three detected sources show a range of properties, including flaring and variability on both short (˜200 s) and longer term (days) time-scales, as well as circular polarization levels of up to 100 per cent. The spectral indices range from steep to inverted; TT Ari shows a spectral turnover at ˜6.5 GHz, while the spectral index of V603 Aql flattened from α = 0.54 ± 0.05 to 0.16 ± 0.08 (Fν ∝ να) in the week between observations. This range of properties suggests that more than one emission process can be responsible for the radio emission in non-magnetic CVs. In this sample we find that individual systems are consistent with optically thick synchrotron emission, gyrosynchrotron emission or cyclotron maser emission.

  2. Vitronectin significantly influences prognosis in osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Kai; Lan, Rui-Long; Tao, Xuan; Wu, Chao-Yang; Hong, Hai-Feng; Lin, Jian-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Vitronectin (Vn), a multifunctional adhesive protein, is found in association with tumor progression, angiogenesis and metastasis in a variety of (human) tumors. But no studies concerning its correlation to osteosarcoma prognosis were found. Hence, we aimed to investigate the prognostic value of Vitronectin (Vn) in osteosarcoma. Here, we studied the expression of VN in the tumor tissues from 67 patients with osteosarcoma and 20 patients with osteochondroma using immunohistochemistry and estimated the effects of VN expression in osteosarcoma on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) using the Kaplan-Meier curve and COX proportional hazards regression model. Increased expression of VN in osteosarcoma tissue compared to no VN expression in osteochondroma tissue was shown in immunohistochemical assay. No associations were observed between VN expression and osteosarcoma patients’ gender (P = 0.675), age (P = 0.813), tumor size (P = 0.436), histologic subtype (P = 0.0.543) or tumor location (P = 0.456). Univariate survival analysis demonstrated significant correlations of high VN expression with shorter PFS (P = 0.002) and OS (P = 0.001); multivariate survival analysis revealed high VN expression as a significant independent prognostic indicator for shorter PFS (HR 2.788, P = 0.003) and OS (HR2.817, P = 0.003). In conclusion, the high expression of VN in tumor cells independently indicated poor clinical prognosis in patients with osteosarcoma, other than large tumor size and non-neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, suggesting that VN may serve as a potential therapeutic target in osteosarcoma. PMID:26617861

  3. Impact significance determination-Back to basics

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, David P.

    2007-11-15

    Impact significance determination is widely recognized as a vital and critical EIA activity. But impact significance related concepts are poorly understood. And the quality of approaches for impact significance determination in EIA practice remains highly variable. This article seeks to help establish a sound and practical conceptual foundation for formulating and evaluating impact significance determination approaches. It addresses the nature (what is impact significance?), the core characteristics (what are the major properties of significance determination?), the rationale (why are impact significance determinations necessary?), the procedural and substantive objectives (what do impact significance determinations seek to achieve?), and the process for making impact significance judgments (how is impact significance determination conducted?). By identifying fundamental attributes and key distinctions associated with impact significance determinations, a basis is provided for designing and evaluating impact significance determination procedures at both the regulatory and applied levels.

  4. Complex higher order derivative theories

    SciTech Connect

    Margalli, Carlos A.; Vergara, J. David

    2012-08-24

    In this work is considered a complex scalar field theory with higher order derivative terms and interactions. A procedure is developed to quantize consistently this system avoiding the presence of negative norm states. In order to achieve this goal the original real scalar high order field theory is extended to a complex space attaching a complex total derivative to the theory. Next, by imposing reality conditions the complex theory is mapped to a pair of interacting real scalar field theories without the presence of higher derivative terms.

  5. Clinical significance of laryngopharyngeal reflux in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Young Ho; Lee, Doh Young; Kim, Dong Wook; Park, Sung Soo; Heo, Eun Young; Chung, Hee Soon; Kim, Deog Kyeom

    2015-01-01

    Background Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is closely associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), the clinical significance of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is not fully understood in COPD. Methods Prospective cohorts were established among 118 patients with COPD from March 2013 to July 2014. Thirty-two age-matched and sex-matched normal controls, who had routine health check-ups during the study period, were included. Laryngopharyngeal reflux finding scores (RFS) and reflux symptom index (RSI) for LPR were subjected to association analysis with severity and acute exacerbation of COPD during the 1-year follow-up. Results The mean age of patients enrolled in the study was 69.28.8 years, with 93.2% being male. Positive RFS (>7) and RSI (>13) were observed in 51 (42.5%) and six patients (5.0%), respectively. RFS and RSI were significantly higher in patients with COPD than in normal, healthy patients (P<0.001). RFS was significantly correlated with residual volume/total lung capacity (%, P=0.048). Scores for diffuse laryngeal edema, erythema, and hyperemia were significantly higher in the high-risk group (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease classification C and D; P=0.025 and P=0.049, respectively), while RSI was significantly higher in the more symptomatic group (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease classification B and D; P=0.047). RSI and RFS were significant predictors for severe acute exacerbation of COPD (P=0.03 and P=0.047, respectively), while only RSI was associated with severity of dyspnea. Conclusion Laryngeal examination and evaluation of laryngeal reflux symptom could be a surrogate clinical indicator related to severe acute exacerbation of COPD. Further studies of LPR in COPD patients should be considered. PMID:26203240

  6. Significance of TNF-α and the Adhesion Molecules: L-Selectin and VCAM-1 in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kobawala, Toral P.; Trivedi, Trupti I.; Gajjar, Kinjal K.; Patel, Darshita H.; Patel, Girish H.; Ghosh, Nandita R.

    2016-01-01

    Circulating levels of TNF-α and the adhesion molecules L-Selectin and VCAM-1 as well as their expression in the primary tumors of patients with benign thyroid diseases and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) have been determined in this study. The serum levels of TNF-α, L-Selectin, and VCAM-1 were significantly higher in patients with both benign thyroid diseases and PTC as compared to the healthy individuals. However, the levels of only TNF-α and L-Selectin, and not VCAM-1, were significantly higher in patients with PTC in comparison to those observed in patients with benign thyroid diseases. Further the expression of TNF-α and L-Selectin was also significantly higher in the primary tumors of PTC patients, relative to the benign thyroid diseases. The expression of L-Selectin and VCAM-1 significantly correlated with aggressive tumor behavior. In PTC patients, the circulating TNF-α levels significantly positively correlated with the levels of L-Selectin, while TNF-α immunoreactivity was significantly associated with VCAM-1 expression. Serum TNF-α was found to be a significant prognosticator for OS in PTC patients. Overall the results signify that the interaction between TNF-α and the adhesion molecules may have a role in thyroid carcinogenesis and understanding this complexity may offer potential therapeutic targets for better management of thyroid cancer. PMID:26881177

