Sample records for observed significantly higher

  1. Magnitude and Significance of the Higher-Order Reduced Density

    E-print Network

    Herbert, John

    Magnitude and Significance of the Higher-Order Reduced Density Matrix Cumulants JOHN M. HERBERT minimal and extended basis sets, we examine the absolute magnitude and energetic significance of various, the 3-RDM cumulant (3-RDMC). Minimal basis sets are shown to suppress the magnitude of the 3-RDMC

  2. Reported Significant Observation (RSO) studies. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Eicher, R.W.

    1992-12-01

    The Reported Significant Observation (RSO) study used in the field of safety is an information-gathering technique where employee-participants describe situations they have personally witnessed involving good and bad practices and safe and unsafe conditions. This information is useful in the risk assessment process because it focuses on hazards and thereby facilitates their elimination. However, RSO cannot be the only component in a risk assessment program. Used by the Air Force in their aviation psychology program and further developed by John C. Flanagan, RSO is more commonly known as the ``Critical Incident Technique.`` However, the words ``Critical`` and ``Incident`` had other connotations in nuclear safety, prompting early users within the Aerojet Nuclear Company to coin the more fitting title of ``Reported Significant Observations.`` The technique spread slowly in the safety field primarily because the majority of users were researchers interested in after-the-fact data, with application to everyday problems and behavioral factors. RSO was formally recognized as a significant hazard reduction tool during the development of the Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) program for the US Atomic Energy Commission. The Department of Energy (DOE) has, in turn, adopted MORT for its system safety program, and this has resulted in RSO being a modern and viable technique for DOE contractor safety programs.

  3. Beginning schizophrenia observed by significant others.

    PubMed

    Hambrecht, M; Häfner, H; Löffler, W

    1994-04-01

    As a part of the ABC Schizophrenia Study, a large-scale investigation of the influences of age and gender on the onset and course of schizophrenia, this study compared retrospective reports about emerging symptomatology during the early course of schizophrenia given by patients and their significant others in a representative first admission sample. The Interview for the Retrospective Assessment of the Onset of Schizophrenia (IRAOS), a comprehensive interview assessing early signs and symptoms, revealed that, in most cases, patients as well as informants perceived negative, depressive, and unspecific symptoms as early signs of the disorder. Pairwise agreement about the presence of certain symptoms was good for a limited number of signs, e.g., substance abuse, suicidal behavior, parental and marital role deficits, and paranoid delusions. These items mainly concern abnormal behaviors that can be observed easily. In contrast, there was little agreement between reports about perceptual and formal thought disorder, i.e., subjective internal phenomena. The results supported a continuity model for the observability of symptoms in schizophrenia. PMID:8009319

  4. Earth observations and photography experiment: Summary of significant results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Baz, F.

    1978-01-01

    Observation and photographic data from the Apollo Soyuz Test Project are analyzed. The discussion is structured according to the fields of investigation including: geology, desert studies, oceanography, hydrology, and meteorology. The data were obtained by: (1) visual observations of selected Earth features, (2) hand-held camera photography to document observations, and (3) stereo mapping photography of areas of significant scientific interest.

  5. 'Carriers of V-LH among 1593 Baltic men have significantly higher serum LH'.

    PubMed

    Punab, A M; Grigorova, M; Punab, M; Adler, M; Kuura, T; Poolamets, O; Vihljajev, V; Žilaitien?, B; Erenpreiss, J; Matulevi?ius, V; Laan, M

    2015-05-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a pituitary heterodimeric glycoprotein essential in male and female reproduction. Its functional polymorphic variant (V-LH) is determined by two missense mutations (rs1800447, A/G, Trp8Arg; rs34349826, A/G, Ile15Thr) in the LH ?-subunit encoding gene (LHB; 19q13.3; 1111 bp; 3 exons). Among women, V-LH has been associated with higher circulating LH and reduced fertility, but the knowledge of its effect on male reproductive parameters has been inconclusive. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of V-LH on hormonal, seminal and testicular parameters in the Baltic young men cohort (n = 986; age: 20.1 ± 2.1 years) and Estonian idiopathic infertility patients (n = 607; 35.1 ± 5.9 years). V-LH was detected by genotyping of the underlying DNA polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP combined with resequencing of a random subset of subjects. Genetic associations were tested using linear regression under additive model and results were combined in meta-analysis. No significant difference was detected between young men and infertility patients for the V-LH allele frequency (11.0 vs. 9.3%, respectively). V-LH was associated with higher serum LH in both, the young men cohort (p = 0.022, allelic effect = 0.26 IU/L) and the idiopathic infertility group (p = 0.008, effect = 0.59 IU/L). In meta-analysis, the statistical significance was enhanced (p = 0.0007, resistant to Bonferroni correction for multiple testing; effect = 0.33 IU/L). The detected significant association of V-LH with increased serum LH remained unchanged after additional adjustment for the SNPs previously demonstrated to affect LH levels (FSHB -211G/T, FSHR Asn680Ser, FSHR -29A/G). Additionally, a suggestive trend for association with reduced testicular volume was observed among young men, and with lower serum FSH among infertility patients. The V-LH carrier status did not affect sperm parameters and other circulating reproductive hormones. For the first time, we show a conclusive contribution of V-LH to the natural variance in male serum LH levels. Its downstream clinical consequences are still to be learned. PMID:25820123

  6. Prospects for X-ray observations of cosmological significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pounds, K. A.

    Inferences drawn on the limits of matter distributions in the universe from observations of the background X ray isotropy are discussed. The data were gathered by use of the Einstein Observatory and previous sky surveys, focusing on the 2-10 keV bands. It has been inferred that a significant portion of the cosmic X rays originate from an evolving population of high redshift QSO's. The X ray data have allowed detection of density inhomogeneities on scale lengths from 100-1000 Mpc. Galactic assymmetries in X ray radiation are outlined, using readings from the Uhuru, Ariel-5, and Einstein spacecraft. The limitations on the sensitivity of the instruments are noted to constrain the identification of discrete sources as contributers to the X ray background.

  7. The Inception of the Meaning and Significance of Endowment in American Higher Education, 1890-1930

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Bruce A.; Johnson, Benjamin Ashby

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Endowments of institutions of higher education in the United States have attracted widespread attention in recent decades due to their meteoric rise in value and their precipitous decline during the recent recession. But there has been little research on the beginnings of the significant interest in and importance of…

  8. Significance of laboratory observations for modeling wind-driven seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badulin, S. I.; Caulliez, G.

    2009-04-01

    In what sense can the laboratory wind-wave observations help in investigating and modeling wave growth in wind-driven seas? This old outstanding question is addressed by an extensive laboratory study in the large IRPHE wind-wave tank (Caulliez, 2009). We show that for a wide range of parameters the fetch-limited wind wave growth observed in the facility follows fairly well the wind-wave growth law predicted by weak turbulence model (Badulin et al., 2007). The wind speeds were ranging from 3.5 to 16 m/s and wave ages cp?U10 were smaller than 0.15 (cp being the phase speed of spectral peak waves, and U10 the equivalent 10 m level wind speed). The recent model of wind wave evolution proposed by Badulin et al. (2007) assumes the dominance of nonlinear four-wave resonant interactions over the direct wave input from wind and wave dissipation. The model predicts that the total wave energy is rigidly linked to the total wave energy flux (i.e. the energy growth rate dE?dt) by the relationship: E ?4 ( ?3dE ?dt)1?3 --2p= ? -p--2--- g g (1) where the wave energy E is defined in a "wind-wave study sense" as the water surface elevation variance density â?¨Î·2â?©, ?p is the wave spectral peak frequency, and ? is a self-similarity parameter. Experimental data reveal that the spectral peak wave energy observed in the wind-wave tank at large fetches evolves in accordance with the asymptotic weakly turbulent theory in a wide range of wind speeds. Furthermore, the found value of the self-similarity parameter ? ( ? â?? 0.5) matches very well the estimates from more than 20 data set collected over the last 50 years of wind-wave studies at sea. It is then shown that the characteristic parameters of the laboratory wave field development follow remarkably well the 3?2 Toba's law H ~ T3?2, H and T being the significant wave height and period. In a definite range of fetches and wind speeds, its dependency on friction velocity u* is also described by an expression similar to those proposed by Toba (1972) on local energy balance and dimensional considerations, i.e. 1?2 3?2 H = B(gu*) T (2) g being the gravity acceleration and B a constant. From a physical viewpoint, this heuristic law in u* infers not only the total wave energy flux dE?dt in Eq.(1) to be constant as pointed out by Badulin et al. (2007), but also the ratio of the form drag due to dominant waves to the total surface drag to be constant. Finally, the validity of the key assumption of the model, i.e. the dominance of nonlinear transfer over the net wave energy flux, is analyzed and domain of its applicability for laboratory observations is delimited. The weak turbulence model thus finds a new corroboration in wind-wave tank experiments and may bring a new vision for data analysis in the near future. References 1. S. I. Badulin, A. V. Babanin, D. Resio, and V. Zakharov. Weakly turbulent laws of wind-wave growth. J. Fluid Mech., 591:339-378, 2007. 2. G. Caulliez. Characteristic slopes of short wind waves and dependence on scale and wind speed. to appear, 2009. 3. Y. Toba. Local balance in the air-sea boundary processes. I. On the growth process of wind waves. J. Oceanogr. Soc. Japan, 28:109-121, 1972.

  9. Kappa statistics in the assessment of observer variation: the significance of multiple observers classifying ankle fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niels O. B. Thomsen; Lars H. Olsen; Steen T. Nielsen

    2002-01-01

    .   Studies using kappa statistics have been conducted with a varied but limited number of observers. The aim of this study was\\u000a to evaluate the significance of multiple observers on kappa as a measure of observer variation. One hundred orthopedic specialists\\u000a were asked to assess a random sample of ten sets of standard radiographs of 94 consecutive patients with ankle

  10. The significance of observed rotational magnetic hysteresis in lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, P.

    1974-01-01

    Rotational magnetic hysteresis curves for lunar soils 10084, 12070, and 14259, and rock 14053 have been published. There is no adequate explanation to date for the observed large hysteresis at high fields. Lunar rock magnetism researchers consider fine particle iron to be the primary source of stable magnetic remanence in lunar samples. Iron has cubic anisotropy with added shape anisotropy for extreme particle shapes. The observed high-field hysteresis must have its source in uniaxial or unidirectional anisotropy. This implies the existence of minerals with uniaxial anisotropy or exchange-coupled spin states. Therefore, the source of this observed high-field hysteresis must be identified and understood before serious paleointensity studies are made. It is probable that the exchange-coupled spin states and/or the source of uniaxial anisotropy responsible for the high-field hysteresis might be influenced by the lunar surface diurnal temperature cycling. The possible sources of high-field hysteresis in lunar samples are presented and considered.

  11. Risk of abnormal triple screen for Down syndrome is significantly higher in patients with female fetuses.

    PubMed

    Spong, C Y; Ghidini, A; Stanley-Christian, H; Meck, J M; Seydel, F D; Pezzullo, J C

    1999-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that mid-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels are significantly higher and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels significantly lower in women with male compared with female fetuses. We have evaluated whether triple-screen criteria are more likely to identify women with female fetuses as at risk for Down syndrome. From the Georgetown University genetics database we obtained the absolute values and corresponding multiples of the median (MoM) for AFP, hCG and unconjugated oestriol (uE3) in singleton gestations for the period database November 1992 July 1996. A Down syndrome risk of 1/270 or greater at mid-trimester was considered as high risk. A total of 977 patients with triple screen and outcome information were identified, including 502 female and 475 male fetuses. Patients with female fetuses were significantly more likely to have lower serum AFP (p=0.003) and a positive triple screen for Down syndrome (72 (14 per cent) versus 45 (9 per cent), p<0.02) than those with male fetuses. The gestational age at triple screen, maternal serum hCG and uE3, race and diabetes were not significantly different between the two groups. Since Down syndrome is less common in female than male fetuses, and the rates of female and male Down syndrome fetuses detected by triple screen and subsequent amniocentesis are not significantly different, the excess of positive mid-trimester maternal serum triple screen in women with female fetuses is likely due to false-positive results. PMID:10327139

  12. Docosahexaenoic acid content is significantly higher in ghrita prepared by traditional Ayurvedic method

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Kalpana S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ghee (clarified butter) also known as ghrita, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda. Ghee is mostly prepared by traditional method in Indian households or by direct cream method at industry level. Ayurvedic classics mention that ghrita made from cow milk is superior. However, there is no scientific comparison available on preparation methods and essential fatty acids content of ghrita. Objective: To investigate fatty acid composition of ghrita prepared by traditional/Ayurvedic method and commercial method (direct cream method). Materials and Methods: Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) extracted from ghrita samples were analysed on Gas Chromatography (GC) Shimadzu B using capillary column BPX70 (0.32 mm*60 m, ID of 0.25 mm). The fatty acids in the samples were identified by comparing peaks with the external standard 68A (Nu-Chek-Prep, Inc.USA). Significant differences between the experimental groups were assessed by analysis of variance. Results: Distribution of fatty acids was compared in ghrita samples prepared by traditional method and direct cream method which is commercially used. Saturated fatty acids were predominant in both the groups. Mono unsaturated fatty acids and poly unsaturated fatty acids were in the range of 17-18% and 3-6% respectively. DHA content was significantly higher in ghee prepared by traditional method using curd starter fermentation. Conclusion: The findings suggested that ghrita prepared by traditional ayurvedic methods contains higher amount of DHA; Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which is a major component of retinal and brain tissues and remains important in prevention of various diseases. PMID:24948858

  13. Technology challenges for Earth observation from higher orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cwik, Thomas; Boncyk, Wayne; Anderson, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Advances in Earth observing technologies are required to fulfill NASA's long-term vision for Earth system prediction in the years 2010 to 2020. The observing system during these years will include satellites in a variety of orbits including smaller, smarter ones in low Earth orbit, large aperture sensors in medium Earth orbit and geostationary orbit to provide enhanced temporal coverage and perhaps sentinel satellites at Lagrange points L1 and L2 to provide synoptic views of the entire globe. These higher vistas can meet pending science challenges in a variety of areas directly relevant to NASA"s plans. They include, among others, meeting high temporal and spatial resolutions to observe rapidly evolving chemical events in the global atmosphere, meeting the requirements of increased spatial and temporal sensing of varying precipitation events over portions of the globe, and the increased temporal coverage necessary to see clear skies over coastal regions for coastal process monitoring. A set of technology tradeoffs and needs that meet the above science challenges can be identified. They include an increase in collecting aperture for passive measurements, increased transmitted power for active measurements, and improved on-board processing coupled with enhanced bandwidth communications as data collection increases. The technologies will involve differentiating filled versus sparse aperture collection systems, developing advanced scanning capabilities and large array detectors, as well as large structure pointing control and metrology. This talk will examine these issues for a range of NASA Earth science measurements.

  14. Significance of Pre-Radiographic MRI Lesions in Persons at Higher Risk for Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Leena; Chmiel, Joan S.; Almagor, Orit; Dunlop, Dorothy; Guermazi, Ali; Bathon, Joan; Eaton, Charles; Hochberg, Marc; Jackson, Rebecca; Kwoh, Kent; Mysiw, W. Jerry; Crema, Michel; Roemer, Frank; Nevitt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective Little is known about early knee osteoarthritis (OA). The significance of MRI lesions in older persons without radiographic OA is unclear. Our objectives were to determine extent of tissue pathology by MRI and evaluate its significance by testing the hypotheses: cartilage damage, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), and meniscal damage are associated with prevalent frequent knee symptoms and incident persistent symptoms; BMLs and meniscal damage are associated with incident tibiofemoral cartilage damage; BMLs are associated with incident patellofemoral cartilage damage. Methods In a cohort study of 849 OAI (Osteoarthritis Initiative) participants who had bilateral K/L 0, we assessed cartilage, BMLs, and meniscal damage using MOAKS, as well as prevalent frequent knee symptoms, incident persistent symptoms, and incident cartilage damage. Multiple logistic regression (one knee/person) was used to evaluate associations between MRI lesions and each of these outcomes. Results 76% had cartilage damage, 61% BMLs, 21% meniscal tears, and 14% meniscal extrusion. Cartilage damage (any; tibiofemoral and patellofemoral), BMLs (any; tibiofemoral and patellofemoral), meniscal extrusion, and BMI were associated with prevalent frequent symptoms. Cartilage damage (isolated patellofemoral; tibiofemoral and patellofemoral), BMLs (any; isolated patellofemoral; tibiofemoral and patellofemoral), meniscal tears, and BMI were associated with incident persistent symptoms. Hand OA but no individual lesion type was associated with incident tibiofemoral cartilage damage, and BMLs (any; any patellofemoral) with incident patellofemoral damage. Having more lesion types was associated with a greater risk of outcomes. Conclusions MRI-detected lesions are not incidental and may represent early disease in persons at higher risk for knee OA. PMID:24974824

  15. The Significance of the African Historical Contribution and Foreign Language Study in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Shirley

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of incorporating African-Caribbean contributions to U.S. history and culture at the level of higher education, such as promoting global interconnectedness, correcting misinformation about African Americans, recognizing and profiting from knowledge acquired by ancient civilizations, and strengthening economic competitiveness.…

  16. Coping with the Sluggish Economy: State Responses to Revenue Shortfalls and Their Significance for Public Schools and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Gale

    Responses of southern states to revenue shortfalls and their significance for public schools and higher education are examined in this report. Many different actions have been take to address state fiscal problems: most strategies require changes in revenue polices that increase taxes and fees or reallocate funds, and many have mandated spending…

  17. Meteorological significance of frontal thin-line angel echoes observed by CPS-9 radar

    E-print Network

    Miller, Donald Bradford

    1959-01-01

    METEOROLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF FRONTAL THIN-LINE ANGEL ECHOES OBSERVED BY CPS-9 RADAR A Thesis By DONAID B. MILLER I/Lt USAF Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1959 Ma]or Sub)ect Meteorology METEOROLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF FRONTAL THIN-LINE ANGEL ECHOES OBSERVED BY CPS-9 RADAR A Thesi. s By DONALD B. MILLER I/Lt USAF Approved as to style and content by...

  18. A likelihood ratio test to assess the significance of source detections in imaging observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nievas-Rosillo, M.; Contreras, J. L.

    2015-05-01

    A new method to estimate the significance of point source observations carried out by Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes is presented. It is based on a likelihood ratio test procedure under the assumption of a well-known PSF and a smooth background. The method is tested with Monte Carlo simulations based on real observations and its sensitivity is compared to standard methods widely used in IACT Astronomy which do not incorporate PSF information.

  19. Higher Dimensional Dust Cosmological Implications of a Decay Law for $?$ Term : Expressions for Some Observable Quantities

    E-print Network

    G. S. Khadekar; Anirudh Pradhan; M. R. Molaei

    2005-09-18

    In this paper we have considered the multidimensional cosmological implications of a decay law for $\\Lambda$ term that is proportional to $\\beta \\frac{\\ddot {a}}{a}$, where $\\beta$ is a constant and $a$ is the scale factor of RW-space time. We discuss the cosmological consequences of a model for the vanishing pressure for the case $k=0$. It has been observed that such models are compatible with the result of recent observations and cosmological term $\\Lambda$ gradually reduces as the universe expands. In this model $\\Lambda$ varies as the inverse square of time, which matches its natural units. The proper distance, the luminosity distance-redshift, the angular diameter distance-redshift, and look back time-redshift for the model are presented in the frame work of higher dimensional space time. The model of the Freese {\\it et al.} ({\\it Nucl. Phys. B} {\\bf 287}, 797 (1987)) for $n=2$ is retrieved for the particular choice of $A_{0}$ and also Einstein-de Sitter model is obtained for $A_{0} = {2/3}$. This work has thus generalized to higher dimensions the well-know result in four dimensional space time. It is found that there may be significant difference in principle at least, from the analogous situation in four dimensional space time.

  20. Modelling extreme values of processes observed at irregular time step. Application to significant wave height.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    wave height. Nicolas Raillard1,2,3 , Pierre Ailliot1 , Jian-feng Yao4 Septembre 16, 2011 1 Laboratoire-Kong. Abstract The distribution of extremes such as flood peaks, maximum wave height or minimum daily returns of significant wave heights observed in North Atlantic. One of these time series exhibits missing data (buoy data

  1. Sodium lidar observed gravity wave breaking event and its associated significant sodium sporadic layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, C.; Li, T.; Fang, X.; Dou, X.; Xiong, J.; Russell, J. M., III; Wu, Q.

    2014-12-01

    On the night of July 29th, 2013 (UT day 13210), the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) sodium temperature/wind lidar, located at Hefei, China (31N, 117E), observed a significant zonal wind shear of -60 m/s/km near ~100 km between 13:15 and 13:30UT, accompanied with a significant cooling near 96-100 km lasting for 1 hr (13:30-14:30 UT). This suggested a significant gravity wave breaking possibly induced by the dynamic instability. The lidar zonal wind is compared with the wind observed by a meteor radar located at Wuhan, ~200 km west of lidar site, and the lidar temperature is compared with SABER temperature, the results further confirmed this possible significant gravity wave breaking event. After the wave breaking, the sodium density was suddenly enhanced by 10-12 times near 94km. Unlike most sporadic sodium layer (SSL) reported in the literatures, this SSL propagated upward, and passed the west lidar beam around 2min earlier than the east lidar beam (~ 50 km separated in the MLT region). The propagate direction of SSL is agreed with enhanced meridional wind observed by Wuhan meteor radar, indicating that this enhanced sodium layer is likely transported from the north of Hefei.

  2. The H3 antagonist ABT-288 is tolerated at significantly higher exposures in subjects with schizophrenia than in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Ahmed A; Haig, George; Florian, Hana; Locke, Charles; Gertsik, Lev; Dutta, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Aims ABT-288 is a potent and selective H3 receptor antagonist with procognitive effects in several preclinical models. In previous studies, 3 mg once daily was the maximal tolerated dose in healthy volunteers. This study characterized the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of ABT-288 in stable subjects with schizophrenia. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating study of ABT-288 (10 dose levels, from 1 to 60 mg once daily for 14 days) in stable subjects with schizophrenia treated with an atypical antipsychotic. In each dose group, five to seven and two to three participants were assigned to ABT-288 and placebo, respectively. Results Of the 67 participants enrolled, nine participants (on ABT-288) were prematurely discontinued, in seven of these due to adverse events. ABT-288 was generally safe and tolerated at doses up to 45 mg once daily. The most common adverse events, in decreasing frequency (from 31 to 5%), were abnormal dreams, headache, insomnia, dizziness, somnolence, dysgeusia, dry mouth, psychotic disorder, parosmia and tachycardia. Adverse events causing early termination were psychotic events (four) and increased creatine phosphokinase, pyrexia and insomnia (one each). The half-life of ABT-288 ranged from 28 to 51 h, and steady state was achieved by day 12 of dosing. At comparable multiple doses, ABT-288 exposure in subjects with schizophrenia was 45% lower than that previously observed in healthy subjects. At trough, ABT-288 cerebrospinal fluid concentrations were 40% of the total plasma concentrations. Conclusions ABT-288 was tolerated at a 15-fold higher dose and 12-fold higher exposures in subjects with schizophrenia than previously observed in healthy volunteers. The greater ABT-288 tolerability was not due to limited brain uptake. PMID:24215171

  3. Observation of a Significant Excess of pi0pi0 Events in B Meson Decays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Aubert; R. Barate; D. Boutigny; J.-M. Gaillard; A. Hicheur; Y. Karyotakis; J. P. Lees; P. Robbe; V. Tisserand; A. Zghiche; A. Palano; A. Pompili; J. C. Chen; N. D. Qi; G. Rong; P. Wang; Y. S. Zhu; G. Eigen; I. Ofte; B. Stugu; G. S. Abrams; A. W. Borgland; A. B. Breon; D. N. Brown; J. Button-Shafer; R. N. Cahn; E. Charles; C. T. Day; M. S. Gill; A. V. Gritsan; Y. Groysman; R. G. Jacobsen; R. W. Kadel; J. Kadyk; L. T. Kerth; Yu. G. Kolomensky; J. F. Kral; G. Kukartsev; C. Leclerc; M. E. Levi; G. Lynch; L. M. Mir; P. J. Oddone; T. J. Orimoto; M. Pripstein; N. A. Roe; A. Romosan; M. T. Ronan; V. G. Shelkov; A. V. Telnov; W. A. Wenzel; K. Ford; T. J. Harrison; C. M. Hawkes; D. J. Knowles; S. E. Morgan; R. C. Penny; A. T. Watson; N. K. Watson; K. Goetzen; T. Held; H. Koch; B. Lewandowski; M. Pelizaeus; K. Peters; H. Schmuecker; M. Steinke; N. R. Barlow; J. T. Boyd; N. Chevalier; W. N. Cottingham; M. P. Kelly; T. E. Latham; C. Mackay; F. F. Wilson; K. Abe; T. Cuhadar-Donszelmann; C. Hearty; T. S. Mattison; J. A. McKenna; D. Thiessen; P. Kyberd; A. K. McKemey; V. E. Blinov; A. D. Bukin; V. B. Golubev; V. N. Ivanchenko; E. A. Kravchenko; A. P. Onuchin; S. I. Serednyakov; Yu. I. Skovpen; E. P. Solodov; A. N. Yushkov; D. Best; M. Bruinsma; M. Chao; D. Kirkby; A. J. Lankford; M. Mandelkern; R. K. Mommsen; W. Roethel; D. P. Stoker; C. Buchanan; B. L. Hartfiel; B. C. Shen; D. del Re; H. K. Hadavand; E. J. Hill; D. B. Macfarlane; H. P. Paar; Sh. Rahatlou; V. Sharma; J. W. Berryhill; C. Campagnari; B. Dahmes; N. Kuznetsova; S. L. Levy; O. Long; A. Lu; M. A. Mazur; J. D. Richman; W. Verkerke; T. W. Beck; J. Beringer; A. M. Eisner; C. A. Heusch; W. S. Lockman; T. Schalk; R. E. Schmitz; B. A. Schumm; A. Seiden; M. Turri; W. Walkowiak; D. C. Williams; M. G. Wilson; J. Albert; E. Chen; G. P. Dubois-Felsmann; A. Dvoretskii; D. G. Hitlin; I. Narsky; F. C. Porter; A. Ryd; A. Samuel; S. Yang; S. Jayatilleke; G. Mancinelli; B. T. Meadows; M. D. Sokoloff; T. Abe; F. Blanc; P. Bloom; S. Chen; P. J. Clark; W. T. Ford; U. Nauenberg; A. Olivas; P. Rankin; J. Roy; J. G. Smith; W. C. van Hoek; L. Zhang; J. L. Harton; T. Hu; A. Soffer; W. H. Toki; R. J. Wilson; J. Zhang; D. Altenburg; T. Brandt; J. Brose; T. Colberg; M. Dickopp; R. S. Dubitzky; A. Hauke; H. M. Lacker; E. Maly; R. Müller-Pfefferkorn; R. Nogowski; S. Otto; J. Schubert; K. R. Schubert; R. Schwierz; B. Spaan; L. Wilden; D. Bernard; G. R. Bonneaud; F. Brochard; J. Cohen-Tanugi; P. Grenier; Ch. Thiebaux; G. Vasileiadis; M. Verderi; A. Khan; D. Lavin; F. Muheim; S. Playfer; J. E. Swain; M. Andreotti; V. Azzolini; D. Bettoni; C. Bozzi; R. Calabrese; G. Cibinetto; E. Luppi; M. Negrini; L. Piemontese; A. Sarti; E. Treadwell; F. Anulli; R. Baldini-Ferroli; M. Biasini; A. Calcaterra; R. de Sangro; D. Falciai; G. Finocchiaro; P. Patteri; I. M. Peruzzi; M. Piccolo; M. Pioppi; A. Zallo; A. Buzzo; R. Capra; R. Contri; G. Crosetti; M. Lo Vetere; M. Macri; M. R. Monge; S. Passaggio; C. Patrignani; E. Robutti; A. Santroni; S. Tosi; S. Bailey; M. Morii; E. Won; W. Bhimji; D. A. Bowerman; P. D. Dauncey; U. Egede; I. Eschrich; J. R. Gaillard; G. W. Morton; J. A. Nash; P. Sanders; G. P. Taylor; G. J. Grenier; S.-J. Lee; U. Mallik; J. Cochran; H. B. Crawley; J. Lamsa; W. T. Meyer; S. Prell; E. I. Rosenberg; J. Yi; M. Davier; G. Grosdidier; A. Höcker; S. Laplace; V. Lepeltier; A. M. Lutz; T. C. Petersen; S. Plaszczynski; M. H. Schune; L. Tantot; G. Wormser; V. Brigljevic; C. H. Cheng; D. J. Lange; D. M. Wright; A. J. Bevan; J. P. Coleman; J. R. Fry; E. Gabathuler; R. Gamet; M. Kay; R. J. Parry; D. J. Payne; R. J. Sloane; C. Touramanis; J. J. Back; P. F. Harrison; H. W. Shorthouse; P. Strother; P. B. Vidal; C. L. Brown; G. Cowan; R. L. Flack; H. U. Flaecher; S. George; M. G. Green; A. Kurup; C. E. Marker; T. R. McMahon; S. Ricciardi; F. Salvatore; G. Vaitsas; M. A. Winter; C. L. Davis; J. Allison; R. J. Barlow; A. C. Forti; P. A. Hart; M. C. Hodgkinson; F. Jackson; G. D. Lafferty; A. J. Lyon; J. H. Weatherall; J. C. Williams; A. Farbin; A. Jawahery; D. Kovalskyi; C. K. Lae; V. Lillard; D. A. Roberts; G. Blaylock; C. Dallapiccola; K. T. Flood; S. S. Hertzbach; R. Kofler; V. B. Koptchev; T. B. Moore; S. Saremi; H. Staengle; S. Willocq; R. Cowan; G. Sciolla; F. Taylor; R. K. Yamamoto; D. J. Mangeol; P. M. Patel; A. Lazzaro; F. Palombo; J. M. Bauer; L. Cremaldi; V. Eschenburg; R. Godang; R. Kroeger; J. Reidy; D. A. Sanders; D. J. Summers; H. W. Zhao; S. Brunet; D. Cote-Ahern; C. Hast; P. Taras; H. Nicholson; C. Cartaro; N. Cavallo; F. Fabozzi; C. Gatto; L. Lista; P. Paolucci; D. Piccolo; C. Sciacca; M. A. Baak; G. Raven; J. M. Losecco; T. A. Gabriel; B. Brau; K. K. Gan; K. Honscheid; D. Hufnagel; H. Kagan; R. Kass; T. Pulliam; Q. K. Wong; J. Brau; R. Frey; C. T. Potter; N. B. Sinev; D. Strom; E. Torrence; F. Colecchia; A. Dorigo; F. Galeazzi

    2003-01-01

    We present a study of the decay B0-->pi0pi0 based on a sample of 124×106 BB¯ pairs recorded by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. We observe 46±13±3 events, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic, corresponding to a significance of 4.2 standard deviations including systematic uncertainties. We measure the branching fraction

  4. Iterative higher order sliding mode observer for nonlinear systems with unknown inputs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Iterative higher order sliding mode observer for nonlinear systems with unknown inputs Jean of the design sliding mode ob- servers for nonlinear systems subject to unknown inputs. In most ap- proaches into a specific canonical observable form. Then, the state and the unknown input of the system can be recov- ered

  5. Tribes and Territories in the 21st Century: Rethinking the Significance of Disciplines in Higher Education. International Studies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trowler, Paul, Ed.; Saunders, Murray, Ed.; Bamber, Veronica, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The "tribes and territories" metaphor for the cultures of academic disciplines and their roots in different knowledge characteristics has been used by those interested in university life and work since the early 1990s. This book draws together research, data and theory to show how higher education has gone through major change since then and how…

  6. Antibody treatment against pulmonary exposure to abrin confers significantly higher levels of protection than treatment against ricin intoxication.

    PubMed

    Sabo, Tamar; Gal, Yoav; Elhanany, Eitan; Sapoznikov, Anita; Falach, Reut; Mazor, Ohad; Kronman, Chanoch

    2015-09-01

    Abrin, a potent plant-derived toxin bearing strong resemblance to ricin, irreversibly inactivates ribosomes by site-specific depurination, thereby precipitating cessation of protein synthesis in cells. Due to its high availability and ease of preparation, abrin is considered a biological threat, especially in context of bioterror warfare. To date, there is no established therapeutic countermeasure against abrin intoxication. In the present study, we examined the progress of pulmonary abrin intoxication in mice, evaluated the protective effect of antibody-based post-exposure therapy, and compared these findings to those observed for ricin intoxication and therapy. Salient features of abrin intoxication were found to be similar to those of ricin and include massive recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs, high levels of pro-inflammatory markers in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and damage of the alveolar-capillary barrier. In contrast, the protective effect of anti-abrin antibody treatment was found to differ significantly from that of anti-ricin treatment. While anti-ricin treatment efficiency was quite limited even at 24h post-exposure (34% protection), administration of polyclonal anti-abrin antibodies even as late as 72h post-exposure, conferred exceedingly high-level protection (>70%). While both anti-toxin antibody treatments caused neutrophil and macrophage levels in the lungs to revert to normal, only anti-abrin treatment brought about a significant decline in the pulmonary levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. The differential ability of the anti-toxin treatments to dampen inflammation caused by the two similar toxins, abrin and ricin, could explain the radically different levels of protection achieved following antibody treatment. PMID:26051443

  7. Utilizing dimensional analysis with observed data to determine the significance of hydrodynamic solutions in coastal hydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, Eric D.; Decker, Jeremy D.; Hughes, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present an analysis of the magnitude of the temporal and spatial acceleration (inertial) terms in the surface-water flow equations and determine the conditions under which these inertial terms have sufficient magnitude to be required in the computations. Data from two South Florida field sites are examined and the relative magnitudes of temporal acceleration, spatial acceleration, and the gravity and friction terms are compared. Parameters are derived by using dimensionless numbers and applied to quantify the significance of the hydrodynamic effects. The time series of the ratio of the inertial and gravity terms from field sites are presented and compared with both a simplified indicator parameter and a more complex parameter called the Hydrodynamic Significance Number (HSN). Two test-case models were developed by using the SWIFT2D hydrodynamic simulator to examine flow behavior with and without the inertial terms and compute the HSN. The first model represented one of the previously-mentioned field sites during gate operations of a structure-managed coastal canal. The second model was a synthetic test case illustrating the drainage of water down a sloped surface from an initial stage while under constant flow. The analyses indicate that the times of substantial hydrodynamic effects are sporadic but significant. The simplified indicator parameter correlates much better with the hydrodynamic effect magnitude for a constant width channel such as Miami Canal than at the non-uniform North River. Higher HSN values indicate flow situations where the inertial terms are large and need to be taken into account.

  8. Central adiposity is significantly higher in female compared to male in Pakistani type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Akhter, Omer; Fiazuddin, Faraz; Shaheryar, Ayesha; Niaz, Warda; Siddiqui, Danial; Awan, Safia; Ram, Nanik; Akhter, Jaweed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) rates are increasing rapidly in South Asians. Cardiovascular complications are more frequent and occur earlier in our patients than patients in many other ethnic groups. Reasons for this are not fully understood. Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the body total and central fat percentage in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients and to check correlation with BMI, waist circumference and metabolic profile. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study conducted at endocrine clinic, Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan, from May to December 2012. Materials and Methods: Patients of either gender with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly selected. A separate proforma for each patient was recorded for demographics, risk factors, bioelectrical impedance measurement for body fat and investigations. Statistical Analysis: Correlation between body fat and other covariate were compared by Pearson correlation coefficient test. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. SPSS19.0 was used to analyze the data. Results: One hundred and seventy five patients (95 male and 80 female) with mean age of 54.1 ± 12 years were evaluated. Mean duration of diabetes was 8.1 years, mean HbA1c was 8.1% and 53.7% were on oral agents and rest were on insulin with or without oral agents. Hypertension was present in 65.7%, 13.7% had known coronary artery disease and 2.3% had cerebrovascular disease. Mean BMI in males was 29.1 ± 4.74 kg/m2 and females 31.7 ± 5.3 kg/m2. Mean waist circumference in males was 107.3 ± 16.6 cm and 103 ± 12 cm in females. Total body fat percentage (%BF) in males was 30.9 ± 7.1% and females 40 ± 8.2% with 89% of the total cohort having total body fat percentage above the normal, less than 25% central fat percentage was 13.3 ± 5.2% in males and 14.6 ± 5.5% in females with 79.4% of cohort having increased central fat (normal <9%). Total and central body fat correlated with BMI (r = 0.68, P < 0.001) and waist circumference (r = 0.66, P < 0.001) but not with HbA1c, triglyceride level or with fasting or random blood glucose levels. Women had significantly higher total body fat percentage compared to men (P < 0.001) although central fat percentage was similar in both sexes. Conclusions: High body fat percentage, waist circumference are seen especially in woman and central body fat percentage in both sexes among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pakistan. Body fat percentage should be measured and followed as this may be an important contributing factor to the high macrovascular complication rate in this part of world. PMID:25593830

  9. much higher concentrations. Concentrations of isoprene and terpene emitted from Mango and Eucalyptus were significantly greater than emissions from

    E-print Network

    much higher concentrations. Concentrations of isoprene and terpene emitted from Mango greater than from Pine and Eucalyptus whereas terpene emissions were highest from Mango and Avocado. Leaf level emissions of the isoprene and terpenes (-pinene, - pinene, -terpinene, linalool and limonene) were

  10. Observation of e+e-??c 0? and missing higher charmonium ? (4 S )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dian-Yong; Liu, Xiang; Matsuki, Takayuki

    2015-05-01

    Stimulated by the recent BESIII observation of a new resonance in e+e-?? ?c 0 which is consistent with our predicted ? (4 S ), we estimate the meson loop contribution to ? (4 S )?? ?c 0 in this work. The evaluation indicates that our theoretical estimate can overlap with the experimental data in a reasonable parameter range. This fact shows that introduction of the missing higher charmonium ? (4 S ) provides a possible explanation to the recent BESIII observation. The upper limit of a branching ratio of ? (4 S )?? J /? is also predicted to be 1.9 ×10-3 , which can be further tested by BESIII, Belle, and forthcoming BelleII.

  11. Image enhancement filters significantly improve reading performance for low vision observers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawton, T. B.

    1992-01-01

    As people age, so do their photoreceptors; many photoreceptors in central vision stop functioning when a person reaches their late sixties or early seventies. Low vision observers with losses in central vision, those with age-related maculopathies, were studied. Low vision observers no longer see high spatial frequencies, being unable to resolve fine edge detail. We developed image enhancement filters to compensate for the low vision observer's losses in contrast sensitivity to intermediate and high spatial frequencies. The filters work by boosting the amplitude of the less visible intermediate spatial frequencies. The lower spatial frequencies. These image enhancement filters not only reduce the magnification needed for reading by up to 70 percent, but they also increase the observer's reading speed by 2-4 times. A summary of this research is presented.

  12. Random walker in temporally deforming higher-order potential forces observed in a financial crisis.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kota; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2009-11-01

    Basic peculiarities of market price fluctuations are known to be well described by a recently developed random-walk model in a temporally deforming quadratic potential force whose center is given by a moving average of past price traces [M. Takayasu, T. Mizuno, and H. Takayasu, Physica A 370, 91 (2006)]. By analyzing high-frequency financial time series of exceptional events, such as bubbles and crashes, we confirm the appearance of higher-order potential force in the markets. We show statistical significance of its existence by applying the information criterion. This time series analysis is expected to be applied widely for detecting a nonstationary symptom in random phenomena. PMID:20365046

  13. The National Emissions Inventory Significantly Overestimates NOx Emissions: Analysis of CMAQ and in situ observations from DISCOVER-AQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. C.; Dickerson, R. R.; Loughner, C.

    2013-12-01

    NOx and CO not only adversely impact human health, but they, along with associated VOCs, are also important precursors for O3 formation. While ambient NOx and CO concentrations have decreased dramatically over the past 10-20 years, O3 has remained a more recalcitrant problem, particularly in the Baltimore/Washington region. Reduction of O3 production requires that emissions inventories, such as the National Emissions Inventory (NEI), accurately capture total emissions of CO and NOx while also correctly apportioning them among different sectors. Previous evaluations of the NEI paint different pictures of its accuracy, with assertions that it overestimates either one or both of CO and NOx from anywhere between 25 percent to a factor of 2. These conflicting claims warrant further investigation. In this study, measurements of NOx and CO taken aboard the NOAA P3B airplane during the 2011 DISCOVER-AQ field campaign were used to determine the NOx/CO emissions ratio at 6 locations in the Washington/Baltimore region. An average molar emissions ratio of 12.8 × 1.2 CO/NOx was found by calculating the change in CO over the change in NOx from vertical concentration profiles in the planetary boundary layer. Ratios showed little variation with location. Observed values were approximately a factor of 1.35 - 1.75 times greater than that predicted by the annual, countywide emissions ratio from the 2008 NEI. When compared to a temporalized, gridded version of the inventory processed by SMOKE, ratio observations were greater than that predicted by inventories by up to a factor of 2. Comparison of the in situ measurements and remotely sensed observations from MOPITT of CO to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model agree within 10-35 percent, with the model higher on average. Measurements of NOy by two separate analytical techniques, on the other hand, show that CMAQ consistently and significantly overestimates NOy concentrations. Combined with the CO observations, this indicates that the NEI overestimates NOx emissions by approximately a factor of 2. Comparison of the temporalized NEI to continuous monitoring of NOx emissions from point sources shows that, on average, agreement between observations and the NEI were within 5 percent. In a region where the NEI estimates on-road emissions can account for 50-75 percent of total NOx, the most likely source of error in the NOx inventory is in the on-road sector. Assumptions about the lifetime and efficacy of catalytic converters in the MOVES model should be investigated as a possible source of this error.

  14. Two-dimensional neovascular complexity is significantly higher in nontumor prostate tissue than in low-risk prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Grizzi, Fabio; Colombo, Piergiuseppe; Seveso, Mauro; Giusti, Guido; Proietti, Silvia; Fiorini, Girolamo; Lughezzani, Giovanni; Casale, Paolo; Buffi, Nicolò; Lazzari, Massimo; Guazzoni, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Prostate cancer is the most frequent cancer in men in Europe. A major focus in urology is the identification of new biomarkers with improved accuracy in patients with low-risk prostate cancer. Here, we evaluated two-dimensional neovascular complexity in prostate tumor and nontumor biopsy cores by use of a computer-aided image analysis system and assessed the correlations between the results and selected clinical and pathological parameters of prostate carcinoma. Materials and Methods A total of 280 prostate biopsy sections from a homogeneous series of 70 patients with low-risk prostate cancer (Gleason score 3+3, prostate-specific antigen [PSA]<10 ng/mL, and clinical stage T1c) who underwent systematic biopsy sampling and subsequent radical prostatectomy were analyzed. For each biopsy, 2-µm sections were treated with CD34 antibodies and were digitized by using an image analysis system that automatically estimates the surface fractal dimension. Results Our results showed that biopsy sections without cancer were significantly more vascularized than were tumors. No correlations were found between the vascular surface fractal dimension and patient's age, PSA and free-to-total PSA ratios, pathological stage, Gleason score, tumor volume, vascular invasion, capsular penetration, surgical margins, and biochemical recurrence. Conclusions The value of angiogenesis in prostate cancer is still controversial. Our findings suggest that low-risk prostate cancer tissues are less vascularized than are nontumor tissues. Further studies are necessary to understand whether angiogenesis is a hallmark of intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer.

