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1

Competitive Intelligence: Significance in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Historically noncompetitive, the higher education sector is now having to adjust dramatically to new and increasing demands on numerous levels. To remain successfully operational within the higher educational market universities today must consider all relevant forces which can impact present and future planning. Those institutions that were…

Barrett, Susan E.

2010-01-01

2

ENA observations: The view from higher energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The instrument CELIAS/HSTOF onboard SOHO is observing the energetic neutral atom (ENA) flux at 1 AU since 1996, scanning once per year the ENA flux in the ecliptic plane. Based on VOYAGER 1 and 2 LECP in-situ ion flux measurements in the heliosheath and the observed ENA fluxes of hydrogen and helium in the 28 to 88 keV/n energy/mass range, the estimated thickness of the heliosheath is 42 +-12 AU. We will discuss the implications of the recent ENA sky maps of IBEX and CASSINI on the interpretation of the CELIAS/HSTOF flux observations, all covering different time intervals, viewing directions and energy ranges of the inner and outer heliospheric ENA fluxes.

Hilchenbach, Martin

3

Observations on higher-order beam theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A parabolic shear-deformation beam theory assuming a higher-order variation for axial displacement has been recently presented. In this theory, the axial displacement variation can be selected so that it results in a suitable admissible transverse shear-strain variation across the depth of the beam. This paper examines several transverse shear-strain variations that can go with the aforementioned higher-order theory. Apart from the usual simple parabolic variation, six other shear-strain variations are considered: the sinusoidal variation, cubic, quartic, quintic, and sixth-order polynomials. All these variations for transverse shear-strain satisfy the requirement that the shear strain be zero at the extreme fibers (z= +/- h/2) and nonzero elsewhere along the depth of the beam. Comparison of the results from this paper with results from others show that the simple parabolic distribution for transverse shear strain gives most accurate results. Also, Timoshenko's (1970) theory (with a shear factor of five-sixths) and the current formulation which uses the parabolic shear-strain distribution, give identical values for deflections.

Bhimaraddi, A.; Chandrashekhara, K.

1993-10-01

4

Perceived Impact of Peer Observation of Teaching in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores participant perceptions of the impact of a Peer Observation of Teaching scheme offered as part of an accredited Postgraduate Certificate in Teaching for academic staff and faculty members in higher education. The Postgraduate Certificate Program has been designed to support the continuing professional development of academic…

Donnelly, Roisin

2007-01-01

5

Technology challenges for Earth observation from higher orbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in Earth observing technologies are required to fulfill NASA's long-term vision for Earth system prediction in the years 2010 to 2020. The observing system during these years will include satellites in a variety of orbits including smaller, smarter ones in low Earth orbit, large aperture sensors in medium Earth orbit and geostationary orbit to provide enhanced temporal coverage and perhaps sentinel satellites at Lagrange points L1 and L2 to provide synoptic views of the entire globe. These higher vistas can meet pending science challenges in a variety of areas directly relevant to NASA"s plans. They include, among others, meeting high temporal and spatial resolutions to observe rapidly evolving chemical events in the global atmosphere, meeting the requirements of increased spatial and temporal sensing of varying precipitation events over portions of the globe, and the increased temporal coverage necessary to see clear skies over coastal regions for coastal process monitoring. A set of technology tradeoffs and needs that meet the above science challenges can be identified. They include an increase in collecting aperture for passive measurements, increased transmitted power for active measurements, and improved on-board processing coupled with enhanced bandwidth communications as data collection increases. The technologies will involve differentiating filled versus sparse aperture collection systems, developing advanced scanning capabilities and large array detectors, as well as large structure pointing control and metrology. This talk will examine these issues for a range of NASA Earth science measurements.

Cwik, Thomas; Boncyk, Wayne; Anderson, Ken

2005-01-01

6

Observation of higher stiffness in nanopolycrystal diamond than monocrystal diamond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diamond is the stiffest known material. Here we report that nanopolycrystal diamond synthesized by direct-conversion method from graphite is stiffer than natural and synthesized monocrystal diamonds. This observation departs from the usual thinking that nanocrystalline materials are softer than their monocrystals because of a large volume fraction of soft grain-boundary region. The direct conversion causes the nondiffusional phase transformation to cubic diamond, producing many twins inside diamond grains. We give an ab initio-calculation twinned model that confirms the stiffening. We find that shorter interplane bonds along [111] are significantly strengthened near the twinned region, from which the superstiff structure originates. Our discovery provides a novel step forward in the search for superstiff materials.

Tanigaki, Kenichi; Ogi, Hirotsugu; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Kusakabe, Koichi; Nakamura, Nobutomo; Hirao, Masahiko; Ledbetter, Hassel

2013-08-01

7

Student loans for higher education in Singapore: some observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The higher education system of Singapore is seen as crucial for the economic prosperity of the country. It is highly elitist, with fierce competition for limited places, and high private returns. In 1989 the Government announced a policy of reducing subsidies for higher education, in order to reduce the financial burden on the tax-payer, increase expenditure on other levels of

G. Shantakumar

1992-01-01

8

Observing bodies. Camera surveillance and the significance of the body  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the most mundane level, CCTV observes bodies, and as such attaches great importance to the specific features of the human\\u000a body. At the same time, however, bodies tend to disappear, as they are represented electronically by the camera monitors and,\\u000a in the case of image recording, by the computer systems processing data. The roles of bodies(either as targets of

Lynsey Dubbeld

2003-01-01

9

De-escalation therapy rates are significantly higher by bronchoalveolar lavage than by tracheal aspirate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To assess outcomes with de-escalation therapy in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Prospective observational study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting  Multidisciplinary intensive care unit.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and participants  VAP was diagnosed by positive quantitative cultures of both tracheal aspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and treated\\u000a appropriately for all significant isolates of tracheal aspirate and BAL in 143 patients who were assigned to de-escalation\\u000a therapy by BAL or tracheal aspirate.

Elpis Giantsou; Nikolaos Liratzopoulos; Eleni Efraimidou; Maria Panopoulou; Eleonora Alepopoulou; Sofia Kartali-Ktenidou; Konstantinos Manolas

2007-01-01

10

The Importance and Impact of Three Significant Political Decisions upon Higher Education in Tennessee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three key political decisions made in Tennessee higher education that have brought about major changes in structure and have implications for the future are discussed. The decisions are: creation of the Tennessee Higher Education Commission (THEC) in 1967, the creation of the State Board of Regents (SBR) in 1972, and the establishment of the…

Tennessee Higher Education Commission, Nashville.

11

Higher Melt Fractions are Generated in Metamorphosed Hydrothermally Altered Rocks: Significance to Ore Genesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Felsic magma-related ore deposits are Earth's largest source of Cu and Mo, and a major source of Au. Despite this, there have been few field-based studies of processes that affect metal distribution in magma source regions. Based on geochemical studies at ore deposits, it has been suggested that in magmatic arcs, magmas and metal may be derived from subducted oceanic slab, overlying metasomatized mantle wedge, or from the lower crust during anatexis. Intrusion-related Au systems form distally to arcs and are typically associated with reduced granitic magmas thought to be largely derived from partial melting of crustal rocks, casting into question the absolute need for oceanic slab or mantle involvement. Even within arcs, evolution of ore producing magmas may involve mixing between mantle- and crust-derived magmas. It is therefore crucial to understand processes that influence the metal content of these crust-derived magmas. We have compared melting of alteration zones in metamorphosed gold deposits with that of unaltered rocks of the same protolith using the computer program THERMOCALC to examine the relative contributions of metal-rich and metal-poor source regions to crust-derived magmas. Potassium enrichment, caused by pre-metamorphic hydrothermal alteration, is found to stabilize a higher proportion of muscovite and biotite at high metamorphic grades than is possible in unaltered rocks. Because these micas contain water, they control the melt fraction generated through dehydration melting. Therefore, in the vicinity of metamorphosed gold mineralization, the greatest volume of felsic melt is generated in the more metal- and sulfur-rich rocks. Sulfides and Au dissolve, and are physically incorporated into the resulting felsic melt, which thereby becomes metal- and S-enriched. Since the presence of melt significantly weakens rocks, strain preferentially partitions into these melt-rich mineralized zones promoting melt segregation there. As strain increases, high-melt domains become shear zones that expand and link up with other incipient shear zones, forming low pressure channelways for migrating melts. In this way, mineralized zones become part of a regional network of magma pathways through the crust, capable of continuously enriching migrating magmas in metal.

Tomkins, A. G.; Weinberg, R. F.; McFarlane, C. R.

2007-12-01

12

The Significance of Blackstone's Understanding of Sovereign Immunity for America's Public Institutions of Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that from the perspective of America's public institutions of higher education, Blackstone's greatest legacy is his understanding of sovereign immunity. Explores the similarities between Blackstone's understanding of sovereign immunity and the current jurisprudence of the U.S. Supreme Court. (EV)

Snow, Brian A.; Thro, William E.

2001-01-01

13

The Significance of Knowledge in Learning: A Psychologically Informed Analysis of Higher Education Students' Perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of what is increasingly becoming known as the knowledge age implies that higher education should prepare students to be, primarily, knowledge workers. This proposition triggered a small scale study in which structured interviews were carried out with 25 second-year undergraduates registered for a psychology module on motivational theory. The purpose of the interview was to discern students' views

Effie Maclellan; Rebecca Soden

2007-01-01

14

The Significance of the African Historical Contribution and Foreign Language Study in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the benefits of incorporating African-Caribbean contributions to U.S. history and culture at the level of higher education, such as promoting global interconnectedness, correcting misinformation about African Americans, recognizing and profiting from knowledge acquired by ancient civilizations, and strengthening economic…

Jackson, Shirley

1991-01-01

15

Tacrolimus dose requirement in renal transplant recipients is significantly higher when used in combination with corticosteroids  

PubMed Central

Aims To evaluate the effect of corticosteroids on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics. Methods In a randomized trial, kidney transplant recipients were treated with tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil with either daclizumab (n = 31) or 3 months of prednisone (n = 34). Tacrolimus dose-adjusted predose concentrations (C0) at month 1–6 were compared between both groups and within the corticosteroid group before and after prednisone withdrawal. Results At month 1 the tacrolimus dose-adjusted C0 in the corticosteroid group was 83 ± 8 vs 119 ± 17 ng ml?1 mg?1 kg?1 in the daclizumab group. The tacrolimus dose-adjusted C0 within the corticosteroid group at month 1 and 2 was 42% and 29% lower compared with month 4 (P < 0.001). Conclusions A higher tacrolimus dose is required to reach target concentrations when used in combination with corticosteroids.

Hesselink, Dennis A; Ngyuen, Hien; Wabbijn, Marike; Gregoor, Peter J H Smak; Steyerberg, Ewout W; van Riemsdijk, Iza C; Weimar, Willem; van Gelder, Teun

2003-01-01

16

Observations on Higher Education in Louisiana: Student Financial Aid and Governance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Observations are provided on the current state of student financial assistance and governance of higher education in Louisiana, and how these two areas affect broader issues in higher education. Briefly discussed are the history of student aid in the state; changes in tuition and fees; coordination of student aid programs and charges; allocation…

Wharton, James H.

17

Validation of wind speeds and significant wave heights observed by the TOPEX altimeter around Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wind speeds and significant wave heights observed by the TOPEX altimeter during the first 30 repeat cycles (for about 10 months) are validated by comparing with the data obtained at Japanese Ocean Data Buoy stations. The values of Kuband ?0 observed by the altimeter show good agreement with those estimated from the buoy wind speed using the modified Chelton-Wentz

Naoto Ebuchi; Hiroshi Kawamura

1994-01-01

18

Significantly higher procalcitonin levels could differentiate Gram-negative sepsis from Gram-positive and fungal sepsis.  

PubMed

Procalcitonin (PCT) levels can distinguish between infectious and non-infectious systemic inflammatory response. However, there are some differences between Gram-negative (G-), Gram-positive (G+), and fungal bloodstream infections, particularly in different cytokine profiles, severity and mortality. The aim of current study was to examine whether PCT levels can serve as a distinguishing mark between G+, G-, and fungal sepsis as well. One hundred and sixty-six septic patients with positive blood cultures were examined on C-reactive protein (CRP) and PCT on the same date of blood culture evaluation. The median (interquartile range, IQR) of CRP and PCT in G+, G-, and fungal cohorts and comparison of measured values between groups were made using the Kruskal-Wallis test with subsequent Bonferroni's corrections, with p < 0.05. In 83/166 (50 %) of blood cultures, G+ microbes, 78/166 (47 %) G- rods, and 5/166 (3 %) fungi were detected. PCT concentrations (ng/ml) were significantly higher in G- compared to other cohorts: 8.90 (1.88; 32.60) in G-, 0.73 (0.22; 3.40) in G+, and 0.58 (0.35; 0.73) in fungi (p < 0.00001). CRP concentrations did not differ significantly in groups. Significantly higher PCT levels could differentiate G- sepsis from G+ and fungemia. In contrast to CRP, PCT is a good discriminative biomarker in different bloodstream infections. PMID:22644264

Brodská, Helena; Malí?ková, Karin; Adámková, Václava; Benáková, Hana; Š?astná, Markéta Marková; Zima, Tomáš

2012-05-27

19

Observation of a Significant Excess of pi0pi0 Events in B Meson Decays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a study of the decay B0-->pi0pi0 based on a sample of 124×106 BB¯ pairs recorded by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. We observe 46±13±3 events, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic, corresponding to a significance of 4.2 standard deviations including systematic uncertainties. We measure the branching fraction

B. Aubert; R. Barate; D. Boutigny; J.-M. Gaillard; A. Hicheur; Y. Karyotakis; J. P. Lees; P. Robbe; V. Tisserand; A. Zghiche; A. Palano; A. Pompili; J. C. Chen; N. D. Qi; G. Rong; P. Wang; Y. S. Zhu; G. Eigen; I. Ofte; B. Stugu; G. S. Abrams; A. W. Borgland; A. B. Breon; D. N. Brown; J. Button-Shafer; R. N. Cahn; E. Charles; C. T. Day; M. S. Gill; A. V. Gritsan; Y. Groysman; R. G. Jacobsen; R. W. Kadel; J. Kadyk; L. T. Kerth; Yu. G. Kolomensky; J. F. Kral; G. Kukartsev; C. Leclerc; M. E. Levi; G. Lynch; L. M. Mir; P. J. Oddone; T. J. Orimoto; M. Pripstein; N. A. Roe; A. Romosan; M. T. Ronan; V. G. Shelkov; A. V. Telnov; W. A. Wenzel; K. Ford; T. J. Harrison; C. M. Hawkes; D. J. Knowles; S. E. Morgan; R. C. Penny; A. T. Watson; N. K. Watson; K. Goetzen; T. Held; H. Koch; B. Lewandowski; M. Pelizaeus; K. Peters; H. Schmuecker; M. Steinke; N. R. Barlow; J. T. Boyd; N. Chevalier; W. N. Cottingham; M. P. Kelly; T. E. Latham; C. Mackay; F. F. Wilson; K. Abe; T. Cuhadar-Donszelmann; C. Hearty; T. S. Mattison; J. A. McKenna; D. Thiessen; P. Kyberd; A. K. McKemey; V. E. Blinov; A. D. Bukin; V. B. Golubev; V. N. Ivanchenko; E. A. Kravchenko; A. P. Onuchin; S. I. Serednyakov; Yu. I. Skovpen; E. P. Solodov; A. N. Yushkov; D. Best; M. Bruinsma; M. Chao; D. Kirkby; A. J. Lankford; M. Mandelkern; R. K. Mommsen; W. Roethel; D. P. Stoker; C. Buchanan; B. L. Hartfiel; B. C. Shen; D. del Re; H. K. Hadavand; E. J. Hill; D. B. Macfarlane; H. P. Paar; Sh. Rahatlou; V. Sharma; J. W. Berryhill; C. Campagnari; B. Dahmes; N. Kuznetsova; S. L. Levy; O. Long; A. Lu; M. A. Mazur; J. D. Richman; W. Verkerke; T. W. Beck; J. Beringer; A. M. Eisner; C. A. Heusch; W. S. Lockman; T. Schalk; R. E. Schmitz; B. A. Schumm; A. Seiden; M. Turri; W. Walkowiak; D. C. Williams; M. G. Wilson; J. Albert; E. Chen; G. P. Dubois-Felsmann; A. Dvoretskii; D. G. Hitlin; I. Narsky; F. C. Porter; A. Ryd; A. Samuel; S. Yang; S. Jayatilleke; G. Mancinelli; B. T. Meadows; M. D. Sokoloff; T. Abe; F. Blanc; P. Bloom; S. Chen; P. J. Clark; W. T. Ford; U. Nauenberg; A. Olivas; P. Rankin; J. Roy; J. G. Smith; W. C. van Hoek; L. Zhang; J. L. Harton; T. Hu; A. Soffer; W. H. Toki; R. J. Wilson; J. Zhang; D. Altenburg; T. Brandt; J. Brose; T. Colberg; M. Dickopp; R. S. Dubitzky; A. Hauke; H. M. Lacker; E. Maly; R. Müller-Pfefferkorn; R. Nogowski; S. Otto; J. Schubert; K. R. Schubert; R. Schwierz; B. Spaan; L. Wilden; D. Bernard; G. R. Bonneaud; F. Brochard; J. Cohen-Tanugi; P. Grenier; Ch. Thiebaux; G. Vasileiadis; M. Verderi; A. Khan; D. Lavin; F. Muheim; S. Playfer; J. E. Swain; M. Andreotti; V. Azzolini; D. Bettoni; C. Bozzi; R. Calabrese; G. Cibinetto; E. Luppi; M. Negrini; L. Piemontese; A. Sarti; E. Treadwell; F. Anulli; R. Baldini-Ferroli; M. Biasini; A. Calcaterra; R. de Sangro; D. Falciai; G. Finocchiaro; P. Patteri; I. M. Peruzzi; M. Piccolo; M. Pioppi; A. Zallo; A. Buzzo; R. Capra; R. Contri; G. Crosetti; M. Lo Vetere; M. Macri; M. R. Monge; S. Passaggio; C. Patrignani; E. Robutti; A. Santroni; S. Tosi; S. Bailey; M. Morii; E. Won; W. Bhimji; D. A. Bowerman; P. D. Dauncey; U. Egede; I. Eschrich; J. R. Gaillard; G. W. Morton; J. A. Nash; P. Sanders; G. P. Taylor; G. J. Grenier; S.-J. Lee; U. Mallik; J. Cochran; H. B. Crawley; J. Lamsa; W. T. Meyer; S. Prell; E. I. Rosenberg; J. Yi; M. Davier; G. Grosdidier; A. Höcker; S. Laplace; V. Lepeltier; A. M. Lutz; T. C. Petersen; S. Plaszczynski; M. H. Schune; L. Tantot; G. Wormser; V. Brigljevic; C. H. Cheng; D. J. Lange; D. M. Wright; A. J. Bevan; J. P. Coleman; J. R. Fry; E. Gabathuler; R. Gamet; M. Kay; R. J. Parry; D. J. Payne; R. J. Sloane; C. Touramanis; J. J. Back; P. F. Harrison; H. W. Shorthouse; P. Strother; P. B. Vidal; C. L. Brown; G. Cowan; R. L. Flack; H. U. Flaecher; S. George; M. G. Green; A. Kurup; C. E. Marker; T. R. McMahon; S. Ricciardi; F. Salvatore; G. Vaitsas; M. A. Winter; C. L. Davis; J. Allison; R. J. Barlow; A. C. Forti; P. A. Hart; M. C. Hodgkinson; F. Jackson; G. D. Lafferty; A. J. Lyon; J. H. Weatherall; J. C. Williams; A. Farbin; A. Jawahery; D. Kovalskyi; C. K. Lae; V. Lillard; D. A. Roberts; G. Blaylock; C. Dallapiccola; K. T. Flood; S. S. Hertzbach; R. Kofler; V. B. Koptchev; T. B. Moore; S. Saremi; H. Staengle; S. Willocq; R. Cowan; G. Sciolla; F. Taylor; R. K. Yamamoto; D. J. Mangeol; P. M. Patel; A. Lazzaro; F. Palombo; J. M. Bauer; L. Cremaldi; V. Eschenburg; R. Godang; R. Kroeger; J. Reidy; D. A. Sanders; D. J. Summers; H. W. Zhao; S. Brunet; D. Cote-Ahern; C. Hast; P. Taras; H. Nicholson; C. Cartaro; N. Cavallo; F. Fabozzi; C. Gatto; L. Lista; P. Paolucci; D. Piccolo; C. Sciacca; M. A. Baak; G. Raven; J. M. Losecco; T. A. Gabriel; B. Brau; K. K. Gan; K. Honscheid; D. Hufnagel; H. Kagan; R. Kass; T. Pulliam; Q. K. Wong; J. Brau; R. Frey; C. T. Potter; N. B. Sinev; D. Strom; E. Torrence; F. Colecchia; A. Dorigo; F. Galeazzi

2003-01-01

20

Tribes and Territories in the 21st Century: Rethinking the Significance of Disciplines in Higher Education. International Studies in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The "tribes and territories" metaphor for the cultures of academic disciplines and their roots in different knowledge characteristics has been used by those interested in university life and work since the early 1990s. This book draws together research, data and theory to show how higher education has gone through major change since then and how…

Trowler, Paul, Ed.; Saunders, Murray, Ed.; Bamber, Veronica, Ed.

2012-01-01

21

Mass shifts and local space charge effects observed in the quadrupole ion trap at higher resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass measurements made using the quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer under high resolution conditions display non-random errors which are attributed to local and general space charge conditions. Each ion in the trap experiences a degree of charge interaction which depends on (i) the total number of charges in the trap, (ii) the number of ions of the same m/z value, and (iii) the abundances and mass differences of neighboring ions. The net field formed by the sum of these ion/ion interactions produces delayed ion ejection. Mass assignments are observed to shift on simply increasing the ionization time, so increasing the total number of trapped ions. The effect of the presence of other ions on mass shifts is amplified as the mass difference between the two populations of ions decreases. As ions of a particular m/z value are isolated by gradual elimination of neighboring ions of lower and, more particularly, higher mass, the observed mass of the ion of interest shifts to lower mass due to the reduction of space charge. The different environments experienced by calibrant and analyte ions constitute a source of error in mass calibration methods which employ external mass standards. Current calibration procedures which involve the construction of a calibration line based on the observed masses of CsI cluster ions are in error because these ions have much higher abundances than the analyte ions. However, extrapolation of experimental data to the point of zero space (i.e. zero ion abundance) eliminates the differences in the charge environments experienced by each ion. Clear trends are observed, even for high resolution experiments on peptide mixtures, between the number and masses of ions in the trap and the observed ejection times of ions of different masses.

Cox, K. A.; Cleven, C. D.; Cooks, R. G.

1995-05-01

22

Observation of a significant excess of pi0pi0 events in B meson decays.  

PubMed

We present a study of the decay B0-->pi(0)pi(0) based on a sample of 124 x 10(6) BB pairs recorded by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. We observe 46+/-13+/-3 events, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic, corresponding to a significance of 4.2 standard deviations including systematic uncertainties. We measure the branching fraction B(B0-->pi(0)pi(0))=(2.1+/-0.6+/-0.3)x10(-6), averaged over B0 and B(0) decays. PMID:14683107

Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kral, J F; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Morgan, S E; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Barlow, N R; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Mackay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Shen, B C; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Kuznetsova, N; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; Van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Grenier, P; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Biasini, M; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Pioppi, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Won, E; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S-J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Brigljevi?, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Forti, A C; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Weatherall, J H; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Cote-Ahern, D; Hast, C; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P

2003-12-11

23

Observation of a Significant Excess of ?0?0 Events in B Meson Decays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of the decay B0??0?0 based on a sample of 124×106 BB¯ pairs recorded by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. We observe 46±13±3 events, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic, corresponding to a significance of 4.2 standard deviations including systematic uncertainties. We measure the branching fraction B(B0??0?0)=(2.1±0.6±0.3)×10-6, averaged over B0 and B¯0 decays.

Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Hicheur, A.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Robbe, P.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Palano, A.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Abrams, G. S.; Borgland, A. W.; Breon, A. B.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Cahn, R. N.; Charles, E.; Day, C. T.; Gill, M. S.; Gritsan, A. V.; Groysman, Y.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kadel, R. W.; Kadyk, J.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kral, J. F.; Kukartsev, G.; Leclerc, C.; Levi, M. E.; Lynch, G.; Mir, L. M.; Oddone, P. J.; Orimoto, T. J.; Pripstein, M.; Roe, N. A.; Romosan, A.; Ronan, M. T.; Shelkov, V. G.; Telnov, A. V.; Wenzel, W. A.; Ford, K.; Harrison, T. J.; Hawkes, C. M.; Knowles, D. J.; Morgan, S. E.; Penny, R. C.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Goetzen, K.; Held, T.; Koch, H.; Lewandowski, B.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Schmuecker, H.; Steinke, M.; Barlow, N. R.; Boyd, J. T.; Chevalier, N.; Cottingham, W. N.; Kelly, M. P.; Latham, T. E.; Mackay, C.; Wilson, F. F.; Abe, K.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Thiessen, D.; Kyberd, P.; McKemey, A. K.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Golubev, V. B.; Ivanchenko, V. N.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Yushkov, A. N.; Best, D.; Bruinsma, M.; Chao, M.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Mommsen, R. K.; Roethel, W.; Stoker, D. P.; Buchanan, C.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Shen, B. C.; del Re, D.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hill, E. J.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Paar, H. P.; Rahatlou, Sh.; Sharma, V.; Berryhill, J. W.; Campagnari, C.; Dahmes, B.; Kuznetsova, N.; Levy, S. L.; Long, O.; Lu, A.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Verkerke, W.; Beck, T. W.; Beringer, J.; Eisner, A. M.; Heusch, C. A.; Lockman, W. S.; Schalk, T.; Schmitz, R. E.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Turri, M.; Walkowiak, W.; Williams, D. C.; Wilson, M. G.; Albert, J.; Chen, E.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dvoretskii, A.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Porter, F. C.; Ryd, A.; Samuel, A.; Yang, S.; Jayatilleke, S.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Abe, T.; Blanc, F.; Bloom, P.; Chen, S.; Clark, P. J.; Ford, W. T.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Rankin, P.; Roy, J.; Smith, J. G.; van Hoek, W. C.; Zhang, L.; Harton, J. L.; Hu, T.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Zhang, J.; Altenburg, D.; Brandt, T.; Brose, J.; Colberg, T.; Dickopp, M.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Hauke, A.; Lacker, H. M.; Maly, E.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Nogowski, R.; Otto, S.; Schubert, J.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Spaan, B.; Wilden, L.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Brochard, F.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Grenier, P.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Vasileiadis, G.; Verderi, M.; Khan, A.; Lavin, D.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Swain, J. E.; Andreotti, M.; Azzolini, V.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Piemontese, L.; Sarti, A.; Treadwell, E.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Biasini, M.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Falciai, D.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Pioppi, M.; Zallo, A.; Buzzo, A.; Capra, R.; Contri, R.; Crosetti, G.; Vetere, M. Lo; Macri, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Bailey, S.; Morii, M.; Won, E.; Bhimji, W.; Bowerman, D. A.; Dauncey, P. D.; Egede, U.; Eschrich, I.; Gaillard, J. R.; Morton, G. W.; Nash, J. A.; Sanders, P.; Taylor, G. P.; Grenier, G. J.; Lee, S.-J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Lamsa, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Yi, J.; Davier, M.; Grosdidier, G.; Höcker, A.; Laplace, S.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Petersen, T. C.; Plaszczynski, S.; Schune, M. H.; Tantot, L.; Wormser, G.; Brigljevi?, V.; Cheng, C. H.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bevan, A. J.; Coleman, J. P.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Kay, M.; Parry, R. J.; Payne, D. J.; Sloane, R. J.; Touramanis, C.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Shorthouse, H. W.; Strother, P.; Vidal, P. B.; Brown, C. L.; Cowan, G.; Flack, R. L.; Flaecher, H. U.; George, S.; Green, M. G.; Kurup, A.; Marker, C. E.; McMahon, T. R.; Ricciardi, S.; Salvatore, F.; Vaitsas, G.; Winter, M. A.; Brown, D.; Davis, C. L.; Allison, J.; Barlow, R. J.; Forti, A. C.; Hart, P. A.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Jackson, F.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lyon, A. J.; Weatherall, J. H.; Williams, J. C.; Farbin, A.; Jawahery, A.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lae, C. K.; Lillard, V.; Roberts, D. A.; Blaylock, G.; Dallapiccola, C.; Flood, K. T.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Kofler, R.; Koptchev, V. B.; Moore, T. B.; Saremi, S.; Staengle, H.; Willocq, S.; Cowan, R.; Sciolla, G.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Mangeol, D. J.; Patel, P. M.; Lazzaro, A.; Palombo, F.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Eschenburg, V.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Reidy, J.

2003-12-01

24

Observational study of higher dimensional magnetic universe in non-linear electrodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we have considered the flat FRW model of the universe in ( n+2)-dimensions filled with the dark matter and the magnetic field. We present the Hubble parameter in terms of the observable parameters ? m0 and H 0 with the redshift z and the other parameters like B 0, ?, ? 0, ?, n, w m . The natures of magnetic field B, deceleration parameter q and operatorname{Om} diagnostic have also been analyzed for accelerating expansion of the universe. From Stern data set (12 points), we have obtained the bounds of the arbitrary parameters by minimizing the ? 2 test. The best-fit values of the parameters are obtained by 66 %, 90 % and 99 % confidence levels. Now to find the bounds of the parameters ( B 0, ?) and to draw the statistical confidence contour, we fixed four parameters ? 0, ?, n, w m . Here the parameter n determines the higher dimensions and we perform comparative study between three cases: 4D ( n=2), 5D ( n=3) and 6D ( n=4) respectively. Next due to joint analysis with BAO observation, we have also obtained the bounds of the parameters ( B 0, ?) by fixing other parameters ? 0, ?, n, w m for 4D, 5D and 6D. The best fit of distance modulus for our theoretical model and the Supernova Type Ia Union2 sample are drawn for different dimensions.

Ranjit, Chayan; Chakraborty, Shuvendu; Debnath, Ujjal

2013-07-01

25

Accreditation and Its Significance for Programs of Higher Education in Criminology and Criminal Justice: A Review of the Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of minimum standards in higher education through the evolution of accreditation in specialized disciplines, and standard setting in criminology and criminal justice education are examined. The very different experiences with the concept of accreditation encountered in the fields of public administration and law are considered. Law…

Simpson, Antony E.

26

The significance of some observations on African ocular onchocerciasis described by Jean Hissette (1888-1965).  

PubMed

One of the most significant contributions to tropical medicine and ophthalmology was made by Jean Hissette: African ocular onchocerciasis. During his extensive investigations in the Babindi country, he found numerous adults with river blindness. Their eye disease was caused by the filaria Onchocerca volvulus Leuckart. He noticed the signs of interstitial keratitis and band keratopathy, faint iritis or iridocyclitis, posterior synechiae and often a downward distortion of the pupil. He was the first to describe chorioretinal scarring of the fundus, what became known as the Hissette-Ridley fundus. People reported to him their entoptic phenomena which he unequivocally interpreted to be the images of microfilariae in the patient's own eye. During his stay in Belgium in 1932, he elucidated the pathogenesis of blindness since he was able to provide histological proof of the presence of microfilariae in various ocular tissues of an enucleated eye from a patient living near the Sankuru river. Like other serious health impairments, the severe inflammatory lesions in the eye occurred only after the microfilariae had died. Hence he realized that dying microfilariae play a key role in the mechanisms leading to blindness. Hissette's precise descriptions were the logical fruit of his outstanding observational abilities and enabled him as a man of great intuition to speculate about causal relationships. He evidently benefited from the fact that he took the native Africans seriously and asked them their opinion. In 1933, his friend and teacher Dr. De Mets in Antwerp already wrote on Hissette's discovery in the Belgian Congo: "This study is of exceptional value to specialists which is not only a tribute to its author, but to our common native country (Belgium)." PMID:18546927

Kluxen, G; Hoerauf, A

2008-01-01

27

A case of resistant schizophrenia responding at a higher than recommended dose of risperidone without significant side effects  

PubMed Central

A patient, diagnosed with schizophrenia, non-responsive to two atypical antipsychotics and partially responsive to the third (risperidone) in therapeutic dose, ultimately showed complete response without any unacceptable side-effect in a dose (20mg) that was untried previously. This case makes an important observation that high dose of risperidone can be tried in a patient with good results if his clinical condition permits.

Ray, Anirban; Mukherjee, Bhaskar

2013-01-01

28

Profound LH suppression after GnRH antagonist administration is associated with a significantly higher ongoing pregnancy rate in IVF  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The significance of suppressed LH levels in GnRH antagonist cycles for IVF outcome is cur- rently unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate prospectively the association between LH levels and ongoing pregnancy achievement after GnRH antagonist initiation in IVF cycles. METHODS: Ovarian stimulation with a fixed dose of 200IU recombinant FSH and daily GnRH antagonist (ganirelix) 0.25mg

E. M. Kolibianakis; K. Zikopoulos; J. Schiettecatte; J. Smitz; H. Tournaye; M. Camus; A. C. Van Steirteghem; P. Devroey

2004-01-01

29

Observing seasonal variations of sea surface wind speed and significant wave height using TOPEX altimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

One year of ocean topography experiment (TOPEX) altimeter data are used to study the seasonal variations of global sea surface\\u000a wind speed and significant wave height. The major wind and wave zones of the world oceans are precisely identified, their\\u000a seasonal variability and characteristics are quantitatively analyzed, and the diversity of global wind speed seasonality and\\u000a the variability of significant

Ge Chen; Hui Lin

2000-01-01

30

Significant results from using earth observation satellites for mineral and energy resource exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of Earth-observation satellites orbit our world several times each day, providing new information about the land and sea surfaces and the overlying thin layer of atmosphere that makes our planet unique. Meteorological satellites have had the longest history of experimental use and most are now considered operational. The geologic information collected by the Landsat, Polar Orbiting Geophysical

W. D. Carter

1981-01-01

31

Significant food interactions observed with a nifedipine modified-release formulation marketed in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to compare the rate and extent of nifedipine bioavailability after single dose administration of Adalat OROS 30 (Reference) and Nifedipine Sandoz retard 30 tablets (Test). Both modified release formulations are marketed in Member States of the European Union. Prior to the clinical study the in vitro dissolution characteristics were investigated. There was a significant

M. Wonnemann; B. Schug; K. Schmucker; E. Brendel; Zwieten van P. A; H. Blumel

2006-01-01

32

Observable Properties of Higher Order Functions that Dynamically Create Local Names, or What's new?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research reported in this paper is concerned with the prob- lem of reasoning about properties of higher order functions involving state. It is motivated by the desire to identify what, if any, are the diculties created purely by locality of state, independent of other properties such as side-eects, exceptional termination and non-termination due to recursion. We consider a simple

Andrew M. Pitts; Ian D. B. Stark

1993-01-01

33

Ecological observations on the molluscs of significance in the transmission of bilharziasis in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Further knowledge of the bionomics of bilharziasis vectors is necessary before more effective measures can be taken to control them. Such knowledge, acquired from long-term observations in a variety of habitats, should help to fill some of the gaps in knowledge of molluscan ecology. The present studies were conducted over a period of three to five years and included observations on the proved and suspected vectors of bilharziasis in Kenya. Records were kept of seasonal and regional distribution of the snails, population dynamics and infection rates. Seasonal distribution normally conformed to a definite pattern but was often so influenced by unseasonable weather and interference by man as to render it unrecognizable. Temperature, water fluctuations, types and amount of vegetation, dissolved oxygen and other physical and chemical characteristics of the water were recorded and an attempt was made to assess the importance of the changes in such environmental factors on the prevalence of the snails studied. No correlation could be found between vegetational changes in the habitat and the number of snails present, but complete coverage of the water surface with horizontal vegetation tended to an absence of snails. Except for torrential floods, water fluctuations seemed to have no effect on snail numbers and the chemical and physical properties of the water of negative habitats appeared to be within the range of tolerance of the species observed. It was not found possible to assess the effects of small temperature changes on reproduction in snails; it is suggested that further trials are justified. There was no obvious effect on numbers when snails were found with predators in the same habitat. Many otherwise adequate habitats were unintentionally rendered unsuitable for vector snails by direct interference by man.

Teesdale, C.

1962-01-01

34

Significant results from using earth observation satellites for mineral and energy resource exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of Earth-observation satellites orbit our world several times each day, providing new information about the land and sea surfaces and the overlying thin layer of atmosphere that makes our planet unique. Meteorological satellites have had the longest history of experimental use and most are now considered operational. The geologic information collected by the Landsat, Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (POGO), Magsat, Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) and Seasat land and ocean observation systems is being thoroughly tested, and some of these systems are now approaching operational use. Landsat multispectral images provide views of large areas of the Earth under uniform lighting conditions and can be obtained at a variety of scales and formats. Not only do the Landsat data provide highly useful images showing surficial materials and structures such as folds and faults, but also measurements and computer-derived ratios of the brightness of different rock types, alteration zones, and mineral associations. These data have led to the finding of a variety of new ore deposits. In addition, the combination of Landsat digital data and aeromagnetic data has extended the use of Landsat as an exploration tool which can be used to readily relate surface features to subsurface anomalies. Magsat data, now being collected, are helping refine information on major crustal anomalies that were first recognized during the analysis of POGO data. The more nearly circular orbit, lower altitude, and increased sophistication of its vector magnetometer enable Magsat to provide more precise information than POGO. Information of this type is required to develop crustal models. Although Magsat is designed to operate for only 4-8 months, the number of orbits that it should be able to make will be sufficient to accomplish its mission and to record a major magnetic storm expected in 1980. HCMM is a two-band visible to near-IR (0.55-1.1 ?m) and thermal infrared (10.2-12.5 ?m) system designed to measure reflected solar energy, determine the heat capacity of rocks and to monitor soil moisture, thermal effluents, plant canopy temperatures and snow cover. Launched in April 1978, it is in sun-synchronous, circular orbit at an altitude of 620 km. It is a relatively low-resolution system with an instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of 500-600 m and a swath width of 716 km. However, the system is designed to detect objects in the range of 260°-340° K with a sensitivity (NE?T) of 0.4°K at 280°. Recording the thermal radiation of urban heat islands and high thermal inertia of quartzite strata in the Appalachian region are two examples of its land applications. Launched in June 1978, Seasat operated for only 100 days, but successfully acquired much information over both sea and land. The collection of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery and radar altimetry was particularly important to geologists. Although there are difficulties in processing and distributing these data in a timely manner, initial evaluations indicate that the radar imagery supplements Landsat data by increasing the spectral range and offering a different look angle. The radar altimeter provides accurate profiles over narrow strips of land (1 km wide) and has demonstrated usefulness in measuring icecap surfaces (Greenland, Iceland, and Antarctica). The Salar of Uyuni in southern Bolivia served as a calibration site for the altimeter and has enabled investigators to develop a land-based smoothing algorithm that is believed to increase the accuracy of the system to 10 cm. Data from the altimeter are currently being used to measure subsidence resulting from ground water withdrawal in the Phoenix-Tucson area.