  7. The diagnosis and clinical significance of polyautoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are chronic and heterogeneous conditions that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. The chronic nature of these diseases places a significant burden on the utilization of medical care, direct and indirect economic costs, and quality of life. ADs are observed in genetically susceptible individuals in whom their clinical expression is modified by permissive and protective environments occurring over time. These are complex traits, meaning that their inheritance does not follow a single-gene dominant or single-gene recessive Mendelian law, and thus that they are polygenic. ADs are often diagnosed according to classification criteria, however they share similar subphenotypes including signs and symptoms, non-specific autoantibodies and other immune changes, which are prone to taxonomic problems. Polyautoimmunity is defined as the presence of more than one AD in a single patient. When three or more ADs coexist, this condition is called multiple autoimmune syndrome (MAS), which represents the best example of polyautoimmunity as well as the effect of a single genotype on diverse autoimmune phenotypes. Its study will provide important clues to elucidate the common mechanisms of ADs (i.e., the autoimmune tautology). PMID:24424171

  8. Catholic Higher Education as Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This article uses the work of Anthony J. Gittins to reframe our understanding of Catholic higher education as mission. The broad adoption of this framework would require a common intellectual foundation, the possibility of which is dismissed by many. An accessible ontology is implied, however, in the existential analysis and theology of Karl

  9. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This brochure highlights some of the performance indicators used by Connecticut's public higher education institution to demonstrate accountability. This paper reports on the results of these goals: (1) Student Learning; (2) Learning in K-12; (3) Access and Affordability; (4) Economic Development; (5) Societal Needs; and (6) Resource Efficiency.

  10. Higher Education's Coming Leadership Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appadurai, Arjun

    2009-01-01

    The full impact of the current recession on American higher education remains uncertain, but drops in applications, faculty autonomy and job security, frozen salaries and hiring processes, and scaling back of new facilities and programs are already being seen. American colleges face tough times ahead for teaching, research, and capital projects…

  11. Rethinking Higher Education Capital Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, George A.

    1988-01-01

    Capital finance in institutions of higher education is analyzed in light of changes in the Tax Reform Act of 1986 affecting the ability of institutions to finance capital projects and the likelihood of changes in the government's view of tax-exempt financing. The options for colleges and universities are analyzed in the following areas: (1)…

  12. Higher Education and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry T.; Nordin, Virginia Davis

    The proliferation of laws, regulations, and judicial opinions affecting higher education and the nature of the impact of these laws on the academic community are examined. Designed for use by both students and practitioners, the book employs the "case method" design based on the belief that law cases furnish the best sources for study and review

  13. Faculty Retention in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soomro, Tariq Rahim; Ahmad, Reyaz

    2013-01-01

    Criteria for retaining or firing a highly qualified faculty in higher education in many cases are vague and unclear. This situation is neither a comfortable, nor a healthy, both for the faculty and the administration. Stakeholders have enough reason to blame each other in the absence of transparent mechanism. This paper proposes a transparent

  14. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews developments in 2000 in the law of disability discrimination as it relates to higher education, which falls into five categories: (1) definition of a qualified individual; (2) accommodations, access, undue burden, and fundamental alteration of programs; (3) intentional discrimination, harassment, and retaliation; (4) Eleventh Amendment

  15. Higher Education as Virtual Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins-Bell, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Whether or not it is an accurate portrayal, the old stereotype of higher education is the lecture hall, where students sit passively and take notes from a wise professor whose experience and knowledge can be shared only in the classroom. The professor's role is to dispense information, and the students' role is to receive it. However idealistic…

  16. Evaluating Teaching in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Bruce A.; Hashimoto, Masanori; Fleisher, Belton M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors develop an original measure of learning in higher education, based on grades in subsequent courses. Using this measure of learning, they show that student evaluations are positively related to current grades but unrelated to learning once current grades are controlled. They offer evidence that the weak relationship between learning and

  17. Project Management in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpert, Shannon Atkinson

    2011-01-01

    This study identified factors that influenced the use of project management in higher education research projects. Using a qualitative grounded theory approach that included in-depth interviews with assistant professors, the researcher examined how these individuals were using project management processes and tools and factors that enabled,…

  18. Project Management in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpert, Shannon Atkinson

    2011-01-01

    This study identified factors that influenced the use of project management in higher education research projects. Using a qualitative grounded theory approach that included in-depth interviews with assistant professors, the researcher examined how these individuals were using project management processes and tools and factors that enabled,

  19. Higher Education in American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G., Ed.; Berdahl, Robert O., Ed.

    The wide-ranging impact of social, political and economic forces on higher education and their specific consequences for faculty, students, and administrators is addressed within the broad context of autonomy and accountability. The book is organized around several themes. The first section discusses such basic issues as: the historical

  20. Supercomplexity in Higher Education Kinesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Betty A.; Estes, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This article employs Barnett's (2004) specifications of the aspects that describe the times of "supercomplexity." This term characterizes the challenges universities are facing regarding the expanding and competing forces that are affecting higher education, particularly in the West. Outside forces related to globalization, digital technologies,…

  1. Institutionalizing Diversity: Transforming Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae-Yates, Velda

    2009-01-01

    This case study examines plausible efforts to institutionalize diversity in a higher education setting so it becomes part of the strategic mission, and permeates the interactions, discussions, and operations. Review of literature, surveys, and in-depth interviews are conducted at a Massachusetts institution to gather information from faculty,

  2. 2011 Higher Education Sustainability Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Margo, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Looking through the lens of AASHE Bulletin stories in 2011, this year's review reveals an increased focus on higher education access, affordability, and success; more green building efforts than ever before; and growing campus-community engagement on food security, among many other achievements. Contributors include James Applegate (Lumina…

  3. Epistemological Development in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John T. E.

    2013-01-01

    Research has been carried out on students' epistemological development in higher education for at least 50 years. Researchers on both sides of the Atlantic have converged on accounts that describe students' epistemological development in terms of a sequence or hierarchy of qualitatively distinct stages or positions. The rich qualitative data

  4. Student Loans for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Charlene Wear

    2008-01-01

    Student loans are a rapidly growing $85 billion a year industry fueled by the substantial higher economic returns associated with a college education, increased demand from students and their parents, and grant and scholarship funds that have not kept pace with rising school tuition and fees. This report describes federally subsidized and…

  5. American Higher Education to 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, J. M. B.

    Projections concerning higher education from 1975 to 1985 are offered in relation to: job opportunities for persons with postsecondary education, postsecondary enrollment levels, the finances of postsecondary institutions, and job opportunities for Ph.D.s as full-time faculty members. It is suggested that the evidence points to difficulties of

  6. Cleanliness & Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jeffrey L.; Bigger, Alan S.

    2008-01-01

    In 1992 APPA published a seminal work titled "Custodial Staffing Guidelines for Educational Facilities." The work was based on a concept that was in the embryonic stage in 1986 and then grew in momentum through 1988 when the APPA Board of Directors commissioned a task force to address custodial staffing issues at institutions of higher education.