  15. Observations and Interpretation of Strain Changes Caused by Volcanic Activity: Significance for Earthscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. Linde; I. S. Sacks

    2002-01-01

    Sacks-Evertson borehole strainmeters installed in a number of tectonically active regions have recorded strain changes due to activity in volcanic systems in Japan, Iceland and California. The eruption of Izu-Oshima, Japan, in 1986 produced observed strain changes at distances up to ~55 km from the volcano. Data for the first stage of the eruption show that, while the ultimate reservoir

  16. Observations of Academic Instruction for Students with Significant Intellectual Disability: Three States, Thirty-Nine Classrooms, One View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Restorff, Diane E.; Abery, Brian H.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the validation process for alternate assessments, 39 classroom observations were conducted to gather data about current practices in providing academic instruction to students with significant intellectual disability. Using a standardized protocol, data were gathered using direct instructional observation, an Individualized Education…

  17. FURTHER OBSERVATIONS ON THE SIGNIFICANCE OF A/EQUINE-2/63 ANTIBODIES IN MAN

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, F. M.; Hennessy, A. V.; Minuse, Elva

    1967-01-01

    The antibody pattern of equine-2/63 viruses has been more sharply defined using a large number of human sera collected in 1964. The birth dates of persons exhibiting the richest experience with equine-2/63-like viruses delineate a period of past prevalence in man of equine-2/63-like viruses. The period is believed to have begun in the mid-1870's and to have terminated in 1889–1890 at the time of the first Asian pandemic. The equine-2/63 antibodies found in human sera react specifically in the photometric test of Drescher. The equine-2/63 antibody pattern advances along the age scale in exact concordance with the passage of time. The homologous antibody response of the older subjects to equine-2/63 vaccine is more vigorous, reflecting the conditioning effects of prior exposures to equine-2/63 antigens. A "one-way cross" between equine-2/63 virus and A2 and A1 strains has been demonstrated. The antigenic ties between strains of influenza A isolated from humans, swine, horses, and birds is recognized and discussed. It is apparent that horses do not constitute an active reservoir for strains of human involvement. The epidemiologic significance of the antigenic linkages between strains isolated from different species remains obscure. PMID:6069928

  18. Significant reduction in arc frequency biased solar cells: Observations, diagnostics, and mitigation technique(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upschulte, B. L.; Weyl, G. M.; Marinelli, W. J.; Aifer, E.; Hastings, D.; Snyder, D.

    1991-01-01

    A variety of experiments were performed which identify key factors contributing to the arcing of negatively biased high voltage solar cells. These efforts have led to reduction of greater than a factor of 100 in the arc frequency of a single cell following proper remediation procedures. Experiments naturally lead to and focussed on the adhesive/encapsulant that is used to bond the protective cover slip to the solar cell. An image-intensified charge coupled device (CCD) camera system recorded UV emission from arc events which occurred exclusively along the interfacial edge between the cover slip and the solar cell. Microscopic inspection of this interfacial region showed a bead of encapsulant along this entire edge. Elimination of this encapsulant bead reduced the arc frequency by two orders of magnitude. Water contamination was also identified as a key contributor which enhances arcing of the encapsulant bead along the solar cell edge. Spectrally resolved measurements of the observable UV light shows a feature assignable to OH(A-X) electronic emission, which is common for water contaminated discharges. Experiments in which the solar cell temperature was raised to 85 C showed a reduced arcing frequency, suggesting desorption of H2O. Exposing the solar cell to water vapor was shown to increase the arcing frequency. Clean dry gases such as O2, N2, and Ar show no enhancement of the arcing rate. Elimination of the exposed encapsulant eliminates any measurable sensitivity to H2O vapor.

  19. Observational Study of Higher Dimensional Magnetic Universe in Non-linear Electrodynamics

    E-print Network

    Chayan Ranjit; Shuvendu Chakraborty; Ujjal Debnath

    2013-04-04

    In this work, we have considered the flat FRW model of the universe in $(n+2)$-dimensions filled with the dark matter and the magnetic field. We present the Hubble parameter in terms of the observable parameters $\\Omega_{m0}$ and $H_{0}$ with the redshift $z$ and the other parameters like $B_{0},\\omega, \\mu_{0},\\delta,n,w_{m}$. The natures of magnetic field $B$, deceleration parameter $q$ and $Om$ diagnostic have also been analyzed for accelerating expansion of the universe. From Stern data set (12 points), we have obtained the bounds of the arbitrary parameters by minimizing the $\\chi^{2}$ test. The best-fit values of the parameters are obtained by 66%, 90% and 99% confidence levels. Now to find the bounds of the parameters ($B_{0},\\omega$) and to draw the statistical confidence contour, we fixed four parameters $\\mu_{0},\\delta,n,w_{m}$. Here the parameter $n$ determines the higher dimensions and we perform comparative study between three cases : 4D $(n=2)$, 5D $(n=3)$ and 6D $(n=4)$ respectively. Next due to joint analysis with BAO observation, we have also obtained the bounds of the parameters ($B_{0},\\omega$) by fixing other parameters $\\mu_{0},\\delta,n,w_{m}$ for 4D, 5D and 6D. The best fit of distance modulus for our theoretical model and the Supernova Type Ia Union2 sample are drawn for different dimensions.

  20. Observations on the incidence and significance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in food fish for captive California sea lions, Zalophus californianus 

    E-print Network

    Beleau, Marshall Harold

    1973-01-01

    OBSERVATIONS ON THE INCIDENCE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF VIBRIO PARAHAEMOLYTICUS IN FOOD FISH FOR CAPTIVE CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS, ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS A Thesis MARSHALL HAROLD BELEAU Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AJAM University... arahaemol ticus in Food Fish for Captive California Zsa lions, ~nolo nus oalifornianus. (~ 19'~) Marshall Harold Beleau, B. S. , D. V. M. Texas AkN University Directed by: Drs. G. W. Klontz and D. H. Lewis An investigation of the significance...

  1. Observational Constraints of Homogeneous Higher Dimensional Cosmology with Modified Chaplygin Gas

    E-print Network

    Chayan Ranjit; Shuvendu Chakraborty; Ujjal Debnath

    2012-11-09

    In this work, we have considered the flat FRW model of the universe in $(n+2)$-dimensions filled with the dark matter (perfect fluid with negligible pressure) and the modified Chaplygin gas (MCG) type dark energy. We present the Hubble parameter in terms of the observable parameters $\\Omega_{m0}$, $\\Omega_{x0}$ and $H_{0}$ with the redshift $z$ and the other parameters like $A$, $B$, $C$, $n$ and $\\alpha$. From Stern data set (12 points), we have obtained the bounds of the arbitrary parameters by minimizing the $\\chi^{2}$ test. The best-fit values of the parameters are obtained by 66%, 90% and 99% confidence levels. Now to find the bounds of the parameters and to draw the statistical confidence contour, we first fixed three parameters $C, n, \\alpha$ and then fixed the three parameters $A, n, \\alpha$. In the first case we find the bounds of $(A, B)$ and draw the contour between them for 4D$(n=2)$, 5D$(n=3)$ and 6D$(n=4)$. In the second case we fixed three different values of A as 1, 1/3, -1/3 to find the bounds of $(B, C)$ and draw the contour between them. Here the parameter $n$ determines the higher dimensions and we perform comparative study between three cases : 4D $(n=2)$, 5D $(n=3)$ and 6D $(n=4)$ respectively. Next due to joint analysis with BAO observation, we have also obtained the bounds of the parameters ($A,B$) by fixing some other parameters $\\alpha$ and $A$ for 4D, 5D and 6D.

  2. Middle School Teams Increasing Access to General Education for Students with Significant Disabilities: Issues Encountered and Activities Observed across Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matzen, Katherine; Ryndak, Diane; Nakao, Taketo

    2010-01-01

    The experiences of three students with significant disabilities and their educational teams were studied during these students' first year of receiving general education services. Interviews were conducted with general educators, special educators, and parents to identify issues encountered during the year. Also, classroom observations were…

  3. The NASA Earth Observing System Higher-Education Alliance Curriculum Development Project at Middle Tennessee State University

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Abolins; M. Wylie

    2008-01-01

    During the last three years, geodata-rich undergraduate curricula were developed at Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) with major support from the NASA Earth Observing System Higher-Education Alliance (\\

  4. Higher prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in African Americans than whites--the unknown role of underlying HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Konstantinopoulos, Panagiotis A; Pantanowitz, Liron; Dezube, Bruce J

    2006-11-01

    The age-adjusted prevalence rate of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is three-fold higher in African Americans than whites. Similarly, there is a higher preponderance of multiple myeloma (MM) in African-American patients. Since the risk of progression of MGUS to MM is equal in both races, identification of exogenous and genetic risk factors of MGUS [such as genetic pre-disposition; diet; and chronic antigenic exposure related to sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection] is essential for unraveling the etiology of the racial disparity for MM. HIV infection, a well-documented risk factor for MGUS, is more frequent in African-American patients. Future epidemiologic studies dealing with plasma cell disorders should carefully examine the relationship between race, HIV infection status, prevalence of MGUS and its ultimate progression to MM. PMID:17128699

  5. The Globalization of Higher Education: Some Observations Regarding the Free Market and the National Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderman, Geoffrey

    2001-01-01

    Explores how the globalization of higher education, for example through electronic delivery or franchising, has given rise to concerns, particularly about quality, but including cultural, economic, and political factors. Describes how some countries have made such efforts to regulate transnational offerings that they have created questionable…

  6. Protected Graft Copolymer Excipient Leads to a Higher Acute Maximum Tolerated Dose and Extends Residence Time of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Significantly Better than Sterically Stabilized Micelles

    PubMed Central

    Reichstetter, Sandra; Castillo, Gerardo M.; Rubinstein, Israel; Nishimoto-Ashfield, Akiko; Lai, ManShun; Jones, Cynthia C.; Banjeree, Aryamitra; Lyubimov, Alex; Bloedow, Duane C.; Bogdanov, Alexei; Bolotin, Elijah M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine and compare pharmacokinetics and toxicity of two nanoformulations of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP). Methods VIP was formulated using a micellar (Sterically Stabilized Micelles, SSM) and a polymer-based (Protected Graft Copolymer, PGC) nanocarrier at various loading percentages. VIP binding to the nanocarriers, pharmacokinetics, blood pressure, blood chemistry, and acute maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of the formulations after injection into BALB/c mice were determined. Results Both formulations significantly extend in vivo residence time compared to unformulated VIP. Formulation toxicity is dependent on loading percentage, showing major differences between the two carrier types. Both formulations increase in vivo potency of unformulated VIP and show acute MTDs at least 140 times lower than unformulated VIP, but still at least 100 times higher than the anticipated highest human dose, 1–5 ?g/kg. These nanocarriers prevented a significant drop in arterial blood pressure compared to unformulated VIP. Conclusions While both carriers enhance in vivo residence time compared to unformulated VIP and reduce the drop in blood pressure immediately after injection, PGC is the excipient of choice to extend residence time and improve the safety of potent therapeutic peptides such as VIP. PMID:23224976

  7. Observational evidence from two mountainous regions that near surface wind speeds are declining more rapidly at higher elevations

    E-print Network

    Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

    wind speeds are declining more rapidly at higher elevations than lower elevations: 1960­2006 Tim R. Mc of the regional nearsurface elevation dependence of u (uZ) at two mountainous regions (central China elevations, even though different u dynamics were observed. The uZ trends have important implications

  8. Explanation of recent observations of very large electromagnetic dissociation cross sections. II. Higher order corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norbury, John W.; Baur, Gerhard

    1993-10-01

    Hill, Wohn, Schwellenbach, and Smith have recently measured very large electromagnetic dissociation cross sections in the collisions of very heavy nuclei. Weizsacker-Williams (WW) theory predicts that these cross sections should be even larger. It has recently been shown that WW theory fails for these reactions because the associated probabilities are too large. However, WW theory is based on first order perturbation theory and an electric dipole approximation. Calculations are presented which show that for those cases where WW theory and experiment disagree, higher order perturbation plus electric quadrupole corrections improve the agreement between theory and experiment. These corrections also imply that multiple electromagnetic excitations occur.

  9. Significant geomagnetic differences in both phase and amplitude observed at "conjugate" polar latitudes near the December 1903 Solstice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egeland, Alv; Deehr, Charles

    2014-05-01

    During Roald Amundsen's exploration of the Northwest Passage (1903-1906) he conducted systematic measurements of diurnal and seasonal variations of the north magnetic dip pole (NMDP) at Gjøahavn (~ 68 N, 95 E). The NMDP variations have been largely interpreted as indicating control by the polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF); the Svalgard-Mansurov (S-M) effect. In Sir Robert Scott's Discovery expedition, geomagnetic observations were made in 1903 from Cape Armitage, Antarctica (~78 S, 168 E). Unwittingly, the measurements of Amundsen and Scott were acquired near conjugate ends of the same magnetic field lines. While their separation in solar local time is ~ 5 hours, they differ in magnetic local time less than 1/2 hour. However, up to this time no direct comparison of the two sets of magnetic observations has ever been made. This presentation contains an analysis of magnetic perturbations observed at both locations for comparison with contemporary and present day monthly-averaged diurnal variations, even if the overlap in data among these expeditions is somewhat limited. The near magnetic conjugacy of Gjøahavn- Cape Armitage locations makes these measurements valuable. Our analysis shows: (1) While similar variations appeared at both ends of the joining magnetic field they manifest significant differences in both phase and amplitude, (2) present day NMDP variations appear consistent with the S-M effect analyses when compared with satellite measurements of solar wind/IMF measurements, (3) differences at the "conjugate" locations cannot be explained in terms of the S-M effect alone. The roles of lobe cell and ionospheric conductance at polar magnetically "conjugate" locations are used to explain the observed phase and amplitude differences.

  10. PCR reveals significantly higher rates of Trypanosoma cruzi infection than microscopy in the Chagas vector, Triatoma infestans: High rates found in Chuquisaca, Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, Juan Carlos; Lucero, David E; Stevens, Lori

    2007-01-01

    Background The Andean valleys of Bolivia are the only reported location of sylvatic Triatoma infestans, the main vector of Chagas disease in this country, and the high human prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in this region is hypothesized to result from the ability of vectors to persist in domestic, peri-domestic, and sylvatic environments. Determination of the rate of Trypanosoma infection in its triatomine vectors is an important element in programs directed at reducing human infections. Traditionally, T. cruzi has been detected in insect vectors by direct microscopic examination of extruded feces, or dissection and analysis of the entire bug. Although this technique has proven to be useful, several drawbacks related to its sensitivity especially in the case of small instars and applicability to large numbers of insects and dead specimens have motivated researchers to look for a molecular assay based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as an alternative for parasitic detection of T. cruzi infection in vectors. In the work presented here, we have compared a PCR assay and direct microscopic observation for diagnosis of T. cruzi infection in T. infestans collected in the field from five localities and four habitats in Chuquisaca, Bolivia. The efficacy of the methods was compared across nymphal stages, localities and habitats. Methods We examined 152 nymph and adult T. infestans collected from rural areas in the department of Chuquisaca, Bolivia. For microscopic observation, a few drops of rectal content obtained by abdominal extrusion were diluted with saline solution and compressed between a slide and a cover slip. The presence of motile parasites in 50 microscopic fields was registered using 400× magnification. For the molecular analysis, dissection of the posterior part of the abdomen of each insect followed by DNA extraction and PCR amplification was performed using the TCZ1 (5' – CGA GCT CTT GCC CAC ACG GGT GCT – 3') and TCZ2 (5' – CCT CCA AGC AGC GGA TAG TTC AGG – 3') primers. Amplicons were chromatographed on a 2% agarose gel with a 100 bp size standard, stained with ethidium bromide and viewed with UV fluorescence. For both the microscopy and PCR assays, we calculated sensitivity (number of positives by a method divided by the number of positives by either method) and discrepancy (one method was negative and the other was positive) at the locality, life stage and habitat level. The degree of agreement between PCR and microscopy was determined by calculating Kappa (k) values with 95% confidence intervals. Results We observed a high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in T. infestans (81.16% by PCR and 56.52% by microscopy) and discovered that PCR is significantly more sensitive than microscopic observation. The overall degree of agreement between the two methods was moderate (Kappa = 0.43 ± 0.07). The level of infection is significantly different among communities; however, prevalence was similar among habitats and life stages. Conclusion PCR was significantly more sensitive than microscopy in all habitats, developmental stages and localities in Chuquisaca, Bolivia. Overall we observed a high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in T. infestans in this area of Bolivia; however, microscopy underestimated infection at all levels examined. PMID:17597541

  11. Prognostic significance of 25-hydroxivitamin D entirely explained by a higher comorbidity burden: experience from a South-Eastern European Dialysis Cohort.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Adalbert; Apetrii, Mugurel; Onofriescu, Mihai; Siriopol, Dimitrie; Veisa, Gabriel; Schiller, Oana; Bob, Flaviu; Timar, Romulus; Mihaescu, Adelina; Kanbay, Mehmet; Covic, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is still a common problem particularly in the elderly and in individuals with various degrees of renal impairment. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D and death in a large cohort of prevalent patients on hemodialysis (HD) from south-east Romania, a typical Balkan region. This is an observational prospective study that included a total of 570 patients on maintenance HD. Study patients were classified into three groups by baseline 25(OH)D levels: (1) sufficient 25(OH)D--i.e., >30?ng/mL; (2) insufficient 25(OH)D--i.e., between 10 and 29?ng/mL; and (3) deficient 25(OH)D--i.e., <10?ng/mL. During the follow-up period of 14 months, 68 patients (11.9%) died, the Kaplan-Meier analysis showing significant differences in all-cause mortality for chronic kidney disease patients in different 25(OH)D groups (P?=?0.002). Unadjusted Cox regression analysis also showed significant differences in survival. The multivariate Cox regression model showed no significant differences in survival according to vitamin D levels. Hazard ratio for death in the "<10?ng/mL" group was 1.619 (P?=?0.190) and in the "10-30?ng/mL" group was 0.837 (P?=?0.609). In our dialysis population with a high comorbidity burden, low 25(OH)D concentration was not associated with mortality in the adjusted Cox model, suggesting that vitamin D deficiency could represent only a non-specific marker for a poor health status, with less impact on mortality. PMID:25251168

  12. THE JETS OF TeV BLAZARS AT HIGHER RESOLUTION: 43 GHz AND POLARIMETRIC VLBA OBSERVATIONS FROM 2005 TO 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Piner, B. Glenn; Pant, Niraj [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Whittier College, 13406 E. Philadelphia Street, Whittier, CA 90608 (United States); Edwards, Philip G., E-mail: gpiner@whittier.ed, E-mail: Philip.Edwards@csiro.a [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW 1710 (Australia)

    2010-11-10

    We present 23 new VLBA images of the six established TeV blazars Markarian 421, Markarian 501, H 1426+428, 1ES 1959+650, PKS 2155-304, and 1ES 2344+514, obtained from 2005 to 2009. Most images were obtained at 43 GHz (7 mm), and they reveal the parsec-scale structures of three of these sources (1ES 1959+650, PKS 2155-304, and 1ES 2344+514) at factors of 2-3 higher resolution than has previously been attained. These images reveal new morphological details, including a high degree of jet bending in the inner milliarcsecond in PKS 2155-304. This establishes strong apparent jet bending on VLBI scales as a common property of TeV blazars, implying viewing angles close to the line of sight. Most of the remaining images map the linear polarization structures at a lower frequency of 22 GHz (1 cm). We discuss the transverse structures of the jets as revealed by the high-frequency and polarimetric imaging. The transverse structures include significant limb brightening in Mrk 421, and 'spine-sheath' structures in the electric vector position angle and fractional polarization distributions in Mrk 421, Mrk 501, and 1ES 1959+650. We use new measured component positions to update measured apparent jet speeds, in many cases significantly reducing the statistical error over previously published results. With the increased resolution at 43 GHz, we detect new components within 0.1-0.2 mas of the core in most of these sources. No motion is apparent in these new components over the time span of our observations, and we place upper limits on the apparent speeds of the components near the core of <2c. From those limits, we conclude that {Gamma}{sub 2} < ({Gamma}{sub 1}){sup 1/2} at {approx}10{sup 5} Schwarzschild radii, where {Gamma}{sub 1} and {Gamma}{sub 2} are the bulk Lorentz factors in the TeV emitting and 43 GHz emitting regions, respectively, assuming that their velocity vectors are aligned.

  13. Significantly increased monounsaturated lipids relative to polyunsaturated lipids in six types of cancer microenvironment are observed by mass spectrometry imaging

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shuai; Wang, Yanmin; Zhou, Dan; Li, Zhili

    2014-01-01

    Six different types of cancer (i.e., breast, lung, colorectal, esophageal, gastric, and thyroid cancer) have high rates of incidence or mortality worldwide. It has been shown that activation of de novo lipogenesis is an early and common event in the cancer microenvironment. In this study, we performed lipid imaging and profiling for 134 tissue samples from six different types of cancer using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, with 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 1,8-bis(dimethyl-amino)naphthalene as matrices in the positive and negative ion modes, respectively. Multivariate statistical analysis coupled with lipid distribution images revealed that significantly increased levels of monounsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated phosphatidylcholines relative to polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines were observed in the cancer microenvironment compared with the adjacent normal tissue. The immunohistochemical assay indicated that fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and choline kinase ? were up-regulated in the cancer microenvironment compared with the adjacent normal tissue. Our findings suggest that de novo lipogenesis was activated in six types of cancer to promote a biosynthesis of lipids with monounsaturated acyl chains and to suppress a biosynthesis of polyunsaturated lipids in the cancer microenvironment. PMID:25091112

  14. Observation of Higher-Order Sideband Transitions and First-Order Sideband Rabi Oscillations in a Superconducting Flux Qubit Coupled to a SQUID Plasma Mode

    E-print Network

    Yoshihiro Shimazu; Masaki Takahashi; Natsuki Okamura

    2013-05-27

    We report results of spectroscopic measurements and time-domain measurements of a superconducting flux qubit. The dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), used for readout of the qubit, and a shunt capacitor formed an LC resonator generating a SQUID plasma mode. Higher-order red and blue sidebands were observed in a simple measurement scheme because the resonant energy of the resonator, 600 MHz, was comparable to the thermal energy. We also observed Rabi oscillations on the carrier transition and the first-order sideband transitions. Because the qubit was coupled to a single arm of the dc SQUID, the qubit-SQUID coupling was significant at zero bias current, where these phenomena were observed. The ratios between the Rabi periods for the carrier transition and the sideband transitions are compared with those estimated from the coupling constant, which was separately determined. The result may be explained by assuming initial excitation of the resonator.

  15. Expression Profiles and Clinical Significance of MicroRNAs in Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma: A STROBE-Compliant Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yu-Zheng; Xu, Lu-Wei; Xu, Zheng; Wu, Ran; Xin, Hui; Zhu, Meng; Lu, Tian-Ze; Geng, Li-Guo; Liu, Hao; Zhou, Chang-Cheng; Yu, Peng; Zhao, You-Cai; Hu, Zhi-Kai; Zhao, Yan; Zhou, Liu-Hua; Wu, Jian-Ping; Li, Wen-Cheng; Zhu, Jia-Geng; Jia, Rui-Peng

    2015-04-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) is the second most prevalent subtype of kidney cancers. In the current study, we analyzed the global microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in pRCC, with the aim to evaluate the relationship of miRNA expression with the progression and prognosis of pRCC.A total of 163 treatment-naïve primary pRCC patients were identified from the Cancer Genome Atlas dataset and included in this retrospective observational study. The miRNA expression profiles were graded by tumor-node-metastasis information, and compared between histologic subtypes. Furthermore, the training-validation approach was applied to identify miRNAs of prognostic values, with the aid of Kaplan-Meier survival, and univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Finally, the online DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discover) program was applied for the pathway enrichment analysis with the target genes of prognosis-associated miRNAs, which were predicted by 3 computational algorithms (PicTar, TargetScan, and Miranda).In the progression-related miRNA profiles, 26 miRNAs were selected for pathologic stage, 28 for pathologic T, 16 for lymph node status, 3 for metastasis status, and 32 for histologic types, respectively. In the training stage, the expression levels of 12 miRNAs (mir-134, mir-379, mir-127, mir-452, mir-199a, mir-200c, mir-141, mir-3074, mir-1468, mir-181c, mir-1180, and mir-34a) were significantly associated with patient survival, whereas mir-200c, mir-127, mir-34a, and mir-181c were identified by multivariate Cox regression analyses as potential independent prognostic factors in pRCC. Subsequently, mir-200c, mir-127, and mir-34a were confirmed to be significantly correlated with patient survival in the validation stage. Finally, target gene prediction analysis identified a total of 113 target genes for mir-200c, 37 for mir-127, and 180 for mir-34a, which further generated 15 molecular pathways.Our results identified the specific miRNAs associated with the progression and aggressiveness of pRCC, and 3 miRNAs (mir-200c, mir-127, and mir-34a) as promising prognostic factors of pRCC. PMID:25906110

  16. Observation of self-trapping and rotation of higher-band gap solitons in two-dimensional photonic lattices.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shiqiang; Song, Daohong; Zong, Yuanyuan; Tang, Liqin; Chen, Zhigang

    2015-02-23

    We demonstrate self-trapping and rotation of higher-band dipole and quadruple-like gap solitons by single-site excitation in a two-dimensional square photonic lattice under self-focusing nonlinearity. Experimental results show that the second-band dipole gap solitons reside in the first photonic (Bragg reflection) gap, whereas the quadruple-like gap solitons are formed in an even higher photonic gap, resulting from modes of the third-band. Moreover, both dipole and quadruple-like gap solitons exhibit dynamical rotation around the lattice principle axes and the direction of rotation is changing periodically during propagation, provided that they are excited under appropriate initial conditions. In the latter case, the nonlinear rotation is accompanied by periodic transitions between quadruple and doubly-charged vortex states. Our numerical simulations find good agreement with the experimental observations. PMID:25836476

  17. Significant Labor and Employment Law Issues in Higher Education During the Past Decade and What To Look for Now: A Union Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Rachel

    2000-01-01

    A union perspective of major issues in higher education labor law in the 1990s includes the 11th Circuit Court cases on whether Congress abrogated states' 11th Amendment immunity for suits under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) and under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Analyzes contract issues of protection around age…

  18. Significant Labor and Employment Law Issues in Higher Education During the Past Decade and What To Look for Now: A Management Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsicker Jr., J. Freedley

    2000-01-01

    A management perspective of major issues in higher education labor law in the 1990s addresses: sexual harassment; the Civil Rights Act of 1991; diversity on campus, elimination of mandatory retirement for faculty; development of contingent work force; and unionization of residents, interns, and graduate assistants. Predicts alternatives to…

  19. Significant Labor and Employment Law Issues in Higher Education During the Past Decade and What to Look for Now: The Perspective of an Academician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodah, Matthew M.

    2000-01-01

    An academician explores major issues in higher education labor law during the 1990s: union organizing by graduate teaching assistants, bargaining and workload issues, developments concerning grievance arbitration, and rights of individual faculty members within unions. Issues likely to arise in the next decade include alternatives to tenure,…

  20. Dysphoric students show higher use of the observer perspective in their retrieval of positive versus negative autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Nelis, Sabine; Debeer, Elise; Holmes, Emily A; Raes, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Autobiographical memories are retrieved as images from either a field perspective or an observer perspective. The observer perspective is thought to dull emotion. Positive affect is blunted in depressed mood. Consequently, are positive events recalled from an observer perspective in depressed mood? We investigated the relationship between memory vantage perspective and depressive symptoms in a student sample. Participants completed the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986) and assessed the perspective accompanying each memory. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) and the Responses to Positive Affect questionnaire (RPA; Feldman, Joormann, & Johnson, 2008) were administered. The results showed a small positive association between depressive symptoms and the use of an observer perspective for positive autobiographical memories, but not for negative memories. Furthermore, comparing a subgroup with clinically significant symptom levels (dysphoric students) with non-dysphoric individuals revealed that dysphoric students used an observer perspective more for positive memories compared with negative memories. This was not the case for non-dysphoric students. The observer perspective in dysphorics was associated with a dampening cognitive style in response to positive experiences. PMID:23083015

  1. Primary bacteraemia is associated with a higher mortality risk compared with pulmonary and intra-abdominal infections in patients with sepsis: a prospective observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mansur, Ashham; Klee, Yvonne; Popov, Aron Frederik; Erlenwein, Joachim; Ghadimi, Michael; Beissbarth, Tim; Bauer, Martin; Hinz, José

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether common infection foci (pulmonary, intra-abdominal and primary bacteraemia) are associated with variations in mortality risk in patients with sepsis. Design Prospective, observational cohort study. Setting Three surgical intensive care units (ICUs) at a university medical centre. Participants A total of 327 adult Caucasian patients with sepsis originating from pulmonary, intra-abdominal and primary bacteraemia participated in this study. Primary and secondary outcome measures The patients were followed for 90?days and mortality risk was recorded as the primary outcome variable. To monitor organ failure, sepsis-related organ failure assessment (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, SOFA) scores were evaluated at the onset of sepsis and throughout the observational period as secondary outcome variables. Results A total of 327 critically ill patients with sepsis were enrolled in this study. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the 90-day mortality risk was significantly higher among patients with primary bacteraemia than among those with pulmonary and intra-abdominal foci (58%, 35% and 32%, respectively; p=0.0208). To exclude the effects of several baseline variables, we performed multivariate Cox regression analysis. Primary bacteraemia remained a significant covariate for mortality in the multivariate analysis (HR 2.10; 95% CI 1.14 to 3.86; p=0.0166). During their stay in the ICU, the patients with primary bacteraemia presented significantly higher SOFA scores than those of the patients with pulmonary and intra-abdominal infection foci (8.5±4.7, 7.3±3.4 and 5.8±3.5, respectively). Patients with primary bacteraemia presented higher SOFA-renal score compared with the patients with other infection foci (1.6±1.4, 0.8±1.1 and 0.7±1.0, respectively); the patients with primary bacteraemia required significantly more renal replacement therapy than the patients in the other groups (29%, 11% and 12%, respectively). Conclusions These results indicate that patients with sepsis with primary bacteraemia present a higher mortality risk compared with patients with sepsis of pulmonary or intra-abdominal origins. These results should be assessed in patients with sepsis in larger, independent cohorts. PMID:25564146

  2. The significance of heart rate in free swimming cod, Gadus morhua: Some observations with ultra?sonic tags

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Wardle; J. W. Kanwisher

    1973-01-01

    Ultra sonic transmitters (cylindrical, 1.5 cm diameter × 7 cm long) with three?week battery life were used to examine the heart rate and electrocardiogram (ECG) of cod in swimming experiments. The maximum heart rate was observed when the period between the recovery (T) wave and the initial wave (P) of the ECG was zero and was limited by the P

  3. Prognostic Significance of Cyclin D1 Expression in Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Wei, Jun; Xu, Chuanhui; Zhao, Zhongxin; You, Tiangeng

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cyclin D1 plays a vital role in cancer cell cycle progression and is overexpressed in many human cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the prognostic value of cyclin D1 overexpression in colorectal cancer is conflicting and heterogeneous. We conducted a meta-analysis to more precisely evaluate its prognostic significance. Methods A comprehensive literature search for relevant studies published up to January 2014 was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Science. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was used to estimate the effects. Results 22 studies with 4150 CRC patients were selected to evaluate the association between cyclin D1 and overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and clinicopathological parameters. In a random-effects model, the results showed that cyclin D1 overexpression in CRC was significantly associated with both poor OS (HR?=?0.73, 95% CI: 0.63–0.85, P<0.001) and DFS (HR?=?0.60, 95% CI: 0.44–0.82, P?=?0.001). Additionally, cyclin D1 overexpression was significantly associated with more relative older patients (?60 years) (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.44–0.89, P?=?0.009), T3,4 tumor invasion (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.57–0.85, P<0.001), N positive (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.60–0.95, P?=?0.016) and distant metastasis (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.36–0.99, P?=?0.047) of CRC. Conclusion The meta-analysis results indicated that cyclin D1 is an unfavorable prognostic factor for CRC. Cyclin D1 overexpression might be associated with poor clinical outcome and some clinicopathological factors such as age, T category, N category and distant metastasis in CRC patients. PMID:24728073

  4. Characteristics, distribution, origin, and significance of opaline silica observed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruff, S.W.; Farmer, J.D.; Calvin, W.M.; Herkenhoff, K.E.; Johnson, J.R.; Morris, R.V.; Rice, M.S.; Arvidson, R.E.; Bell, J.F., III; Christensen, P.R.; Squyres, S.W.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of outcrops and soil (regolith) rich in opaline silica (???65-92 wt % SiO2) in association with volcanic materials adjacent to the "Home Plate" feature in Gusev crater is evidence for hydrothermal conditions. The Spirit rover has supplied a diverse set of observations that are used here to better understand the formation of silica and the activity, abundance, and fate of water in the first hydrothermal system to be explored in situ on Mars. We apply spectral, chemical, morphological, textural, and stratigraphic observations to assess whether the silica was produced by acid sulfate leaching of precursor rocks, by precipitation from silica-rich solutions, or by some combination. The apparent lack of S enrichment and the relatively low oxidation state of the Home Plate silica-rich materials appear inconsistent with the originally proposed Hawaiian analog for fumarolic acid sulfate leaching. The stratiform distribution of the silica-rich outcrops and their porous and brecciated microtextures are consistent with sinter produced by silica precipitation. There is no evidence for crystalline quartz phases among the silica occurrences, an indication of the lack of diagenetic maturation following the production of the amorphous opaline phase. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. The NASA Earth Observing System Higher-Education Alliance Curriculum Development Project at Middle Tennessee State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolins, M. J.; Wylie, M.

    2008-12-01

    During the last three years, geodata-rich undergraduate curricula were developed at Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) with major support from the NASA Earth Observing System Higher-Education Alliance ("GeoBrain") and additional support from Tennessee Space Grant and the NSF StepMT program. These curricula fall into three broad categories: (1) GIS-based curricula, (2) the free on-line textbook "Physical Regions and Features of the United States," and (3) presentation graphics (primarily satellite images) for faculty involved in teaching and research outside the United States. All three incorporate Earth Observing System data as well as data from other public sources. Most data was obtained through the GeoBrain data download website, the USGS Seamless Data Distribution System, or the National Atlas of the United States website. The three categories of curricula exemplify the diverse educational applications of satellite images and other map data. The GIS-based curricula (1) are built around ESRI GIS software and include an asteroid impact activity and a volcano activity. The free on-line textbook (2) provides a broad overview of the physical features of the United States and is intended as a supplement for undergraduate geoscience courses. Presentation graphics (3) have been created for faculty investigating Scottish archeology and historical/cultural issues in Portugal and Morocco. The three categories represent three distinctly different ways to use remotely-sensed data to improve undergraduate instruction.

  6. Low Vitamin D Levels Are Associated with Higher Opioid Dose in Palliative Cancer Patients – Results from an Observational Study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Peter; Sperneder, Susanne; Höijer, Jonas; Bergqvist, Jenny; Björkhem-Bergman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Background Vitamin D deficiency is common among palliative cancer patients and has been connected to an increased risk for pain, depressions and infections. Therefore we wanted to test the hypothesis that low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels are associated with higher opioid dose, higher infectious burden and impaired quality of life in palliative cancer patients. The secondary aim was to investigate the association between 25OHD-levels and survival time. Method In this prospective, observational study in palliative cancer-patients (n = 100) we performed univariate and multiple linear regression analysis to assess the association of 25OHD levels with opioid dose, infectious burden (antibiotic consumption), quality of life (Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale, ESAS) and survival time, controlling for potential confounding factors. Results The median 25OHD level was 40 nmol/L (range 8-154 nmol/L). There was a significant association between 25OHD levels and opioid dose, beta coefficient -0.67; p=0.02; i.e. a low 25OHD level was associated with a higher opioid dose. This association remained significant after adjustment for stage of the cancer disease in a multivariate analysis, beta coefficient -0.66; p = 0.04. There was no association between 25OHD levels and antibiotic use or quality of life. Univariate cox regression analysis showed a weak correlation between survival time and 25OHD levels (p<0.05). However, decreased albumin levels and increased CRP levels were superior markers to predict survival time; p<0.001 for both analyses. Conclusion Low 25OHD-levels are associated with increased opioid consumption in palliative cancer patients. Future interventional studies are needed to investigate if pain can be reduced by vitamin D supplementation in these patients. In addition, this study confirms previous findings that low albumin and increased CRP levels are useful markers for survival time in palliative cancer patients. PMID:26018761

  7. Significant Efficacy of Tramadol/Acetaminophen in Elderly Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain Uncontrolled by NSAIDs: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Chronic low back pain (LBP) is a common condition and is generally treated using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID); however, chronic NSAID use can decrease renal function. Tramadol, a weak opioid agonist, may improve chronic LBP and disability, while avoiding adverse effects such as gastrointestinal and renal toxicity. However, few studies have evaluated the short-term efficacy of opioids in Asian patients with chronic LBP. In this study, 24 patients with chronic LBP unresponsive to NSAIDs (10 men, 14 women; mean age, 65.1 ± 12.1 years) were prescribed tramadol/acetaminophen (37.5 mg/325 mg; four tablets daily) for 1 month. Then, the following parameters were assessed at baseline and after 1 week and 1 month of treatment: leg pain and LBP (Visual Analog Score [VAS]); activity of daily life (Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire [RDQ]); and disability (Oswestry Disability Index [ODI]). Leg pain resolved within 1 week (p = 0.00093); however, LBP was relieved only at 1 month (p = 0.00034). The mean RDQ (p = 0.015) and ODI (p = 0.0032) scores were improved at 1 month. A total 41.6% of patients reported nausea and floating sensation beginning tramadol/acetaminophen treatment, and 12.5% (four patients) discontinued treatment as a result. LBP did not improve in 25% of patients administered tramadol/acetaminophen. Because this was an observational study, rather than a comparative study, further investigation is needed to evaluate the long-term efficacy of tramadol/acetaminophen in elderly patients with chronic LBP unresponsive to NSAIDs.

  8. Higher Surface Ozone Concentrations Over the Chesapeake Bay than Over the Adjacent Land: Observations and Models from the DISCOVER-AQ and CBODAQ Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Daniel L.; Loughner, Christopher P.; Tzortziou, Maria; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Marufu, Lackson T.; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2013-01-01

    Air quality models, such as the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, indicate decidedly higher ozone near the surface of large interior water bodies, such as the Great Lakes and Chesapeake Bay. In order to test the validity of the model output, we performed surface measurements of ozone (O3) and total reactive nitrogen (NOy) on the 26-m Delaware II NOAA Small Research Vessel experimental (SRVx), deployed in the Chesapeake Bay for 10 daytime cruises in July 2011 as part of NASA's GEO-CAPE CBODAQ oceanographic field campaign in conjunction with NASA's DISCOVER-AQ air quality field campaign. During this 10-day period, the EPA O3 regulatory standard of 75 ppbv averaged over an 8-h period was exceeded four times over water while ground stations in the area only exceeded the standard at most twice. This suggests that on days when the Baltimore/Washington region is in compliance with the EPA standard, air quality over the Chesapeake Bay might exceed the EPA standard. Ozone observations over the bay during the afternoon were consistently 10-20% higher than the closest upwind ground sites during the 10-day campaign; this pattern persisted during good and poor air quality days. A lower boundary layer, reduced cloud cover, slower dry deposition rates, and other lesser mechanisms, contribute to the local maximum of ozone over the Chesapeake Bay. Observations from this campaign were compared to a CMAQ simulation at 1.33 km resolution. The model is able to predict the regional maximum of ozone over the Chesapeake Bay accurately, but NOy concentrations are significantly overestimated. Explanations for the overestimation of NOy in the model simulations are also explored

  9. Higher surface ozone concentrations over the Chesapeake Bay than over the adjacent land: Observations and models from the DISCOVER-AQ and CBODAQ campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Daniel L.; Loughner, Christopher P.; Tzortziou, Maria; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Marufu, Lackson T.; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2014-02-01

    Air quality models, such as the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, indicate decidedly higher ozone near the surface of large interior water bodies, such as the Great Lakes and Chesapeake Bay. In order to test the validity of the model output, we performed surface measurements of ozone (O3) and total reactive nitrogen (NOy) on the 26-m Delaware II NOAA Small Research Vessel experimental (SRVx), deployed in the Chesapeake Bay for 10 daytime cruises in July 2011 as part of NASA's GEO-CAPE CBODAQ oceanographic field campaign in conjunction with NASA's DISCOVER-AQ air quality field campaign. During this 10-day period, the EPA O3 regulatory standard of 75 ppbv averaged over an 8-h period was exceeded four times over water while ground stations in the area only exceeded the standard at most twice. This suggests that on days when the Baltimore/Washington region is in compliance with the EPA standard, air quality over the Chesapeake Bay might exceed the EPA standard. Ozone observations over the bay during the afternoon were consistently 10-20% higher than the closest upwind ground sites during the 10-day campaign; this pattern persisted during good and poor air quality days. A lower boundary layer, reduced cloud cover, slower dry deposition rates, and other lesser mechanisms, contribute to the local maximum of ozone over the Chesapeake Bay. Observations from this campaign were compared to a CMAQ simulation at 1.33 km resolution. The model is able to predict the regional maximum of ozone over the Chesapeake Bay accurately, but NOy concentrations are significantly overestimated. Explanations for the overestimation of NOy in the model simulations are also explored.

  10. The Barbarians at the Gate. Playing the Higher Education Game: Observations from the Periphery of the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Sheila Marie

    2012-01-01

    Higher education is considered by some to be synonymous with learning gained in an institution named as a university. The credentials gained from learning in such locations allow the holders to enter into the elite, which reproduces social exclusion to the benefit of that elite. In England, policy reform has opened up access to higher education to…

  11. Some Observations from a Very Telling Innocuous Query: An Essay on the State of Higher Education in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, José; Wakefield, Michael; LeMaster, Jane

    2010-01-01

    We present a self-reflective assessment of higher education from the perspective of educators and administrators prompted by a common question addressed to many of us, perhaps hundreds of times in the year; "What's my grade?" Upon some scrutiny, we find a series of troubling interrelated issues that more or less depict a system of higher

  12. Causal Attribution: Actor-Observer Bias in Academic Achievement among Students at an Institution of Higher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudhovozi, P.; Gumani, M.; Maunganidze, L.; Sodi, T.

    2010-01-01

    The study explores the attribution styles of in-group and out-group members. Eighty-four (42 female and 42 male) undergraduate students were randomly selected from the Faculty of Education at an institution of higher learning in Zimbabwe. A questionnaire was used to capture the opinions of the participants. The data was analysed using the…

  13. HIF-1? 1772 C/T and 1790 G/A Polymorphisms Are Significantly Associated with Higher Cancer Risk: An Updated Meta-Analysis from 34 Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chi; Qin, Qin; Liu, Jia; Xu, Li-Ping; Zhao, Lian-Jun; Zhang, Qu; Cai, Jing; Ma, Jian-Xin; Cheng, Hong-Yan; Sun, Xin-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Background HIF-1 activates various genes in cancer progression and metastasis. HIF-1? 1772 C/T and 1790 G/A polymorphisms are reportedly associated with cancer risk; however, the results are inconclusive. Methodology/Principal Findings A meta-analysis of 34 studies that involved 7522 cases and 9847 controls for 1772 C/T and 24 studies that involved 4884 cases and 8154 controls for 1790 G/A was conducted to identify the association of C/T and G/A polymorphisms with cancer risk. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to assess the strength of association. HIF-1? 1772 C/T and 1790 G/A polymorphisms were associated with higher cancer risk in homozygote comparison (1772C/T: TT vs. CC: OR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.52, 3.96; Pheterogeneity = 0.028; 1790G/A: AA vs. GG: OR=4.74, 95% CI: 1.78, 12.6; Pheterogeneity < 0.01), dominant model (1772C/T: TT/CT vs. CC: OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.55; Pheterogeneity < 0.01, 1790G/A: AA/GA vs. GG: OR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.60; Pheterogeneity < 0.01), T allele versus C allele (T vs. C: OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.70; Pheterogeneity < 0.01), and A allele versus G allele (A vs. G: OR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.13, 2.96; Pheterogeneity < 0.01). On a subgroup analysis, the 1772 C/T polymorphism was significantly linked to higher risks for breast cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and cervical cancer, whereas the 1790 G/A polymorphism was significantly linked to higher risks for lung cancer and prostate cancer. A significantly increased cancer risk was found in both Asians and Caucasians for 1772C/T polymorphism, whereas a significantly increased cancer risk was found in Caucasians in the heterozygote comparison and recessive model for 1790G/A polymorphism. Conclusions HIF-1? 1772 C/T and 1790 G/A polymorphisms are significantly associated with higher cancer risk. PMID:24260383

  14. July 14 fits these criteria: compared to July 16 and other days, much higher winds observed over portions of the lakes; little rain over lakes observed. (All

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    portions of the lakes; little rain over lakes observed. (All times are Greenwich Mean Time). We decided the Great Lakes. The particle concentrations generally decreased with altitude and increased exponentially Lakes.1 In this project, we modeled the potential impacts of these newly discovered particles, since

  15. Significant concentrations of nitryl chloride observed in rural continental Europe associated with the influence of sea salt chloride and anthropogenic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, G. J.; Tang, M. J.; Thieser, J.; Brickwedde, B.; Schuster, G.; Crowley, J. N.