Carter, W. D.

35

Significantly higher estimated 10-year probability of fracture in lupus patients with bone mineral density comparable to that of healthy individuals.  

PubMed

This study aimed at comparing the FRAX 10-year fracture risk between SLE patients and demographically- and anthropometrically matched healthy individuals. Consecutive SLE patients aged ? 40 were analyzed for the FRAX 10-year probability of major osteoporotic and hip fractures and their risk was compared with healthy controls matched for age, gender and body mass index. Potential determinants associated with higher 10-year fracture probability in the SLE patients were studied by regression models. Ninety subjects (45 SLE patients and 45 healthy controls) were studied. While the bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and dominant hip was comparable between the two groups, the FRAX 10-year probability of major and hip fractures was significantly higher in SLE patients. Significantly more SLE patients had high 10-year fracture risk as defined by the National Osteoporosis Foundation compared with healthy controls (16 vs. 2 %, p = 0.026). After controlling for glucocorticoid use and premature menopause which were significant univariate risk factors, the difference in the 10-year fracture risk became insignificant. Amongst SLE patients, increasing age, lower hip BMD and cumulative glucocorticoid dose independently predicted higher 10-year major fracture risk while higher anti-dsDNA level independently predicted higher hip fracture risk in addition to age and lower hip BMD. Chronic glucocorticoid use and premature menopause led to higher 10-year probability of major osteoporotic and hip fractures in SLE patients compared with their healthy counterparts although their BMD was comparable. Advanced age, lower hip BMD, cumulative glucocorticoid and higher anti-dsDNA level independently predicted higher 10-year fracture risk amongst SLE patients. PMID:22441963

Mak, Anselm; Lim, Jia Qing; Liu, Yang; Cheak, Alicia Ai-cia; Ho, Roger Chun-man

2012-03-24

36

Kimberlite-Clan-Rocks in India: Significance of new VGP, T, and GP Observations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although India is acknowledged for the first description of diamond some 2000 BCE, it should also rightfully be credited for the 17th C recognition that diamond is a product of volcanism. With this extraordinary background, it is surprising that the host rocks remain controversial, being neither archetypical kimberlites, nor classic lamproites. Lacking affinities to micro-diamond-bearing UHPT metamorphic rocks and being unequivocally volcanic, the term Kimberlite-Clan-Rock (KCR) is applied. Over 200 KCR pipes and dikes, many of which are richly mineralized, have recently been discovered in the Diamond Corridor (1000 x 200 km) of the Eastern Dharwar Craton, and in adjoining cratons to the N and NE. From 32 absolute age determinations on KCRs, the remaining intrusions, in comparable stratigraphic settings, are assumed to be 1.1 Ga, equivalent to the Argyle lamproite (Australia, highest diamond grade), and the Premier kimberlite (RSA, largest known diamond). India has the largest number of known Proterozoic KCR intrusions that over the centuries have produced a wealth of famous diamonds. The primary source of these extraordinary stones, however, remains unknown, possibly because the unusual host rocks defy conventional exploration protocols. Six new observations make the setting even more unusual: (1) Coeval, large scale magmatism in the Kalahari (>2 m sq km) and Laurentian (>300 k cub km) Cratons at 1085-1112 Ma, during assembly of Rodinia, confirms the relation between and among KCR volcanism, LIPs, and supercontinents; Proterozoic Rodinia, into which the India KCRs, Argyle and Premier were intruded, was constructive, whereas the other, globally-wide, diamond-intrusive event, that occurred during the Mesozoic (80-120 Ma), was related to the breakup of Pangea and the dispersion of Gondwana; both events occurred during long period geomagnetic chrons implying a core relation, and superplume activity from the CMB. (2)The transcontinental Mumbai-Chennai gravity lineament that separates diamond (North) from barren (South) KCRs is interpreted as a sub-lithospheric, architectural discontinuity, with a shallow keel to the N and deeper penertration to the S. (3)An intrusive carbonatite stock into one KCR, and intensely carbonatized xenoliths in another, has rekindled the unsettled VGP debate of kimberlite-carbonatite relations; the new discoveries strongly support a kinship. (4) An eclogite xenolith from Kaliandurg has euhedral inclusions of re-equilibrated majorite in garnet; the assemblage has important implications for depths of origin (in or close to the TZ), and the controversial issue of Archean ocean crust recycling, recognizing that there are other ways to generate mantle eclogites. (5) Heterogeneities in the source regions of KCRs, and in the degrees of mantle melting, metasomatism and mixing, are well displayed in the Chigicherla KCR cluster; CC5 has unprecedented 2-10cm diameter autoliths (ol + cc + sp + perv), that are partially to totally assimilated in closely associated bodies, or are absent in others; (6)Groundmass olivine in KCRs from Naryanpet (non-diamond) and Wajrakur (diamond-bearing) have densely packed, crystal-oriented laths of rutile in association with blebs of metal + sulfide; these intergrowths bear on the unresolved solubility of Ti in olivine and its appeal to super high P-T conditions in diamond and coesite-bearing metamorphic terrains; the KCR settings, however, imply crystallization of olivine at low P, coupled with or followed by Ti metasomatism. With increased activities in diamond exploration many more VGP, T and GP mantle revelations are expected from this geologically classic and historically important part of the sub-continent.

Haggerty, S. E.

2005-05-01

37

Observation of Nanoscale Ferroelectric Domains Using Super-Higher-Order Nonlinear Dielectric Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy is a powerful technique for measuring the domain structure of ferroelectrics. We observed congruent LiTaO3 and found the marked enhancement of nonlinear dielectric ``constants'' when the applied tip--sample voltage exceeded a particular threshold value. This is due to domain nucleation activated by a huge electric field under the tip. Moreover, low frequencies (less than a few hundred Hz) did not enhance the nonlinearity. An effectively lower electric field caused by ion conduction in the sample under the tip is a possible reason for the frequency-dependent characteristics of the enhanced nonlinearity for the applied voltage.

Chinone, Norimichi; Yamasue, Kohei; Hiranaga, Yoshiomi; Cho, Yasuo

2012-09-01

38

Severe Septic Patients with Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup JT Show Higher Survival Rates: A Prospective, Multicenter, Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Objective In a previous cohort study (n=96), we found an association between mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplogroup JT and increased survival of severe septic patients, after controlling for age and serum lactic acid levels. The aim of this research was to increase the predictive accuracy and to control for more confounder variables in a larger cohort (n=196) of severe septic patients, to confirm whether mtDNA haplogroup JT influences short and medium-term survival in these patients. Methods We conducted a prospective, multicenter, observational study in six Spanish Intensive Care Units. We determined 30-day and 6-month survival and mtDNA haplogroup in this second cohort of 196 patients and in the global cohort (first and second cohorts combined) with 292 severe septic patients. Multiple logistic regression and Cox regression analyses were used to test for the association of mtDNA haplogroups JT with survival at 30-days and 6-months, controlling for age, sex, serum interleukin-6 levels and SOFA score. Results Logistic and Cox regression analyses showed no differences in 30-day and 6-month survival between patients with mtDNA haplogroup JT and other haplogroups in the first cohort (n=96). In the second cohort (n=196), these analyses showed a trend to higher 30-day and 6-month survival in those with haplogroup JT. In the global cohort (n=292), logistic and Cox regression analyses showed higher 30-day and 6-month survival for haplogroup JT. There were no significant differences between J and T sub-haplogroups in 30-day and 6-month survival. Conclusions The global cohort study (first and second cohorts combined), the largest to date reporting on mtDNA haplogroups in septic patients, confirmed that haplogroup JT patients showed increased 30-day and 6-month survival. This finding may be due to single nucleotide polymorphism defining the whole haplogroup JT and not separately for J or T sub-haplogroups.

Martin, Maria M.; Lopez-Gallardo, Esther; Sole-Violan, Jordi; Blanquer, Jose; Labarta, Lorenzo; Diaz, Cesar; Borreguero-Leon, Juan Maria; Jimenez, Alejandro; Montoya, Julio; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo

2013-01-01

39

Low birth weight or diagnosis, which is a higher risk?--A meta-analysis of observational studies.  

PubMed

Published experience with surgical treatment of newborns with low birth weight and congenital heart disease is circumscribed to isolated single case reports and a limited number of case-series. To better assess the risks of early surgical treatment and its relationship to weight and diagnosis we performed a meta-analysis of observational studies, limited to those from which data on individual patients could be extrapolated. A search on the subject in peer-reviewed journals published between 1993 and 2004 limited the number of studies, according to our restrictive criteria, to six articles. Our own series of 37 patients was added to the body of data collected in the meta-analyses. Data on 356 individually identified patients was extracted from the articles. Median weight was 2.05 kg (range 1.1-2.5) and median gestational age was 34.2 weeks (range 26-42). Overall surgical survival was 83.9% but survival was higher when a full repair was done (86.1%). According to our analysis, diagnosis was the most significant predictor of mortality (p = 0.001). Other important predictors were the presence of a surgical complication (p = 0.01), palliative surgery (p = 0.03) and the need for reoperation during the same admission (p = 0.03). We concluded that similarly to larger newborns, diagnosis in this group of patients is the most important predictor of mortality. Independently of patient's weight a full anatomic and physiologic repair is justified in most cases. PMID:17010634

Abrishamchian, Reza; Kanhai, Danny; Zwets, Egon; Nie, Lei; Cardarelli, Marcelo

2006-09-27

40

Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS): Improved experimental design and observation of new higher-order processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the optical and electronic arrangement which has permitted the straightforward measurement of coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectra (CARS) and of higher-order processes not previously reported is described in this paper. The CARS spectrum of a dilute solution of diphenyloctatetraene in benzene is presented. This spectrum demonstrates the significantly greater signal-to-noise ratio possible with CARS as compared to conventional

Ilan Chabay; Gary K. Klauminzer; Bruce S. Hudson

1976-01-01

41

Incidence of invasive fungal disease after unmanipulated haploidentical stem cell transplantation was significantly higher than that after HLA-matched sibling transplantation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, clinical features and outcome of invasive fungal disease (IFD) after either unmanipulated haploidentical haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling HSCT. This was a head-to-head comparative study performed at a single centre. Patients were admitted between 2007 and 2010, and IFD was evaluated according to the revised EORTC/MSG criteria, with only proven and probable cases included. Of the 1042 consecutive patients enrolled, 390 received the HLA-matched HSCT and 652 received unmanipulated haploidentical HSCT. A total of 61 (5.8%) patients had IFD, including 15 proven cases and 46 probable cases. The incidence of IFD after unmanipulated haploidentical HSCT was significantly higher than that after HLA-matched transplantation (7.1% vs. 3.3%, respectively; p 0.007). IFD occurred later in patients receiving HLA-matched transplantation compared with patients receiving unmanipulated haploidentical HSCT (141.5 vs. 23 days, respectively; p 0.04). In multivariate analysis, acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grades III to IV (HR = 2.214, 95% CI, 1.139-4.304; p 0.019), extensive chronic GVHD (HR = 2.413, 95% CI, 1.377-4.228; p 0.002) and haploidentical transplantation (HR = 2.648, 95% CI, 1.111-6.310; p 0.028) were identified as significant risk factors associated with IFD. The response to antifungal therapy and the IFD-attributable mortality were similar between the two types of transplantation. In conclusion, patients who received unmanipulated haploidentical HSCT had a higher risk of IFD than those patients who received HLA-matched HSCT, but the prognosis of IFD was not associated with the HLA type. PMID:23565830

Sun, Y; Xu, L; Liu, D; Zhang, X; Han, W; Wang, Y; Chen, H; Chen, Y; Wang, F; Wang, J; Ji, Y; Tang, F; Liu, K; Huang, X-J

2013-04-08

42

Ambient noise cross-correlation observations of fundamental and higher-mode Rayleigh wave propagation governed by basement resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

of basement seismic resonance frequencies can elucidate shallow velocity structure, an important factor in earthquake hazard estimation. Ambient noise cross correlation, which is well-suited to studying shallow earth structure, is commonly used to analyze fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves and, increasingly, Love waves. Here we show via multicomponent ambient noise cross correlation that the basement resonance frequency in the Canterbury region of New Zealand can be straightforwardly determined based on the horizontal to vertical amplitude ratio (H/V ratio) of the first higher-mode Rayleigh waves. At periods of 1-3 s, the first higher-mode is evident on the radial-radial cross-correlation functions but almost absent in the vertical-vertical cross-correlation functions, implying longitudinal motion and a high H/V ratio. A one-dimensional regional velocity model incorporating a ~ 1.5 km-thick sedimentary layer fits both the observed H/V ratio and Rayleigh wave group velocity. Similar analysis may enable resonance characteristics of other sedimentary basins to be determined.

Savage, Martha K.; Lin, Fan-Chi; Townend, John

2013-07-01

43

The NASA Earth Observing System Higher-Education Alliance Curriculum Development Project at Middle Tennessee State University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last three years, geodata-rich undergraduate curricula were developed at Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) with major support from the NASA Earth Observing System Higher-Education Alliance ("GeoBrain") and additional support from Tennessee Space Grant and the NSF StepMT program. These curricula fall into three broad categories: (1) GIS-based curricula, (2) the free on-line textbook "Physical Regions and Features of the United States," and (3) presentation graphics (primarily satellite images) for faculty involved in teaching and research outside the United States. All three incorporate Earth Observing System data as well as data from other public sources. Most data was obtained through the GeoBrain data download website, the USGS Seamless Data Distribution System, or the National Atlas of the United States website. The three categories of curricula exemplify the diverse educational applications of satellite images and other map data. The GIS-based curricula (1) are built around ESRI GIS software and include an asteroid impact activity and a volcano activity. The free on-line textbook (2) provides a broad overview of the physical features of the United States and is intended as a supplement for undergraduate geoscience courses. Presentation graphics (3) have been created for faculty investigating Scottish archeology and historical/cultural issues in Portugal and Morocco. The three categories represent three distinctly different ways to use remotely-sensed data to improve undergraduate instruction.

Abolins, M. J.; Wylie, M.

2008-12-01

44

Detecting multiple periodicities in observational data with the multifrequency periodogram - I. Analytic assessment of the statistical significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the `multifrequency' periodogram, in which the putative signal is modelled as a sum of two or more sinusoidal harmonics with independent frequencies. It is useful in cases when the data may contain several periodic components, especially when their interaction with each other and with the data sampling patterns might produce misleading results. Although the multifrequency statistic itself was constructed earlier, for example by G. Foster in his CLEANest algorithm, its probabilistic properties (the detection significance levels) are still poorly known and much of what is deemed known is not rigorous. These detection levels are nonetheless important for data analysis. We argue that to prove the simultaneous existence of all n components revealed in a multiperiodic variation, it is mandatory to apply at least 2n - 1 significance tests, among which most involve various multifrequency statistics, and only n tests are single-frequency ones. The main result of this paper is an analytic estimation of the statistical significance of the frequency tuples that the multifrequency periodogram can reveal. Using the theory of extreme values of random fields (the generalized Rice method), we find a useful approximation to the relevant false alarm probability. For the double-frequency periodogram, this approximation is given by the elementary formula (?/16)W2e- zz2, where W denotes the normalized width of the settled frequency range, and z is the observed periodogram maximum. We carried out intensive Monte Carlo simulations to show that the practical quality of this approximation is satisfactory. A similar analytic expression for the general multifrequency periodogram is also given, although with less numerical verification.

Baluev, Roman V.

2013-11-01

45

Detecting multiple periodicities in observational data with the multifrequency periodogram - I. Analytic assessment of the statistical significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the `multifrequency' periodogram, in which the putative signal is modelled as a sum of two or more sinusoidal harmonics with independent frequencies. It is useful in cases when the data may contain several periodic components, especially when their interaction with each other and with the data sampling patterns might produce misleading results. Although the multifrequency statistic itself was constructed earlier, for example by G. Foster in his CLEANest algorithm, its probabilistic properties (the detection significance levels) are still poorly known and much of what is deemed known is not rigorous. These detection levels are nonetheless important for data analysis. We argue that to prove the simultaneous existence of all n components revealed in a multiperiodic variation, it is mandatory to apply at least 2n - 1 significance tests, among which most involve various multifrequency statistics, and only n tests are single-frequency ones. The main result of this paper is an analytic estimation of the statistical significance of the frequency tuples that the multifrequency periodogram can reveal. Using the theory of extreme values of random fields (the generalized Rice method), we find a useful approximation to the relevant false alarm probability. For the double-frequency periodogram, this approximation is given by the elementary formula (?/16)W2e- zz2, where W denotes the normalized width of the settled frequency range, and z is the observed periodogram maximum. We carried out intensive Monte Carlo simulations to show that the practical quality of this approximation is satisfactory. A similar analytic expression for the general multifrequency periodogram is also given, although with less numerical verification.

Baluev, Roman V.

2013-09-01

46

Global significance of a sub-Moho boundary layer (SMBL) deduced from high-resolution seismic observations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We infer the fine structure of a sub-Moho boundary layer (SMBL) at the top of the lithospheric mantle from high-resolution seismic observations of Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE) on superlong-range profiles in Russia. Densely recorded seismograms permit recognition of previously unknown features of teleseismic propagation of the well known Pn and Sn phases, such as a band of incoherent, scattered, high-frequency seismic energy, developing consistently from station to station, apparent velocities of sub-Moho material, and high-frequency energy to distances of more than 3000 km with a coda band, incoherent at 10 km spacing and yet consistently observed to the end of the profiles. Estimates of the other key elements of the SMBL were obtained by finite difference calculations of wave propagation in elastic 2D models from a systematic grid search through parameter space. The SMBL consists of randomly distributed, mild velocity fluctuations of 2% or schlieren of high aspect ratios (???40) with long horizontal extent (???20 km) and therefore as thin as 0.5 km only; SMBL thickness is 60-100 km. It is suggested that the SMBL is of global significance as the physical base of the platewide observed high-frequency phases Pn and Sn. It is shown that wave propagation in the SMBL waveguide is insensitive to the background velocity distribution on which its schlieren are superimposed. This explains why the Pn and Sn phases traverse geological provinces of various age, heat flow, crustal thickness, and tectonic regimes. Their propagation appears to be independent of age. temperature, pressure, and stress. Dynamic stretching of mantle material during subduction or flow, possibly combined with chemical differentiation have to be considered as scale-forming processes in the upper mantle. However, it is difficult to distinguish with the present sets of Pn/Sn array data whether (and also where) the boundary layer is a frozen-in feature of paleo-processes or whether it is a response to an on-going processes; nevertheless, the derived quantitative estimates of the SMBL properties provide important constraints for any hypothesis on scale-forming processes. Models to be tested by future numerical and field experiments are, for example, repeated subduction-convection stretching of oceanic lithosphere (marble-cake model) and schlieren formation at mid-ocean ridges. It is also proposed that the modeling of the observed blocking of Sn and Pn propagation at active plate margins offers a new tool to study the depth range of tectonics below the crust-mantle boundary. Finally, the deduced schlieren structure of the SMBL closes an important scale gap of three to four orders of magnitude between structural dimensions studied in petrological analysis of mantle samples (xenoliths or outcrop of oceanic lithosphere) and those imaged in classical seismological studies of the lithosphere.

Fuchs, K.; Tittgemeyer, M.; Ryberg, T.; Wenzel, F.; Mooney, W.

2002-01-01

47

The Barbarians at the Gate. Playing the Higher Education Game: Observations from the Periphery of the Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education is considered by some to be synonymous with learning gained in an institution named as a university. The credentials gained from learning in such locations allow the holders to enter into the elite, which reproduces social exclusion to the benefit of that elite. In England, policy reform has opened up access to higher education to…

Leahy, Sheila Marie

2012-01-01

48

The barbarians at the gate. Playing the higher education game: observations from the periphery of the field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher education is considered by some to be synonymous with learning gained in an institution named as a university. The credentials gained from learning in such locations allow the holders to enter into the elite, which reproduces social exclusion to the benefit of that elite. In England, policy reform has opened up access to higher education to a level of

Sheila Marie Leahy

2012-01-01

49

The barbarians at the gate. Playing the higher education game: observations from the periphery of the field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher education is considered by some to be synonymous with learning gained in an institution named as a university. The credentials gained from learning in such locations allow the holders to enter into the elite, which reproduces social exclusion to the benefit of that elite. In England, policy reform has opened up access to higher education to a level of

Sheila Marie Leahy

2011-01-01

50

Simulations of SEP events: does the latitude of the observer play a significant role on the proton flux profiles?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two observers located at 1 AU and with the same heliocentric longitude, detecting the same CME-driven shock, would not necessarily measure the same particle flux profile if they have different latitude with respect to the incoming disturbance. The reason is that their magnetic connection with the front of the shock may scan different regions on the shock front with different conditions for particle acceleration, and hence the observed flux profiles will differ. To study how relevant these changes can be, we simulate the propagation of two CME-driven shocks (slow and fast) from the Sun up to several observers placed at different radial distances, and at different longitudes and latitudes (i.e., different angular positions with respect to the nose of the shock). We derive the plasma conditions at the point on the shock front where the magnetic connection of the observer is established as derived from the 3D MHD CME/shock propagation simulation. We study the influence of the position of the observer on the proton flux profiles to be detected by each observer by assuming a relationship between the plasma jump in speed at the shock front (while expanding from the Sun up to each observer) and the injection rate of shock accelerated particles. We discuss these results in terms of the latitude of the observers.

Rodriguez-Gasen, Rosa; Aran, Angels; Sanahuja, Blai; Jacobs, Carla; Poedts, Stefaan

51

Significant Labor and Employment Law Issues in Higher Education During the Past Decade and What To Look for Now: A Union Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A union perspective of major issues in higher education labor law in the 1990s includes the 11th Circuit Court cases on whether Congress abrogated states' 11th Amendment immunity for suits under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) and under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Analyzes contract issues of protection around age…

Hendrickson, Rachel

2000-01-01

52

Significant Labor and Employment Law Issues in Higher Education During the Past Decade and What To Look for Now: A Union Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A union perspective of major issues in higher education labor law in the 1990s includes the 11th Circuit Court cases on whether Congress abrogated states' 11th Amendment immunity for suits under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) and under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Analyzes contract issues of protection around age…

Hendrickson, Rachel

2000-01-01

53

Low-altitude ISIS 1 observations of auroral radio emissions and their significance to the cyclotron maser instability  

SciTech Connect

Low-altitude ISIS 1 observations are presented which support the cyclotron maser instability as the generation mechanism of most, but not all, auroral radio emissions. The observations confirm the ability of the mechanism to generate different wave modes and harmonics as the ratio of the plasma frequency to gyrofrequency f{sub N}/f{sub H} increases depending on the form of the energetic electron distribution function. The present observations correspond to conditions where f{sub N}/f{sub H} is always larger than 0.2 and is typically {approximately}1.0. The observations and instability growth rate calculations indicate that second harmonic radiation in the extraordinary and the Z modes is directly generated at low altitudes. By far the most common signals observed near ISIS 1 perigee, however, are in the fundamental Z and whistler modes. The observations and calculations in the case of the Z mode suggest that the pertinent process involves a maser that does not saturate, i.e., that group velocity effects are important. The whistler mode is the most intense signal observed at low altitudes. Since the cyclotron maser generated whistler mode waves have peak growth rates for downward field-aligned propagation, they should be able to penetrate the ionosphere. This process may provide the explanation of occasional reports, dating back to the International Geophysical Year time period, of ground level detection of radio noise ({approximately}100 kHz) associated with the aurora.

Benson, R.F. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)); Wong, H.K. (Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States))

1987-02-01

54

Sino-U.S. Transnational Education--"Buying" an American Higher Education Program: A Participant Observation Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the social, political, economic, and cultural dimensions of a U.S.-based transnational education (TNE) program in China. TNE refers to education programs provided by an institution located in another country, and this study focused on higher (tertiary) education. Six questions provided the focus for this study: (1) What are…

Nix, Jerry Vincent

2009-01-01

55

Sino-U.S. Transnational Education--"Buying" an American Higher Education Program: A Participant Observation Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explores the social, political, economic, and cultural dimensions of a U.S.-based transnational education (TNE) program in China. TNE refers to education programs provided by an institution located in another country, and this study focused on higher (tertiary) education. Six questions provided the focus for this study: (1) What are…

Nix, Jerry Vincent

2009-01-01

56

Observation and removal of higher-order (ghost) energy-loss lines present in Mollenstedt electron velocity analyzers.  

PubMed

Mollenstedt electron velocity analyzers, used in high-energy electron impact spectroscopy, have been found to be limited by higher-order (ghost) energy-loss lines superimposed upon the real energy-loss spectrum. The origin of these ghost lines, as well as a method of removing them experimentally, is discussed. PMID:18699315

Rueckner, W H; Barlas, A D; Wellenstein, H F

1978-09-01

57

Does the bacteremia observed in hemorrhagic shock have clinical significance? A study in germ-free animals.  

PubMed Central

We have recently reported the rapid appearance of bacteria and endotoxin in the blood of rats and of trauma patients in the course of 30 minutes to 2 hours of hemorrhagic shock. The current study was designed to determine the effect of this bacteremia and endotoxemia on survival. Thirty-three conventional (C:group 1) and 36 germ-free (GF:group 2) Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to our previously described model of treated hemorrhagic shock. Survival in the GF group was significantly better than the C group at 24, 48, and 72 hours after shock. Endotoxin levels were elevated in 88% of C group during shock and in 28% of GF group. The gut of the GF animal contains endotoxin (26 ng/gm of stool) as does the sterile food supply (393 ng/gm of rat chow).

Rush, B F; Redan, J A; Flanagan, J J; Heneghan, J B; Hsieh, J; Murphy, T F; Smith, S; Machiedo, G W

1989-01-01

58

Higher maternal prenatal cortisol and younger age predict greater infant reactivity to novelty at 4 months: An observation-based study.  

PubMed

Distress-linked activation of the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis is considered a pathway by which affect regulation impacts the fetal milieu and neurodevelopment. There is little direct evidence for this conceptual model. In 103 women [mean age 27.45 (±5.65) years] at 36-38 weeks gestation, salivary cortisol was measured before/after stress tasks; distress questionnaires were completed. At 18.49 (±1.83) weeks, infants underwent the Harvard Infant Behavioral Reactivity Protocol assessing cry/motor responses to novelty; women reported on infant behavior and postnatal distress. Prenatal cortisol and distress were not significantly correlated (all ps?>?.10). Proportional odds logistic regressions showed that neither prenatal nor postnatal distress was associated with infant responses to the Harvard Protocol yet pre-stress cortisol and maternal age were: The odds of being classified as High Reactive were 1.60 times higher [95% CI: 1.04, 2.46] for each unit of added cortisol and .90 times lower [95% CI: .82, .99] for every additional year in maternal age. No associations were found between cortisol or prenatal distress and mother-rated infant behavior; postnatal distress was positively associated with mother-rated infant negative behavior (p?=?.03). Observer and mother-rated infant behavior were not associated (all ps?>?.05). Based on independent observations of infants in contrast to maternal perceptions, these results lend support to the hypothesis that pregnant women's HPA-axis activity influences infant behavior. The impact of maternal distress was not supported, except in so far as postnatal distress may increase the likelihood of making negative judgments about infant behavior. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 55: 707-718, 2013. PMID:22778036

Werner, Elizabeth; Zhao, Yihong; Evans, Lynn; Kinsella, Michael; Kurzius, Laura; Altincatal, Arman; McDonough, Laraine; Monk, Catherine

2012-07-06

59

Observational evidence from two mountainous regions that near-surface wind speeds are declining more rapidly at higher elevations than lower elevations: 1960–2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coupling recent observed declines of terrestrial mid-latitude near-surface wind speed (u) with knowledge that high-elevation sites rapidly experience climate change led to an assessment of the regional near-surface elevation dependence of u (uZ) at two mountainous regions (central China and Switzerland). The monthly uZ were calculated from 1960–2006. In both regions uZ were higher in winter (?2.25 m s?1 km?1)

Tim R. McVicar; Thomas G. Van Niel; Michael L. Roderick; Ling Tao Li; Xing Guo Mo; Niklaus E. Zimmermann; Dirk R. Schmatz

2010-01-01

60

Clinical significance of elevated B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with acute lung injury with or without right ventricular dilatation: an observational cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The primary objective of this study was to examine levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in mechanically ventilated patients\\u000a with acute lung injury and to test whether the level of BNP would be higher in patients with right ventricular dilatation\\u000a and would predict mortality.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This was a prospective, observational cohort study of 42 patients conducted in the intensive care unit

Magda Cepkova; Vineet Kapur; Xiushui Ren; Thomas Quinn; Hanjing Zhuo; Elyse Foster; Michael A Matthay; Kathleen D Liu

2011-01-01

61

High prevalence of asthma symptoms in Warao Amerindian children in Venezuela is significantly associated with open-fire cooking: a cross-sectional observational study  

PubMed Central

Background The International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) reported a prevalence of asthma symptoms in 17 centers in nine Latin American countries that was similar to prevalence rates reported in non-tropical countries. It has been proposed that the continuous exposure to infectious diseases in rural populations residing in tropical areas leads to a relatively low prevalence of asthma symptoms. As almost a quarter of Latin American people live in rural tropical areas, the encountered high prevalence of asthma symptoms is remarkable. Wood smoke exposure and environmental tobacco smoke have been identified as possible risk factors for having asthma symptoms. Methods We performed a cross-sectional observational study from June 1, 2012 to September 30, 2012 in which we interviewed parents and guardians of Warao Amerindian children from Venezuela. Asthma symptoms were defined according to the ISAAC definition as self-reported wheezing in the last 12 months. The associations between wood smoke exposure and environmental tobacco smoke and the prevalence of asthma symptoms were calculated by means of univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results We included 630 children between two and ten years of age. Asthma symptoms were recorded in 164 of these children (26%). The prevalence of asthma symptoms was associated with the cooking method. Children exposed to the smoke produced by cooking on open wood fires were at higher risk of having asthma symptoms compared to children exposed to cooking with gas (AOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.18 - 3.84). Four percent of the children lived in a household where more than ten cigarettes were smoked per day and they had a higher risk of having asthma symptoms compared to children who were not exposed to cigarette smoke (AOR 2.69, 95% CI 1.11 - 6.48). Conclusion Our findings suggest that children living in rural settings in a household where wood is used for cooking or where more than ten cigarettes are smoked daily have a higher risk of having asthma symptoms.

2013-01-01

62

Initialisation of a vertically-integrated, higher-order ice sheet model using observations of surface mass balance and elevation rate.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the tasks facing ice sheet modellers is to predict how the size and shape of the large ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica will evolve over coming centuries. An ice sheet model provides a tool to evolve the geometry of the ice sheet from its present configuration to a future one. However, errors in the specification of the present geometry and flow, or the model parameters, will inevitably lead to errors in the forecast of the future. Accurate specification of the present state and model parameters using observational data is commonly referred to as model initialisation. Here we demonstrate two different methods of initialisation. Both make use of a recently developed iterative approach to invert for the basal drag coefficient and ice viscosity. The first is more conventional and uses satellite observations of the horizontal surface velocity to invert for basal drag. The second uses only measurements of the rates of snow accumulation and elevation change, together with the assumption of continuity and conservation of mass. Both approaches are applied to a vertically-integrated, higher-order ice sheet model. For each method, maps of the velocity field, basal drag coefficient, and ice viscosity will be presented for the Antarctic ice sheet.

Arthern, R.; Hindmarsh, R. C. A.; Williams, C. R.

2012-04-01

63

Data analysis of a high-energy X-ray observation of the quasar 3C 273 and its significance for astrophysical models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The data from the balloon telescope HEXE (High-Energy X-ray Experiment) study of the quasar 3C 273 were evaluated, and a spectrum was obtained. A very flat power law was derived with a slope of -1.2; no cutoff in the spectrum was observed up to 240 keV. An increase in the luminosity of a factor three between 20 and 200 keV was found with a significance of six standard deviations. These results demonstrate, for the first time, spectral changes in 3C 273 over these energy ranges. These surprising results were investigated in terms of inverse Compton effect, synchrotron radiation, and bremsstrahlung models, and it is concluded that only two models can be definitely excluded: the two-temperature model of Shapiro et al. (1976) and the reflection model of Lightman and Rybicki (1979, 1980). Further observations to clarify the nature of the emission mechanisms and physical conditions in 3C 273 are suggested.

Bezler, M.

64

The frequency and clinical significance of intra-amniotic infection and/or inflammation in women with placenta previa and vaginal bleeding: an unexpected observation  

PubMed Central

Objective Idiopathic vaginal bleeding, a common complication of pregnancy, increases the risk of SGA neonate, pre-eclampsia and preterm delivery and can be the only clinical manifestation of intra-amniotic infection and/or inflammation (IAI). Placenta previa is thought to be protective against ascending intrauterine infection, yet an excess of histologic chorioamnionitis has been reported in this condition. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and clinical significance of IAI in women with placenta previa and vaginal bleeding in the absence of preterm labor. Study design A retrospective cohort study including 35 women with placenta previa and vaginal bleeding <37 weeks of gestation who underwent amniocentesis was undertaken. Patients with multiple gestations were excluded. Intra-amniotic infection was defined as a positive culture for microorganisms, and intra-amniotic inflammation as an elevated amniotic fluid interleukin (IL)-6 concentration. IL-6 concentrations were determined by ELISA in 28 amniotic fluid samples available. Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. Results 1) The prevalence of intra-amniotic infection was 5.7% (2/35), and that of IAI was 17.9% (5/28); 2) the gestational age at delivery was lower in patients with IAI than in those without IAI (29.4 weeks, IQR: 23.1–34.7 vs. 35.4 weeks, IQR: 33.9–36.9; p=0.028); and 3) patients with placenta previa and IAI had a higher rate of delivery within 48 hours (80% (4/5) vs. 19% (4/21); p=0.008) than those without IAI. Conclusions Patients with placenta previa presenting with vaginal bleeding have intra-amniotic infection in 5.7% of the cases, and intra-amniotic infection and/or inflammation in 17.9%. Intra-amniotic infection and/or inflammation in patients with placenta previa and vaginal bleeding is a risk factor for preterm delivery within 48 hours.

Madan, Ichchha; Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Mittal, Pooja; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Dong, Zhong; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Vaisbuch, Edi; Savasan, Zeynep Alpay; Yeo, Lami; Kim, Chong Jai; Hassan, Sonia S.

2012-01-01

65

WT1 Synonymous Single Nucleotide Polymorphism rs16754 Correlates With Higher mRNA Expression and Predicts Significantly Improved Outcome in Favorable-Risk Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group  

PubMed Central

Purpose To analyze the prevalence and clinical implications of Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs16754 in the context of other prognostic markers in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Patients and Methods Available diagnostic marrow specimens (n = 790) from 1,328 patients enrolled in three consecutive Children's Cancer Group/Children's Oncology Group trials were analyzed for the presence of SNP rs16754. SNP status was correlated with disease characteristics, WT1 expression level, and clinical outcome. Results SNP rs16754 was present in 229 (29%) of 790 patients. The SNP was significantly more common in Asian and Hispanic patients and less common in white patients (P < .001). SNP rs16754 was also less common in patients with inv(16) (P = .043) and more common in patients with ?5/del(5q) (P = .047). WT1 expression levels were significantly higher in patients with rs16754 or with WT1 mutations compared with WT1 wild-type patients (P = .021). Five-year overall survival (OS) for patients with and without the SNP was 60% and 50%, respectively (P = .031). Prognostic assessment by risk group demonstrated that in patients with low-risk disease, OS for those with and without SNP rs16754 was 90% versus 64% (P < .001) with a corresponding disease-free survival of 72% versus 53% (P = .041). Conclusion The presence of SNP rs16754 was an independent predictor of improved OS; outcome differences were most pronounced in the low-risk subgroup. The high prevalence of WT1 SNP rs16754, and its correlation with improved outcome, identifies WT1 SNP rs16754 as a potentially important molecular marker of prognosis in pediatric AML.

Ho, Phoenix A.; Kuhn, Julia; Gerbing, Robert B.; Pollard, Jessica A.; Zeng, Rong; Miller, Kristen L.; Heerema, Nyla A.; Raimondi, Susana C.; Hirsch, Betsy A.; Franklin, Janet L.; Lange, Beverly; Gamis, Alan S.; Alonzo, Todd A.; Meshinchi, Soheil

2011-01-01

66

Significantly higher activity of a cytoplasmic hammerhead ribozyme than a corresponding nuclear counterpart: engineered tRNAs with an extended 3? end can be exported efficiently and specifically to the cytoplasm in mammalian cells  

PubMed Central

Hammerhead ribozymes were expressed under the control of similar tRNA promoters, localizing transcripts either in the cytoplasm or the nucleus. The tRNAVal-driven ribozyme (tRNA-Rz; tRNA with extra sequences at the 3? end) that has been used in our ribozyme studies was exported efficiently into the cytoplasm and ribozyme activity was detected only in the cytoplasmic fraction. Both ends of the transported tRNA-Rz were characterized comprehensively and the results confirmed that tRNA-Rz had unprocessed 5? and 3? ends. Furthermore, it was also demonstrated that the activity of the exported ribozyme was significantly higher than that of the ribozyme which remained in the nucleus. We suggest that it is possible to engineer tRNA-Rz, which can be exported to the cytoplasm based on an understanding of secondary structures, and then tRNA-driven ribozymes may be co-localized with their target mRNAs in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells.

Kuwabara, Tomoko; Warashina, Masaki; Koseki, Shiori; Sano, Masayuki; Ohkawa, Jun; Nakayama, Kazuhisa; Taira, Kazunari

2001-01-01

67

Observations of Co4+ in a Higher Spin State and the Increase in the Seebeck Coefficient of Thermoelectric Ca3Co4O9  

SciTech Connect

Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} has a unique structure that leads to exceptionally high thermoelectric transport. Here we report the achievement of a 27% increase in the room-temperature in-plane Seebeck coefficient of Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} thin films. We combine aberration-corrected Z-contrast imaging, atomic-column resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and density-functional calculations to show that the increase is caused by stacking faults with Co4+-ions in a higher spin state compared to that of bulk Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9}. The higher Seebeck coefficient makes the Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} system suitable for many high temperature waste-heat-recovery applications.