  7. Fiscal Issues in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigolot, Carol, Ed.

    Forty colleges and life insurance presidents met to discuss key historical and contemporary factors influencing fiscal management in higher education, including inflation, salaries, diminishing enrollment figures, energy costs, federal regulations and the increasing cost of research. Differences and similarities between business and academia were

  8. Higher Education for Our Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Dana D.; Collins, Natalia D.

    2010-01-01

    Public higher education is currently experiencing a decline in financial support from state governments, an acceleration of enrollment growth, and a shift from a transformational to a transactional student relationship. Private institutions are also struggling with increasing operational costs, and decreases in revenue from endowments and

  9. Disability Studies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    As a topic of study, disability is not new at institutions of higher education. Psychological and intellectual disabilities have been of interest in psychiatry and psychology at least since the late 1800s and early 1900s. The post-World War II era, in particular, witnessed the rapid expansion of academic programs in special education, vocational

  10. The Battle for Higher Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Tom; Rush, Mike; Gramer, Rod; Stewart, Roger

    2014-01-01

    To remain internationally competitive, states needed clearer, higher, and comparable K-12 learning standards aligned with college and career expectations, and as ambitious as those of the countries that lead the world in education. Idaho's old academic standards were not preparing students for postsecondary education, which contributed to the

  11. Danger: Work on Higher Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapointe, Archie E.

    The Assessment Policy Committee of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has directed the NAEP staff to focus the 1985-86 Assessments of Reading, Mathematics, Science, and Computer Competence on the higher-order skills. Each Learning Area Committee worked independently developing three-dimensional models. These defined what could…

  12. Best Practices in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hezel, Richard T.; Nanjiani, Nader

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the best practices for distance learning programs in higher education. Highlights include the planning stage, including institutional mission, business planning and financial issues, needs assessment, collaboration with other schools and businesses, and technology feasibility; and the implementation stages, including faculty support,

  13. History of Higher Education, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Robert L., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This annual compilation presents four papers on different aspects of the history of higher education in Europe and the United States. The first paper is "The Rights of Man and the Rites of Youth: Fraternity and Riot at Eighteenth Century Harvard" by Leon Jackson. This paper argues that the lines of division in the student body at…

  14. Sunshine Laws in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, James C.; Mclendon, Michael K.

    2005-01-01

    Every state in the union has "sunshine" laws that apply to public higher education, and the leaders of public institutions deal directly or indirectly with these laws almost daily. Sunshine statutes go to the very heart of institutional functioning, influencing presidential searches and selection, board deliberations, research and intellectual

  15. Supercomplexity in Higher Education Kinesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Betty A.; Estes, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This article employs Barnett's (2004) specifications of the aspects that describe the times of "supercomplexity." This term characterizes the challenges universities are facing regarding the expanding and competing forces that are affecting higher education, particularly in the West. Outside forces related to globalization, digital technologies,

  16. Gender Issues within Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Students' Union (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This handbook functions as a crown on the European Students' Union's work on gender equality over the past two years. Since the establishment of the Gender Equality Committee, a lot of work has been done to improve gender equality in higher education generally, and in student unions more particularly. This handbook gathers the experiences and

  17. History of Higher Education, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Robert L., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This annual compilation presents four papers on different aspects of the history of higher education in Europe and the United States. The first paper is "The Rights of Man and the Rites of Youth: Fraternity and Riot at Eighteenth Century Harvard" by Leon Jackson. This paper argues that the lines of division in the student body at

  18. Internal Audit in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Alison, Ed.; Brown, Sally, Ed.

    This book describes a range of examples of internal audit in higher education as part of a process of the exchange of good practice. The book recognizes well-established links with audit theory from other contexts and makes use of theoretical perspectives explored in the financial sector. The chapters are: (1) "Quality Audit Issues" (Sally Brown…

  19. Instructional Designers in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskal, Tami Marie

    2012-01-01

    Research about the preparation and competencies of instructional designers in higher education has not been addressed. The purpose of this multiple case study was to explore individuals in this context by focusing on their employment and academic backgrounds, as well as their responsibilities, qualifications, and expectations as reported by their…

  20. Stakeholder Relationships in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Juha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a stakeholder map to describe the most important stakeholders and the process of stakeholder relationships in higher education. According to the perspective of the balanced scorecard, the classification of stakeholders integrates stakeholders into strategic management. Stakeholder maps are essential in…

  1. Fiscal Issues in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigolot, Carol, Ed.

    Forty colleges and life insurance presidents met to discuss key historical and contemporary factors influencing fiscal management in higher education, including inflation, salaries, diminishing enrollment figures, energy costs, federal regulations and the increasing cost of research. Differences and similarities between business and academia were…

  2. American Higher Education in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    American higher education is in transition and if there ever was a "golden age" for faculty, it probably is behind us. The best historical data on the composition of faculty is collected annually by the American Mathematical Society. Between 1967 and 2009, the share of full-time faculty with PhDs remained constant at about 90 percent at doctoral

  3. Student Success in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Often, campus policies and public debate on student success has been too heavily focused on standardization of curriculum and assessment and on an unacceptably flawed graduation rate formula. The report, "Student Success in Higher Education," brings the voice of front-line faculty and staff into student success policymaking to ensure that ideas

  4. Stakeholder Relationships in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Juha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a stakeholder map to describe the most important stakeholders and the process of stakeholder relationships in higher education. According to the perspective of the balanced scorecard, the classification of stakeholders integrates stakeholders into strategic management. Stakeholder maps are essential in

  5. HOW EFFICIENT ARE HIGHER YIELDS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Higher yields bring the assumption of increased inputs. One of the major limitations in our knowledge base about high yields is understanding how current production systems respond to various inputs, e.g., light, water, nutrients. Using these measures of efficiency provides a uniform baseline to w...

  6. Transnational Higher Education in Uzbekistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sia, E. K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of transnational higher education (THE) in Uzbekistan. It includes a brief account of THE current and future market trends. The data, gathered from a literature search, show that the demand for THE (off-campus) is growing even faster than the demand for international (on-campus) programmes. This paper then provides

  7. Internal Audit in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Alison, Ed.; Brown, Sally, Ed.

    This book describes a range of examples of internal audit in higher education as part of a process of the exchange of good practice. The book recognizes well-established links with audit theory from other contexts and makes use of theoretical perspectives explored in the financial sector. The chapters are: (1) "Quality Audit Issues" (Sally Brown

  8. Sustainability: Higher Education's New Fundamentalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Rachelle; Wood, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    "Sustainability" is a key idea on college campuses in the United States and the rest of the Western world. To the unsuspecting, sustainability is just a new name for environmentalism. This report is the first in-depth critical study of the sustainability movement in higher education. The focus of this study is on how the sustainability…

  9. Digital Resilience in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Martin; Anderson, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Higher education institutions face a number of opportunities and challenges as the result of the digital revolution. The institutions perform a number of scholarship functions which can be affected by new technologies, and the desire is to retain these functions where appropriate, whilst the form they take may change. Much of the reaction to