    2012-04-01

    Recent observations of significant concentrations of nitryl chloride (ClNO2) over the North American continent, far from coastal regions, have highlighted a potentially important source of reactive halogens in the continental lower troposphere. Nitryl chloride, formed nocturnally by the heterogeneous reaction of N2O5 with aqueous-phase chloride, is readily photolysed producing NO2 and chlorine radical. We report measurement of significant quantities of nitryl chloride, up to 800 pptv, during the Particles and Radicals: Diel observations of the impact of urban and biogenic Emissions (PARADE) measurement campaign at a mountaintop field site in Hessen Germany, 350 km from the nearest coastline, using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS). ClNO2 was detected during the majority of nights between the 15th August and 16th September 2011, the largest mixing fractions of ClNO2 being associated with air masses influenced by sea salt and anthropogenic emissions. ClNO2 persisted in measurable quantities until early afternoons on days with foggy conditions and low photolysis frequencies.

  16. Observations of a rapidly flowing and significantly retreated Jakobshavn Isbrae and the proglacial ice mélange from a ground based radar interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassotto, R. K.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Amundson, J. M.; Truffer, M.; de la Pena, S.; Joughin, I. R.

    2012-12-01

    Jakobshavn Isbrae has experienced several changes in seasonal behavior over the last decade. During the period of floating ice tongue loss and late summer grounded calving from 2000-2010, the calving front experienced a seasonally modulated ~5km advance and retreat as calving ceased during the winter and re-initiated in the spring. During that time the glacier doubled its speed and the terminus retreated ~14 km. The glacier entered a new seasonal pattern in 2010 when it continued to calve throughout the winter and subsequently failed to significantly re-advance. The glacier continues to evolve into 2012; it is now moving at a new maximum speed and the terminus has already reached a new minimum position in mid-summer, far earlier than in previous years. The calving style has changed from full glacier thick icebergs that calve as episodic events at one week to few week intervals to smaller sub-kilometer icebergs that calve more frequently. A two-week field campaign was conducted observing the terminus and proglacial ice mélange during in August 2012. A group of ground based radar interferometers were deployed to monitor changes in speed and surface deformation in response to calving events and tidal cycles, helping to illustrate the new style of calving, which leads to significantly smaller icebergs in the fjord. Observations are compared against GPS instruments deployed along the terminus as well as time-lapse photography and satellite data. The radars not only capture the motion of glacier ice, but are also well suited to document the response of the ice melange to calving events. The effects of atmospheric variability on ground based radar interferometry can be important.

  17. Statistical Significance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This article may help the user understand the concept of statistical significance and the meaning of the numbers produced by The Survey System. This article is presented in two parts. The first part simplifies the concept of statistical significance as much as possible; so that non-technical readers can use the concept to help make decisions based on their data. The second part provides more technical readers with a fuller discussion of the exact meaning of statistical significance numbers.

  18. The Significance of HIV ‘Blips’ in Resource-Limited Settings: Is It the Same? Analysis of the Treat Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD) and the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD)

    PubMed Central

    Kanapathipillai, Rupa; McManus, Hamish; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Lim, Poh Lian; Templeton, David J.; Law, Matthew; Woolley, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Magnitude and frequency of HIV viral load blips in resource-limited settings, has not previously been assessed. This study was undertaken in a cohort from a high income country (Australia) known as AHOD (Australian HIV Observational Database) and another cohort from a mixture of Asian countries of varying national income per capita, TAHOD (TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database). Methods Blips were defined as detectable VL (? 50 copies/mL) preceded and followed by undetectable VL (<50 copies/mL). Virological failure (VF) was defined as two consecutive VL ?50 copies/ml. Cox proportional hazard models of time to first VF after entry, were developed. Results 5040 patients (AHOD n?=?2597 and TAHOD n?=?2521) were included; 910 (18%) of patients experienced blips. 744 (21%) and 166 (11%) of high- and middle/low-income participants, respectively, experienced blips ever. 711 (14%) experienced blips prior to virological failure. 559 (16%) and 152 (10%) of high- and middle/low-income participants, respectively, experienced blips prior to virological failure. VL testing occurred at a median frequency of 175 and 91 days in middle/low- and high-income sites, respectively. Longer time to VF occurred in middle/low income sites, compared with high-income sites (adjusted hazards ratio (AHR) 0.41; p<0.001), adjusted for year of first cART, Hepatitis C co-infection, cART regimen, and prior blips. Prior blips were not a significant predictor of VF in univariate analysis (AHR 0.97, p?=?0.82). Differing magnitudes of blips were not significant in univariate analyses as predictors of virological failure (p?=?0.360 for blip 50–?1000, p?=?0.309 for blip 50–?400 and p?=?0.300 for blip 50–?200). 209 of 866 (24%) patients were switched to an alternate regimen in the setting of a blip. Conclusion Despite a lower proportion of blips occurring in low/middle-income settings, no significant difference was found between settings. Nonetheless, a substantial number of participants were switched to alternative regimens in the setting of blips. PMID:24516527

  19. In situ endoscopic observation of higher-order mode conversion in a microwave mode converter based on an electro-optic probe system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ingeun; Lee, Dong-Joon; Choi, EunMi

    2014-11-01

    Visualizing the electromagnetic field transformation inside a microwave mode conversion region has been considered to be only realizable by simulation studies. For the first time, we present a comprehensive experimental observation of the electric field transformation occurring inside a metallic waveguide TE(01)-to-TE(02) mode converter. An efficient electro-optic (EO) probe and its associated probing system were used for measuring the electric field pattern in the external near-field region as well as in the internal and penetrated region of the mode converter. Utilizing the optically measured field patterns at the aperture of the mode converter, the conversion performance from the TE(01) mode to the TE(02) mode can be also evaluated. Experimentally measured field patterns near the apertures show excellent agreement with simulation data. The mode conversion to the next higher-order mode (TE(01) to TE(02)) was experimentally demonstrated with phase-stabilized and field-animated post processing. The presented in situ endoscopic photonic measurement technique for the field evolution inside a semi-enclosed structure could be used for visually inspecting manufacturing errors in fabricated structures, and could be of great interest for research on higher-order mode formation and transmission. PMID:25401901

  20. Significant concentrations of nitryl chloride observed in rural continental Europe associated with the influence of sea salt chloride and anthropogenic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, G. J.; Tang, M. J.; Thieser, J.; Brickwedde, B.; Schuster, G.; Bohn, B.; Lelieveld, J.; Crowley, J. N.

    2012-05-01

    We present the first measurements of nitryl chloride (ClNO2) over continental Europe. Significant quantities of ClNO2, up to 800 pptv, were measured at a mountaintop field site in Hessen, southwest Germany. ClNO2 was detected during the majority of nights between the 15th August and 16th September 2011, its largest mixing ratios being associated with air masses influenced by sea salt and anthropogenic NOx emissions. ClNO2 persisted in measurable quantities until early afternoons on days with low photolysis frequencies. As a consequence, early morning production rates of Cl atoms could significantly exceed the production of OH via ozone photolysis, likely leading to increased O3 production.

  1. Clinical significance of no-reflow phenomenon observed on angiography after successful treatment of acute myocardial infarction with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Itsuro Morishima; Takahito Sone; Shinji Mokuno; Shin Taga; Akemi Shimauchi; Yoshitaka Oki; Junichiro Kondo; Hideyuki Tsuboi; Hiromi Sassa

    1995-01-01

    The clinical significance of the angiographic no-reflow phenomenon was evaluated in 93 patients with acute myocardial infarction treated by percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). On the basis of the post-PTCA angiograms, patients were divided into three groups: normal angiogram (group 1, n=65), slight no-reflow (group 2, n = 13), and severe no-reflow (group 3, n = 15). Regional wall motion

  2. Higher Education: Schools' Use of the Antitrust Exemption Has Not Significantly Affected College Affordability or Likelihood of Student Enrollment to Date. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-06-963

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Cornelia M.

    2006-01-01

    In 1991 the U.S. Department of Justice sued nine colleges and universities, alleging that they had restrained competition by making collective financial aid determinations for students accepted to more than one of these schools. Against the backdrop of this litigation, Congress enacted a temporary exemption from antitrust laws for higher education…

  3. Clinical Significance of Observation without Repeated Radioiodine Therapy in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma Patients with Positive Surveillance Whole-Body Scans and Negative Thyroglobulin

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Dong-Jun; O, Joo Hyun; Kim, Min-Hee; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kang, Moo-Il; Cha, Bong-Yun; Lee, Kwang-Woo

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Currently, there is no consensus on the necessity of repeated radioiodine therapy (RAI) in patients who show iodine uptake in the thyroid bed on a diagnostic whole-body scan (DxWBS) despite undetectable thyroglobulin (Tg) levels after remnant ablation. The present study investigated the clinical outcomes of scan-positive, Tg-negative patients (WBS+Tg-) who did or did not receive additional RAI. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 389 differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients who underwent a total thyroidectomy and received high-dose RAI from January 2003 through December 2005. The patients were classified according to surveillance DxWBS findings and TSH-stimulated Tg levels 6 to 12 months after the initial RAI. Results Forty-four of the 389 patients (11.3%) showed thyroid bed uptake on a DxWBS despite negative Tg levels (WBS+Tg-). There was no difference in clinical and pathological parameters between WBS+Tg- and WBS-Tg- patients, except for an increased frequency of thyroiditis in the WBS+Tg- group. Among the 44 WBS+Tg- patients, 27 subjects were treated with additional RAI; 25 subjects showed no uptake in subsequent DxWBS. Two patients were evaluated only by ultrasonography (US) and displayed no persistent/recurrent disease. The other 17 patients received no further RAI; Eight patients and two patients showed no uptake and persistent uptake, respectively, on subsequent DxWBS. Six patients presented negative subsequent US findings, and one was lost to follow-up. Over the course of 53.2 ± 10.1 months, recurrence/persistence was suspicious in two patients in the treatment group. Conclusions There were no remarkable differences in clinical outcomes between observation and treatment groups of WBS+Tg- patients. Observation without repeated RAI may be an alternative management option for WBS+Tg- patients. PMID:21179279

  4. Significant RF-EMF and thermal levels observed in a computational model of a person with a tibial plate for grounded 40?MHz exposure.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Robert L; Iskra, Steve; Anderson, Vitas

    2014-05-01

    Using numerical modeling, a worst-case scenario is considered when a person with a metallic implant is exposed to a radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF). An adult male standing on a conductive ground plane was exposed to a 40?MHz vertically polarized plane wave field, close to whole-body resonance where maximal induced current flows are expected in the legs. A metal plate (50-300?mm long) was attached to the tibia in the left leg. The findings from this study re-emphasize the need to ensure compliance with limb current reference levels for exposures near whole-body resonance, and not just rely on compliance with ambient electric (E) and magnetic (H) field reference levels. Moreover, we emphasize this recommendation for someone with a tibial plate, as failure to comply may result in significant tissue damage (increases in the localized temperature of 5-10?°C were suggested by the modeling for an incident E-field of 61.4?V/m root mean square (rms)). It was determined that the occupational reference level for limb current (100?mA?rms), as stipulated in the 1998 guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), is satisfied if the plane wave incident E-field levels are no more than 29.8?V/m?rms without an implant and 23.4?V/m?rms for the model with a 300?mm implant. PMID:24578303

  5. Ritonavir and Efavirenz Significantly Alter the Metabolism of Erlotinib—an Observation in Primary Cultures of Human Hepatocytes That Is Relevant to HIV Patients with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Venkateswaran C.; Parise, Robert A.; Christner, Susan M.; Gramignoli, Roberto; Strom, Stephen C.; Rudek, Michelle A.; Beumer, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    Erlotinib is approved for the treatment of non–small cell lung and pancreatic cancers, and is metabolized by CYP3A4. Inducers and inhibitors of CYP3A enzymes such as ritonavir and efavirenz, respectively, may be used as part of the highly active antiretroviral therapy drugs to treat patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). When HIV patients with a malignancy need treatment with erlotinib, there is a potential of as-yet-undefined drug-drug interaction. We evaluated these interactions using human hepatocytes benchmarked against the interaction of erlotinib with ketoconazole and rifampin, the archetype cytochrome P450 inhibitor and inducer, respectively. Hepatocytes were treated with vehicle [0.1% dimethylsulfoxide, ritonavir (10 ?M)], ketoconazole (10 ?M), efavirenz (10 ?M), or rifampin (10 ?M) for 4 days. On day 5, erlotinib (5 ?M) was incubated with the above agents for another 24–48 hours. Concentrations of erlotinib and O-desmethyl erlotinib were quantitated in collected samples (combined lysate and medium) using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The half-life (t1/2) of erlotinib increased from 10.6 ± 2.6 to 153 ± 80 and 23.9 ± 4.8 hours, respectively, upon treatment with ritonavir and ketoconazole. The apparent intrinsic clearance (CLint, app) of erlotinib was lowered 16-fold by ritonavir and 1.9-fold by ketoconazole. Efavirenz and rifampin decreased t1/2 of erlotinib from 10.3 ± 1.1 to 5.0 ± 1.5 and 3.4 ± 0.2 hours, respectively. Efavirenz and rifampin increased the CLint, app of erlotinib by 2.2- and 2-fold, respectively. Our results suggest that to achieve desired drug exposure, the clinically used dose (150 mg daily) of erlotinib may have to be significantly reduced (25 mg every other day) or increased (300 mg daily), respectively, when ritonavir or efavirenz is coadministered. PMID:23913028

  6. Examples of Significant Chandra Imaging Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Speybroeck, L. P.

    2002-12-01

    The Chandra X-ray telescope angular resolution has enabled qualitative advances in studies of complex objects, crowded fields, and very faint sources which require great sensitivity. The fabrication of the optics will be reviewed very briefly. Some examples of important results which illustrate and depend upon the optical performance of the mirrors will be presented; these include a dense young star cluster, supernovae remnants, pulsars and pulsar wind driven nebulae, globular clusters, sources in nearby galaxies, QSOs, and clusters of galaxies. This work was partially supported by NASA grant NAG8-1607 and many other NASA contracts.

  7. ANEUPLOIDY IN HIGHER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews the significance and frequency of naturally occurring aneuploidy in higher plants. The role and mechanism of induction of aneuploidy by radiation, chemicals, thermal shocks, and self hybridization of polyploids and aneuploids in generating primary and secondary ...

  8. Observations of Co4+ in a Higher Spin State and the Increase in the Seebeck Coefficient of Thermoelectric Ca3Co4O9

    SciTech Connect

    Klie, Robert F [University of Illinois, Chicago; Qiao, Q. [University of Illinois, Chicago; Paulauskas, T. [University of Illinois, Chicago; Gulec, A. [University of Illinois, Chicago; Rebola, A. [University of Illinois, Chicago; Ogut, Serdar [University of Illinois, Chicago; Prange, Micah P [Vanderbilt University; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C [ORNL; Pantelides, Sokrates T. [Vanderbilt University; Kolesnik, S. [Northern Illinois University; Dabrowski, B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ozdemir, M. [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; Boyraz, C. [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; Mazumdar, Dipanjan [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; Gupta, Dr. Arunava [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa

    2012-01-01

    Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} has a unique structure that leads to exceptionally high thermoelectric transport. Here we report the achievement of a 27% increase in the room-temperature in-plane Seebeck coefficient of Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} thin films. We combine aberration-corrected Z-contrast imaging, atomic-column resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and density-functional calculations to show that the increase is caused by stacking faults with Co4+-ions in a higher spin state compared to that of bulk Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9}. The higher Seebeck coefficient makes the Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} system suitable for many high temperature waste-heat-recovery applications.

  9. Observations of Co4+ in a higher spin state and the increase in the Seebeck coefficient of thermoelectric Ca3Co4O9.

    PubMed

    Klie, R F; Qiao, Q; Paulauskas, T; Gulec, A; Rebola, A; Ö?üt, S; Prange, M P; Idrobo, J C; Pantelides, S T; Kolesnik, S; Dabrowski, B; Ozdemir, M; Boyraz, C; Mazumdar, D; Gupta, A

    2012-05-11

    Ca3Co4O9 has a unique structure that leads to exceptionally high thermoelectric transport. Here we report the achievement of a 27% increase in the room-temperature in-plane Seebeck coefficient of Ca3Co4O9 thin films. We combine aberration-corrected Z-contrast imaging, atomic-column resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and density-functional calculations to show that the increase is caused by stacking faults with Co4+-ions in a higher spin state compared to that of bulk Ca3Co4O9. The higher Seebeck coefficient makes the Ca3Co4O9 system suitable for many high temperature waste-heat-recovery applications. PMID:23003068

  10. Measures of Clinical Significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HELENA CHMURA KRAEMER; GEORGE A. MORGAN; NANCY L. LEECH; JEFFREY A. GLINER; JERRY J. VASKE; ROBERT J. HARMON

    2003-01-01

    Behavioral scientists are interested in answering three basic questions when examining the relationships between vari- ables (Kirk, 2001). First, is an observed result real or should it be attributed to chance (i.e., statistical significance)? Sec- ond, if the result is real, how large is it (i.e., effect size)? Third, is the result large enough to be meaningful and useful (i.e.,

  11. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    Higher education case law in 1990 is discussed in this chapter under nine major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) discrimination in employment; (3) faculty employment; (4) administrators and staff; (5) students; (6) liability; (7) antitrust; (8) patents; and (9) estates and wills. Questions of the authority of federal, state, and local…

  12. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Finnegan, Dorothy E.

    The higher education case law in 1988 is extensive. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under five major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining, and denial of employee benefits; (3) students, involving admissions, financial aid, First…

  13. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Gregory, Dennis E.

    Decisions made by federal and state courts during 1983 concerning higher education are reported in this chapter. Issues of employment and the treatment of students underlay the bulk of the litigation. Specific topics addressed in these and other cases included federal authority to enforce regulations against age discrimination and to revoke an…

  14. The Differential Impact of Observational Learning and Practice-Based Learning on the Development of Oral Presentation Skills in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Grez, Luc; Valcke, Martin; Roozen, Irene

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on the design and evaluation of an innovative instructional approach to developing oral presentation skills. The intervention builds on the observational learning theoretical perspective. This perspective is contrasted with the traditional training and practice approach. Two sequencing approaches--learners starting with…

  15. Higher anthraxolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, M. M.; Cherevko, N. K.; Golubev, E. A.

    2007-12-01

    Recent years have been marked by progress in studying the structure of natural X-ray amorphous substances, anthraxolites included, by scanning electron and atomic power microscopy. Integration of the available data on molecular and supramolecular structure of higher anthraxolites from Karelia, Novaya Zemlya, and the Urals allowed elaboration of new classification criteria for solid bitumen, namely, degree of structure perfection and micromineral composition. This approach will help to eliminate disadvantages of traditional investigation of solid bitumen.

  16. Monocular amblyopia and higher order aberrations.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Stephen J; Collins, Michael J; Read, Scott A; Carney, Leo G

    2012-08-01

    This study compared the corneal and total higher order aberrations between the fellow eyes in monocular amblyopia. Nineteen amblyopic subjects (8 refractive and 11 strabismic) (mean age 30 ± 11 years) were recruited. A range of biometric and optical measurements were collected from the amblyopic and non-amblyopic eye including; axial length, corneal topography and total higher order aberrations. For a sub-group of eleven non-presbyopic subjects (6 refractive and 5 strabismic amblyopes, mean age 29 ± 10 years) total higher order aberrations were also measured during accommodation (2.5D stimuli). Amblyopic eyes were significantly shorter and more hyperopic compared to non-amblyopic eyes and the interocular difference in axial length correlated with both the magnitude of anisometropia and amblyopia (both p<0.01). Significant differences in higher order aberrations were observed between fellow eyes, which varied with the type of amblyopia. Refractive amblyopes displayed higher levels of 4th order corneal aberrations C(4,0)(spherical aberration), C(4,2)(secondary astigmatism 90°) and C(4,-2)(secondary astigmatism along 45°) in the amblyopic eye compared to the non-amblyopic eye. Strabismic amblyopes exhibited significantly higher levels of C(3,3)(trefoil) in the amblyopic eye for both corneal and total higher order aberrations. During accommodation, the amblyopic eye displayed a significantly greater lag of accommodation compared to the non-amblyopic eye, while the changes in higher order aberrations were similar in magnitude between fellow eyes. Asymmetric visual experience during development appears to be associated with asymmetries in higher order aberrations, in some cases proportional to the magnitude of anisometropia and dependent upon the amblyogenic factor. PMID:22766479

  17. Peripheral blood stem cell mobilization in multiple myeloma patients treat in the novel therapy-era with plerixafor and G-CSF has superior efficacy but significantly higher costs compared to mobilization with low-dose cyclophosphamide and G-CSF.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Lubna; Awan, Farrukh; Cumpston, Aaron; Leadmon, Sonia; Watkins, Kathy; Tse, William; Craig, Michael; Hamadani, Mehdi

    2013-10-01

    Studies comparing the efficacy and cost of peripheral blood stem and progenitor cells mobilization with low-dose cyclophosphamide (LD-CY) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) against plerixafor and G-CSF, in multiple myeloma (MM) patients treated in the novel therapy-era are not available. Herein, we report mobilization outcomes of 107 patients who underwent transplantation within 1-year of starting induction chemotherapy with novel agents. Patients undergoing mobilization with LD-CY (1.5 gm/m(2)) and G-CSF (n?=?74) were compared against patients receiving plerixafor and G-CSF (n?=?33). Compared to plerixafor, LD-CY was associated with a significantly lower median peak peripheral blood CD34+ cell count (68/µL vs. 36/µL, P?=?0.048), and lower CD34+ cell yield on day 1 of collection (6.9?×?10(6)/kg vs. 2.4?×?10(6)/kg, P?=?0.001). Six patients (8.1%) in the LD-CY group experienced mobilization failure, compared to none in the plerixafor group. The total CD34+ cell yield was significantly higher in the plerixafor group (median 11.6?×?10(6)/kg vs. 7?×?10(6)/kg; P-value?=?0.001). Mobilization with LD-CY was associated with increased (albeit statistically non-significant) episodes of febrile neutropenia (5.4% vs. 0%; P?=?0.24), higher use of intravenous antibiotics (6.7% vs. 3%; P?=?0.45), and need for hospitalizations (9.4% vs. 3%; P?=?0.24). The average total cost of mobilization in the plerixafor group was significantly higher compared to the LD-CY group ($28,980 vs. $19,626.5 P-value?significantly higher mobilization costs compared to LD-CY mobilization. Our data caution against the use of LD-CY in MM patients for mobilization, especially after induction with lenalidomide-containing regimens. PMID:23765597

  18. Minimizing Significant Figure Fuzziness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Lawrence D.; Hawkes, Stephen J.

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the principles and problems associated with the use of significant figures. Explains uncertainty, the meaning of significant figures, the Simple Rule, the Three Rule, and the 1-5 Rule. Also provides examples of the Rules. (ML)

  19. Significant potential for lower costs.

    PubMed

    Renecle, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Switching to LED lighting has, specialist supplier of such technology, Exled maintains, 'proven to be one of the most significant cost-saving activities hospitals can undertake'. Alongside the financial gains, other benefits include higher levels of patient satisfaction with lighting 'quality' and ambience, and improved environmental credentials. Here Exled MD, Michael Renecle, discusses LED lighting in healthcare in some detail, offers useful pointers on specification, examines some of the 'significant savings and environmental improvements' available to those 'making the switch', and considers the positive experiences of a number of NHS Trusts who have done so. PMID:25282981

  20. Tests of Significance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lacey, Michelle

    This site gives an explanation, a definition of and an example for tests of significance. Topics include null and alternative hypotheses for population mean, one-sided and two-sided z and t tests, levels of significance, and matched pairs analysis. Overall, this is a nice presentation of significance tests for any mathematics classroom.

  1. Teaching Significant Figures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy H. Logan

    1964-01-01

    It is suggested that students would not be so careless about significant figures if they could actually see a demonstration of figures which are not significant. Such a demonstration is described, as is a simple teaching machine designed to give students facility in identifying insignificant figures in their calculations.

  2. Women in Higher Education, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenninger, Mary Dee, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This document consists of the 12 monthly issues of a newsletter on women students, teachers, and administrators in higher education, issued in 1994. Each issue includes feature articles, news on higher education, profiles of significant people in the field, and job announcements. The issues' main article topics are: (1) campuses's changing…

  3. Women in Higher Education, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenniger, Mary Dee, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of the issues of a 1996 newsletter on women students, teachers, and administrators in higher education. Each issue includes feature articles, news on higher education, profiles of significant people in the field, and job announcements. The issues' main articles concern: (1) a successful campaign to increase female…

  4. Disruptive Technologies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of "disruptive" innovative technologies in higher education. In this country and elsewhere, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have invested significant sums in learning technologies, with Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) being more or less universal, but these technologies have not been universally adopted and…

  5. [Submitting studies without significant results].

    PubMed

    Texier, Gaëtan; Meynard, Jean-Baptiste; Michel, Rémy; Migliani, René; Boutin, Jean-Paul

    2007-03-01

    When a study finds that no exposure factor or therapy is significantly related to a given effect, researchers legitimately wonder if the results should be submitted for publication and to what journal. Clinical trials that report significant associations have a higher probability of publication, a phenomenon known as selective publication. The principal reasons of this selective publication include author self-censorship, peer-reviewing, trials not intended for publication, interpretation of the p value, cost of journal subscriptions, and policies. Subsequent reviews and meta-analyses are biased by the unavailability of nonsignificant results. Suggestions for preventing this risk include university training, trial registries, an international standard randomised controlled trial number (ISRCTN), Cochrane collaboration, and the gray literature. Journals (including electronic journals) interested in studies with nonsignificant results are listed. New technologies are changing the relations between publishers, libraries, authors and readers. PMID:17287106

  6. Lack of Statistical Significance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Kawano, Takuji

    2007-01-01

    Criticism has been leveled against the use of statistical significance testing (SST) in many disciplines. However, the field of school psychology has been largely devoid of critiques of SST. Inspection of the primary journals in school psychology indicated numerous examples of SST with nonrandom samples and/or samples of convenience. In this…

  7. Propagation of Significant Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Lowell M.

    1985-01-01

    Shows that the rules of thumb for propagating significant figures through arithmetic calculations frequently yield misleading results. Also describes two procedures for performing this propagation more reliably than the rules of thumb. However, both require considerably more calculational effort than do the rules. (JN)

  8. Statistical Applets: Statistical Significance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Duckworth, William

    Created by authors Duckworth, McCabe, Moore and Sclove for W.H. Freeman of Co., this applet is designed to help students visualize the rejection region of a statistical test by allowing them to set null and alternate hypotheses, population parameters, sample statistics, and significance level. It accompanies "Â?Â?Practice of Business Statistics," but can be used without this text. Even though brief, this is a nice interactive resource for an introductory statistics course.

  9. Reclaiming Our Soul: Democracy and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chickering, Arthur W.

    2003-01-01

    Explores how, as higher education faces new financial realities together with escalating demands for more accountability, a call to reclaim the soul of higher education and with it, the soul of democracy, will require significant institutional and personal transformations. (EV)

  10. Historical Significant Events Imagery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Historical Significant Events Imagery database (HSEI) is maintained by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). It contains hundreds of selected satellite images capturing some of the more important weather and environmental events over the last 30 years. One can search for images of a specific type of event or for a specific date range, go to a " What's New" section for images added in the past 7 days, or visit a "Most Popular" section for frequently-requested images. The images can be viewed on-line or downloaded for free, or one can order hardcopy matte or glossy finish prints for a small fee. Image dates range from 1960 (the first image from space) to present, and cover phenomena such as dust storms, fire, floods, hurricanes, snow cover, oil spills, severe weather and volcanoes.

  11. The detection of clinically significant erythrocyte alloantibodies using a human mononuclear phagocyte assay

    SciTech Connect

    Schanfield, M.S.; Stevens, J.O.; Bauman, D.

    1981-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) allo- or autoantibodies, which markedly reduce the survival of transfused or autologous RBC, are considered to be clinically significant antibodies. The occurrence of antibodies against high-incidence antigens, which are occasionally associated with clinically significant RBC destruction or are of unknown clinical significance, often creates delays in providing blood to patients. In the majority of cases these antibodies are benign; however, clinically significant examples of these antibodies have been reported. An in vitro homologous human mononuclear phagocyte assay (MPA) was used to study antibodies directed against specificities associated with variable clinical significance. Two antibodies reported to be clinically significant and 25 antibodies known to be clinically insignificant were tested by MPA. The results indicate that clinically significant antibodies have a significantly higher score than do clinically insignificant antibodies, with no overlap observed between the two groups. An additional eight antibodies with unknown clinical significance were tested. None of these antibodies had scores in the clinically significant range.

  12. Preheating with higher dimensional interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enomoto, Seishi; Maekawa, Nobuhiro; Matsuda, Tomohiro

    2015-05-01

    Particle production caused by the oscillation after inflation is important since it explains reheating after inflation. On the particle theory side, we know that effective action may have additional higher dimensional terms (usually called nonrenormalizable terms) suppressed by the cutoff scale. Moreover, interaction between the inflaton and so-called moduli field will be higher dimensional. Therefore, if such higher dimensional interaction is significant for resonant particle production, one cannot avoid the effect in a preheating study. We explicitly calculated the required number of oscillations for the energy transfer. Consequently, cosmological history of an oscillating field and the moduli problem can be reconsidered.

  13. Higher Education Exchange, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The Higher Education Exchange is part of a movement to strengthen higher education's democratic mission and foster a more democratic culture throughout American society. Working in this tradition, the Higher Education Exchange publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic…

  14. Higher Education Exchange, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  15. Higher Education Exchange, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  16. Higher Education Exchange, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  17. How significant is nocturnal sap flow?

    PubMed

    Forster, Michael A

    2014-07-01

    Nocturnal sap flow (Qn) has been found to occur across many taxa, seasons and biomes. There is no general understanding as to how much Qn occurs and whether it is a significant contribution to total daily sap flow (Q). A synthesis of the literature and unpublished data was made to determine how significant is Qn, as a proportion of Q (%Qn), across seasons, biomes, phylogenetic groups and different thermometric sap flow methods. A total of 98 species were analysed to find that %Qn, on average, was 12.03% with the highest average dataset of 69.00%. There was significantly less %Qn in winter than in other temperate seasons, and significantly less %Qn in the wet season than in the dry season. The equatorial and tropical biomes had significantly higher %Qn than the warm temperate and nemoral biomes. The heat ratio method (HRM) and the thermal dissipation (TDP) method had significantly higher %Qn than the heat balance method. Additional analysis between HRM and TDP found HRM to have significantly higher %Qn in winter, wet season and various biomes. In all but one out of 246 cases Qn occurred, demonstrating that Qn is significant and needs to be carefully considered in sap flow and related studies. PMID:24990866

  18. Women in Higher Education, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenniger, Mary Dee Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the twelve consecutive numbers of the newsletter "Women in Education", published during 1998. This newsletter focus on issues concerned with women students, women faculty, and women administrators in higher education. Each issue includes feature articles, news items, and profiles of significant people. Feature articles…

  19. ASCA Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, David J.

    1998-01-01

    This recently expired grant has supported the work of the PI, his students, and his collaborators on a variety of ASCA projects over the past four years. Annual reports have summarized much of the work accomplished; here we provide a brief review of the work resulting from this effort, and a summary of the personnel who have benefited from the grant's support. Starburst Galaxies with Extreme X-ray Luminosities This project began as a careful examination of the claims of Boller et al. (1992) that there were dozens of "normal" galaxies in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey that had X-ray luminosities in excess of 1042 erg sec, higher than that seen in the hundreds of non-AGN galaxies observed with Einstein. If true, this suggested that X-ray emission associated with star formation activity might have a significant contribution to make to the still unexplained cosmic X-ray background (XRB). Since some of our earlier work with the Einstein Observatory Deep Surveys had suggested a similar possibility and several sets of authors over the years had modelled the starburst XRB contribution, these claims were worth pursuing. Our work expanded the examination beyond the RASS to include earlier claims of high-luminosity galaxies powered by starburst emission (selected in this case on the basis of the far-IR luminosities). The result of extensive followup observations under several programs using ROSAT, ASCA, and ground-based facilities was to show that nearly all of these objects in fact have hidden AGN at their cores, and that their luminosities are not in any way extraordinary.

  20. The significance of gamma ray observations for neutrino astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.

    1978-01-01

    Celestial gamma-rays and neutrinos are formed in some of the same astrophysical interactions, but have important different properties. Measurements of these radiations were used to study the presence and dynamic effects of energetic charged cosmic ray particles, element synthesis and particle acceleration. In addition, since gamma-rays in the energy range from several MeV to at least 10 to the 12th power eV and neutrinos both have very low interaction cross sections, they have a very high penetrating power and reach the earth from almost any part of the galaxy or universe. Therefore, they retain the detailed imprint of spectral, directional and temporal features imposed at their birth, even if they were born in regions opaque to visible light and X-rays.

  1. India's Higher Education Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream…

  2. The Risks of Privatisation of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camilleri, Anthony F.

    2008-01-01

    The presentation looks at the latest statistics on participation in Higher Education, to question whether privatisation of systems has significant effects on participation, affordability and equity of Higher Education. It further looks into questions of autonomy and governance of Higher Education systems in private and public systems, and finally…

  3. Loss of Significance and Multidecadal Madden Julian oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhas, E.; Goswami, B.

    2009-12-01

    Any change in the significant power of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) would not only affect the extended range prediction of MJO, but also affect the predictability of the tropical weather as it clusters synoptic activity. Change in significance and interdecadal variability of northern hemispheric winter MJO during 1948-2006 is examined using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. Variation of MJO power relative to the rednoise background is estimated by isolating the MJO signal through frequency-wavenumber spectral analysis using a 10-year sliding window. It is shown that during the periods, the rate of increase of red background power has been larger than the rate of increase of MJO power leading to a decreasing trend of significant MJO power. It is also found that an interdecadal variation rides on the decreasing trend of significant power of the MJO. Another finding is that the zonal mean component on MJO time scale has a significant increasing trend. We propose that the persistent warming of Tropical Ocean during the period makes the tropical atmosphere increasingly unstable leading to higher intensity and frequency of occurrence of high frequency events. Higher energy in smaller scales eventually results in higher energy in larger scales through nonlinear upscale cascading of energy making the energy spectrum red. Energetics calculation in wavenumber domain has been carried out to understand why the significant MJO power is not increasing as fast as the red background. It shows that the long waves (wavenumber 1-3, i.e the MJO scale) always lose energy to the zonal mean flow and the rate of kinetic energy exchange between zonal mean flow and long waves has a linear increasing trend. Thus, while MJO is also being energized by the warming ocean, it is loosing increasingly more energy to zonal mean flow making the zonal mean more energetic while loosing its own significance at the same time. It is found that the observed interdecadal variability of the significant MJO power has no relationship with other well known interdecadal variability. However, we find that the interdecadal variability of MJO and the rate of kinetic energy exchange between zonal mean flow and long waves are closely linked, indicating that the observed interdecadal variability of MJO is internally driven. Averaged Raw/background power over wavenumbers 1 to 3 and period 20 to 70 day of dominant space-time modes of tropical zonal wind at 200 mb for NDJF from 1948 to 2006, computed using 10 year moving window. Solid line - NCEP/NCAR , dashed line -ERA40 reanalysis.

  4. Higher Education in Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western European Education, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes trends in Portugese higher education. Recent changes in the organization of institutions of higher education, the types of academic degrees granted, and characteristics of the student population are described. Factors affecting employment of college graduates are discussed. (AM)

  5. Does Higher Tech Require Higher Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2001-01-01

    According to a Michigan State University study of auto workers, the equivalent of an eighth-grade mathematics education is adequate preparation for nonprofessional, high-tech work. Another MSU study by Nell Duke discovered that children in higher SES classrooms have richer print experiences than do less advantaged children. (MLH)

  6. Higher Education: Paradise Lost?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Clark

    1978-01-01

    Some of the reasons for the comparative decline of the elite sector are analyzed, including (1) the historical transition from elite to mass access to universal higher education, (2) the politicization of higher education, and (3) the increasing submergence of higher education under external social controls. The preservation of an elite or "highly…

  7. Higher Education Exchange, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" discuss the concept of growing public scholars; each contribution incorporates a student component. Articles include: (1) "Foreword"…

  8. Significant role of estrogen in maintaining cardiac mitochondrial functions.

    PubMed

    Rattanasopa, Chutima; Phungphong, Sukanya; Wattanapermpool, Jonggonnee; Bupha-Intr, Tepmanas

    2015-03-01

    Increased susceptibility to stress-induced myocardial damage is a significant concern in addition to decreased cardiac performance in postmenopausal females. To determine the potential mechanisms underlying myocardial vulnerability after deprivation of female sex hormones, cardiac mitochondrial function is determined in 10-week ovariectomized rats (OVX). Significant mitochondrial swelling in the heart of OVX rats is observed. This structural alteration can be prevented with either estrogen or progesterone supplementation. Using an isolated mitochondrial preparation, a decrease in ATP synthesis by complex I activation in an OVX rat is completely restored by estrogen, but not progesterone. At basal activation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from the mitochondria is not affected by the ovariectomy. However, after incubated in the presence of either high Ca(2+) or antimycin-A, there is a significantly higher mitochondrial ROS production in the OVX sample compared to the control. This increased stress-induced ROS production is not observed in the preparation isolated from the hearts of OVX rats with estrogen or progesterone supplementation. However, deprivation of female sex hormones has no effect on the protein expression of electron transport chain complexes, mitofusin 2, or superoxide dismutase 2. Taken together, these findings suggest that female sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, play significant regulatory roles in maintaining normal mitochondrial properties by stabilizing the structural assembly of mitochondria as well as attenuating mitochondrial ROS production. Estrogen, but not progesterone, also plays an important role in modulating mitochondrial ATP synthesis. PMID:25448746

  9. The biological significance of ?-oxidation of fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    MIURA, Yoshiro

    2013-01-01

    The author focuses on the biological significance of ?-oxidation of fatty acids. Early studies revealed that there is a subsidiary pathway for ?-oxidation of fatty acids when ?-oxidation is blocked. Many studies demonstrated that the ?-oxidation serves to provide succinyl-CoA for the citric acid cycle and for gluconeogenesis under conditions of starvation and diabetes. Acylglucosylceramides which are composed of linoleic acid, long chain ?-hydroxy fatty acids, eicosasphingenine (or trihydroxyeicosasphingenine) and glucose, are responsible for normal epidermal permeability function in the skin. It is observed that ?- and (?-1)-oxidation of fatty acids are related to energy metabolism in some laboratory animals such as musk shrews and Mongolian gerbils. Studies confirmed that ?- and (?-1)-oxidation of fatty acids play crucial roles in the production of insect pheromones of honeybees and in the formation of biopolyesters of higher plants. In addition, the biological significance of ?-oxidation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes is described. PMID:24126285

  10. The biological significance of ?-oxidation of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yoshiro

    2013-01-01

    The author focuses on the biological significance of ?-oxidation of fatty acids. Early studies revealed that there is a subsidiary pathway for ?-oxidation of fatty acids when ?-oxidation is blocked. Many studies demonstrated that the ?-oxidation serves to provide succinyl-CoA for the citric acid cycle and for gluconeogenesis under conditions of starvation and diabetes. Acylglucosylceramides which are composed of linoleic acid, long chain ?-hydroxy fatty acids, eicosasphingenine (or trihydroxyeicosasphingenine) and glucose, are responsible for normal epidermal permeability function in the skin. It is observed that ?- and (?-1)-oxidation of fatty acids are related to energy metabolism in some laboratory animals such as musk shrews and Mongolian gerbils. Studies confirmed that ?- and (?-1)-oxidation of fatty acids play crucial roles in the production of insect pheromones of honeybees and in the formation of biopolyesters of higher plants. In addition, the biological significance of ?-oxidation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes is described. PMID:24126285

  11. Higher Education Resource Hub

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Developed and maintained by James Forest, the Higher Education Resource Hub is a fine source of information about the field of higher education within the United States and around the world. Most of the site's sections can be reached from the home page, and deal with such topics as assessment in higher education, news, and recent publications that feature research on higher education. Another helpful feature is a collection of links to the syllabi for courses at the college and graduate level that address the topic of higher education. The history of higher education is particularly helpful, as it contains a number of primary documents including the text of the GI Bill, the Morrill Land Grant Acts, some rather trenchant commentaries from John Henry Newman, and Thorstein Veblen's scathing critique of American higher education published in 1918. The site also has a section devoted to job resources in higher education, and is completed with information about the reference work, "Higher Education in the United States: An Encyclopedia," which is co-edited by Mr. Forest and Kevin Kinser of SUNY-Albany.

  12. Higher Education Doctorof Philosophy

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    Higher Education Doctorof Philosophy Program Handbook College of Education Graduate Education and Research Texas Tech University Box 41071 Lubbock, TX 79409-1071 (806) 742-1997 Fax (806) 742-2197 www.educ.ttu.edu Effective Fall 2011a #12;2 Higher Education: Doctor

  13. Quality in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruben, Brent D., Ed.

    This volume contains 21 new and classic papers and readings on quality philosophies and concepts, first, as they have been applied in business and industry but primarily as they relate to and can be applied in higher education. The introduction is titled "The Quality Approach in Higher Education: Context and Concepts for Change" by Brent D. Ruben.…

  14. Higher Education Exchange 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    A foreword and nine articles discuss issues on the role of institutions of higher education in the rebuilding of a public life involving citizens across the country. After the foreword by David Brown and Deborah Witte, the papers are: (1) "The Public and Its Colleges: Reflections on the History of American Higher Education (R. Claire Snyder),…

  15. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON HIGHER EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Center for Research and Development in Higher Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY IS DEVELOPED BY THE CENTER FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN HIGHER EDUCATION. IT INCLUDES PUBLICATIONS AND MIMEOGRAPHED REPORTS BASED ON, OR RELATED TO, THE RESEARCH CONDUCTED AT THE CENTER. THIS DOCUMENT IS ALSO AVAILABLE FROM THE CENTER FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN HIGHER EDUCATION, 1947 CENTER STREET, BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA…

  16. Innovation in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Colin Flood, Ed.; Greenaway, Harriet, Ed.

    This document comprises papers presented at the Society for Research into Higher Education conference on innovation in higher education. The conference took two directions; first was a discussion of innovation as an idea; with associated appraisals of the problems of implementation of innovations; and secondly, descriptions of particular recent…

  17. Reshaping American Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaccaro, Louis C., Ed.

    A selection of essays deals with current issues in American higher education, offering a variety of views. Essays include an overview of contemporary higher education, and discussions of: changes in typical college curricula; changes in the college calendar and their effects on curriculum; the present status of nontraditional studies; the growth…

  18. Chicanos in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Juan M., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This "special theme" journal issue focuses on higher education of Chicanos and Latinos. The journal includes the following articles: (1) "Dilemmas of Chicano and Latino Professors in U.S. Universities" (Hisauro Garza); (2) "Analysis of Tenure Among Hispanic Higher Education Faculty" (Richard R. Verdugo); (3) "Experiences of Multiple Marginality: A…

  19. Minorities in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justiz, Manuel J., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 19 papers on efforts to increase the participation of members of minority groups in higher education. The papers are: (1) "Demographic Trends and the Challenges to American Higher Education" (Manuel Justiz); (2) "Three Realities: Minority Life in the United States--The Struggle for Economic Equity (adapted by Don M. Blandin);…

  20. A paradox for significant freedom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Almeida

    2003-01-01

    According to one view about significant freedom a moral agent has significant freedom in doing A at a time t if an only if A is morally significant for the agent and the agent’s options at t are not logically entailed by any set of propositions describing facts or causal laws holding antecedent to t .A morally significant action is

  1. The trophic significance of Phaeocystis blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisse, T.; Tande, K.; Verity, P.; Hansen, F.; Gieskes, W.

