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1

Bikini Observations and Their Significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

On rare occasions, events of transcendent importance are described in a paper of corresponding significance. The following presentation, prepared by two Past-Presidents of The Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) who were official United States scientific observers of Operation Crossroads, is a contribution of this unusual sort. It is most earnestly commended to the thoughtful attention of the readers of the

H. Pratt; A. Van Dyck

1946-01-01

2

Reported Significant Observation (RSO) studies. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The Reported Significant Observation (RSO) study used in the field of safety is an information-gathering technique where employee-participants describe situations they have personally witnessed involving good and bad practices and safe and unsafe conditions. This information is useful in the risk assessment process because it focuses on hazards and thereby facilitates their elimination. However, RSO cannot be the only component in a risk assessment program. Used by the Air Force in their aviation psychology program and further developed by John C. Flanagan, RSO is more commonly known as the ``Critical Incident Technique.`` However, the words ``Critical`` and ``Incident`` had other connotations in nuclear safety, prompting early users within the Aerojet Nuclear Company to coin the more fitting title of ``Reported Significant Observations.`` The technique spread slowly in the safety field primarily because the majority of users were researchers interested in after-the-fact data, with application to everyday problems and behavioral factors. RSO was formally recognized as a significant hazard reduction tool during the development of the Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) program for the US Atomic Energy Commission. The Department of Energy (DOE) has, in turn, adopted MORT for its system safety program, and this has resulted in RSO being a modern and viable technique for DOE contractor safety programs.

Eicher, R.W.

1992-12-01

3

Satellite Significant Wave Height Observations in Coastal and Shelf Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant wave height (SWH) observations from the Jason-1 satellite are compared against buoy observations and a spectral wave model for the North Sea/Baltic Sea region. The comparisons are from year 2005 and demon- strate that the satellite SWH observations are very con- sistent, with a mean bias of 0.07 m and a standard devi- ation of 0.36 m when compared with buoys. The error statistics have been derived for the individual buoys and a detailed validation of the wave model is carried out us- ing the satellite observations. It is shown that the 20 Hz std dev of SWH can be used as an indicator of the quality of the observations and that a significant amount of near coastal observations can be obtained even within 10 km from the coast.

Høyer, J. L.; Nielsen, J. W.

2006-07-01

4

Observations of Higher Mode Rayleigh Waves in Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes observations of higher mode Rayleigh waves in the microseism frequency band (0.05-0.2 Hz), using a year of seismic ambient noise data recorded on stations in Southern California. By using a minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) processing, which has a high spatial resolution, the fundamental mode and the first mode of the Rayleigh wave are clearly localized both in slowness and azimuth. The higher mode is predominantly observed only along the Californian coast, whereas the fundamental mode is also observed at other azimuths (such as eastern US in August-November and north eastern US and Canada in December-February). Phase velocity estimates for both modes are retrieved and the dispersion curves agree very well with the theoretical dispersion curves based on a Southern California velocity model. The presence of a higher mode is also observed in the estimated coherence function between the stations, which is shown to be better modeled as a weighted sum of two Bessel functions of different spatial frequencies.

Menon, R.; Gerstoft, P.