  10. Electronic Assessment in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Roelien; Lautenbach, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    Assessment is an important cornerstone of education. A world trend in staying abreast of the latest developments in the field of information and communication technology (ICT) has led to an increased demand for electronic assessment in education circles. The critical need and responsibility for higher education to stay on par with the latest

  11. 2011 Higher Education Sustainability Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Margo, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Looking through the lens of AASHE Bulletin stories in 2011, this year's review reveals an increased focus on higher education access, affordability, and success; more green building efforts than ever before; and growing campus-community engagement on food security, among many other achievements. Contributors include James Applegate (Lumina

  12. Simulation Models in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrisseau, James J.

    1973-01-01

    This paper, adapted from a Society for College and University Planning conference, discusses cost simulation models in higher education. Emphasis is placed on the art of management, mini-models vs. maxi-models, the useful model, the reporting problem, anatomy of failure, information vs. action, and words of caution. (MJM)

  13. Higher Education: An International Dimension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitzinger, Uwe

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the future of society and argues education is the most vital form of social investment. Sees great value in overseas studies for all students. Defines requirements of an international dimension in higher education. Discusses the European Institute for Business Management (INSEAD) as a model for such programing. (NL)

  14. Mobile Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraga, Lucretia M.

    2012-01-01

    This mixed method research study investigated the beliefs of university faculty regarding mobile learning. As well as to determine if providing technology professional development to university faculty supports the increase of mobile learning opportunities in higher education. This study used the Beliefs About Mobile Learning Inventory (BAMLI) to

  15. Higher Ambitions Summit. Rapporteur Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The Sutton Trust and Pearson two-day summit on higher ambitions in apprenticeships and vocational education drew more than 120 leaders in education, training and employment, policy makers, academics, and researchers to London. Delegates heard from political leaders stressing the importance they attach to high-quality apprenticeships. Presentations…

  16. Materialists Threaten Higher Education's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    USA Today, 1979

    1979-01-01

    American higher education is confronted by materialists who threaten the future of liberal education, warns Sterling McMurrin, dean of the University of Utah Graduate School and former U.S. Commissioner of Education. A growing element in society mainly measures educational values in terms of practical skills and potential wages. (Author)

  17. Asian Americans and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Russell

    1980-01-01

    Problems that Asian Americans face in higher education include poor communications skills; stress resulting from family and community pressure to achieve; and universities' reluctance to hire Asian American staff, recruit and provide financial support for Asian American students, and provide relevant curriculum. Various programs have begun to

  18. Profile of Pacific Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Comparative data concerning institutions of higher education in the Pacific Islands are tabulated and summarized to aid in program planning, development, and implementation in that region. The jurisdictions covered are: American Samoa; Palau; the Northern Mariana Islands; Micronesia; Kosrae; Pohnpei; Truk; Yap; Guam; Hawaii; and the Marshall

  19. Digital Storytelling in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLellan, Hilary

    2007-01-01

    Digital storytelling is a promising instructional strategy as well as an emerging field of study in higher education. Courses on digital storytelling are offered in communications and creative writing programs at a number of universities. However, the potential for digital storytelling extends far beyond the fields of communication and media

  20. The Battle for Higher Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Tom; Rush, Mike; Gramer, Rod; Stewart, Roger

    2014-01-01

    To remain internationally competitive, states needed clearer, higher, and comparable K-12 learning standards aligned with college and career expectations, and as ambitious as those of the countries that lead the world in education. Idaho's old academic standards were not preparing students for postsecondary education, which contributed to the…

  1. Student Diversity and Higher Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudenstine, Neil L.

    This chapter traces the evolution of the concept of diversity in higher education, noting the real but slow progress in achieving greater inclusion. It highlights Harvard University's experiences, demonstrating why the goal of diversity remains so important to the actual quality and breadth of education for all students and why Harvard's existing

  2. Higher Education Profiles & Trends 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The statute [T.C.A. Section 49-7-202(c)(7)] requires the Tennessee Higher Education Commission to prepare a biennial report for the governor and the general assembly, "commenting upon major developments, trends, new policies, budgets and financial considerations which in the judgment of the commission will be useful to the governor and to the…

  3. Higher Ambitions Summit. Rapporteur Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The Sutton Trust and Pearson two-day summit on higher ambitions in apprenticeships and vocational education drew more than 120 leaders in education, training and employment, policy makers, academics, and researchers to London. Delegates heard from political leaders stressing the importance they attach to high-quality apprenticeships. Presentations

  4. Academic Rewards in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Darrel R., Ed.; Becker, William E., Jr., Ed.

    A colloquium series in higher education at the University of Minnesota in the fall and winter of 1977-1978 examined the influence of academic reward systems on faculty behavior and academic productivity. These essays are the collective results of their findings and recommendations. Essays include: "Perspectives from Psychology: Financial

  5. Women in Higher Education Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth Secretariat, London (England).

    This volume contains 11 papers on the under-representation of women in higher education management in Bahrain, Finland, France, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Peru, the United States and Canada, the South Pacific and the West Indies. All papers were written by women vice-chancellors, presidents and senior managers of universities in those…

  6. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews developments in 2000 in the law of disability discrimination as it relates to higher education, which falls into five categories: (1) definition of a qualified individual; (2) accommodations, access, undue burden, and fundamental alteration of programs; (3) intentional discrimination, harassment, and retaliation; (4) Eleventh Amendment…

  7. Higher Education's Coming Leadership Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appadurai, Arjun

    2009-01-01

    The full impact of the current recession on American higher education remains uncertain, but drops in applications, faculty autonomy and job security, frozen salaries and hiring processes, and scaling back of new facilities and programs are already being seen. American colleges face tough times ahead for teaching, research, and capital projects

  8. Today's Higher Education IT Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bichsel, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    The professionals making up the current higher education IT workforce have been asked to adjust to a culture of increased IT consumerization, more sourcing options, broader interest in IT's transformative potential, and decreased resources. Disruptions that include the bring-your-own-everything era, cloud computing, new management practices,…

  9. Local Knowledge and Wisdom in Higher Education. Issues in Higher Education Series, Volume 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teasdale, G. R., Ed.; Rhea, Zane Ma, Ed.

    Papers in this collection, derived from several sessions of the Commission for Indigenous Education, contain insightful accounts of the role of indigenous knowledge in higher education institutions across a variety of societies. The contributors examine the move to reaffirm the significance of local knowledge and wisdom and the resulting

  10. Futures for Higher Education: Analysing Trends. Higher Education: Meeting the Challenges of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Higher education in the United Kingdom is undergoing a period of significant change. This is being driven by a number of factors: political, cultural, economic, and technological. The trends are global in their scope, and far reaching in their impact. They affect every aspect of university provision, the environment in which universities operate,…

  11. The Challenges of ICT in Higher Education: The Mirage in ICT Use in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okeiga, N. I. Obi; Okumu-Bigambo, W.; Masibo, P. F. Lumala

    2010-01-01

    The significance of ICT's influence as the epitome of information cannot be overemphasized. Globalization is multi-directional and interactive in nature masks ICT, and much of its content as a Western orientation and control over communication. The paper sets to show that there are imbalances in the use of ICT in higher education as used in Africa

  12. Local Knowledge and Wisdom in Higher Education. Issues in Higher Education Series, Volume 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teasdale, G. R., Ed.; Rhea, Zane Ma, Ed.