    1994-04-01

    Both colonies and solitary cells of the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis are ingested by a wide array of marine vertebrates. Grazers include protozoa, bivalves, amphipods, euphausiids and many copepod species. Common fish species such as mackerel ( Scomber scombrus) and flounder ( Pleuronectus flesus) have also been reported to feed upon Phaeocystis. While qualitative observations on the potential trophic significance of Phaeocystis exist for a long time, attempts to quantify feeding rates on Phaeocystis have begun only during the last decade. In feeding experiments, copepods have received most attention. Many copepod species appear to consume Phaeocystis colonies and solitary cells in the North Atlantic and in polar seas. Ingestion rates are highly variable depending on size and physiological state of Phaeocystis as well as on copepod species. Within the same species, large variations in individual feeding rates have been reported from different areas and investigators. When Phaeocystis co-occurs with larger amounts of diatoms, the latter seem to be preferred by some copepod species while others do not select against Phaeocystis. At present it is unclear whether this is primarily due to unsuitable size of Phaeocystis or because it is poor quality food. The relative nutritive value of Phaeocystis single cells and colonies should be investigated in more detail. Feeding of protozoa on Phaeocystis has been little studied. Ciliates and the giant dinoflagellate Noctiluca are known to consume Phaeocystis solitary cells. Protozoa might efficiently control Phaeocystis blooms during their initial phases when the share of solitary cells relative to total Phaeocystis biomass is higher than during later stages of the bloom. By switching their food preference towards heterotrophic food, copepods might benefit from enhanced protozoan biomass during Phaeocystis blooms. The potential succession of protozoan and metazoan grazers in the course of a Phaeocystis bloom awaits further research.

  2. Forecasting Higher Education's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyken, Don; Buck, Tina S.; Kollie, Ellen; Przyborowski, Danielle; Rondinelli, Joseph A.; Hunter, Jeff; Hanna, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Offers predictions on trends in higher education to accommodate changing needs, lower budgets, and increased enrollment. They involve campus construction, security, administration, technology, interior design, athletics, and transportation. (EV)

  3. ChemTeacher: Significant Figures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Significant Figures page includes resources for teaching students about understanding and using significant figures in calculations.

  4. Springtime photochemical ozone production observed in the upper troposphere over East Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Miyazaki; K. Kita; Y. Kondo; M. Ko; W. Hu; S. Kawakami; M. Koike; D. Blake; T. Ogawa

    2001-01-01

    Aircraft observations of ozone and its precursors (NO, NOy, CO, and non-methane hydrocarbons) were made near Japan in April 1998 to investigate the effect of transport and chemistry on tropospheric ozone over East Asia in spring. The average concentrations of ozone and its precursors in the upper troposphere were higher than those observed during February-March 1994. The significantly higher mixing

  5. Coxibs: a significant therapeutic opportunity.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Davide; Adami, Silvano

    2010-12-01

    Pain is the main reason why people decide to see a doctor; hence, the widespread use of anti-inflammatory drugs which were specifically developed to control pain and inflammation. One of the main causes of pain is represented by osteoarticular conditions, the most common one being arthrosis. Paracetamol is universally indicated as the therapy of first choice in degenerative pathologies of the joints, although it is often insufficient to control adequately the clinical picture and less efficacious than anti-inflammatory drugs. These latter, however, especially when taken chronically, exhibit an unfavourable safety profile. The most common side effect of anti-inflammatory drugs is gastric discomfort; coxibs - COX-2 selective inhibitors - were developed to solve this problem. The use of these drugs, relative to conventional NSAIDs, is associated to a significantly lesser gastroduodenal ulcer rate and to fewer clinically relevant complications, as well as to a smaller rate of treatment discontinuation due to gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. From a clinical and practical standpoint, the use of coxibs is associated to a remarkably reduced risk of gastroduodenal lesions, similar as the one resulting from the combination of a conventional NSAID and a proton-pump inhibitor. By adding a proton-pump inhibitor to a coxib, such risk seems to become virtually non-existent, even in a high risk population and regardless of ASA administration. It is important to stress that the better tolerability of coxibs does not imply an inferior anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving efficacy, especially with regard to etoricoxib, whose efficacy is at least equivalent as other competing NSAIDs, even in quite severe and complex musculoskeletal pain models. This clear-cut advantage of coxibs at gastric level clashed against a documented increased cardiovascular (CV) risk, which led to the much-talked-about withdrawal of rofecoxib from the market. The most credited pathogenetic hypothesis to explain the association between chronic use of coxibs and CV risk seems to be related to a trombophilic effect due to an imbalance of prothrombotic and antithrombotic factors. Several observational and case-control studies, however, led to suspect that conventional NSAIDs share with coxibs an increased cardiovascular risk; such suspicion was experimentally confirmed by the MEDAL trial. In this trial, the cardiovascular risk of thrombosis among patients who were treated on a long-term basis with a coxib (etoricoxib) was shown to be similar as the risk observed in patients receiving a conventional NSAID (diclofenac). In conclusion, coxibs represent a valid therapeutic option in the treatment of patients with osteoarticular conditions. In terms of cardiovascular risk their efficacy is associated to a similar safety profile as conventional NSAIDs, whereas the gastrointestinal risk related to coxibs seems to be significantly lesser. PMID:22530460

  6. Operations Research and Higher Education Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, T. C . E.

    1993-01-01

    Illustrates the uses of operations research (OR) in higher education administration by reviewing the higher education system's most significant operational problems: resource allocation, financial planning, budgeting, formation of student project groups, scheduling and classroom allocation, student registration, tuition and fee structure…

  7. PROMOTED ZINC CHROMITE CATALYSTS FOR HIGHER ALCOHOL SYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Ms. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts

    2000-12-20

    During this reporting period, a ''zinc chromite'' catalyst promoted with 6 wt.% cesium (Cs) was evaluated at the following operating conditions: Temperature - 375 C and 400 C; Total Pressure--13.6 MPa (2000 psig); Gas Hourly Space Velocity (GHSV) - 5000 standard liters/kg(cat)-hr; and H{sub 2}/CO feed ratio--0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mole/mole. Decahydronaphthalene (DHN) was used as the slurry liquid. The experiment lasted for twelve days of continuous operation. Unpromoted zinc chromite catalyst then was re-examined under the same operating conditions. Reproducible data was achieved with a continuous liquid make-up. Compared with unpromoted zinc chromite catalyst, 6 wt.% Cs-promoted catalyst shifted the product distribution from methanol to higher alcohols, even though methanol was still the major product. The effect of operating conditions was less important than the addition of promoter. However, it was observed that higher temperature favors higher alcohol synthesis, and that a higher H{sub 2}/CO ratio leads to lower oxygenates selectivity and higher hydrocarbons selectivity. These trends showed clearly with the Cs-promoted catalyst, but were not as prominent with the unpromoted catalyst. The slurry liquid did not decompose or alkylate to a measurable extent during either continuous, 12 - day experiment, even with the higher reactor temperature (400 C). There was a relatively significant loss of catalyst surface area during the experiment with the promoted catalyst, but not with the unpromoted catalyst.

  8. Over-reporting significant figures—a significant problem?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Hawkins; Tony Badrick; Peter E. Hickman

    2007-01-01

    BackgroundExcessive use of significant figures in numerical data gives a spurious impression of laboratory imprecision to clinicians. We describe reporting practices in 24 Asia-Pacific laboratories, assess whether these reporting formats and those used in the literature can be justified based on actual laboratory performance and outline how to choose the appropriate number of significant places.

  9. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-02-28

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the l

  10. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

  11. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

  12. Higher Spin Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chi-Ming

    This dissertation splits into two distinct halves. The first half is devoted to the study of the holography of higher spin gauge theory in AdS 3. We present a conjecture that the holographic dual of W N minimal model in a 't Hooft-like large N limit is an unusual "semi-local" higher spin gauge theory on AdS3 x 1. At each point on the S1 lives a copy of three-dimensional Vasiliev theory, that contains an infinite tower of higher spin gauge fields coupled to a single massive complex scalar propagating in AdS3. The Vasiliev theories at different points on the S1 are correlated only through the AdS3 boundary conditions on the massive scalars. All but one single tower of higher spin symmetries are broken by the boundary conditions. This conjecture is checked by comparing tree-level two- and three-point functions, and also one-loop partition functions on both side of the duality. The second half focuses on the holography of higher spin gauge theory in AdS 4. We demonstrate that a supersymmetric and parity violating version of Vasiliev's higher spin gauge theory in AdS4 admits boundary conditions that preserve N = 0,1,2,3,4 or 6 supersymmetries. In particular, we argue that the Vasiliev theory with U( M) Chan-Paton and N = 6 boundary condition is holographically dual to the 2+1 dimensional U(N) k x U(M) -k ABJ theory in the limit of large N, k and finite M. In this system all bulk higher spin fields transform in the adjoint of the U(M) gauge group, whose bulk t'Hooft coupling is M/N. Our picture suggests that the supersymmetric Vasiliev theory can be obtained as a limit of type IIA string theory in AdS4 x CP3, and that the non-Abelian Vasiliev theory at strong bulk 't Hooft coupling smoothly turn into a string field theory. The fundamental string is a singlet bound state of Vasiliev's higher spin particles held together by U(M) gauge interactions.

  13. Nevada System Higher Education

    E-print Network

    Cho, Hokwon

    Nevada System of Higher Education Request to Change Personal Identification Data Change in accordance with NSHE policies governing the security and privacy of student information. Updating personal of Name Change of Social Security Number Change of Birthdate Name NSHE-ID DateSignature Former Name

  14. Barriers to Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY.

    This report includes the papers presented at the Colluquium and the responses to these papers. The papers dealt primarily with the most critical and urgent problems involved in equalizing opportunity for the minority/poverty groups in the United States and include: "Educational Opportunity and the Organization of Higher Education," by Warren W.…

  15. Free Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Jr., Adolph; Szymanski, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    The crisis of affordability in higher education is intensifying. Illustrations of its resonance abound: from the frequent news articles describing and amplifying the crisis and its sources to legislators' and candidates' proposed responses. Republicans' responses tend to be mainly punitive toward institutions; Democrats' proposals are more…

  16. Higher Education Exchange 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.

    A foreword and 11 articles discuss the nature and structure of public scholarship. The contents include: "Foreword" (Deborah Witte); (1) "Public Scholarship: The Dissemination of Knowledge" (Jean Cameron) which maintains the public has claims on higher education as a creator and disseminator of knowledge; (2) "Daring to Be Unprofessional" (David…

  17. Higher Education Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    This collection of 10 articles and stories highlights ongoing experiments in colleges and universities which address the relationship of higher education institutions and citizenship responsibility. Following a foreword by Deborah White, articles are: "The Civic Roots of Academic Social Science Scholarship in American" (R. Claire Snyder), which…

  18. Higher education in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Seybolt

    1974-01-01

    This paper discusses the system of higher education in China today. Eight years after the beginning of the upheaval known as the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, educational principles and practice are still considered experimental. New types of schools have been established, and old ones have been reoriented to conform to recent ideological imperatives. The administrative system has gone through a

  19. Understanding Higher Education Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middaugh, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    Public discussion of higher education costs frequently confuses price with expenditure. This article examines factors associated with increases in the sticker price of a college education and the expenditures incurred by institutions in delivering that education. The discussion suggests that while growth in college tuition is real, access to…

  20. Higher Education Exchange 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.

    Nine articles discuss the nature and structure of public scholarship. The articles are: (1) "Divided No More" by Parker J. Palmer, who urges academics to act publicly on their convictions; (2) "The Public Intellectual as Transgressor?" by William M. Sullivan, who urges the reinvention of a "public" orientation to intellectual life within higher

  1. Tevatron higher energy testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay Theilacker

    1995-01-01

    A cryogenic system upgrade was installed in 1993 to lower the temperature of the Tevatron in order to achieve higher operating energies. Centrifugal cold helium vapor compressors were used to lower the temperature of the two-phase circuit of the Tevatron. A cold compressor (CC) is used at each of the twenty-four satellite refrigerators, allowing each satellite to be individually tuned

  2. Workstations in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Ronald F. E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Five articles discuss various aspects of workstations and their applications in higher education. Highlights include microcomputers and workstations; UNIX operating system; campus-wide networks; software; Project SOCRATES and the interdisciplinary aspect of engineering; mechanical system design and simulation; and the Creation Station, a…

  3. Online Higher Education Commodity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chau, Paule

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the current trend towards online education. It examines some of the reasons for the trend and the ramifications it may have on students, faculty and institutions of higher learning. The success and profitability of online programs and institutions such as the University of Phoenix has helped to make the move towards online…

  4. Higher Education Exchange 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.

    Nine articles discuss the relationship between the higher education community and the public. The articles are: (1) "On a Certain Blindness in Teaching" by Michael S. Roth, who stresses the necessity of political citizenship education for a healthy democracy; (2) "Monocultural Perspectives and Campus Diversity" by Jane Fried, who explores the…

  5. Higher Education Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    Eight papers, arising from a June 1998 seminar on the professions and public life, examine issues related to the practice of public scholarship and the new connections that institutions of higher education are forging with the public. Following a foreword by Deborah Witte, the papers are: (1) "The Academy and Public Life: Healing the Rift" (Scott…

  6. P Values and Statistical Significance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hopkins, Will G.

    This resource, created by author Will G. Hopkins, defines what a p-value is, why .05 is significant, and when to use it. It also covers related topics such as one-tailed/two-tailed tests and hypothesis testing. Overall, this is a wonderful resource for students wanting to learn more about statistics, and more specially, significant testing.

  7. Significant Scales in Community Structure

    PubMed Central

    Traag, V. A.; Krings, G.; Van Dooren, P.

    2013-01-01

    Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of “significance” of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine “good” resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationality plays no role. PMID:24121597

  8. Higher Education Jobs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    For those Scout Report readers who may be looking for a job in the vast world of higher education, the Higher Education Jobs website will be a real find. Online since 1996, the website serves as a clearinghouse of available job opportunities, ranging from such positions as a custodial engineer in a small college in western New York to an assistant professor of Egyptology at a major research university in California. Visitors to the site can begin by searching the new job listings by date, location, institution, or title. Of course, they may also perform more detailed searches as well, courtesy of the nice search engine made available here. Another option is for visitors to post their resume or vita so that employers seeking out new employees will have access to this information.

  9. Higher Gauge Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Baez; Urs Schreiber

    2005-01-01

    Just as gauge theory describes the parallel transport of point particles using connections on bundles, higher gauge theory describes the parallel transport of 1-dimensional objects (e.g. strings) using 2-connections on 2-bundles. A 2-bundle is a categorified version of a bundle: that is, one where the fiber is not a manifold but a category with a suitable smooth structure. Where gauge

  10. Quality in Higher Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee Harvey; Berit Askling

    From having been seen as an implicit element in university learning and teaching, and thus also a natural part of academics’\\u000a responsibilities, the quality issue emerged in the 1990s as a topic of concern for politicians, institutional leaders, and\\u000a a variety of other stakeholders. This concern emerged from a ‘package’ of simultaneous changes affecting higher education,\\u000a such as the devolution

  11. Polyesters in Higher Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pappachan E. Kolattukudy

    Polyesters occur in higher plants as the structural component of the cuticle that covers the aerial parts of plants. This\\u000a insoluble polymer, called cutin, attached to the epidermal cell walls is composed of interesterified hydroxy and hydroxy epoxy\\u000a fatty acids. The most common chief monomers are 10, 16-dihydroxy C16 acid, 18-hydroxy-9, 10 epoxy C18 acid, and 9, 10, 18-trihydroxy C18

  12. Higher order parametric x rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Michael J.

    1991-12-01

    Parametric x-radiation (PXR) may be described as the Bragg scattering of virtual photons to produce real x-rays which satisfy the Bragg condition dsin theta = n(lambda), where theta is the angle between the electron beam direction and a crystal axis. Enhanced higher order parametric x-radiation from the (002) plane of a mosaic graphite crystal has been observed. Production of PXR of the order n = 2 exceed that from the first order, and x-rays of order up to n = 6 are readily seen. The production of higher order x-radiation is obtained by using a thick crystal where the formation and attenuation lengths are exploited to enhance higher energy x-ray formation relative to the lower energy first order x-radiation. Photons of energy 5 to 30 KeV have been measured. The experiment was conducted with a 90 MeV electron beam from the Naval Postgraduate School electron linear accelerator. A three axis target position program, Easy-Mover, was developed to allow for precision orientation of the crystal axis with respect to the electron beam.

  13. On higher spin partition functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beccaria, Matteo; Tseytlin, Arkady A.

    2015-07-01

    We observe that the partition function of the set of all free massless higher spins s = 0, 1, 2, 3,... in flat space is equal to one: the ghost determinants cancel against the ‘physical’ ones or, equivalently, the (regularized) total number of degrees of freedom vanishes. This reflects large underlying gauge symmetry and suggests analogy with supersymmetric or topological theory. The Z = 1 property extends also to the AdS background, i.e. the 1-loop vacuum partition function of Vasiliev theory is equal to 1 (assuming a particular regularization of the sum over spins); this was noticed earlier as a consistency requirement for the vectorial AdS/CFT duality. We find that Z = 1 is true also in the conformal higher spin theory (with higher-derivative {\\partial }2s kinetic terms) expanded near flat or conformally flat S4 background. We also consider the partition function of free conformal theory of symmetric traceless rank s tensor field which has 2-derivative kinetic term but only scalar gauge invariance in flat 4d space. This non-unitary theory has Weyl-invariant action in curved background and it corresponds to ‘partially massless’ field in AdS5. We discuss in detail the special case of s = 2 (or ‘conformal graviton’), compute the corresponding conformal anomaly coefficients and compare them with previously found expressions for generic representations of conformal group in 4 dimensions.

  14. Higher-order nonlinearities revisited and their effect on harmonic generation.

    PubMed

    Weerawarne, Darshana L; Gao, Xiaohui; Gaeta, Alexander L; Shim, Bonggu

    2015-03-01

    We report on harmonic generation experiments and calculations in air to investigate the theoretical prediction of Kolesik et al. [Opt. Lett. 35, 2550 (2010)] for testing the recently proposed higher-order Kerr effect model. Our observations show that although the fifth-order nonlinearity is non-negligible, the overall defocusing effect via the higher-order nonlinearities is sufficiently small that plasma formation should be a main defocusing mechanism in high power filamentation. We also explore cross-phase modulation via the optical Kerr effect, and find that the higher-order nonlinearities can significantly alter the phase matching of harmonic generation. PMID:25793815

  15. Adverse perinatal outcomes are significantly higher in severe gestational hypertension than in mild preeclampsia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Buchbinder; Baha M. Sibai; Steve Caritis; Cora MacPherson; John Hauth; Marshall D. Lindheimer; Mark Klebanoff; Peter VanDorsten; Mark Landon; Richard Paul; Menachem Miodovnik; Paul Meis; Gary Thurnau

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The current literature emphasizes increased risk of adverse outcomes in the presence of proteinuria and hypertension. The objective of this study was to compare the frequency of adverse fetal outcomes in women who developed hypertensive disorders with or without proteinuria. Study Design: The study design was a secondary analysis of data from women who had preeclampsia in a previous

  16. Children with Sickle Cell Disease Had Significantly Higher Medical Costs Than Those without SCD

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Stages & Populations Travelers' Health Workplace Safety & Health Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates To ... choose to search for a specific topic . Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates To ...

  17. Formative Assessment in Higher Education: Its Significance for Employability, and Steps towards Its Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yorke, Mantz

    2005-01-01

    Research shows that formative assessment can exert a powerful effect on student learning, yet the complexity of formative assessment is not well understood and some curricular structures and practices do not fully exploit its potential. This article outlines the background to the political promotion of employability and shows that institutional…

  18. SIGNIFICANT NATURAL HERITAGE AREAS (NC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, developed the Significant Natural Heritage Areas digital data to determine the a...

  19. Family background, financial constraints and higher education attendance in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenli Li

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the 2004 China College Student Survey, conducted by the author, this paper finds that long-term factors such as scholastic ability and parental education are significantly correlated with higher education attendance. By contrast, short-term financial constraints are also significantly associated with higher education access, but to a lesser degree. Furthermore, in recent years China's higher education expansion has

  20. Significance of resistin expression in acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    XUE, LE-NING; WANG, XIAO-YONG; TAN, YONG; LIN, MIN; ZHANG, WEI; XU, KE-QUN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to detect the expression of resistin in rats with acute pancreatitis (AP) and investigate its significance in the pathogenesis of AP. In total, 40 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=10), including the normal control, sham-operated, acute edematous pancreatitis (AEP) and acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) groups. Following the establishment of animal models, the levels of serum resistin, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin (IL)-1? were measured using ELISA. Resistin expression in the pancreatic tissues was detected using an immunohistochemical method. In addition, the mRNA expression of resistin in the pancreatic tissues was analyzed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The levels of serum amylase, serum resistin, TNF-?, IL-1? and CRP were all significantly higher in the AEP and ANP groups when compared with the control and sham-operated groups (P<0.01), as were the pancreas/body weight ratios and pathological scores of the pancreas. These increases were more significant in the ANP group than in the AEP group (P<0.05). The mRNA expression levels of resistin in the pancreatic tissues were markedly higher in the AEP and ANP groups when compared with the control and sham-operated groups (P<0.01), particularly in the pancreatic tissues of the ANP group, which exhibited notably higher levels compared with the AEP group. The serum resistin level was found to positively correlate with the serum levels of CRP, TNF-? and IL-1?, and the pathological scores of the pancreatic tissues. In conclusion, the results indicated that resistin may be associated with the occurrence and development of AP; thus, the protein may be a valuable indicator for assessing the severity of AP. PMID:25780448

  1. Higher order Bezier circles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Jin

    1993-01-01

    Rational Bezier and B-spline representations of circles have been heavily publicized. However, all the literature assumes the rational Bezier segments in the homogeneous space are both planar and (equivalent to) quadratic. This creates the illusion that circles can only be achieved by planar and quadratic curves. Circles that are formed by higher order rational Bezier curves which are nonplanar in the homogeneous space are shown. The problem of whether it is possible to represent a complete circle with one Bezier curve is investigated. In addition, some other interesting properties of cubic Bezier arcs are discussed.

  2. The sinister significance of dysphagia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Grannell; S. Kelly; S. Shannon; A. L. Chong; T. N. Walsh

    2001-01-01

    Background  The majority of patients presenting with oesophageal cancer have symptoms for more than three months and advanced disease\\u000a at presentation. Most appear unaware of the significance of dysphagia as a symptom. Cancer awareness programmes focus on symptoms\\u000a such as lumps and bleeding.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim  To sample the level of public awareness of the potentially sinister significance of the symptom of dysphagia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A

  3. "How to Strike the Right Balance between Quality Assurance and Quality Control in the Perceptions of Individual Lecturers": A Comparison of UK and Dutch Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teelken, Christine; Lomas, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the way lecturers observe, feel restrained by and cope with quality management systems that have been implemented in the higher education systems of the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. As two sides of the same coin, quality enhancement and quality control are of increased significance in European Higher Education…

  4. Higher complements of combinatorial sphere arrangements Higher complements of

    E-print Network

    Berger, Clemens

    Higher complements of combinatorial sphere arrangements Higher complements of combinatorial sphere¨uck, October 8, 2009 Nice, October 15, 2009 #12;Higher complements of combinatorial sphere arrangements 1 complements of combinatorial sphere arrangements Hyperplane arrangements A (central) hyperplane arrangement

  5. Higher Powers in Gravitation

    E-print Network

    Timothy Clifton

    2008-07-29

    We consider the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies of theories of gravity that generalise the Einstein-Hilbert action by replacing the Ricci scalar, R, with some function, f(R). The general asymptotic behaviour of these cosmologies is found, at both early and late times, and the effects of adding higher and lower powers of R to the Einstein-Hilbert action is investigated. The assumption that the highest powers of R should dominate the Universe's early history, and that the lowest powers should dominate its future is found to be inaccurate. The behaviour of the general solution is complicated, and while it can be the case that single powers of R dominate the dynamics at late times, it can be either the higher or lower powers that do so. It is also shown that it is often the lowest powers of R that dominate at early times, when approach to a bounce or a Tolman solution are generic possibilities. Various examples are considered, and both vacuum and perfect fluid solutions investigated.

  6. Status and Significance of Credentialing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musgrave, Dorothea

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the current status, significance, and future of credentialing in the field of environmental health. Also discusses four phases of a Bureau of Health Professions (BHP) Credentialing Program and BHP-funded projects related to their development and implementation. Phases include role delineation, resources development, examination…

  7. Determining the significance of MGUS.

    PubMed

    Merlini, Giampaolo

    2014-01-16

    In this issue of Blood, Turesson et al study the risk of progression of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) to lymphoplasmacellular and myeloid malignancies in a large population, validating current risk factors and adding immunoparesis as a predictor of progression. PMID:24434993

  8. Public Health Significance of Neuroticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    The personality trait of neuroticism refers to relatively stable tendencies to respond with negative emotions to threat, frustration, or loss. Individuals in the population vary markedly on this trait, ranging from frequent and intense emotional reactions to minor challenges to little emotional reaction even in the face of significant

  9. Significant Figures in Speed Records

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Dines

    1929-01-01

    I HAD hoped that someone more competent than myself would have replied to Col. O'Gorman's letter, in which, in NATURE of Mar. 30, he offered an apologia for recording Sir Henry Segrave's speed to 8 significant figures, but probably most readers of this journal do not consider that motor speed records form a subject with which they are intimately concerned.

  10. Exact significance test for Markov order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pethel, S. D.; Hahs, D. W.

    2014-02-01

    We describe an exact significance test of the null hypothesis that a Markov chain is nth order. The procedure utilizes surrogate data to yield an exact test statistic distribution valid for any sample size. Surrogate data are generated using a novel algorithm that guarantees, per shot, a uniform sampling from the set of sequences that exactly match the nth order properties of the observed data. Using the test, the Markov order of Tel Aviv rainfall data is examined.

  11. Obese Postmenopausal Women May Face Higher Risk for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    Obese Postmenopausal Women May Face Higher Risk for Breast Cancer Researchers report the increased risk was as high ... and postmenopausal may face significantly higher odds for breast cancer compared with slimmer women. The risk for breast ...

  12. Expression and prognostic significance of VEGFR-2 in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ji-Dong; Liu, Yanrong; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Liu, Guang-Yin; Xu, Jin-Heng; Liu, Li-Yun; Hu, Yue-Ming

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women in the world. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) was not only found to play a key role in the development of tumor angiogenesis, but has also been located in tumor cells of a variety of tumors. This study investigated the expression pattern of VEGFR-2 in breast cancer tissue specimens in order to evaluate the role of VEGFR-2 in the prognosis of breast cancer. Expression and localization of VEGFR-2 in tumor cells of breast cancer specimens from 98 invasive breast cancer patients were determined by immunohistochemistry. The relationships between VEGFR-2 expression and clinicopathological features were also analyzed. The results showed that VEGFR-2 expression correlated positively with lymph node (LN) metastasis of breast cancer. Patients with high expression of VEGFR-2 had a significantly worse OS. It was also observed that the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker, including Twist1 and Vimentin, was higher in the tumors with higher VEGFR-2 expression, while the E-cadherin expression was lower in the same tumors, suggesting that VEGFR-2 may serve as a possible mediator of EMT in breast cancer. PMID:25976977

  13. Higher-twist dynamics in large transverse momentum hadron production.

    PubMed

    Arleo, François; Brodsky, Stanley J; Hwang, Dae Sung; Sickles, Anne M

    2010-08-01

    A scaling law analysis of the world data on inclusive large-p(?) hadron production in hadronic collisions is carried out. Significant deviations from leading-twist perturbative QCD predictions at next-to-leading order are observed, particularly at high x(?)=2p(?)/sqrt[s]. In contrast, the production of prompt photons and jets exhibits near-conformal scaling behavior in agreement with leading-twist expectations. These results indicate a non-negligible contribution of higher-twist processes in large-p(?) hadron production, where the hadron is produced directly in the hard subprocess, rather than by quark and gluon fragmentation. Predictions for the scaling exponents at RHIC and LHC are given. Triggering on isolated large-p(?) hadron production will enhance the higher-twist processes. We also note that the use of isolated hadrons as a signal for new physics can be affected by the presence of direct hadron production. PMID:20867975

  14. Rotating Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    E-print Network

    Burkhard Kleihaus; Jutta Kunz; Francisco Navarro-Lerida

    2007-11-07

    The properties of higher-dimensional black holes can differ significantly from those of black holes in four dimensions, since neither the uniqueness theorem, nor the staticity theorem or the topological censorship theorem generalize to higher dimensions. We first discuss black holes of Einstein-Maxwell theory and Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory with spherical horizon topology. Here new types of stationary black holes are encountered. We then discuss nonuniform black strings and present evidence for a horizon topology changing transition.

  15. Spirituality in Higher Education

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    There has always been a great interest in the spiritual beliefs of young people, and in the past few decades, an increasing interest in the beliefs of those young people in colleges and universities around the United States. One group that is intently interested in this topic is the Higher Education Research Institute (HERI) at the University of California at Los Angeles. The Institute's primary agenda includes generating empirically based insights on "the trends, patterns, and principles of spiritual growth during the college years" and disseminating its research findings to various stakeholders. The pilot survey (which was first administered in 2003) is available for the Web-browsing public's consideration here, along with a newsletter and some preliminary findings based on data from the surveys.

  16. Statistical significance of combinatorial regulations

    PubMed Central

    Terada, Aika; Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko; Tsuda, Koji; Sese, Jun

    2013-01-01

    More than three transcription factors often work together to enable cells to respond to various signals. The detection of combinatorial regulation by multiple transcription factors, however, is not only computationally nontrivial but also extremely unlikely because of multiple testing correction. The exponential growth in the number of tests forces us to set a strict limit on the maximum arity. Here, we propose an efficient branch-and-bound algorithm called the “limitless arity multiple-testing procedure” (LAMP) to count the exact number of testable combinations and calibrate the Bonferroni factor to the smallest possible value. LAMP lists significant combinations without any limit, whereas the family-wise error rate is rigorously controlled under the threshold. In the human breast cancer transcriptome, LAMP discovered statistically significant combinations of as many as eight binding motifs. This method may contribute to uncover pathways regulated in a coordinated fashion and find hidden associations in heterogeneous data. PMID:23882073

  17. Taxation: Equity and Politics in Higher Education. AAHE-ERIC/Higher Education Research Currents, March 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Carol Herrnstadt

    In the 1980 election year, Cngress is likely to provide taxpayers with some form of tax savings, and observers predict that legislators will begin efforts to modify the Internal Revenue Code to provide more equity, gather more revenues, and serve a number of other purposes that will affect the higher education community. Particularly, higher

  18. Higher prices in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    1982-03-01

    Price increases in the Jamaica CSM program went into effect on August 31, 1981. The program began in 1975. While the need for higher prices has been under discussion for the past 3 years, this is the 1st time the requisite approval from the Jamaica Price Commission has been obtained. The Jamaica National Family Planning Board (JNFPB) reports that the Panther 3-pack (condom) is up US$0.15 to US$0.30. Each Perle package (oral contraceptive) was increased by US$0.20. Single cycle Perle now sells for US$0.50, and 3-pack Perle sells for US$1.10. The 6-year price stagnation experienced by the CSM program resulted in a decreasing operational budget as program costs continued to rise. Marketing costs alone during this period escalated by 100-300%. For example, Panther pop-up display cartons cost the project US 16U each in 1975. By 1979 the same product cost US 49U. Newspaper advertisements have increased from the 1975 cost of US$68.00 to nearly $200.00 per placement. The overall inflation rate in Jamaica during the last 5 years has averaged more than 20% annually. In the face of these rising costs, outlet expansion for Perle has been prevented, wholesaler margins have been unavailable, and new retailer training has been discontinued. It is projected that the new prices will result in an annual increased revenues of US$80,000 which will be used to reinstate these essential marketing activities. The JNFPB is also planning to introduce a Panther 12-pack and Panther strips to the CSM product line. According to Marketing Manager Aston Evans, "We believe the public is now ready for this type of packaging" which is scheduled to be available soon. Panther is presently only available in a 3-pack, but annual sales have been steady. The new 12-pack will be stocked on supermarket shelves to provide higher product visibility and wider distribution. The selling price has been set as US$1.20 and is expected to yield a 25% increase in sales during the 1st year. A complete sales promotion and advertising campaign will accompany the 12-pack introduction. The marketing plan for Panther strips emphasizes placement in government and private sector offices and factories throughout the country. In the deep rural areas the strips will be available for sale in shops, bars, nightclubs, and other distribution points. PMID:12264179

  19. Diagnostic significance of indium-111 granulocyte scintigraphy in febrile patients

    SciTech Connect

    Syrjaelae, M.T.Va.; Valtonen, V.; Liewendahl, K.; Myllylae, G.

    1987-02-01

    Sixty-eight patients with fever of unknown origin, 32 patients with postoperative fever, and 26 patients with therapy-resistant fever after bacteremia were investigated with (/sup 111/In) granulocyte scintigraphy for the detection of abscesses. The results showed that the value of (/sup 111/In)granulocyte scintigraphy in the detection of infectious foci vary in these three types of febrile conditions. The overall sensitivity and specificity were 86.5% and 87.8%, respectively. We observed, however, a relatively low predictive value of a positive result in the fever of unknown origin group (73.1%), and also a low predictive value of a negative result in the bacteremia group (66.7%). The C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in patients with a true-positive scintigram were significantly (p less than 0.001) higher than in patients with a true-negative scintigram. There was also a significant positive correlation (p less than 0.01) between the serum CRP concentration and the intensity of the granulocyte accumulations. There was no correlation between the peripheral leukocyte count or the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and the intensity of the granulocyte uptake. Therefore CRP, but not the leukocyte count or ESR, appears useful for selecting the patients who benefit most from granulocyte scintigraphy.

  20. Karyological observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, A. D.; O'Connor, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Root tips prepared for metaphase chromosome analysis from seedlings germinated under microgravity on the Space Shuttle (oats and mung bean) or which were exposed to space flight as very young seedlings (sunflower) have been examined. Experimental constraints did not permit pre-fixation in space with a cytostatic agent but arrest was achieved in the first division cycle on Earth after recovery. The number of cells in division was significantly depressed in all three species. Several chromosomal abnormalities were encountered in flight material. Bridge formation was seen in sunflower, as was aneuploidy. Breakage and fracture of chromosomes was prevalent in oats. No aberrant features could be detected in the chromosomes of mung bean. These results, although preliminary, should serve to alert investigators of the need to assess carefully as many aspects of cell division in higher plants exposed to space flight conditions as possible.

  1. Clinical Significance of Precipitous Labor

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shunji

    2015-01-01

    Background Precipitous labor is defined as expulsion of the fetus within less than 3 hours of commencement of regular contractions. We retrospectively examined our cases of precipitous labor to identify the clinical significance and perinatal outcomes following precipitous labor in singleton vertex deliveries. Methods A retrospective population-based study was conducted comparing women with singleton precipitous labor and those with labor of normal duration. We examined the clinical characteristics and outcomes by comparing patients with precipitous labor and those with labor of normal duration in 0 and two-parous singleton pregnant women. Results Using a multivariate analysis, precipitous labor in nulliparous women was independently associated with teenagers (adjusted OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 0.99 - 2.95, P = 0.049), preterm delivery (adjusted OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.16 - 2.70, P < 0.01) and hypertensive disorders (adjusted OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.19 - 2.65, P < 0.01), while in two-parous women, it was independently associated with hypertensive disorders (adjusted OR: 2.64, 95% CI: 1.33 - 5.24, P < 0.01). No significant differences were noted between the two groups regarding maternal or neonatal complications on both nulliparous and two-parous women. Conclusion Although precipitous labor was associated with hypertensive disorders in singleton vertex deliveries, it was not associated with maternal or neonatal outcomes. PMID:25584099

  2. Polyesters in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Kolattukudy, P E

    2001-01-01

    Polyesters occur in higher plants as the structural component of the cuticle that covers the aerial parts of plants. This insoluble polymer, called cutin, attached to the epidermal cell walls is composed of interesterified hydroxy and hydroxy epoxy fatty acids. The most common chief monomers are 10,16-dihydroxy C16 acid, 18-hydroxy-9,10 epoxy C18 acid, and 9,10,18-trihydroxy C18 acid. These monomers are produced in the epidermal cells by omega hydroxylation, in-chain hydroxylation, epoxidation catalyzed by P450-type mixed function oxidase, and epoxide hydration. The monomer acyl groups are transferred to hydroxyl groups in the growing polymer at the extracellular location. The other type of polyester found in the plants is suberin, a polymeric material deposited in the cell walls of a layer or two of cells when a plant needs to erect a barrier as a result of physical or biological stress from the environment, or during development. Suberin is composed of aromatic domains derived from cinnamic acid, and aliphatic polyester domains derived from C16 and C18 cellular fatty acids and their elongation products. The polyesters can be hydrolyzed by pancreatic lipase and cutinase, a polyesterase produced by bacteria and fungi. Catalysis by cutinase involves the active serine catalytic triad. The major function of the polyester in plants is as a protective barrier against physical, chemical, and biological factors in the environment, including pathogens. Transcriptional regulation of cutinase gene in fungal pathogens is being elucidated at a molecular level. The polyesters present in agricultural waste may be used to produce high value polymers, and genetic engineering might be used to produce large quantities of such polymers in plants. PMID:11217409

  3. Yawning and its physiological significance

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sharat; Mittal, Shallu

    2013-01-01

    Although yawning is a commonly witnessed human behavior, yet it has not been taught in much detail in medical schools because, until the date, no particular physiological significance has been associated with it. It is characterized by opening up of mouth which is accompanied by a long inspiration, with a brief interruption of ventilation and followed by a short expiration. Since time immemorial, yawning has been associated with drowsiness and boredom. However, this age old belief is all set to change as the results of some newer studies have pointed out that yawning might be a way by which our body is trying to accomplish some more meaningful goals. In this review, we have tried to put together some of the important functions that have been proposed by a few authors, with the hope that this article will stimulate the interest of newer researchers in this hitherto unexplored field. PMID:23776833

  4. Yawning and its physiological significance.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sharat; Mittal, Shallu

    2013-01-01

    Although yawning is a commonly witnessed human behavior, yet it has not been taught in much detail in medical schools because, until the date, no particular physiological significance has been associated with it. It is characterized by opening up of mouth which is accompanied by a long inspiration, with a brief interruption of ventilation and followed by a short expiration. Since time immemorial, yawning has been associated with drowsiness and boredom. However, this age old belief is all set to change as the results of some newer studies have pointed out that yawning might be a way by which our body is trying to accomplish some more meaningful goals. In this review, we have tried to put together some of the important functions that have been proposed by a few authors, with the hope that this article will stimulate the interest of newer researchers in this hitherto unexplored field. PMID:23776833

  5. The energetic significance of cooking.

    PubMed

    Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2009-10-01

    While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance. PMID:19732938

  6. An Investigation of Martian Methane & Implications for Future Missions Keywords: Mars, atmosphere; Atmospheres, composition; Spectroscopy; Infrared observations

    E-print Network

    Richardson Jr., James E.

    detected by Mars Odyssey. They report significantly higher levels of methane (>250 ppbv) than othersAn Investigation of Martian Methane & Implications for Future Missions Keywords: Mars, atmosphere. Research Justification Recent spectrographic observations of Mars show evidence for methane

  7. Significance tests and sample homogeneity loophole

    E-print Network

    Kupczynski, Marian

    2015-01-01

    In their recent comment, published in Nature, Jeffrey T.Leek and Roger D.Peng discuss how P-values are widely abused in null hypothesis significance testing . We agree completely with them and in this short comment we discuss the importance of sample homogeneity tests. No matter with how much scrutiny data are gathered if homogeneity tests are not performed the significance tests suffer from sample homogeneity loophole and the results may not be trusted. For example sample homogeneity loophole was not closed in the experiment testing local realism in which a significant violation of Eberhard inequality was found. We are not surprised that Bell type inequalities are violated since if the contextual character of quantum observables is properly taken into account these inequalities cannot be proven. However in order to trust the significance of the violation sample homogeneity loophole must be closed. Therefore we repeat after Jeffrey T.Leek and Roger D.Peng that sample homogeneity loophole is probably just the ...

  8. Outsourcing in Higher Education: An Empirical Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Atul; Herath, S. Kanthi; Mikouiza, Nathalie C.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To measure the degree of implementation and satisfaction level with the outsourcing initiatives from higher education institutions. Design/methodology/approach: Uses a survey questionnaire to measure the levels of satisfaction with the institutions' services and the questionnaire was based on six factors that are deemed significant in…

  9. Improving Measurement of Productivity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Teresa A., Ed.; Mackie, Christopher, Ed.; Massy, William F., Ed.; Sinha, Esha, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Higher education is a linchpin of the American economy and society: Teaching and research at colleges and universities contribute significantly to the nation's economic activity, both directly and through their impact on future growth; federal and state governments support teaching and research with billions of taxpayers' dollars; and individuals,…

  10. Financing higher education: lessons from China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Fengliang

    2012-01-01

    In China, debates about higher education finance led to the introduction of a cost-sharing model, whereby students were required to pay tuition fees, over a decade ago. However, there is still significant resistance towards such a system within the broader society. In order to share insights into the development of the cost-sharing policy in China with international readers and scholars,

  11. Higher education for sustainable development in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongjie Niu; Dahe Jiang; Fengting Li

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the significance of developments across Chinese higher education in the field of education and learning for sustainable development (SD) and to assess the relative impact of these initiatives. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This is a review of policy and practice to examine developments, challenges, and prospects for education for sustainable development (ESD)

  12. Mark Edwards: Mission Impossible in Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santora, Joseph C.; Sarros, James C.