Klie, Robert F [University of Illinois, Chicago; Qiao, Q. [University of Illinois, Chicago; Paulauskas, T. [University of Illinois, Chicago; Gulec, A. [University of Illinois, Chicago; Rebola, A. [University of Illinois, Chicago; Ogut, Serdar [University of Illinois, Chicago; Prange, Micah P [Vanderbilt University; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C [ORNL; Pantelides, Sokrates T. [Vanderbilt University; Kolesnik, S. [Northern Illinois University; Dabrowski, B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ozdemir, M. [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; Boyraz, C. [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; Mazumdar, Dipanjan [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; Gupta, Dr. Arunava [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa

2012-01-01

68

Significant concentrations of nitryl chloride observed in rural continental Europe associated with the influence of sea salt chloride and anthropogenic emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first measurements of nitryl chloride (ClNO2) over continental Europe. Significant quantities of ClNO2, up to 800 pptv, were measured at a mountaintop field site in Hessen, southwest Germany. ClNO2 was detected during the majority of nights between the 15th August and 16th September 2011, its largest mixing ratios being associated with air masses influenced by sea salt and anthropogenic NOx emissions. ClNO2 persisted in measurable quantities until early afternoons on days with low photolysis frequencies. As a consequence, early morning production rates of Cl atoms could significantly exceed the production of OH via ozone photolysis, likely leading to increased O3 production.

Phillips, G. J.; Tang, M. J.; Thieser, J.; Brickwedde, B.; Schuster, G.; Bohn, B.; Lelieveld, J.; Crowley, J. N.

2012-05-01

69

Clinical significance of no-reflow phenomenon observed on angiography after successful treatment of acute myocardial infarction with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical significance of the angiographic no-reflow phenomenon was evaluated in 93 patients with acute myocardial infarction treated by percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). On the basis of the post-PTCA angiograms, patients were divided into three groups: normal angiogram (group 1, n=65), slight no-reflow (group 2, n = 13), and severe no-reflow (group 3, n = 15). Regional wall motion

Itsuro Morishima; Takahito Sone; Shinji Mokuno; Shin Taga; Akemi Shimauchi; Yoshitaka Oki; Junichiro Kondo; Hideyuki Tsuboi; Hiromi Sassa

1995-01-01

70

Higher Education: Schools' Use of the Antitrust Exemption Has Not Significantly Affected College Affordability or Likelihood of Student Enrollment to Date. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-06-963  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1991 the U.S. Department of Justice sued nine colleges and universities, alleging that they had restrained competition by making collective financial aid determinations for students accepted to more than one of these schools. Against the backdrop of this litigation, Congress enacted a temporary exemption from antitrust laws for higher

Ashby, Cornelia M.

2006-01-01

71

Renal dysfunction in STEMI-patients undergoing primary angioplasty: higher prevalence but equal prognostic impact in female patients; an observational cohort study from the Belgian STEMI registry  

PubMed Central

Background Mortality in female patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary angioplasty (pPCI) is higher than in men. We examined gender differences in the prevalence and prognostic performance of renal dysfunction at admission in this setting. Methods A multicenter retrospective sub-analysis of the Belgian STEMI-registry identified 1,638 patients (20.6% women, 79.4% men) treated with pPCI in 8 tertiary care hospitals (January 2007-February 2011). The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Main outcome measure was in-hospital mortality. Results More women than men suffered from renal dysfunction at admission (42.3% vs. 25.3%, p?higher (10.7 and 15.3 vs. 2.3 and 2.4%, p?higher in-hospital mortality in both men and women.

2013-01-01

72

Ritonavir and Efavirenz Significantly Alter the Metabolism of Erlotinib--an Observation in Primary Cultures of Human Hepatocytes That Is Relevant to HIV Patients with Cancer.  

PubMed

Erlotinib is approved for the treatment of non-small cell lung and pancreatic cancers, and is metabolized by CYP3A4. Inducers and inhibitors of CYP3A enzymes such as ritonavir and efavirenz, respectively, may be used as part of the highly active antiretroviral therapy drugs to treat patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). When HIV patients with a malignancy need treatment with erlotinib, there is a potential of as-yet-undefined drug-drug interaction. We evaluated these interactions using human hepatocytes benchmarked against the interaction of erlotinib with ketoconazole and rifampin, the archetype cytochrome P450 inhibitor and inducer, respectively. Hepatocytes were treated with vehicle [0.1% dimethylsulfoxide, ritonavir (10 ?M)], ketoconazole (10 ?M), efavirenz (10 ?M), or rifampin (10 ?M) for 4 days. On day 5, erlotinib (5 ?M) was incubated with the above agents for another 24-48 hours. Concentrations of erlotinib and O-desmethyl erlotinib were quantitated in collected samples (combined lysate and medium) using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The half-life (t1/2) of erlotinib increased from 10.6 ± 2.6 to 153 ± 80 and 23.9 ± 4.8 hours, respectively, upon treatment with ritonavir and ketoconazole. The apparent intrinsic clearance (CLint, app) of erlotinib was lowered 16-fold by ritonavir and 1.9-fold by ketoconazole. Efavirenz and rifampin decreased t1/2 of erlotinib from 10.3 ± 1.1 to 5.0 ± 1.5 and 3.4 ± 0.2 hours, respectively. Efavirenz and rifampin increased the CLint, app of erlotinib by 2.2- and 2-fold, respectively. Our results suggest that to achieve desired drug exposure, the clinically used dose (150 mg daily) of erlotinib may have to be significantly reduced (25 mg every other day) or increased (300 mg daily), respectively, when ritonavir or efavirenz is coadministered. PMID:23913028

Pillai, Venkateswaran C; Venkataramanan, Raman; Parise, Robert A; Christner, Susan M; Gramignoli, Roberto; Strom, Stephen C; Rudek, Michelle A; Beumer, Jan H

2013-08-02

73

Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The higher education case law in 1988 is extensive. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under five major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining, and denial of employee benefits; (3) students, involving admissions, financial aid, First…

Hendrickson, Robert M.; Finnegan, Dorothy E.

74

Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Litigation in 1987 was very brisk with an increase in the number of higher education cases reviewed. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under four major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining and denial of employee benefits; (3)…

Hendrickson, Robert M.

75

Biomagnification of higher brominated PBDE congeners in an urban terrestrial food web in north China based on field observation of prey deliveries.  

PubMed

As an important group of brominated flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) persist in the wildlife food webs. However, the biomagnification of PBDEs has not been adequately studied in the terrestrial food webs. In this study, a terrestrial food web composed of common kestrels, sparrows, rats, grasshoppers, and dragonflies in the urban environment from northern China was obtained. A field prey delivery study, reinforced by ?¹³C and ?¹?N analyses, indicates that sparrows are the primary prey items of common kestrels. Concentrations of PBDEs were in the following order: common kestrel > sparrow > rat > grasshopper and dragonfly with BDE-209 as the dominant congener. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) were calculated as the ratio between the lipid normalized concentrations in the predator and prey. The highest BMF (6.9) was determined for BDE-153 in sparrow/common kestrel food chain. Other higher brominated congeners, such as BDE-202, -203, -154, -183, -197, and -209, were also biomagnified in this terrestrial food chain with BMF of 1.3-4.7. BDE-47, -99, and -100 were found to be biodiluted from sparrow to common kestrel (BMFs < 1). Measured BMF values for BDE-153, -47, -99, and -100 were consistent with predicted values from a nonsteady-state model in American kestrels from another study. Retention factors and metabolism of BDE congeners may be confounding factors influencing the measured BMFs in this current study. PMID:21612266

Yu, Le-Huan; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Liu, Li-Yu; Song, Jie; Sun, Quan-Hui; Zhang, Xiu-Lan; Chen, Da; Mai, Bi-Xian

2011-05-25

76

Aneuploidy in Higher Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper reviews the significance and frequency of naturally occurring aneuploidy in higher plants. The role and mechanism of induction of aneuploidy by radiation, chemicals, thermal shocks, and self hybridization of polyploids and aneuploids in generati...

S. S. Sandhu B. S. Gill

1987-01-01

77

ANEUPLOIDY IN HIGHER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper reviews the significance and frequency of naturally occurring aneuploidy in higher plants. The role and mechanism of induction of aneuploidy by radiation, chemicals, thermal shocks, and self hybridization of polyploids and aneuploids in generating primary and secondary ...

78

Inside Higher Ed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The wide, wide, wide world of higher education has found a new chronicler in the form of the Inside Higher Ed website. The group was founded in 2004 by three higher education journalism and recruitment executives who felt that "the time was right for new models of providing information and career services for professionals in academe." First-time visitors should consider signing up to receive the electronic updates, or just browsing through some of the latest news stories. Also, each news story has a place where visitors can chime in with their own opinions, if they so desire. The site also has a good job posting area, so persons looking to make a career move (or secure a first-time position) will want to look at this area of the site closely. Finally, the "Views" section contains some first-hand observations about such topics as blogs, the importance of jobs in far-flung places, and Saul Bellow.

79

Peripheral blood stem cell mobilization in multiple myeloma patients treat in the novel therapy-era with plerixafor and G-CSF has superior efficacy but significantly higher costs compared to mobilization with low-dose cyclophosphamide and G-CSF.  

PubMed

Studies comparing the efficacy and cost of peripheral blood stem and progenitor cells mobilization with low-dose cyclophosphamide (LD-CY) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) against plerixafor and G-CSF, in multiple myeloma (MM) patients treated in the novel therapy-era are not available. Herein, we report mobilization outcomes of 107 patients who underwent transplantation within 1-year of starting induction chemotherapy with novel agents. Patients undergoing mobilization with LD-CY (1.5 gm/m(2) ) and G-CSF (n?=?74) were compared against patients receiving plerixafor and G-CSF (n?=?33). Compared to plerixafor, LD-CY was associated with a significantly lower median peak peripheral blood CD34+ cell count (68/µL vs. 36/µL, P?=?0.048), and lower CD34+ cell yield on day 1 of collection (6.9?×?10(6) /kg vs. 2.4?×?10(6) /kg, P?=?0.001). Six patients (8.1%) in the LD-CY group experienced mobilization failure, compared to none in the plerixafor group. The total CD34+ cell yield was significantly higher in the plerixafor group (median 11.6?×?10(6) /kg vs. 7?×?10(6) /kg; P-value?=?0.001). Mobilization with LD-CY was associated with increased (albeit statistically non-significant) episodes of febrile neutropenia (5.4% vs. 0%; P?=?0.24), higher use of intravenous antibiotics (6.7% vs. 3%; P?=?0.45), and need for hospitalizations (9.4% vs. 3%; P?=?0.24). The average total cost of mobilization in the plerixafor group was significantly higher compared to the LD-CY group ($28,980 vs. $19,626.5 P-value?significantly higher mobilization costs compared to LD-CY mobilization. Our data caution against the use of LD-CY in MM patients for mobilization, especially after induction with lenalidomide-containing regimens. J. Clin. Apheresis 28:359-367, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23765597

Chaudhary, Lubna; Awan, Farrukh; Cumpston, Aaron; Leadmon, Sonia; Watkins, Kathy; Tse, William; Craig, Michael; Hamadani, Mehdi

2013-06-14

80

Observance of the 20th Anniversary of the Higher Education Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session (San Marcos, Texas).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purposes, accomplishments, and future of the Higher Education Act are considered in hearings of the U.S. House of Representatives. A brief history of the Higher Education Act over the 20 years since its inception in 1965 is traced, and the role of the federal government in higher education is addressed. The centerpiece of the legislation was…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

81

Higher Blood 25(OH)D Level May Reduce the Breast Cancer Risk: Evidence from a Chinese Population Based Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis of the Observational Studies  

PubMed Central

Experimental data suggest a protective effect of vitamin D on breast cancer; however, epidemiologic results remain inclusive. With a Chinese population-based case-control study and meta-analysis of the observational studies, we here systematically evaluated the association of blood 25(OH)D level and breast cancer risk. With 593 breast cancer cases and 580 cancer-free controls from Shanghai, China, we found that 80% of the normal women had severe vitamin D deficiency (less than 20 ng/mL) and 15.2% had mild deficiency (20 to 30 ng/mL) and only 4.8% of women had sufficient vitamin D level (>30 ng/mL) while the proportion was 96.1%, 3.2% and 0.7% respectively for the breast cancer patients. Compared to those with the lowest quartile of plasma 25(OH)D level, women with highest quartile 25(OH)D level showed a significant decreased breast cancer risk (Q4 vs.Q1: OR?=?0.10, 95% CI?=?0.06–0.15) and every 1 ng/ml increment of plasma 25(OH)D level led to a 16% lower odds of breast cancer (OR?=?0.84, 95% CI?=?0.81–0.87; P<0.001). From the meta-analysis of the observational studies, we found that women with highest quantile of blood 25(OH)D level was associated with a significantly reduced breast cancer risk compared to those with lowest quantile of blood 25(OH)D level for the 11 nested case-control and retrospective studies (pooled OR?=?0.86, 95% CI?=?0.75–1.00) and 10 case-control studies (7 population based, OR?=?0.35, 95% CI?=?0.24–0.52; 3 hospital based, OR?=?0.08, 95% CI?=?0.02–0.33). These results suggest that vitamin D may have a chemo-preventive effect against breast cancer.

Gu, Xiaoli; Liu, Yanling; Li, Xiaoguang; Li, Chenglin; Wang, Yuan; Xie, Dong; Wang, Fudi; Yu, Chen; Li, Jingquan; Chen, Xinlei; Chu, Ruiai; Zhu, Jianmin; Ou, Zhouluo; Wang, Hui

2013-01-01

82

Disruptive Technologies in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses the role of "disruptive" innovative technologies in higher education. In this country and elsewhere, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have invested significant sums in learning technologies, with Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) being more or less universal, but these technologies have not been universally adopted and…

Flavin, Michael

2012-01-01

83

Financing higher education in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent shift in the allocation of public expenditure towards higher education prompts several questions: Is this allocation economically justified? Are these resources well utilized? Is there significant cost recovery of these expenditures? If not, who benefits from the subsidy these expenditures represent? Are there alternative means of financing higher education? This paper attempts to provide answers to these questions,

Shahrukh R. Khan

1991-01-01

84

Disruptive Technologies in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper analyses the role of "disruptive" innovative technologies in higher education. In this country and elsewhere, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have invested significant sums in learning technologies, with Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) being more or less universal, but these technologies have not been universally adopted and…

Flavin, Michael

2012-01-01

85

Scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy observation of accumulated charges in metal-SiO2-SiN-SiO2-Si flash memory by detecting higher-order nonlinear permittivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy with high-sensitivity capacitance variation detection capability, we succeeded in the high-resolution visualization of accumulated charges in metal-SiO2-SiN-SiO2-Si flash memory by detecting the higher-order (2-4 order) nonlinear permittivity. The obtained image contrast can be interpreted using a higher-order differential coefficient (dnC/dVn) of a quasi-static C-V curve of the SiO2-SiN-SiO2-Si interface capacitance as a function of externally applied voltage. Moreover, by using a higher-order nonlinear image, the charge concentration resolution can be improved. Thus, improved resolution of the spatial charge distribution is expected through improvement of the concentration resolution by the imaging of higher-order nonlinear dielectric terms.

Honda, Koichiro; Cho, Yasuo

2012-12-01

86

NASA: Higher Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA has a significant educational outreach mission, and this site dedicated to higher education is a wonderful find. The first notable feature on the site is the Read About It area, which contains profiles such as "Beginner's Guide to Aeronautics," "Commercial Space Transportation," and a complete archive of past items. Moving on, the Current Opportunities area contains archived lectures, webcasts, and online workshops on astronomy. Another fun piece of the site is the Do-It-Yourself Podcasts area, found on the lower left. Here visitors can take NASA audio and video files and create their own podcasts on rocket science, micro-g, lab safety, and other topics. The site also contains links to NASA Television and the Have You Seen? areas, the latter of which features video highlights from NASA programs and contests.

2012-05-25

87

Higher Education Exchange, 2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

2012-01-01

88

ASCA Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This recently expired grant has supported the work of the PI, his students, and his collaborators on a variety of ASCA projects over the past four years. Annual reports have summarized much of the work accomplished; here we provide a brief review of the work resulting from this effort, and a summary of the personnel who have benefited from the grant's support. Starburst Galaxies with Extreme X-ray Luminosities This project began as a careful examination of the claims of Boller et al. (1992) that there were dozens of "normal" galaxies in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey that had X-ray luminosities in excess of 1042 erg sec, higher than that seen in the hundreds of non-AGN galaxies observed with Einstein. If true, this suggested that X-ray emission associated with star formation activity might have a significant contribution to make to the still unexplained cosmic X-ray background (XRB). Since some of our earlier work with the Einstein Observatory Deep Surveys had suggested a similar possibility and several sets of authors over the years had modelled the starburst XRB contribution, these claims were worth pursuing. Our work expanded the examination beyond the RASS to include earlier claims of high-luminosity galaxies powered by starburst emission (selected in this case on the basis of the far-IR luminosities). The result of extensive followup observations under several programs using ROSAT, ASCA, and ground-based facilities was to show that nearly all of these objects in fact have hidden AGN at their cores, and that their luminosities are not in any way extraordinary.

Helfand, David J.

1998-10-01

89

Adaptive Significance of Floral Movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Darwin observed the reconfiguration of pollinia in orchards and referred to it as a function to reduce self-pollination, diverse floral movements have been investigated and various hypotheses have been proposed to explain their adaptive significance. However, adaptive significance of floral movement in some species has yet to be fully explained. Increasing evidence suggests that some floral movements, which have

Cheng-Jiang Ruan

2011-01-01

90

Statistical Significance of Trends in Exoplanetary Atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cowan and Agol (2011) and we (Harrington et al. 2007, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013) have noted that at higher equilibrium temperatures, observed exoplanet fluxes are substantially higher than even the elevated equilibrium temperature predicts. With a substantial increase in the number of atmospheric flux measurements, we can now test the statistical significance of this trend. We can also cast the data on a variety of axes to search further for the physics behind both the jump in flux above about 2000 K and the wide scatter in fluxes at all temperatures. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G.

Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M.; Blumenthal, S. D.; Loredo, T. J.; UCF Exoplanets Group

2013-10-01

91

Higher Education: Paradise Lost?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some of the reasons for the comparative decline of the elite sector are analyzed, including (1) the historical transition from elite to mass access to universal higher education, (2) the politicization of higher education, and (3) the increasing submergence of higher education under external social controls. The preservation of an elite or "highly…

Kerr, Clark

1978-01-01

92

Wilson Surfaces and Higher Dimensional Knot Invariants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An observable for nonabelian, higher-dimensional forms is introduced, its properties are discussed and its expectation value in BF theory is described. This is shown to produce potential and genuine invariants of higher-dimensional knots.

Cattaneo, Alberto S.; Rossi, Carlo A.

2005-06-01

93

Opportunities and Barriers: Gendered Reality in Chinese Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the field of Chinese higher education, gender is still a significant issue, as is a general ignorance of gender discrimination against women. Issues related to gender can be observed throughout the process of education: at the time of entering an institution, during the educational process and as an outcome of education. The following seven…

Liu, Bohong; Li, Yani

2010-01-01

94

Tests of Significance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site gives an explanation, a definition of and an example for tests of significance. Topics include null and alternative hypotheses for population mean, one-sided and two-sided z and t tests, levels of significance, and matched pairs analysis. Overall, this is a nice presentation of significance tests for any mathematics classroom.

Lacey, Michelle

2008-12-25

95

Higher Education Resource Hub  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed and maintained by James Forest, the Higher Education Resource Hub is a fine source of information about the field of higher education within the United States and around the world. Most of the site's sections can be reached from the home page, and deal with such topics as assessment in higher education, news, and recent publications that feature research on higher education. Another helpful feature is a collection of links to the syllabi for courses at the college and graduate level that address the topic of higher education. The history of higher education is particularly helpful, as it contains a number of primary documents including the text of the GI Bill, the Morrill Land Grant Acts, some rather trenchant commentaries from John Henry Newman, and Thorstein Veblen's scathing critique of American higher education published in 1918. The site also has a section devoted to job resources in higher education, and is completed with information about the reference work, "Higher Education in the United States: An Encyclopedia," which is co-edited by Mr. Forest and Kevin Kinser of SUNY-Albany.

96

Employment Discrimination in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews court decisions related to employment discrimination in higher education. The most significant development was a series of cases affirming that Eleventh Amendment immunity from private money damage claims brought pursuant to various federal employment discrimination statutes applied to state colleges and universities. (SLD)

Hustoles, Thomas P.; Griffin, Oren R.

2000-01-01

97

Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews court cases in 1999 related to disability discrimination in higher education focusing on the Americans with Disabilities Act and section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The "Garrett" case regarding Eleventh Amendment immunity is the case most likely to be significant in the development of the law of disability discrimination. (SLD)

Weber, Mark C.

2000-01-01

98

Gender and Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

2011-01-01

99

Higher Education in Arkansas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report presents information about higher education in Arkansas. Arkansas is 49th in the United States in the number of citizens over the age of 25 with a baccalaureate or higher degree. Arkansas faces shortages of qualified teachers and nurses in regions of the state at a time when the number of graduates in these professions is declining…

Arkansas State Dept. of Higher Education, Little Rock.

100

Higher Education and Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher education systems, in many developing as well as developed countries, including in Asia and the Pacific, are also characterised with a continuing crisis, with overcrowding, inadequate staffing, deteriorating standards and quality, poor physical facilities, insufficient equipment and declining public budgets. More importantly, higher education is subject to neglect and even discrimination in public policy. The World Bank policies that

Jandhyala B G Tilak

101

Minorities in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book presents 19 papers on efforts to increase the participation of members of minority groups in higher education. The papers are: (1) "Demographic Trends and the Challenges to American Higher Education" (Manuel Justiz); (2) "Three Realities: Minority Life in the United States--The Struggle for Economic Equity (adapted by Don M. Blandin);…

Justiz, Manuel J., Ed.; And Others

102

Higher Education in Israel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, which describes higher education programs in Israel, is intended to help overseas students find academic programs suited to their individual needs. Israel's higher education institutions, in conjunction with the Committee for Overseas Students, offer overseas students approximately 30 long-term (one semester or one year) programs that…

Barshad, Tamir; Goldbach, Avi

103

Reinventing Continuing Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Re-inventing continuing higher education is about finding ways to be a more central player in a region's civic, cultural, and economic life as well as in the education of individuals for work and citizenship. Continuing higher education will require data gathering, analytical tools, convening authority, interpretive skills, new models of…

Walshok, Mary Lindenstein

2012-01-01

104

Transitions in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper offers ideas towards a solution of some of the problems that arise due to the extension of higher education to an ever wider range of students: especially student drop-out. It suggests that, as far as is practical, the design and delivery of higher education should be based upon the major changes or transitions which the students…

Hussey, Trevor; Smith, Patrick

2010-01-01

105

Higher Education in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors review the system for the acquisition and distribution of the foreign literature required by Soviet and Russian institutions of higher education for the period from 1989 to 1995. As Russia moves toward a democratic society, a centralized system designed for total State control is no longer capable of serving all the libraries in higher education institutions.

Rimma Mesheryakova; Frank Clasquin

1996-01-01

106

Detecting Novelty and Significance  

PubMed Central

Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance.

Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

2013-01-01

107

Higher Derivative Gravity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A possible classical route conducting towards a general relativity theory with higher-derivatives starting, in a sense, from first principles, is analysed. A completely causal vacuum solution with the symmetries of the Goedel universe is obtained in the f...

A. J. Accioly

1987-01-01

108

Higher Order Entropies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Higher order entropies are kinetic entropy estimators for fluid models. These quantities are quadratic in the velocity and temperature derivatives and have temperature dependent coefficients. We investigate governing equations for higher order entropies and related a priori estimates in the natural situation where viscosity and thermal conductivity depend on temperature. We establish positivity of higher order derivative source terms in these governing equations provided that || log T||_{BMO}+||v/sqrt{T}||Linfty is small enough. The temperature factors renormalizing temperature and velocity derivatives then yield majorization of lower order convective terms only when the temperature dependence of transport coefficients is taken into account according to the kinetic theory. In this situation, we obtain entropic principles for higher order entropies of arbitrary order. As an application, we investigate a priori estimates and global existence of solutions when the initial values log( T 0/ T ?) and v_0/sqrt{T}0 are small enough in appropriate spaces.

Giovangigli, Vincent

2008-02-01

109

Multipoint scales: Mean and median differences and observed significance levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers in human?computer interaction (HCI) often use discrete multipoint scales (such as 5? or 7?point scales) to measure user satisfaction and preference. Many knowledgeable authors state that the median is the appropriate measure of central tendency for such ordinal scales, although others challenge this assertion. This article introduces a new point of view, based on a human factors consideration. When

James R. Lewis

1993-01-01

110

On higher derivative gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A possible classical route conducting towards a general relativity theory with higher-derivatives starting, in a sense, from first principles, is analysed. A completely causal vacuum solution with the symmetries of the Goedel universe is obtained in the framework of this higher-derivative gravity. This very peculiar and rare result is the first known vacuum solution of the fourth-order gravity theory that

A. J. Accioly

1987-01-01

111

Higher Education Research Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1973, the Higher Education Research Institute (HERI) is located within UCLA's Graduate School of Education & Information Studies. Researchers at the HERI are interested in examining leadership development, institutional transformation, faculty performance, and educational equity. First-time visitors should check out the "Surveys" area first, as it contains information about some of their very well-known longitudinal surveys, such as the Freshmen Year Survey and the College Senior Survey. Most visitors with a general interest in higher education trends will want to look through the "Publications" section, as it contains reports on spirituality in higher education, the gender gap in colleges, and the impact of single-gender high schools on students' transition to college.

112

The Risks of Privatisation of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The presentation looks at the latest statistics on participation in Higher Education, to question whether privatisation of systems has significant effects on participation, affordability and equity of Higher Education. It further looks into questions of autonomy and governance of Higher Education systems in private and public systems, and finally…

Camilleri, Anthony F.

2008-01-01

113

The significance of beauty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the conception of beauty and its importance for the preservation of the race and the species. The conditions of beauty are partly positive and partly negative. The negative conditions are: (1) Signs of race (2) Signs of disease, deformity or weakness (3) Significant deviations from the average (4) Misplaced sex characteristics. The positive condition are: (1) Posture (2) Bodily

Knight Dunlap

1918-01-01

114

Changing Values & Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A transcript of a two-member panel discussion on changing values and higher education is presented. The transcript includes two speeches and members' responses to the questions of the moderator and audience. The first paper, presented by Robert Beagle (Assistant to the President, Edinboro State College, Pennsylvania) stresses that the key to…

Wagschal, Harry; Beagle, Robert

115

Higher Education Exchange 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A foreword and 11 articles discuss the nature and structure of public scholarship. The contents include: "Foreword" (Deborah Witte); (1) "Public Scholarship: The Dissemination of Knowledge" (Jean Cameron) which maintains the public has claims on higher education as a creator and disseminator of knowledge; (2) "Daring to Be Unprofessional" (David…

Brown, David W., Ed.

116

Entrepreneurship and Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Stimulating innovative and growth-oriented entrepreneurship is a key economic and societal challenge to which universities and colleges have much to contribute. This book examines the role that higher education institutions are currently playing through teaching entrepreneurship and transferring knowledge and innovation to enterprises and…

Potter, Jonathan, Ed.

2008-01-01

117

Specialization in Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper investigates the implications of specialization in higher education, with particular focus on four-year degree granting institutions. In the flrst two parts of the paper, I provide a formal economic model and derive predictions about flnancial aid policies and student composi- tion of a college. Specialization makes a school more appealing to students that have relatively strong skills

Sinan Sarpca; Marty Gaynor; Ron Goettler; Maria Ferreyra; Michael Peress; Fallaw Sowell; George-levi Gayle; Limor Golan

118

Mindfulness in higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the introduction of mindfulness into courses in higher education. Some of these courses are taught by Buddhist scholars; others are taught by scholars within other disciplines who themselves have a meditation practice. Those scholars included here represent a much larger number in diverse settings, including state universities, liberal arts colleges, Ivy League institutions, and historically black colleges.

Mirabai Bush

2011-01-01

119

Changing Values & Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A transcript of a two-member panel discussion on changing values and higher education is presented. The transcript includes two speeches and members' responses to the questions of the moderator and audience. The first paper, presented by Robert Beagle (Assistant to the President, Edinboro State College, Pennsylvania) stresses that the key to…

Wagschal, Harry; Beagle, Robert

120

Benchmarking for Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The chapters in this collection explore the concept of benchmarking as it is being used and developed in higher education (HE). Case studies and reviews show how universities in the United Kingdom are using benchmarking to aid in self-regulation and self-improvement. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction to Benchmarking" (Norman Jackson and Helen…

Jackson, Norman, Ed.; Lund, Helen, Ed.

121

Higher Education Exchange, 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This annual collection focuses on the obligation of higher education to democracy. Scholars from a variety if disciplines explore this question and related issues, such as the civic mission of the university, what it means to be an "engaged" university, and how a university can itself by a "good citizen." Following a foreword by Deborah Witte,…

Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

122

HIGHER HORIZONS PROGRAM.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THE HIGHER HORIZONS PROGRAM GREW OUT OF THE DEMONSTRATION GUIDANCE PROJECTS, A 6-YEAR PROGRAM TO HELP PREVENT DROPOUTS. EXTENSION OF THESE SERVICES TO OTHER JUNIOR HIGH AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF VARIED ECONOMIC STANDING AND TO ALL STUDENTS WITHIN THESE SCHOOLS WAS PLANNED. THE PROGRAM IN 1960-61 INVOLVED 13 JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS AND 52 ELEMENTARY…

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY.

123

Online Higher Education Commodity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article analyzes the current trend towards online education. It examines some of the reasons for the trend and the ramifications it may have on students, faculty and institutions of higher learning. The success and profitability of online programs and institutions such as the University of Phoenix has helped to make the move towards online…

Chau, Paule

2010-01-01

124

Higher education: Paradise lost?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Universities in many cultures and times have had “golden ages” the most recent throughout the Western World lasted from the end of World War II to about 1970. Now the prevailing mood is one of pessimism: the golden age is over. In fact, however, universal access postsecondary education is healthy and continuing to grow in most nations; mass access higher

Clark Kerr

1978-01-01

125

Leadership in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines leadership in higher education, specifically in community colleges. The first section reviews current definitions and theories of education, including transactional leadership (where there is an exchange between the leader and the follower) and transformational leadership (where the leader tries to change the framework itself…

Robles, Harriett J.

126

Marketing in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The use of marketing activities by educational institutions and the transfer of marketing activities from business to higher education are considered. Market analysis helps colleges and universities determine what programs, scheduling, or services are strong and to which student market the institution should appeal. It is suggested that the…

Dalili, Farid

127

Conformal higher spin theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct gauge theory of interacting symmetric traceless tensors of all ranks /s=0,1,2,3,... which generalizes Weyl-invariant dilaton gravity to the higher spin case, in any dimension /d>2. The action is given by the trace of the projector to the subspace with positive eigenvalues of an arbitrary Hermitian differential operator H, and the symmetric tensors emerge after expansion of the latter in power series in derivatives. After decomposition in perturbative series around conformally flat point H=? with Euclidean metric, the action functional describes conformal higher spin theory. Namely, the linear in fluctuation term cancels, while the one quadratic in fluctuation breaks up as a sum of conformal higher spin theories, the latter being free gauge theories of symmetric traceless tensors of rank /s with actions of /d-4+2s order in derivatives (in odd dimensions they are boundary terms), for all integer /s, introduced in 4d case by Fradkin and Tseytlin and studied at the cubic order level by Fradkin and Linetsky. Higher orders in interaction are well-defined. The action appears to be the unique functional invariant w.r.t. general similarity transformations H'=e??†He??, the latter invariance plays the role of gauge symmetry group of the model. In the framework of the perturbative decomposition, the Hermitian part of /? gauges away the trace parts of the symmetric tensors parameterizing the fluctuation, while the anti-Hermitian one provides standard linearized gauge transformations of conformal higher spin fields. The action can be calculated as a semiclassical series in /? which counts the number of space-time derivatives and thereby exhibits itself as a parameter of low-energy expansion, like /sqrt(?') in string theory, in so doing the classical term is given by the volume of the domain /H(x,p)>0 (where /H(x,p) is the Weyl symbol of H), it does not contain derivatives and is interpreted as a cosmological term. At the same time, further terms of the /?-expansion are given by integrals of distributions localized on the constraint surface /H(x,p)=0, and the conformal higher spin-/s action arises from the ?d-4+2s-correction. The full gauge invariance of the model is interpreted as covariance algebra of generalized Klein-Gordon equation H?>=0 for complex scalar field /?.

Segal, Arkady Y.

2003-08-01

128

Pollen vacuoles and their significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuoles of several types can be observed in pollen throughout its development. Their physiological significance reflects\\u000a the complexity of the biological process leading to functional pollen grains. Vacuolisation always occurs during pollen development\\u000a but when ripe pollen is shed the extensive translucent vacuoles present in the vegetative parts in previous stages are absent.\\u000a Vacuole functions vary according to developmental stage

Ettore Pacini; Cédric Jacquard; Christophe Clément

2011-01-01

129

Higher Education Jobs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those Scout Report readers who may be looking for a job in the vast world of higher education, the Higher Education Jobs website will be a real find. Online since 1996, the website serves as a clearinghouse of available job opportunities, ranging from such positions as a custodial engineer in a small college in western New York to an assistant professor of Egyptology at a major research university in California. Visitors to the site can begin by searching the new job listings by date, location, institution, or title. Of course, they may also perform more detailed searches as well, courtesy of the nice search engine made available here. Another option is for visitors to post their resume or vita so that employers seeking out new employees will have access to this information.

130

Polyesters in Higher Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyesters occur in higher plants as the structural component of the cuticle that covers the aerial parts of plants. This\\u000a insoluble polymer, called cutin, attached to the epidermal cell walls is composed of interesterified hydroxy and hydroxy epoxy\\u000a fatty acids. The most common chief monomers are 10, 16-dihydroxy C16 acid, 18-hydroxy-9, 10 epoxy C18 acid, and 9, 10, 18-trihydroxy C18

Pappachan E. Kolattukudy

131

ERP in Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper examines the use of enterprise,resource planning (ERP) solutions by institutes of higher education. In particular, this paper examines the cost, technical, and customer risks of implementing ERP solutions,by universities.ERP is an,information,technology,solution that integrates enterprise functions such as planning, financials, sales, purchasing, human resources, logistics, customer service, and manufacturing. For universities, ERP is an information technology solution that

David F. Rico

132

Online higher education commodity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the current trend towards online education. It examines some of the reasons for the trend and the ramifications\\u000a it may have on students, faculty and institutions of higher learning. The success and profitability of online programs and\\u000a institutions such as the University of Phoenix has helped to make the move towards online education more appealing to other

Paule Chau

2010-01-01

133

Higher Education Research Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at the graduate school of Education and Information at the University of California, Los Angeles, the Higher Education Research Institute "serves as an interdisciplinary center for research, evaluation, information, policy studies, and research training in postsecondary education." It is also the home of the Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP), a national longitudinal study of the American higher education system. Established in 1966 at the American Council on Education, the CIRP is "the nation's largest and oldest empirical study of higher education, involving data on some 1,700 institutions and over 10 million students." Visitors to the site can access extensive press releases and data summaries of the latest CIRP's of incoming freshmen as well as data from surveys targeting entering students, other classes of college students, and faculty members. The CIRP Archives section offers an extensive annotated bibliography of related conference papers, journal articles, books, dissertations, and reports. The Website also provides information to educators and administrators on ordering more targeted data drawn from specific schools and/or specific comparative profiles.

134

Higher carotinoid petroleum hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Gas chromatography and chromato-mass spectrometry have been used to investigate the saturated hydrocarbon fraction of crude oil from the Sary-Bulak field (Zaisansk basin, Kazakhstan). The high concentration of higher carotinoid cyclanes in the mixture investigated is shown: lexane (C{sub 33}), {gamma}- and {beta}-carotanes (C{sub 40}). The content of the latter hydrocarbon in the saturated fraction reaches 2{center_dot}5%. Ways in which these cyclanes are formed from natural carotinoids are discussed. Mass spectra of the hydrocarbons identified are presented. 8 refs., 4 figs.

Vorob`yeva, N.S.; Zemskova, Z.K.; Punanov, V.G.; Petrov, A.A. [Institute of Geology and Development of Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1993-12-31

135

Branched-chain higher alcohols.  

PubMed

China's energy requirements and environmental concerns have stimulated efforts toward developing alternative liquid fuels. Compared with fuel ethanol, branched-chain higher alcohols (BCHAs), including isopropanol, isobutanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol, exhibit significant advantages, such as higher energy density, lower hygroscopicity, lower vapor pressure, and compatibility with existing transportation infrastructures. However, BCHAs have not been synthesized economically using native organisms, and thus their microbial production based on metabolic engineering and synthetic biology offers an alternative approach, which presents great potential for improving production efficiency. We review the current status of production and consumption of BCHAs and research progress regarding their microbial production in China, especially with the combination of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. PMID:22109725

Wang, Bao-Wei; Shi, Ai-Qin; Tu, Ran; Zhang, Xue-Li; Wang, Qin-Hong; Bai, Feng-Wu

2012-01-01

136

Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.  

PubMed

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors influencing their growth and the various susceptible commodities that are contaminated. Finally, decision trees are included to assist the user in making informed choices about the likely mycotoxins present in the various crops. PMID:23477193

2012-01-01

137

Spirituality in Higher Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There has always been a great interest in the spiritual beliefs of young people, and in the past few decades, an increasing interest in the beliefs of those young people in colleges and universities around the United States. One group that is intently interested in this topic is the Higher Education Research Institute (HERI) at the University of California at Los Angeles. The Institute's primary agenda includes generating empirically based insights on "the trends, patterns, and principles of spiritual growth during the college years" and disseminating its research findings to various stakeholders. The pilot survey (which was first administered in 2003) is available for the Web-browsing public's consideration here, along with a newsletter and some preliminary findings based on data from the surveys.

138

Higher prices in Jamaica.  