    Papers in this collection, derived from several sessions of the Commission for Indigenous Education, contain insightful accounts of the role of indigenous knowledge in higher education institutions across a variety of societies. The contributors examine the move to reaffirm the significance of local knowledge and wisdom and the resulting…

  13. Higher Learning, Greater Good: The Private and Social Benefits of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Walter W.

    2009-01-01

    A college education has long been acknowledged as essential for both personal success and economic growth. But the measurable value of its nonmonetary benefits has until now been poorly understood. Walter W. McMahon, a leading education economist, carefully describes these benefits and suggests that higher education accrues significant social and

  14. The Challenges of ICT in Higher Education: The Mirage in ICT Use in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okeiga, N. I. Obi; Okumu-Bigambo, W.; Masibo, P. F. Lumala

    2010-01-01

    The significance of ICT's influence as the epitome of information cannot be overemphasized. Globalization is multi-directional and interactive in nature masks ICT, and much of its content as a Western orientation and control over communication. The paper sets to show that there are imbalances in the use of ICT in higher education as used in Africa…

  15. No Significant Difference in Service Learning Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGorry, Sue Y.

    2012-01-01

    Institutions of higher education are realizing the importance of service learning initiatives in developing awareness of students' civic responsibilities, leadership and management skills, and social responsibility. These skills and responsibilities are the foundation of program outcomes in accredited higher education business programs at

  16. Establishment of a rat model for osteoarthritis resulting from anterior cruciate ligament rupture and its significance

    PubMed Central

    OUYANG, XIAO; WANG, JIAN; HONG, SHI DONG; XIN, FENG; WANG, LIN; YANG, XIAO WEI; WANG, JING RONG; WANG, LI MING; WEI, BO; WANG, QING; CUI, WEI DING

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the establishment of a model concerned with osteoarthritis resulting from the anterior cruciate ligament rupture of rats and investigate the associated mechanism, as well as provide a theoretical basis for clinical treatment of the disease. Forty Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into two groups of 20 rats each and the anterior cruciate ligament transaction model and knee joint brake model were successfully established. Two rats in the anterior cruciate ligament transection group (10%) and 3 rats in the knee joint brake group (15.0%) died. The survival rate of the two groups was not statistically significant (?2<0.001, P=1.000). Swelling of the knee joint and synovium of rats in the two experimental groups was aggravated. The Mankin score was significantly higher in the anterior cruciate ligament transection group than that in the experimental group and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). By contrast, no significant difference was observed for osteoarthritis severity for the two experimental groups (P>0.05). Analysis of the subgroups showed that the proportion of the anterior cruciate ligament in the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the knee joint brake group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). By contrast, the difference was not statistically significant in the comparison of the medium and early proportion (P>0.05). The content of protein polysaccharide and II collagen fiber in the experimental group of the anterior cruciate ligament transection was lower than that of the knee joint brake group, and this difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Thus the mechanism of osteoarthritis may be associated with the decrease in the content of protein and II collagen fibers. PMID:26668592

  17. Higher order variability properties of accreting black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccarone, Thomas J.; Coppi, Paolo S.

    2002-11-01

    To better constrain the emission mechanism underlying the hard state of galactic black hole candidates, we use high-time resolution RXTE light curves for Cyg X-1 and GX 339-4 to compute two higher order variability statistics for these objects, the skewness and the Fourier bispectrum. Similar analyses, in particular using the skewness measure, have been attempted previously, but the photon collection area of RXTE allows us to present results of much greater statistical significance. The results for the two objects are qualitatively similar, reinforcing the idea that the same basic mechanisms are at work in both. We find a significantly positive skewness for variability time-scales less than ~1 s, and a negative skewness for time-scales from 1 to 5 s. Such a skewness pattern cannot be reproduced by the simplest shot variability models where individual shots have a fixed profile and intensity and are uncorrelated in time. Further evidence against simple-shot models comes from the significant detection of a non-zero bicoherence for Fourier periods ~0.1-10 s, implying that significant coupling does exist between variations on these time-scales. We discuss how current popular models for variability in black hole systems can be modified to match these observations. Using simulated light curves, we suggest that the most likely way to reproduce this observed behaviour is to have the variability come in groups of many shots, with the number of shots per unit time fitting an envelope function that has a rapid rise and a slow decay, while the individual shots have a slow rise and a rapid decay. Invoking a finite-energy reservoir that is depleted by each shot is a natural way of producing the required shot correlations.

  18. Investigating the Significance of VFR Visits to International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ruth; Shanka, Tekle; Pope, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Higher education, particularly in the area of international education has exhibited significant growth since the mid-1980s. Whilst it is beginning to attract research from both educational and tourism industry perspectives, the current body of knowledge regarding this market is still quite limited. This is particularly the case in the area of

  19. FINAL REPORT. DETERMINING SIGNIFICANT ENDPOINTS FOR ECOLOGICAL RISK ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research examines the ecological significance of radioactive and heavy metal contamination. Risks to non-human biota at higher levels of biological organization are assessed by using novel biological dosimeters in controlled, manipulative, dose/effects experiments, and by co...

  20. EDITORIAL: Deeper, broader, higher, better?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-07-01

    Honorary Editor The standard of educational achievement in England and Wales is frequently criticized, and it seems to be an axiom of government that schools and teachers need to be shaken up, kept on a tight rein, copiously inspected, shamed and blamed as required: in general, subjected to the good old approach of: ' Find out what Johnny is doing and tell him to stop.' About the only exception to this somewhat severe attitude is at A-level, where the standard is simply golden. Often, comparisons are made between the performance of, say, English children and that of their coevals in other countries, with different customs, systems, aims and languages. But there has been a recent comparison of standards at A-level with a non-A-level system of pre-university education, in an English-speaking country that both sends students to English universities and accepts theirs into its own, and is, indeed, represented in the UK government at well above the level expected from its ethnical weighting in the population. This semi-foreign country is Scotland. The conclusions of the study are interesting. Scotland has had its own educational system, with `traditional breadth', and managed to escape much of the centralized authoritarianism that we have been through south of the border. It is interesting to note that, while for the past dozen years or so the trend in A-level Physics entries has been downwards, there has been an increase in the take-up of Scottish `Highers'. Highers is a one-year course. Is its popularity due to its being easier than A-level? Scottish students keen enough to do more can move on to the Certificate of Sixth Year Studies, and will shortly be able to upgrade a Higher Level into an Advanced Higher Level. A comparability study [ Comparability Study of Scottish Qualifications and GCE Advanced Levels: Report on Physics January 1998 (free from SQA)] was carried out by the Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) with the aim (amongst others) of helping universities make a fair comparison between grades attained in A-Levels and Highers, CSYS and Advanced Highers. It was a fairly limited exercise, but a careful one, carried out by examiners and teachers rather than statisticians. They compared syllabuses, questions and candidates' answers. I quote: '... the two years of study for A-level perhaps means that there is a secure, consolidated grasp of the basics; more than the Higher candidate after one year. But there is no evidence of this from candidates' scripts.' Comparing syllabuses, the report noted a greater mathematical demand in Scotland: 'The rigour or depth of treatment is generally lower in the Syllabus Y [an A-level syllabus.] than in CSYS or Advanced Higher because many topics have a qualitative treatment rather than the mathematical treatment of CSYS and AH.' Adding a certain sting to its tail, the report concludes: `Many of the CSYS candidates will have achieved excellent grades at Higher... in four or five subjects before proceeding to CSYS. Scottish candidates tend to have qualifications in a broader range of subjects.' Perhaps this is why they get to be in charge everywhere.