    2008-01-01

    This case chronicles some of the problems a corporate executive encountered on his transition from the private sector to the deanship of the College of Business in a university of higher education. His deanship, which resulted from the recent reorganization at State University, gave him significant responsibility for undergraduate and graduate…

  13. Personal Broadcasting: Applications in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patricia D.

    2007-01-01

    Personal Broadcasting, which includes podcasting, vodcasting, phonecasting, Webcasting, blogging, and wikis, is one of the emerging technologies that will have a significant effect on education within the next five years. This article describes the techniques used in personal broadcasting, describes how they are being used in higher education,…

  14. Significant Results from SUMER/SOHO

    E-print Network

    B. N. Dwivedi

    2006-11-08

    We briefly outline recent observations by solar spacecraft such as Yohkoh, SOHO, TRACE, and RHESSI, which have revolutionized what we know and don't know about the Sun. We then present some significant results, mainly from SUMER/SOHO but also complimentary from the other SOHO's experiments, such as CDS, EIT, UVCS, and LASCO. In particular, we present density-temperature structures, explosive events, velocity anisotropy, wave activity, coronal holes and the solar wind etc. These results have provided valuable clues to a better understanding of the two of the SOHO's principal scientific objectives namely, how the Sun's magnetic energy heats its million-degree corona, and feeds the solar wind.

  15. Iris mammillations: significance and associations.

    PubMed

    Ragge, N K; Acheson, J; Murphree, A L

    1996-01-01

    Iris mammillations are rarely described, distinctive villiform protuberances that can cover the iris. In the majority of reported cases they are unilateral and sporadic, and are seen in association with oculodermal melanosis. In past literature and current clinical practice they are frequently confused with the iris nodules seen in neurofibromatosis type 1. Their clinical significance is not established, although it has been suggested that iris mammillations may be an external sign of ocular hypertension or intraocular malignancy. We report a series of 9 patients between the ages of 3 and 28 years with iris mammillations. The mammillations appear as regularly spaced, deep brown, smooth, conical elevations on the iris, of uniform height or increasing in height as the pupil margin is approached. They often overlie a naevus or an exceptionally deeply pigmented iris, such as that seen in melanosis oculi. One case had an associated ciliary body mass. They tend to occur in more highly pigmented ethnic groups and can be dominantly inherited. Iris mammillations may occur in association with systemic conditions including phakomatosis pigmentovascularis type IIb and neurofibromatosis type 1 when they may even coexist with iris hamartomas. PMID:8763309

  16. Astrobiological Significance of Chemolithoautotrophic Acidophiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2003-01-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithoautotrophic bacteria) a dilemma in microbiology has concerned life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modem biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithohetherotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organoautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant role on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur- oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  17. Polysaccharides: Occurrence, Significance, and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemiller, James N.

    Polysaccharides are properties present significance in all living organisms where they carry out one or more of their diverse functions. While there is no specific category or definition of a complex polysaccharide, most are structurally complex. Polysaccharides contain 1-5 different monosaccharide (sugar) units. The different sugar units may have different anomeric configurations and/or be joined by different glycosidic linkages. Polysaccharides may be linear or branched. Branches may be short saccharide units on a linear backbone or the molecule may have a branch-on-branch structure; in either case, the branches may be isolated or clustered. Polysaccharides may contain non-carbohydrate groups. Esters or cyclic acetal groups, when present, can be removed by appropriate treatments. All polysaccharides are polydisperse, i. e., are present in a range of molecular weights rather than having a single molecular weight. Most are polymolecular, i. e., differ in fine structure from molecule to molecule. So most polysaccharides can be said to be structurally complex. They may be attached to protein molecules or to other polysaccharide molecules. They are solvated by water. Most dissolve in aqueous systems, especially if they are alkaline. Polysaccharides can be depolymerized by acids and heat, specific enzymes, and high pH systems following oxidation. Their hydroxyl groups can be esterified (acylated), etherified (alkylated), and oxidized. Amino groups can be acylated (and deacylated). Carboxyl groups can be converted into esters, amides, and amines. Structural modification makes the molecules even more complex and polymolecular and, perhaps, polydisperse.

  18. Significant improvements in children's health.

    PubMed

    Tam, L

    1994-01-01

    The field report from PLAN field offices in Sucre and Altiplano in Bolivia, Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic, and Amatitlan in Guatemala provides a summary of survey results pertaining to diarrheal disease control, immunizations, and nutrition. The PLAN sites are rural with the exception of the periurban slum surrounding Santo Domingo, which has better access to health services. Interviews were conducted among mothers with children aged 0-23 months in project areas, with the exception of Altiplano and Santo Domingo which included nonproject areas for comparative purposes. The results for diarrhea disease control are that an estimated 90% of episodes can be successfully treated at home. Evaluation is made of the timeliness and coverage of immunizations, the degree of management of diarrhea at home and at the health facility, and the extent of exclusive breast feeding in the first 4 months, and total breast feeding with food supplementation in the first year of life. The conclusion is that the four field offices make a significant and positive impact on children aged 0-23 months. PMID:12179561

  19. Clinical significance of Blastocystis hominis.

    PubMed Central

    Qadri, S M; al-Okaili, G A; al-Dayel, F

    1989-01-01

    A total of 19,252 stool specimens from 12,136 patients were examined by direct microscopy and the ethyl acetate-Formalin concentration method during the last 2 years. All liquid specimens and those in which parasite identification was difficult or equivocal were also examined in trichrome-stained preparations. A total of 3,070 intestinal parasites were seen in 2,889 patients. Blastocystis hominis was found in fecal material from 647 patients (17.5%). A total of 132 cases (25.6%) were observed to be in association with other enteric pathogens. B. hominis in large numbers was present as the only parasite or with other commensals in 515 specimens from patients (79.6%). Of these patients, 239 (46.4%) had symptoms, the most common being abdominal pain (87.9%), constipation (32.2%), diarrhea (23.4%), alternating diarrhea and constipation (14.5%), vomiting (12.5%), and fatigue (10.5%). Forty-three (18%) of the patients were treated with metronidazole (0.5 to 1.0 g/day) because of recurrent symptoms and the presence of large numbers of B. hominis cells in repeated stool specimens. After 7 to 10 days of treatment, all patients became asymptomatic with negative stools on follow-up examinations for B. hominis. PMID:2808664

  20. Functional significance of dystrophin positive fibres in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, L V; Johnson, M A; Bushby, K M; Gardner-Medwin, D

    1993-01-01

    The age when boys lose the ability to walk independently is one of the milestones in the progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We have used this as a measure of disease severity in a group of 30 patients with DMD and six patients with intermediate Duchenne/Becker dystrophy (D/BMD). Dystrophin analysis was performed on tissue sections and western blots of muscle biopsy specimens from these patients and the relationships that were found between clinical severity and abundance of dystrophin labelling are reported. All patients with intermediate D/BMD had dystrophin labelling that was detected on sections and blots. Weak dystrophin labelling was found in sections from 21/30 DMD cases and on blots in 18/30 cases. Two non-exclusive patterns of dystrophin labelling were observed on sections: very clear labelling on a small percentage of fibres (usually < 1%) or very weak labelling on a much higher proportion (about 25%). The mean age at loss of mobility among the DMD patients with no dystrophin labelling on tissue sections was 7.9 years (range 6.3-9.5) while the mean age among those with some labelling was 9.9 years (range 8.0-11.9); this is a significant difference. Quantitative estimates of dystrophin abundance were obtained from densitometric analysis of dystrophin bands on blots. In the whole group of 36 patients, a significant positive relationship was found between the abundance of dystrophin and the age at loss of independent mobility. It is concluded that even the very low concentrations of dystrophin found in DMD patients may have some functional significance. Images PMID:8323331

  1. Possibility of higher dimensional anisotropic compact star

    E-print Network

    Bhar, Piyali; Ray, Saibal; Chatterjee, Vikram

    2015-01-01

    We have provided here a new class of interior solutions for anisotropic stars admitting conformal motion in higher dimensional noncommutative spacetime. The Einstein fields equations are solved by choosing a particular density distribution function of Lorentzian type \\cite{Nozari} under noncommutative geometry. Several cases with dimensions $4D$ and higher, e.g. $5D$, $6D$ and $11D$ have been discussed separately. An overall observation is that the model parameters, such as density, radial pressure, transverse pressure, anisotropy all are well behaved and represent a compact star with radius $4.17$ km. However, emphasis has been given on the acceptability of the model from physical point of view. As a consequence it is observed that higher dimensions, i.e. beyond $4D$ spacetime, exhibit several interesting yet bizarre features which are not at all untenable for a compact stellar model of strange quark type and thus dictates a possibility of its extra dimensional existence.

  2. Possibility of higher dimensional anisotropic compact star

    E-print Network

    Piyali Bhar; Farook Rahaman; Saibal Ray; Vikram Chatterjee

    2015-05-14

    We have provided here a new class of interior solutions for anisotropic stars admitting conformal motion in higher dimensional noncommutative spacetime. The Einstein fields equations are solved by choosing a particular density distribution function of Lorentzian type \\cite{Nozari} under noncommutative geometry. Several cases with dimensions $4D$ and higher, e.g. $5D$, $6D$ and $11D$ have been discussed separately. An overall observation is that the model parameters, such as density, radial pressure, transverse pressure, anisotropy all are well behaved and represent a compact star with radius $4.17$ km. However, emphasis has been given on the acceptability of the model from physical point of view. As a consequence it is observed that higher dimensions, i.e. beyond $4D$ spacetime, exhibit several interesting yet bizarre features which are not at all untenable for a compact stellar model of strange quark type and thus dictates a possibility of its extra dimensional existence.

  3. Higher Education in Norway. Monographs on Higher Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetveit, Anne-Marie, Comp.

    This monograph examines the state of higher education in Norway. Fifteen chapters cover: (1) "The Norwegian Background"; (2) "The Educational System"; (3) "Institutional Units of Higher Education"; (4) "The Financing of Higher Education"; (5) "The Administrative Structure"; (6) "The Teaching and Research Staff"; (7) "Structure and Content of…

  4. The Political Dynamics of Higher Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dar, Luciana

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a framework informed by spatial models of politics to explain the dynamics of political competition in higher education policy and, in particular, the observed instability in the relationship between political variables and policy outcomes. To this end, I explore competing hypotheses for the relationship between government…

  5. Strategic Technology Planning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Frank; Frazee, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education institutions struggle with planning for future needs, growth, and, sometimes, contraction. As student populations expand and as faculty members adopt new technologies, universities struggle to support these needs. To the casual observer, it may seem that the technology planning process is haphazard. This article details a process…

  6. Glacial marine sedimentation: Paleoclimatic significance

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.B.; Ashley, G.M. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    This publication resulted from a symposium held during the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America. Many, but not all, contributors to the symposium have papers in this volume. This Special Paper consists of 14 chapters and a Subject/Geographic index. Each chapter has is own list of references. The papers cover a wide range of modem climate/ ocean environments, including papers on glacial marine sediments from Antarctica, the fiords of Alaska, and sediments from the Canadian High Arctic. In addition, three papers discuss [open quote]old[close quotes] glacial marine records (i.e., pre-Tertiary), and one paper discusses the Yakataga Formation of the Gulf of Alaska which is a Miocene-to-late-Pleistocene sequence. The last chapter in the book includes a survey and summary of the evidence for the paleoclimatic significance of glacial marine sediments by the two editors, John Anderson and Gail Ashley. It is worth noting that Anderson and Domack state in the Foreword that there is a considerable variation in terminology; hence they employ a series of definitions which they urge the other authors to employ. They define and explain what they mean by [open quotes]polar ice cap,[close quotes] [open quote]polar tundra (subpolar),[close quotes] and [open quotes]temperate oceanic and boreal[close quotes] in terms of the dominant glacial and glacial marine processes. Although one might quarrel with the terminology, the broad differences between these three glaciological regimes are indeed fundamental and need to be sought in the geological record. The flavor of the volume can be judged by some of the chapter titles. Contributions on Antarctica include a paper by Anderson and other entitled [open quote]Sedimentary facies associated with Antarctica's floating ice masses[close quotes] and a companion paper by Anderson and Domack which deals with the extremely complex glacial marine facies (13 facies are delimited) in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica.

  7. The Conditioning Role of State Higher Education Governance Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandberg, David A.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a study that examined whether the presence of a consolidated governing board for higher education conditions the impact various political factors have on state support for higher education. The existence of a consolidated governing board is shown to significantly alter the politics of the state higher education…

  8. Access to Higher Education in China: Differences in Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Houxiong

    2011-01-01

    Access to higher education in China has opened up significantly in the move towards a mass higher education system. However, aggregate growth does not necessarily imply fair or reasonable distribution of opportunity. In fact, the expansion of higher education has a rather more complex influence on opportunity when admissions statistics are viewed…

  9. Chicanas and Higher Education: Three Decades of Literature and Thought

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gloria Holguín Cuádraz

    2005-01-01

    The severe under representation of Chicanas in higher education reveals the need to chronicle the evolution of the field of Chicanas and higher education. This article highlights key studies and significant events related to the field of Chicanas and higher education for three decades, beginning with the 1970s and ending with the 1990s. The author synthesizes the schools of thought

  10. Accretionary orogens: definition, character, significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cawood, P. A.; Kroener, A.; Windley, B. F.

    2003-04-01

    Classic models of orogens involve a Wilson cycle of ocean opening and closing with orogenesis related to continent-continent collision. Such models fail to explain the geological history of a significant number of orogenic belts throughout the world in which deformation, metamorphism and crustal growth took place in an environment of on-going plate convergence. These belts are termed accretionary orogens but have also been refereed to as non-collisional orogens, Pacific-type orogens, Turkic-type and exterior orogens. Accretionary orogens evolve in generally curvilinear belts comprising dominantly mafic to silicic igneous rocks and their sedimentary products and accumulated largely in marine settings. They are variably deformed and metamorphosed by tectono-thermal events aligned parallel to, and punctuating, facies trends. Accretionary orogens form at sites of subduction of oceanic lithosphere and consist of magmatic arcs systems along with material accreted from the downgoing plate and eroded from the upper plate. Deformational features include structures formed in extension and compressive environments during steady-state convergence (arc/backarc vs. accretionary prism) that are overprinted by short regional compressive orogenic events. Orogenesis takes place through coupling across the plate boundary with strain concentrated in zones of mechanical and thermal weakening such as the magmatic arc and back arc region. Potential driving mechanisms for coupling include accretion of buoyant lithosphere (terrane accretion), flat slab subduction, and rapid absolute upper plate motion over-riding the downgoing plate. The Circum-Pacific region provides outstanding examples of accretionary orogens. The Pacific formed during breakup of Rodinia in the Neoproterozoic and has never subsequently closed, resulting in a series of overall ocean-ward younging orogenic systems that have always faced an open ocean, yet have been the sites of repeated tectono-thermal events and continental growth. Accretionary orogens have been active throughout Earth history. They have been responsible for major growth of the continental lithosphere through the addition of juvenile magmatic products and include Archean greenstone belts, the Paleoproterozoic Birimian orogen (W. Africa), the Arabian-Nubian shield (Pan African) and Paleozoic orogens in Asia.

  11. The Demand for Higher Education in Turkey and Open Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cekerol, Kamil

    2012-01-01

    Failure to meet considerably high demand for higher education in Turkey has always been one of the most significant concerns of Turkish Higher Education System for many years. In this respect, Anadolu University Open Education Faculty has played a significant role in the attempts to overcome this problem in Turkey for the last three decades. In…

  12. Internationalization in Higher Education in China: A Practitioner's Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yibing

    2008-01-01

    Since higher education reforms were started in the mid-1980s, higher education in China has experienced significant transformations. Changes have not only been revealed by the increase in numbers of undergraduates, but also by a significant expansion in postgraduate education in mainland China. In order to enhance its global competitiveness, the…

  13. Family Background, Financial Constraints and Higher Education Attendance in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wenli

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the 2004 China College Student Survey, conducted by the author, this paper finds that long-term factors such as scholastic ability and parental education are significantly correlated with higher education attendance. By contrast, short-term financial constraints are also significantly associated with higher education access, but to…

  14. Advancing Diversity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Caroline S.

    2013-01-01

    This special section of the "Journal of Diversity in Higher Education" ("JDHE") on "Advancing Diversity in Higher Education" emerged from the 2012 Association for the Study of Higher Education Council on Ethnic Participation (ASHE-CEP) Pre-Conference Forum. CEP, a standing committee of ASHE, partnered with the…

  15. Higher Education Tuition Assistance And

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Higher Education Tuition Assistance And Work In West Virginia 2008 Results For PROMISE Scholarship and West Virginia Higher Education Grant Recipients October 2009 Revised: November 2009 Prepared for the West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission By George W. Hammond, Associate Director Adam Hoffer

  16. Higher Education Learning Agreement form

    E-print Network

    Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

    6 Higher Education Learning Agreement form Annex 1: Guidelines The purpose of the Learning. It is recommended to use this template. However, if the higher education institution already has an IT system hours and whether a third party is also involved, such as a higher education institution

  17. History of Higher Education, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    History of Higher Education, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This annual compilation offers six articles on the history of higher education. In the first article, "The Historical Matrix of American Higher Education," Roger L. Geiger provides an overview of the history of American higher education. Following it, E. D. Duryea, Jurgen Herbst, and W. Bruce Leslie comment on his hypothesis which identifies eight…

  18. State Higher Education Profiles: 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbett, Samuel F.; And Others

    Profiles on higher education for fiscal year 1985 are presented for the United States, each of the 50 states, and the District of Columbia, with attention to state involvement, support, and performance in higher education. Each state is indexed to a national average and ranked on selected statistics, based on data collected through the Higher

  19. Higher Education and Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Policy debate about whether to maintain public subsidies for higher education has stimulated reconsideration of the public mission of higher education institutions, especially those that provide student places conferring private benefits. If the work of higher education institutions is defined simply as the aggregation of private interests, this…

  20. Higher Education Funding in Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Lori

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine perceptions of state legislators regarding funding of public higher education in the State of Missouri. To this end, I sought to determine how Missouri legislators perceive the purpose of higher education and the role the state government should play in funding it. The concept that higher

  1. Contacts in Higher Education. Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This guide lists the names and addresses of the 132 universities and colleges funded by the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE). The guide is divided into these sections: (1) universities; (2) higher education colleges; (3) universities and higher education colleges by region; (4) further education college funded by the HEFCE; and…

  2. Contacts in Higher Education. Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This guide lists the names and addresses of the 132 universities and colleges funded the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE). The guide is divided into these sections: (1) universities; (2) higher education colleges; (3) universities and higher education colleges by region; (4) further education colleges funded by the HEFCE; and…

  3. Change of Higher Education in Response to European Pressures: Conceptualization and Operationalization of Europeanization of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukasovic, Martina

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on change in higher education in response to environmental pressures, more specifically pressures coming from European integration initiatives with respect to higher education, e.g. the Bologna Process. Significant research attention has so far been focused on the supposed impact of European initiatives on higher education…

  4. Clinical significance of laryngopharyngeal reflux in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Young Ho; Lee, Doh Young; Kim, Dong Wook; Park, Sung Soo; Heo, Eun Young; Chung, Hee Soon; Kim, Deog Kyeom

    2015-01-01

    Background Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is closely associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), the clinical significance of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is not fully understood in COPD. Methods Prospective cohorts were established among 118 patients with COPD from March 2013 to July 2014. Thirty-two age-matched and sex-matched normal controls, who had routine health check-ups during the study period, were included. Laryngopharyngeal reflux finding scores (RFS) and reflux symptom index (RSI) for LPR were subjected to association analysis with severity and acute exacerbation of COPD during the 1-year follow-up. Results The mean age of patients enrolled in the study was 69.2±8.8 years, with 93.2% being male. Positive RFS (>7) and RSI (>13) were observed in 51 (42.5%) and six patients (5.0%), respectively. RFS and RSI were significantly higher in patients with COPD than in normal, healthy patients (P<0.001). RFS was significantly correlated with residual volume/total lung capacity (%, P=0.048). Scores for diffuse laryngeal edema, erythema, and hyperemia were significantly higher in the high-risk group (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease classification C and D; P=0.025 and P=0.049, respectively), while RSI was significantly higher in the more symptomatic group (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease classification B and D; P=0.047). RSI and RFS were significant predictors for severe acute exacerbation of COPD (P=0.03 and P=0.047, respectively), while only RSI was associated with severity of dyspnea. Conclusion Laryngeal examination and evaluation of laryngeal reflux symptom could be a surrogate clinical indicator related to severe acute exacerbation of COPD. Further studies of LPR in COPD patients should be considered.

  5. Elevated free fatty acid concentrations in lipemic sera reduce protein binding of valproic acid significantly more than phenytoin.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, A; Crossey, M J

    1997-02-01

    Higher concentrations of free valproic acid and phenytoin have been reported in patients with uremia and liver disease. Free fatty acids also displace valproic acid and phenytoin. This is a study of the magnitude of displacement of valproic acid and phenytoin from protein binding by free fatty acid in lipemic sera. Higher concentrations of free fatty acids in lipemic sera affected protein binding of valproic acid significantly more than that of phenytoin. Supplementing normal sera with free fatty acids also increased the free concentrations of both valproic acid and phenytoin as expected, but the observed effect was several times higher in magnitude with valproic acid. There was an increased free fraction of valproic acid in patients who received valproic acid and had hypertriglyceridemia. In a patient with uremia, there was also a significant increase in free valproic acid concentration after routine hemodialysis caused by an increase in free fatty acid concentration secondary to hemodialysis. Increased protein binding of valproic acid in sera was observed after treatment with activated charcoal because charcoal can remove free fatty acid. Because higher free fatty acid concentration significantly affects protein binding of valproic acid, careful monitoring of free valproic acid in patients with lipid disorder may be beneficial. PMID:9030671

  6. Pupal melanization is associated with higher fitness in Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sisi; Wang, Mo; Li, Xianchun

    2015-01-01

    Melanism has long been thought to be a habitat adaptation with a fitness cost. Here we reported a homozygous melanic strain (SEM) of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) established with black pupae spontaneously occurring within a typical laboratory population (SEW). The melanization is expressed globally, and only in the pupal stage. After pupation, the melanic SEM pupae gradually accumulate melanin to become completely black within 6?hours, whereas the wild-type SEW pupae gradually turn yellow-brown. The melanic SEM strain exhibits faster development in all life stages, heavier pupa weight, more mating time, higher fecundity, and accordingly, higher net reproductive rate and population trend index. While no reproductive isolation was observed between the SEM and SEW strains, the mating times per female of the reciprocal crosses and the SEM intracrosses were significantly higher than those of the SEW intracrosses. This represents a rare case of melanization that has fitness gains, rather than costs. Analysis of the life-history traits of this case and 14 previously reported cases of insect melanism indicate that none of melanization origin, stage, space and variation type determining whether melanism will cause fitness gain or cost. PMID:26039886

  7. Pupal melanization is associated with higher fitness in Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sisi; Wang, Mo; Li, Xianchun

    2015-01-01

    Melanism has long been thought to be a habitat adaptation with a fitness cost. Here we reported a homozygous melanic strain (SEM) of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) established with black pupae spontaneously occurring within a typical laboratory population (SEW). The melanization is expressed globally, and only in the pupal stage. After pupation, the melanic SEM pupae gradually accumulate melanin to become completely black within 6?hours, whereas the wild-type SEW pupae gradually turn yellow-brown. The melanic SEM strain exhibits faster development in all life stages, heavier pupa weight, more mating time, higher fecundity, and accordingly, higher net reproductive rate and population trend index. While no reproductive isolation was observed between the SEM and SEW strains, the mating times per female of the reciprocal crosses and the SEM intracrosses were significantly higher than those of the SEW intracrosses. This represents a rare case of melanization that has fitness gains, rather than costs. Analysis of the life-history traits of this case and 14 previously reported cases of insect melanism indicate that none of melanization origin, stage, space and variation type determining whether melanism will cause fitness gain or cost. PMID:26039886

  8. Higher-order spin noise statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fuxiang; Saxena, Avadh; Smith, Darryl; Sinitsyn, Nikolai A.

    2013-11-01

    The optical spin noise spectroscopy (SNS) is a minimally invasive route toward obtaining dynamical information about electrons and atomic gases by measuring mesoscopic time-dependent spin fluctuations. Recent improvements of the sensitivity of SNS should make it possible to observe higher-order spin correlators at thermodynamic equilibrium. We develop theoretical methods to explore higher-order (third and fourth) cumulants of the spin noise in the frequency domain. We make predictions for the possible functional form of these correlators in single quantum dot experiments and then apply the method of the stochastic path integral to estimate the effects of many-body interactions.

  9. Higher order antibunching in intermediate states

    E-print Network

    A Verma; N K Sharma; A Pathak

    2007-06-05

    Since the introduction of binomial state as an intermediate state, different intermediate states have been proposed. Different nonclassical effects have also been reported in these intermediate states. But till now higher order antibunching or higher order subpoissonian photon statistics is predicted only in one type of intermediate state, namely shadowed negative binomial state. Recently we have shown the existence of higher order antibunching in some simple nonlinear optical processes to establish that higher order antibunching is not a rare phenomenon (J. Phys. B 39 (2006) 1137). To establish our earlier claim further, here we have shown that the higher order antibunching can be seen in different intermediate states, such as binomial state, reciprocal binomial state, hypergeometric state, generalized binomial state, negative binomial state and photon added coherent state. We have studied the possibility of observing the higher order subpoissonian photon statistics in different limits of intermediate states. The effect of different control parameters have also been studied in this connection and it has been shown that the depth of nonclassicality can be tuned by controlling various physical parameters.

  10. Reliability of Bridges: Significant Addition to Civil Engineering Curriculum

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pablo, Reynaldo

    Rapid highway system development in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s has resulted in a large number of bridges reaching a stage in need of repair, rehabilitation, or replacement. Truck loads have also been steadily increasing since then. This has made the situation even worse. Many developed countries are currently experiencing a problem of aging and deteriorated bridge networks as well as observed growth of load in both magnitude and volume. These structures safety has been of concern. The bridges experiencing vehicular overloads are subjected to a higher risk of distress, damage, and even catastrophic failure that will jeopardize human lives. Evaluation, repair, and rehabilitation are necessary for the preservation of the load capacity and service performance of these existing bridges. To minimize cost of replacement or repair, the evaluation needs to accurately reveal the current load carrying capacity of the bridge and to cover future loads and further changes in the capacity. Note that this involves a significant amount of uncertainty. To this end, the reliability theory of structures can be a helpful tool to quantify the risk involved in this process of bridge assessment. Addition of a semester-long course on reliability of bridges in the civil engineering curriculum can greatly help the students understand the fundamental concepts of bridge safety. Civil engineering graduates will have the capability in evaluating bridge safety which they can confidently use in their future career. As a result, this will encourage students to specialize in the field of bridge reliability and eventually the nations bridge assessment experts will grow in number. These experts will have the technical know-how to help maintain bridge infrastructures to avoid catastrophic failures and most significantly of all, save lives.

  11. Prognostic Significance of Imaging Myocardial Sympathetic Innervation.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Saurabh; Fernandez, Stanley F; Fallavollita, James A; Canty, John M

    2015-08-01

    There has been a longstanding interest in understanding whether the presence of inhomogeneity in myocardial sympathetic innervation can predict patients at risk of sudden cardiac arrest from lethal ventricular arrhythmias. The advent of radiolabeled norepinephrine analogs has allowed this to be imaged in patients with ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy using single, photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). Several observational studies have demonstrated that globally elevated myocardial sympathetic tone (as reflected by reduced myocardial norepinephrine analog uptake) can predict composite cardiac end-points including total cardiovascular mortality. More recent studies have indicated that quantifying the extent of regional denervation can predict the risk of lethal ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. This review will summarize our current understanding of the prognostic significance of altered myocardial sympathetic innervation. PMID:26087899

  12. Higher Education in the Byelorussian SSR. Monographs on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bondarenko, E. G.; And Others

    Higher education in the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR) is described, including the system's history, current conditions, functions, and structure. The particular shape of the Byelorussian higher education is in part due to the fact that it only came into being as a system after the revolution of 1917, meaning that from the beginning…

  13. Higher Education in the USSR. Monographs on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savelyev, A. Y.; And Others

    This monograph describes the system of higher education in the United Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The preface points out that despite perestroika, two features of Soviet education persist, a high degree of unity and centralization and a close link between higher education and employers. Chapter 1, "Historical Overview," begins with 4th…

  14. A Higher-Order Structure Tensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Schultz; Joachim Weickert; Hans-Peter Seidel

    Structure tensors are a common tool for orientation estimation in image processing and computer vision. We present a generalization\\u000a of the traditional second-order model to a higher-order structure tensor (HOST), which is able to model more than one significant\\u000a orientation, as found in corners, junctions, and multichannel images. We provide a theoretical analysis and a number of mathematical\\u000a tools that

  15. Higher-Dimensional Communication and S.E.T.I

    E-print Network

    Paul S. Wesson

    2014-06-07

    In cosmologies with more than four dimensions, of the type required for unification, it is possible for signals to have velocities in excess of that of light. Using a five-dimensional model which otherwise agrees with observations, two subjects are reviewed: (a) An exact solution of the field equations which describes a 4D spacetime with a large cosmological constant and waves travelling in ordinary 3D space with velocities exceeding lightspeed. (b) An example where the 4D interval or proper time is modulated by the systematic variation of the scalar field associated with the fifth dimension, providing a simple signalling method. These and related consequences of higher-dimensional cosmology have significant implications for astrophysics, and especially the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence.

  16. Significance of pharmaceutical excipients in prescribed medicines: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Maharaj, Sandeep; Pandey, Sureshwar; Maharaj, Keshwar; Sheik, Meera Sharief; Dhingra, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Pharmaceutical excipients need careful observation as they play a significant role in treatment outcomes. It is imperative for a physician to collect complete patient profile before prescribing new medications for current treatment. We present a case report on the significance of pharmaceutical excipients in prescribed medicines. PMID:25548626

  17. FINAL REPORT. DETERMINING SIGNIFICANT ENDPOINTS FOR ECOLOGICAL RISK ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research examines the ecological significance of radioactive and heavy metal contamination. Risks to non-human biota at higher levels of biological organization are assessed by using novel biological dosimeters in controlled, manipulative, dose/effects experiments, and by co...

  18. Investigating the Significance of VFR Visits to International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ruth; Shanka, Tekle; Pope, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Higher education, particularly in the area of international education has exhibited significant growth since the mid-1980s. Whilst it is beginning to attract research from both educational and tourism industry perspectives, the current body of knowledge regarding this market is still quite limited. This is particularly the case in the area of…

  19. Mentoring circles in higher education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Darwin; Edward Palmer

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, mentoring in higher education institutions has either occurred informally or as a planned program where junior staff members are matched with experienced staff members in a formal one?to?one program. While such programs have reported benefits to participants, many miss out on the opportunity. Further, mentoring dyads do little to enhance a more collaborative atmosphere in higher education settings. Alternative

  20. Leading Change in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRoy, Ian; Gibbs, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the situation in the UK higher education system and investigates specifically the leadership practice in a cluster of UK institutions as they changed their status. The research goes further to advocate a form of contextualized leadership that is relevant to higher institutions under change. (Contains 1 figure.)

  1. Higher Education Doctor of Philosophy

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    Higher Education Doctor of Philosophy Program Handbook College of Education Graduate Education and Research Texas Tech University Box 1071 Lubbock, TX 79409-1071 (806) 742-1997 Fax (806) 742-2197 www.educ.ttu.edu Effective Fall 2013-2014 #12;2 Doctor of Philosophy Program Overview The Higher Education program

  2. Higher Education Learning Agreement form

    E-print Network

    Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

    Higher Education Learning Agreement form Student's name LEARNING AGREEMENT FOR STUDIES The Student look at Annex 1, for end notes please look at Annex 2. 1 #12;Higher Education Learning Agreement form of educational components in the student's degree that would normally be completed at the sending institution

  3. Higher Education Learning Agreement form

    E-print Network

    Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

    6 Higher Education Learning Agreement form Annex 1: Guidelines The purpose of the Learning that the student will receive recognition in his/her degree for the educational components successfully completed abroad. It is recommended to use this template. However, if higher education institutions already have

  4. Higher Education Doctor of Philosophy

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    Higher Education Doctor of Philosophy Program Handbook College of Education Graduate Education and Research Texas Tech University Box 1071 Lubbock, TX 79409-1071 (806) 742-1997 Fax (806) 742-2197 www.educ.ttu.edu Effective Fall 2012-2013 #12;2 Doctor of Philosophy Program Overview The Higher Education program

  5. Private Higher Education in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Diana L.

    1990-01-01

    Australia's higher education system reform, the booming overseas market, and unmet domestic demand have provided opportunities for private higher education. The growth of private provision, federal and state government responses, and pressures for subsidy and regulation have hastened development of a "peripheral private sector." (Author/MSE)

  6. Barriers to Universal Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrin, Richard I.

    This report was prepared as a background paper for a national study of changes in the accessibility of higher education fromm l958 to l968. It out- lines four major barriers to higher education: the financial, the academic, the motivational, and the geographic. Efforts to reduce these barriers have included (1) the creation of junior colleges; (2)…

  7. Does Higher Education Need Deschooling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butson, Russell

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an attempt to overcome the contemporary obsession with "learning" and proposes that current practices in higher education are aligned too closely with the educational theories and practices developed within pre-university compulsory education. The author takes the position that higher education is substantially different from…

  8. Econometric Studies of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    The econometrics of higher education emerged from the development of human capital theory and efforts to estimate rates of return to education in the 1960s and 1970s. This paper surveys the various strands of the literature on the econometrics of higher education that have developed during the last 40 years and indicates how a collection of papers…

  9. Personnel Management in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millett, John D.; And Others

    This document on personnel management in higher education contains three papers that are designed to be used as guidelines for educational administrators. The first two papers, by John D. Millett, discuss the scope and problems of higher education administration and the problems associated with collective bargaining and tenure on college campuses.…

  10. Queering Transformation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Msibi, Thabo

    2013-01-01

    Transformation in higher education has tended to focus on race and sex, at the expense of other forms of discrimination. This article addresses the silencing of "queer" issues in higher education. Using queer theory as a framework, and drawing on current literature, popular media reports, two personal critical incidents and a project…

  11. The Opening of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matkin, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    In a 1974 report presented to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Martin Trow laid out a framework for understanding large-scale, worldwide changes in higher education. Trow's essay also pointed to the problems that "arise out of the transition from one phase to another in a broad pattern of development of higher

  12. A Higher Education Issues Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balm, Gerald J.; Blomberg, Robert

    1987-01-01

    As part of a strategic planning effort guiding community socioeconomic development through 2000, the citizens of Rochester, Minnesota, tackled the problem of providing equitable, accessible, and accountable higher education. Studying external factors and developing an internal situation analysis led to a set of higher education issues and…

  13. Strengthening Community in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millet, John D.

    Governance, purposes, and management are not issues isolated from one another; rather, these are elements of a continuous process on which the survival of higher education depends. Chapter 1, Purposes and Objectives, reviews the context of leadership and performance, the purposes of higher education, the objectives and internal conflict, and the…

  14. Tourism Higher Education in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen Zhang; Xixia Fan

    2006-01-01

    This paper first reviews the origins and development of tourism higher education in China, then elaborates on its present hierarchy of programs, regional distribution and mechanisms for operating schools. Based on an investigation, the paper also discusses the educational objectives, program setup, curriculum design, textbooks and reference materials. It summarizes the problems and challenges China's higher education studies in tourism

  15. Wealth in Higher Education Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradburd, Ralph M.; Mann, Duncan P.

    1993-01-01

    A more inclusive definition of wealth for higher education institutions that adds capitalized value of annual gifts, grants, and public appropriations to the traditional endowment-based measure is proposed. It is found that, when the definition of wealth includes these nonendowment sources, public higher education institutions dominate in…

  16. West Virginia Higher Education Graduate

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    West Virginia Higher Education Graduate Employment By Industry 2009 July 2010 Prepared for the West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission By George W. Hammond, Associate Director Adam Hoffer, Graduate Research Assistant Bureau of Business and Economic Research College of Business and Economics West Virginia

  17. West Virginia Higher Education Graduate

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    West Virginia Higher Education Graduate Employment And Wage Trends: 2003-2010 Summary Results October 2011 Prepared for the West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission By George W. Hammond and Economic Research College of Business and Economics West Virginia University © Copyright 2011 WVU Research

  18. Higher Education Marketing: A Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canterbury, Richard

    1999-01-01

    States that similarities between education and other services may not be sufficient to conclude that services marketing methods can be easily transferred to all markets in higher education. Article identifies and discusses why higher education marketing is a particular challenge. Suggests that understanding these challenges can help in making…

  19. Learning entrepreneurship in higher education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vesa P. Taatila

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – There is a constant need to produce more entrepreneurial graduates from higher education institutions. This paper aims to present and discuss several successful cases of entrepreneurial learning environments in order to suggest some important aspects that higher education institutions should consider. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper presents a literature review and four previously published case studies. These are used

  20. Alternative Models for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffrey, John G.

    Higher education is beset from all sides by criticism, fear, doubt, uncertainty, and prophecies of doom. While the young call for change, the faculty often resist anything that might reduce their privileges and prerogatives. Before alternative models to the present system of higher education can be considered, it is useful to question present…

  1. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

  2. THE ECONOMICS OF HIGHER EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARTTER, ALLAN M.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION CONTAINS PAPERS PRESENTED AT A COLLOQUIUM HELD BY THE COLLEGE SCHOLARSHIP SERVICE IN 1965. THE PAPERS DEAL BROADLY WITH THE QUESTION OF THE MOST EFFECTIVE METHODS OF FINANCING HIGHER EDUCATION, AND WITH THE ROLE AND PROBLEMS OF THE EDUCATIONAL CONSUMER. THE PAPERS DEAL WITH--(1) THE ECONOMICS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, (2) PRICING…

  3. Higher Education: Open for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilde, Christian, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses a problem in higher learning, which is newly recognized in the academic spotlight: the overcommercialization of higher education. The book asks that you, the reader, think about the following: Did you go to a Coke or Pepsi school? Do your children attend a Nike or Adidas school? Is the college in your town a Dell or Gateway…

  4. Delphi in Higher Education Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Robert C.

    1978-01-01

    The Delphi technique's short history in higher education is reported together with a brief introduction to the origins and principal characteristics of the method. The extent of recent attention to Delphi and its recent use in higher education in the U.S. is discussed. (Author/LBH)

  5. TQM ISSUES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mete B. Sirvanci

    While total quality management (TQM) was adopted by many organizations worldwide, its implementation in nonprofit organizations, such as higher education institutions, present more challenges and difficulties than those encountered in business organizations. A criti- cal step in TQM implementation is the process of customer identification. Among the various stakeholders in higher education institutions, there is neither awareness nor agree- ment

  6. Tax Benefits and Higher Education

    E-print Network

    Gelfond, Michael

    Tax Benefits and Higher Education #12;Making Tax Benefits Work for You While"tax"and"benefit"seem like contradictory terms,the fact is that there are a number of tax incentives to help taxpayers offset the cost of higher education. You may be eligible for certain tax benefits if you,your spouse or your

  7. Minority Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Asian Americans are entitled to equal access to all institutions of higher education. Ensuring greater access and participation by minorities in higher education is one of the most practical ways of moving America closer to the ideal of equal opportunity, which is the actualization of the American dream.…

  8. Feminist Research in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ropers-Huilman, Rebecca; Winters, Kelly T.

    2011-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of feminist methodology and its potential to enhance the study of higher education. Foregrounding the multiple purposes and research relationships developed through feminist research, the essay urges higher education scholars to engage feminist theories, epistemologies, and methods to inform policy, research, and…

  9. Empowering Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisker, Gina

    This book focuses on enabling and empowering women in higher education, and it draws both on research and experience with women-centered teaching and learning practices and professional development and training of women staff. The first section of the book concentrates on women students in higher education. Chapters include: "Women Students and…

  10. Higher Education and Social Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasution, S.; Virasai, Banphot, Eds.

    The proceedings of the Regional Institute of Higher Education and Development's seminar and the meaning and implications of social commitment in higher education are reported. The welcoming address (S. Nasution) and the opening address (Y. B. Dato' Murad bin Mohd. Noor) welcome the participants and set the tone for the discussions to follow. The…

  11. Innovations in Higher Education? Hah!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, Ann

    2012-01-01

    One can hardly mention higher education today without hearing the word "innovation," or its understudies "change," "reinvention," "transformation." Last summer the National Governors Association opened its meeting with a plenary session on higher education, innovation, and economic growth. But there is nothing funny about the need for innovation…

  12. Prognostic significance of whole-body MRI in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.

    PubMed

    Hillengass, J; Weber, M-A; Kilk, K; Listl, K; Wagner-Gund, B; Hillengass, M; Hielscher, T; Farid, A; Neben, K; Delorme, S; Landgren, O; Goldschmidt, H

    2014-01-01

    Radiological skeletal survey or computed tomography are currently applied to assess bone diseases in patients with monoclonal plasma cell disorders. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (whole-body MRI) allows detecting the infiltration of clonal cells in nearly the whole bone marrow compartment even before bone destruction has occurred. Those MRI results (i.e., patterns of bone marrow infiltration) have been demonstrated to be of prognostic significance in patients with symptomatic as well as asymptomatic multiple myeloma. We have therefore analyzed the findings of whole-body MRI in 137 consecutive individuals with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). A focal infiltration pattern was detected in 23.4% of patients. Presence and number of focal lesions as well as value of M-Protein were of independent prognostic significance for progression into a symptomatic disease requiring systemic treatment (P=0.02; P<0.0001 and P=0.0005, respectively). Lower homogeneous signal intensities in T1-weighted images were related to a physiologically higher bone marrow cellularity in younger individuals (P=0.002). We conclude that whole-body MRI identifies patients with focal accumulations of presumably monoclonal cells in bone marrow with prognostic impact concerning the risk of progression into symptomatic disease. PMID:23958921

  13. Higher-order dielectrophoresis of nonspherical particles.

    PubMed

    Nili, Hossein; Green, Nicolas G

    2014-06-01

    Higher-order terms of dielectrophoretic (DEP) force are commonly ignored by invoking the simplifying dipole approximation. Concurrently, the trend towards micro- and nano-electrode structures in DEP design is bringing about an increasing number of instances where the approximation is expected to lose reliability. The case is severe for nonspherical particles (the shape of many biological particles) due to the shape-dependent nature of dielectric polarization. However, there is a lack of analytical means to determine multipole moments of nonspherical particles, numerical calculations of the same are regarded as unreliable, and there is a prevalence for higher-order force considerations to be ignored. As a result, the dipole approximation is used and/or nonspherical particles are approximated as spheres. This work proves the inefficacy of current qualitative criteria for the reliability of the dipole approximation and presents a quantitative substitute, with verified accuracy, that enables precise determination of the extent to which the dipole approximation would be reliable, and if found unreliable, corrects the approximation by adding second- and third-order terms of the DEP force. The effects of field nonuniformity, electrode design, and particle shape and aspect ratio on the significance of higher-order DEP forces is quantitatively analyzed. The results show that higher-order DEP forces are indeed of substantially increased significance for nonspherical particles; in the cases examined in this work, multipolar terms are seen to constitute more than 40% of the total force on ellipsoidal and cylindrical particles. It is further shown that approximating nonspherical particles as spheres of similar dimensions is subject to substantial error. Last, the substantial importance of the electrode design in influencing higher-order forces is shown. PMID:25019907

  14. Synthesis of higher monocarboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Taikov, B.F.; Novakovskii, E.M.; Zhelkovskaya, V.P.; Shadrova, V.N.; Shcherbik, P.K.

    1981-01-01

    Brown-coal and peat waxes contain higher monocarboxylic acids, alcohols and esters of them as their main components. In view of this, considerable interest is presented by the preparation of individual compounds among those mentioned above, which is particularly important in the study of the composition and development of the optimum variants of the chemical processing of the waxes. In laboratory practice, to obtain higher monocarboxylic acids use is generally made of electrosynthesis according to Kolbe which permits unbranched higher aliphatic acids with given lengths of the hydrocarbon chain to be obtained. The aim of the present work was to synthesize higher monocarboxylic acids: arachidic, behenic, lignoceric, pentacosanoic, erotic, heptacosanoic, montanic, nonacosanoic, melissic, dotriacontanoic and tetratriacontanoic, which are present in waxes. Characteristics of synthesized acids are tabulated. 20 refs.