PubMed

Price increases in the Jamaica CSM program went into effect on August 31, 1981. The program began in 1975. While the need for higher prices has been under discussion for the past 3 years, this is the 1st time the requisite approval from the Jamaica Price Commission has been obtained. The Jamaica National Family Planning Board (JNFPB) reports that the Panther 3-pack (condom) is up US$0.15 to US$0.30. Each Perle package (oral contraceptive) was increased by US$0.20. Single cycle Perle now sells for US$0.50, and 3-pack Perle sells for US$1.10. The 6-year price stagnation experienced by the CSM program resulted in a decreasing operational budget as program costs continued to rise. Marketing costs alone during this period escalated by 100-300%. For example, Panther pop-up display cartons cost the project US 16U each in 1975. By 1979 the same product cost US 49U. Newspaper advertisements have increased from the 1975 cost of US$68.00 to nearly $200.00 per placement. The overall inflation rate in Jamaica during the last 5 years has averaged more than 20% annually. In the face of these rising costs, outlet expansion for Perle has been prevented, wholesaler margins have been unavailable, and new retailer training has been discontinued. It is projected that the new prices will result in an annual increased revenues of US$80,000 which will be used to reinstate these essential marketing activities. The JNFPB is also planning to introduce a Panther 12-pack and Panther strips to the CSM product line. According to Marketing Manager Aston Evans, "We believe the public is now ready for this type of packaging" which is scheduled to be available soon. Panther is presently only available in a 3-pack, but annual sales have been steady. The new 12-pack will be stocked on supermarket shelves to provide higher product visibility and wider distribution. The selling price has been set as US$1.20 and is expected to yield a 25% increase in sales during the 1st year. A complete sales promotion and advertising campaign will accompany the 12-pack introduction. The marketing plan for Panther strips emphasizes placement in government and private sector offices and factories throughout the country. In the deep rural areas the strips will be available for sale in shops, bars, nightclubs, and other distribution points. PMID:12264179

1982-03-01

139

Generalized structure of higher order nonclassicality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A generalized notion of higher order nonclassicality (in terms of higher order moments) is introduced. Under this generalized framework of higher order nonclassicality, conditions of higher order squeezing and higher order subpoissonian photon statistics are derived. A simpler form of the Hong-Mandel higher order squeezing criterion is derived under this framework by using an operator ordering theorem introduced by us in [A. Pathak, J. Phys. A 33 (2000) 5607]. It is also generalized for multi-photon Bose operators of Brandt and Greenberg. Similarly, condition for higher order subpoissonian photon statistics is derived by normal ordering of higher powers of number operator. Further, with the help of simple density matrices, it is shown that the higher order antibunching (HOA) and higher order subpoissonian photon statistics (HOSPS) are not the manifestation of the same phenomenon and consequently it is incorrect to use the condition of HOA as a test of HOSPS. It is also shown that the HOA and HOSPS may exist even in absence of the corresponding lower order phenomenon. Binomial state, nonlinear first order excited squeezed state (NLESS) and nonlinear vacuum squeezed state (NLVSS) are used as examples of quantum state and it is shown that these states may show higher order nonclassical characteristics. It is observed that the Binomial state which is always antibunched, is not always higher order squeezed and NLVSS which shows higher order squeezing does not show HOSPS and HOA. The opposite is observed in NLESS and consequently it is established that the HOSPS and HOS are two independent signatures of higher order nonclassicality.

Verma, Amit; Pathak, Anirban

2010-02-01

140

Polyphenoloxidase in Higher Plants  

PubMed Central

Antibodies to broad bean polyphenoloxidase (PPO) were used to detect and demonstrate that the PPOs found in several different plants have many similarities in common. Crude extracts from leaves of broad bean, bush bean, lettuce, mung bean, pea, soybean, spinach, tobacco, and tomato contained enzyme which cross-reacted with polyclonal anti-PPO in Ouchterlony double diffusion analysis. The results suggested that plant polyphenoloxidase from a wide range of species may contain similar antigen determinants. Poly A+ mRNA was isolated from leaves of each plant species and translated in vitro using a rabbit reticulocyte translation system. An in vitro synthesized product corresponding to PPO from each species was identified after specific immunoprecipitation with anti-PPO. The molecular weight of this in vitro product was similar in all plants examined and found to be approximately 45 kilodaltons. Peptide maps of the in vitro synthesized product from all plant species were similar and showed at least three peptides in common. Plant PPOs may have more structural similarities than commonly though in spite of the great variety in observed isoenzyme forms. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Flurkey, William H.

1986-01-01

141

Significantly higher prevalence of cad in asymptomatic male smokers as compared with their female counterparts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) as detected by myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in asymptomatic smokers is unknown. The objective was to compare the prevalence of CAD among male and female smokers who underwent dobutamine (DBA) stress test with MPI.Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study on 192 smokers (99 males, mean age 70 + 11 years and

S Chiadika; M Lue; D. K Blood; S. R Bergmann; S Bokhari

2004-01-01

142

Do the Web sites of higher rated scholars have significantly more online impact?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality and impact of academic Web sites is ofinterest to many audiences, including the scholars who use them and Web educators who need to identify best practice. Several large-scale European Union research projects have been funded to build new indicators for online scientific activity, reflecting recognition of the importance of the Web for scholarly communication. In this paper we

Mike Thelwall; Gareth Harries

2004-01-01

143

Significance of higher-order multiple scattering for laser beam propagation through hazes, fogs, and clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for computing the different orders of scattering in any medium that possesses a phase function with a strong forward peak, and computations are done for the case of a Gaussian laser beam incident on such a medium. The theory developed by Tam and Zardecki (1979) dealing with multiple scattering of laser beams in fogs is summarized

Adarsh Deepak; Usamah O. Farrukh; Andrew Zardecki

1982-01-01

144

PROMOTED ZINC CHROMITE CATALYSTS FOR HIGHER ALCOHOL SYNTHESIS  

SciTech Connect

During this reporting period, a ''zinc chromite'' catalyst promoted with 6 wt.% cesium (Cs) was evaluated at the following operating conditions: Temperature - 375 C and 400 C; Total Pressure--13.6 MPa (2000 psig); Gas Hourly Space Velocity (GHSV) - 5000 standard liters/kg(cat)-hr; and H{sub 2}/CO feed ratio--0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mole/mole. Decahydronaphthalene (DHN) was used as the slurry liquid. The experiment lasted for twelve days of continuous operation. Unpromoted zinc chromite catalyst then was re-examined under the same operating conditions. Reproducible data was achieved with a continuous liquid make-up. Compared with unpromoted zinc chromite catalyst, 6 wt.% Cs-promoted catalyst shifted the product distribution from methanol to higher alcohols, even though methanol was still the major product. The effect of operating conditions was less important than the addition of promoter. However, it was observed that higher temperature favors higher alcohol synthesis, and that a higher H{sub 2}/CO ratio leads to lower oxygenates selectivity and higher hydrocarbons selectivity. These trends showed clearly with the Cs-promoted catalyst, but were not as prominent with the unpromoted catalyst. The slurry liquid did not decompose or alkylate to a measurable extent during either continuous, 12 - day experiment, even with the higher reactor temperature (400 C). There was a relatively significant loss of catalyst surface area during the experiment with the promoted catalyst, but not with the unpromoted catalyst.

Ms. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts

2000-12-20

145

Financing Higher Education In Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines financing higher education in Nigeria in the context of the deregulation policy. Higher education should be financed well. Both public and the private sectors should not be left out in the financing higher education. Factors affecting financing of higher education and possible sources of funding were also discussed. Private initiative was recommended as a compliment to public

Omolade Oluwatoyin Akinsanya

146

Higher Education in Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an analysis of, and proposals for, international cooperation in higher education. Focuses on Latin American higher education, its current situation, and the expected transformation of the goals of higher education in the context of international cooperation. Describes the challenges that globalization poses to Latin American higher

Romeao, Jose Raymundo Martins

2003-01-01

147

Extending the ICRF to Higher Radio Frequencies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present astrometric and imaging results for compact extragalactic objects observed with the Very Long Baseline Array at radio frequencies of 24 and 43 GHz. Data were obtained from ten 24-hour observing sessions made over an approximately 5-year period. These observations were motivated by the need to extend the International Celestial Reference Frame to higher radio frequencies to enable improved deep space navigation after 2015 and to improve state-of-the-art astrometry. With observations over five years we have achieved a precision at 24 GHz approaching that of the ICRF but unaccounted for systematic errors such as residual tropospheric and ionospheric refraction limit the overall accuracy of the catalogs. We conclude that the reduction in the effects due to source structure gained by observing at higher frequencies will result in an improved celestial reference frame and a pool of high-quality fiducial reference points for use in spacecraft navigation over the next decade.

Fey, Alan Lee; Boboltz, D.; Charlot, P.; Fomalont, E.; Lanyi, G.; Jacobs, C.; K-Q VLBI Survey Collaboration

2009-05-01

148

Higher Education Research in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though higher education research has grown substantially over the last three or four decades, it is still conceived as a relatively\\u000a small and vulnerable field of research. Higher education research both gains and suffers from the fact that there are no clear\\u000a borderlines between higher educational researchers and other higher education “experts”. Academic research on higher education\\u000a has gained some

Ulrich Teichler

149

Adaptive significance of root grafting in trees.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Root grafting has long been observed in forest trees but the adaptive significance of this trait has not been fully explained. Various authors have proposed that root grafting between trees contributes to mechanical support by linking adjacent root system...

C. Loehle R. Jones

1988-01-01

150

The detection of clinically significant erythrocyte alloantibodies using a human mononuclear phagocyte assay  

SciTech Connect

Red blood cell (RBC) allo- or autoantibodies, which markedly reduce the survival of transfused or autologous RBC, are considered to be clinically significant antibodies. The occurrence of antibodies against high-incidence antigens, which are occasionally associated with clinically significant RBC destruction or are of unknown clinical significance, often creates delays in providing blood to patients. In the majority of cases these antibodies are benign; however, clinically significant examples of these antibodies have been reported. An in vitro homologous human mononuclear phagocyte assay (MPA) was used to study antibodies directed against specificities associated with variable clinical significance. Two antibodies reported to be clinically significant and 25 antibodies known to be clinically insignificant were tested by MPA. The results indicate that clinically significant antibodies have a significantly higher score than do clinically insignificant antibodies, with no overlap observed between the two groups. An additional eight antibodies with unknown clinical significance were tested. None of these antibodies had scores in the clinically significant range.

Schanfield, M.S.; Stevens, J.O.; Bauman, D.

1981-01-01

151

Contacts in Higher Education. Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide lists the names and addresses of the 132 universities and colleges funded the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE). The guide is divided into these sections: (1) universities; (2) higher education colleges; (3) universities and higher education colleges by region; (4) further education colleges funded by the HEFCE; and…

Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

152

Capital Formation in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for new capital in higher education and major areas where the interests of the business and higher education communities are aligned are considered. Higher education is a major employer and makes a large contribution to the gross national product. Human capital has become the accepted term for referring to the contribution of education,…

Frances, Carol; Coldren, Sharon L.

153

Higher Education and the Market  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper, the author explores the answers to the following questions: (1) What does the "marketisation" of higher education mean? (2) What are the potential implications for United Kingdom higher education? and (3) How should everyone handle those implications? He also cites the three main reasons why higher education cannot simply be left…

Brown, Roger

2008-01-01

154

Higher Education in the Eighties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Events and conditions over the last 20 years that have altered the course of higher education are briefly noted, and trends in higher education for the early eighties are examined. Among the past influences on higher education that illustrate the wisdom of planning for a realistic period of time, such as five years, are the following: the massive…

McComas, James D.

155

Higher Education in the Eighties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Events and conditions over the last 20 years that have altered the course of higher education are briefly noted, and trends in higher education for the early eighties are examined. Among the past influences on higher education that illustrate the wisdom of planning for a realistic period of time, such as five years, are the following: the massive…

McComas, James D.

156

Commitment to Higher Vocational Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a history of the College of Higher Vocational Studies (CHVS) since it was established in 1991 and provides commentary on developments in higher vocational education in Hong Kong during a period of unprecedented change and development in the provision of the Higher Diploma. "Principal's Diary" (Bradford Imrie) describes the…

Imrie, Brad; And Others

157

Higher Education and Public Good  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Policy debate about whether to maintain public subsidies for higher education has stimulated reconsideration of the public mission of higher education institutions, especially those that provide student places conferring private benefits. If the work of higher education institutions is defined simply as the aggregation of private interests, this…

Marginson, Simon

2011-01-01

158

Equity in Spanish higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most outstanding event in the recent evolution of higher education in developed countries has been the continuously increasing proportion of students entering higher education and, therefore, its extension to more and more inclusive groups. It seems reasonable to assume that the expansion of higher education must have facilitated access of less privileged social classes, but it is important to

Jose´-Gine´s Mora

1997-01-01

159

Higher education reform in Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the crisis in Romanian universities since the country's political transition in 1989, and describes the government's strategy for revitalizing the higher education system. Attention is drawn to the expansion of access to higher education, the dramatic increase of enrollments in social science fields, the spontaneous establishment of private higher education institutions, and to the many difficulties institutions

Thomas Owen Eisemon; Ioan Mihailescu; Lazar Vlasceanu; Catalin Zamfir; John Sheehan; Charles H. Davis

1995-01-01

160

All Things Being Equal: Observing Australian Individual Academic Workloads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The achievement of greater gender equity within Australian universities is a significant issue for both the quality and the strength of Australian higher education. This paper contributes to our knowledge of academic workloads, observing individual workloads in business faculties. A multiple case study method was employed to observe individual…

Dobele, Angela; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Kopanidis, Foula; Steel, Marion

2010-01-01

161

Biophysical characterization of higher plant Rubisco activase.  

PubMed

Rubisco activase (Rca) is a chaperone-like protein of the AAA+ family, which uses mechano-chemical energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to release tightly bound inhibitors from the active site of the primary carbon fixing enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate oxygenase/carboxylase (Rubisco). Mechanistic and structural investigations of Rca have been hampered by its exceptional thermolability, high degree of size polydispersity and propensity towards subunit aggregation. In this work, we have characterized the thermal stability and self-association behavior of recombinant Rca preparations, and have developed ligand screening methods. Thermal denaturation profiles generated by circular dichroism indicate that creosote and tobacco short-form Rcas are the most stable proteins examined, with an estimated mid-point temperature of 45-47°C for protein denaturation. We demonstrate that ADP provides a higher degree of stabilization than ATP, that magnesium ions have a small stabilizing effect on ATP-bound, but a significant destabilizing effect on ADP-bound Rca, and that phosphate provides weak stabilization of the ADP-bound form of the protein. A dimeric species was identified by size-exclusion chromatography, suggesting that the two-subunit module may comprise the basic building block for larger assemblies. Evidence is provided that chromatographic procedures reflect non-equilibrium multimeric states. Dynamic light scattering experiments performed on nucleotide-bearing Rca support the notion that several larger, highly polydisperse assembly states coexist over a broad concentration range. No significant changes in aggregation are observed upon replacement of ADP with ATP. However, in the absence of nucleotides, the major protein population appears to consist of a monodisperse oligomer smaller than a hexamer. PMID:22985719

Henderson, J Nathan; Hazra, Suratna; Dunkle, Alison M; Salvucci, Michael E; Wachter, Rebekka M

2012-09-14

162

Alternatives to Statistical Significance Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers increasingly recognize that significance tests are limited in their ability to inform scientific practice. Common errors in interpreting significance tests and three strategies for augmenting the interpretation of significance test results are illustrated. The first strategy for augmenting the interpretation of significance tests…

Palomares, Ronald S.

163

The Political Dynamics of Higher Education Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents a framework informed by spatial models of politics to explain the dynamics of political competition in higher education policy and, in particular, the observed instability in the relationship between political variables and policy outcomes. To this end, I explore competing hypotheses for the relationship between government…

Dar, Luciana

2012-01-01

164

Higher Education Vertical Infrastructure Maintenance Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assist higher education facility officers in documenting their financial needs for renewing and renovating existing physical facilities, this study examined the accuracy against observed conditions of the tools used to identify vertical infrastructure maintenance needs in a large public university. Data developed for U.S. Army facilities is…

Weidner, Theodore J.

165

Strategic Technology Planning in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Higher education institutions struggle with planning for future needs, growth, and, sometimes, contraction. As student populations expand and as faculty members adopt new technologies, universities struggle to support these needs. To the casual observer, it may seem that the technology planning process is haphazard. This article details a process…

Nguyen, Frank; Frazee, James P.

2009-01-01

166

Dynamic changes and the role of the cytoskeleton during the cell cycle in higher plant cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In higher plant cells microtubules (MTs) show dynamic structural changes during cell cycle progression and play significant roles in cell morphogenesis. The cortical MT (CMT), preprophase band (PPB), and phragmoplast, all of which are plant-specific MT structures, can be observed during interphase, from the late G2 phase to prophase, and from anaphase to telophase, respectively. The CMT controls cell shape,

Seiichiro Hasezawa; Fumi Kumagai

2002-01-01

167

31 CFR 561.404 - Significant transaction or transactions; significant financial services; significant financial...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...transaction or transactions; significant financial services; significant financial transaction. 561.404 Section...Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN FINANCIAL SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

2013-07-01

168

Access and Equity in Higher Education in Antigua and Barbuda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across the international higher education spectrum access represents a significant issue. The literature is replete with analyses of access in various higher education systems. Low and inequitable patterns of participation in higher education are particularly prominent in developing countries. This dissertation is a case study of the higher

Hewlett-Thomas, Elsie

2009-01-01

169

Access and Equity in Higher Education in Antigua and Barbuda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Across the international higher education spectrum access represents a significant issue. The literature is replete with analyses of access in various higher education systems. Low and inequitable patterns of participation in higher education are particularly prominent in developing countries. This dissertation is a case study of the higher

Hewlett-Thomas, Elsie

2009-01-01

170

Higher-Twist Dynamics in Large Transverse Momentum Hadron Production  

SciTech Connect

A scaling law analysis of the world data on inclusive large-p{perpendicular} hadron production in hadronic collisions is carried out. Significant deviations from leading-twist perturbative QCD predictions at next-to-leading order are observed, particularly at high x{perpendicular} = 2p {perpendicular}/{radical}s. In contrast, the production of prompt photons and jets exhibits near-conformal scaling behavior in agreement with leading-twist expectations. These results indicate a non-negligible contribution of higher-twist processes in large-p{perpendicular} hadron production, where the hadron is produced directly in the hard subprocess, rather than by quark and gluon fragmentation. Predictions for the scaling exponents at RHIC and LHC are given. Triggering on isolated large-p{perpendicular} hadron production will enhance the higher-twist processes. We also note that the use of isolated hadrons as a signal for new physics can be affected by the presence of direct hadron production.

Arleo, F.; Brodsky, S.; Hwang, D.; Sickles, A.

2010-08-06

171

Higher-twist dynamics in large transverse momentum hadron production.  

PubMed

A scaling law analysis of the world data on inclusive large-p(?) hadron production in hadronic collisions is carried out. Significant deviations from leading-twist perturbative QCD predictions at next-to-leading order are observed, particularly at high x(?)=2p(?)/sqrt[s]. In contrast, the production of prompt photons and jets exhibits near-conformal scaling behavior in agreement with leading-twist expectations. These results indicate a non-negligible contribution of higher-twist processes in large-p(?) hadron production, where the hadron is produced directly in the hard subprocess, rather than by quark and gluon fragmentation. Predictions for the scaling exponents at RHIC and LHC are given. Triggering on isolated large-p(?) hadron production will enhance the higher-twist processes. We also note that the use of isolated hadrons as a signal for new physics can be affected by the presence of direct hadron production. PMID:20867975

Arleo, François; Brodsky, Stanley J; Hwang, Dae Sung; Sickles, Anne M

2010-08-06

172

ChemTeacher: Significant Figures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Significant Figures page includes resources for teaching students about understanding and using significant figures in calculations.

2011-01-01

173

Asian American Giving to US Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Asian Americans have had significant impacts on and within mainstream US society, and their great efforts and gifts in the name of charitable causes are no exception. This study aims to examine perceptions within American university development offices about Asian American giving to US higher education. The article begins with a literature review…

Tsunoda, Kozue

2010-01-01

174

Higher education for sustainable development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the significance of developments across Chinese higher education in the field of education and learning for sustainable development (SD) and to assess the relative impact of these initiatives. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This is a review of policy and practice to examine developments, challenges, and prospects for education for sustainable development (ESD)

Dongjie Niu; Dahe Jiang; Fengting Li

2010-01-01

175

PODCASTING IN HIGHER EDUCATION: TOY OR TOOL?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Podcasting is the creation of audio or video files for use on ipods and other mp3 players. It allows the user to view or listen to downloadable files wherever or whenever desired. In higher education, podcasting is experiencing extraordinary growth. While a significant volume of literature exists both lauding and lamenting the incorporation of podcasts into university curricula, the authors

Russell Baker; Jeffery Harrison; Rhett Yates

176

Language and the Higher Thought Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of seven significant articles on higher thought processes stresses the important relationship of these processes to the teaching of language skills. The articles are: (1) "Language and the Habit of Credulity" by Russell G. Stauffer. (2) "Research on the Processes of Thinking with Some Applications to Reading " by David H. Russell,…

Stauffer, Russell G., Ed.

177

Mark Edwards: Mission Impossible in Higher Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This case chronicles some of the problems a corporate executive encountered on his transition from the private sector to the deanship of the College of Business in a university of higher education. His deanship, which resulted from the recent reorganization at State University, gave him significant responsibility for undergraduate and graduate…

Santora, Joseph C.; Sarros, James C.

2008-01-01

178

Improving Measurement of Productivity in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education is a linchpin of the American economy and society: Teaching and research at colleges and universities contribute significantly to the nation's economic activity, both directly and through their impact on future growth; federal and state governments support teaching and research with billions of taxpayers' dollars; and individuals,…

Sullivan, Teresa A., Ed.; Mackie, Christopher, Ed.; Massy, William F., Ed.; Sinha, Esha, Ed.

2012-01-01

179

State Higher Education Report Cards: What's in a Grade?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subjected the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education's (NCPPHE's) recent state-by-state higher education report card to an independent analysis. All analyses resulted in significant relationships, which are compared with those offered by the NCPPHE. (EV)

Martinez, Mario C.; Farias, Jaime; Arellano, Eduardo

2002-01-01

180

Higher Education Trends and Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most people in higher education believe in continuity, in respecting traditions. That makes it easy to miss the startling changes and compelling opportunities that confront the academic enterprise. In this article, the author presents a few trends that are dramatically altering higher education in New England: (1) more women than men are…

Cronin, Joseph M.

2006-01-01

181

Higher Education, Poverty and Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is a presumption among many policy makers that higher education is not necessary for economic growth and development; it is literacy and basic education and at best secondary education that are argued to be important. Estimates of internal rate of return contributed to strengthening of such a presumption. Accordingly, higher education has…

Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

2010-01-01

182

Fact Book on Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) Fact Book on Higher Education" is one of the nation's most comprehensive collections of comparative data on higher education. For decades, state leaders, policy-makers, researchers and journalists have used the "Fact Book" to find useful data quickly--and to learn more about long-term trends and…

Marks, Joseph L.; Diaz, Alicia A.

2009-01-01

183

Leading Change in Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the situation in the UK higher education system and investigates specifically the leadership practice in a cluster of UK institutions as they changed their status. The research goes further to advocate a form of contextualized leadership that is relevant to higher institutions under change.

Ian McRoy; Paul Gibbs

2009-01-01

184

Higher education in a box  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how transfer students interact with a higher education setting that is reacting to new state-mandated accountability goals, and to understand higher education institutions and their environments when faced with new accountability measures. The larger purpose of the study is to develop a grounded theory that helps all players understand the

Susan Poch

2005-01-01

185

Higher Education in a Box  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how transfer students interact with a higher education setting that is reacting to new state-mandated accountability goals, and to understand higher education institutions and their environments when faced with new accountability measures. The larger purpose of the study is to develop a grounded…

Poch, Susan

2005-01-01

186

Higher Education, Poverty and Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a presumption among many policy makers that higher education is not necessary for economic growth and development; it is literacy and basic education and at best secondary education that are argued to be important. Estimates of internal rate of return contributed to strengthening of such a presumption. Accordingly, higher education has…

Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

2010-01-01

187

PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT IN HIGHER EDUCATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several methods of performance assessment used by corporations that can be applied in higher education institutions as well. One Hungarian and one foreign example show that it is an effective way of forming a solid basis for fair renumeration and thus for motivating employees. On a long run it would be inevitably necessary for making Hungarian higher education

Gabriella Keczer

2008-01-01

188

"Accessions": Researching, Designing Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This brief viewpoint piece depicts educational (dis)engagements apparent in researching and (re)designing higher education in and through "Accessions". "Accessions", a collaborative research-design project, probed at how cultures, climates and conditions of higher education may be reproducing or reshaping social inequalities and divisions. Here,…

Taylor, Yvette

2011-01-01

189

Empowering Women in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book focuses on enabling and empowering women in higher education, and it draws both on research and experience with women-centered teaching and learning practices and professional development and training of women staff. The first section of the book concentrates on women students in higher education. Chapters include: "Women Students and…

Wisker, Gina

190

History of American Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"History of American Higher Education" documents the fascinating evolution of American colleges and universities, touching on the historical events that shaped them, from the colonial era through the early twenty-first century. Throughout history, higher education has played an important role in the transmission of cultural identity from one…

McCarthy, Margaret Cain

2011-01-01

191

Higher Moments in Conformal Turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical consequences of conformal turbulence are obtained by calculating higher moments in the inertial range with constant enstrophy flux cascade. We have also studied the boundary effects in these higher moments. Our results show deviations from Kolmogorov-type scaling laws.

Chen, Chia-Chu

192

Is Philanthropy "Abandoning" Higher Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The relationship between philanthropy and higher education has become mutually beneficial and interdependent. So why is there now talk of philanthropy abandoning higher education? In this article, the author dispels some of the current myths and encourages campus leaders to develop a new understanding of what foundations can and cannot offer…

Bernstein, Alison R.

2003-01-01

193

The Opening of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a 1974 report presented to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Martin Trow laid out a framework for understanding large-scale, worldwide changes in higher education. Trow's essay also pointed to the problems that "arise out of the transition from one phase to another in a broad pattern of development of higher

Matkin, Gary W.

2012-01-01

194

"Accessions": Researching, Designing Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief viewpoint piece depicts educational (dis)engagements apparent in researching and (re)designing higher education in and through "Accessions". "Accessions", a collaborative research-design project, probed at how cultures, climates and conditions of higher education may be reproducing or reshaping social inequalities and divisions. Here,…

Taylor, Yvette

2011-01-01

195

The Overselling of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is not enough substance behind a degree to warrant the ubiquitous belief that a stint in higher education is a "sine qua non" for success in America. While college diplomas may translate into higher-paying jobs for some, high school signifies little in the way of education these days, so jaded employers' estimates of the real value of…

Leef, George C.

2006-01-01

196

Higher Education: Open for Business  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book addresses a problem in higher learning, which is newly recognized in the academic spotlight: the overcommercialization of higher education. The book asks that you, the reader, think about the following: Did you go to a Coke or Pepsi school? Do your children attend a Nike or Adidas school? Is the college in your town a Dell or Gateway…

Gilde, Christian, Ed.

2007-01-01

197

New Labour and Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The essay does not seek to add to the scholarly literature on UK higher education, so much as to give a sympathetic account of the dilemmas confronting a progressive government of almost any political stripe and especially one that faces the constraints of New Labour. It begins paradoxically by pointing out that serious investment in higher

Ryan, Alan

2005-01-01

198

Collective Bargaining in Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The public sector of higher education is expanding rapidly, while the private sector is not. As a result, both the number and proportion of faculty members employed by public colleges and universities are increasing. It is clear that the current debate about collective bargaining for public servants is of profound importance to higher education. Until recently, this problem had been

Brown Ralph S. Jr

1969-01-01

199

SOS for Higher Order Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We lay the foundations for a Structural Operational Seman - tics (SOS) framework for higher order processes Then, we propose a number of extensions to Bernstein's promoted tyft\\/tyxt format which aims at proving congruence of strong bisimilarity for higher order pro - cesses The extended format is called promoted PANTH This format is easier to apply and strictly more

Mohammad Reza Mousavi; Murdoch J. Gabbay; Michel A. Reniers

2005-01-01

200

Promoting Diversity in Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many institutions are working on ways in which they can promote diversity. Within a diverse society, there are so many different cultures. Faculty, staff, and administrators have been working hard to implement strategies that will assist in diversifying their institution of higher education. As we continue to advance through the millennium, institutions of higher education are making changes in their

Shante Moore-Austin

2007-01-01

201

Women and American Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article traces the history of the develop ment of higher educational opportunities f or women in the United States. The first part shows that the development of higher education for women has been closely related to the economy's need for female workers with particular skills and to the financial needs of colleges and universities. Secondly, it documents that neither

Pamela Roby

1972-01-01

202

Higher Education: A Closer Look  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the United States moves toward expanding programs for pre-kindergarten children, leaders in higher education are asking themselves some how-to questions about implementation. This article summarizes nine facts about higher education. One of these facts is the growing demand for teachers qualified with a bachelor's degree in Early Care and…

Morgan, Gwen

2009-01-01

203

Higher Education in New York.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|New York State higher education policy and finance are discussed in four articles. In "Higher Education and Public Policy in New York," Frederick S. Lane considers the state's institutions, policymakers and politics, financing of colleges, enrollment patterns, links to economic development, and the changing educational environment. Paul T.…

Lane, Frederick, Ed.

1983-01-01

204

Exploring higher education financing options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher education can be financed privately, financed by governments, or shared. Given that the benefits of education accrue to the individual and the state, many governments opt for shared financing. This article examines the underpinnings of different options for financing higher education and develops a model to compare conditions to choices and outcomes. As an illustration, it then uses the

Kofi K. Nkrumah-Young; Philip Powell

2011-01-01

205

Strategic Planning for Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The framework necessary for achieving a strategic planning posture in higher education is outlined. The most important benefit of strategic planning for higher education decision makers is that it forces them to undertake a more market-oriented and systematic approach to long- range planning. (Author/MLW)|

Kotler, Philip; Murphy, Patrick E.

1981-01-01

206

Numerical modeling of higher order magnetic moments in UXO discrimination  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The surface magnetic anomaly observed in unexploded ordnance (UXO) clearance is mainly dipolar, and consequently, the dipole is the only magnetic moment regularly recovered in UXO discrimination. The dipole moment contains information about the intensity of magnetization but lacks information about the shape of the target. In contrast, higher order moments, such as quadrupole and octupole, encode asymmetry properties of the magnetization distribution within the buried targets. In order to improve our understanding of magnetization distribution within UXO and non-UXO objects and to show its potential utility in UXO clearance, we present a numerical modeling study of UXO and related metallic objects. The tool for the modeling is a nonlinear integral equation describing magnetization within isolated compact objects of high susceptibility. A solution for magnetization distribution then allows us to compute the magnetic multipole moments of the object, analyze their relationships, and provide a depiction of the anomaly produced by different moments within the object. Our modeling results show the presence of significant higher order moments for more asymmetric objects, and the fields of these higher order moments are well above the noise level of magnetic gradient data. The contribution from higher order moments may provide a practical tool for improved UXO discrimination. ?? 2008 IEEE.

Sanchez, V.; Yaoguo, L.; Nabighian, M. N.; Wright, D. L.

2008-01-01

207

Oligosaccharides: Occurrence, Significance, and Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter is exclusively devoted to the occurrence, significance and physical and randomly selected chemical properties of various group of disaccharides, trisaccharides, tetrasaccharides, pentasaccharides and hexasaccharides.

Witczak, Zbigniew J.

208

Cosserat Operators of Higher Order  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A higher order version of Cosserat Operators is introduced. With a compactness result (the proof of which we can only sketch here, for details see Riedl in Cosserat operators of higher order and applications, PhD thesis, University of Bayreuth, 2010) based on a regularization property of these operators we gain insight to invertibility of the operator div : {H^{m,q}_0 (G) ? H^{m-1,q}_{0,0} (G)}, where {m in {N}, 1 < q < ?} and {G subset {R}^n} is a bounded domain with sufficiently smooth boundary. As an application, we get a very simple and effective method of treating higher order generalizations of Stokes' system.

Riedl, Thorsten

2013-04-01

209

Happiness, health, and religiosity: Significant relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work was to test for an association between, and gender differences in, happiness, physical health, mental health, and religiosity. Four separate self-rating scales of these variables with good retest reliability were used. The sample comprised 2,210 male (n?=?1,056) and female (n?=?1,154) volunteer Kuwaiti undergraduates. Males had a significantly higher self-rating mean score of happiness and

Ahmed M. Abdel-Khalek

2006-01-01

210

Guelph Physics Tutorials: Significant Digits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website offers a tutorial on significant digits. The tutorial includes an introduction to significant digits, example problems, and a series of self-paced questions. This is part of series of tutorials on physics and mathematics used in physics classes.

2008-09-03

211

Higher Education: Labor Market Linkage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the methodology of three case studies investigating the linkage between higher education and the world of work in the Sudan, Zambia, and Tanzania. Summarizes 12 main findings. Suggests the studies remain traditional human resources planning efforts. (NEC)

Asayeghn, Desta

1982-01-01

212

Synthesis of higher monocarboxylic acids  

SciTech Connect

Brown-coal and peat waxes contain higher monocarboxylic acids, alcohols and esters of them as their main components. In view of this, considerable interest is presented by the preparation of individual compounds among those mentioned above, which is particularly important in the study of the composition and development of the optimum variants of the chemical processing of the waxes. In laboratory practice, to obtain higher monocarboxylic acids use is generally made of electrosynthesis according to Kolbe which permits unbranched higher aliphatic acids with given lengths of the hydrocarbon chain to be obtained. The aim of the present work was to synthesize higher monocarboxylic acids: arachidic, behenic, lignoceric, pentacosanoic, erotic, heptacosanoic, montanic, nonacosanoic, melissic, dotriacontanoic and tetratriacontanoic, which are present in waxes. Characteristics of synthesized acids are tabulated. 20 refs.

Taikov, B.F.; Novakovskii, E.M.; Zhelkovskaya, V.P.; Shadrova, V.N.; Shcherbik, P.K.

1981-01-01

213

Professional Development in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses challenges facing higher education faculty and considers faculty development in the context of the learning organization using its five components: personal mastery, team learning, mental models, shared vision, and systems thinking. (Contains 29 references.) (SK)|

Brancato, Vera C.

2003-01-01

214

Significant Scales in Community Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of ``significance'' of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine ``good'' resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationality plays no role.

Traag, V. A.; Krings, G.; van Dooren, P.

2013-10-01

215

Significant Scales in Community Structure  

PubMed Central

Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of “significance” of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine “good” resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationality plays no role.

Traag, V. A.; Krings, G.; Van Dooren, P.

2013-01-01

216

American Indian Higher Education Consortium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC), since 1972, has been the collective spirit and voice of our nation's Tribal Colleges and Universities, advocating on behalf of individual institutions of higher education that are defined and controlled by their respective tribal nations. AIHEC's mission is to nurture, advocate, and protect American Indian history, culture, art and language, and the legal and human rights of American Indian people to their own sense of identity and heritage.

217

Higher-order Fibonacci numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a generalization of Fibonacci numbers that was motivated by the relationship of the HosoyaZ topological index to the Fibonacci numbers. In the case of the linear chain structures the new higher order Fibonacci numbershFn are directly related to the higher order Hosoya-typeZ numbers. We investigate the limitsFn\\/Fn-1 and the corresponding equations, the roots of which allow one to

Milan Randi?; Daniel A. Morales; Oswaldo Araujo

1996-01-01

218

Institutional change and higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Institutional change includes the supplanting of the old model of production with a new one, the elimination of old markets\\u000a and the emergence of new ones. As higher education around the world shifts from national markets to an integrated transnational\\u000a market, and possibly toward a virtual market, Christian higher education, like other market sectors, will have the opportunity\\u000a to redefine

Steven Loomis; Jacob Rodriguez

2009-01-01

219

Achieving higher Gamma plasmas using higher ionization states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent simulation predicted that higher values of the strong coupling parameter in ultracold neutral plasmas can be realized if the plasma ions are excited to higher ionization states. The maximum value of ? depends on the time at which the second ionization pulse arrives. We describe an experiment in laser-cooled calcium. Neutral atoms in a MOT are ionized using laser pulses at 423 and 390 nm. These ions are ionized again to Ca^2+ using laser pulses at 397, 210, and 434 nm. In this presentation we will describe the current status of the experiment.

Rock, Nathan; Wilkins, Abigail; Lyon, Mary; Bergeson, Scott

2012-06-01

220

Conformally invariant higher order higher spin operators on the sphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study conformally invariant differential operators on functions valued in Spin(n)-representations with halfintegral highest weights (higher spin representations) on the sphere. We show that for most of these representations there is a unique such operator of arbitrary odd order, and construct new examples for the highest weight (52,12,...12), using the spectrum generating method by Branson, Ørsted and Ólafsson [6]. These operators are higher spin analogs of the conformally invariant powers of Dirac operator first constructed by Liu and Ryan [21].

Šmíd, Dalibor

2012-11-01

221

The Nature of Work and the Stress of Higher Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Are occupational and work conditions associated with work-to-home conflict? If so, do those associations vary by gender? Among a sample of adults in Toronto, Canada, we found that men and women in higher-status occupations reported higher levels of work-to-home conflict than workers in lower-status jobs. In addition, we observed higher levels of…

Schieman, Scott; Whitestone, Yuko Kurashina; Van Gundy, Karen

2006-01-01

222

Higher Minimum Wage and High School Dropout Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore whether higher levels of the real minimum wage have differing effects on high school dropout rates across students of various races and ethnicities (whites, African Americans, Hispanics, and Asians). Using a panel of data across Maryland counties and annual observations in 1993-2004, we found higher real minimum wages to be associated with higher dropout rates for Hispanic students,

Stephanie O. Crofton; William L. Anderson; Emily C. Rawe

2009-01-01

223

Protein conformational space in higher order ?-? maps  

PubMed Central

We have mapped protein conformational space from two to seven residue lengths by employing multidimensional scaling on a data matrix composed of pair-wise angular distances for multiple ?-? values collected from high-resolution protein structures. The resulting global maps show clustering of peptide conformations that reveals a dramatic reduction of conformational space as sampled by experimentally observed peptides. Each map can be viewed as a higher order ?-? plot defining regions of space that are conformationally allowed.

Sims, Gregory E.; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Sung-Hou

2005-01-01

224

Duality completion of higher derivative corrections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new method for completing higher derivative corrections for theories that exhibit duality symmetries under reduction. This proposal is based on the observation that duality symmetry in the reduced theory highly constrains the form of the unreduced theory. We apply this idea to closed bosonic string theory and complete the Riemann squared term to simply derive the known full tree-level effective action to order ?'.