  1. Insulating Blankets Withstand Higher Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Pitts, W. C.; Goldstein, H. E.; Sawko, P. M.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal-insulation blankets withstand repeated exposure to temperatures up to 2,000 degrees C. Thin, light in weight, and flexible. Developed to protect proposed aerospacecraft like Aeroassisted Space Transfer Vehicle and National Aerospace Plane, exposed to temperatures higher than those on surface of Space Shuttle during reentry into atmosphere of Earth. Also useful as furnace insulation and in firefighters' clothing. Sewing threads made of silicon carbide yarn essential components of blankets.

  2. Generalized Higher Degree Total Variation (HDTV) Regularization

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yue; Ongie, Greg; Ramani, Sathish; Jacob, Mathews

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a family of novel image regularization penalties called generalized higher degree total variation (HDTV). These penalties further extend our previously introduced HDTV penalties, which generalize the popular total variation (TV) penalty to incorporate higher degree image derivatives. We show that many of the proposed second degree extensions of TV are special cases or are closely approximated by a generalized HDTV penalty. Additionally, we propose a novel fast alternating minimization algorithm for solving image recovery problems with HDTV and generalized HDTV regularization. The new algorithm enjoys a ten-fold speed up compared to the iteratively reweighted majorize minimize algorithm proposed in a previous work. Numerical experiments on 3D magnetic resonance images and 3D microscopy images show that HDTV and generalized HDTV improve the image quality significantly compared with TV. PMID:24710832

  3. Subjective evaluation of higher dynamic range video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanhart, Philippe; Korshunov, Pavel; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2014-09-01

    High dynamic range (HDR) imaging is able to capture a wide range of luminance values, closer to what the human eye can perceive. However, for capture and display technologies, it is important to answer the question on the significance of higher dynamic range for user preference. This paper answers this question by investigating the added value of higher dynamic range via a rigorous set of subjective experiments using paired comparison methodology. Video sequences at four different peak luminance levels were displayed side-by-side on a Dolby Research HDR RGB backlight dual modulation display (aka `Pulsar'), which is capable of reliably displaying video content at 4000 cd=m2 peak luminance. The results of the subjective experiment demonstrate that the preference of an average viewer increases logarithmically with the increase in the maximum luminance level at which HDR content is displayed, with 4000 cd=m2 being the most attractive option.

  4. Multiple Comparisons of Observation Means--Are the Means Significantly Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahidy, T. Z.

    2009-01-01

    Several currently popular methods of ascertaining which treatment (population) means are different, via random samples obtained under each treatment, are briefly described and illustrated by evaluating catalyst performance in a chemical reactor.

  5. Significant results from using earth observation satellites for mineral and energy resource exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, William D.

    1981-01-01

    Launched in June 1978, Seasat operated for only 100 days, but successfully acquired much information over both sea and land. The collection of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery and radar altimetry was particularly important to geologists. Although there are difficulties in processing and distributing these data in a timely manner, initial evaluations indicate that the radar imagery supplements Landsat data by increasing the spectral range and offering a different look angle. The radar altimeter provides accurate profiles over narrow strips of land (1 km wide) and has demonstrated usefulness in measuring icecap surfaces (Greenland, Iceland, and Antarctica). The Salar of Uyuni in southern Bolivia served as a calibration site for the altimeter and has enabled investigators to develop a land-based smoothing algorithm that is believed to increase the accuracy of the system to 10 cm. Data from the altimeter are currently being used to measure subsidence resulting from ground water withdrawal in the Phoenix-Tucson area.

  6. Observations on the significance of 5-hydroxytryptamine in relation to the peristaltic reflex of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Boullin, D. J.

    1964-01-01

    Peristalsis of normal rats, and of rats fed either on a control diet or on a tryptophan-free diet (5-hydroxytryptamine-depleted rats), was studied in vitro and in situ to test the hypothesis that 5-hydroxytryptamine functions as a local hormone in the intestine and may be essential for initiation of the peristaltic reflex. A tryptophan-free diet depleted intestinal 5-hydroxytryptamine by a mean value of 90%; in some rats, the depletion appeared to be complete. Peristaltic responses, even of rats with complete depletion, were qualitatively similar to, and quantitatively not statistically different from those of normal or of pair-fed control animals whose intestinal mucosa contained high concentrations of 5-hydroxytryptamine. Intraluminal and serosal 5-hydroxytryptamine produced effects in 5-hydroxytryptamine-depleted rats similar to those in the normal and in the control animals. Furthermore, the maximal stimulatory effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine on peristaltic performance were not greater than spontaneous variations in performance in any group of animals, except with tryptophan-fed control rats, when the effects of the amine on peristalsis in situ were greater than spontaneous variation. It was therefore concluded that 5-hydroxytryptamine is not essential for peristalsis in the rat. PMID:14206265

  7. Amplification of the RARA gene in acute myeloid leukemia: significant finding or coincidental observation?

    PubMed

    Asleson, Anna D; Morgan, Vickie; Smith, Stephen; Velagaleti, Gopalrao V N

    2010-10-01

    Oncogene amplification resulting in aberrant expression, although common in solid tumors, is rare in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is mostly associated with amplification of MYC, RUNX1, and MLL genes. Retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA) and other target sequences at 17p11.2 often represent the amplicons expressed in breast cancer, not in AML. We present a unique case of a 59-year-old female with a history of breast cancer, now presenting with pancytopenia and bilateral infiltration with effusion in nodules of the right upper lobe of the lung. She was diagnosed with AML-M5. Chromosome analysis demonstrated a hypodiploid clone with complex numerical/structural abnormalities including 5q deletion, monosomy 7, as well as structurally rearranged chromosome 11 and several marker chromosomes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed amplification of RARA, loss of 7q, monosomy 7, loss of DEK (6p23), and additional copies of NUP214 (9q34) and MLL (11q23). Additional FISH studies showed both ERBB2 and TOP2A genes, which were co-amplified on one of the marker chromosomes. The follow-up bone marrow did not yield any metaphases, but FISH was normal for all probes, including RARA. After a short remission, the patient relapsed and showed clonal evolution. Additional case reports are necessary to assess whether RARA amplification in hematologic malignancies serves as an independent prognostic factor. PMID:20804918

  8. Finding significant climatic frequencies from satellite observations, a case study for Lake Victoria basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forootan, E.; Sharifi, M. A.; van Loon, E. E.