  15. Higher Education: Labor Market Linkage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asayeghn, Desta

    1982-01-01

    Examines the methodology of three case studies investigating the linkage between higher education and the world of work in the Sudan, Zambia, and Tanzania. Summarizes 12 main findings. Suggests the studies remain traditional human resources planning efforts. (NEC)

  16. Trends in Higher Education Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Charles R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the effects which changes in computer technology are having on the organization, staffing, and budgets at institutions of higher education. Trends in computer hardware, computer software, and in office automation are also discussed. (JN)

  17. Low Parasitemia in Submicroscopic Infections Significantly Impacts Malaria Diagnostic Sensitivity in the Highlands of Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Eugenia; Zhou, Guofa; Oo, Winny; Afrane, Yaw; Githeko, Andrew; Yan, Guiyun

    2015-01-01

    Asymptomatic malaria infections represent a major challenge in malaria control and elimination in Africa. They are reservoirs of malaria parasite that can contribute to disease transmission. Therefore, identification and control of asymptomatic infections are important to make malaria elimination feasible. In this study, we investigated the extent and distribution of asymptomatic malaria in Western Kenya and examined how varying parasitemia affects performance of diagnostic methods including microscopy, conventional PCR, and quantitative PCR. In addition, we compared parasite prevalence rates and parasitemia levels with respect to topography and age in order to explore factors that influence malaria infection. Over 11,000 asymptomatic blood samples from children and adolescents up to 18 years old representing broad areas of Western Kenya were included. Quantitative PCR revealed the highest parasite positive rate among all methods and malaria prevalence in western Kenya varied widely from less than 1% to over 50%. A significantly lower parasitemia was detected in highland than in lowland samples and this contrast was also observed primarily among submicroscopic samples. Although we found no correlation between parasitemia level and age, individuals of younger age group (aged <14) showed significantly higher parasite prevalence. In the lowlands, individuals of aged 5–14 showed significantly higher prevalence than those under age 5. Our findings highlight the need for a more sensitive and time-efficient assay for asymptomatic malaria detection particularly in areas of low-transmission. Combining QPCR with microscopy can enhance the capacity of detecting submicroscopic asymptomatic malaria infections. PMID:25816298

  18. Higher-order Fibonacci numbers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milan Randi?; Daniel A. Morales; Oswaldo Araujo

    1996-01-01

    We consider a generalization of Fibonacci numbers that was motivated by the relationship of the HosoyaZ topological index to the Fibonacci numbers. In the case of the linear chain structures the new higher order Fibonacci numbershFn are directly related to the higher order Hosoya-typeZ numbers. We investigate the limitsFn\\/Fn-1 and the corresponding equations, the roots of which allow one to

  19. American Indian Higher Education Consortium

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC), since 1972, has been the collective spirit and voice of our nation's Tribal Colleges and Universities, advocating on behalf of individual institutions of higher education that are defined and controlled by their respective tribal nations. AIHEC's mission is to nurture, advocate, and protect American Indian history, culture, art and language, and the legal and human rights of American Indian people to their own sense of identity and heritage.

  20. Access to higher education in China: Differences in opportunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Houxiong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Access to higher education in China has opened up significantly in the move towards a mass higher education system. However,\\u000a aggregate growth does not necessarily imply fair or reasonable distribution of opportunity. In fact, the expansion of higher\\u000a education has a rather more complex influence on opportunity when admissions statistics are viewed by geographical region,\\u000a rural and urban environment, social

  1. The diagnosis and clinical significance of polyautoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are chronic and heterogeneous conditions that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. The chronic nature of these diseases places a significant burden on the utilization of medical care, direct and indirect economic costs, and quality of life. ADs are observed in genetically susceptible individuals in whom their clinical expression is modified by permissive and protective environments occurring over time. These are complex traits, meaning that their inheritance does not follow a single-gene dominant or single-gene recessive Mendelian law, and thus that they are polygenic. ADs are often diagnosed according to classification criteria, however they share similar subphenotypes including signs and symptoms, non-specific autoantibodies and other immune changes, which are prone to taxonomic problems. Polyautoimmunity is defined as the presence of more than one AD in a single patient. When three or more ADs coexist, this condition is called multiple autoimmune syndrome (MAS), which represents the best example of polyautoimmunity as well as the effect of a single genotype on diverse autoimmune phenotypes. Its study will provide important clues to elucidate the common mechanisms of ADs (i.e., the autoimmune tautology). PMID:24424171

  2. AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC: Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Devanand; Fisher, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    “Gain-of-function” and “loss-of-function” studies in human cancer cells and analysis of a transgenic mouse model have convincingly established that AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC performs a seminal role in regulating proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, and chemoresistance, the salient defining hallmarks of cancer. These observations are strongly buttressed by clinicopathologic correlations of AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC expression in a diverse array of cancers distinguishing AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC as an independent biomarker for highly aggressive metastatic disease with poor prognosis. AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC has been shown to be a marker predicting response to chemotherapy, and serum anti-AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC antibody titer also serves as a predictor of advanced stages of aggressive cancer. However, inconsistent findings have been reported regarding the localization of AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC protein in the nucleus or cytoplasm of cancer cells and the utility of nuclear or cytoplasmic AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC to predict the course and prognosis of disease. This chapter provides a comprehensive analysis of the existing literature to emphasize the common and conflicting findings relative to the clinical significance of AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC in cancer. PMID:23889987

  3. PROMPT Ia SUPERNOVAE ARE SIGNIFICANTLY DELAYED

    SciTech Connect

    Raskin, Cody; Scannapieco, Evan; Rhoads, James [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Della Valle, Massimo [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello, 16-80131, Napoli (Italy)

    2009-12-10

    The time delay between the formation of a population of stars and the onset of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) sets important limits on the masses and nature of SN Ia progenitors. Here, we use a new observational technique to measure this time delay by comparing the spatial distributions of SNe Ia to their local environments. Previous work attempted such analyses encompassing the entire host of each SN Ia, yielding inconclusive results. Our approach confines the analysis only to the relevant portions of the hosts, allowing us to show that even so-called prompt SNe Ia that trace star formation on cosmic timescales exhibit a significant delay time of 200-500 million years. This implies that either the majority of Ia companion stars have main-sequence masses less than 3 M {sub sun}, or that most SNe Ia arise from double white dwarf binaries. Our results are also consistent with a SNe Ia rate that traces the white dwarf formation rate, scaled by a fixed efficiency factor.

  4. Novalike Cataclysmic Variables are Significant Radio Emitters

    E-print Network

    Coppejans, Deanne L; Miller-Jones, James C A; Rupen, Michael P; Knigge, Christian; Sivakoff, Gregory R; Groot, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Radio emission from non-magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs, accreting white dwarfs) could allow detailed studies of outflows and possibly accretion flows in these nearby, numerous and non-relativistic compact accretors. Up to now, however, very few CVs have been detected in the radio. We have conducted a VLA pilot survey of four close and optically-bright novalike CVs at 6 GHz, detecting three, and thereby doubling the number of radio detections of these systems. RW Sex, V603 Aql and the old nova TT Ari were detected in both of the epochs, while V1084 Her was not detected (to a $3\\sigma$ upper-limit of 7.8 $\\mu\\rm{Jy}\\,\\rm{beam}^{-1}$). These observations clearly show that the sensitivity of previous surveys was typically too low to detect these objects and that non-magnetic CVs can indeed be significant radio emitters. The three detected sources show a range of properties, including flaring and variability on both short ($\\sim$200 s) and longer-term (days) time-scales, as well as circular polarization level...

  5. Market Values in American Higher Education: The Pitfalls and Promises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Charles W.

    This book proposes that market principles have been, and continue to be, misapplied to American higher education, causing significant economic inefficiencies and undermining the educational process. It argues: first, that the widespread criticism of fiscal and personnel mismanagement leveled against higher education's traditional way of doing…

  6. Knowing Your "Lemons": Quality Uncertainty in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Paul

    2007-01-01

    In the UK and elsewhere, higher education is increasingly and controversially being construed, especially within political discourse, as a marketised commodity service to paying customers. Notions of quality, broadly construed, will be of central significance in the development of new markets in higher education in the UK and beyond. Drawing upon…

  7. Higher Education Research of Intercollegiate Athletics: A Missed Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirko, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This study demonstrated the lack of research on college sports in significant higher education academic journals and conferences. Higher education peer-reviewed journals and conferences were considered the most common areas to reasonably measure the frequency of opportunity for national dialogue among scholars. The results found one percent of…

  8. Harmonious Expansion of China's Higher Education: A New Growth Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Jiafeng

    2012-01-01

    How can one country narrow the regional disparity during the tremendous expansion of higher education? This issue remains unexamined and critical analysis is needed to unveil the spatial dynamics behind expansion of higher education. The spatial analysis shows that there is significant strategic interaction among neighboring provinces in China…

  9. Education to the People: Higher Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shor, Ira

    1974-01-01

    An historical analysis from 1949 to the present, of the role of higher education in China, focusing on the significant changes since the Cultural Revolution in broadening the base of participation in higher education as well as the reorienting of curriculum and standards. (EH)

  10. The apparel higher education in China: Reform and development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiao-Ying Wu; Chun-Sheng Wu

    2010-01-01

    China's apparel higher education has experienced significant transformations to accommodate the development of society and economy. One purpose of this paper is to review the current changes in apparel higher education through reform and reconstruction during the past two decades in a historical perspective. Another purpose is to identify the new challenges and problems met in terms of globalization, mass

  11. Greening academia: Developing sustainable waste management at Higher Education Institutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Zhang; I. D. Williams; S. Kemp; N. F. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are often the size of small municipalities. Worldwide, the higher education (HE) sector has expanded phenomenally; for example, since the 1960s, the United Kingdom (UK) HE system has expanded sixfold to >2.4million students. As a consequence, the overall production of waste at HEIs throughout the world is very large and presents significant challenges as the associated

  12. Governance Shifts in Higher Education: A Cross-National Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazzeretti, Luciana; Tavoletti, Ernesto

    2006-01-01

    The article aims to interpret and compare recent governance shifts in higher education across several countries, both at the central government level and at the institutional or "corporate" level. In order to do that it reviews the most significant literature about alternative theoretical models of governance in higher education and uses these…

  13. Physical Education in Higher Education: Chaos Out of Order

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl M. Newell

    1990-01-01

    The last 25 years have witnessed significant changes in the field of physical education in higher education that include the “disciplinarization” of the field of study and the generation of a broader front of professional options for physical activity than the single focus of teacher training. The field of physical education in higher education has not displayed uniformity in reacting

  14. Higher-Education Policies and Welfare Regimes: International Comparative Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pechar, Hans; Andres, Lesley

    2011-01-01

    All Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries have experienced an unprecedented expansion in higher education during the second half of the twentieth century. This was only possible because higher education became part of national welfare policies. OECD countries differ, however, with respect to the significance of…

  15. Condom acceptance is higher among travelers in Uganda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martina Morris; Maria J. Wawer; Fred Makumbi; Jane R. Zavisca; Nelson Sewankambo

    Results: The population is highly mobile, with over 70% reporting travel to a potentially higher risk destination in the past year. Travelers are somewhat more likely to have higher levels of sexual risk behavior, but the risk appears to be offset by significantly greater knowledge, acceptance, and use of condoms. In multivariate analysis, the sexual risk differential for travelers is

  16. [Higher education in the globalization era].

    PubMed

    Duarte, Joaquim Manuel Dias

    2008-01-01

    Through the years, Higher Education has gone into an evolution process up to our days, characterized by the influence of globalization winds. In the search for the "culture of quality", competitiveness is a weighing factor to be considered by institutions of higher education. In this sense, the Bologna Process has provoked changes in the European universities and polytechnic politics. This process is supported by periodical meetings between adherent countries every two years; followed by the ministerial communiqués. From the 2007 stocktaking analysis we concluded that there is a good progress regarding all the Bergen priorities. Portugal's scorecard shows a significant evolution since 2005. Nevertheless, there are aspects the institutions are not dismissed to attend. PMID:18751609

  17. Revitalizing Higher Education. The Stanford Forum for Higher Education Futures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerson, Joel W., Ed.; Massy, William F., Ed.

    This volume contains six essays on higher education which provide lessons and successful techniques for meeting the challenges of the future. The first essay, "Academic Renewal at Michigan" (James Duderstadt), describes the modern research university as a complex corporate conglomerate in danger of diluting its core business. The successful…

  18. Higher Education in Bulgaria. Monographs on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgieva, Patricia

    Like other volumes in this series, this monograph follows a pattern that makes comparisons across systems easier. The history of the Bulgarian higher education system is given, focusing on the period after 1989. The legal basis for education in Bulgaria is analyzed, as is the evolving system of governance. The participation of Bulgarian education…

  19. Probabilistic Higher Order Differential Attack and Higher Order Bent Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsu Iwata; Kaoru Kurosawa

    1999-01-01

    . We first show that a Feistel type block cipher is broken ifthe round function is approximated by a low degree vectorial Booleanfunction. The proposed attack is a generalization of the higher orderdifferential attack to a probabilistic one. We next introduce a notion ofhigher order bent functions in order to prevent our attack. We then showtheir explicit constructions.1

  20. The Hierarchical Face: Higher Rankings Lead to Less Cooperative Looks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Patricia; Myers, Christopher G.; Kopelman, Shirli; Garcia, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    In 3 studies, we tested the hypothesis that the higher ranked an individual's group is, the less cooperative the facial expression of that person is judged to be. Study 1 established this effect among business school deans, with observers rating individuals from higher ranked schools as appearing less cooperative, despite lacking prior knowledge…

  1. Women in Higher Education Administration: Status and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlay, Cheryl Schratz; Crosson, Patricia H.

    1981-01-01

    The status of women in higher education administration and strategies for increasing their numbers are considered, based on research studies on women and job structures in higher education, and from information on organizations and programs. General observations based on the studies include the following: women are underrepresented in major…

  2. Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Started in 1993 after a government white paper called for more coherence in the reporting and collection of higher education statistics in the United Kingdom, the Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) is "the central source for higher education statistics." Not surprisingly, the site features a detailed area devoted to publications and data sets available from the HESA, some of which are available for no cost on the Web site, and others which may be ordered on CD-ROM. There are also a number of data sets available at no charge that may be viewed and printed, or downloaded for free. The data sets are mostly from 1994 to 2002, and include statistics on students (such as ethnicity, subject of study, and institution level), staff, and institutional incomes and expenditures. The site is rounded out with a collection of related links that lead to related government bodies and funding councils.

  3. Holographic holes in higher dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Robert C.; Rao, Junjie; Sugishita, Sotaro

    2014-06-01

    We extend the holographic construction of [1] from AdS3 to higher dimensions. In particular, we show that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of codimension-two surfaces in the bulk with planar symmetry can be evaluated in terms of the `differential entropy' in the boundary theory. The differential entropy is a certain quantity constructed from the entanglement entropies associated with a family of regions covering a Cauchy surface in the boundary geometry. We demonstrate that a similar construction based on causal holographic information fails in higher dimensions, as it typically yields divergent results. We also show that our construction extends to holographic backgrounds other than AdS spacetime and can accommodate Lovelock theories of higher curvature gravity.

  4. Complex higher order derivative theories

    SciTech Connect

    Margalli, Carlos A.; Vergara, J. David [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, Mexico 04510 DF (Mexico)

    2012-08-24

    In this work is considered a complex scalar field theory with higher order derivative terms and interactions. A procedure is developed to quantize consistently this system avoiding the presence of negative norm states. In order to achieve this goal the original real scalar high order field theory is extended to a complex space attaching a complex total derivative to the theory. Next, by imposing reality conditions the complex theory is mapped to a pair of interacting real scalar field theories without the presence of higher derivative terms.

  5. Higher harmonic rotor blade pitch control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewans, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Tests of a model 'Reverse Velocity Rotor' system at high advance ratios and with twice-per-revolution cyclic pitch control were made under joint Navy-NASA sponsorship in the NASA, Ames 12 ft. pressure tunnel. The results showed significant gains in rotor performance at all advance ratios by using twice-per-revolution control. Detailed design studies have been made of alternative methods of providing higher harmonic motion including four types of mechanical systems and an electro-hydraulic system. The relative advantages and disadvantages are evaluated on the basis of stiffness, weight, volume, reliability and maintainability.

  6. Higher tibial quantitative ultrasound in young female swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Falk, B; Bronshtein, Z; Zigel, L; Constantini, N; Eliakim, A

    2004-01-01

    Background: It has been found that swimming, a non-impact sport, generally has no effect on bone mineral density. Objectives: To examine bone properties, as measured by quantitative ultrasound, among female swimmers in comparison with control girls and women. Methods: Subjects included 61 swimmers and 71 controls aged 8.5 to 26.5 years. None of the swimmers was at the elite level and none had included resistance training in her schedule. Bone speed of sound (SOS) was measured bilaterally at the distal radius and the mid-tibia. Results: No differences were observed between swimmers and controls in body mass (mean (SD): 49.7 (12.3) v 50.7 (12.4) kg, respectively), although swimmers were taller (159 (12) v 155 (12) cm) and had lower body fat (18.3 (4.2)% v 22.3 (5.4)%). No difference was found in time since menarche (5.2 (4.0) and 4.5 (2.9) years in swimmers and controls, respectively; 21 swimmers and 25 control were premenarcheal). Radial speed of sound (SOS) increased with age but did not differ between swimmers and controls (non-dominant: 3904 (172) and 3889 (165) m/s for swimmers and controls, respectively). Tibial SOS also increased with age and was significantly higher in swimmers than in controls (non-dominant: 3774 (155) v 3712 (171) m/s). No differences were found between dominant and non-dominant sides. Conclusions: Swimming appears to be associated with higher bone SOS in the lower but not in the upper extremities. Further studies are needed to assess whether this difference reflects higher habitual activity among the swimmers or swimming specific mechanisms. PMID:15273187

  7. Development of temporary subtropical wetlands induces higher gas production

    PubMed Central

    Canterle, Eliete B.; da Motta Marques, David; Rodrigues, Lúcia R.

    2013-01-01

    Temporary wetlands are short-term alternative ecosystems formed by flooding for irrigation of areas used for rice farming. The goal of this study is to describe the development cycle of rice fields as temporary wetlands in southern Brazil, evaluating how this process affect the gas production (CH4 and CO2) in soil with difference % carbon and organic matter content. Two areas adjacent to Lake Mangueira in southern Brazil were used during a rice-farming cycle. One area had soil containing 1.1% carbon and 2.4% organic matter, and the second area had soil with 2.4% carbon and 4.4% organic matter. The mean rates of gas production were 0.04 ± 0.02 mg CH4 m?2 d?1 and 1.18 ± 0.30 mg CO2 m?2 d?1 in the soil area with the lower carbon content, and 0.02 ± 0.03 mg CH4 m?2 d?1 and 1.38 ± 0.41 mg CO2 m?2 d?1 in the soil area with higher carbon content. Our results showed that mean rates of CO2 production were higher than those of CH4 in both areas. No statistically significant difference was observed for production of CH4 considering different periods and sites. For carbon dioxide (CO2), however, a Two-Way ANOVA showed statistically significant difference (p = 0.05) considering sampling time, but no difference between areas. The results obtained suggest that the carbon and organic matter contents in the soil of irrigated rice cultivation areas may have been used in different ways by soil microorganisms, leading to variations in CH4 and CO2 production. PMID:23508352

  8. Clinical significance of serum angiopoietin-1 in malignant peritoneal mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Koji; Tabata, Chiharu; Tabata, Rie; Nogi, Yoshitaka; Terada, Takayuki; Honda, Miki; Kamiya, Hitomi; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki; Nakano, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    We have previously reported that angiopoietin-1 was correlated with pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we investigated the serum levels of angiopoietin-1 in patients with malignant peritoneal mesothelioma, which originate from mesenchymal cells similar to lung fibroblasts. We showed that patients with peritoneal mesothelioma had significantly higher serum levels of angiopoietin-1 in comparison with a population with a history of asbestos exposure without peritoneal mesothelioma, and the Kaplan-Meier method revealed a significant correlation between serum angiopoietin-1 levels and survival. This is the first report about the relationship between angiopoietin-1 and peritoneal mesothelioma. PMID:24010773

  9. Higher Education for Our Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Dana D.; Collins, Natalia D.

    2010-01-01

    Public higher education is currently experiencing a decline in financial support from state governments, an acceleration of enrollment growth, and a shift from a transformational to a transactional student relationship. Private institutions are also struggling with increasing operational costs, and decreases in revenue from endowments and…

  10. Security Studies and Higher Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Adolf

    2010-01-01

    Security studies within higher education face many challenges. This article discusses items related to security education and research: placement of security programs within American colleges, prevalence of graduate theses and doctoral dissertations related to general security studies, graduate theses and doctoral dissertations related to specific aspects of security, and finally the need for a college security program accreditation.

  11. Internal Audit in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Alison, Ed.; Brown, Sally, Ed.

    This book describes a range of examples of internal audit in higher education as part of a process of the exchange of good practice. The book recognizes well-established links with audit theory from other contexts and makes use of theoretical perspectives explored in the financial sector. The chapters are: (1) "Quality Audit Issues" (Sally Brown…

  12. Sunshine Laws in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, James C.; Mclendon, Michael K.

    2005-01-01

    Every state in the union has "sunshine" laws that apply to public higher education, and the leaders of public institutions deal directly or indirectly with these laws almost daily. Sunshine statutes go to the very heart of institutional functioning, influencing presidential searches and selection, board deliberations, research and intellectual…

  13. Disability Studies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    As a topic of study, disability is not new at institutions of higher education. Psychological and intellectual disabilities have been of interest in psychiatry and psychology at least since the late 1800s and early 1900s. The post-World War II era, in particular, witnessed the rapid expansion of academic programs in special education, vocational…

  14. Instructional Designers in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskal, Tami Marie

    2012-01-01

    Research about the preparation and competencies of instructional designers in higher education has not been addressed. The purpose of this multiple case study was to explore individuals in this context by focusing on their employment and academic backgrounds, as well as their responsibilities, qualifications, and expectations as reported by their…

  15. Gerontology Instruction in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, David A.; Bolton, Christopher R.

    Gerontology instruction at the college and university level is analyzed in light of various developments, major issues confronting the field, and specific needs of faculty and administrators. Chapters discuss: growth of interest in aging and gerontology; growing awareness of the aging in higher education; the literature of gerontology education;…

  16. New Hierarchies in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furth, Dorothea

    1982-01-01

    Implications of a gradual change in the "pecking order" within higher education in the course of the 1970s are discussed. This change cuts across the traditional university/nonuniversity distinctions, and illustrates the growing vulnerability of certain types and disciplines of university education. Focus is on graduate employability. (MSE)

  17. Transnational Higher Education in Uzbekistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sia, E. K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of transnational higher education (THE) in Uzbekistan. It includes a brief account of THE current and future market trends. The data, gathered from a literature search, show that the demand for THE (off-campus) is growing even faster than the demand for international (on-campus) programmes. This paper then provides…

  18. Diversity in Washington Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Improving the participation and performance of African American, Latino, American Indian, and Asian American students, faculty and staff in Washington state's higher education system represents a pivotal element of the statewide strategic master plan. This report includes current statistics and trend data for student enrollment, retention, and…

  19. Stakeholder Relationships in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Juha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a stakeholder map to describe the most important stakeholders and the process of stakeholder relationships in higher education. According to the perspective of the balanced scorecard, the classification of stakeholders integrates stakeholders into strategic management. Stakeholder maps are essential in…

  20. RACE EQUALITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Gideon

    RACE EQUALITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION Achievements, Future Challenges and Possible Solutions FRIDAY 11 will support understanding and thinking in the area of race equality. The aims of the conference are to: » debate the subject of race equality and the challenges facing the sector; » raise awareness of race

  1. Higher Education in Tomorrow's World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilcher, Palmer C.

    1972-01-01

    Essay attempts to summarize a portion of the impact of the new technology upon the total structure of higher education in America, as mankind's third great revolution has come full circle and tools of its emergence are now, if grudgingly, being felt upon the university campus. (Author/CB)

  2. American Higher Education in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    American higher education is in transition and if there ever was a "golden age" for faculty, it probably is behind us. The best historical data on the composition of faculty is collected annually by the American Mathematical Society. Between 1967 and 2009, the share of full-time faculty with PhDs remained constant at about 90 percent at doctoral…

  3. Statewide Testing in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewell, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Explores three issues to consider regarding statewide standardized tests in higher education: (1) existing statewide testing programs differ markedly from one another in nature and objectives, and it's important to know specifically how and why; (2) a range of substantial implementation issues will be present; and (3) there are promising…

  4. Supercomplexity in Higher Education Kinesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Betty A.; Estes, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This article employs Barnett's (2004) specifications of the aspects that describe the times of "supercomplexity." This term characterizes the challenges universities are facing regarding the expanding and competing forces that are affecting higher education, particularly in the West. Outside forces related to globalization, digital technologies,…

  5. Gender Equity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 bans discrimination in schools receiving federal financial assistance with regard to both academics and athletics. The law has helped ensure that women have access to both academic and athletic opportunities at most higher education institutions in the United States, dramatically increasing the range…

  6. Managing Mergers in Higher Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monie Naidoo

    Many universities and technikons were merged by government decree in 2004 and 2005 reducing the number of institutions of higher education from 38 to 21. The institutional autonomy of universities has been threatened by increasing government regulation and a range of complex novel management challenges have emerged particularly in the process of merging universities and their constituent units. A preliminary

  7. Art in American Higher Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Edmund Burke, Ed.

    This volume of 11 articles contains a comprehensive statement about the visual arts as they are encountered in post-secondary education. The articles are: (1) "Art and the Liberal Arts: A Trivial, Artificial, Irrelevant Antagonism" by Albert Bush-Brown; (2) "The Arts in Higher Education: A Question of Priorities" by Lawrence Dennis; (3) "Access to…

  8. Digital Resilience in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Martin; Anderson, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Higher education institutions face a number of opportunities and challenges as the result of the digital revolution. The institutions perform a number of scholarship functions which can be affected by new technologies, and the desire is to retain these functions where appropriate, whilst the form they take may change. Much of the reaction to…

  9. History of Higher Education, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Robert L., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    The four papers in this annual volume on the history of higher education cover some of the changes that evolved over the years in various U.S. institutions. The first paper is: "The Harvard Tutors: The Beginning of an Academic Profession, 1690-1825" (John D. Burton), which discusses the shift from Harvard's original tutorship model to its modern…

  10. Higher Education Evaluation in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Bernhard; von Hippel, Aiga; Tippelt, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Quality assurance in the area of higher education has become a central issue among both politicians and scientists. University evaluations which refer to both research and teaching are an important element of quality assurance. The present contribution starts out by determining the different components of quality at universities according to…

  11. Cleanliness & Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jeffrey L.; Bigger, Alan S.

    2008-01-01

    In 1992 APPA published a seminal work titled "Custodial Staffing Guidelines for Educational Facilities." The work was based on a concept that was in the embryonic stage in 1986 and then grew in momentum through 1988 when the APPA Board of Directors commissioned a task force to address custodial staffing issues at institutions of higher education.…

  12. A comparison of satellite water vapor observations with model simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.J. [NOAA/ERL Climate Diagnostic Center, Boulder, CO (United States); Jackson, D.L. [CIRES Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This paper compares observations of precipitable water (PW) and upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) with Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) simulations. PW observational data was from a scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SSMR); the mean observed PW for the 6-year coincident period was compared with AMIP simulation. Upper tropospheric relative humidity observational data was obtained from high resolution infrared radiometer instruments on NOAA satellites. Direct comparisons of observed UTH data are made with AMIP relative humidity. The model means and variability over the oceans compare well with values from SMMR observations. The mean annual cycle of PW from AMIP compares well with SMMR data, although SMMR values are consistently higher in the tropics. Interannual anomaly time series correlations between SMMR and AMIP PW values show a high regional dependence. In the subtropics, about one third of the AMIP models show highly significant interannual anomaly correlations, about one third show significant correlations, and about one third are not significantly correlated. In the tropics, almost all of the AMIP models are highly significantly correlated with the SMMR interannual PW anomalies; this is attributed to similar model responses during the extreme El Nino event of 1982-83. All models show significantly higher relative humidity at all levels; this may be due to tuning against radiosonde climatologies of upper tropospheric humidity climatologies that contain known large systematic biases. Variations in 10-year mean 300 millibar relative humidity between models was shown to be significantly different. Overall, the models are doing only an adequate job in simulation of PW and its variability, and are doing a completely inadequate job of simulating UTH and its variability. Inadequate simulation of UTH translates into large errors in simulation of the outgoing longwave radiation. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Higher in vitro resistance to oxidative stress in extra-pair offspring.

    PubMed

    Losdat, S; Helfenstein, F; Saladin, V; Richner, H

    2011-11-01

    Oxidative stress is considered to act as a universal physiological constraint in life-history evolution of animals. This should be of interest for extra-pair paternity behaviour, and we tested here the prediction that offspring arising from extra-pair matings of female great tits show higher resistance to oxidative stress than within-pair offspring. Resistance to oxidative stress, measured as the whole blood resistance to a controlled free-radical attack, was significantly higher for extra-pair offspring as predicted although these were not heavier or in better body condition than within-pair offspring. Since resistance to oxidative stress has been suggested to enhance survival and reproductive rates, extra-pair offspring with superior resistance to oxidative stress, be it through maternal effects or paternal inheritance, may achieve higher fitness and thus provide significant indirect fitness benefits to their mothers. In addition, because oxidative stress affects colour signals and sperm traits, females may also gain fitness benefits by producing sons that are more attractive (sexy-sons hypothesis) and have sperm of superior quality (sexy-sperm hypothesis). Heritability of resistance to oxidative stress as well as maternal effects may both act as proximate mechanisms for the observed result. Disentangling these two mechanisms would require an experimental approach. Future long-term studies should also aim at experimentally testing whether higher resistance to oxidative stress of EP nestlings indeed translates into fitness benefits to females. PMID:21899636

  14. Diverse: Issues in Higher Education

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The online publication "Diverse: Issues in Higher Education" is a cornucopia of material related to diversity issues in higher education, including hiring practices, increasing the number of underrepresented faculty members on campus, and so on. The homepage includes an excellent jobs database where visitors can learn about new jobs, and employers can post their currently available positions. The "Special Reports" area is quite a find as well, and here visitors can watch interviews and learn about the work of notable educators like Norman Francis, the president of Xavier University in New Orleans. The "Multimedia" area contains slideshows, videos, and audio interviews titled "The Ultimate Insider-Outsider" and "Saving Lives in the Academy and Operating Room". The site is rounded out by their "Opinion" area which includes blogs entries on the stressful lives of college students, sexual violence on college campuses, and much more.

  15. Abelian Duality at Higher Genus

    E-print Network

    Chris Beasley

    2014-07-29

    In three dimensions, a free, periodic scalar field is related by duality to an abelian gauge field. Here I explore aspects of this duality when both theories are quantized on a Riemann surface of genus g. At higher genus, duality involves an identification of winding with momentum on the Jacobian variety of the Riemann surface. I also consider duality for monopole and loop operators on the surface and exhibit the operator algebra, a refinement of the Wilson-'t Hooft algebra.

  16. Habitat Observations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Association of Zoos and Aquariums

    2009-01-01

    In this outdoor activity, learners discover the wonders of the habitat surrounding them. After reading "The Empty Lot," a picture book by Dale Fife, learners observe and record in writing what happens in the natural environment around them. Spending time outdoors observing nature can help learners better understand and appreciate the world in which we live.

  17. Spectroscopic Observations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a series of three activities about light and spectra. First, learners will construct their own spectroscope, observe common light sources, record the observed spectra, and compare their findings. Next, learners will use their spectroscopes to observe the spectra from different gas tubes and compare each observed spectrum to known spectra. Finally, they will observe a solar spectrum created by a prism, view a solar spectrum on paper, and attempt to determine the elements present in the Sun. This activity requires spectroscope posters and gratings available from the Stanford Solar Center (http://solar-center.stanford.edu/posters/), fluorescent and incandescent light sources, and emission lamps and power sources. This activity is from the Stanford Solar Center's All About the Sun: Sun and Stars activity guide for Grades 5-8 and can also accompany the Stanford Solar Center's Build Your Own Spectroscope activity.

  18. Improved Outcomes With Higher Doses for Salvage Radiotherapy After Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    King, Christopher R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Urologic Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)], E-mail: crking@stanford.edu; Spiotto, Michael T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Urologic Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate relapse-free survival with higher doses for patients receiving salvage radiotherapy (RT) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Patients and Methods: A total of 122 patients with pathologically negative lymph nodes received salvage RT after RP from 1984 to 2004. Median prostate bed dose was 60 Gy for 38 patients and 70 Gy for 84 patients. Four months of total androgen suppression and whole-pelvic RT were given concurrently to 68 and 72 patients, respectively. The median follow-up was >5 years. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards multivariable analyses were performed for all clinical, pathologic, and treatment factors predicting for biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS). Results: There were 60 biochemical failures after salvage RT, with a median time to failure of 1.2 years. A dose response was observed, with a 5-year bRFS rate of 25% vs. 58% for prostate bed doses of 60 Gy vs. 70 Gy (p < 0.0001). For patients receiving RT alone the 5-year bRFS rate was 17% vs. 55% (p = 0.016), and for those receiving prostate-bed-only RT it was 23% vs. 66% (p = 0.037) for doses of 60 Gy vs. 70 Gy, respectively. On multivariate analysis a prostate bed dose of 70 Gy (p 0.012, hazard ratio [HR] 0.48 [95% Confidence Interval (CI), 0.27-0.87]), pre-RT prostate-specific antigen value {<=}1 ng/mL (p < 0.0001, HR 0.28 [95% CI, 0.16-0.48]), and lack of seminal vesicle involvement (p = 0.009, HR 0.44 [95% CI, 0.26-0.77]) remained independently significant. Conclusions: A clinically significant dose response from 60 Gy to 70 Gy was observed in the setting of salvage RT after prostatectomy. A dose of 70 Gy to the prostate bed is recommended to achieve optimal disease-free survival.

  19. Clinical significance of first-trimester intrauterine haematomas detected in pregnancies achieved by IVF-embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Lan; Wei, Zhaolian; Wu, Juan; Zhou, Ping; Xiang, Huifen; Cao, Yunxia

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the clinical significance of first-trimester intrauterine haematomas (IUH) detected in pregnancies achieved by IVF-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) was evaluated. A retrospective case-control study was designed to compare obstetric and perinatal outcomes of 350 pregnancies with IUH and 350 matched controls without IUH. The incidence of first-trimester IUH detected in the IVF-ET pregnancies was 13.5%. In women who delivered after 28 weeks' gestation, the incidence of gestational hypertension (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.5 to 4.6), preeclampsia (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.5 to 5.0) and postpartum haemorrhage (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.8 to 5.3) was significantly higher in the IUH group. Compared with controls, placenta previa (OR, 8.7 95%; CI 3.4 to 22.2) and oligohydramninos (OR 5.8; 95% CI 2.4 to 14.0) were more common in the IUH group. The incidence of preterm delivery (<37 weeks' gestation) was significantly higher in the IUH group (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.4 to 3.0), although the incidence of preterm delivery before 34 weeks' gestation was not. No differences were observed in the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus, premature rupture of membranes and low birth weight. The presence of first-trimester IUH in IVF-ET pregnancies was associated with a higher risk of several pregnancy complications. PMID:25164168

  20. Sudden substrate dilution induces a higher rate of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed Central

    Legisa, M; Gradisnik-Grapulin, M

    1995-01-01

    On the basis of the present knowledge of Aspergillus niger metabolism during citric acid fermentation, an idea on how to improve the process was formed. Initially, a higher sucrose concentration was used for the germination of spores, which caused a higher intracellular level of the osmoregulator, glycerol, to be present. When citric acid started to be excreted into the medium, the substrate was suddenly diluted. Optimization of this procedure resulted in a nearly tripled volumetric rate (grams per liter per hour) of acid production, while the overall fermentation time was halved compared with the usual batch process. Yet, a characteristic delay was observed at the start of the acid excretion after the dilution. Hypo-osmotic shock caused a prominent elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP levels. Simultaneously, the specific activity of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase increased significantly, probably due to phosphorylation of the protein molecule by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Specific 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase activity was much higher in the treated than in the normally growing mycelium. The metabolic flow through glycolysis was expected to be higher, which should contribute to a higher volumetric rate of acid production. PMID:7618885

  1. An overview of American higher education.

    PubMed

    Baum, Sandy; Kurose, Charles; McPherson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This overview of postsecondary education in the United States reviews the dramatic changes over the past fifty years in the students who go to college, the institutions that produce higher education, and the ways it is financed. The article, by Sandy Baum, Charles Kurose, and Michael McPherson, creates the context for the articles that follow on timely issues facing the higher education community and policy makers. The authors begin by observing that even the meaning of college has changed. The term that once referred primarily to a four-year period of academic study now applies to virtually any postsecondary study--academic or occupational, public or private, two-year or four-year-- that can result in a certificate or degree. They survey the factors underlying the expansion of postsecondary school enrollments; the substantial increases in female, minority, disadvantaged, and older students; the development of public community colleges; and the rise of for-profit colleges. They discuss the changing ways in which federal and state governments help students and schools defray the costs of higher education as well as more recent budget tensions that are now reducing state support to public colleges. And they review the forces that have contributed to the costs of producing higher education and thus rising tuitions. The authors also cite evidence on broad measures of college persistence and outcomes, including low completion rates at community and for-profit colleges, the increasing need for remedial education for poorly prepared high school students, and a growing gap between the earnings of those with a bachelor's degree and those with less education. They disagree with critics who say that investments in higher education, particularly for students at the margin, no longer pay off. A sustained investment in effective education at all levels is vital to the nation's future, they argue. But they caution that the American public no longer seems willing to pay more for more students to get more education. They therefore urge the higher education community to make every effort to find innovations, including creative uses of information technology, that can hold down costs while producing quality education. PMID:25522644

  2. Molecular clouds. [significance in stellar evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaddeus, P.

    1977-01-01

    An attempt is made to understand star formation in the context of the dense interstellar molecular gas from which stars are made. Attention is given to how molecular observations (e.g., UV spectroscopy and radio 21-cm and recombination line observations) provide data on the physical state of the dense interstellar gas; observations of H II regions, stellar associations, and dark nebulae are discussed. CO clouds are studied with reference to radial velocity, temperature, density, ionization, magnetic field.

  3. The Meanings and Measurement of Clinical Significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan E. Kazdin

    2000-01-01

    The previous articles in this special section make the case for the importance of evaluating the clinical significance of therapeutic change, present key measures and innovative ways in which they are applied, and more generally provide important guidelines for evaluating therapeutic change. Fundamental issues raised by the concept of clinical significance and the methods discussed in the previous articles serve

  4. Understanding cultural significance, the edible mushrooms case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Garibay-Orijel; Javier Caballero; Arturo Estrada-Torres; Joaquín Cifuentes

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cultural significance is a keystone in quantitative ethnobiology, which offers the possibility to make inferences about traditional nomenclature systems, use, appropriation and valuing of natural resources. In the present work, using as model the traditional mycological knowledge of Zapotecs from Oaxaca, Mexico, we analyze the cultural significance of wild edible resources. METHODS: In 2003 we applied 95 questionnaires to

  5. Significance of selected lineaments in Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drahovzal, J. A.; Neathery, T. L.; Wielchowsky, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    Four lineaments in the Alabama Appalachians that appear on ERTS-1 imagery have been geologically analysed. Two of the lineaments appear to have regional geologic significance, showing relationships to structural and stratigraphic frameworks, water and mineral resources, geophysical anomalies, and seismicity. The other two lineaments are of local geologic significance, but, nevertheless, have important environmental implications.

  6. Bluetongue: historical significance and recent developments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bluetongue is one of the most economically significant viral diseases of livestock in the USA, because of the cost of export restrictions. Bluetongue virus was initially discovered in Africa, but epizootics of bluetongue have caused significant loss in livestock throughout the tropical and temperate...

  7. Missing transverse energy significance at CMS

    E-print Network

    Nathan Mirman; Yimin Wang; James Alexander

    2014-09-10

    Missing transverse energy significance may be used to help distinguish real missing transverse energy due to undetected particles from spurious missing transverse energy due to resolution smearing. We present a description of the missing transverse energy significance variable, and assess its performance in Z$\\rightarrow\\mu\\mu$, dijet, and W$\\rightarrow e\

  8. Evolution of the Significant Figure Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Ashley R.

    2013-01-01

    Today, almost all introductory physics textbooks include standardized "rules" on how to find the number of significant figures in a calculated value. And yet, 30 years ago these rules were almost nonexistent. Why have we increased the role of significant figures in introductory classes, and should we continue this trend? A look back at…

  9. The Vernier Caliper and Significant Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberhofer, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    Misconceptions occur because the caliper is often read with the same significant figures as a meter stick; however, the precision of the vernier caliper is greater than the precision of a meter stick. Clarification of scale reading, precision of both tools, and significant figures are discussed. (JN)

  10. Teaching Significant Figures Using a Learning Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guymon, E. Park; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes an instructional strategy based on the learning cycle for teaching the use of significant figures. Provides explanations of teaching activities for each phase of the learning cycle (exploration, invention, application). Compares this approach to teaching significant figures with the traditional textbook approach. (TW)

  11. The enzyme horseradish peroxidase is less compressible at higher pressures.

    PubMed Central

    Smeller, László; Fidy, Judit

    2002-01-01

    Fluorescence line-narrowing (FLN) spectroscopy at 10 K was used to study the effect of high pressure through the prosthetic group in horseradish peroxidase (HRP), which was Mg-mesoporphyrin (MgMP) replacing the heme of the enzyme. The same measurement was performed on MgMP in a solid-state amorphous organic matrix, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Series of FLN spectra were registered to determine the (0, 0) band shape through the inhomogeneous distribution function (IDF). In the range of 0-2 GPa a red-shift of the IDF was determined, and yielded the isothermal compressibility of MgMP-HRP as 0.066 GPa(-1), which is significantly smaller than that found earlier as 0.106 GPa(-1) by fine-tuning the pressure in the range up to 1.1 MPa. The vibrational frequencies also shifted with pressure increase, as expected. The compressibility in the DMSO matrix was smaller, 0.042 GPa(-1), both when the pressure was applied at room temperature before cooling to 10 K, or at 10 K. At 200 K or above, the bimodal (0, 0) band shape in DMSO showed a population conversion under pressure that was not observed at or below 150 K. A significant atomic rearrangement was estimated from the volume change, 3.3 +/- 0.7 cm(3)/mol upon conversion. The compressibility in proteins and in amorphous solids seems not to significantly depend on the temperature and in the protein it decreases toward higher pressures. PMID:11751329

  12. Sources of Inspiration: The Role of Significant Persons in Young People's Choice of Science in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjaastad, Jorgen

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this article were to investigate to which extent and in what ways persons influence students' choice of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in tertiary education, and to assess the suitability of an analytical framework for describing this influence. In total, 5,007 Norwegian STEM students completed a…

  13. Governance of Higher Education in Britain: The Significance of the Research Assessment Exercises for the Funding Council Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapper, Ted; Salter, Brian

    2004-01-01

    This article uses the political struggles that have enveloped the research assessment exercises (RAEs) to interpret the UK's current funding council model of governance. Ironically, the apparently widespread improvement in the research performance of British universities, as demonstrated by RAE 2001, has made it more difficult to distribute…

  14. lower tarsal conjunctivae meibo-scores were significantly higher in patients with obstructive MGD than in control

    E-print Network

    Peli, Eli

    - ing for dry eye with newly developed ocular surface thermographer. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011. The oily layer of the tear film and evaporation from the corneal surface. Exp Eye Res. 1961;1:39-45. 2 of meibomian oil. Exp Eye Res. 2004;78(3):367-370. 4. Mapstone R. Measurement of corneal temperature. Exp Eye

  15. Observing Objects

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Houghton Mifflin Science

    This self-contained module on materials and their composition includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

  16. Observe Clouds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    If you observe clouds in a portion of the sky, you may notice that they are not static. Clouds are composed of tiny particles of water and are constantly changing and moving. This video lets viewers observe clouds forming, moving, and changing shape. The segment is one minute thirty-three seconds in length. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

  17. Comparing Course Assessments: When Lower is Higher and Higher, Lower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Dave; Dobele, Tony; Greber, Myles; Roberts, Tim

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes an exercise in determining the cognitive difficulty of the assessment tasks in six computing courses within an Information Technology (IT) degree, importing Bloom's taxonomy from the field of educational psychology as an analytical framework. Three of the six courses comprise a Programming stream and three a Data Communications and Networking stream. Bloom's taxonomy is described and we present other studies within computer science based on it. Next, we introduce the courses that were selected for the study and describe the process of analysis. The aggregated results are then presented and some inferences made. The results indicate that the programming courses required a relatively higher cognitive level in assessment tasks compared to the data communications and networking courses. This outcome suggests the need for alternative approaches to assessment.