Godazgar, Hadi; Godazgar, Mahdi

2013-09-01

225

SIGNIFICANT NATURAL HERITAGE AREAS (NC)  

EPA Science Inventory

The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, developed the Significant Natural Heritage Areas digital data to determine the a...

226

Ramadan Observance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment from Religion & Ethics Newsweekly, an American Muslim family observes Ramadan, the month in which Muslims fast daily from sunrise to sunset in order to demonstrate piety and develop self-restraint.

Wnet

2008-08-21

227

Observing Insects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how to observe and study the fascinating world of insects in public parks, backyards, and gardens. Discusses the activities and habits of several common insects. Includes addresses for sources of beneficial insects, seeds, and plants. (nine references) (JJK)

Arbel, Ilil

1991-01-01

228

Special Observations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The wind or temperature profiler is a new special observation device designed to supplement traditional atmospheric measurement and provide more accurate middle-range forecasts, including aviation and space applications. Radar is most useful in the short,...

D. Beran

1988-01-01

229

Science Observations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover how to make science observations and explore and use tools like scientists. Learners use their senses and tools to collect information about an object. Learners model strategies and use skills that scientists use to answer questions about the world. Learners collect observations and words in a "Science Journal." This activity is featured on pp.13-14 (part of a lesson that begins on page 9) of the "ScienceWorks" K-2 unit of study.

Crosslin, Rick; Fortney, Mary; Indianapolis, The C.

2007-01-01

230

Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1993 after a government white paper called for more coherence in the reporting and collection of higher education statistics in the United Kingdom, the Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) is "the central source for higher education statistics." Not surprisingly, the site features a detailed area devoted to publications and data sets available from the HESA, some of which are available for no cost on the Web site, and others which may be ordered on CD-ROM. There are also a number of data sets available at no charge that may be viewed and printed, or downloaded for free. The data sets are mostly from 1994 to 2002, and include statistics on students (such as ethnicity, subject of study, and institution level), staff, and institutional incomes and expenditures. The site is rounded out with a collection of related links that lead to related government bodies and funding councils.

231

Black Holes in Higher Dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Black holes in four dimensions Gary Horowitz; Part II. Five Dimensional Kaluza-Klein Theory: 2. The Gregory-Laflamme instability Ruth Gregory; 3. Final state of Gregory-Laflamme instability Luis Lehner and Frans Pretorius; 4. General black holes in Kaluza-Klein theory Gary Horowitz and Toby Wiseman; Part III. Higher Dimensional Solutions: 5. Myers-Perry black holes Rob Myers; 6. Black rings Roberto Emparan and Harvey Reall; Part IV. General Properties: 7. Constraints on the topology of higher dimensional black holes Greg Galloway; 8. Blackfolds Roberto Emparan; 9. Algebraically special solutions in higher dimensions Harvey Reall; 10. Numerical construction of static and stationary black holes Toby Wiseman; Part V. Advanced Topics: 11. Black holes and branes in supergravity Don Marolf; 12. The gauge/gravity duality Juan Maldacena; 13. The fluid/gravity correspondence Veronika Hubeny, Mukund Rangamani and Shiraz Minwalla; 14. Horizons, holography and condensed matter Sean Hartnoll; Index.

Horowitz, Gary T.

2012-04-01

232

Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures  

PubMed Central

A major goal in translational cancer research is to identify biological signatures driving cancer progression and metastasis. A common technique applied in genomics research is to cluster patients using gene expression data from a candidate prognostic gene set, and if the resulting clusters show statistically significant outcome stratification, to associate the gene set with prognosis, suggesting its biological and clinical importance. Recent work has questioned the validity of this approach by showing in several breast cancer data sets that “random” gene sets tend to cluster patients into prognostically variable subgroups. This work suggests that new rigorous statistical methods are needed to identify biologically informative prognostic gene sets. To address this problem, we developed Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures (SAPS) which integrates standard prognostic tests with a new prognostic significance test based on stratifying patients into prognostic subtypes with random gene sets. SAPS ensures that a significant gene set is not only able to stratify patients into prognostically variable groups, but is also enriched for genes showing strong univariate associations with patient prognosis, and performs significantly better than random gene sets. We use SAPS to perform a large meta-analysis (the largest completed to date) of prognostic pathways in breast and ovarian cancer and their molecular subtypes. Our analyses show that only a small subset of the gene sets found statistically significant using standard measures achieve significance by SAPS. We identify new prognostic signatures in breast and ovarian cancer and their corresponding molecular subtypes, and we show that prognostic signatures in ER negative breast cancer are more similar to prognostic signatures in ovarian cancer than to prognostic signatures in ER positive breast cancer. SAPS is a powerful new method for deriving robust prognostic biological signatures from clinically annotated genomic datasets.

Beck, Andrew H.; Knoblauch, Nicholas W.; Hefti, Marco M.; Kaplan, Jennifer; Schnitt, Stuart J.; Culhane, Aedin C.; Schroeder, Markus S.; Risch, Thomas; Quackenbush, John; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin

2013-01-01

233

Complex higher order derivative theories  

SciTech Connect

In this work is considered a complex scalar field theory with higher order derivative terms and interactions. A procedure is developed to quantize consistently this system avoiding the presence of negative norm states. In order to achieve this goal the original real scalar high order field theory is extended to a complex space attaching a complex total derivative to the theory. Next, by imposing reality conditions the complex theory is mapped to a pair of interacting real scalar field theories without the presence of higher derivative terms.

Margalli, Carlos A.; Vergara, J. David [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, Mexico 04510 DF (Mexico)

2012-08-24

234

[Not significant--what now?].  

PubMed

In a statistical significance test a scientific problem is expressed by formulating a null hypothesis and an opposite alternative. Construction of an empirical decision rule usually focuses on control of the alpha-error, i.e. the probability of erroneously refusing the null hypothesis. Contrary to the alpha-error, the beta-error is not controlled and in general is of unknown size. Thus in case of a non-significant result the validity of the null hypothesis still may be highly questionable. Such an unwanted outcome of an applied test the researcher should try to avoid by choosing an appropriate study design. In case it occurs nevertheless, it is advised to further evaluate the (non-significant) result. This can be done by calculating confidence intervals of the tested effects. Furthermore the p-value can be interpreted as a metric measure of evidence against the null hypothesis. By means of a posterior power analysis the probability of a significant test result is estimated under the given circumstances. Thus possibly the applied test--under the assumption of actual validity of the alternative--turns out to have had hardly a chance of rejecting the null hypothesis. In this case the non-significant result (pointing towards the null hypothesis) is relativized substantially. On the other hand a large power points to a small probability of a beta-error. PMID:17213967

Gerss, J

2006-12-01

235

[Pharmaceutical significance of amorphous materials].  

PubMed

The solid-state characteristics play an important role during the development and manufacture of medicinal products, because they may influence the effectiveness, stability as well as the processibility of pharmaceutical systems. The amorphous state is critical in determining the solid-state physical and chemical properties of many pharmaceutical dosage forms. The main reason of the growing interest toward amorphous materials is the need to improve the bioavailability of compounds with poor aqueous solubility. However the disordered structure of higher energy state assures increased solubility and faster dissolution rate, the amorphous state is a non-equilibrium state. Materials often go through spontaneous transformations towards lower energy equilibrium states. PMID:18986089

Antal, István; Zelkó, Romána

2008-01-01

236

Access to Higher Education in China: Differences in Opportunity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Access to higher education in China has opened up significantly in the move towards a mass higher education system. However, aggregate growth does not necessarily imply fair or reasonable distribution of opportunity. In fact, the expansion of higher education has a rather more complex influence on opportunity when admissions statistics are viewed…

Wang, Houxiong

2011-01-01

237

Costs and Difficulties on the Way to a Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A higher education continues to be a significant value to young people; this is manifested clearly in the growth of the numbers enrolled in higher educational institutions of Russia. This article examines "the process by which young people achieve their goal"--obtaining a higher education--as a set of stages linked to specific kinds of costs. The…

Mogil'chak, E. L.

2012-01-01

238

Profile of Pacific Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Comparative data concerning institutions of higher education in the Pacific Islands are tabulated and summarized to aid in program planning, development, and implementation in that region. The jurisdictions covered are: American Samoa; Palau; the Northern Mariana Islands; Micronesia; Kosrae; Pohnpei; Truk; Yap; Guam; Hawaii; and the Marshall…

Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

239

Higher Education Space: Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports on a study of changing demands for space in United Kingdom (UK) higher education. Physical spaces that universities require are related to their functions in complex ways, and the connections between space and academic performance are not well understood. No simple algorithm can calculate a single university's space needs, but…

Temple, Paul; Barnett, Ronald

2007-01-01

240

Refocusing Higher Education Budget Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report proposes changes to the current higher education budget development process in Illinois in order to provide more information to institutions and to make the process more inclusive and open. It argues that budget development should be goal-based and accountable, responsive, incentive-based, recognize diversity of institutions, stable…

Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

241

Disability Studies in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As a topic of study, disability is not new at institutions of higher education. Psychological and intellectual disabilities have been of interest in psychiatry and psychology at least since the late 1800s and early 1900s. The post-World War II era, in particular, witnessed the rapid expansion of academic programs in special education, vocational…

Taylor, Steven J.

2011-01-01

242

Higher Education as Virtual Conversation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether or not it is an accurate portrayal, the old stereotype of higher education is the lecture hall, where students sit passively and take notes from a wise professor whose experience and knowledge can be shared only in the classroom. The professor's role is to dispense information, and the students' role is to receive it. However idealistic…

Robbins-Bell, Sarah

2008-01-01

243

Higher Education Evaluation in Germany  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Quality assurance in the area of higher education has become a central issue among both politicians and scientists. University evaluations which refer to both research and teaching are an important element of quality assurance. The present contribution starts out by determining the different components of quality at universities according to…

Schmidt, Bernhard; von Hippel, Aiga; Tippelt, Rudolf

2010-01-01

244

Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews developments in 2000 in the law of disability discrimination as it relates to higher education, which falls into five categories: (1) definition of a qualified individual; (2) accommodations, access, undue burden, and fundamental alteration of programs; (3) intentional discrimination, harassment, and retaliation; (4) Eleventh Amendment…

Weber, Mark C.

2002-01-01

245

Temporal higher-order contracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral contracts are embraced by software engineers because they document module interfaces, detect interface violations, and help identify faulty modules (packages, classes, functions, etc). This paper extends prior higher-order contract systems to also express and enforce temporal properties, which are common in software systems with imperative state, but which are mostly left implicit or are at best informally specified. The

Tim Disney; Cormac Flanagan; Jay McCarthy

2011-01-01

246

2011 Higher Education Sustainability Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looking through the lens of AASHE Bulletin stories in 2011, this year's review reveals an increased focus on higher education access, affordability, and success; more green building efforts than ever before; and growing campus-community engagement on food security, among many other achievements. Contributors include James Applegate (Lumina…

Wagner, Margo, Ed.

2012-01-01

247

Higher Education Reform in Romania.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the crisis in Romanian universities since the country's political transition in 1989. Describes the government's strategy for revitalizing the higher education system. Focuses on the proliferation of new public and private universities, the increase of student enrollments in applied social science fields, and the problems of diminishing…

Eisemon, Thomas Owen; Mihailescu, Ioan; Vlasceanu, Lazar; Zamfir, Catalin; Sheehan, John; Davis, Charles H.

1999-01-01

248

Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This brochure highlights some of the performance indicators used by Connecticut's public higher education institution to demonstrate accountability. This paper reports on the results of these goals: (1) Student Learning; (2) Learning in K-12; (3) Access and Affordability; (4) Economic Development; (5) Societal Needs; and (6) Resource Efficiency.…

Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

2008-01-01

249

Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This brochure highlights some of the performance indicators used by Connecticut's public higher education institution to demonstrate accountability. This paper reports on the results of these goals: (1) Student Learning; (2) Learning in K-12; (3) Access and Affordability; (4) Economic Development; (5) Societal Needs; and (6) Resource Efficiency.…

Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006

2006-01-01

250

OSHA: Implications for Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented in this document are several articles concerning recommendations about the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHA) and its implications for higher education. It is time for an educated look at facilities and programs and the beginning of plans which, in the long run, will bring colleges and universities into compliance with…

National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

251

Danger: Work on Higher Levels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Assessment Policy Committee of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has directed the NAEP staff to focus the 1985-86 Assessments of Reading, Mathematics, Science, and Computer Competence on the higher-order skills. Each Learning Area Committee worked independently developing three-dimensional models. These defined what could…

Lapointe, Archie E.

252

Leveraging Philanthropy in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Looking at potential sources of funding for education reform, Frederic Fransen outlines the dynamics in play as a pragmatist might calculate the worthiness of a cause for his philanthropy. Preeminent is bang for the buck, of course. And though the way to reinvigorate the insatiable blob of higher education isn't readily apparent to Dr. Fransen,…

Fransen, Frederic J.

2007-01-01

253

Student Loans for Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student loans are a rapidly growing $85 billion a year industry fueled by the substantial higher economic returns associated with a college education, increased demand from students and their parents, and grant and scholarship funds that have not kept pace with rising school tuition and fees. This report describes federally subsidized and…

Simons, Charlene Wear

2008-01-01

254

Supercomplexity in Higher Education Kinesiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article employs Barnett's (2004) specifications of the aspects that describe the times of "supercomplexity." This term characterizes the challenges universities are facing regarding the expanding and competing forces that are affecting higher education, particularly in the West. Outside forces related to globalization, digital technologies,…

Block, Betty A.; Estes, Steve

2011-01-01

255

Gender Issues within Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This handbook functions as a crown on the European Students' Union's work on gender equality over the past two years. Since the establishment of the Gender Equality Committee, a lot of work has been done to improve gender equality in higher education generally, and in student unions more particularly. This handbook gathers the experiences and…

European Students' Union (NJ1), 2008

2008-01-01

256

Higher Education and the Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proliferation of laws, regulations, and judicial opinions affecting higher education and the nature of the impact of these laws on the academic community are examined. Designed for use by both students and practitioners, the book employs the "case method" design based on the belief that law cases furnish the best sources for study and review…

Edwards, Harry T.; Nordin, Virginia Davis

257

Academic Rewards in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A colloquium series in higher education at the University of Minnesota in the fall and winter of 1977-1978 examined the influence of academic reward systems on faculty behavior and academic productivity. These essays are the collective results of their findings and recommendations. Essays include: "Perspectives from Psychology: Financial…

Lewis, Darrel R., Ed.; Becker, William E., Jr., Ed.

258

Hispanic Students in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To reflect the changing composition of ethnic groups in the population and the recorded aspirations of hispanic high school seniors, institutions of higher education must prepare for a dramatic increase in the numbers of hispanics attending in the decade of the 1980's. Outlined in the paper are factors which affect hispanic (Cuban, Mexican, and…

Martinez-Perez, Luis A.

259

Higher Education: An International Dimension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the future of society and argues education is the most vital form of social investment. Sees great value in overseas studies for all students. Defines requirements of an international dimension in higher education. Discusses the European Institute for Business Management (INSEAD) as a model for such programing. (NL)

Kitzinger, Uwe

1991-01-01

260

2011 Higher Education Sustainability Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Looking through the lens of AASHE Bulletin stories in 2011, this year's review reveals an increased focus on higher education access, affordability, and success; more green building efforts than ever before; and growing campus-community engagement on food security, among many other achievements. Contributors include James Applegate (Lumina…

Wagner, Margo, Ed.

2012-01-01

261

Higher Education Reform In Kyrgyzstan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kyrgyzstan, a former soviet republic in Central Asia, is currently going through a process of higher education reform to strengthen its system, many of the problems of which are a legacy of its soviet history. Reforms include the establishment of a national testing system for graduates of secondary education, the development of an ethics code to counter the buying of

Gary N. McLean

262

Managing Innovations in Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussed in the article is the concept of «technopark» ideology in regional development. The article describes how this ideology is implemented in consumer co-operatives institutions of higher education, dwells on their innovative strategies, best practices and challenges they face. «Technopark» innovative concept is a system of social development ideas which rests on «the economy of competence» values. In Novosibirsk region

Marina V. KHAYRULLINA

2011-01-01

263

Electronic Assessment in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Assessment is an important cornerstone of education. A world trend in staying abreast of the latest developments in the field of information and communication technology (ICT) has led to an increased demand for electronic assessment in education circles. The critical need and responsibility for higher education to stay on par with the latest…

Brink, Roelien; Lautenbach, Geoffrey

2011-01-01

264

Higher Education's Coming Leadership Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The full impact of the current recession on American higher education remains uncertain, but drops in applications, faculty autonomy and job security, frozen salaries and hiring processes, and scaling back of new facilities and programs are already being seen. American colleges face tough times ahead for teaching, research, and capital projects…

Appadurai, Arjun

2009-01-01

265

Emerging Trends in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This literature survey examines trends in higher education requiring a broad base of support from the changing institutions and the people who have to respond to, plan for, and manage the changes. Trends are identified in the areas of enrollment, financial aid, curricula, faculty, financial status, and assessment. Trends affecting enrollment…

Mayville, Zari

266

Higher Education Evaluation in Germany  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quality assurance in the area of higher education has become a central issue among both politicians and scientists. University evaluations which refer to both research and teaching are an important element of quality assurance. The present contribution starts out by determining the different components of quality at universities according to…

Schmidt, Bernhard; von Hippel, Aiga; Tippelt, Rudolf

2010-01-01

267

Affirmative Action in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the field of higher education, more and more cases of race and sex discrimination are going to court. This speech indicates why this may be happening, why the trend is a disturbing one, and how cases can be gotten out of the courts. Costs, time loss, and the personal degradation of the litigation process are cited, and the complex problems that…

Pottinger, J. Stanley

268

Digital Storytelling in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Digital storytelling is a promising instructional strategy as well as an emerging field of study in higher education. Courses on digital storytelling are offered in communications and creative writing programs at a number of universities. However, the potential for digital storytelling extends far beyond the fields of communication and media…

McLellan, Hilary

2007-01-01

269

American Higher Education in Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American higher education is in transition and if there ever was a "golden age" for faculty, it probably is behind us. The best historical data on the composition of faculty is collected annually by the American Mathematical Society. Between 1967 and 2009, the share of full-time faculty with PhDs remained constant at about 90 percent at doctoral…

Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

2011-01-01

270

Gender Equity in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 bans discrimination in schools receiving federal financial assistance with regard to both academics and athletics. The law has helped ensure that women have access to both academic and athletic opportunities at most higher education institutions in the United States, dramatically increasing the…

Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2006

2006-01-01

271

Electronic Assessment in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment is an important cornerstone of education. A world trend in staying abreast of the latest developments in the field of information and communication technology (ICT) has led to an increased demand for electronic assessment in education circles. The critical need and responsibility for higher education to stay on par with the latest…

Brink, Roelien; Lautenbach, Geoffrey

2011-01-01

272

Higher specialist training in rheumatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher specialist training in rheumatology, as in other specialties, has recently been subjected to major reforms. In the mid 1990s, Sir Kenneth Calman, then Chief Medical Officer, set out to bring the British system of specialist training into line with the requirements of the European Medical Directives. He chaired a working party that recommended combining the registrar and senior registrar

E. Paice; J. Dacre

2002-01-01

273

Two decades of higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coordinating editor provides a commentary by way of introduction to a complete list of all articles presented in Higher Education since its foundation in 1972. Information is supplied on the increases in frequency of publication and on the special issues which have appeared. The list of articles, by author, is supplemented by an index by geographical area, another by

Alec M. Ross

1992-01-01

274

An agenda for higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agenda for higher education in the United States today is overflowing with current problems: with cutbacks in student aid, with reductions in funds for research except as related to national defense, with the consequences of financial stringency in many states, with the adjustments to the great demographic depression that is just beginning. Seldom, if ever, have so many urgent

Clark Kerr

1982-01-01

275

Student Success in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Often, campus policies and public debate on student success has been too heavily focused on standardization of curriculum and assessment and on an unacceptably flawed graduation rate formula. The report, "Student Success in Higher Education," brings the voice of front-line faculty and staff into student success policymaking to ensure that ideas…

American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2011

2011-01-01

276

Women in Higher Education Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This volume contains 11 papers on the under-representation of women in higher education management in Bahrain, Finland, France, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Peru, the United States and Canada, the South Pacific and the West Indies. All papers were written by women vice-chancellors, presidents and senior managers of universities in those…

Commonwealth Secretariat, London (England).

277

Internal Audit in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book describes a range of examples of internal audit in higher education as part of a process of the exchange of good practice. The book recognizes well-established links with audit theory from other contexts and makes use of theoretical perspectives explored in the financial sector. The chapters are: (1) "Quality Audit Issues" (Sally Brown…

Holmes, Alison, Ed.; Brown, Sally, Ed.

278

Reliability analysis based on significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the expected increase of defects and errors in circuits based on deep submicron technologies, reliability has become an important design criterion. As reliability improvement is generally achieved by adding redundancy, identify and classify critical blocks of a circuit is a major concern. This work presents two new classification methods regarding the significance of a block with respect to

Lirida A. de B. Naviner; Jean-Francois Naviner; Tian Ban; G. S. Gutemberg

2011-01-01

279

Public Health Significance of Neuroticism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The personality trait of neuroticism refers to relatively stable tendencies to respond with negative emotions to threat, frustration, or loss. Individuals in the population vary markedly on this trait, ranging from frequent and intense emotional reactions to minor challenges to little emotional reaction even in the face of significant

Lahey, Benjamin B.

2009-01-01

280

Phylogeny and its clinical significance.  

PubMed

The creation of the universe, the origin of life, and the rise of the one celled organism to man are reviewed. The embryologic development of man recapitulates the entire phylogenesis. The evolution of the sense organs (ear and nose) and food and airway passages is discussed in detail. Finally, observations are made regarding phylogenetic development and its relation to human congenital malformations and other pathologic processes. PMID:7254846

Maniglia, A J; Noyek, A M

1981-02-01

281

"How to Strike the Right Balance between Quality Assurance and Quality Control in the Perceptions of Individual Lecturers": A Comparison of UK and Dutch Higher Education Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper focuses on the way lecturers observe, feel restrained by and cope with quality management systems that have been implemented in the higher education systems of the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. As two sides of the same coin, quality enhancement and quality control are of increased significance in European Higher Education…

Teelken, Christine; Lomas, Laurie

2009-01-01

282

EDITORIAL: Deeper, broader, higher, better?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Honorary Editor The standard of educational achievement in England and Wales is frequently criticized, and it seems to be an axiom of government that schools and teachers need to be shaken up, kept on a tight rein, copiously inspected, shamed and blamed as required: in general, subjected to the good old approach of: ' Find out what Johnny is doing and tell him to stop.' About the only exception to this somewhat severe attitude is at A-level, where the standard is simply golden. Often, comparisons are made between the performance of, say, English children and that of their coevals in other countries, with different customs, systems, aims and languages. But there has been a recent comparison of standards at A-level with a non-A-level system of pre-university education, in an English-speaking country that both sends students to English universities and accepts theirs into its own, and is, indeed, represented in the UK government at well above the level expected from its ethnical weighting in the population. This semi-foreign country is Scotland. The conclusions of the study are interesting. Scotland has had its own educational system, with `traditional breadth', and managed to escape much of the centralized authoritarianism that we have been through south of the border. It is interesting to note that, while for the past dozen years or so the trend in A-level Physics entries has been downwards, there has been an increase in the take-up of Scottish `Highers'. Highers is a one-year course. Is its popularity due to its being easier than A-level? Scottish students keen enough to do more can move on to the Certificate of Sixth Year Studies, and will shortly be able to upgrade a Higher Level into an Advanced Higher Level. A comparability study [ Comparability Study of Scottish Qualifications and GCE Advanced Levels: Report on Physics January 1998 (free from SQA)] was carried out by the Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) with the aim (amongst others) of helping universities make a fair comparison between grades attained in A-Levels and Highers, CSYS and Advanced Highers. It was a fairly limited exercise, but a careful one, carried out by examiners and teachers rather than statisticians. They compared syllabuses, questions and candidates' answers. I quote: '... the two years of study for A-level perhaps means that there is a secure, consolidated grasp of the basics; more than the Higher candidate after one year. But there is no evidence of this from candidates' scripts.' Comparing syllabuses, the report noted a greater mathematical demand in Scotland: 'The rigour or depth of treatment is generally lower in the Syllabus Y [an A-level syllabus.] than in CSYS or Advanced Higher because many topics have a qualitative treatment rather than the mathematical treatment of CSYS and AH.' Adding a certain sting to its tail, the report concludes: `Many of the CSYS candidates will have achieved excellent grades at Higher... in four or five subjects before proceeding to CSYS. Scottish candidates tend to have qualifications in a broader range of subjects.' Perhaps this is why they get to be in charge everywhere.

Dobson, Ken

1998-07-01

283

Driver Workload at Higher Speeds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this Texas Department of Transportation project was to gain a better understanding of driver performance at high speeds. Specific efforts included the following studies: (1) The Closed-Course Pilot Study consisted of observing and recording th...

A. Nelson E. S. Park J. Robertson K. Fitzpatrick S. Chrysler V. Iragavarapu

2010-01-01

284

Babylonian observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cuneiform tablets from Babylonia record lunar and solar eclipses, the presence and movement of comets, meteors and meteor showers. These have provided historical astronomers with much valuable data, but caution must be exercised when using such records, for accuracy of observation often ceded to astrological intent. In the future, texts from Assyria may also provide useful data for historical astronomers.

Brown, D. R.

285

Babylonian observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very few cuneiform records survive from Mesopotamia of datable astronomical observations made prior to the mid-eighth century BC. Those that do record occasional eclipses, and in one isolated case the dates of the heliacal rising and setting of Venus over a few years sometime in the first half of the second millennium BC. After the mid-eighth century BC the situation changes dramatically. Incomplete records of daily observations of astronomical and meteorological events are preserved from c. 747 BC until the Christian Period. These records are without accompanying ominous interpretation, although it is highly probable that they were compiled by diviners for astrological purposes. They include numerous observations of use to historical astronomers, such as the times of eclipses and occultations, and the dates of comet appearances and meteor showers. The question arises as to why such records do not survive from earlier times; celestial divination was employed as far back as the third millenium BC. It is surely not without importance that the earliest known accurate astronomical predictions accompany the later records, and that the mid-eighth century BC ushered in a period of centralised Assyrian control of Mesopotamia and the concomitant employment by the Assyrian ruler of large numbers of professional celestial diviners. The programme of daily observations evidently began when a high premium was first set on the accurate astronomical prediction of ominous events. It is in this light that we must approach this valuable source material for historical astronomy.

Brown, D.

286

Babylonian observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cuneiform tablets from Babylonia record lunar and solar eclipses, the presence and movement of comets, meteors and meteor showers. These have provided historical astronomers with much valuable data, but caution must be exercised when using such records, for accuracy of observation often ceded to astrological intent. In the future, texts from Assyria may also provide useful data for historical astronomers.

D. R. Brown

2002-01-01

287

Flare Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar flares are observed at all wavelengths from decameter radio waves to gamma-rays at 100 MeV. This review focuses on recent observations in EUV, soft and hard X-rays, white light, and radio waves. Space missions such as RHESSI, Yohkoh, TRACE, and SOHO have enlarged widely the observational base. They have revealed a number of surprises: Coronal sources appear before the hard X-ray emission in chromospheric footpoints, major flare acceleration sites appear to be independent of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), electrons, and ions may be accelerated at different sites, there are at least 3 different magnetic topologies, and basic characteristics vary from small to large flares. Recent progress also includes improved insights into the flare energy partition, on the location(s) of energy release, tests of energy release scenarios and particle acceleration. The interplay of observations with theory is important to deduce the geometry and to disentangle the various processes involved. There is increasing evidence supporting reconnection of magnetic field lines as the basic cause. While this process has become generally accepted as the trigger, it is still controversial how it converts a considerable fraction of the energy into non-thermal particles. Flare-like processes may be responsible for large-scale restructuring of the magnetic field in the corona as well as for its heating. Large flares influence interplanetary space and substantially affect the Earth's lower ionosphere. While flare scenarios have slowly converged over the past decades, every new observation still reveals major unexpected results, demonstrating that solar flares, after 150 years since their discovery, remain a complex problem of astrophysics including major unsolved questions.

Benz, Arnold O.

2008-02-01

288

Higher-spin theory and holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical reviews recent developments in higher-spin gauge theories and their applications to holographic dualities. The analysis of higher-spin theories has a very long history, but it took until the mid 1980s for the first consistent higher-spin interactions to be constructed by Bengtsson, Bengtsson and Brink [1] and Berends, Burgers and van Dam [2]. Somewhat later it was shown by Fradkin and Vasiliev [3] that consistent higher-spin gauge theories that involve gravity should necessarily be defined on a curved background. The first consistent interacting higher-spin theories were then formulated at the classical level by Vasiliev in the early 1990s [4]. These higher-spin theories involve an infinite number of massless higher-spin fields that support higher-spin gauge symmetries, and indeed, are largely characterized by this underlying gauge symmetry. The simplest examples are provided by higher-spin theories on (anti)-de Sitter spaces, and in a sense, this anticipated the AdS/CFT correspondence. Indeed, in the tensionless limit of string theory, the massive excitations of string theory become massless, and hence define higher-spin gauge fields. On the other hand, from the dual gauge theory perspective, this is the limit in which the field theory becomes free, and therefore has many conserved higher-spin currents. By the usual AdS/CFT dictionary, these are dual to the higher-spin gauge symmetries of the bulk description. Following this line of argument, Sundborg [5] and Witten [6] suggested in 2001 that a duality relating a higher-spin theory on AdSd to a weakly coupled (d - 1)-dimensional conformal field theory should exist. A concrete proposal was then made by Klebanov and Polyakov [7] who conjectured that the simplest version of a higher-spin gauge theory on AdS4 should be dual to the 3d O(N ) vector model. Recently, much support for this conjecture was obtained by Giombi and Yin [8], and in turn, this has triggered a significant amount of activity in this general area. Among other things, the constraints that are implied by the higher-spin symmetries were analysed (see the paper by Maldacena and Zhiboedov in this issue [9]), and a fairly concrete proposal for how higher-spin theories are related to string theory was made (see the paper by Chang, Minwalla, Sharma and Yin in this issue [10]). Furthermore, a lower dimensional version of the conjecture was put forward by Gaberdiel and Gopakumar [11] that was subsequently also checked in some detail. These dualities hold the promise of offering insights into the inner workings of the AdS/CFT correspondence since they are complex enough to capture the essence of the duality, while at the same time being sufficiently simple in order to allow for a detailed analysis. Moreover, the methods specifically developed in higher-spin theory may be useful for understanding a general mechanism underlying holography, both in higher-spin models and beyond (see the paper by Vasiliev in this issue [12]). Another fascinating aspect of these higher-spin theories lies in the fact that the higher-spin symmetries mix generically fields of different spin, and in particular, the spin-2 metric and higher-spin excitations are related to one another by gauge transformations. As a result, higher-spin theories require a modification of the standard framework of Riemannian geometry since the usual diffeomorphism-invariant tensors are not gauge invariant any longer. In particular, higher-spin theories may therefore open the way towards understanding fundamental concepts of space-time geometry; for example, they may well have key lessons in store for how string theory resolves space-time singularities. In this issue we have collected together a number of review papers, summarizing the aforementioned recent developments, as well as research papers indicating current directions of interest in the study of higher-spin gauge theories. We hope that it will be useful, both for beginners interested in an introduction to the subject, and for experts

Gaberdiel, Matthias; Vasiliev, Mikhail

2013-05-01

289

Statistical Significance of Threading Scores  

PubMed Central

Abstract We present a general method for assessing threading score significance. The threading score of a protein sequence, thread onto a given structure, should be compared with the threading score distribution of a random amino-acid sequence, of the same length, thread on the same structure; small p-values point significantly high scores. We claim that, due to general protein contact map properties, this reference distribution is a Weibull extreme value distribution whose parameters depend on the threading method, the structure, the length of the query and the random sequence simulation model used. These parameters can be estimated off-line with simulated sequence samples, for different sequence lengths. They can further be interpolated at the exact length of a query, enabling the quick computation of the p-value.

Fayyaz Movaghar, Afshin; Launay, Guillaume; Schbath, Sophie; Gibrat, Jean-Francois

2012-01-01

290

Clinical significance of chronic hyperamylasemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A longitudinal study of patients with persistent hyperamylasemia was carried out to evaluate the clinical significance of this condition. Twenty-five outpatients were studied by means of serum amylase, isoamylase (wheat germ-inhibition method), and lipase determination; macroamylase detection; and abdominal ultrasonography over a one-year period. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis was carried out to validate the wheat germ-inhibition tests; the results of the

M. Ventrucci; R. Pezzilli; D. Festi

1991-01-01

291

Massive Higher Derivative Gravity Theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis massive higher derivative gravity theories are analyzed in some detail. One-particle scattering amplitude between two covariantly conserved sources mediated by a graviton exchange is found at tree-level in $D$ dimensional (Anti)-de Sitter and flat spacetimes for the most general quadratic curvature theory augmented with the Pauli-Fierz mass term. From the amplitude expression, the Newtonian potential energies are

Ibrahim Gullu

2012-01-01

292

Lysine metabolism in higher plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   The essential amino acid lysine is synthesised in higher plants via a pathway starting with aspartate, that also leads to\\u000a the formation of threonine, methionine and isoleucine. Enzyme kinetic studies and the analysis of mutants and transgenic plants\\u000a that overaccumulate lysine, have indicated that the major site of the regulation of lysine synthesis is at the enzyme dihydrodipicolinate\\u000a synthase.

R. A. Azevedo; P. J. Lea

2001-01-01

293

Innate immunity in higher insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hallmark of the innate immune response of higher insects is the rapid and transient synthesis of a battery of broad spectrum antimicrobial peptides by the fat body. The control of the genes encoding these peptides involves cis-regulatory promoter elements homologous to sequences functional in mammalian acute-phase genes. Study of immune-deficient mutants of Drosophila has indicated that distinct pathways control

Jules A Hoffmann; Jean-Marc Reichhart; Charles Hetru

1996-01-01

294

Higher-derivative Quantum Cosmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantum cosmology of a higher-derivative gravity theory arising from the heterotic string effective action is reviewed. A new type of Wheeler–DeWitt equation is obtained when the dilaton is coupled to the quadratic curvature terms. Techniques for solving the Wheeler–DeWitt equation with appropriate boundary conditions shall be described, and implications for semiclassical theories of inflationary cosmology will be outlined.

Simon Davis

2000-01-01

295

Higher order antibunching in intermediate states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the introduction of binomial state as an intermediate state, different intermediate states have been proposed. Different nonclassical effects have also been reported in these intermediate states. But till now higher order antibunching is predicted in only one type of intermediate state, which is known as shadowed negative binomial state. Recently we have shown that the higher order antibunching is not a rare phenomenon [P. Gupta, P. Pandey, A. Pathak, J. Phys. B 39 (2006) 1137]. To establish our earlier claim further, here we have shown that the higher order antibunching can be seen in different intermediate states, such as binomial state, reciprocal binomial state, hypergeometric state, generalized binomial state, negative binomial state and photon added coherent state. We have studied the possibility of observing the higher order subpoissonian photon statistics in different limits of intermediate states. The effects of different control parameters on the depth of non classicality have also been studied in this connection and it has been shown that the depth of nonclassicality can be tuned by controlling various physical parameters.

Verma, Amit; Sharma, Navneet K.; Pathak, Anirban

2008-08-01

296

Glutamine Synthetases of Higher Plants 1  

PubMed Central

The chromatographic properties of glutamine synthetase isoforms have been investigated in a wide range of higher plant leaves and shoots using ion exchange chromatography. Different patterns of glutamine synthetase isoform content were observed. Among higher plants, four patterns or groups could be recognized. The first group is characterized by having only cytosolic glutamine synthetase, whereas the second group is distinguished by having only chloroplastic glutamine synthetase. The third group is characterized by cytosolic glutamine synthetase being a minor component of the total leaf glutamine synthetase activity. The fourth group is distinct from the other groups in having high cytosolic and chloroplast glutamine synthetase activity. Immunological studies have been undertaken on a few species from each group to identify unambiguously both cytosolic and chloroplastic glutamine synthetases. Images Fig. 2

McNally, Sheila F.; Hirel, Bertrand; Gadal, Pierre; Mann, A. Fred; Stewart, George R.

1983-01-01

297

Higher Learning, Greater Good: The Private and Social Benefits of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A college education has long been acknowledged as essential for both personal success and economic growth. But the measurable value of its nonmonetary benefits has until now been poorly understood. Walter W. McMahon, a leading education economist, carefully describes these benefits and suggests that higher education accrues significant social and…

McMahon, Walter W.

2009-01-01

298

Local Knowledge and Wisdom in Higher Education. Issues in Higher Education Series, Volume 14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers in this collection, derived from several sessions of the Commission for Indigenous Education, contain insightful accounts of the role of indigenous knowledge in higher education institutions across a variety of societies. The contributors examine the move to reaffirm the significance of local knowledge and wisdom and the resulting…

Teasdale, G. R., Ed.; Rhea, Zane Ma, Ed.

299

On the Philosophy of Higher Education. Revised Edition. The Jossey-Bass Series in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic academic issues such as institutional objectives, educational ethics, and methods of academic decision-making are examined in light of significant new social, economic, legal, and educational developments in this revision of the 1977 edition of "On the Philosophy of Higher Education." Focus is on the tension between pure research and social…

Brubacher, John S.

300

Futures for Higher Education: Analysing Trends. Higher Education: Meeting the Challenges of the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education in the United Kingdom is undergoing a period of significant change. This is being driven by a number of factors: political, cultural, economic, and technological. The trends are global in their scope, and far reaching in their impact. They affect every aspect of university provision, the environment in which universities operate,…

Universities UK, 2012

2012-01-01

301

Public Health Significance of Neuroticism  

PubMed Central

The personality trait of neuroticism refers to relatively stable tendencies to respond with negative emotions to threat, frustration, or loss. Individuals in the population vary markedly on this trait, ranging from frequent and intense emotional reactions to minor challenges to little emotional reaction even in the face of significant difficulties. Although not widely appreciated, there is growing evidence that neuroticism is a psychological trait of profound public health significance. Neuroticism is a robust correlate and predictor of many different mental and physical disorders, comorbidity among them, and the frequency of mental and general health service use. Indeed, neuroticism apparently is a predictor of the quality and longevity of our lives. Achieving a full understanding of the nature and origins of neuroticism, and the mechanisms through which neuroticism is linked to mental and physical disorders, should be a top priority for research. Knowing why neuroticism predicts such a wide variety of seemingly diverse outcomes should lead to improved understanding of commonalities among those outcomes and improved strategies for preventing them.