    2009-04-01

    Lake Victoria is the second largest freshwater lake in the world by area. A dramatic fall in the water level of the lake between 2002 and 2007 attracted a lot of worldwide attention. A recent study on the Lake Victoria basin using data from GRACE, TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, TRMM and as well as GLDAS data products suggested the possibility of the expansion of Naluabaale Dam in Uganda for the declining water level in the lake. However, Lake Victoria does not receive water from a large catchment area: most of its water comes from rain that falls directly over the huge surface of the lake. For this reason, climatic contributions cannot be ignored in the recent declining. This research aims at analyzing the contribution of rainfall over the lake area between the years 1998 and 2008. Least squares spectral analysis (LSSA) is applied on 400 cycles of TOPEX/Poseidon and 232 cycles of Jason1 altimeter data along with monthly TRMM data from 1998 to 2008 to reveal the specific frequencies. From our results, yearly, half-yearly and seasonal frequencies along with a long term frequency are clearly visible in the Lake Victoria level variations. Key words. Lake Victoria, Least Squares Spectral Analysis, TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason1, TRMM

  9. Taxonomically significant color reactions of Brevibacterium linens.

    PubMed

    GRECZ, N; DACK, G M

    1961-08-01

    Grecz, Nicholas (University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill.), and Gail M. Dack. Taxonomically significant color reactions of Brevibacterium linens. J. Bacteriol. 82:241-246. 1961.-Brevibacterium linens was observed to give characteristic color reactions with certain bases and acids. An intensive carmine-red color appeared immediately after addition of a drop of 5 n sodium hydroxide, 5 n potassium hydroxide, and saturated barium hydroxide. A light carmine-red was given by lithium hydroxide, and a light orange-red with a milky suspension of calcium hydroxide. No discernible color change was given with weak bases such as ammonium hydroxide, aniline, and pyridine.A characteristic salmon-pink color was produced when B. linens was rubbed with a glass rod in a drop of glacial acetic acid or filter paper; a brick-red color was produced with aniline under these conditions. With syrupy phosphoric acid a green color appeared within 3 to 4 min which turned blue after approximately 3 hr. The blue color was stable for several days. On the basis of these color reactions, B. linens could be distinguished from other microorganisms possessing yellow-orange pigmentation, i.e., Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus flavus, Micrococcus citreus, Mycobacterium phlei, Sarcina lutea. Therefore, these color changes may be used for the identification of B. linens. Original isolates of B. linens from cheese were tested by these spot reactions and all presumptive identifications could be subsequently confirmed by conventional methods. Blue and green colors appeared in all yellow-orange chromogens treated with sulfuric, perchloric, and hydrochloric acids and hence these colors were not specific for B. linens. PMID:13708147

  10. Higher-spin theory and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaberdiel, Matthias; Vasiliev, Mikhail

    2013-05-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical reviews recent developments in higher-spin gauge theories and their applications to holographic dualities. The analysis of higher-spin theories has a very long history, but it took until the mid 1980s for the first consistent higher-spin interactions to be constructed by Bengtsson, Bengtsson and Brink [1] and Berends, Burgers and van Dam [2]. Somewhat later it was shown by Fradkin and Vasiliev [3] that consistent higher-spin gauge theories that involve gravity should necessarily be defined on a curved background. The first consistent interacting higher-spin theories were then formulated at the classical level by Vasiliev in the early 1990s [4]. These higher-spin theories involve an infinite number of massless higher-spin fields that support higher-spin gauge symmetries, and indeed, are largely characterized by this underlying gauge symmetry. The simplest examples are provided by higher-spin theories on (anti)-de Sitter spaces, and in a sense, this anticipated the AdS/CFT correspondence. Indeed, in the tensionless limit of string theory, the massive excitations of string theory become massless, and hence define higher-spin gauge fields. On the other hand, from the dual gauge theory perspective, this is the limit in which the field theory becomes free, and therefore has many conserved higher-spin currents. By the usual AdS/CFT dictionary, these are dual to the higher-spin gauge symmetries of the bulk description. Following this line of argument, Sundborg [5] and Witten [6] suggested in 2001 that a duality relating a higher-spin theory on AdSd to a weakly coupled (d - 1)-dimensional conformal field theory should exist. A concrete proposal was then made by Klebanov and Polyakov [7] who conjectured that the simplest version of a higher-spin gauge theory on AdS4 should be dual to the 3d O(N ) vector model. Recently, much support for this conjecture was obtained by Giombi and Yin [8], and in turn, this has triggered a significant amount of activity in this general area. Among other things, the constraints that are implied by the higher-spin symmetries were analysed (see the paper by Maldacena and Zhiboedov in this issue [9]), and a fairly concrete proposal for how higher-spin theories are related to string theory was made (see the paper by Chang, Minwalla, Sharma and Yin in this issue [10]). Furthermore, a lower dimensional version of the conjecture was put forward by Gaberdiel and Gopakumar [11] that was subsequently also checked in some detail. These dualities hold the promise of offering insights into the inner workings of the AdS/CFT correspondence since they are complex enough to capture the essence of the duality, while at the same time being sufficiently simple in order to allow for a detailed analysis. Moreover, the methods specifically developed in higher-spin theory may be useful for understanding a general mechanism underlying holography, both in higher-spin models and beyond (see the paper by Vasiliev in this issue [12]). Another fascinating aspect of these higher-spin theories lies in the fact that the higher-spin symmetries mix generically fields of different spin, and in particular, the spin-2 metric and higher-spin excitations are related to one another by gauge transformations. As a result, higher-spin theories require a modification of the standard framework of Riemannian geometry since the usual diffeomorphism-invariant tensors are not gauge invariant any longer. In particular, higher-spin theories may therefore open the way towards understanding fundamental concepts of space-time geometry; for example, they may well have key lessons in store for how string theory resolves space-time singularities. In this issue we have collected together a number of review papers, summarizing the aforementioned recent developments, as well as research papers indicating current directions of interest in the study of higher-spin gauge theories. We hope that it will be useful, both for beginners interested in an introduction to the subject, and for experts already working in the field. Three of the reviews deal with the holographic dualities mentioned above: the paper by Giombi and Yin [13] reviews the situation for AdS4/CFT3, while the review by Gaberdiel and Gopakumar [14] deals with the lower-dimensional AdS3/CFT2 version. In addition, the review by Jevicki, Jin and Ye [15] explains a possible way of proving the duality using collective fields. There are two reviews on the construction of black holes in higher-spin gauge theories: the review by Iazeolla and Sundell [16] reviews the situation for 4d higher-spin theories, while the review by Ammon, Gutperle, Kraus and Perlmutter [17] deals with the three-dimensional case for which much progress has been made recently. Finally, the review of Sagnotti [18] explains various general aspects of higher-spin gauge theories. The research papers deal with different aspects of current developments; some are concerned with the holographic duality, while others develop the general theory of higher-spin fields. References [1] Bengtsson A K H, Bengtsson I and Brink L 1983 Cubic interaction terms for arbitrarily extended supermultiplets Nucl. Phys. B 227 41 [2] Berends F A, Burgers G J H Van Dam H 1984 On spin three self interactions Z. Phys. C 24 247 [3] Fradkin E S Vasiliev M A 1987 On the gravitational interaction of massless higher-spin fields Phys. Lett. B 189 89 [4] Vasiliev M A 1992 More on equations of motion for interacting massless fields of all spins in 3+1 dimensions Phys. Lett. B 285 225 [5] Sundborg B 2001 Stringy gravity, interacting tensionless strings and massless higher spins Nucl. Phys. Proc. Suppl. 102 113 (arXiv:hep-th/0103247) [6] Witten E 2001 Spacetime reconstruction Talk at the John Schwarz 60th Birthday Symp. (http://theory.caltech.edu/jhs60/witten/1.html) [7] Klebanov I R Polyakov A M 2002 AdS dual of the critical O (N ) vector model Phys. Lett. B 550 213 (arXiv:hep-th/0210114) [8] Giombi S Yin X 2010 Higher spin gauge theory and holography: the three-point functions J. High Energy Phys. JHEP09(2010)115 (arXiv:0912.3462 [hep-th]) [9] Maldacena J Zhiboedov A 2013 Constraining conformal field theories with a higher spin symmetry J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 46 214011 (arXiv:1204.3882 [hep-th]) [10] Chang C-M, Minwalla A, Sharma T Yin X 2013 ABJ triality: from higher spin fields to strings J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 46 214009 (arXiv:1207.4485 [hep-th]) [11] Gaberdiel M R Gopakumar R 2011 An AdS3 dual for minimal model CFTs Phys. Rev. D 83 066007 (arXiv:1011.2986 [hep-th]) [12] Vasiliev M A 2013 Holography, unfolding and higher-spin theory J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 46 214013 (arXiv:1203.5554 [hep-th]) [13] Giombi S Yin X 2013 The higher spin/vector model duality J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 46 214003 (arXiv:1208.4036 [hep-th]) [14] Gaberdiel M R Gopakumar R 2013 Minimal model holography J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 46 214002 (arXiv:1207.6697 [hep-th]) [15] Jevicki A, Jin K Ye Q 2013 Perturbative and non-perturbative aspects in vector model/higher spin duality J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 46 214005 (arXiv:1212.5215 [hep-th]) [16] Iazeolla C Sundell P 2013 Biaxially symmetric solutions to 4D higher-spin gravity J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 46 214004 (arXiv:1208.4077 [hep-th]) [17] Ammon M, Gutperle M, Kraus P Perlmutter E 2013 Black holes in three dimensional higher spin gravity: a review J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 46 214001 (arXiv:1208.5182 [hep-th]) [18] Sagnotti A 2013 Notes on strings and higher spins J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 46 214006 (arXiv:1112.4285 [hep-th])