  18. Clinical Significance of Amyloid Precursor Protein in Patients with Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yuta; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Satoru; Takayama, Kenichi; Urano, Tomohiko; Murata, Taro; Obinata, Daisuke; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Homma, Yukio; Inoue, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The biological role of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is not well understood, especially in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the immunoreactivity (IR) and expression of APP in TGCTs and evaluated its clinical relevance. Materials and Methods. We performed an analysis of immunohistochemistry and mRNA expression of APP in 64 testicular specimens and 21 snap-frozen samples obtained from 1985 to 2004. We then evaluated the association between APP expression and clinicopathological status in TGCTs. Results. Positive APP IR was observed in 9.8% (4/41) of seminomatous germ cell tumors (SGCTs) and 39.1% (9/23) of nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NGCTs). NGCTs showed significantly more cases of positive IR (P = 0.00870) and a higher mRNA expression level compared with those of SGCTs (P = 0.0140). Positive APP IR was also significantly associated with ?-fetoprotein (?FP) elevation (P = 0.00870) and venous invasion (P = 0.0414). Conclusion. We observed an elevated APP expression in TGCTs, especially in NGCTs. APP may be associated with a more aggressive cancer in TGCTs. PMID:23662100

  19. Speculations about the Increasingly Indeterminate Future of Higher Education in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Clark

    1997-01-01

    Comments on seven "propositions" about the future of higher education made by Howard Bowen in 1989, including observations about the capacity to predict change, the value ascribed to higher education by the public, characterization of higher education as a growth industry, need for improvement in higher education's quality, and deterioration of…

  20. Azimuthal anisotropy: the higher harmonics

    E-print Network

    Poskanzer, Arthur M

    2004-01-01

    We report the first observations of the fourth harmonic (v_4) in the azimuthal distribution of particles at RHIC. The measurement was done taking advantage of the large elliptic flow generated at RHIC. The integrated v_4 is about a factor of 10 smaller than v_2. For the sixth (v_6) and eighth (v_8) harmonics upper limits on the magnitudes are reported.

  1. Azimuthal anisotropy: the higher harmonics

    E-print Network

    Arthur M. Poskanzer

    2004-03-12

    We report the first observations of the fourth harmonic (v_4) in the azimuthal distribution of particles at RHIC. The measurement was done taking advantage of the large elliptic flow generated at RHIC. The integrated v_4 is about a factor of 10 smaller than v_2. For the sixth (v_6) and eighth (v_8) harmonics upper limits on the magnitudes are reported.

  2. Expensive Egos: Narcissistic Males Have Higher Cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Reinhard, David A.; Konrath, Sara H.; Lopez, William D.; Cameron, Heather G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Narcissism is characterized by grandiosity, low empathy, and entitlement. There has been limited research regarding the hormonal correlates of narcissism, despite the potential health implications. This study examined the role of participant narcissism and sex on basal cortisol concentrations in an undergraduate population. Methods and Findings Participants were 106 undergraduate students (79 females, 27 males, mean age 20.1 years) from one Midwestern and one Southwestern American university. Narcissism was assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and basal cortisol concentrations were collected from saliva samples in a laboratory setting. Regression analyses examined the effect of narcissism and sex on cortisol (log). There were no sex differences in basal cortisol, F(1,97)?=?.20, p?=?.65, and narcissism scores, F(1,97)?=?.00, p?=?.99. Stepwise linear regression models of sex and narcissism and their interaction predicting cortisol concentrations showed no main effects when including covariates, but a significant interaction, ??=?.27, p?=?.04. Narcissism was not related to cortisol in females, but significantly predicted cortisol in males. Examining the effect of unhealthy versus healthy narcissism on cortisol found that unhealthy narcissism was marginally related to cortisol in females, ??=?.27, p?=?.06, but significantly predicted higher basal cortisol in males, ??=?.72, p?=?.01, even when controlling for potential confounds. No relationship was found between sex, narcissism, or their interaction on self-reported stress. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the HPA axis is chronically activated in males with unhealthy narcissism. This constant activation of the HPA axis may have important health implications. PMID:22292062

  3. 'But is the difference clinically significant?'.

    PubMed

    Wade, Derick

    2005-06-01

    The statement that a difference or change found in a research study is statistically significant is frequently met with the response, 'but is it clinically significant?'. This question seems entirely reasonable and uncontentious until one asks how to determine or define clinical significance. Significance must always have an object; significant to whom? Furthermore it needs elaboration; significant in what way? Once these questions are raised, it becomes apparent that the slick, apparently sensible question is in fact extremely difficult to answer and may have multiple answers: the patient may value being free of discomfort, but the payer may only value achieving less cost in long-term care and the clinician may wish to see change in activities. The use of this question by funding organizations may disadvantage rehabilitation. This Editorial explores the substance of this question, concluding that the question can only be answered by the individual patient concerned, and that research studies should perhaps explore more fully what is actually of significance to patients. PMID:15929502

  4. Higher Education Literature Revisited: Citation Patterns Examined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, John M.; Magnuson, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    The discourse of the field of higher education is complex, as is its analysis. Citation analysis is means of examining communicative processes. This study investigates citations in the papers of three core journals in higher education, "Research in Higher Education, Review of Higher Education," and "Journal of Higher Education." The results…

  5. African Higher Education: An International Reference Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teferra, Damtew, Ed.; Altbach, Philip G., Ed.

    This book is a comprehensive survey of all aspects and dimensions of higher education in Africa. It includes a historical overview of higher education, descriptions of the higher education systems in each African country, and analyses of current and timely topics in higher education. Part 1, "Themes," contains 13 essays on trends in African higher

  6. Observation of Single Top Quark Production

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, B.; /Oklahoma U.; Abolins, M.; /Michigan State U.; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; /Tata Inst.; Adams, M.; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Aguilo, E.; /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U.; Ahsan, M.; /Kansas State U.; Alexeev, G.D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, Andrew K.; /Michigan State U. /Northeastern U.

    2009-03-01

    We report first observation of the electroweak production of single top quarks in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV based on 2.3 fb{sup ?1} of data collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. Using events containing an isolated electron or muon and missing transverse energy, together with jets originating from the fragmentation of b quarks, we measure a cross section of {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} tb + X, tqb + X) = 3.94 {+-} 0.88 pb. The probability to measure a cross section at this value or higher in the absence of signal is 2.5 x 10{sup ?7}, corresponding to a 5.0 standard deviation significance for the observation.

  7. 32 CFR 1290.6 - Significant changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Significant changes. 1290.6 Section 1290.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

  8. 32 CFR 1280.3 - Significant changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Significant changes. 1280.3 Section 1280.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS INVESTIGATING AND PROCESSING CERTAIN NONCONTRACTUAL CLAIMS AND REPORTING RELATED LITIGATION §...

  9. 23 CFR 630.1010 - Significant projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...OPERATIONS PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Work Zone Safety and Mobility § 630.1010 Significant...is anticipated to cause sustained work zone impacts (as defined in...cooperation with the FHWA. The State's work zone policy provisions, the...

  10. 23 CFR 630.1010 - Significant projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...OPERATIONS PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Work Zone Safety and Mobility § 630.1010 Significant...is anticipated to cause sustained work zone impacts (as defined in...cooperation with the FHWA. The State's work zone policy provisions, the...

  11. 32 CFR 1290.6 - Significant changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Significant changes. 1290.6 Section 1290.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

  12. 32 CFR 1280.3 - Significant changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Significant changes. 1280.3 Section 1280.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS INVESTIGATING AND PROCESSING CERTAIN NONCONTRACTUAL CLAIMS AND REPORTING RELATED LITIGATION §...

  13. 32 CFR 1280.3 - Significant changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Significant changes. 1280.3 Section 1280.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS INVESTIGATING AND PROCESSING CERTAIN NONCONTRACTUAL CLAIMS AND REPORTING RELATED LITIGATION §...

  14. 32 CFR 1280.3 - Significant changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Significant changes. 1280.3 Section 1280.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS INVESTIGATING AND PROCESSING CERTAIN NONCONTRACTUAL CLAIMS AND REPORTING RELATED LITIGATION §...

  15. 32 CFR 1280.3 - Significant changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Significant changes. 1280.3 Section 1280.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS INVESTIGATING AND PROCESSING CERTAIN NONCONTRACTUAL CLAIMS AND REPORTING RELATED LITIGATION §...

  16. 32 CFR 1290.6 - Significant changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Significant changes. 1290.6 Section 1290.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

  17. 32 CFR 1290.6 - Significant changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Significant changes. 1290.6 Section 1290.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

  18. 32 CFR 1290.6 - Significant changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Significant changes. 1290.6 Section 1290.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

  19. 32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...which significance is reached. For example, an action that would violate existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility for substantial periods; or cause irreparable harm to...

  20. 32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...which significance is reached. For example, an action that would violate existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility for substantial periods; or cause irreparable harm to...

  1. 32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...which significance is reached. For example, an action that would violate existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility for substantial periods; or cause irreparable harm to...

  2. 32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...which significance is reached. For example, an action that would violate existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility for substantial periods; or cause irreparable harm to...

  3. 32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...which significance is reached. For example, an action that would violate existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility for substantial periods; or cause irreparable harm to...

  4. Significant Figure Rules for General Arithmetic Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    Provides some significant figure rules used in chemistry including the general theoretical basis; logarithms and antilogarithms; exponentiation (with exactly known exponents); sines and cosines; and the extreme value rule. (YP)

  5. Higher order harmonic detection for exploring nonlinear interactions with nanoscale resolution

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, R. K.; Okatan, M. Baris; Rajapaksa, I.; Kim, Y.; Marincel, D.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Jesse, S.; Valanoor, N.; Kalinin, S. V.

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics underpin a vast array of physical phenomena ranging from interfacial motion to jamming transitions. In many cases, insight into the nonlinear behavior can be gleaned through exploration of higher order harmonics. Here, a method using band excitation scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to investigate higher order harmonics of the electromechanical response, with nanometer scale spatial resolution is presented. The technique is demonstrated by probing the first three harmonics of strain for a Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 (PZT) ferroelectric capacitor. It is shown that the second order harmonic response is correlated with the first harmonic response, whereas the third harmonic is not. Additionally, measurements of the second harmonic reveal significant deviations from Rayleigh-type models in the form of a much more complicated field dependence than is observed in the spatially averaged data. These results illustrate the versatility of nth order harmonic SPM detection methods in exploring nonlinear phenomena in nanoscale materials. PMID:24045269

  6. Statistical significance of the gallium anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Giunti, Carlo; Laveder, Marco [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica 'G. Galilei', Universita di Padova, and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    We calculate the statistical significance of the anomalous deficit of electron neutrinos measured in the radioactive source experiments of the GALLEX and SAGE solar neutrino detectors, taking into account the uncertainty of the detection cross section. We found that the statistical significance of the anomaly is {approx}3.0{sigma}. A fit of the data in terms of neutrino oscillations favors at {approx}2.7{sigma} short-baseline electron neutrino disappearance with respect to the null hypothesis of no oscillations.

  7. Solar Observations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is an activity involving observations of the Sun. Learners use pinhole cameras, solar telescopes, and/or solar viewing glasses to make solar observations, draw what they see, and identify sunspots, if they are present. Then, learners go online and compare their drawings to images obtained by the SOHO spacecraft. This activity requires the use a sunny outdoor location. This activity also require use of safe methods for observing the Sun, such as pinhole cameras, telescopes with proper solar filters attached, and/or viewing glasses that are designated for safe solar viewing. No one should look at the Sun unless one or more of these methods is used in a proper fashion.

  8. Training directionally selective motion pathways can significantly improve reading efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawton, Teri

    2004-06-01

    This study examined whether perceptual learning at early levels of visual processing would facilitate learning at higher levels of processing. This was examined by determining whether training the motion pathways by practicing leftright movement discrimination, as found previously, would improve the reading skills of inefficient readers significantly more than another computer game, a word discrimination game, or the reading program offered by the school. This controlled validation study found that practicing left-right movement discrimination 5-10 minutes twice a week (rapidly) for 15 weeks doubled reading fluency, and significantly improved all reading skills by more than one grade level, whereas inefficient readers in the control groups barely improved on these reading skills. In contrast to previous studies of perceptual learning, these experiments show that perceptual learning of direction discrimination significantly improved reading skills determined at higher levels of cognitive processing, thereby being generalized to a new task. The deficits in reading performance and attentional focus experienced by the person who struggles when reading are suggested to result from an information overload, resulting from timing deficits in the direction-selectivity network proposed by Russell De Valois et al. (2000), that following practice on direction discrimination goes away. This study found that practicing direction discrimination rapidly transitions the inefficient 7-year-old reader to an efficient reader.

  9. Significant Communities in Large Sparse Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mirshahvalad, Atieh; Lindholm, Johan; Derlén, Mattias; Rosvall, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Researchers use community-detection algorithms to reveal large-scale organization in biological and social networks, but community detection is useful only if the communities are significant and not a result of noisy data. To assess the statistical significance of the network communities, or the robustness of the detected structure, one approach is to perturb the network structure by removing links and measure how much the communities change. However, perturbing sparse networks is challenging because they are inherently sensitive; they shatter easily if links are removed. Here we propose a simple method to perturb sparse networks and assess the significance of their communities. We generate resampled networks by adding extra links based on local information, then we aggregate the information from multiple resampled networks to find a coarse-grained description of significant clusters. In addition to testing our method on benchmark networks, we use our method on the sparse network of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) case law, to detect significant and insignificant areas of law. We use our significance analysis to draw a map of the ECJ case law network that reveals the relations between the areas of law. PMID:22479433

  10. The Higher Education Academy Engineering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Based in Britain, the Higher Education Academy (HEA) "supports a large network of learning and teaching practitioners involved in engineering and materials." This particular section of their impressive website brings together learning resources, best practices materials, and pedagogical studies designed to help persons who teach engineering. On the left-hand side of the page, visitors will find seven sections, including "Engineering Teaching Guides," "Engineering Events," and their "STEM Blog." In the "Engineering Teaching Guides" area, visitors will find several valuable guides, including "Approaches to the Teaching of Design," "Assessing Creativity in Design," and "Introduction to Learning and Teaching." The "STEM Blog" is a real gem because a variety of commentators give their opinions about new online interactive tools and teaching techniques related to the STEM fields. The site is rounded out by a link to the UK Centre for Materials Education and archived material from the main site.

  11. Baryogenesis with higher dimension operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Clifford; Ishiwata, Koji

    2013-07-01

    We propose a simple model of baryogenesis comprised of the standard model coupled to a singlet X via higher dimension operators O. In the early universe, X is thermalized by O mediated scattering processes before it decouples relativistically and evolves into a sizable fraction of the total energy density. Eventually, X decays via O in an out of equilibrium, baryon number and CP violating process that releases entropy and achieves baryogenesis for a broad range of parameters. The decay can also produce a primordial abundance of dark matter. Because X may be as light as a TeV, viable regions of parameter space lie within reach of experimental probes of n-n¯ oscillation, flavor physics, and proton decay.

  12. Azimuthal anisotropy: The higher harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Poskanzer, Arthur M.; STAR Collaboration

    2004-03-12

    We report the first observations of the fourth harmonic (v{sub 4}) in the azimuthal distribution of particles at RHIC. The measurement was done taking advantage of the large elliptic flow generated at RHIC. The integrated v{sub 4} is about a factor of 10 smaller than v{sub 2}. For the sixth (v{sub 6}) and eighth (v{sub 8}) harmonics upper limits on the magnitudes are reported.

  13. Fundamental chromaticity diagram with physiologically significant axes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francoise Vienot

    2002-01-01

    The scope of TC 1-36 is to supplement the CIE colorimetric observers with color matching data that make a clear connection between the color specification and the underlying physiology. After careful examination of color matching data, TC 1- 36 has agreed on proposing a continuous fundamental observer with data from 10 degree(s) to 1 degree(s). The 10 degree(s) color matching

  14. Effect of free fall on higher plants.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, S. A.

    1973-01-01

    The influence of exposure to the free-fall state on the orientation, morphogenesis, physiology, and radiation response of higher plants is briefly summarized. It is proposed that the duration of the space-flight experiments has been to brief to permit meaningful effects of free fall on general biochemistry, growth, and development to appear. However, two types of significant effect did occur. The first is on differential growth - i.e., tropism and epinasty - resulting from the absence of a normal geostimulus. For these phenomena it is suggested that ground-based experiments with the clinostat would suffice to mimic the effect of the free-fall state. The second is an apparent interaction between the radiation response and some flight condition, yielding an enhanced microspore abortion, a disturbed spindle function, and a stunting of stamen hairs. It is suggested that this apparent interaction may be derived from a shift in the rhythm of the cell cycle, induced by the free fall.

  15. Assessing the significance of Sets of Words Assessing the significance of Sets of Words

    E-print Network

    Lonardi, Stefano

    ... GTTTACAAGTTTTAACCTTTTGTCACTCGTCACCTTATGTGTGGCTTTAA... Chi Motif in E. coli. #12;Assessing the significance of Sets of Words Over... GTTTACAAGTTTTAACCTTTTGTCACTCGTCACCTTATGTGTGGCTTTAA... Chi Motif in E. coli. #12;Assessing the significance of Sets of Words Significance ­ June 22, 2005 #12;Assessing the significance of Sets of Words Genome analysis Structure of the DNA Over

  16. A Proposed Fourth Measure of Significance: The Role of Economic Significance in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine economic significance as a fourth measure of significance. In addition to describing and operationalising the concept of economic significance, a typology of economic significance indices is presented, including an example of how to compute these measures, as well as how to utilise them in applied research.…

  17. ASTROMETRIC MASSES OF 26 ASTEROIDS AND OBSERVATIONS ON ASTEROID POROSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, James [James Cook University, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Townsville, QLD 4811 (Australia); Chesley, Steven R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Matson, Robert D., E-mail: jimbaer1@earthlink.net, E-mail: steve.chesley@jpl.nasa.gov [Science Applications International Corporation, 3030 Old Ranch Pkwy., Ste. 250, Seal Beach, CA 90740 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    As an application of our recent observational error model, we present the astrometric masses of 26 main-belt asteroids. We also present an integrated ephemeris of 300 large asteroids, which was used in the mass determination algorithm to model significant perturbations from the rest of the main belt. After combining our mass estimates with those of other authors, we study the bulk porosities of over 50 main-belt asteroids and observe that asteroids as large as 300 km in diameter may be loose aggregates. This finding may place specific constraints on models of main-belt collisional evolution. Additionally, we observe that C-group asteroids tend to have significantly higher macroporosity than S-group asteroids.

  18. Higher-order Catastrophes in Gravitational Lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltz, E. A.; Blandford, R. D.; Marshall, P. J.

    2005-12-01

    Future wide field sky surveys such as have been proposed by the SNAP and LSST teams will contain large numbers of gravitational lens systems. Such large samples afford the possibility of observing rare, exotic lens configurations in the form of higher order catastrophes. The fold (critical curve) and cusp catastrophes are well known; pairs of images are created for sources at these positions. Less well known are the swallowtail, butterfly and the umbilics. We have constructed a raytracing code that evaluates quantities which locally characterize these higher-order catastrophes. This necessarily goes beyond the usual deflection angle and magnification. Globally, catastrophes represent a change in the number of images or a change in the topology of the critical curves. We present a preliminary study of the detectability of lens systems exhibiting these features in large samples of lenses. Such systems depend sensitively on the source--lens configuration. It may be possible to find ``golden lenses'' which can be modeled much more accurately than is usually possible, giving insight into the shapes and density profiles of dark matter halos. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract number DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  19. Meaning reconstruction in bereavement: sense and significance.

    PubMed

    Hibberd, Rachel

    2013-08-01

    Recently there has been growing empirical and theoretical attention to the role of meaning in grief along with increased recognition of the need for more sophisticated definitions of meaning. The present article highlights philosophical issues inherent in the study of meaning and grief reviews the place of meaning in current theories of grief and provides a brief overview of the ways that meaning has been operationalized by grief researchers, including sense-making, benefit finding, identity change, and purpose in life. It is argued that, in our focus on the ways mourners make sense of loss, we have neglected an important aspect of meaning: life significance. Life significance is the felt perception that some aspect of one's life experience "matters." The construct is explored as a potentially important outcome of bereavement; mourners may lose life significance along with their lost loved one, or they may develop new avenues to life significance as they confront mortality and rebuild shattered worldviews. Related literature, such as appreciation of life as a facet of posttraumatic growth, is surveyed for clues as to the role of life significance in grief. Suggestions for future study are offered. PMID:24520967

  20. Asymptomatic Significant Bacteriuria in the Non-pregnant Woman

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, M.; Asscher, A. W.; Waters, W. E.; Evans, Joy A. S.; Campbell, H.; Evans, K. T.; Williams, J. Edmund

    1969-01-01

    The clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings in a group of 107 non-pregnant bacteriuric women and 88 controls have been compared. A previous history of urinary tract infection was more commonly obtained from the bacteriuric women. The means of the diastolic blood pressures, serum ureas, and erythrocyte sedimentation rates were significantly higher in the bacteriuric group, and acquired renal abnormalities were demonstrated in 18% of the bacteriuric women as compared with 4% of the controls. It is concluded that screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria in the adult non-pregnant female population in many instances fails to detect urinary tract infection at an early and reversible stage. PMID:5774076

  1. Higher fine-scale genetic structure in peripheral than in core populations of a long-lived and mixed-mating conifer - eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fine-scale or spatial genetic structure (SGS) is one of the key genetic characteristics of plant populations. Several evolutionary and ecological processes and population characteristics influence the level of SGS within plant populations. Higher fine-scale genetic structure may be expected in peripheral than core populations of long-lived forest trees, owing to the differences in the magnitude of operating evolutionary and ecological forces such as gene flow, genetic drift, effective population size and founder effects. We addressed this question using eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) as a model species for declining to endangered long-lived tree species with mixed-mating system. Results We determined the SGS in two core and two peripheral populations of eastern white cedar from its Maritime Canadian eastern range using six nuclear microsatellite DNA markers. Significant SGS ranging from 15 m to 75 m distance classes was observed in the four studied populations. An analysis of combined four populations revealed significant positive SGS up to the 45 m distance class. The mean positive significant SGS observed in the peripheral populations was up to six times (up to 90 m) of that observed in the core populations (15 m). Spatial autocorrelation coefficients and correlograms of single and sub-sets of populations were statistically significant. The extent of within-population SGS was significantly negatively correlated with all genetic diversity parameters. Significant heterogeneity of within-population SGS was observed for 0-15 m and 61-90 m between core and peripheral populations. Average Sp, and gene flow distances were higher in peripheral (Sp = 0.023, ?g = 135 m) than in core (Sp = 0.014, ?g = 109 m) populations. However, the mean neighborhood size was higher in the core (Nb = 82) than in the peripheral (Nb = 48) populations. Conclusion Eastern white cedar populations have significant fine-scale genetic structure at short distances. Peripheral populations have several-folds higher within-population fine-scale genetic structure than core populations. Anthropogenic disturbances and population fragmentation presumably have significant effects on fine-scale genetic structure in eastern white cedar. Core populations have higher neighborhood size than peripheral populations, whereas gene flow distances are higher in peripheral than in core populations. The results of our study contribute to the knowledge of poorly-understood spatial genetic structure of core versus peripheral populations in plants. As well, the information is of significance for conservation of genetic resources of eastern white cedar and perhaps of other long-lived forest trees with mixed-mating system. PMID:22480185

  2. [Paradigm shift in higher education].

    PubMed

    Csóka, Mária

    2009-08-30

    The fast changes that took place in the last quarter of the 20th century made the professionals dealing with pedagogy realize that our school system followed the economical changes in terms of training supply and the matter of education very slowly, if at all; let alone the educational methods. We had to realize that the maintaining of this conservative system is not rational, education has become the most important part of the globalisational competition and the key to the 21st century is learning. Accordingly, the spatial and temporal expenditure of education has become a new trend, namely lifelong learning (LLL). The social needs on education have increased, the expectations of economy and employers have changed: knowledge has become the fund of competitiveness. In this process, universities have got an accentuated role: in addition to being the place of undergraduate training they have become the site of postgraduate courses for the increasing graduate adult masses. Therefore, reform processes have started in a number of European countries in the nineties. The Bologna Declaration signed on 19th June 1999 set a common direction for these reforms, with its signatories aiming to establish a standard European Higher Education Area with harmonized and comparable educational systems by 2010. However, the administrative change itself is not enough to reach the goals; a formal innovation has to be followed by a reform of the contents which means reformation of higher education. In recent years, Hungarian colleges and universities have worked out their educational programs that are suitable for the new structure; it is only the new educational programs that started from 1st September 2006. The author determines the most important parts of the reform of the training system of Semmelweis University Faculty of Health Sciences, which are the following: redrawing of the training philosophy and paradigm, the reform of the training structure of macro level (cognition, knowledge, skill), mezzo level (theory vs. practice and knowledge vs. adaptation) and micro level (basic knowledge vs. up-to-date knowledge), the technological-logistical reform of the training structure (passive vs. active knowledge) and the methodological, technical reform of the training. The author assigns the tasks of the reform in which the most important points are considered to be: the system approach overview of the learning output-expectation of Bologna system training requirements, the analysis of relation of necessity and supply, the reform of the college training system and the formation of focus points. PMID:19692311

  3. Interacting massive higher spin fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mohammad Rakibur

    We argue that a theoretical upper bound exists on the cutoff of any effective theory that describes an electromagnetically interacting massive higher spin field in at space. The cutoff is a simple function of the particle's mass, spin and electric charge, and cannot be arbitrarily high. In the spirit of effective field theory, this bound is independent of any possible UV completion of the theory, such as string theory. A systematic study to quantify the degree of singularity of the massless limit is made with the help of the Stuuckelberg formalism. For spin 2, we find that the cutoff upper bound is ?2 ˜ me -1/3. By demonstrating the existence of cohomological obstructions and presenting arguments involving physical processes, we prove that indeed the cutoff cannot be higher. We show that the existence of a cutoff is connected to other pathologies of the system, such as the Velo-Zwanziger acausality. In particular, we argue that, for a judicious choice of non-minimal interaction terms, the pathologies of the spin 2 system appear, at least in the scalar sector, in a regime where we can no longer trust our effective field theory description. We also suggest that a completely pathology-free theory may be expected to have a cutoff much lower than the estimated upper bound. As an explicit example of a consistent theory, we consider the Argyres-Nappi Lagrangian, that indeed exhibits a much smaller cutoff. For spin 3/2, which is found to have a maximum cutoff of ?3/2 ˜ m/ e , we conjecture about how to construct a consistent theory without introducing dynamical gravity. We generalize the results to arbitrary integer and half-integer spins to find that the cutoff upper bound is given by ? s ˜ me-1/(2 s-1). We briefly discuss on how causality constraints in external background fields may give stronger model-independent bounds on the UV cutoff, and how one can use these techniques to study gravitational or other interactions of the high spin field.

  4. Alendronate soluble solution: a higher adherence rate in the treatment of osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Coaccioli, Stefano; Celi, Giorgio; Crapa, Mariano Edoardo; Masia, Francesco; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Summary Introduction Since low adherence to a long-term therapy results in a poor clinical outcome and significantly increases healthcare costs, adherence to the treatment of chronic disorders is an issue of great interest. This is particularly true of the treatment of osteoporosis (OP). Purpose of study Adherence to the osteoporosis therapy in patients treated with bisphosphonates in tablet form has been evaluated in comparison with the adherence of those taking alendronate in soluble solution. Methods and materials Here we present a retrospective study of 245 patients treated with alendronate, risedronate and ibandronate tablets and a prospective study of 118 patients treated with soluble alendronate. In both studies, patients have been observed for a period of 12 months. Results The analysis of patients’ persistence with the treatment plan, assessed at three, six and 12 months, revealed a significantly higher adherence (p < 0.005) in the cohort of patients treated with soluble alendronate (92.37% at 12 months) compared with those who followed the course of treatment with tablets (65.4 %, 12 months). Conclusions The investigation showed higher adherence to the oral therapy with soluble alendronate, demonstrating that a formulation obtained by this method can contribute to a higher level of persistence with the treatment of a disease such as osteoporosis, which requires a long-term therapeutic plan. PMID:25285141

  5. Significant results from using earth observation satellites for mineral and energy resource exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, William D.

    1981-01-01

    Launched in June 1978, Seasat operated for only 100 days, but successfully acquired much information over both sea and land. The collection of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery and radar altimetry was particularly important to geologists. Although there are difficulties in processing and distributing these data in a timely manner, initial evaluations indicate that the radar imagery supplements Landsat data by increasing the spectral range and offering a different look angle. The radar altimeter provides accurate profiles over narrow strips of land (1 km wide) and has demonstrated usefulness in measuring icecap surfaces (Greenland, Iceland, and Antarctica). The Salar of Uyuni in southern Bolivia served as a calibration site for the altimeter and has enabled investigators to develop a land-based smoothing algorithm that is believed to increase the accuracy of the system to 10 cm. Data from the altimeter are currently being used to measure subsidence resulting from ground water withdrawal in the Phoenix-Tucson area.

  6. Meteorological significance of frontal thin-line angel echoes observed by CPS-9 radar 

    E-print Network

    Miller, Donald Bradford

    1959-01-01

    in areal exrent. b. Spacing of data-reporting stations at intervals of the order of 100 mi and reporting at intervals of 3 to 12 hr. c. Exemplification by the analysis of a large-scale pressure pat- tern such as a typical migratory extratropical.... Weather conditions strongly influence some species of birds. For example, gulls range 11 far to sea during periods of fair weather but come inland when storms are near. Insect catchers, such as swallbws and bate, must roam in altitude if the insects...

  7. Electrical properties of rocks and their significance for lunar radar observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Campbell; Juris Ulrichs

    1969-01-01

    A wide variety of terrestrial rocks has been investigated to determine the range of variation of the high-frequency electrical properties. Both solid rocks and powders of various types have been measured at frequencies of 450 MHz and 35 GHz; some measurements have been made at elevated temperatures. Solid materials show wide variations in permittivity and absorption length, but apart from

  8. Finding significant climatic frequencies from satellite observations, a case study for Lake Victoria basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forootan, E.; Sharifi, M. A.; van Loon, E. E.

    2009-04-01

    Lake Victoria is the second largest freshwater lake in the world by area. A dramatic fall in the water level of the lake between 2002 and 2007 attracted a lot of worldwide attention. A recent study on the Lake Victoria basin using data from GRACE, TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, TRMM and as well as GLDAS data products suggested the possibility of the expansion of Naluabaale Dam in Uganda for the declining water level in the lake. However, Lake Victoria does not receive water from a large catchment area: most of its water comes from rain that falls directly over the huge surface of the lake. For this reason, climatic contributions cannot be ignored in the recent declining. This research aims at analyzing the contribution of rainfall over the lake area between the years 1998 and 2008. Least squares spectral analysis (LSSA) is applied on 400 cycles of TOPEX/Poseidon and 232 cycles of Jason1 altimeter data along with monthly TRMM data from 1998 to 2008 to reveal the specific frequencies. From our results, yearly, half-yearly and seasonal frequencies along with a long term frequency are clearly visible in the Lake Victoria level variations. Key words. Lake Victoria, Least Squares Spectral Analysis, TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason1, TRMM

  9. Finding significant climatic frequencies from satellite observations, a case study for Lake Victoria basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Forootan; M. A. Sharifi; E. E. van Loon

    2009-01-01

    Lake Victoria is the second largest freshwater lake in the world by area. A dramatic fall in the water level of the lake between 2002 and 2007 attracted a lot of worldwide attention. A recent study on the Lake Victoria basin using data from GRACE, TOPEX\\/Poseidon, Jason-1, TRMM and as well as GLDAS data products suggested the possibility of the

  10. Kimberlite-Clan-Rocks in India: Significance of new VGP, T, and GP Observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. Haggerty

    2005-01-01

    Although India is acknowledged for the first description of diamond some 2000 BCE, it should also rightfully be credited for the 17th C recognition that diamond is a product of volcanism. With this extraordinary background, it is surprising that the host rocks remain controversial, being neither archetypical kimberlites, nor classic lamproites. Lacking affinities to micro-diamond-bearing UHPT metamorphic rocks and being

  11. Multiple Comparisons of Observation Means--Are the Means Significantly Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahidy, T. Z.

    2009-01-01

    Several currently popular methods of ascertaining which treatment (population) means are different, via random samples obtained under each treatment, are briefly described and illustrated by evaluating catalyst performance in a chemical reactor.

  12. Delayed strut fracture of sirolimus-eluting stent: A significant problem or an occasional observation?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pil-Ki Min; Young-Won Yoon; Hyuck Moon Kwon

    2006-01-01

    In-stent restenosis after implantation of sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) still occur in some cases and stent fracture was recently suggested as a new potential mechanism of restenosis. We report a case of delayed stent strut fracture after percutaneous coronary intervention with SES. Until now, three cases regarding Cypher stent fracture have been reported in the literature. Further investigation should be performed

  13. Higher order turbulence closure models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amano, Ryoichi S.; Chai, John C.; Chen, Jau-Der

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models are developed and numerical studies conducted on various types of flows including both elliptic and parabolic. The purpose of this study is to find better higher order closure models for the computations of complex flows. This report summarizes three new achievements: (1) completion of the Reynolds-stress closure by developing a new pressure-strain correlation; (2) development of a parabolic code to compute jets and wakes; and, (3) application to a flow through a 180 deg turnaround duct by adopting a boundary fitted coordinate system. In the above mentioned models near-wall models are developed for pressure-strain correlation and third-moment, and incorporated into the transport equations. This addition improved the results considerably and is recommended for future computations. A new parabolic code to solve shear flows without coordinate tranformations is developed and incorporated in this study. This code uses the structure of the finite volume method to solve the governing equations implicitly. The code was validated with the experimental results available in the literature.

  14. Quantization of higher spin fields

    SciTech Connect

    Wagenaar, J. W.; Rijken, T. A

    2009-11-15

    In this article we quantize (massive) higher spin (1{<=}j{<=}2) fields by means of Dirac's constrained Hamilton procedure both in the situation were they are totally free and were they are coupled to (an) auxiliary field(s). A full constraint analysis and quantization is presented by determining and discussing all constraints and Lagrange multipliers and by giving all equal times (anti)commutation relations. Also we construct the relevant propagators. In the free case we obtain the well-known propagators and show that they are not covariant, which is also well known. In the coupled case we do obtain covariant propagators (in the spin-3/2 case this requires b=0) and show that they have a smooth massless limit connecting perfectly to the massless case (with auxiliary fields). We notice that in our system of the spin-3/2 and spin-2 case the massive propagators coupled to conserved currents only have a smooth limit to the pure massless spin-propagator, when there are ghosts in the massive case.

  15. On Higher-Dimensional Dynamics

    E-print Network

    Wesson, P S

    2002-01-01

    Technical results are presented on motion in N(>4)D manifolds to clarify the physics of Kaluza-Klein theory, brane theory and string theory. The so-called canonical or warp metric in 5D effectively converts the manifold from a coordinate space to a momentum space, resulting in a new force (per unit mass) parallel to the 4D velocity. The form of this extra force is actually independent of the form of the metric, but for an unbound particle is tiny because it is set by the energy density of the vacuum or cosmological constant. It can be related to a small change in the rest mass of a particle, and can be evaluated in two convenient gauges relevant to gravitational and quantum systems. In the quantum gauge, the extra force leads to Heisenberg's relation between increments in the position and momenta. If the 4D action is quantized then so is the higher-dimensional part, implying that particle mass is quantized, though only at a level of 10^{-65} gm or less which is unobservably small. It is noted that massive par...

  16. Chromosomal replicons of higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Van't Hof, J.

    1987-03-16

    This brief discussion of replicons of higher plants offers a glimpse into the properties of chromosomal DNA replication. It gives evidence that the S phase of unrelated plant species is comprised of temporally ordered replicon families that increase in number with genome size. This orderly process, which assures a normal inheritance of genetic material to recipient daughter cells, is maintained at the level of replicon clusters by two mutually exclusive mechanisms, one involving the rate at which single replicons replicate their allotment of DNA, and another by means of the tempo-pause. The same two mechanisms are used by cells to alter the pattern of chromosomal DNA replication just prior to and during normal development. Both mechanisms are genetically determined and produce genetic effects when disturbed of disrupted by additional non-conforming DNAs. Further insight into how these two mechanisms operate requires more molecular information about the nature of replicons and the factors that govern when a replicon family replicates. Plant material is a rich and ideal source for this information just awaiting exploitation. 63 refs.

  17. Significant clinical worsening after natalizumab withdrawal: Predictive factors.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Jordana, A; Tintoré, M; Tur, C; Pérez-Miralles, F; Auger, C; Río, J; Nos, C; Arrambide, G; Comabella, M; Galán, I; Castilló, J; Sastre-Garriga, J; Rovira, A; Montalban, X

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to single out multiple sclerosis (MS) cases with poor outcome after natalizumab withdrawal and to identify predictive variables. We ascertained 47 withdrawals, and compared their pre- and post-natalizumab periods. We objectively defined significant clinical worsening after natalizumab withdrawal as a 2-step increase in Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). We performed regression models. As a group, post-natalizumab annualized relapse rate (ARR) was lower in the post-natalizumab period, and there were no differences in the mean number of gadolinium (Gd)-enhancing lesions between pre- and post-natalizumab magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Corticosteroid treatment did not change the outcomes. Eight patients (19%) presented significant clinical worsening after natalizumab withdrawal, which was predicted by a higher baseline EDSS and a 1-step EDSS increase while on natalizumab. PMID:25392320

  18. Asia Observer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This "start page for observers of Asian affairs" complements resources such as Asia Society (described in the January 2, 1998 Scout Report) by providing an omnibus of links to news outlets, government resources, special topics and academic Websites, Asian newspapers, reference texts, human rights organizations, and more. In addition, the Find an Expert section allows users to access two large databases of scholars and researchers in Asian policy and Asian history and culture.

  19. Pneumothorax: observation.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhigang; Huang, Haidong; Li, Qiang; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Madesis, Athanasios; Diplaris, Konstantinos; Karaiskos, Theodoros; Zaric, Bojan; Branislav, Perin; Zarogoulidis, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Pneumothorax based on the cause, it can be divided into two large categories; primary and secondary. The staging of pneumothorax plays a crucial role for treatment. Currently both thoracic surgeons and pulmonary physicians can handle efficiently treatment. Pulmonary physicians with the minimally medical thoracoscopy while thoracic surgeons with a more extensive intervention. Experience defines the outcome in most situations and not the method. In our current work we will present data regarding the observation of pneumothorax from a panel of experts. PMID:25337398

  20. Clinical significance of serum and tumor tissue endostatin evaluation in operable non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    HU, MING-MING; HU, YING; ZHANG, HAI-QING; JIA, WEN-YUN; QIAN, ZHE; YANG, YUAN; LI, BAO-LAN

    2014-01-01

    Endostatin, as the most potential antiangiogenic factor, is a naturally occurring fragment of collagen XVIII in bloodstream capable of inhibiting tumor growth and metastasis. This study was conducted to explore the clinical value of endostatin in serum and tumor tissue in patients with operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). ELISA and immunohistochemistry were applied to detect the expression of endostatin in serum and tumor tissue in 105 patient-matched operable NSCLC patients. The serum level of endostatin was significantly higher in NSCLC patients than healthy individuals (P=0.0018). Cases with poorer differentiation showed a higher endostatin serum level (P=0.008). There was no significant correlation between tumor tissue expression and clinical parameters, such as TNM stage, differentiation degree, histological type and lymph node invasion status. A stronger expression of endostain in tumor tissue was associated with a higher serum level (r=0.223). The univariate and multivariate analyses with Cox proportional hazards model for overall survival showed that tumor stage and node status were independent prognostic factors, whereas neither endostatin levels in serum nor in tumor tissue showed potential in predicting the long-term survival of operable NSCLC patients. In conclusion, the results observed in the present study did not support the prediction of overall survival in operable NSCLC based on the expression levels of endostatin in serum and tumor tissue. PMID:25279166

  1. Seat Belt Sign and Its Significance

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Amit; Inamadar, Praveenkumar Ishwarappa; Subrahmanyam, Bhattara Vishweswar

    2013-01-01

    Safety belts are the most important safety system in motor vehicles and when worn intend to prevent serious injuries. However, in unusual circumstances (high velocity motor vehicle collisions) these safety measures (seat belts) can be the source and cause of serious injuries. The seat belt syndrome was first described as early by Garrett and Braunste in but the term “seat belt sign” was discussed by Doersch and Dozier. Medical personnel's involved in emergency care of trauma patients should be aware of seat belt sign and there should a higher index of suspicion to rule out underlying organ injuries. PMID:24479100

  2. Original article Adaptative significance of amylase

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Adaptative significance of amylase polymorphism in Drosophila. III. Geographic patterns in Drosophila subobscura tissue-specific expression of amylase in adult midgut M Andjelkovi controlled variation in tissue-specific expression of a-amylase enzyme. Polymorphism for amylase tissue

  3. Adaptive significance of amylase polymorphism in Drosophila.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Note Adaptive significance of amylase polymorphism in Drosophila. Analysis of the association variability at the level of the specific activity of a-amylases and their tissue-specific expression- sults indicate a homogeneous distribution of the phenotypes with a different numbers of a-amylase

  4. Hemodynamic significance of pediatric femur fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M Lynch; Mary J Gardner; Barbara Gains

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether hemodynamically significant bleeding occurs after pediatric femur fractures. Method: A retrospective chart review was performed; demographic and injury data were collected for all patients with the diagnosis of femur fracture over a 30-month period at a level I pediatric trauma center. Included were patients with multisystem injury and patients with femur fractures as the only injury.