Lahey, Benjamin B.

2009-01-01

302

[Clinical significance of monoclonal gammopathy with undetermined significance--review].  

PubMed

Monoclonal gammopathy with undetermined significance (MGUS) is the most common plasma cell disorder, MGUS is an asymptomatic premalignant disorder, which is markedly underdiagnosed in the general population. The risk frequency of progression to multiple myeloma or a closely related plasma cell disorder was developed at a rate of 1.5% per year, indicating that the condition is not entirely benign. The cumulative probability of progression is 10% at 10 years, 21% at 20 years, and 26% at 25 years. As compared with control populations, the progression rate of MGUS into multiple myeloma, Waldenstr m's macroglobulinemia, AL amyloidosis and lymphoma were increased by 25, 46, 8.4 and 2.4 times respectively. Numerous reports suggest an association of MGUS with a wide variety of other malignant and nonmalignant diseases. The determining highest risk factors of progression, delaying or preventing the progression of MGUS, targeting at the highest risk of progression and improving overall quality of life, all of them are the current hot topics to be explored and summarized in this review. PMID:21129295

Wang, Xue-Wen; Li, Feng

2010-10-01

303

Vibration and buckling of bimodulus laminated plates according to a higher-order plate theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the governing equations of rectangular simply supported single-layer and two-layer cross-ply plates of bimodulus materials related to the higher order shear deformation terms. Natural frequency parameters and buckling coefficients obtained by the iteration method are compared with published results for ordinary thick plates. The Mindlin plate theory result can be obtained by simplifying the governing equation of the higher-order plate theory formulation. The effects of higher-order shear deformation terms on neutral surface locations, buckling coefficients and natural frequencies are evaluated by observing the difference between the present higher-order theory results and the Mindlin plate theory results. Also, the bending stress is shown to affect significantly the buckling coefficient Kcr and the non-dimensional frequency parameter ?.

Doong, J.-L.; Fung, C.-P.

1988-09-01

304

Lower Cortisol and Higher ACTH Levels in Individuals with Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood concentrations of pituitary hormones adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), prolactin, growth hormone, and adrenal hormone–cortisol were measured in 36 autistic and 27 control individuals. Individuals with autism had significantly lower serum concentrations of cortisol (p -6), and significantly higher concentrations of ACTH (p = 0.002) than control age- and sex-matched subjects. Also, prolactin concentrations in autistic patients with epilepsy were significantly higher

Jasna Marinovi? ?urin; Janoš Terzi?; Zorana Bujas Petkovi?; Ljubinka Zekan; Ivana Marinovi? Terzi?; Ivana Marasovi? Šušnjara

2003-01-01

305

Radar observables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive account is given of missile design considerations relevant to the prediction, control, and measurement of airframe radar cross sections (RCSs), with a view to the minimization of missile observability. RCS reduction may proceed through airframe shaping to deflect incident radar emissions, as well as through the use of radar-absorbing surface materials and the devision of active radar signal-cancellation methods; some combination of these is often required, due to the deficiencies of any one method. The interaction of all RCS-reduction methods with airframe aerodynamic-design criteria are stressed.

Knott, Eugene F.

306

CELESTE Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During March 2000 both CELESTE & CAT obtained good data samples for Mrk 421. Combining CELESTE's flux determination with CAT's spectral measurement allows us to constrain the position of the Inverse Compton peak of the spectral energy distribution for this epoch, using a spectral form compatible with archival EGRET measurements. We will present work-in-progress aimed at deriving a spectrum from CELESTE data. Using available X-ray data we explore the constraints we can apply to an SSC model of Mrk 421. We may have results of observations of other blazars for 2002, and we may be able to demonstrate improved sensitivity using 12 new heliostats in a "veto" pointing strategy.

Smith, David

2002-04-01

307

Yawning and its physiological significance  

PubMed Central

Although yawning is a commonly witnessed human behavior, yet it has not been taught in much detail in medical schools because, until the date, no particular physiological significance has been associated with it. It is characterized by opening up of mouth which is accompanied by a long inspiration, with a brief interruption of ventilation and followed by a short expiration. Since time immemorial, yawning has been associated with drowsiness and boredom. However, this age old belief is all set to change as the results of some newer studies have pointed out that yawning might be a way by which our body is trying to accomplish some more meaningful goals. In this review, we have tried to put together some of the important functions that have been proposed by a few authors, with the hope that this article will stimulate the interest of newer researchers in this hitherto unexplored field.

Gupta, Sharat; Mittal, Shallu

2013-01-01

308

The energetic significance of cooking.  

PubMed

While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance. PMID:19732938

Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

2009-09-03

309

Resilience Significantly Contributes to Exceptional Longevity  

PubMed Central

Objective. We aim to investigate whether centenarians are significantly more resilient than younger elders and whether resilience significantly contributes to exceptional longevity. Data. We use a unique dataset from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey with the largest sample to date of centenarians, nonagenarians, octogenarians, and a compatible group of young old aged 65–79. Methods and Results. Logistic regressions based on the cross-sectional sample show that after controlling for various confounders, including physical health and cognitive status, centenarians are significantly more resilient than any other old-age group. Logistic regression analyses based on the longitudinal data show that nonagenarians aged 94–98 with better resilience have a 43.1% higher likelihood of becoming a centenarian compared to nonagenarians with lower resilience. Conclusions. Resilience significantly contributes to longevity at all ages, and it becomes even more profound at very advanced ages. These findings indicate that policies and programs to promote resilience would have long-term and positive effects on the well-being and longevity for senior citizens and their families.

Zeng, Yi; Shen, Ke

2010-01-01

310

Higher-order uncertainty relations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the non-negativity of Gram determinants of arbitrary order, we derive higher-order uncertainty relations for the symmetric uncertainty matrices of corresponding order n?>?2 to n Hermitean operators (n?=?2 is the usual case). The special cases of third-order and fourth-order uncertainty relations are considered in detail. The obtained third-order uncertainty relations are applied to the Lie groups SU(1,1) with three Hermitean basis operators (K1,K2,K0) and SU(2) with three Hermitean basis operators (J1,J2,J3) where, in particular, the group-coherent states of Perelomov type and of Barut Girardello type for SU(1,1) and the spin or atomic coherent states for SU(2) are investigated. The uncertainty relations for the determinant of the third-order uncertainty matrix are satisfied with the equality sign for coherent states and this determinant becomes vanishing for the Perelomov type of coherent states for SU(1,1) and SU(2). As an example of the application of fourth-order uncertainty relations, we consider the canonical operators (Q1,P1,Q2,P2) of two boson modes and the corresponding uncertainty matrix formed by the operators of the corresponding mean deviations, taking into account the correlations between the two modes. In two mathematical appendices, we prove the non-negativity of the determinant of correlation matrices of arbitrary order and clarify the principal structure of higher-order uncertainty relations.

Wünsche, A.

2006-07-01

311

Massive Higher Derivative Gravity Theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis massive higher derivative gravity theories are analyzed in some detail. One-particle scattering amplitude between two covariantly conserved sources mediated by a graviton exchange is found at tree-level in D dimensional (Anti)-de Sitter and flat spacetimes for the most general quadratic curvature theory augmented with the Pauli-Fierz mass term. From the amplitude expression, the Newtonian potential energies are calculated for various cases. Also, from this amplitude and the propagator structure, a three dimensional unitary theory is identified. In the second part of the thesis, the found three dimensional unitary theory is studied in more detail from a canonical point of view. The general higher order action is written in terms of gauge-invariant functions both in flat and de Sitter backgrounds. The analysis is extended by adding static sources, spinning masses and the gravitational Chern-Simons term separately to the theory in the case of flat spacetime. For all cases the microscopic spectrum and the masses are found. In the discussion of curved spacetime, the masses are found in the relativistic and non-relativistic limits. In the Appendix, some useful calculations that are frequently used in the bulk of the thesis are given.

Gullu, Ibrahim

2012-01-01

312

THE HUBBLE HIGHER-z SUPERNOVA SEARCH: SUPERNOVAE TO z ? 1.6 AND CONSTRAINTS ON TYPE Ia PROGENITOR MODELS a a BASED ON OBSERVATIONS WITH THE NASA\\/ESA HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE, OBTAINED AT THE SPACE TELESCOPE SCIENCE INSTITUTE, WHICH IS OPERATED BY AURA, INC., UNDER NASA CONTRACT NAS 5-26555  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results from the Hubble Higher-z Supernova Search, the first space-based open field survey for supernovae (SNe). In cooperation with the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey, we have used the Hubble Space Telescope with the Advanced Camera for Surveys to cover ? 300 square arcmin in the area of the Chandra Deep Field South and the Hubble Deep Field

Louis-Gregory Strolger; Adam G. Riess; Tomas Dahlen; Mario Livio; Nino Panagia; Peter Challis; John L. Tonry; Alexei V. Filippenko; Ryan Chornock; Henry Ferguson; Anton Koekemoer; Bahram Mobasher; Mark Dickinson; Mauro Giavalisco; Stefano Casertano; Richard Hook; Stephane Blondin; Bruno Leibundgut; Mario Nonino; Piero Rosati; Hyron Spinrad; Charles C. Steidel; Daniel Stern; Peter M. Garnavich; Thomas Matheson; Norman Grogin; Ann Hornschemeier; Claudia Kretchmer; Victoria G. Laidler; Kyoungsoo Lee; Ray Lucas; Duilia de Mello; Leonidas A. Moustakas; Swara Ravindranath; Marin Richardson; Edward Taylor

313

Azimuthal anisotropy: The higher harmonics  

SciTech Connect

We report the first observations of the fourth harmonic (v{sub 4}) in the azimuthal distribution of particles at RHIC. The measurement was done taking advantage of the large elliptic flow generated at RHIC. The integrated v{sub 4} is about a factor of 10 smaller than v{sub 2}. For the sixth (v{sub 6}) and eighth (v{sub 8}) harmonics upper limits on the magnitudes are reported.

Poskanzer, Arthur M.; STAR Collaboration

2004-03-12

314

The direct observation of cosmic ray composition from JACEE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japanese-American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment (JACEE) group has performed direct observation of cosmic ray composition (proton through iron) at energies 1012 to 1015eV in 10 balloon flights. No significant changes in spectral index for protons up to 500 TeV and higher intensity for helium above 2 TeV were observed. For heavier elements, a general tendency of intensity enhancement of medium

T. H. Burnett; S. Dake; J. H. Derrickson; W. F. Fountain; M. Fuki; J. C. Gregory; T. Hayashi; R. Holynski; J. Iwai; W. V. Jones; A. Jurak; J. J. Lord; O. Miyamura; H. Oda; T. Ogata; T. A. Parnell; F. E. Roberts; S. Strausz; T. Tabuki; Y. Takahashi; T. Tominaga; J. W. Watts; J. P. Wefel; B. Wilczynska; H. Wilczynski; R. J. Wilkes; W. Wolter; B. Wosiek

1991-01-01

315

Astrobiological significance of chemolithoautotrophic acidophiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithautotrophic bacteria) there has been a dilemma in microbiology about life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modern biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithoheterotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant roel on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

2004-02-01

316

Aspergillus bronchitis without significant immunocompromise.  

PubMed

Aspergillus bronchitis is poorly understood and described. We extracted clinical data from more than 400 referred patients with persistent chest symptoms who did not fulfill criteria for allergic, chronic, or invasive aspergillosis. Symptomatic patients with a positive culture or real-time PCR for Aspergillus spp. were reviewed. Seventeen patients fulfilled the selected criteria. Fourteen were women, with a mean age of 57 years (range 39-76). Sixteen of the patients had productive cough, eight had voluminous tenacious sputum, and seven had recurrent chest infections. Eight patients had Medical Research Council dyspnea scores of 4-5; 12 had bronchiectasis; and 13 patients grew A. fumigatus, 3 A. niger, and 1 A. terreus. Twelve of the 17 patients (71%) had elevated Aspergillus IgG (47-137 mg/L, mean 89.2) and 5 (29%) had elevated Aspergillus precipitins. Six of 12 (50%) had a major response to antifungal therapy and five of 12 (42%) patients relapsed, requiring long-term therapy. Aspergillus bronchitis is a discrete clinical entity in patients with structural lung disease but who are not significantly immunocompromised. It is distinct from asymptomatic fungal colonization and other forms of aspergillosis, and may respond to antifungal therapy. PMID:23231717

Chrdle, Ales; Mustakim, Sahlawati; Bright-Thomas, Rowland J; Baxter, Caroline G; Felton, Timothy; Denning, David W

2012-12-01

317

Lysine metabolism in higher plants.  

PubMed

The essential amino acid lysine is synthesised in higher plants via a pathway starting with aspartate, that also leads to the formation of threonine, methionine and isoleucine. Enzyme kinetic studies and the analysis of mutants and transgenic plants that overaccumulate lysine, have indicated that the major site of the regulation of lysine synthesis is at the enzyme dihydrodipicolinate synthase. Despite this tight regulation, there is strong evidence that lysine is also subject to catabolism in plants, specifically in the seed. The two enzymes involved in lysine breakdown, lysine 2-oxoglutarate reductase (also known as lysine a-ketoglutarate reductase) and saccharopine dehydrogenase exist as a single bifunctional protein, with the former activity being regulated by lysine availability, calcium and phosphorylation/ dephosphorylation. PMID:11354603

Azevedo, R A; Lea, P J

2001-01-01

318

Scholarship and diversity in higher education.  

PubMed

Colleges and universities which are less diverse in their communities are often characterized by values, behavior patterns, and linguistic traits impinging on the institutions' milieu. These traits differ in significant ways from those within the dominant society for which the institution is established. The diverse students, and faculty alike, find these policies to be quasi-exclusive and limited to the geographical and demo- graphical environments in which the institutions are located. This paper examines some of these traits that affect the experience in higher education for both students and faculty from minority groups. PMID:23614174

Akombo, David O

2013-01-01

319

Grand Unification in Higher Dimensions  

SciTech Connect

We have recently proposed an alternative picture for the physics at the scale of gauge coupling unification, where the unified symmetry is realized in higher dimensions but is broken locally by a symmetry breaking defect. Gauge coupling unification, the quantum numbers of quarks and leptons and the longevity of the proton arise as phenomena of the symmetrical bulk, while the lightness of the Higgs doublets and the masses of the light quarks and leptons probe the symmetry breaking defect. Moreover, the framework is extremely predictive if the effective higher dimensional theory is valid over a large energy interval up to the scale of strong coupling. Precise agreement with experiments is obtained in the simplest theory --- SU(5) in five dimensions with two Higgs multiplets propagating in the bulk. The weak mixing angle is predicted to be sin^2theta_w = 0.2313 \\pm 0.0004, which fits the data with extraordinary accuracy. The compactification scale and the strong coupling scale are determined to be M_c \\simeq 5 x 10^14 GeV and M_s \\simeq 1 x 10^17 GeV, respectively. Proton decay with a lifetime of order 10^{34} years is expected with a variety of final states such as e^+pi^0, and several aspects of flavor, including large neutrino mixing angles, are understood by the geometrical locations of the matter fields. When combined with a particular supersymmetry breaking mechanism, the theory predicts large lepton flavor violating mu -> e and tau -> mu transitions, with all superpartner masses determined by only two free parameters. The predicted value of the bottom quark mass from Yukawa unification agrees well with the data. This paper is mainly a review of the work presented in hep-ph/0103125, hep-ph/0111068 and hep-ph/0205067.

Hall, Lawrence J.; Nomura, Yasunori

2002-12-10

320

Higher dimensional defects in cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extra dimensions seem to be an important ingredient for unification of gravity with quantum field theory. Our best candidate of quantum gravity, superstring theory, requires ten-dimensional space-time for mathematical consistency. However, since our world appears four-dimensional there must be a mechanism that "hides" extra dimensions so that we do not experience them at low energy scale. There are several methods in literature for concealing extra dimensions from our naked eye. In this thesis we only focus on two of them: braneworld scenario and flux compactification, both of which require the existence of the bulk fields. This thesis investigates the role topological defects can play as bulk fields in higher-dimensional cosmology with different asymptotic topology. The first part deals with the non-singular braneworld: Skyrme branes and its higher dimensional generalizations. We show how these defects regularize the naked singularity around the core while at the same time approach the same flat-asymptotic behavior as the known thin-wall solutions. The second part is devoted to study an exotic transition, tunneling to (and from) nothing, in a landscape where the space-time vacua are direct products of X4 x S2 , with X4 can be: anti-de Sitter ( AdS4), Minkowski (M4), or de Sitter (dS4). The tunneling is mediated by instanton solutions, via bubble nucleation. The bubble wall is smooth and magnetically-charged, and we show that this can be accomplished by having solitonic brane possessing magnetic charge, i.e., magnetic-monopole branes.

Ramadhan, Handhika Satrio

321

Adaptive significance of root grafting in trees  

SciTech Connect

Root grafting has long been observed in forest trees but the adaptive significance of this trait has not been fully explained. Various authors have proposed that root grafting between trees contributes to mechanical support by linking adjacent root systems. Keeley proposes that this trait would be of greatest advantage in swamps where soils provide poor mechanical support. He provides as evidence a greenhouse study of Nyssa sylvatica Marsh in which seedlings of swamp provenance formed between-individual root grafts more frequently than upland provenance seedlings. In agreement with this within-species study, Keeley observed that arid zone species rarely exhibit grafts. Keeley also demonstrated that vines graft less commonly than trees, and herbs never do. Since the need for mechanical support coincides with this trend, these data seem to support his model. In this paper, the authors explore the mechanisms and ecological significance of root grafting, leading to predictions of root grafting incidence. Some observations support and some contradict the mechanical support hypothesis.

Loehle, C.; Jones, R.

1988-12-31

322

On the significance of Bragg reflections.  

PubMed

Recently Henn & Meindl [Acta Cryst. (2010), A66, 676-684] examined the significance of Bragg diffraction data through the descriptor W = (I(1/2))/(?(I)). In the Poisson limit for the intensity errors W equals unity, but any kind of data processing (background subtraction, integration, scaling, absorption correction, Lorentz and polarization correction etc.) introduces additional error as well as remaining systematic errors and thus the significance of processed Bragg diffraction data is expected to be below the Poisson limit (W(Bragg) < 1). Curiously, it was observed by Henn & Meindl for several data sets that W(Bragg) had values larger than one. In the present study this is shown to be an artefact due to the neglect of a data scale factor applied to the standard uncertainties, and corrected values of W(Bragg) applied to Bragg data on an absolute scale are presented, which are all smaller than unity. Furthermore, the error estimation models employed by two commonly used data-processing programs {SADABS (Bruker AXS Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, USA) and SORTAV [Blessing (1997). J. Appl. Cryst. 30, 421-426]} are examined. It is shown that the empirical error model in SADABS very significantly lowers the significance of the Bragg data and it also results in a very strange distributions of errors, as observed by Henn & Meindl. On the other hand, error estimation based on the variance of a population of abundant intensity data, as used in SORTAV, provides reasonable error estimates, which are only slightly less significant than the raw data. Given that modern area detectors make measurement of highly redundant data relatively straightforward, it is concluded that the latter is the best approach for processing of data. PMID:22338666

Jørgensen, Mads Ry Vogel; Svendsen, Helle; Schmøkel, Mette Stokkebro; Overgaard, Jacob; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt

2012-02-16

323

A Generalized Vacuole Model in Higher Dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend to higher dimensions a recent work of Bonnor, which generalizes the Einstein Straus model utilizing the inhomogeneous Tolman Bondi universe in place of the homogeneous Friedmann one. Following Israel's junction conditions, the criteria of matching between the higher dimensional Schwarzschild-like interior and the Tolman Bondi-like exterior is obtained. We also give a new exact solution for a five-dimensional TB type of metric and use it to study the dynamical behavior of the vacuole boundary. Furthermore the transformation relations which transform the inhomogeneous TB metric to the homogeneous Friedmann model are explicitly given for any arbitrary dimensions. The frequency shift of radiation coming from the boundary surface is calculated and it is found that, depending on initial conditions both redshift and blue-shift are possible for an expanding vacuole. This is at variance with Bonnor's result where only redshift is possible under similar situation. It is also observed that higher dimensional models are less stable against perturbation than the usual 4D ones.

Banerjee, A.; Chatterjee, S.

324

Black Holes in Higher Dimensions (black Strings and Black Rings)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Higher dimensional black holes received much interest in recent years, in particular in the context of string theory, and with the advent of brane-world theories, raising the possibility of direct observation in future high energy colliders. This session on black holes in higher dimensions features predominantly contributions on black holes, on black rings, on caged black holes, and on uniform and non-uniform black strings. Further topics are solitons in higher dimensions, gravitational collapse, etc.

Kunz, Jutta

2008-09-01

325

Rocket observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) sounding rocket experiments were carried out during the periods of August to September, 1982, January to February and August to September, 1983 and January to February, 1984 with sounding rockets. Among 9 rockets, 3 were K-9M, 1 was S-210, 3 were S-310 and 2 were S-520. Two scientific satellites were launched on February 20, 1983 for solar physics and on February 14, 1984 for X-ray astronomy. These satellites were named as TENMA and OHZORA and designated as 1983-011A and 1984-015A, respectively. Their initial orbital elements are also described. A payload recovery was successfully carried out by S-520-6 rocket as a part of MINIX (Microwave Ionosphere Non-linear Interaction Experiment) which is a scientific study of nonlinear plasma phenomena in conjunction with the environmental assessment study for the future SPS project. Near IR observation of the background sky shows a more intense flux than expected possibly coming from some extragalactic origin and this may be related to the evolution of the universe. US-Japan cooperative program of Tether Experiment was done on board US rocket.

1984-05-01

326

Inclusive Higher Education for Students with Disabilities in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this paper was intended to present the current status of inclusive higher education for students with disabilities in Taiwan. Literature review, documentary analysis, and field observation were used to collect the needed information. The history for educating students with disabilities in higher education institutions in Taiwan has…

Ho, Hua-Kuo

2004-01-01

327

Chromosomal replicons of higher plants  

SciTech Connect

This brief discussion of replicons of higher plants offers a glimpse into the properties of chromosomal DNA replication. It gives evidence that the S phase of unrelated plant species is comprised of temporally ordered replicon families that increase in number with genome size. This orderly process, which assures a normal inheritance of genetic material to recipient daughter cells, is maintained at the level of replicon clusters by two mutually exclusive mechanisms, one involving the rate at which single replicons replicate their allotment of DNA, and another by means of the tempo-pause. The same two mechanisms are used by cells to alter the pattern of chromosomal DNA replication just prior to and during normal development. Both mechanisms are genetically determined and produce genetic effects when disturbed of disrupted by additional non-conforming DNAs. Further insight into how these two mechanisms operate requires more molecular information about the nature of replicons and the factors that govern when a replicon family replicates. Plant material is a rich and ideal source for this information just awaiting exploitation. 63 refs.

Van't Hof, J.

1987-03-16

328

Quantization of higher spin fields  

SciTech Connect

In this article we quantize (massive) higher spin (1{<=}j{<=}2) fields by means of Dirac's constrained Hamilton procedure both in the situation were they are totally free and were they are coupled to (an) auxiliary field(s). A full constraint analysis and quantization is presented by determining and discussing all constraints and Lagrange multipliers and by giving all equal times (anti)commutation relations. Also we construct the relevant propagators. In the free case we obtain the well-known propagators and show that they are not covariant, which is also well known. In the coupled case we do obtain covariant propagators (in the spin-3/2 case this requires b=0) and show that they have a smooth massless limit connecting perfectly to the massless case (with auxiliary fields). We notice that in our system of the spin-3/2 and spin-2 case the massive propagators coupled to conserved currents only have a smooth limit to the pure massless spin-propagator, when there are ghosts in the massive case.

Wagenaar, J. W.; Rijken, T. A

2009-11-15

329

SIGNIFICANCE OF BIVALENCE OF ANTIBODY IN VIRAL NEUTRALIZATION  

PubMed Central

The role of bivalence of antibody in its capacity to neutralize virus was studied with rabbit antibodies to the bacteriophage, ?X174. Univalent Fab or Fab' fragments of IgG isolated from antiviral antisera obtained early in the immunization schedule had virtually no activity compared to that of the intact IgG. When the antibodies were isolated from antisera of the same rabbits several months later, the univalent fragments and IgG were essentially equal in activity. The results are interpreted on the basis that an IgG molecule, because of its bivalence, has a higher effective combining affinity (avidity) than a univalent fragment. After prolonged immunization, however, the affinity of univalent antibody becomes sufficiently high that it exceeds a threshold value, above which further increase in affinity, through bivalence, is no longer significant. The results could explain the variability in relative effectiveness of univalent antibodies observed in previous studies. These data, and the fact that F(ab')2 fragments from either "early" or "late" antisera were as effective as IgG, indicate that fragment Fc is not a significant factor in neutralization. No differences in dissociation from the virus of univalent antibody from early and late antisera could be demonstrated by dilution at temperatures up to 47°C. The attachment at sites of neutralization on the virus appears to be functionally almost irreversible in this system.

Rosenstein, Robert W.; Nisonoff, Alfred; Uhr, Jonathan W.

1971-01-01

330

Higher order harmonic detection for exploring nonlinear interactions  

SciTech Connect

Nonlinear dynamics underpin a vast array of physical phenomena ranging from interfacial motion to jamming transitions. In many cases, decoupling the contributions of competing or co-existing mechanisms to the system response can be achieved through investigation of higher order harmonics. Here, a method using band excitation scanning probe microscopy to investigate higher order harmonics of the electromechanical response, with nanometer scale spatial resolution is presented. The utility of the technique is demonstrated by probing the first three harmonics of strain for a well-known system, a model Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 ferroelectric capacitor. It is shown that the second order harmonic response is correlated with the first harmonic response, whereas the third harmonic is not. Additionally, nanoscale measurements of the second harmonic response with field reveal significant deviations from Rayleigh-type models in the form of a much more complicated field dependence than is observed in the spatially averaged data. These results illustrate the versatility of combining proximal probe techniques with nth harmonic detection methods in exploring and decoupling nonlinear dynamics in a wide variety of nanoscale materials.

Vasudevan, Rama K [ORNL; Okatan, M. B. [University of New South Wales; Rajapaksa, Indrajit [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Kim, Yunseok [ORNL; Marincel, Dan [Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan [Pennsylvania State University; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Nagarajan, Valanoor [University of New South Wales; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL

2013-01-01

331

Higher-Twist Dynamics in Large Transverse Momentum Hadron Production  

SciTech Connect

A scaling law analysis of the world data on inclusive large-p{sub {perpendicular}} hadron production in hadronic collisions is carried out. A significant deviation from leading-twist perturbative QCD predictions at next-to-leading order is reported. The observed discrepancy is largest at high values of x{sub {perpendicular}} = 2p{sub {perpendicular}}/{radical}s. In contrast, the production of prompt photons and jets exhibits the scaling behavior which is close to the conformal limit, in agreement with the leading-twist expectation. These results bring evidence for a non-negligible contribution of higher-twist processes in large-p{sub {perpendicular}} hadron production in hadronic collisions, where the hadron is produced directly in the hard subprocess rather than by gluon or quark jet fragmentation. Predictions for scaling exponents at RHIC and LHC are given, and it is suggested to trigger the isolated large-p{sub {perpendicular}} hadron production to enhance higher-twist processes.

Arleo, Francois; /Annecy, LAPTH; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; Hwang, Dae Sung; /Sejong U.; Sickles, Anne M.; /Brookhaven

2009-12-17

332

Significance of Adult Pedestrian Torso Injury  

PubMed Central

The current paper uses data from two trauma registries to evaluate the significance of adult pedestrian torso injury relative to head and lower extremity injuries and to determine the relative importance of injuries to individual torso organs/structures. Analyses are conducted with and without adjusting for striking vehicle body type (car versus LTV). Although the incidence of torso injury is approximately 50% higher in pedestrians struck by LTVs than in those struck by cars, torso injury appears to be as an important contributor to the overall cost of pedestrian morbidity as is lower extremity injury. The most frequently injured torso organs/structures include the rib cage, lung & pleura, and liver. The results indicate a need for an increased focus on the prevention of torso injury in the design of pedestrian safety countermeasures.

Ivarsson, B. Johan; Henary, Basem; Crandall, Jeff R.; Longhitano, Douglas

2005-01-01

333

[Clinical significance of thyroid nodule calcification].  

PubMed

To confirm the predictive value of calcifications in thyroid nodules as a risk factor for malignancy and to detect specific aspects for tumours, in a set of 175 patients--30 papillary carcinoma (PC) and 145 multinodular goiters (MNG) with dominant nodule--calcifications were detected by ultrasound scan. Calcifications were significantly more frequent in PC than in MNG (40% vs 20.7% p < 0.05) but their considered characteristics (size, number, position, location in the gland, sonographic features of the nodule) did not show any particular difference between PC and MNG. The frequency of calcifications in our series was higher in older patients (mean age 58.7 +/- 13.3 vs 51.1 +/- 12.7 in patients without calcifications, p < 0.001) and this could imply that their onset is time-dependent. Calcifications can be a useful indicator of enhanced risk, to be considered in the overall process of surgical decision making. PMID:12822212

Consorti, F; Benvenuti, C; Boncompagni, A; Giovannone, G; Moles, N; Scardella, L; Antonaci, A

2003-03-01

334

Role and significance of enzymes in human  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT,Although,human,milk,generally,contains,higher,levels,of enzymes,than,bovine milk, little definitive information is available concerning their role or significance. The enzyme levels,in,human,milk,as compared,to,bovine,milk,and,levels,in,human,colostrum,versus,normal milk,are,summarized.,The,few,most,widely,studied,human,milk,enzymes,are,discussed,in,more detail. Evidence is presented to support the views that 1) lipoprotein lipase and ribonuclease,are probably,spilled,into,the,milk,from,the,blood;,2) lysozyme,is spilled,from,the,secretory,epithelial cells; 3) lactate and malate dehydrogenases, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and lactose synthetase,are,synthesized,in the,mammary,gland,in response,to hormonal,stimuli;,and,4’) bile,salt stimulated lipase, diastase, protease, and lysozyme are present in sufficient

K. M. Shahani; A. J. Kwan; Beverly A. Friend

335

Salary Equity Issues in Higher Education: Where Do We Stand? AAHE-ERIC/Higher Education Research Currents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Salary equity issues in higher education are examined with reference to sex discrimination in faculty salaries, the law and its application, judicial deference toward higher education, and the nature of salary equity evidence. The basis for most salary equity studies has been the simple observation that salaries of male professors are generally…

Koch, James V.

1982-01-01

336

Higher-Order Model Checking: From Theory to Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The model checking of higher-order recursion schemes (higher-order model checking for short) has been actively studied in the last decade, and has seen significant progress in both theory and practice. From a practical perspec- tive, higher-order model checking provides a foundation for software model checkers for functional programming languages such as ML and Haskell. This short article aims to provide

Naoki Kobayashi

2011-01-01

337

Internationalisation of South African Higher Education in the Postapartheid Era  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|During the past decade, there has been significant growth in the number of international students seeking access to South African higher education institutions. Concomitant with this growth has been a need for management of the internationalisation process at higher education institutions; however, this has not always been forthcoming. This…

Rouhani, Sepideh

2007-01-01

338

A Qualitative Student Evaluation of Group Learning in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of group learning has increased significantly in higher education in the past two decades (Houldsworth and Mathews, 2000). The primary focus of this study is to explore the feelings and experience of students regarding group work and group assessment in higher education. The study is exploratory based on a qualitative focus group…

Hassanien, Ahmed

2007-01-01

339

Making Strangers at Home: Anthropologists Studying Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article seeks to isolate one major strand of work in American cultural anthropology together with its implications for the study of higher education. While the number of anthropologists who do research on higher education is fairly small, the importance of the field's theoretical and methodological contributions is significant. This article…

Shumar, Wesley

2004-01-01

340

Reconceptualizing the evaluation of teaching in higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trends within higher education in the United States and Canadasuggest that, although there are calls for recognition of teaching as ascholarly activity, teaching is not perceived to be a significant aspect ofscholarly work. Furthermore, policies, procedures, and criteria for theevaluation of teaching in higher education contribute to the marginalizationof teaching within the reward structures of universities and colleges.Evaluation policies, procedures,

Daniel D. Pratt

1997-01-01

341

Higher-Education Policies and Welfare Regimes: International Comparative Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries have experienced an unprecedented expansion in higher education during the second half of the twentieth century. This was only possible because higher education became part of national welfare policies. OECD countries differ, however, with respect to the significance of…

Pechar, Hans; Andres, Lesley

2011-01-01

342

Physical Education in Higher Education: Chaos Out of Order  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last 25 years have witnessed significant changes in the field of physical education in higher education that include the “disciplinarization” of the field of study and the generation of a broader front of professional options for physical activity than the single focus of teacher training. The field of physical education in higher education has not displayed uniformity in reacting

Karl M. Newell

1990-01-01

343

Harmonious Expansion of China's Higher Education: A New Growth Pattern  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How can one country narrow the regional disparity during the tremendous expansion of higher education? This issue remains unexamined and critical analysis is needed to unveil the spatial dynamics behind expansion of higher education. The spatial analysis shows that there is significant strategic interaction among neighboring provinces in China…

Gu, Jiafeng

2012-01-01

344

New lecturers' accounts of reading higher education research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In reviewing what lecturers found valuable for their professional development, it has been argued that ‘professional reading’ of both higher education research and literature in their disciplines is a major theme for individual enhancement. Despite the increased interest in the writing practices of students and staff in higher education, however, the continued ‘invisibility of reading’ leaves an area of significant

Saranne Weller

2011-01-01

345

ADULT STUDENTS IN HIGHER EDUCATION: MYTHS AND REALITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there has been significant growth of adult students in higher education, few strategies have been designed to enhancing faculty and staff beliefs and knowledge regarding adult undergraduate students. This article presents CASHE (Characteristics of Adult Students in Higher Education), an instrumentation strategy for self examination of personally held beliefs and knowledge regarding adult learners. Preliminary research on the use

Carol E. Kasworm

1990-01-01

346

Governance Shifts in Higher Education: A Cross-National Comparison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The article aims to interpret and compare recent governance shifts in higher education across several countries, both at the central government level and at the institutional or "corporate" level. In order to do that it reviews the most significant literature about alternative theoretical models of governance in higher education and uses these…

Lazzeretti, Luciana; Tavoletti, Ernesto

2006-01-01

347

Condom acceptance is higher among travelers in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: The population is highly mobile, with over 70% reporting travel to a potentially higher risk destination in the past year. Travelers are somewhat more likely to have higher levels of sexual risk behavior, but the risk appears to be offset by significantly greater knowledge, acceptance, and use of condoms. In multivariate analysis, the sexual risk differential for travelers is

Martina Morris; Maria J. Wawer; Fred Makumbi; Jane R. Zavisca; Nelson Sewankambo

348

Higher Education Literature Revisited: Citation Patterns Examined  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The discourse of the field of higher education is complex, as is its analysis. Citation analysis is means of examining communicative processes. This study investigates citations in the papers of three core journals in higher education, "Research in Higher Education, Review of Higher Education," and "Journal of Higher Education." The results…

Budd, John M.; Magnuson, Lauren

2010-01-01

349

Significance of Platelet Count in Esophageal Carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim: Thrombocytosis is found to be associated with unfavorable prognosis in esophageal carcinoma. Platelets produce thymidine phosphorylase which is a platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor with angiogenic activity. Increased platelet count may be translated into enhanced tumor growth. We examined the relation between platelet count and several prognostic variables in patients with esophageal cancer. Patients and Methods: Three hundred and eighty-one cases with esophageal cancer that underwent esophagectomy in a referral cancer institute during a 5-year period were studied retrospectively. The relation between preoperative platelet count and patient age, gender, site of tumor, presence of multiple cancers and clinicopathological characteristics including histological type, tumor size, depth of penetration (T), lymph node involvement (N), distant metastasis (M), degree of differentiation, presence of vascular, lymphatic and perineural invasion was examined. Results: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) constituted 93% and adenocarcinoma 7% of cases. Most of patients were in stage III, followed by stage II. The mean platelet count was 245±76 (× 109 /L). There was no statistically significant correlation between platelet counts with prognostic factors except a weak linear correlation between platelet count and and tumor size (P= 0.03, Pearson correlation coefficient: 0.16). Patients with adenocarcinoma had a higher platelet count than those with SCC (P= 0.003). Conclusion: Platelet count does not correlate with prognostic factors in esophageal cancer. However, it is significantly different between SCC and adenocarcinoma of esophagus.

Aminian, Ali; Karimian, Faramarz; Mirsharifi, Rasoul; Alibakhshi, Abbas; Dashti, Habibollah; Jahangiri, Yosra; Safari, Saeed; Ghaderi, Hamid; Noaparast, Morteza; Hasani, Sharareh M.; Mirsharifi, Alireza

2011-01-01

350

Development of temporary subtropical wetlands induces higher gas production  

PubMed Central

Temporary wetlands are short-term alternative ecosystems formed by flooding for irrigation of areas used for rice farming. The goal of this study is to describe the development cycle of rice fields as temporary wetlands in southern Brazil, evaluating how this process affect the gas production (CH4 and CO2) in soil with difference % carbon and organic matter content. Two areas adjacent to Lake Mangueira in southern Brazil were used during a rice-farming cycle. One area had soil containing 1.1% carbon and 2.4% organic matter, and the second area had soil with 2.4% carbon and 4.4% organic matter. The mean rates of gas production were 0.04 ± 0.02 mg CH4 m?2 d?1 and 1.18 ± 0.30 mg CO2 m?2 d?1 in the soil area with the lower carbon content, and 0.02 ± 0.03 mg CH4 m?2 d?1 and 1.38 ± 0.41 mg CO2 m?2 d?1 in the soil area with higher carbon content. Our results showed that mean rates of CO2 production were higher than those of CH4 in both areas. No statistically significant difference was observed for production of CH4 considering different periods and sites. For carbon dioxide (CO2), however, a Two-Way ANOVA showed statistically significant difference (p = 0.05) considering sampling time, but no difference between areas. The results obtained suggest that the carbon and organic matter contents in the soil of irrigated rice cultivation areas may have been used in different ways by soil microorganisms, leading to variations in CH4 and CO2 production.

Canterle, Eliete B.; da Motta Marques, David; Rodrigues, Lucia R.