  11. Clinicopathological significance of c-KIT mutation in gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lin; Zou, Lei; Zhao, Wenhua; Wang, Yansen; Liu, Bo; Yao, Hongliang; Yu, Haihua

    2015-01-01

    Many types of KIT mutations have been observed in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), but their prognostic and predictive significance are still unclear. A meta-analysis and literature review were conducted to estimate the contribution of KIT mutations in prognostic parameters and clinic-pathological significance of GISTs. A total of 18 relevant articles from PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science databases were included in this study. The frequency of KIT mutation was significantly increased in the GIST patients with higher mitosis (≥5/50 high-power fields (HPFs) and larger size (≥5 cm) of tumors than in those with lower MI (≤5/50HPFs) and smaller size (≤5 cm) of GISTs respectively. The rate of KIT mutation was not significantly changed between GISTs in stomachs and in small intestines. KIT mutational status has prognostic significance for patients’ outcome. GIST patients with KIT exon 9 mutations have higher risk of progression than those with exon 11 mutations. 5 year relapse-free survival (RFS) rate was significantly higher in patients with KIT exon 11 deletion than in those with other type of KIT exon 11 mutations. The deletion involving KIT exon 11, particularly codons 557–558, is a valuable predictor of prognosis for patients with GISTs. PMID:26349547

  12. 40 CFR 1508.27 - Significantly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for future actions with significant effects or represents a decision in principle about a future... Register of Historic Places or may cause loss or destruction of significant scientific, cultural,...

  13. 40 CFR 1508.27 - Significantly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for future actions with significant effects or represents a decision in principle about a future... Register of Historic Places or may cause loss or destruction of significant scientific, cultural,...

  14. Sources of Inspiration: The Role of Significant Persons in Young People's Choice of Science in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjaastad, Jorgen

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this article were to investigate to which extent and in what ways persons influence students' choice of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in tertiary education, and to assess the suitability of an analytical framework for describing this influence. In total, 5,007 Norwegian STEM students completed a

  15. Sources of Inspiration: The Role of Significant Persons in Young People's Choice of Science in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjaastad, Jorgen

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this article were to investigate to which extent and in what ways persons influence students' choice of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in tertiary education, and to assess the suitability of an analytical framework for describing this influence. In total, 5,007 Norwegian STEM students completed a…

  16. 23 CFR 630.1010 - Significant projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Significant projects. 630.1010 Section 630.1010 Highways... PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Work Zone Safety and Mobility § 630.1010 Significant projects. (a) A significant project is one that, alone or in combination with other concurrent projects nearby is anticipated to...

  17. 23 CFR 630.1010 - Significant projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Significant projects. 630.1010 Section 630.1010 Highways... PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Work Zone Safety and Mobility § 630.1010 Significant projects. (a) A significant project is one that, alone or in combination with other concurrent projects nearby is anticipated to...

  18. 23 CFR 630.1010 - Significant projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Significant projects. 630.1010 Section 630.1010 Highways... PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Work Zone Safety and Mobility § 630.1010 Significant projects. (a) A significant project is one that, alone or in combination with other concurrent projects nearby is anticipated to...

  19. Creating Significant Learning Experiences across Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Laura E.; Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Nicoll-Senft, Joan M.; Tessier, Jack T.; Watson, Cheryl L.; Wood, Rebecca M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning to redesign courses and assess student learning. Significant improvements were found across the semester for students in the six courses, but there were differences in which taxa showed improvement in each course. The meta-analysis showed significant, positive

  20. Regions of Significance in Multiple Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takane, Yoshio; Cramer, Elliott M.

    1975-01-01

    This paper considers the case of two predictor variables. Figures are obtained which show the regions of significance of joint regression coefficients, regression coefficients considered separately, and the multiple correlation. The intersection of these regions of significance and non-significance illustrates how the various apparent…