  5. The Physical Significance of "Other" Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manucuso, Richard V.

    1992-01-01

    Solutions to quadratic equations found in solving physics problems sometimes make no sense. Investigates problems in which solutions, such as negative numbers, have significant physical meaning in the problem. Problems are chosen from the topics of kinematics, conservation of mechanical energy, inelastic and elastic collisions, electrostatics, and…

  6. Defining ‘Evolutionarily Significant Units’ for conservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig Moritz

    1994-01-01

    w riting in the first issue of TREE, Ryder' brought the term 'Evolution- arily Significant Unit' (ESU) to the atten- tion of a broad audience of ecologists and evolutionary biologists. The ESU concept was developed to provide a rational basis for prioritizing taxa for conservation effort (e.g. captive breeding), given that resources are limited and that existing taxonomy may not

  7. Mass Spectra Alignments and their Significance

    E-print Network

    Lonardi, Stefano

    Mass Spectra Alignments and their Significance Sebastian B¨ocker1, Hans-Michael Kaltenbach2 1 Research, Universit¨at Bielefeld B¨ocker, Kaltenbach Mass Spectra Alignments CPM 2005 #12;Overview Mass¨ocker, Kaltenbach Mass Spectra Alignments CPM 2005 #12;Overview Mass Spectrometry in Proteomics Protein

  8. Significant Others and Gambling Treatment Outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prajkta J. Ingle; Jeffrey Marotta; Garnett McMillan; Jennifer P. Wisdom

    2008-01-01

    Aims This study investigates the effect of significant others on treatment outcomes among treated pathological gamblers. Design This is a cohort study of individuals who received gambling treatment. Setting Oregon Problem Gambling Services (OPGS) for gamblers and their family members. Participants 4,410 adult gamblers who were discharged from treatment between August, 2001 and April, 2007. Measurements OPGS enrollment forms provided

  9. Representativeness and Significance Factors in ESP Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuentes, Alejandro Curado

    The development of communicative approaches and strategies in specialized discourse has led to revising notions of representative and significant language. Particularly in work with academic genres, in science and technology settings, the need for determining these factors is growing. The application of specific language corpora becomes…

  10. Significant Structure Theory Applied to Electrolyte Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong Myung Lee; Mu Shik Jhon; Henry Eyring

    1979-01-01

    The significant structure theory has been successfully applied to an aqueous NaCl solution. Liquid water is assumed to have a domain structure and the ions are hydrated by water molecules. The partition function is composed of the partition function for the water and that for the salt, and the excess free energy term from the Debye-Huckel theory is also added.

  11. Key Personnel and Other Significant Contributors (OSC)

    E-print Network

    Kroll, Kristen L.

    Key Personnel and Other Significant Contributors (OSC) on NIH Submissions Is the person committed to contribute to the scientific development or execution of the project? The person is neither Key nor OSC YES" - "OSC" box checked S2S DETAILED BUDGET APPLICATIONS * WU and Non-WU Personnel: listed in Senior Key

  12. The Philosophical Significance of Universal Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinzen, Wolfram

    2012-01-01

    Throughout its long history, the project of a science of grammar has always been an inherently philosophical one, in which the study of grammar was taken to have special epistemological significance. I ask why 20th and 21st century inquiry into Universal Grammar (UG) has largely lost this dimension, a fact that I argue is partially responsible for…

  13. N400: Neural Generators Functional Significance

    E-print Network

    Coulson, Seana

    N400: Neural Generators #12;Functional Significance · N400 index of difficulty retrieving activated knowledge #12;Identifying Neural Generators · ERPs from patients with well- characterized damage neural generators of the N400? ­ Is it consistent with the study of split-brain patients? #12;Anterior vs

  14. Understanding Statistical Significance: A Conceptual History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Considers how if literacy is envisioned as a sort of competence in a set of social and intellectual practices, then scientific literacy must encompass the realization that "statistical significance," the cardinal arbiter of social scientific knowledge, was not born out of an immanent logic of mathematics but socially constructed and reconstructed…

  15. Significant Workplace Change: Perspectives of Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohut, Ann Marie

    2010-01-01

    The ever-increasing pace of workplace change is well documented in the literature, yet little is known about how an individual adapts to significant change in the workplace. Continuous learning is key to successful adaptation; however, are employees' adaptation to change influenced by their approaches to learning? The purpose of this study was to…

  16. Social significance of community structure: statistical view.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Jia; Daniels, Jasmine J

    2015-01-01

    Community structure analysis is a powerful tool for social networks that can simplify their topological and functional analysis considerably. However, since community detection methods have random factors and real social networks obtained from complex systems always contain error edges, evaluating the significance of a partitioned community structure is an urgent and important question. In this paper, integrating the specific characteristics of real society, we present a framework to analyze the significance of a social community. The dynamics of social interactions are modeled by identifying social leaders and corresponding hierarchical structures. Instead of a direct comparison with the average outcome of a random model, we compute the similarity of a given node with the leader by the number of common neighbors. To determine the membership vector, an efficient community detection algorithm is proposed based on the position of the nodes and their corresponding leaders. Then, using a log-likelihood score, the tightness of the community can be derived. Based on the distribution of community tightness, we establish a connection between p-value theory and network analysis, and then we obtain a significance measure of statistical form . Finally, the framework is applied to both benchmark networks and real social networks. Experimental results show that our work can be used in many fields, such as determining the optimal number of communities, analyzing the social significance of a given community, comparing the performance among various algorithms, etc. PMID:25679651

  17. Acremonium kiliense: Reappraisal of Its Clinical Significance?

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ziauddin; Al-Obaid, Khaled; Ahmad, Suhail; Ghani, Amal Abdel; Joseph, Leena; Chandy, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    A case of Acremonium kiliense peritonitis is described. Diagnosis was established by repeated isolation of the fungus from peritoneal dialysate and by its identification on the basis of morphological characteristics and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). This report and available literature suggest that A. kiliense may have a greater clinical significance than hitherto recognized. PMID:21450966

  18. MFR PAPER 1062 Cysteine significantly reduces

    E-print Network

    that exceeded 0.5 parts per million (ppm) . The United States Food and Drug Administra- tion has established west coa t of the United States and held In frozen storage at - 18 C for up to 6 month prior to useMFR PAPER 1062 Cysteine significantly reduces mercury content in sablefish without altering taste

  19. Teaching Significant Figures Using Age Conversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crute, Thomas D.

    2005-01-01

    Some useful approaches to assist students with the uncertainty of measurement and the necessity of significant figures through age conversion exercise and activity are presented. It showed that while two people might be born on the same date, they are not born at the same instant once, it considers the birth time to an appropriate number of…

  20. Significant Figures: A Collection of Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterridge, D. J., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Two responses to a prior report on significant figures and a discussion on outlining conventions for the accuracy of answers are included in this document. A clarification of the supposed error in the original report is noted at the beginning. (MP)

  1. Teaching Significant Figures Using Age Conversions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas D. Crute

    2005-01-01

    In this classroom activity the instructor provides increasingly precise values of the age in years of a famous person to have students calculate the age in days. An accurate age is readily determined using Julian dates. The activity provides a student-friendly, equipment-free entry to a discussion of estimated measurements, significant figures, exact numbers, rounding, and conversion factors.

  2. Adolescents and Significant Others: Relationships and Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiam, Heng Keng

    The Adolescent-Significant Others' Relationship Questionnaire was administered to 4,822 Malaysian students who ranged in age from 13 to 19 years. Subjects were Form I, III, and V students selected from six states in peninsular Malaysia by cluster sampling. The sample consisted of approximately equal numbers of males and females; urban and rural;…

  3. From Drowning to Surfing: A Slogan's Significance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exner, Frank

    1998-01-01

    Considers the social implications of the change in metaphors (drowning to surfing) describing the individuals' relationship to information. Argues that though a paradigm shift has not occurred, the significance of the change should not be minimized. Considers similarities and differences between drowning and surfing and questions arising from the…

  4. Clinical Significance of Soluble CD26 in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Ohnuma, Kei; Aoe, Keisuke; Hosono, Osamu; Yamada, Taketo; Kishimoto, Takumi; Morimoto, Chikao

    2014-01-01

    There is no established single diagnostic marker for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). CD26 is a 110 kDa, multifunctional, membrane-bound glycoprotein that has dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) enzyme activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of soluble CD26 (sCD26) in patients with MPM. The study included 80 MPM patients, 79 subjects with past asbestos exposure (SPE), and 134 patients with other benign pleural diseases (OPD) that were included as a control group. sCD26 levels and DPPIV activity in serum and/or pleural fluid were determined using an ELISA kit. Serum sCD26 levels and DPPIV enzyme activity in patients with MPM were significantly decreased compared with those in the SPE group (P?=?0.000). The level of serum sCD26 was significantly decreased in patients with advanced stages of MPM compared with those with earlier stages (P?=?0.047). The median OS of patients with MPM who had higher DPPIV enzyme activity was significantly longer than that of those with lower DPPIV enzyme activity (P?=?0.032). The sCD26 levels in the pleural fluid of MPM patients with an epithelioid subtype were significantly increased compared with the OPD cohort (P?=?0.012). Moreover, DPPIV enzyme activity in the pleural fluid of patients with MPM with an epithelioid subtype were significantly increased compared with those in the OPD cohort (P?=?0.009). Patients with MPM who had lower specific DPPIV activity, determined as DPPIV/sCD26, showed significantly prolonged survival compared with those with higher specific DPPIV activity (P?=?0.028). Serum sCD26 and DPPIV enzyme activity appear to be useful biomarkers for differentiating patients with MPM from SPE. The sCD26 levels or DPPIV enzyme activity in pleural fluid appear to be biomarkers in patients with an epithelioid subtype of MPM. DPPIV activity in serum or pleural fluid appears to be predictive for the prognosis of patients with MPM. PMID:25526639

  5. Enzymes extracted from apple peels have activity in reducing higher alcohols in Chinese liquors.

    PubMed

    Han, Qi'an; Shi, Junling; Zhu, Jing; Lv, Hongliang; Du, Shuangkui

    2014-10-01

    As the unavoidable byproducts of alcoholic fermentation, higher alcohols are unhealthy compounds widespread in alcoholic drinks. To investigate the activity of apple crude enzymes toward higher alcohols in liquors, five kinds of apple peels, namely, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Red Star, and Jonagold, were chosen to prepare enzymes, and three kinds of Chinese liquors, namely, Xifeng (containing 45% ethanol), Taibai (containing 50% ethanol), and Erguotou (containing 56% ethanol), were tested. Enzymes were prepared in the forms of liquid solution, powder, and immobilized enzymes using sodium alginate (SA) and chitosan. The treatment was carried out at 37 °C for 1 h. The relative amounts of different alcohols (including ethanol, 1-propanol, isobutanol, 1-butanol, isoamylol, and 1-hexanol) were measured using gas chromatography (GC). Conditions for preparing SA-immobilized Fuji enzymes (SA-IEP) were optimized, and the obtained SA-IEP (containing 0.3 g of enzyme) was continuously used to treat Xifeng liquor eight times, 20 mL per time. Significant degradation rates (DRs) of higher alcohols were observed at different degrees, and it also showed enzyme specificity according to the apple varieties and enzyme preparations. After five repeated treatments, the DRs of the optimized Fuji SA-IEP remained 70% for 1-hexanol and >15% for other higher alcohols. PMID:25238318

  6. Monitoring of magnetron target poisoning by measurement of higher harmonics of discharge voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvo?ák, P.; Vašina, P.

    2010-10-01

    Reactive magnetron sputtering suffers from processing stability problems and the optimal experimental conditions for thin film deposition usually lie very close to an abrupt transition from the metallic to the compound mode. Therefore, a fast feedback method is needed to automatically control either the flow of the reactive gas, or the discharge power to keep the process at the desired operating point. A promising method for this process of monitoring, based on the measurement of amplitudes of higher harmonic frequencies of discharge voltages, is proposed. The measurement of the amplitudes can be performed either by an uncompensated probe in the plasma or on the cable between the RF generator and the sputtered target. The sensitivity of the proposed method is significantly better than measurement of other electrical quantities conventionally used for process control. Physical reasons for the change in amplitudes of higher harmonic frequencies during the mode transition are found. The paper shows that the observed changes in amplitudes of higher harmonics by the transition are not caused either by the pressure change, or by the changes in the composition of the gas in the reactor volume. It is found that the amplitudes of higher harmonics reflect primarily the state of the magnetron target poisoning. The amplitudes thus belong to a group of process parameters representing the target state, which are considered to be the best for reliable process control.

  7. Lemur tyrosine kinase-3 is a significant prognostic marker for patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hongbing; Li, Qing; Ji, Mei; Wu, Jun; Li, Zhengguang; Zheng, Xiao; Xu, Bin; Chen, Lujun; Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Changqing; Tan, Yan; Wu, Changping; Jiang, Jingting

    2014-01-01

    Lemur tyrosine kinase-3 (LMTK3) belongs to the family of serine-threonine-tyrosine kinases and the aberrant expression of LMTK3 was observed in several human malignancies. However, the association of LMTK3 with clinical outcomes in colorectal cancer patients is unclear. Thus, this present study was to evaluate the association of LMTK3 expression level with clinicopathologic factors and prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The expression level of LMTK3 in 69 archival paraffin-embedded colorectal tumor tissue specimens was examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). As a result, we found that the LMTK3 expression level was significantly elevated in CRC tissues as compared with Crohn's disease or colorectal polyp tissues (P<0.0001, P<0.0001, respectively). Positive LMTK3 signals in the colorectal cancer cells were observed in about 89.9% (62 of 69) CRC tissue specimens. Additionally, LMTK3 expression was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification (P=0.003, and P=0.008, respectively), but not with sex, age, tumor location, histological differentiation, tumor size, or depth of tumor invasion (all P>0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that the overall survival rate was significantly higher in the patients with low expression of LMTK3 when compared with those patients with high LMTK3 (P=0.010). Moreover, multivariate analysis revealed that LMTK3 expression was an independent prognostic factor for CRC patients (P=0.047). These results suggest that LMTK3 protein could serve as a prognostic marker for CRC patients. PMID:24695631

  8. Lemur tyrosine kinase-3 is a significant prognostic marker for patients with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hongbing; Li, Qing; Ji, Mei; Wu, Jun; Li, Zhengguang; Zheng, Xiao; Xu, Bin; Chen, Lujun; Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Changqing; Tan, Yan; Wu, Changping; Jiang, Jingting

    2014-01-01

    Lemur tyrosine kinase-3 (LMTK3) belongs to the family of serine-threonine-tyrosine kinases and the aberrant expression of LMTK3 was observed in several human malignancies. However, the association of LMTK3 with clinical outcomes in colorectal cancer patients is unclear. Thus, this present study was to evaluate the association of LMTK3 expression level with clinicopathologic factors and prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The expression level of LMTK3 in 69 archival paraffin-embedded colorectal tumor tissue specimens was examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). As a result, we found that the LMTK3 expression level was significantly elevated in CRC tissues as compared with Crohn’s disease or colorectal polyp tissues (P<0.0001, P<0.0001, respectively). Positive LMTK3 signals in the colorectal cancer cells were observed in about 89.9% (62 of 69) CRC tissue specimens. Additionally, LMTK3 expression was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification (P=0.003, and P=0.008, respectively), but not with sex, age, tumor location, histological differentiation, tumor size, or depth of tumor invasion (all P>0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that the overall survival rate was significantly higher in the patients with low expression of LMTK3 when compared with those patients with high LMTK3 (P=0.010). Moreover, multivariate analysis revealed that LMTK3 expression was an independent prognostic factor for CRC patients (P=0.047). These results suggest that LMTK3 protein could serve as a prognostic marker for CRC patients. PMID:24695631

  9. Late Triassic (Norian) foraminifera from Hopen Island, Barents Sea, paleoenvironmental significance and sequence stratigraphy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetean, Claudia; Paterson, Niall; Mangerud, Gunn

    2015-04-01

    The dark laminated mudstones of the Flatsalen Formation exposed on Hopen Island, in the Barents Sea record an early Norian transgression. At the base of the Formation, the Slottet Beds are considered to represent a transgressive lag deposit overlaid by the finer sediments which preserve agglutinated foraminifera, radiolaria and ostracod casts in the Lyngefjellet outcrop. During the transgressive phase the maximum abundance of foraminifera was noted, with benthonic assemblages dominated by small size Trochammina and Ammodiscus species. These types of assemblages are indicative of neritic depositional settings in the boreal domain, probably controlled by influxes of fresh water from adjacent land masses (Nagy et al., 2010). An influx of radiolaria, assumed to represent a maximum flooding surface (Mfs), indicating the onset of fully marine conditions was observed higher in the section, with marine microplankton peaking 9m higher. The decoupling between marine benthonic and planktonic microfossils is believed to be a consequence of a stratified water column. The Mfs is coeval with a marked decrease in the abundance and diversity of foraminifera and a change from epifauna to infauna - dominated agglutinated assemblages suggesting bottom waters hypoxia. In the first stage of marine regression, unstable palaeoenvironmental conditions are inferred, based on a gradual increase in dominance of few taxa, including opportunistic species of Glomospira. Nagy, J., Hess, S. and Alve, E., 2010. Environmental significance of foraminiferal assemblages dominated by small-sized Ammodiscus and Trochammina in Triassic and Jurassic delta-influenced deposits. Earth-Science Reviews, 99, 31-49.

  10. Prevalence and significance of two major inherited thrombophilias in infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Iossa, Domenico; Molaro, Rosa; Andini, Roberto; Mattucci, Irene; Malgeri, Umberto; Albisinni, Rosina; Utili, Riccardo

    2015-08-01

    The pathogenesis of infective endocarditis (IE) involves activation of the haemostasis system at the site of endocardial defects. Whether prothrombotic conditions are associated with IE by enhancing early vegetation formation is unknown. In this study, we assess the prevalence and clinical significance of two major conditions associated with thrombophilia in patients with IE. Mutations G20210A of the prothrombin (PTH) gene and G1691A of factor V (FV Leiden) gene were studied by means of allele-specific polymerase chain reaction in 203 IE patients, 175 valvular heart disease (VHD) patients and 200 blood donors (BD). IE patients show higher cumulative frequencies of mutated alleles of PTH and FV Leiden [6.4 vs 3.25 %; OR 2.03 (95 % CI 0.97-3.66); p = 0.047] compared to BD, but not VHD. Device-related IE is enriched with FV Leiden, and prosthetic valve IE with PTH mutations (allele frequency 8.3 vs 2.2 % in native valve IE; p = 0.021). Vegetation size and embolic complications are not influenced by the examined thrombophilias. A trend for a higher mortality was observed in IE patients with any of the two thrombophilias studied. Our data do not support a role for factor V Leiden and G20210A prothrombin gene mutations in the susceptibility to IE. Whether any of these genetic polymorphisms play a role in a specific subtype of IE needs to be re-examined in larger studies. PMID:25711313

  11. Immunohistochemical expression of procaspase-3 and its clinical significance in childhood non-Hodgkin lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, Grazyna; Maldyk, Jadwiga; Kazanowska, Bernarda; Rapala, Malgorzata; Maciejka-Kapuscinska, Lucyna; Chaber, Rados?aw

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown differences in expression levels of apoptosis regulatory proteins in non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) and indicated the correlation of procaspase-3 (proC-3) and caspase-3 activation to the response of chemotherapy. We investigated whether proC-3 expression in tumor biopsies of childhood NHLs is related to clinical outcome. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 58 children with NHL were evaluated for proC-3 expression by immunochemistry analysis. The study included 20 cases of Burkitt lymphoma, 7 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, 18 cases of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), and 13 cases of precursor lymphoblastic lymphoma. The highest expression level of proC-3 was observed in ALCL. In the multivariate analysis the higher clinical stage of disease and higher expression level of proC-3 were independent and appear to be significant prognostic factors of treatment failure. Our results suggest that the high expression level of proC-3 may be a powerful independent predictor of response to chemotherapy and progression-free survival in childhood NHLs. PMID:20722551

  12. Penguins significantly increased phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution in maritime Antarctic soils

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Renbin; Wang, Qing; Ding, Wei; Wang, Can; Hou, Lijun; Ma, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    Most studies on phosphorus cycle in the natural environment focused on phosphates, with limited data available for the reduced phosphine (PH3). In this paper, matrix-bound phosphine (MBP), gaseous phosphine fluxes and phosphorus fractions in the soils were investigated from a penguin colony, a seal colony and the adjacent animal-lacking tundra and background sites. The MBP levels (mean 200.3?ng kg?1) in penguin colony soils were much higher than those in seal colony soils, animal-lacking tundra soils and the background soils. Field PH3 flux observation and laboratory incubation experiments confirmed that penguin colony soils produced much higher PH3 emissions than seal colony soils and animal-lacking tundra soils. Overall high MBP levels and PH3 emissions were modulated by soil biogeochemical processes associated with penguin activities: sufficient supply of the nutrients phosphorus, nitrogen, and organic carbon from penguin guano, high soil bacterial abundance and phosphatase activity. It was proposed that organic or inorganic phosphorus compounds from penguin guano or seal excreta could be reduced to PH3 in the Antarctic soils through the bacterial activity. Our results indicated that penguin activity significantly increased soil phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution, thus played an important role in phosphorus cycle in terrestrial ecosystems of maritime Antarctica. PMID:25394572

  13. A Methodology for Finding Significant Network Hosts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DongJin Lee; Nevil Brownlee

    2007-01-01

    Much work has been done on observing and determining application types for network traffic flows. This is non-trivial because newer applications often encrypt their packets and do not use default port numbers. Also, application updates or protocol changes could vary the distributions of flow behaviors and patterns, resulting in complicated identification methods. We propose a different approach, in which we

  14. DETERMINING SIGNIFICANT ENDPOINTS FOR ECOLOGICAL RISK ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk analyses, both human health and ecological, will be important factors in determining which DOE sites should be cleaned up and in deciding if acceptable performance standards have been met. Risk analysis procedures for humans use the individual as the 'unit' of observation, a...

  15. Do meteor showers significantly perturb the ionosphere?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Grebowsky; R. A. Goldberg; W. D. Pesnell

    1998-01-01

    More than 40 rocket flights through the main meteoric ionization layer, which peaks near 95 km, have sampled the meteoric metallic ion concentrations. Five of these flights were conducted during or near the peak times of a meteor shower. In each of the latter studies the observed meteoric ion concentrations were assumed to be a consequence of the shower. These

  16. On higher-dimensional dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesson, Paul S.

    2002-05-01

    Technical results are presented on motion in N(>4)D manifolds to clarify the physics of brane theory, Kaluza-Klein theory, induced-matter theory, and string theory. The so-called canonical or warp metric in five dimensions (5D) effectively converts the manifold from a coordinate space to a momentum space, resulting in a new force (per unit mass) parallel to the four-dimensional (4D) velocity. The form of this extra force is actually independent of the form of the metric, but for an unbound particle is tiny because it is set by the energy density of the vacuum or cosmological constant. It can be related to a small change in the rest mass of a particle, and can be evaluated in two convenient gauges relevant to gravitational and quantum systems. In the quantum gauge, the extra force leads to Heisenberg's relation between increments in the position and momenta. If the 4D action is quantized then so is the higher-dimensional part, implying that particle mass is quantized, though only at a level of 10-65 g or less, which is unobservably small. It is noted that massive particles which move on timeline paths in 4D can move on null paths in 5D. This agrees with the view from inflationary quantum field theory, that particles acquire mass dynamically in 4D but are intrinsically massless. A general prescription for dynamics is outlined, wherein particles move on null paths in an N(>4)D manifold which may be flat, but have masses set by an embedded 4D manifold which is curved.

  17. On Higher-Dimensional Dynamics

    E-print Network

    Paul S. Wesson

    2001-05-17

    Technical results are presented on motion in N(>4)D manifolds to clarify the physics of Kaluza-Klein theory, brane theory and string theory. The so-called canonical or warp metric in 5D effectively converts the manifold from a coordinate space to a momentum space, resulting in a new force (per unit mass) parallel to the 4D velocity. The form of this extra force is actually independent of the form of the metric, but for an unbound particle is tiny because it is set by the energy density of the vacuum or cosmological constant. It can be related to a small change in the rest mass of a particle, and can be evaluated in two convenient gauges relevant to gravitational and quantum systems. In the quantum gauge, the extra force leads to Heisenberg's relation between increments in the position and momenta. If the 4D action is quantized then so is the higher-dimensional part, implying that particle mass is quantized, though only at a level of 10^{-65} gm or less which is unobservably small. It is noted that massive particles which move on timeline paths in 4D can move on null paths in 5D. This agrees with the view from inflationary quantum field theory, that particles acquire mass dynamically in 4D but are intrinsically massless. A general prescription for dynamics is outlined, wherein particles move on null paths in an N(>4)D manifold which may be flat, but have masses set by an embedded 4D manifold which is curved.

  18. The Master Plan for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Board of Regents, Baton Rouge.

    This report outlines the Louisiana State Board of Regents' goals for higher education in the state. After summarizing the history of higher education in Louisiana, demographic and economic trends, and the role of higher education in the state, the report discusses five specific goals: (1) improving access to higher education for all citizens…

  19. Research on informationization of higher education management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang-ming Xu; Yi-min Liu; Jin Wu; Fang Min

    2010-01-01

    Informationization of higher education management is an outcome of rapid development and wide application of modern information technology in the field of higher education. It plays an important role in management philosophy and management efficiency in higher education. In this paper, we introduce the concepts of informationization and informationization of higher education management at first. Then, after analyzing the state

  20. Illinois Higher Education Annual Report, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, James L.; LaVista, Daniel J.

    This report presents information about the Illinois Board of Higher Education and the state of higher education in Illinois. The Illinois Board of Higher Education, a 15-member board, is responsible for planning and coordinating the states system of higher education. The Board has statutory responsibilities for master planning, the budget, program…

  1. Redefining External Stakeholders in Nordic Higher Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazimierz Musia?

    2010-01-01

    Present higher education reforms in the Nordic countries diminish the role and influence of the state on the governance of higher education institutions. While still providing a framework for the management of higher education, in general, the state supervises rather than controls higher education institutions (HEIs). The rhetoric of change stipulates HEIs to respond to environmental needs, and the external

  2. Quality Assurance in Chinese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Quality assurance has been integrated into the fabric of higher education in China, with the issue of quality in higher education--how to evaluate it and how to enhance it--now taking centre stage in Chinese higher education. In the past decade, the development of quality assurance in Chinese higher education has covered a broad spectrum of…

  3. Science Goal Driven Observing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koratkar, A.; Grosvenor, S.; Jones, J.; Wolf, K.

    In the coming decade, we will be forced to automate many of the scientific tasks that are done manually today because observatories will have to be managed in a fiscally tight environment. Thus, spacecraft autonomy will become a part of mission operations. In such an environment, observing campaigns of inherently variable targets and targets of opportunity will need flexible scheduling to focus observing time and data download on exposures that are scientifically interesting and useful. The ability to quickly recognize and react to such events by re-prioritizing the observing schedule will be an essential characteristic for maximizing scientific returns from the observatory. The science goal monitoring (SGM) system is a proof-of-concept effort to address these challenges. The SGM will have an interface to help capture higher level science goals from the scientists and translate them into a flexible observing strategy that SGM can execute and monitor. We are developing an interactive distributed system that will use on-board processing and storage combined with event-driven interfaces with ground-based processing and operations, to enable fast re-prioritization of observing schedules, and to minimize time spent on non-optimized observations.

  4. Clinical significance of growth differentiation factor 11 in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Yokoe, Takeshi; Ohmachi, Takahiro; Inoue, Hiroshi; Mimori, Koshi; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Kusunoki, Masato; Mori, Masaki

    2007-11-01

    Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) subfamily, plays a role in regulation of development and differentiation. Although some members of BMP subfamily have been reported to correlate with cancer, the significance of GDF11 has not been studied in a clinical oncology setting. The current study explored the clinicopathological significance of GDF11 expression in colorectal cancer. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR in colorectal cancer specimens obtained from 130 patients showed that GDF11 mRNA expression in cancer tissue was significantly higher than in normal tissue (p=0.001). Tumors were classified as high GDF11 expression (n=65) or low GDF11 expression (n=65). Patients whose tumors had high GDF11 expression showed a high frequency of lymph node metastasis (p=0.049) and had more cancer-related deaths (p=0.040). Furthermore, the patients with high GDF11 expression had significantly poorer overall survival than those with low expression (p=0.0334). Although multivariate analysis showed that GDF11 was not an independent prognostic factor, these findings suggest that GDF11 may be a novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in patients with colorectal cancer. PMID:17912435

  5. Timescales for detecting a significant acceleration in sea level rise

    PubMed Central

    Haigh, Ivan D.; Wahl, Thomas; Rohling, Eelco J.; Price, René M.; Pattiaratchi, Charitha B.; Calafat, Francisco M.; Dangendorf, Sönke

    2014-01-01

    There is observational evidence that global sea level is rising and there is concern that the rate of rise will increase, significantly threatening coastal communities. However, considerable debate remains as to whether the rate of sea level rise is currently increasing and, if so, by how much. Here we provide new insights into sea level accelerations by applying the main methods that have been used previously to search for accelerations in historical data, to identify the timings (with uncertainties) at which accelerations might first be recognized in a statistically significant manner (if not apparent already) in sea level records that we have artificially extended to 2100. We find that the most important approach to earliest possible detection of a significant sea level acceleration lies in improved understanding (and subsequent removal) of interannual to multidecadal variability in sea level records. PMID:24728012

  6. Understanding cultural significance, the edible mushrooms case

    PubMed Central

    Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Caballero, Javier; Estrada-Torres, Arturo; Cifuentes, Joaquín

    2007-01-01

    Background Cultural significance is a keystone in quantitative ethnobiology, which offers the possibility to make inferences about traditional nomenclature systems, use, appropriation and valuing of natural resources. In the present work, using as model the traditional mycological knowledge of Zapotecs from Oaxaca, Mexico, we analyze the cultural significance of wild edible resources. Methods In 2003 we applied 95 questionnaires to a random sample of informants. With this data we integrated the Edible Mushroom Cultural Significance Index. This index included eight variables: frequency of mention, perceived abundance, use frequency, taste, multifunctional food use, knowledge transmission, health and economy. Data were analyzed in an inductive perspective using ordination and grouping techniques to reveal the behavior of species in a cultural multivariate dimension. Results In each variable the species had different conducts. Cantharellus cibarius s.l. was the species with most frequency of mention. Pleurotus sp. had the highest perceived abundance. C. cibarius s.l. was the most frequently consumed species. Gomphus clavatus was the most palatable species and also ranked highest in the multifunctional food index. Cortinarius secc.Malacii sp. had the highest traditional importance. Only Tricholoma magnivelare was identified as a health enhancer. It also had the most economic importance. According to the compound index, C. cibarius s.l., the Amanita caesarea complex, Ramaria spp. and Neolentinus lepideus were the mushrooms with highest cultural significance. Multivariate analysis showed that interviewees identify three main groups of mushrooms: species with high traditional values, frequent consumption and known by the majority; species that are less known, infrequently consumed and without salient characteristics; and species with low traditional values, with high economic value and health enhancers. Conclusion The compound index divided the cultural significance into several cultural domains and showed the causes that underlie this phenomenon. This approach can be used in cross-cultural studies because it brings a list with the relative position of species among a cultural significance gradient. This list is suitable for comparisons and also it is flexible because cultural variables can be included or removed to adjust it to the nature of the different cultures or resources under study. PMID:17217539

  7. Standard filtration practices may significantly distort planktonic microbial diversity estimates

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Cory C.; Ganesh, Sangita; Gantt, Shelby; Huhman, Alex; Parris, Darren J.; Sarode, Neha; Stewart, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Fractionation of biomass by filtration is a standard method for sampling planktonic microbes. It is unclear how the taxonomic composition of filtered biomass changes depending on sample volume. Using seawater from a marine oxygen minimum zone, we quantified the 16S rRNA gene composition of biomass on a prefilter (1.6 ?m pore-size) and a downstream 0.2 ?m filter over sample volumes from 0.05 to 5 L. Significant community shifts occurred in both filter fractions, and were most dramatic in the prefilter community. Sequences matching Vibrionales decreased from ~40 to 60% of prefilter datasets at low volumes (0.05–0.5 L) to less than 5% at higher volumes, while groups such at the Chromatiales and Thiohalorhabdales followed opposite trends, increasing from minor representation to become the dominant taxa at higher volumes. Groups often associated with marine particles, including members of the Deltaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Bacteroidetes, were among those showing the greatest increase with volume (4 to 27-fold). Taxon richness (97% similarity clusters) also varied significantly with volume, and in opposing directions depending on filter fraction, highlighting potential biases in community complexity estimates. These data raise concerns for studies using filter fractionation for quantitative comparisons of aquatic microbial diversity, for example between free-living and particle-associated communities. PMID:26082766

  8. Prognostic Significance of CD26 in Patients with Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Colin Siu-Chi; Cheung, Alvin Ho-Kwan; Wong, Sunny Kit-Man; Wan, Timothy Ming-Hun; Ng, Lui; Chow, Ariel Ka-Man; Cheng, Nathan Shiu-Man; Pak, Ryan Chung-Hei; Li, Hung-Sing; Man, Johnny Hon-Wai; Yau, Thomas Chung-Cheung; Lo, Oswens Siu-Hung; Poon, Jensen Tung-Chung; Pang, Roberta Wen-Chi; Law, Wai Lun

    2014-01-01

    Background CD26, dipeptidyl peptidase IV, was discovered firstly as a membrane-associated peptidase on the surface of leukocyte. We previously demonstrated that a subpopulation of CD26+ cells were associated with the development of distant metastasis, enhanced invasiveness and chemoresistance in colorectal cancer (CRC). In order to understand the clinical impact of CD26, the expression was investigated in CRC patient's specimens. This study investigated the prognostic significance of tumour CD26 expression in patients with CRC. Examination of CD26+ cells has significant clinical impact for the prediction of distant metastasis development in colorectal cancer, and could be used as a selection criterion for further therapy. Methods Tumour CD26 expression levels were studied by immunohistochemistry using Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues in 143 patients with CRC. Tumour CD26 expression levels were correlated with clinicopathological features of the CRC patients. The prognostic significance of tumour tissue CD26 expression levels was assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Result CD26 expression levels in CRC patients with distant metastasis were significantly higher than those in non-metastatic. High expression levels of CD26 were significantly associated with advanced tumour staging. Patients with a high CD26 expression level had significantly worse overall survival than those with a lower level (p<0.001). Conclusions The expression of CD26 was positively associated with clinicopathological correlation such as TNM staging, degree of differentiation and development of metastasis. A high CD26 expression level is a predictor of poor outcome after resection of CRC. CD26 may be a useful prognostic marker in patients with CRC. PMID:24870408

  9. A 110-year perspective of significant tornadoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grazulis, Thomas P.

    A tornado documentation project began in 1980 as an effort to resolve differences between the two independently designed tornado data bases used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). One was established for the NRC at the University of Chicago (UC) by T. T. Fujita for the years 1916-1985. In addition, the NRC assisted the National Severe Storms Forecast Center (NSSFC) in adding F scale ratings to the existing NSSFC data base in Kansas City, from 1950 to the present. The final task of this effort (hereinafter called the project) was to locate and list all significant tornadoes from 1880 through 1989. Significant is defined here as all tornadoes doing confirmable F-2 or greater damage or causing a death.

  10. Significance of primary irradiation creep in graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erasmus, Christiaan; Kok, Schalk; Hindley, Michael P.

    2013-05-01

    Traditionally primary irradiation creep is introduced into graphite analysis by applying the appropriate amount of creep strain to the model at the initial time-step. This is valid for graphite components that are subjected to high fast neutron flux fields and constant stress fields, but it does not allow for the effect of movement of stress locations around a graphite component during life, nor does it allow primary creep to be applied rate-dependently to graphite components subject to lower fast neutron flux. This paper shows that a differential form of primary irradiation creep in graphite combined with the secondary creep formulation proposed by Kennedy et al. performs well when predicting creep behaviour in experimental samples. The significance of primary irradiation creep in particular in regions with lower flux is investigated. It is shown that in low flux regions with a realistic operating lifetime primary irradiation creep is significant and is larger than secondary irradiation creep.

  11. Hockey sticks, principal components, and spurious significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, Stephen; McKitrick, Ross

    2005-02-01

    The ``hockey stick'' shaped temperature reconstruction of Mann et al. (1998, 1999) has been widely applied. However it has not been previously noted in print that, prior to their principal components (PCs) analysis on tree ring networks, they carried out an unusual data transformation which strongly affects the resulting PCs. Their method, when tested on persistent red noise, nearly always produces a hockey stick shaped first principal component (PC1) and overstates the first eigenvalue. In the controversial 15th century period, the MBH98 method effectively selects only one species (bristlecone pine) into the critical North American PC1, making it implausible to describe it as the ``dominant pattern of variance''. Through Monte Carlo analysis, we show that MBH98 benchmarks for significance of the Reduction of Error (RE) statistic are substantially under-stated and, using a range of cross-validation statistics, we show that the MBH98 15th century reconstruction lacks statistical significance.

  12. Impact of duration of structured observations on measurement of handwashing behavior at critical times

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Structured observation is frequently used to measure handwashing at critical events, such as after fecal contact and before eating, but it is time-consuming. We aimed to assess the impact of reducing the duration of structured observation on the number and type of critical events observed. Methods The study recruited 100 randomly selected households, 50 for short 90-minute observations and 50 for long 5-hour observations, in six rural Bangladeshi villages. Based on the first 90 minutes in the long observation households, we estimated the number of critical events for handwashing expected, and compared the expected number to the number of events actually observed in the short observation households. In long observation households, we compared soap use at critical events observed during the first 90 minutes to soap use at events observed during the latter 210 minutes of the 5-hour duration. Results In short 90-minute observation households, the mean number of events observed was lower than the number of events expected: before eating (observed 0.25, expected 0.45, p?observed 0.0, expected 0.03, p?=?0.06). However, the mean number observed was higher than the expected for food preparation, food serving, and child feeding events. In long 5-hour observation households, soap was used more frequently at critical events observed in the first 90 minutes than in the remaining 210 minutes, but this difference was not significant (p?=?0.29). Conclusions Decreasing the duration of handwashing significantly reduced the observation of critical events of interest to evaluators of handwashing programs. Researchers seeking to measure observed handwashing behavior should continue with prolonged duration of structured observation. Future research should develop and evaluate novel models to reduce reactivity to observation and improve the measurement of handwashing behavior. PMID:23915098

  13. Significant Structure Theory Applied to Phase Separation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suck-Hyun Lee; Mu Shik Jhon; Henry Eyring

    1977-01-01

    The significant structure theory of liquids has been applied to the partially miscible system of the O3-O2 mixture, which exhibits partial miscibility in the temperature range from -195.5 degrees C to -179.9 degrees C. The thermodynamic condition for phase separation is given by the following inequality: (partial 2Gmixture\\/partial Xi{

  14. Significant Accomplishments in Science and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The proceedings of a symposium on significant accomplishments in science and technology are presented. The symposium was held at the Goddard Space Flight Center in December 1973. The subjects discussed are as follows: (1) cometary physics, (2) X-ray and gamma ray astronomy, (3) solar and terrestrial physics, (4) spacecraft technology, (5) Earth Resources Technology Satellite, (6) earth and ocean physics, (6) communications and navigation, (7) mission operations and data systems, and (8) networks systems and operations.

  15. Significance of feeding dysfunction in eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Menard-Katcher, Calies; Henry, Michelle; Furuta, Glenn T; Atkins, Dan; Maune, Nancy Creskoff; Haas, Angela M

    2014-01-01

    Feeding dysfunction is a frequent presenting symptom of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Here we present 3 children of various ages whose manifestations of EoE associated feeding dysfunction led to significant and life altering impact on their growth and development. Early identification of presenting symptoms of EoE will allow for prompt diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatments. Recognition of salient features of dysfunction and treatment by feeding therapists and nutritionists led to symptom resolution and growth. PMID:25152606

  16. THE DECLINING POLITICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF SOCIAL CLASS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry Nichols Clark; Seymour Martin Lipset; Michael Rempel

    1993-01-01

    Social classes have not died, but their political significance has declined substantially; this justifies a shift from class-centred analysis towards multi-causal explanations of political behaviour and related social phenomena. This contribution extends key propositions from Clark and Lipset and adds new empirical evidence to the commentaries by Hout et al. and Pakulski.Four general propositions are stated concerning where and why

  17. Characteristics, dynamics and significance of marine snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alldredge, Alice L.; Silver, Mary W.

    Macroscopic aggregates of detritus, living organisms and inorganic matter known as marine snow, have significance in the ocean both as unique, partially isolated microenvironments and as transport agents: much of surface-derived matter in the ocean fluxes to the ocean interior and the sea floor as marine snow. As microhabitats, marine snow aggregates contain enriched microbial communities and chemical gradients within which processes of photosynthesis, decomposition, and nutrient regeneration occur at highly elevated levels. Microbial communities associated with marine snow undergo complex successional changes on time scales of hours to days which significantly alter the chemical and biological properties of the particles. Marine snow can be produced either de novo by living plants and animals especially as mucus feeding webs of zooplankton, or by the biologically-enhanced physical aggregation of smaller particles. By the latter pathway, microaggregates, phytoplankton, fecal pellets, organic debris and clay-mineral particles collide by differential settlement or physical shear and adhere by the action of various, biologically-generated, organic compounds. Diatom flocculation is a poorly understood source of marine snow of potential global significance. Rates of snow production and breakdown are not known but are critical to predicting flux and to understanding biological community structure and transformations of matter and energy in the water column. The greatest challenge to the study of marine snow at present is the development of appropriate technology to measure abundances and characteristics of aggregates in situ.

  18. Meniscal root tears: significance, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Sanjeev; LaPrade, Christopher M; Ellman, Michael B; LaPrade, Robert F

    2014-12-01

    Meniscal root tears, less common than meniscal body tears and frequently unrecognized, are a subset of meniscal injuries that often result in significant knee joint disorders. The meniscus root attachment aids meniscal function by securing the meniscus in place and allowing for optimal shock-absorbing function in the knee. With root tears, meniscal extrusion often occurs, and the transmission of circumferential hoop stresses is impaired. This alters knee biomechanics and kinematics and significantly increases tibiofemoral contact pressure. In recent years, meniscal root tears, which by definition include direct avulsions off the tibial plateau or radial tears adjacent to the root itself, have attracted attention because of concerns that significant meniscal extrusion dramatically inhibits normal meniscal function, leading to a condition biomechanically similar to a total meniscectomy. Recent literature has highlighted the importance of early diagnosis and treatment; fortunately, these processes have been vastly improved by advances in magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopy. This article presents a review of the clinically relevant anatomic, biomechanical, and functional descriptions of the meniscus root attachments, as well as current strategies for accurate diagnosis and treatment of common injuries to these meniscus root attachments. PMID:24623276

  19. Is the Lamb shift chemically significant?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyall, Kenneth G.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Schwenke, David W.; Pyykko, Pekka; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The contribution of the Lamb shift to the atomization energies of some prototype molecules, BF3, AlF3, and GaF3, is estimated by a perturbation procedure. It is found to be in the range of 3-5% of the one-electron scalar relativistic contribution to the atomization energy. The maximum absolute value is 0.2 kcal/mol for GaF3. These sample calculations indicate that the Lamb shift is probably small enough to be neglected for energetics of molecules containing light atoms if the target accuracy is 1 kcal/mol, but for higher accuracy calculations and for molecules containing heavy elements it must be considered.

  20. PIKfyve: Partners, significance, debates and paradoxes.

    PubMed

    Shisheva, Assia

    2008-06-01

    Key components of membrane trafficking and signaling machinery in eukaryotic cells are proteins that bind or synthesize phosphoinositides. PIKfyve, a product of an evolutionarily conserved single-copy gene has both these features. It binds to membrane phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns)3P and synthesizes PtdIns(3,5)P2 and PtdIns5P. Molecular functions of PIKfyve are elusive but recent advances are consistent with a key role in the course of endosomal transport. PIKfyve dysfunction induces endosome enlargement and profound cytoplasmic vacuolation, likely as a result of impaired normal endosome processing and membrane exit out of endosomes. Multicellular organisms with genetically impaired function of PIKfyve or that of the PIKfyve protein partners regulating PtdIns(3,5)P2 homeostasis display severe disorders, including embryonic/perinatal death. This review describes recent advances on PIKfyve functionality in higher eukaryotes, with particular reference to biochemical and genetic insights in PIKfyve protein partners. PMID:18304842