2013-01-01

351

Quantum Accelerator Modes at higher order resonances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum Accelerator Modes (QAM) are produced by subjecting cold atoms to standing wave pulses, when these pulses are applied in the direction of gravity. A group of atoms get accelerated. Normally, QAMs are seen whenever pulse period is choosen close to an integer multiple of a time called the half Talbot time. These times are referred to as primary resonance times [1]. We, using BEC, show for the first time that QAMs can be observed at rational fractions of Talbot time, called higher order resonance times. The details and the latest experimental data will be presented. [1] G. Behin-Aein, V. Ramareddy, P. Ahmadi, G. S. Summy, Phys. Rev. Lett. (accepted for publication), arXiv physics/0609203.

Ramareddy, Vijayashankar; Behin-Aein, Ghazal; Talukdar, Ishan; Ahmadi, Peyman; Summy, Gil

2007-03-01

352

Expensive Egos: Narcissistic Males Have Higher Cortisol  

PubMed Central

Background Narcissism is characterized by grandiosity, low empathy, and entitlement. There has been limited research regarding the hormonal correlates of narcissism, despite the potential health implications. This study examined the role of participant narcissism and sex on basal cortisol concentrations in an undergraduate population. Methods and Findings Participants were 106 undergraduate students (79 females, 27 males, mean age 20.1 years) from one Midwestern and one Southwestern American university. Narcissism was assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and basal cortisol concentrations were collected from saliva samples in a laboratory setting. Regression analyses examined the effect of narcissism and sex on cortisol (log). There were no sex differences in basal cortisol, F(1,97)?=?.20, p?=?.65, and narcissism scores, F(1,97)?=?.00, p?=?.99. Stepwise linear regression models of sex and narcissism and their interaction predicting cortisol concentrations showed no main effects when including covariates, but a significant interaction, ??=?.27, p?=?.04. Narcissism was not related to cortisol in females, but significantly predicted cortisol in males. Examining the effect of unhealthy versus healthy narcissism on cortisol found that unhealthy narcissism was marginally related to cortisol in females, ??=?.27, p?=?.06, but significantly predicted higher basal cortisol in males, ??=?.72, p?=?.01, even when controlling for potential confounds. No relationship was found between sex, narcissism, or their interaction on self-reported stress. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the HPA axis is chronically activated in males with unhealthy narcissism. This constant activation of the HPA axis may have important health implications.

Reinhard, David A.; Konrath, Sara H.; Lopez, William D.; Cameron, Heather G.

2012-01-01

353

Evolving entities: towards a unified framework for understanding diversity at the species and higher levels  

PubMed Central

Current approaches to studying the evolution of biodiversity differ in their treatment of species and higher level diversity patterns. Species are regarded as the fundamental evolutionarily significant units of biodiversity, both in theory and in practice, and extensive theory explains how they originate and evolve. However, most species are still delimited using qualitative methods that only relate indirectly to the underlying theory. In contrast, higher level patterns of diversity have been subjected to rigorous quantitative study (using phylogenetics), but theory that adequately explains the observed patterns has been lacking. Most evolutionary analyses of higher level diversity patterns have considered non-equilibrium explanations based on rates of diversification (i.e. exponentially growing clades), rather than equilibrium explanations normally used at the species level and below (i.e. constant population sizes). This paper argues that species level and higher level patterns of diversity can be considered within a common framework, based on equilibrium explanations. It shows how forces normally considered in the context of speciation, namely divergent selection and geographical isolation, can generate evolutionarily significant units of diversity above the level of reproductively isolated species. Prospects for the framework to answer some unresolved questions about higher level diversity patterns are discussed.

Barraclough, Timothy G.

2010-01-01

354

Improved Outcomes With Higher Doses for Salvage Radiotherapy After Prostatectomy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate relapse-free survival with higher doses for patients receiving salvage radiotherapy (RT) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Patients and Methods: A total of 122 patients with pathologically negative lymph nodes received salvage RT after RP from 1984 to 2004. Median prostate bed dose was 60 Gy for 38 patients and 70 Gy for 84 patients. Four months of total androgen suppression and whole-pelvic RT were given concurrently to 68 and 72 patients, respectively. The median follow-up was >5 years. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards multivariable analyses were performed for all clinical, pathologic, and treatment factors predicting for biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS). Results: There were 60 biochemical failures after salvage RT, with a median time to failure of 1.2 years. A dose response was observed, with a 5-year bRFS rate of 25% vs. 58% for prostate bed doses of 60 Gy vs. 70 Gy (p < 0.0001). For patients receiving RT alone the 5-year bRFS rate was 17% vs. 55% (p = 0.016), and for those receiving prostate-bed-only RT it was 23% vs. 66% (p = 0.037) for doses of 60 Gy vs. 70 Gy, respectively. On multivariate analysis a prostate bed dose of 70 Gy (p 0.012, hazard ratio [HR] 0.48 [95% Confidence Interval (CI), 0.27-0.87]), pre-RT prostate-specific antigen value {<=}1 ng/mL (p < 0.0001, HR 0.28 [95% CI, 0.16-0.48]), and lack of seminal vesicle involvement (p = 0.009, HR 0.44 [95% CI, 0.26-0.77]) remained independently significant. Conclusions: A clinically significant dose response from 60 Gy to 70 Gy was observed in the setting of salvage RT after prostatectomy. A dose of 70 Gy to the prostate bed is recommended to achieve optimal disease-free survival.

King, Christopher R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Urologic Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)], E-mail: crking@stanford.edu; Spiotto, Michael T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Urologic Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

2008-05-01

355

Tobacco Taxes: Large Disparities in Rates for Smoking Products Trigger Significant Market Shifts to Avoid Higher Taxes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2009, CHIPRA increased and equalized federal excise tax rates for cigarettes, roll-your-own tobacco, and small cigars. Though CHIPRA also increased federal excise tax rates for pipe tobacco and large cigars, it raised the pipe tobacco tax to a rate sig...

2012-01-01

356

Papillary Microcarcinomas of the Thyroid with Preoperatively Detectable Lymph Node Metastasis Show Significantly Higher Aggressive Characteristics on Immunohistochemical Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: We recently demonstrated that papillary microcarcinomas with preoperatively detectable node metastasis in the lateral compartment on ultrasonography (clinically apparent metastasis) show worse postoperative relapse-free survival than those with no metastasis or metastasis that could not be detected preoperatively, but was confirmed by pathological examination after surgery (occult metastasis). In this study, we investigated difference in the aggressive characteristics of

Yasuhiro Ito; Takashi Uruno; Yuuki Takamura; Akihiro Miya; Kaoru Kobayashi; Fumio Matsuzuka; Kanji Kuma; Akira Miyauchi

2005-01-01

357

Women as Learners: The Significance of Gender in Adult Learning. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is intended to address the need for information and understanding about adult women's learning and education. It gathers knowledge about women and their learning and places women's learning experiences in the contexts of where women live. The book also promotes an understanding of women's diversity and makes recommendations for future…

Hayes, Elisabeth; Flannery, Daniele D.

358

Sources of Inspiration: The Role of Significant Persons in Young People's Choice of Science in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The objectives of this article were to investigate to which extent and in what ways persons influence students' choice of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in tertiary education, and to assess the suitability of an analytical framework for describing this influence. In total, 5,007 Norwegian STEM students completed a…

Sjaastad, Jorgen

2012-01-01

359

INVESTIGATION TOWARD OBTAINING SIGNIFICANTLY HIGHER MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF AS-WELDED JOINTS IN HIGH-STRENGTH, HEAT TREATABLE ALUMINUM ALLOYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welding techniques, filler metal-parent metal selection, and moderate ; temperature post-weld thermal treatments are described which were employed to ; achieve tensile strengths up to 72,000 pounds per square inch (psi) in welded ; heat treatable aluminum alloy sheet. The aluminum-zinc-magnesium-copper (Al - ; Zn - Mg -Cu) alloys 7075 and 7178 welded Al-Mg or Al-Mg-Zn filler metals gave ;

1961-01-01

360

Wages and Public Higher Education Defined Benefit Pension Plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wages and pension benefits of public higher education employees are evaluated using linear regression and multiple discriminant analysis. When wage level is the dependent variable, there is no significant relationship with pension benefit characteristics. However, relationships among pension plan variables themselves are found to be significant. The authors explain contradictory coefficient signs on these variables by relying upon public choice

Julie-Ann Gasper; Barry B. Schweig

1988-01-01

361

Redefining External Stakeholders in Nordic Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present higher education reforms in the Nordic countries diminish the role and influence of the state on the governance of higher education institutions. While still providing a framework for the management of higher education, in general, the state supervises rather than controls higher education institutions (HEIs). The rhetoric of change stipulates HEIs to respond to environmental needs, and the external

Kazimierz Musia?

2010-01-01

362

Illinois Higher Education Annual Report, May 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents information about the state of higher education in Illinois. Higher education entered the year 2000 with a full agenda and ended it as the top-rated system of higher education in a new national report card, "Measuring Up 2000" (National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education). Illinois received "A's in three of the six…

Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

363

The Great Recession: Implications for Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

William Zumeta is professor of public affairs and higher education at the University of Washington- Seattle, senior fellow at the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, and a fellow of the TIAA-CREF Institute. He is also president of the Association for the Study of Higher Education (ASHE). He publishes widely on higher education finance, accountability, public policy and

William Zumeta

364

Quality Assurance in Chinese Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Quality assurance has been integrated into the fabric of higher education in China, with the issue of quality in higher education--how to evaluate it and how to enhance it--now taking centre stage in Chinese higher education. In the past decade, the development of quality assurance in Chinese higher education has covered a broad spectrum of…

Li, Yuan

2010-01-01

365

A Strategic Vision for Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Where is the manual on American higher education in the 21st century? In this article, the author argues that there is none and that it is up to the federal government and higher education leaders to provide this strategic vision. She further states that the federal government and higher education leaders must have the vision to see where higher

Spellings, Margaret

2005-01-01

366

Redefining External Stakeholders in Nordic Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Present higher education reforms in the Nordic countries diminish the role and influence of the state on the governance of higher education institutions. While still providing a framework for the management of higher education, in general, the state supervises rather than controls higher education institutions (HEIs). The rhetoric of change…

Musial, Kazimierz

2010-01-01

367

A Strategic Vision for Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Where is the manual on American higher education in the 21st century? In this article, the author argues that there is none and that it is up to the federal government and higher education leaders to provide this strategic vision. She further states that the federal government and higher education leaders must have the vision to see where higher

Spellings, Margaret

2005-01-01

368

Regional Profiles of Higher Education, 2001. Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the third annual edition of the regional profiles of higher education. As in previous editions, this report sets out a range of data on the pattern of higher education in each of the nine regions of England. The regional dimension of higher education continues to grow in importance. Higher education in England retains its core academic and…

Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

369

The Cost and Benefits of Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The democratisation of higher education for a civil society as well as other political and economic demands has recently led to the dramatic expansion of higher education sector throughout the world. Consequently, this causes financial crisis in the higher education sector. Inevitably, governments world-wide are confronted with decisions of how limited resources would be allocated for higher education. This essay

Lau Hieng Soon

370

Higher Serum Levels of Rheumatoid Factor and Anti-Nuclear Antibodies in Helicobacter Pylori-Infected Peptic Ulcer Patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives H. pylori infection has been associated with some autoimmune disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum concentrations of rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies in H. pylori-infected peptic ulcer patients, H. pylori-infected asymptomatic carriers and a healthy control group. Methods A Total of 100 H. pylori-infected peptic ulcer patients, 65 asymptomatic carriers and 30 healthy H. pylori-negative subjects (as a control group) were enrolled into study. Serum samples of participants tested for the levels of rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies by use of ELISA. Results The mean serum levels of rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies in peptic ulcer group was significantly higher in comparison to the control group (p<0.05). Although, the mean serum levels of rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies in the asymptomatic carriers group was higher than those in the control group, the difference was not statistically significant. No significant differences were observed between peptic ulcer patients and asymptomatic carriers groups regarding the mean serum levels of rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies. The mean serum levels of rheumatoid factor in men with peptic ulcer was significantly higher compared to the group of healthy men (p<0.05). Although in female of peptic ulcer patients or asymptomatic carriers groups, the mean serum levels of rheumatoid factor was higher than that in healthy women, but the differences were not statistically significant. Also, no significant differences were observed between men and women with peptic ulcer, asymptomatic carriers control groups based on the serum levels of anti-nuclear antibodies. Conclusion The results showed higher serum levels of rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies in H. pylori-infected patients with peptic ulcer disease which represent the H. pylori-related immune disturbance in these patients. Additional follow-up studies are necessary to clarify the clinical significance of these autoantibodies in patients with H. pylori infection.

Jafarzadeh, Abdollah; Nemati, Maryam; Rezayati, Mohammad Taghi; Nabizadeh, Mansooreh; Ebrahimi, Medhi

2013-01-01

371

Pesticides in the atmosphere in Minnesota: Partitioning, deposition, and significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmosphere is recognized as an important pathway by which pesticides are transported and deposited in the areas far from their sources. The observations of pesticides in rain, air, and surface runoff in Minnesota (1993-1996) contribute to understand the significance of the atmospheric deposition. The vapor/particle partitioning of pesticides in the urban area of Minnesota elucidated a strong dependency on the subcooled liquid vapor pressure, but not the same as predicted by Junge's model. The air concentrations before and after a single 24-hour rain event indicated that rain scavenging is efficient for removing water-soluble herbicides. Concentrations of many herbicides in 43 sequential rain samples followed the same pattern: much higher concentration at the beginning of the rain than that in the rest of rain event. The most frequently detected pesticides were alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, and acetochlor. Concentration and fluxes of most pesticides in rain depicted a distinct seasonal pattern. The presence of agriculture pesticides in urban rain demonstrates that pesticides are being transported regionally through the atmosphere. The relatively consistent year-to-year flux of pesticides in Minneapolis indicates the regional background of pesticides in rain. The intensive row-crop agricultural area showed a significantly greater annual flux than the other four sampling sites that were in areas of either urbanization or less intensive agriculture. A multi-year paired study of pesticides in rain and storm runoff in three watersheds in Minnesota was conducted to compare the mass loadings from two pathways to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Seven other larger watersheds were selected from previous research to perform the same assessment. The mass contributed from the rain was 40 to 200 times greater than the riverine load in the urban watershed and equal to five times greater in the two agricultural watersheds in Minnesota. The magnitude of mass in rain is similar, if is not greater than, to that in runoff, over many orders of magnitude differences in the sizes of watersheds.

Ma, Lin

2000-11-01

372

Higher Height, Higher Ability: Judgment Confidence as a Function of Spatial Height Perception  

PubMed Central

Based on grounded cognition theories, the current study showed that judgments about ability were regulated by the subjects' perceptions of their spatial height. In Experiment 1, we found that after seeing the ground from a higher rather than lower floor, people had higher expectations about their performance on a knowledge test and assigned themselves higher rank positions in a peer comparison evaluation. In Experiment 2, we examined the boundary conditions of the spatial height effects and showed that it could still occur even if we employed photos rather than actual building floors to manipulate the perceptions of spatial heights. In addition, Experiment 2 excluded processing style as an explanation for these observations. In Experiment 3, we investigated a potential mechanism for the spatial height effect by manipulating the scale direction in the questionnaire. Consequently, consistent with our representational dependence account, the effect of spatial heights on ability judgments was eliminated when the mental representation of ability was disturbed by a reverse physical representation. These results suggest that people's judgments about their ability are correlated with their spatial perception.

Sun, Yan; Wang, Fei; Li, Shu

2011-01-01

373

Excitonic collapse of higher Landau level fractional quantum Hall effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scarcity of the fractional quantum Hall effect in higher Landau levels is a most intriguing fact when contrasted with its great abundance in the lowest Landau level. This paper shows that a suppression of the hard core repulsion in going from the lowest Landau level to higher Landau levels leads to a collapse of the energy of the neutral excitation, destabilizing all fractional states in the third and higher Landau levels, and almost all in the second Landau level. The remaining fractions are in agreement with those observed experimentally.

Scarola, V. W.; Park, Kwon; Jain, J. K.

2000-12-01

374

Observation of Single Top Quark Production  

SciTech Connect

We report first observation of the electroweak production of single top quarks in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV based on 2.3 fb{sup ?1} of data collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. Using events containing an isolated electron or muon and missing transverse energy, together with jets originating from the fragmentation of b quarks, we measure a cross section of {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} tb + X, tqb + X) = 3.94 {+-} 0.88 pb. The probability to measure a cross section at this value or higher in the absence of signal is 2.5 x 10{sup ?7}, corresponding to a 5.0 standard deviation significance for the observation.

Abazov, V.M.; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, B.; /Oklahoma U.; Abolins, M.; /Michigan State U.; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; /Tata Inst.; Adams, M.; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Aguilo, E.; /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U.; Ahsan, M.; /Kansas State U.; Alexeev, G.D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, Andrew K.; /Michigan State U. /Northeastern U.

2009-03-01

375

Lithium in staurolite and its petrologic significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural metapelitic staurolites contain appreciable amounts of lithium. Lithium contents were determined by ion microprobe with concentrations of representative samples independently analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry for calibration. Seventy-one percent of the analyzed staurolites contain >0.1 wt.% Li2O, although the distribution is skewed to values less than 0.3 wt.%. High Li contents observed in staurolite are attributed to one or more of several factors: initiation of staurolite breakdown, lack of additional host phases for lithium (e.g. biotite), pre-metamorphic Li-rich bulk rock composition, and/or interaction of the rock with Li-rich fluids. Li content is generally not correlated with the modal amount of staurolite in the rock, rather Li values tend to reflect variable host rock Li. Lithium most likely resides in the R2+ tetrahedral site. Its incorporation into the structure is probably related to a coupled substitution with Al: ivLi viA1/3 ivR{-1/2+} vi?-1/3 When staurolite analyses yield low R2+ and high Al values, the possibility of high Li should be considered after accounting for variable H. Lithium partitions into common pelitic metamorphic minerals in the order staurolite>cordierite>biotite>muscovite> garnet, tourmaline, and chloritoid. Partitioning is non-ideal in staurolite and a function of Fe content. Li in staurolite expands its stability field to a higher T relative to garnet and sillimanite, and to a lower T relative to chloritoid and Al-silicate. Analysis of staurolites for Li may provide further insight into this enigmatic mineral.

Dutrow, Barbara L.; Holdaway, M. J.; Hinton, R. W.

1986-12-01

376

Higher in vitro resistance to oxidative stress in extra-pair offspring.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress is considered to act as a universal physiological constraint in life-history evolution of animals. This should be of interest for extra-pair paternity behaviour, and we tested here the prediction that offspring arising from extra-pair matings of female great tits show higher resistance to oxidative stress than within-pair offspring. Resistance to oxidative stress, measured as the whole blood resistance to a controlled free-radical attack, was significantly higher for extra-pair offspring as predicted although these were not heavier or in better body condition than within-pair offspring. Since resistance to oxidative stress has been suggested to enhance survival and reproductive rates, extra-pair offspring with superior resistance to oxidative stress, be it through maternal effects or paternal inheritance, may achieve higher fitness and thus provide significant indirect fitness benefits to their mothers. In addition, because oxidative stress affects colour signals and sperm traits, females may also gain fitness benefits by producing sons that are more attractive (sexy-sons hypothesis) and have sperm of superior quality (sexy-sperm hypothesis). Heritability of resistance to oxidative stress as well as maternal effects may both act as proximate mechanisms for the observed result. Disentangling these two mechanisms would require an experimental approach. Future long-term studies should also aim at experimentally testing whether higher resistance to oxidative stress of EP nestlings indeed translates into fitness benefits to females. PMID:21899636

Losdat, S; Helfenstein, F; Saladin, V; Richner, H

2011-09-07

377

Introducing Management By Objectives in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Management By Objectives (MBO) system is introduced to higher education, its historical development traced, and its potential for solving the management crisis in higher education assessed. (Author/LBH)

Njoku, Eluma S.

1975-01-01

378

Hispanics and Higher Education: Multicultural Myopia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hispanic Americans are underrepresented in higher education and in business faculty. Their career development is often hindered by discrimination and they are often channeled into two-year colleges where attrition is higher. (SK)

Erlach, David

2000-01-01

379

South Carolina Commission on Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This brochure includes basic checklist information about the South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, its mission and membership, facts on higher education in South Carolina, and a list of state public institutions.|

South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2007

2007-01-01

380

Hispanic Higher Education and HSIs. Fact Sheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents facts about Hispanic higher education. Facts on the following topics are presented: (1) Hispanic demographics; (2) Hispanic academic attainment; (3) Hispanic higher education; and (4) Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs).|

Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities, 2012

2012-01-01

381

Measuring Competencies of Higher Education Graduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This chapter describes a new conceptual model for measuring competencies of higher education graduates. The proposed instrument can become a valuable tool for higher education quality management, policy evaluation, and scientific research. (Contains 1 figure.)|

Allen, Jim; Ramaekers, Ger; van der Velden, Rolf

2005-01-01

382

Significant Reduction in Arc Frequency Biased Solar Cells: Observations, Diagnostics, and Mitigation Technique(S).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A variety of experiments were performed which identify key factors contributing to the arcing of negatively biased high voltage solar cells. These efforts have led to reduction of greater than a factor of 100 in the arc frequency of a single cell followin...

B. L. Upschulte G. M. Weyl W. J. Marinelli E. Aifer D. Hastings

1991-01-01

383

Human babesiosis in ireland: Further observations and the medical significance of this infection  

PubMed Central

Three splenectomized persons in Yugoslavia, California, and Ireland have been reported to be infected by three different Babesia species; two cases were fatal. In a study of the site where the fatal infection was contracted in Ireland, blood samples from 36 persons who had recently been bitten by ticks were inoculated into two splenectomized calves; no response to Babesia divergens was detected. Field-collected Ixodes ricinus ticks inoculated into another splenectomized calf resulted in fever and recovery of the agent of tick-borne fever (Cytoecetes phagocytophilia). This attempt to determine the presence of latent infection in human beings with intact spleens should be repeated on a larger scale in areas with a demonstrably high incidence of Babesia in ticks and animals. Few places in the world are free of piroplasms; their presence may present a hazard to splenectomized persons or to those whose splenic function is deficient. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3

Garnham, P. C. C.; Donnelly, Joseph; Hoogstraal, Harry; Kennedy, C. Cotton; Walton, Gerald A.

1969-01-01

384

ELISA: Structure-Function Inferences based on statistically significant and evolutionarily inspired observations  

PubMed Central

The problem of functional annotation based on homology modeling is primary to current bioinformatics research. Researchers have noted regularities in sequence, structure and even chromosome organization that allow valid functional cross-annotation. However, these methods provide a lot of false negatives due to limited specificity inherent in the system. We want to create an evolutionarily inspired organization of data that would approach the issue of structure-function correlation from a new, probabilistic perspective. Such organization has possible applications in phylogeny, modeling of functional evolution and structural determination. ELISA (Evolutionary Lineage Inferred from Structural Analysis, ) is an online database that combines functional annotation with structure and sequence homology modeling to place proteins into sequence-structure-function "neighborhoods". The atomic unit of the database is a set of sequences and structural templates that those sequences encode. A graph that is built from the structural comparison of these templates is called PDUG (protein domain universe graph). We introduce a method of functional inference through a probabilistic calculation done on an arbitrary set of PDUG nodes. Further, all PDUG structures are mapped onto all fully sequenced proteomes allowing an easy interface for evolutionary analysis and research into comparative proteomics. ELISA is the first database with applicability to evolutionary structural genomics explicitly in mind. Availability: The database is available at .

Shakhnovich, Boris E; Harvey, John M; Comeau, Steve; Lorenz, David; DeLisi, Charles; Shakhnovich, Eugene

2003-01-01

385

ELISA: Structure-Function Inferences based on statistically significant and evolutionarily inspired observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of functional annotation based on homology modeling is primary to current bioinformatics research. Researchers have noted regularities in sequence, structure and even chromosome organization that allow valid functional cross-annotation. However, these methods provide a lot of false negatives due to limited specificity inherent in the system. We want to create an evolutionarily inspired organization of data that would

Boris E. Shakhnovich; John M. Harvey; Steve Comeau; David Lorenz; Charles Delisi; Eugene I. Shakhnovich

2003-01-01

386

Observations on the significance of 5-hydroxytryptamine in relation to the peristaltic reflex of the rat  

PubMed Central

Peristalsis of normal rats, and of rats fed either on a control diet or on a tryptophan-free diet (5-hydroxytryptamine-depleted rats), was studied in vitro and in situ to test the hypothesis that 5-hydroxytryptamine functions as a local hormone in the intestine and may be essential for initiation of the peristaltic reflex. A tryptophan-free diet depleted intestinal 5-hydroxytryptamine by a mean value of 90%; in some rats, the depletion appeared to be complete. Peristaltic responses, even of rats with complete depletion, were qualitatively similar to, and quantitatively not statistically different from those of normal or of pair-fed control animals whose intestinal mucosa contained high concentrations of 5-hydroxytryptamine. Intraluminal and serosal 5-hydroxytryptamine produced effects in 5-hydroxytryptamine-depleted rats similar to those in the normal and in the control animals. Furthermore, the maximal stimulatory effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine on peristaltic performance were not greater than spontaneous variations in performance in any group of animals, except with tryptophan-fed control rats, when the effects of the amine on peristalsis in situ were greater than spontaneous variation. It was therefore concluded that 5-hydroxytryptamine is not essential for peristalsis in the rat.

Boullin, D. J.

1964-01-01

387

Simultaneous Tether Extraction from Endothelial Cells and Leukocytes: Observation, Mechanics, and Significance  

PubMed Central

It has been hypothesized, from earlier studies on single-tether extraction from individual leukocytes and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, that during rolling of leukocytes on the endothelium, simultaneous extraction of membrane nanotubes (tethers) occurs, resulting in enhancement of the force decrease on the adhesive bond. In this study, using the micropipette aspiration technique and fluorescence microscopy, we show that tethers are indeed extracted simultaneously when an endothelial cell and a leukocyte are separated after brief contact and adhesion, and the endothelial cell contributes much more to the composite tether length. In addition, the constitutive relationship for simultaneous tether extraction is determined with neutrophils and T-lymphocytes as force transducers, and cytokine-stimulated human umbilical vein and dermal microvascular endothelial cells as substrates, respectively. This relationship is consistent with that derived theoretically from the constitutive equations for single-tether extraction from either cell alone. Moreover, we show that simultaneous tether extraction was likely terminated by receptor-ligand bond dissociation. With a biomechanical model of leukocyte rolling, we predict the force history of the adhesive receptor-ligand bond and show that it is remarkably similar for different leukocyte-endothelial cell pairs. Simultaneous tether extraction therefore represents a generic mechanism for stabilizing leukocyte rolling on the endothelium.

Girdhar, Gaurav; Shao, Jin-Yu

2007-01-01

388

Delayed strut fracture of sirolimus-eluting stent: A significant problem or an occasional observation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-stent restenosis after implantation of sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) still occur in some cases and stent fracture was recently suggested as a new potential mechanism of restenosis. We report a case of delayed stent strut fracture after percutaneous coronary intervention with SES. Until now, three cases regarding Cypher stent fracture have been reported in the literature. Further investigation should be performed

Pil-Ki Min; Young-Won Yoon; Hyuck Moon Kwon

2006-01-01

389

Fetal MRI at Higher Field Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a While fetal MRI has become a routine method at field strengths up to 1.5 T, the use of higher field strength is at an early\\u000a stage. A higher signal-to-noise ratio is accompanied by a higher energy deposition. In addition, parameters of sequences have\\u000a to be adjusted to achieve useful contrasts. Susceptibility effects and certain artifacts that increase with higher field

Andreas Stadlbauer; Daniela Prayer

390

Nickel: a micronutrient essential for higher plants  

SciTech Connect

Nickel was established as an essential micronutrient for the growth of temperate cereal crops. Grain from barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Onda; containing 40 to 80 nanograms of Ni per gram dry weight) grown in solution culture with negligible Ni concentrations (<30 nanograms of Ni per liter) exhibited greatly reduced germination rates (i.e. 50% less than grain from Ni-adequate plants) and seeding vigor of the viable grain was greatly depressed. Grain containing less than 30 nanograms per gram dry weight was inviable. Under Ni-deficient conditions, barley plants fail to produce viable grain because of a disruption of the maternal plants normal grain-filling and maturation processes that occur following formation of the grain embryo. The observations that (a) barley plants fail to complete their life cycle in the absence of Ni and (b) addition of Ni to the growth medium completely alleviates deficiency symptoms in the maternal plants satisfies the essentiality criteria; thus Ni should be considered a micronutrient for cereals. Because Ni is required by legumes, and is now established for cereals, the authors conclude that Ni should be added to the list of micronutrients essential for all higher plant growth.

Brown, P.H.; Welch, R.M.; Cary, E.E.

1987-11-01

391

NEJHE's Trends & Indicators in Higher Education, 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents the New England Journal of Higher Education (NEJHE) Trends & Indicators in Higher Education, featuring 64 tables and charts exploring New England's demography, high school performance and graduation, college enrollment, college graduation rates and degree production, higher education financing, and university research. The…

Klemer, Sue, Comp.

2008-01-01

392

Private Higher Education and Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In Western Europe, especially in Germany, private higher education is generally perceived as an alternative to public higher education for students from relatively affluent families; more broadly, there is a general perception that attending a private higher education institution is correlated to wealth. This perception is influenced by private…

Reisz, Robert D.; Stock, Manfred

2012-01-01

393

The Demand for Higher Education in Greece  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper focuses on the reasons for enrolment demand in higher education in Greece through data collected from 400 students enrolled in the final year of post-secondary education in the Athens area. Results showed that Greek students choose to follow higher studies for a number of reasons but mainly because higher education offers high-level…

Saiti, Anna; Prokopiadou, Georgia

2008-01-01

394

Guidelines for Planning in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Guidelines for planning in higher education (which might have an application in Colombia) are described. Chapter 1 provides an expanded definition of higher education that includes noncollege channels to lifelong education and embraces all viable postsecondary education. Chapter 2 addresses current problems facing higher education, such as lack…

Anderson, Kenneth E.; Acero, Herman D.

395

New Directions in Professional Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection contains a series of analytical case studies of developing practices that respond to the challenges to higher education in the United Kingdom at the start of the new millennium. Chapters addressing important themes in developing professional higher education are: (1) "Lifelong Learning and Professional Higher Education" (David…

Bourner, Tom, Ed.; Katz, Tim, Ed.; Watson, David, Ed.

396

Challenges to Internationalisation in African Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paucity of clear, comprehensive and current information about higher education, and internationalisation in African higher education, scratches African countries from contention in both the race within Africa, and the race globally, for quality higher education for the world's mobile students. In addition to a lack of information, other…

Neale-Shutte, M.; Fourie, J.

2006-01-01

397

The Changing Landscape of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The landscape of higher education--the growing variety of higher education institutions, the cultural environment, the competitive ecosystem--is changing rapidly and disruptively. The higher education landscape is metaphorically crossed with fault lines, those fissures in the landscape creating potential areas of dramatic change, and is as…

Staley, David J.; Trinkle, Dennis A.

2011-01-01

398

Reconfiguring the Higher Education Value Chain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Forces of demand and supply are changing the dynamics of the higher education market. Transformation of institutions of higher learning into competitive enterprise is underway. Higher education institutions are seemingly under intense pressure to create value and focus their efforts and scarce funds on activities that drive up value for their…

Pathak, Virendra; Pathak, Kavita

2010-01-01

399

OER in Africa's Higher Education Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Higher education in Africa has had diverse histories and trajectories, and has played different roles over time. This article is concerned with the evolution and future of higher education on the continent, and the role that open educational resources (OER) might play therein. It is generally accepted that "the university in Africa and higher

Ngugi, Catherine N.

2011-01-01

400

Blending Learning: Widening Participation in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Widening participation has increased in emphasis in Higher Education over recent years. While there has been some progress in making higher education more accessible to students who have traditionally been excluded, widening participation is still being described as one of the major challenges facing Higher Education Institutions. Likewise…

Jones, Norah; Lau, Alice Man Sze

2010-01-01

401

Blending learning: widening participation in higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widening participation has increased in emphasis in Higher Education over recent years. While there has been some progress in making higher education more accessible to students who have traditionally been excluded, widening participation is still being described as one of the major challenges facing Higher Education Institutions. Likewise technological development has led to an increased use of online learning in

Norah Jones; Alice Man Sze Lau

2010-01-01

402

Hispanics in Higher Education: On the Move!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Association of Hispanics in Higher Education (AAHHE) is a new national organization "dedicated to improving the quality of higher education." The AAHHE believes higher education institutions can, and should, do a better job of "meeting the needs of a changing US demography." AAHHE's roots lie in the Hispanic Caucus of the now-defunct…

Kennen, Estela Marin

2005-01-01

403

Higher Education and Civic Engagement: Comparative Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Higher Education and Civic Engagement provides an original and challenging contribution to contemporary debates on the civic purpose of higher education. It explores teaching and learning, research, and service in a range of international contexts. This book is essential reading for higher education leaders, faculty, administrators, and members…

McIlrath, Lorraine, Ed.; Lyons, Ann, Ed.; Munck, Ronaldo, Ed.

2012-01-01

404

Higher Education and Basic Health Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proceedings of the Regional Institute of Higher Education and Development's seminar on higher education's commitment to the basic health needs of society are recorded. The first part of the seminar contains the official opening and several addresses that focus on basic health care in Southeast Asia. Part II, "Contributions of Higher Education…

Nasution, S.; Virasai, Banphot, Eds.

405

Higher Education and Politics in Latin America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The success of higher education depends upon its steering clear of political involvements, but in Latin America this appears to be different. There institutions of higher learning are inextricably wedded to politics and political movements. This article reviews and analyzes higher education and politics in Latin America. (Author)|

Cangemi, Joseph P.; Kowalski, Casimir J.

1976-01-01

406

The Public Stake in Independent Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of higher education in providing the skilled labor force needed to respond to changing technologies; the cost-efficiency of independent higher education; and implications for government, industry, and independent higher education are considered. The most readily changing technologies include computers and electronics, satellite…

Olson, Lawrence

407

Part Time Study in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is intended for adults considering enrolling in part-time study in higher education, examines the objectives and experiences of adults who have pursued part-time study in higher education in the United Kingdom. The following reasons why adults return to higher education are discussed: personal development; self-fulfillment;…

Neville, Colin

408

Higher Education: A Time for Triage?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher education faces unprecedented challenges. The confluence of changing economic and demographic tends; new patterns of federal and state spending; more explicit expectations by students and their families for affordable, accessible education; and heightened scrutiny by those who claim a legitimate interest in higher education is inescapably altering the environment in which this system operates. Higher education will never again

J. J. Lagowski

1995-01-01

409

The demand for higher education in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the reasons for enrolment demand in higher education in Greece through data collected from 400 students enrolled in the final year of post?secondary education in the Athens area. Results showed that Greek students choose to follow higher studies for a number of reasons but mainly because higher education offers high?level knowledge that creates career opportunities. Family

Anna Saiti; Georgia Prokopiadou

2008-01-01

410

Problems and Priorities in Russian Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discussion of problems facing Russian higher education during a transitional period addresses such issues as enrollment, employment in higher education, the need to increase efficiency, and application of information technology to teaching, learning, and research. It is argued that, although preserving some elements of traditional higher

Ladyzhets, Natalia S.

1996-01-01

411

Evaluating Public Higher Education in Mexico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to ensure accountability, and in order to prepare students for a globalised world, the higher education sector in Mexico is seeking to implement an evaluation of public higher education. Higher education institutions (HEIs) need to balance this goal against the need to protect their autonomy. This would be preserved if each…

Varela-Petito, Gonzalo

2011-01-01

412

Student volunteering in English higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volunteering in English higher education has come under political scrutiny recently, with strong cross?party support for schemes to promote undergraduate volunteering in particular. Recent targeted initiatives and proposals have sought to strengthen both the role of volunteering in higher education and synergies between higher education and voluntary sectors. There is, therefore, an emerging consensus among both politicians and academics that

Clare Holdsworth; Jocey Quinn

2010-01-01

413

Higher education markets and public policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the major reforms to higher education being introduced throughout the world, market and “market-like” policy instruments are assuming increasing importance. Long perceived as a unique characteristic of the U.S. system of higher education, experiments with market competition in academic labor markets, institutional finance, student support, and the allocation of research funds are now evident in the higher education policy

David D. Dill

1997-01-01

414

Privatization Of Higher Education In Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study will trace the external factors influencing the liberalization, deregulation and privatization of higher education in Malaysia from 1970 to the present and to analyze the effects of liberalization, deregulation and privatization on the modes of privatization and the internal restructuring of institutions of higher learning to increase efficiency, reduce costs and improve quality. In the 1970s, higher education

G. Sivalingam

415

Higher Education is Not a Commodity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper comments on the Carnegie Commission reports on higher education and discusses some of the issues higher education and the public have to face. Higher education is in a crisis and in desperate need of continuing financial support from the federal government. The Carnegie Commission can help the public understand some of the problems by…

Benezet, Louis T.

416

Impact significance determination-Back to basics  

SciTech Connect

Impact significance determination is widely recognized as a vital and critical EIA activity. But impact significance related concepts are poorly understood. And the quality of approaches for impact significance determination in EIA practice remains highly variable. This article seeks to help establish a sound and practical conceptual foundation for formulating and evaluating impact significance determination approaches. It addresses the nature (what is impact significance?), the core characteristics (what are the major properties of significance determination?), the rationale (why are impact significance determinations necessary?), the procedural and substantive objectives (what do impact significance determinations seek to achieve?), and the process for making impact significance judgments (how is impact significance determination conducted?). By identifying fundamental attributes and key distinctions associated with impact significance determinations, a basis is provided for designing and evaluating impact significance determination procedures at both the regulatory and applied levels.

Lawrence, David P. [P.O. Station A, Box 3475, Langley, BC, V3A 4R8 (Canada)], E-mail: lawenv@telus.net

2007-11-15

417

Higher-order modes in the earth-ionosphere resonator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A statistical analysis of mean daily spectral realizations of the Ez component of natural radio noise recorded in the Magadan region in the 50-200 Hz band was carried out. In addition to lower modes of Schumann resonances, the existence of higher-order modes was observed. Phase velocities of ELF propagation in the 8-120 Hz band are calculated on the basis of 20 observed modes of resonant frequencies.

Dolgopolov, S. G.; Osinin, V. F.

1989-08-01

418

Probing higher spin black holes from CFT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a class of 2D CFTs with higher spin symmetry, we compute thermal two-point functions of certain scalar primary operators in the presence of nonzero chemical potential for higher spin charge. These are shown to agree with the same quantity calculated holographically using scalar fields propagating in a charged black hole background of 3D higher spin gravity. This match serves as further evidence for the duality between minimal models at large central charge and 3D higher spin gravity. It also supports a recent prescription for computing boundary correlators of `multi-trace' scalar primary operators in higher spin theories.

Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Jin, Kewang; Perlmutter, Eric

2013-10-01

419

PROMPT Ia SUPERNOVAE ARE SIGNIFICANTLY DELAYED  

SciTech Connect

The time delay between the formation of a population of stars and the onset of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) sets important limits on the masses and nature of SN Ia progenitors. Here, we use a new observational technique to measure this time delay by comparing the spatial distributions of SNe Ia to their local environments. Previous work attempted such analyses encompassing the entire host of each SN Ia, yielding inconclusive results. Our approach confines the analysis only to the relevant portions of the hosts, allowing us to show that even so-called prompt SNe Ia that trace star formation on cosmic timescales exhibit a significant delay time of 200-500 million years. This implies that either the majority of Ia companion stars have main-sequence masses less than 3 M {sub sun}, or that most SNe Ia arise from double white dwarf binaries. Our results are also consistent with a SNe Ia rate that traces the white dwarf formation rate, scaled by a fixed efficiency factor.

Raskin, Cody; Scannapieco, Evan; Rhoads, James [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Della Valle, Massimo [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello, 16-80131, Napoli (Italy)

2009-12-10

420

Investigating the Significance of VFR Visits to International Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher education, particularly in the area of international education has exhibited significant growth since the mid-1980s. Whilst it is beginning to attract research from both educational and tourism industry perspectives, the current body of knowledge regarding this market is still quite limited. This is particularly the case in the area of associated visiting friends and relatives' travel patterns and expenditure.

Ruth Taylor; Tekle Shanka; Jeff Pope

2004-01-01

421

FINAL REPORT. DETERMINING SIGNIFICANT ENDPOINTS FOR ECOLOGICAL RISK ANALYSES  

EPA Science Inventory

This research examines the ecological significance of radioactive and heavy metal contamination. Risks to non-human biota at higher levels of biological organization are assessed by using novel biological dosimeters in controlled, manipulative, dose/effects experiments, and by co...

422

Correlation between Corneal Topographic Indices and Higher-Order Aberrations in Keratoconus  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare corneal higher-order aberrations (HOAs) between normal and keratoconic eyes, and to investigate the association between elevation-based corneal topographic indices and corneal wavefront data in the latter group. Methods In this cross-sectional comparative study, 77 normal right eyes of 77 control subjects and 66 eyes of 36 keratoconic patients were included. In each eye, elevation- based corneal topographic indices including mean keratometry readings, best-fit sphere, maximum elevation, and 3-mm and 5-mm zone irregularity indices were measured using Orbscan II. The Galilei Scheimpflug analyzer was used to measure HOAs of the corneal surface. The independent student t-test was used to compare HOAs between the study groups. Spearman correlation was used to investigate possible associations between Orbscan and Galilei data in the keratoconus group. Results All Zernike coefficients up to the 4th order except for horizontal trefoil, and vertical and horizontal tetrafoil were significantly greater in the keratoconus group than normal eyes (P<0.05). Root mean square (RMS) of HOAs up to the 6th order and total HOAs were significantly higher in the keratoconus group (P<0.05). In the keratoconus group, the strongest association was observed between vertical coma (r=-0.71, P<0.01) and total RMS of HOAs (r=0.94, P<0.01) with irregularity in the 3-mm zone. Spherical and vertical coma aberrations were significantly correlated with mean keratometry (P<0.05 for both comparisons). Conclusion Centrally located corneal HOAs are significantly greater in keratoconic eyes than normal controls. Anterior and inferior displacement of the cornea causes the majority of higher-order aberrations observed in keratoconus.

Feizi, Sepehr; Einollahi, Bahram; Raminkhoo, Alireza; Salehirad, Shahram

2013-01-01

423

Experiment Prevails Over Observation in Geophysical Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thomson and Tait gave their name to a text (T and T') that sums up nineteenth century mechanics. T and T' says that scientists gain knowledge of the natural universe and the laws that regulate it through Experience. T and T' divides Experience into Observation and Experiment. The posthumous (1912) edition of T and T' appeared seven years before Eddington's expeditions to observe the eclipse of 29 May 1919 that demonstrated the bending of starlight predicted by Einstein's general theory of relativity. During the 2005 centenary of young Einstein's remarkably productive year, Eddington's (1919) result was frequently remembered, but the description in 2005 of what Eddington did in 1919 often differed from what Eddington said that he did. In his words then, Eddington observed; in words from scientists, historians of science, and philosophers of science during 2005, Eddington often experimented. In 1912, T and T' had distinguished Observation from Experiment with an apt contrast: ""When, as in astronomy, we endeavour to ascertain these causes by simply watching, we observe; when, as in our laboratories, we interfere arbitrarily with the causes or circumstances of a phenomenon, we are said to experiment"". (italics in T and T'). Eddington himself conformed to this distinction in his report (Physical Society of London, 1920). In its Preface, he states that observations were made at each of two stations, and concludes that ""I think it may now be stated that Einstein's law of gravitation is definitely established by observation..."". Chapter V of that report deals with The Crucial Phenomena. In this chapter, some form of the word observe (noun, verb, adjective, adverb) appears 13 times. In this chapter, experiment appears only as experimental, and then only twice. Einstein's prediction, with Eddington's observations, profoundly impressed contemporary philosophers of science. Karl Popper, then aged 17, considered Eddington's findings to effect a turning point in his career, but during that career, Popper painted himself into a philosophical corner by disallowing observation as contaminated with psychological problems and by advocating an aggressive deductive application of crucial experiments. As a result, in a 1974 review of what he really meant, Popper at least twice remembered ""Eddington's famous eclipse experiments of 1919."" The Web in 2006 lists NASA and NOAA acronyms for recent and ongoing research programs with geophysical content. A significant subset of these acronyms end in E or in EX, meaning experiment, but the scientific work done in the associated programs is actually observation. Experiment stands for actual Observation. This reversal in meaning recognizes the higher status of Experiment compared to Observation in the competition for government grants.

Galvin, C.

2006-05-01

424

Teaching Strategies and Gender in Higher Education Instrumental Studios  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates instrumental music teaching strategies in higher education settings, in order to identify those employed and their frequency and context of use. An instrument- and gender-balanced sample of 24 lessons from five institutions was analysed using a researcher-designed observational instrument. The results reveal the…

Zhukov, Katie

2012-01-01

425

Academic Management and Administration System Reform in Higher Education Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reforms in colleges and universities should promote the humanistic character of higher education--rather than simply serve for pure economic production--but also observe the sacred mission of transmitting and creating culture and knowledge, with these two possessing momentous differences. These then demand rationality in academic management to…

Xianming, Xiang

2006-01-01

426

The History of Disability Services in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 2002, Brinckerhoff, McGuire, and Shaw observed that the field of postsecondary education and disability services had "moved through its adolescence and was embarking on adulthood" (xiii). Indeed, the field had undergone rapid expansion nationwide in the prior 30 years and grew into a full-fledged profession within higher education (Jarrow…

Madaus, Joseph W.

2011-01-01

427

Renegotiating the Historical Narrative: The Case of American Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conversation begins with two observations: first, the professional organizations--conferences and journals--need to play more self-conscious, activist roles in shaping scholarly canons. Second, whatever canon now presides over American higher educational history is an extremely tolerant one. So much of current scholarship seems to arise out…

Mattingly, Paul H.

2004-01-01

428

Higher-harmonic wave forces and ringing of vertical cylinders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pronounced secondary load cycle may occur in the force on a vertical circular cylinder exposed to moderately steep transient water wave events. The timing is about one quarter wave period later than the main peak of the force. The load cycle contributes locally to a pronounced higher harmonic wave force. Experimental observations of the phenomenon in small and moderate

John Grue; Morten Huseby

2002-01-01

429

The Role of Higher-Level Cognitive Function in Gait: Executive Dysfunction Contributes to Fall Risk in Alzheimer’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is generally understood as primarily affecting cognition while sparing motor function, at least until the later stages of the disease. Studies reported over the past 10 years, however, have documented a prevalence of falls in AD patients significantly higher than in age-matched normal elders; also persons with AD have been observed to have different walking patterns with

Pamela L. Sheridan; Jeffrey M. Hausdorff

2007-01-01

430

Higher-Order Factor Invariance and Idiographic Mapping of Constructs to Observables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theory, research, and application in developmental science share the conceptual and methodological challenges of integrating the study of the course of a person's intra-individual changes and the formulation of subgroup (differential) or nomothetic generalizations. One approach to these challenges has involved building tailored construct representations that filter out irrelevant idiosyncratic information hampering the articulation of nomothetic relations by means of

Zhiyong Zhang; Michael W. Browne; John R. Nesselroade

2011-01-01

431

Mass shifts and local space charge effects observed in the quadrupole ion trap at higher resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass measurements made using the quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer under high resolution conditions display non-random errors which are attributed to local and general space charge conditions. Each ion in the trap experiences a degree of charge interaction which depends on (i) the total number of charges in the trap, (ii) the number of ions of the same m\\/z value,

K. A Cox; C. D Cleven; R. G Cooks

1995-01-01

432

Lithiation of TMEDA and its higher homologous TEEDA: understanding observed alpha- and beta-deprotonation.  

PubMed

TMEDA and its ethyl-substituted analogue, TEEDA, show a different behavior toward the deprotonation with lithiumalkyls. While TMEDA mainly undergoes alpha-lithiation of its methyl group, TEEDA shows selective beta-lithiation with following elimination of ethene. The crystal structure of the monomeric intermediate of this beta-lithiation, tBuLi.TEEDA, and theoretical studies indicate kinetic favoritism for the beta-lithiation. PMID:18842047

Gessner, Viktoria H; Strohmann, Carsten

2008-10-09

433

Would species richness estimators change the observed species area relationship?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluate whether the description of the species area relationship (SAR) can be improved by using richness estimates instead of observed richness values. To do this, we use three independent datasets gathered with standardized survey methods from the native laurisilva forest of the Azorean archipelago, encompassing different distributional extent and biological groups: soil epigean arthropods at eight forest fragments in Terceira Island, canopy arthropods inhabiting Juniperus brevifolia at 16 forest fragments of six different islands, and bryophytes of seven forest fragments from Terceira and Pico islands. Species richness values were estimated for each forest fragment using seven non-parametric estimators (ACE, ICE, Chao1, Chao2, Jackknife1, Jackknife2 and Bootstrap; five in the case of bryophytes). These estimates were fitted to classical log-log species-area curves and the intercept, slope and goodness of fit of these curves were compared with those obtained from the observed species richness values to determine if significant differences appear in these parameters. We hypothesized that the intercepts would be higher in the estimated data sets compared with the observed data, as estimated richness values are typically higher than observed values. We found partial support for the hypothesis - intercepts of the SAR obtained from estimated richness values were significantly higher in the case of epigean arthropods and bryophyte datasets. In contrast, the slope and goodness of fit obtained with estimated values were not significantly different from those obtained from observed species richness in all groups, although a few small differences appeared. We conclude that, although little is gained using these estimators if data come from standardized surveys, their estimations could be used to analyze macroecological relationships with non-standardized observed data, provided that survey incompleteness and/or unevenness are also taken into account.

Borges, Paulo A. V.; Hortal, Joaquín; Gabriel, Rosalina; Homem, Nídia

2009-01-01

434

Missouri Coordinating Board for Higher Education Fiscal Year 2005 Annual Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Coordinating Board for Higher Education and the Missouri Department of Higher Education present this fiscal year 2005 Annual Report to inform individuals of the state's status and progress in higher education. The Coordinating Board for Higher Education (CBHE) began the 2005 calendar year with a number of significant changes. The board and its…

Fitch, Gregory G.; Stein, Robert; Matchefts, Jim; Peterson, Dan; Imhoff, Donna; Miner, Brenda; Fennewald, Amy

2005-01-01

435

Observation of WZ production.  

PubMed

We report the first observation of the associated production of a W boson and a Z boson. This result is based on 1.1 fb;-1 of integrated luminosity from pp collisions at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. We observe 16 WZ candidates passing our event selection with an expected background of 2.7+/-0.4 events. A fit to the missing transverse energy distribution indicates an excess of events compared to the background expectation corresponding to a significance equivalent to 6 standard deviations. The measured cross section is sigma(pp-->WZ)=5.0(-1.6)(+1.8) pb, consistent with the standard model expectation. PMID:17501412

Abulencia, A; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Budroni, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carillo, S; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenaro, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Cyr, D; DaRonco, S; Datta, M; D'Auria, S; Davies, T; D'Onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdeckerc, G; Dell'Orso, M; Delli Paoli, F; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; DiTuro, P; Dörr, C; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garberson, F; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraan, A C; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McCarthy, K; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T

2007-04-19

436

Electron beam observation opportunity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionospheric researchers will have the opportunity to conduct coordinated radio, radar, and optical observations in conjunction with other space-based electron beam experiments as part of the upcoming Cooperative High-Altitude Rocket Gun Experiments (CHARGE) 3 rocket flight in November 1988 at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR, White Sands, N.Mex.). The flight will be particularly interesting because of the high power planned for the electron gun (3.5 kV at 5 A), which is based, in part, on technology developments planned for the successful Excede series of rockets.CHARGE 3 is the third in a series of U.S. flights made in collaboration with investigators from Utah State University (Logan), Stanford University (Stanford, Calif.), the Institute for Space and Astronautical Sciences (Sendai, Japan), and the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor). The general objectives for CHARGE 3 are fourfold: to study vehicle charging and diagnosecontributory effects at higher beam currents and energy,to study ELF/VLF wave generation and propagation from dc and modulated electron beams,to diagnose beam propagation remotely by studying E region ionization and optical excitation, andto investigate voltage and current distribution in an electrically tethered space vehicle system at higher beam currents.

Raitt, John; Banks, Peter

437

Higher order harmonic detection for exploring nonlinear interactions with nanoscale resolution  

PubMed Central

Nonlinear dynamics underpin a vast array of physical phenomena ranging from interfacial motion to jamming transitions. In many cases, insight into the nonlinear behavior can be gleaned through exploration of higher order harmonics. Here, a method using band excitation scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to investigate higher order harmonics of the electromechanical response, with nanometer scale spatial resolution is presented. The technique is demonstrated by probing the first three harmonics of strain for a Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 (PZT) ferroelectric capacitor. It is shown that the second order harmonic response is correlated with the first harmonic response, whereas the third harmonic is not. Additionally, measurements of the second harmonic reveal significant deviations from Rayleigh-type models in the form of a much more complicated field dependence than is observed in the spatially averaged data. These results illustrate the versatility of nth order harmonic SPM detection methods in exploring nonlinear phenomena in nanoscale materials.

Vasudevan, R. K.; Okatan, M. Baris; Rajapaksa, I.; Kim, Y.; Marincel, D.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Jesse, S.; Valanoor, N.; Kalinin, S. V.

2013-01-01

438

The Capricornids observed from Namibia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a delta-Aquariids expedition to Namibia by the Dutch Meteor Society (DMS) 793 Capricornids were recorded from 2011 July 25 till August 7. The activity profile shows a low but steady activity with a maximum of 6 Capricornids per hour near solar longitude 128 deg (solar longitude 2000.0). The higher ZHRs observed in 1984 were not confirmed in 2011.

Miskotte, Koen; Johannink, Carl

2012-06-01

439

Boston College Center for International Higher Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Under the direction of Philip G. Altbach, the Boston College Center for International Higher Education functions as a clearinghouse of material on the changing nature and form of higher education. Much of the center's focus revolves around creating dialogue and cooperation among academic institutions in the industrialized nations and those in the developing countries of the Third World. From the mainpage visitors can view carefully selected lists of weblinks designed for scholars of higher education, and one list that is specifically designed for persons interested in higher education in Africa. Perhaps the main highlight of the site is the online edition of the center's well-regarded newsletter, _International Higher Education_. Here visitors can read pieces about the rise of for-profit higher education in the United States, undergraduate education in Brazil, and student loan financing in Thailand. Visitors may also browse an archive of the newsletter that dates back to the first issue, which was released in May 1995.

440

Center for Higher Education Policy Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An increasing number of scholars and persons in the policy world continue to share an abiding interest in the vast world of higher education, and the staff members of the Center for Higher Education Policy Studies (CHEPS) at the University of Twente are no exception. This interdisciplinary research institute, founded in 1984, seeks "to increase our understanding of institutional, national and international issues that bear upon higher education." The site is a fine clearinghouse, both in terms of offering access to work produced by the staff of CHEPS, and as an online resource to find out about upcoming higher education conferences and their consultancy projects. Many of the publications are available in Dutch and English and deal with a host of topics such as higher education consortia in Europe and Southeast Asia and the role of national governments in the evolution of higher education.

441

A calculus for higher spin interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Higher spin theories can be efficiently described in terms of auxiliary Stückelberg or projective space field multiplets. By considering how higher spin models couple to scale, these approaches can be unified in a conformal geometry/tractor calculus framework. We review these methods and apply them to higher spin vertices to obtain a generating function for massless, massive and partially massless three-point interactions.

Joung, Euihun; Taronna, Massimo; Waldron, Andrew

2013-07-01

442

Expansion and Diversification in Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the growth of national higher education systems, questions of access, expansion and diversification have regularly been\\u000a addressed by higher education policy-makers and researchers. Often a straightforward relationship is presumed between the\\u000a growth of the student body and the expansion of higher education systems and between the growth of the student numbers and\\u000a diversification of such systems. This chapter presents

Frans Kaiser; Jeroen Huisman

443

Accountability in Higher Education: Are There "Fatal Errors" Embedded in Current U.S. Policy Affecting Higher Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Some observers of political phenomena are referring to the 1990s as the "age of accountability." Early in the decade of the '90s, articles in periodicals, professional journals and other sources were voicing warnings about increasing public policymaker frustration with higher education and the spreading development and implementation of…

Grantham, Marilyn H.

444

[The significance of folate metabolism in complications of pregnant women].  

PubMed

Proper metabolism of folates has a crucial role for body homeostasis. Folate metabolism regulates changing of amino acids (homocysteine and methionine), purine and pyrimidine synthesis and DNA methylation. These whole biochemical processes have significant influence on hematopoietic, cardiovascular and nervous system functions. The disturbances of folate cycle could result in chronic hypertension, coronary artery disease, higher risk of heart infarction, could promote cancers development, and psychic and neurodegenerative diseases. No less important is the connection with complications appearing in pregnant woman (recurrent miscarriages, preeclampsia, fetus hypotrophy intrauterine death, preterm placenta ablation, preterm delivery) and fetus defects (Down syndrome, spina bifida, encephalomeningocele, myelomeningocele). The complex process of folate metabolism requires adequate activity of many enzymes and presence of co-enzymes. A key enzyme in folate metabolism is methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR - methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase), and 677C>T polymorphism of MTHFR gene is connected with lower enzymatic activity In several researches it was indicated that 677C>T MTHFR polymorphism is an independent factor influencing homocysteine concentration in serum, and also folate concentration in serum and red blood cells. Nevertheless, it was also observed the correlation of 677C>T MTHFR polymorphism with Down syndrome, and neural tube defects appearance in fetus. In European populations frequency of mutated 677TT genotype ranges from a few to several percent. Women carriers of 677TT or 677CT MTHFR genotypes are exposed on folate metabolism disturbances and on the consequences of incorrect folate process during pregnancy Nowadays in this group of women folic acid supplementation is widely recommended. In the light of modern knowledge the attention was also focused on the importance of metafolin administration that omitted pathways of folic acid transformation after administration, and in pregnant women certainly is valuable complement of supplementation in this respect. PMID:23819405

Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka

2013-05-01

445

Higher Education Journals' Discourse about Adult Undergraduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1999-2000, 7.1 million adults age 24 or older constituted 43% of all undergraduates in U.S. institutions of higher education, compared to 5.73 million adult students enrolled a decade earlier (1989-1990). The growing proportion of adult undergraduates has become a significant source of enrollment and income for numerous institutions for which…

Donaldson, Joe F.; Townsend, Barbara K.

2007-01-01

446

Satisfaction with Higher Education: Critical Data for Student Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Higher education is a mainstay in the development and support of the economic, social and cultural development of the global society. Throughout history, academic institutions have sought to respond to the demands of endlessly changing and evolving environmental conditions. However, in the 21st century, a number of significant factors are…

Machado, Maria de Lourdes; Brites, Rui; Magalhaes, Antonio; Sa, Maria Jose

2011-01-01

447

Geography and the Changing Landscape of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Colleges and universities in the USA and many other countries find themselves in a deepening financial challenge that is significantly influencing operating decisions as well as student access to higher education. These trends are attributed to the weakened finances of governments, competition from non-discretionary public spending, the nature of…

Erickson, Rodney A.

2012-01-01

448

Higher Education Collaboratives for Community Engagement and Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individually and collectively, institutions of higher education possess considerable resources--human, fiscal, organizational, and intellectual--which are critical to addressing significant social issues. Additionally, these institutions are physically rooted in their communities. Therefore, investing in the betterment of their immediate…

Pasque, Penny A., Ed.; Smerek, Ryan E., Ed.; Dwyer, Brighid, Ed.; Bowman, Nick, Ed.; Mallory, Bruce L., Ed.

2005-01-01

449

Higher education ERP: a framework to reduce the pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher Education Institutions are now spending a significant portion of their budget to implement and maintain modern Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) solutions. ERP is a software solution that integrates information and business processes to enable information entered once into the system to be available across the information technology infrastructure.In this report, we provide our framework to implement a secure infrastructure

Kris T. Pegah; Mahmoud Pegah; Terry M. Dillow

2003-01-01

450

Mass Higher Education and the Social Sciences in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims to contribute to the debate on major changes in tertiary education in Europe over the last 15 years by focusing on mass higher education in Greece and the place of the social sciences in it. It examines the main objectives and effects of the significant educational reform, introduced by the Panhellenic Socialist Party in the early 1980s,

Maria Petmesidou

1998-01-01

451

Americium separation from nuclear fuel dissolution using higher oxidation states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the complexity in current AFCI proposals is driven by the need to separate the minor actinides from the lanthanides. Partitioning and recycling Am, but not Cm, would allow for significant simplification because Am has redox chemistry that may be exploited while Cm does not. Here, we have explored methods based on higher oxidation states of Am (AmV and

Bruce J. Mincher

2009-01-01

452

Education's Inequity: Opposition to Black Higher Education in Antebellum Connecticut  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the late 1820s, African Americans' access to primary and religious instruction expanded significantly throughout the urban Northeast, yet barriers to their higher education remained firm. Segregated in public "African" schools, blacks were also barred from most private academies. Collegiate education similarly remained out of reach. In…

Moss, Hilary J.

2006-01-01

453

Annual Report of the South Carolina Commission on Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The South Carolina Commission on Higher Education submits its report on significant events of the last year and reports briefly on the following: (1) enrollment information for the colleges and universities; (2) establishment of the Student Intern Program of S.C. designed to utilize qualified college and university students on specific projects of…

South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, Columbia.

454

Geography and the Changing Landscape of Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colleges and universities in the USA and many other countries find themselves in a deepening financial challenge that is significantly influencing operating decisions as well as student access to higher education. These trends are attributed to the weakened finances of governments, competition from non-discretionary public spending, the nature of education as a service industry and the fraying of the social

Rodney A. Erickson

2012-01-01

455

The Professional Learning of Teachers in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational professional development is a global concern. It is often characterised by event-delivery methods, though there are signs that other approaches are gaining favour. The authors stress the significance of non-formal learning, and the ways in which it can be promoted and enhanced within the activity systems within which teachers in higher

Knight, Peter; Tait, Jo; Yorke, Mantz

2006-01-01

456

Forecasting future information sources provision fo r engineering higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

We would argue that the UK Higher Education (HE) s ystem has not reacted adequately to accommodate the significant changes in HE that have occurred over t he last two decades. The student body has changed i n terms of the huge increase in numbers; the introduction of top-up fee s means that many students have to work to fund

Tim McLernon; N. Ireland; Mick Carragher

457

A Model Partnership: The American Heart Association and Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For higher education, the increasing number of nonprofit managers represents a graduate-level audience that may be as significant as the audience of business managers who emerged from private industrial corporations at the turn of the century. Yet colleges and universities have responded slowly to the needs of the third sector. (MLW)|

Christopulos, Diana; Hafner, Dudley H.

1982-01-01

458

Australian Higher Education: Regional Universities under a Coalition Government  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Projected student enrolment growth places the Australian higher education system on the precipice of significant change, leading to philosophical debates about how the system should respond. One suggested policy change is that resources be redirected from non-research intensive regional universities to other providers. The Liberal Party is the…

O'Sullivan, Dominic

2013-01-01

459

The Peer Learning Community in Higher Education: Reflections on Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes research into the operation of peer learning communities on the MSc course in Change Agent Skills and Strategies at the University of Surrey. Argues for acknowledgment of significant qualitative differences in current usage of the term "learning community" in relation to higher education courses. Indicates educational advantages of, and…

Tosey, Paul; Gregory, Josie

1998-01-01

460

Higher Education Journals' Discourse about Adult Undergraduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1999-2000, 7.1 million adults age 24 or older constituted 43% of all undergraduates in U.S. institutions of higher education, compared to 5.73 million adult students enrolled a decade earlier (1989-1990). The growing proportion of adult undergraduates has become a significant source of enrollment and income for numerous institutions for which…

Donaldson, Joe F.; Townsend, Barbara K.

2007-01-01

461

International demand for American higher education: An extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the estimated effects of a country's population and income on its citizens' demand for American higher education. Data are from 1978, 1982, and 1987. With the behavioral variables, the model includes binary variables for Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and Asian countries. Population significantly affects demand, but the effect is not proportional: A 10% increase in

J. Wilson Mixon; Weidong Wan

1990-01-01

462

Gubernatorial Authority and Influence on Public Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|State governors have the potential to impact their states' public higher education systems in a variety of very significant ways. The findings for the 33 governors included in this study suggest a great deal of variation in the extent of their authority and influence. Governors' composite ratings of formal authority and informal influence are…

Christakis, Michael N.

2009-01-01

463

Meditation in Higher Education: Does It Enhance Cognition?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We predicted that students in a sociology course that included contemplative practices (i.e., mindfulness meditation) would show an increase in performance on higher level cognitive abilities (executive functions) over the semester compared to a control group of students. Change in executive functions performance was not significantly different…

Helber, Casey; Zook, Nancy A.; Immergut, Matthew

2012-01-01

464

Special Issue: The Global Growth of Private Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This volume begins its global tour with the case of Mexico. The Mexican case is significant because of its original importance in defining the primary types of private higher education. It shows trends that reflect rapid transformations in the country and tensions in developing countries at the intersection of resource constraints, relatively…

Kinser, Kevin; Levy, Daniel C.; Casillas, Juan Carlos Silas; Bernasconi, Andres; Slantcheva-Durst, Snejana; Otieno, Wycliffe; Lane, Jason E.; Praphamontripong, Prachayani; Zumeta, William; LaSota, Robin

2010-01-01

465

Higher Education and Curriculum Innovation for Sustainable Development in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze and profile significant national developments in higher education for sustainable development in India and to compare different educational approaches emerging in connection with education for sustainable development. Design/methodology/approach: This is an evaluative review of contrasting…

Chhokar, Kiran Banga

2010-01-01

466

Policy and Structural Developments in Irish Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ireland's higher education system has recently experienced significant growth and organizational change, accompanied by decreased institutional autonomy. However, a trend favoring investment in technological education has prompted concern among traditional institutions, which may persist as long as two authorities rather than one control the…

O Buachalla, Seamas

1984-01-01

467

Education's Inequity: Opposition to Black Higher Education in Antebellum Connecticut  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the late 1820s, African Americans' access to primary and religious instruction expanded significantly throughout the urban Northeast, yet barriers to their higher education remained firm. Segregated in public "African" schools, blacks were also barred from most private academies. Collegiate education similarly remained out of reach. In…

Moss, Hilary J.

2006-01-01

468

Solar System Observations with Spitzer Space Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The programs of observations of Solar System bodies conducted in the first year of the operation of the Spitzer Space Telescope as part of the Guaranteed Observing Time allocations are described. Initial results include the determination of the albedos of a number of Kuiper Belt objects and Centaurs from observations of their flux densities at 24 and 70 ?m, and the detection of emission bands in the spectra of several distant asteroids (Trojans) around 10 and 25 ?m. The 10 Kuiper Belt objects observed to date have albedos in the range 0.08 -- 0.15, significantly higher than the earlier estimated 0.04. An additional KBO [(55565) 2002 AW197] has an albedo of 0.17 ± 0.03. The emission bands in the asteroid spectra are indicative of silicates, but specific minerals have not yet been identified. The Centaur/comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 has a nucleus surface albedo of 0.025 ± 0.01, and its dust production rate was calculated from the properties of the coma. Several other investigations are in progress as the incoming data are processed and analyzed.

Cruikshank, D. P.; Stansberry, J. A.; Emery, J. P.; van Cleve, J.; Fernández, Y. R.; Werner, M. W.; Reike, G. H.; Trilling, D. E.

2006-12-01

469

Response of Plasma Renin Activity to Postural Change in Vasovagal Syncope in Children, with Observations on Syncope  

Microsoft Academic Search

37 children aged 7–14 years with a history of repetitive fainting (vasovagal syncope) were studied. Plasma renin activity (PRA), blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after standing for 15 min. Standing PRA was significantly higher in cases of fainting (n = 14) than in cases of nonfainting (n = 23). A significant positive correlation was observed between

M. Uchiyama; T. Otsuka; K. Sakai

1986-01-01

470

ASTROMETRIC MASSES OF 26 ASTEROIDS AND OBSERVATIONS ON ASTEROID POROSITY  

SciTech Connect

As an application of our recent observational error model, we present the astrometric masses of 26 main-belt asteroids. We also present an integrated ephemeris of 300 large asteroids, which was used in the mass determination algorithm to model significant perturbations from the rest of the main belt. After combining our mass estimates with those of other authors, we study the bulk porosities of over 50 main-belt asteroids and observe that asteroids as large as 300 km in diameter may be loose aggregates. This finding may place specific constraints on models of main-belt collisional evolution. Additionally, we observe that C-group asteroids tend to have significantly higher macroporosity than S-group asteroids.

Baer, James [James Cook University, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Townsville, QLD 4811 (Australia); Chesley, Steven R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Matson, Robert D., E-mail: jimbaer1@earthlink.net, E-mail: steve.chesley@jpl.nasa.gov [Science Applications International Corporation, 3030 Old Ranch Pkwy., Ste. 250, Seal Beach, CA 90740 (United States)

2011-05-15

471

Finding of No Significant Impact Text - Atryn  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Finding of No Significant Impact Text - Atryn. FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT. for. the rBc6 rDNA Construct in GTC ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

472

UPGRADING THE CEBAF INJECTOR WITH A NEW BOOSTER, HIGHER VOLTAGE GUN, AND HIGHER FINAL ENERGY  

SciTech Connect

The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) accelerator at Jefferson Lab will be upgraded from 6 GeV to 12 GeV in the next few years. To meet the requirement of the new machine and to take the opportunity to improve the beam quality, the CEBAF injector will be upgraded with a higher voltage gun, a new booster, and a new accelerating RF module. The CEBAF injector creates and accelerates three beams at different currents simultaneously. The beams are interleaved, each at one third of the RF frequency, traveling through the same beam line. The higher voltage gun will lower the space charge effects. The new booster with optimized beam dynamics will complete the bunching process and provide initial acceleration matched to the new gun voltage. Using our latest SRF design, the new booster has significantly lower x/y coupling effects that should improve our beam setup and operation for the highly sensitive parity experiments scheduled for the CEBAF's future. Finally, the new accelerating RF module will roughly double the injector final energy to match the rest of the 12 GeV accelerator. In this paper we will provide more detail about this upgrade.

Reza Kazimi, Arne Freyberger, Alicia Hofler, Andrew Hutton, Fay Hannon

2012-07-01

473

Current Trends in Austrian Higher Education: The Call for a New Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Follows recent trends in Austrian higher education which have brought about significant reforms. Trends include emphasis on teaching instead of research and easier access to institutions of higher education. Journal availability: see SO 507 243. (Author/DB)|

Leitner, Erich

1979-01-01

474

Significant Scene Extraction Method Using Situation Importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sports videos for mobile terminals and PCs and other multimedia information services have recently spread. The ability to efficiently extract significant scenes is important with these services. We proposed the personal digest making scheme (PDMS), which calculates the significance of events in a sports game based on video meta data and extracts significant scenes to compose a digest. PDMS calculations

Takako Hashimoto; Takashi Katooka; Atsushi Iizawa; Hiroyuki Kitagawa

2004-01-01

475

Creating Significant Learning Experiences across Disciplines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to use Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning to redesign courses and assess student learning. Significant improvements were found across the semester for students in the six courses, but there were differences in which taxa showed improvement in each course. The meta-analysis showed significant, positive…

Levine, Laura E.; Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Nicoll-Senft, Joan M.; Tessier, Jack T.; Watson, Cheryl L.; Wood, Rebecca M.

2008-01-01

476

Creating Significant Learning Experiences across Disciplines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to use Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning to redesign courses and assess student learning. Significant improvements were found across the semester for students in the six courses, but there were differences in which taxa showed improvement in each course. The meta-analysis showed significant, positive…

Levine, Laura E.; Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Nicoll-Senft, Joan M.; Tessier, Jack T.; Watson, Cheryl L.; Wood, Rebecca M.

2008-01-01

477

Career Education Activities in Colorado Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection of articles deals with various career educational activities that inform students about the concept of career education as well as activities related to the specific fields of career education study in higher education. The publication is a result of a study of the involvement of Colorado institutions of higher learning in career…

Moss, Stephen, Ed.

478

Changing the Subject: Women in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 14 papers on women in higher education grouped in three sections on: experiences of women in higher education, empowerment of women, and women challenging the mainstream curriculum, respectively. The papers are: (1) "Being Different is a Very Difficult Row to Hoe: Survival Strategies of Women Academics" (Barbara Bagilhole); (2)…

Davies, Sue, Ed.; And Others

479

Twelve Propositions on Diversity in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper explores the relationship between the diversity within a higher education system and five key factors, namely: the environment, policy intervention, funding, competition and co-operation, and ranking. The exploration is based on the extent to which higher education systems, particularly those of Australia and New Zealand, have…

Codling, Andrew; Meek, Lynn V.

2006-01-01

480

Maintaining Missouri's Tradition of Affordable Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report provides contextual background for the Missouri Commission on the Affordability of Higher Education, which was established in 1998 to engage students, parents, business, higher education, and public policy leaders in a systematic dialogue aimed at ensuring that an affordable college education stays within reach of Missouri citizens.…

Missouri Coordinating Board for Higher Education, Jefferson City.

481

Translating Higher Reading Skills into Measurable Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Competency-based education is a model that needs research and development before it can be successfully translated into classroom practices for teaching higher reading skills. Competency-based programs of reading instruction that stress cognitive rather than low-level skills may encounter difficulty in performing a logical task analysis of higher

Holden, Marjorie H.

482

French Higher Education: A Cartoon Essay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this cartoon essay, the author shares his experience from a travel to Paris to see the French higher education system. From his travel, he learned that in France, "degree" inflation may be an issue, but not grade inflation. On the flight home, the author reflects how French and American academics answer one question about the state of higher

Hall, Matthew Henry

2012-01-01

483

Academic Capitalism and Accountability in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation examines performance-based funding in higher education in Alberta (Canada) using a case study that examined government funding of public higher education in that province. Six hypothesized goals for performance-based funding were developed from the literature, and relevant government documents were analyzed in terms of these…

Barnetson, Robert James

484

Taking Responsibility: Leaders' Expectations of Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A survey of 601 leaders was conducted to identify the concerns of those who are most involved with decision making about higher education and what they see for the future. Individuals surveyed included professors, higher education deans and administrators, government officials, and business leaders. The study found that disagreements between…

Immerwahr, John

485

Total Quality Management: Implications for Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book contains 19 papers describing the implementation of Total Quality Management in a variety of higher education settings. Following a Foreword by Peter Likins and a Preface by Daniel J. Julius, the chapter titles and authors are: (1) "TQM: Implications for Higher Education--A Look Back to the Future" (Allan M. Hoffman and Randall…

Hoffman, Allan M., Ed.; Julius, Daniel J., Ed.

486

Policy Dimensions of Analytics in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current higher education landscape is replete with demands for improving accountability, increasing efficiency, and controlling costs. At the same time, information technologies make it easier to collect and analyze information to measure outcomes or to assist in decision making. Consequently, there is a higher demand for better information…

Petersen, Rodney J.

2012-01-01

487

Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores the feasibility of developing guidelines for developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) in early childhood teacher education, based on DAP principles for young children. DAP higher education practices include facilitation of identity development, respect for student interests, and social accountability. Components of DAP in higher

Rogers, Cosby Steele; Sluss, Dorothy Justus

1996-01-01

488

Crisis Management in American Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical aspects of crisis management in U.S. higher education and the historical development of the education system over the last 100 years are reviewed. It is proposed that crisis strategies in higher education have largely revolved around the use of a stratification strategy and the establishment of ideological hegemony. Historical periods…

Scott, Barbara Ann

489

Higher education leadership roles in knowledge processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To examine the critical roles of leadership in higher education and to define how such roles enable an environment that embraces the demands of a knowledge-based organization. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Through interviews with executive leadership in several higher education institutions, the ontology of knowledge management was established and the methods by which knowledge gaps were resolved were explored. The

Jeffery S. Martin; Russell Marion

2005-01-01

490

Are Public Subsidies to Higher Education Regressive?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article estimates the dollar amount of public higher education subsidies received by U.S. youth and examines the distribution of subsidies and the taxes that finance them across parental and student income levels. Although youths from high-income families obtain more benefit from higher education subsidies, high-income households pay…

Johnson, William R.

2006-01-01

491

Higher Education in India: A Comprehensive Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides a comprehensive bibliography of higher education in India. It constitutes a resource for scholars, policymakers, planners, and administrators concerned with higher education in India. The book contains 2,485 entries arranged under 50 themes. Each theme is classified into four types of material: books; articles; annotated…

Raza, Moonis; Malhotra, Nirmal

492

Protagonism Emergent: Indians and Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Traces the growth and development of higher education for American Indians during the 20th century. Discusses assimilationist educational policies (1870s-1920s), a tiny group of Indian college graduates who advanced Native higher education, early college preparatory schools and the role of the church, shift in federal policy (1930s), activism…

Wollock, Jeffrey

1997-01-01

493