2013-12-01

5

Significance of laboratory observations for modeling wind-driven seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In what sense can the laboratory wind-wave observations help in investigating and modeling wave growth in wind-driven seas? This old outstanding question is addressed by an extensive laboratory study in the large IRPHE wind-wave tank (Caulliez, 2009). We show that for a wide range of parameters the fetch-limited wind wave growth observed in the facility follows fairly well the wind-wave growth law predicted by weak turbulence model (Badulin et al., 2007). The wind speeds were ranging from 3.5 to 16 m/s and wave ages cp?U10 were smaller than 0.15 (cp being the phase speed of spectral peak waves, and U10 the equivalent 10 m level wind speed). The recent model of wind wave evolution proposed by Badulin et al. (2007) assumes the dominance of nonlinear four-wave resonant interactions over the direct wave input from wind and wave dissipation. The model predicts that the total wave energy is rigidly linked to the total wave energy flux (i.e. the energy growth rate dE?dt) by the relationship: E ?4 ( ?3dE ?dt)1?3 --2p= ? -p--2--- g g (1) where the wave energy E is defined in a "wind-wave study sense" as the water surface elevation variance density â?¨Î·2â?©, ?p is the wave spectral peak frequency, and ? is a self-similarity parameter. Experimental data reveal that the spectral peak wave energy observed in the wind-wave tank at large fetches evolves in accordance with the asymptotic weakly turbulent theory in a wide range of wind speeds. Furthermore, the found value of the self-similarity parameter ? ( ? â?? 0.5) matches very well the estimates from more than 20 data set collected over the last 50 years of wind-wave studies at sea. It is then shown that the characteristic parameters of the laboratory wave field development follow remarkably well the 3?2 Toba's law H ~ T3?2, H and T being the significant wave height and period. In a definite range of fetches and wind speeds, its dependency on friction velocity u* is also described by an expression similar to those proposed by Toba (1972) on local energy balance and dimensional considerations, i.e. 1?2 3?2 H = B(gu*) T (2) g being the gravity acceleration and B a constant. From a physical viewpoint, this heuristic law in u* infers not only the total wave energy flux dE?dt in Eq.(1) to be constant as pointed out by Badulin et al. (2007), but also the ratio of the form drag due to dominant waves to the total surface drag to be constant. Finally, the validity of the key assumption of the model, i.e. the dominance of nonlinear transfer over the net wave energy flux, is analyzed and domain of its applicability for laboratory observations is delimited. The weak turbulence model thus finds a new corroboration in wind-wave tank experiments and may bring a new vision for data analysis in the near future. References 1. S. I. Badulin, A. V. Babanin, D. Resio, and V. Zakharov. Weakly turbulent laws of wind-wave growth. J. Fluid Mech., 591:339-378, 2007. 2. G. Caulliez. Characteristic slopes of short wind waves and dependence on scale and wind speed. to appear, 2009. 3. Y. Toba. Local balance in the air-sea boundary processes. I. On the growth process of wind waves. J. Oceanogr. Soc. Japan, 28:109-121, 1972.

Badulin, S. I.; Caulliez, G.

2009-04-01

6

Academic Entrepreneurship (Re)defined: Significance and Implications for the Scholarship of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past several decades higher education scholars have conducted a significant amount of research aimed at understanding the implications of enhanced interactions between the academy and the private marketplace. Accordingly, a voluminous literature that includes conceptualizations and discussions of "academic entrepreneurship" has emerged.…

Mars, Matthew M.; Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia

2010-01-01

7

The Inception of the Meaning and Significance of Endowment in American Higher Education, 1890-1930  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Endowments of institutions of higher education in the United States have attracted widespread attention in recent decades due to their meteoric rise in value and their precipitous decline during the recent recession. But there has been little research on the beginnings of the significant interest in and importance of…

Kimball, Bruce A.; Johnson, Benjamin Ashby

2012-01-01

8

Technology challenges for Earth observation from higher orbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in Earth observing technologies are required to fulfill NASA's long-term vision for Earth system prediction in the years 2010 to 2020. The observing system during these years will include satellites in a variety of orbits including smaller, smarter ones in low Earth orbit, large aperture sensors in medium Earth orbit and geostationary orbit to provide enhanced temporal coverage and perhaps sentinel satellites at Lagrange points L1 and L2 to provide synoptic views of the entire globe. These higher vistas can meet pending science challenges in a variety of areas directly relevant to NASA"s plans. They include, among others, meeting high temporal and spatial resolutions to observe rapidly evolving chemical events in the global atmosphere, meeting the requirements of increased spatial and temporal sensing of varying precipitation events over portions of the globe, and the increased temporal coverage necessary to see clear skies over coastal regions for coastal process monitoring. A set of technology tradeoffs and needs that meet the above science challenges can be identified. They include an increase in collecting aperture for passive measurements, increased transmitted power for active measurements, and improved on-board processing coupled with enhanced bandwidth communications as data collection increases. The technologies will involve differentiating filled versus sparse aperture collection systems, developing advanced scanning capabilities and large array detectors, as well as large structure pointing control and metrology. This talk will examine these issues for a range of NASA Earth science measurements.

Cwik, Thomas; Boncyk, Wayne; Anderson, Ken

2005-01-01

9

The significance of observed rotational magnetic hysteresis in lunar samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rotational magnetic hysteresis curves for lunar soils 10084, 12070, and 14259, and rock 14053 have been published. There is no adequate explanation to date for the observed large hysteresis at high fields. Lunar rock magnetism researchers consider fine particle iron to be the primary source of stable magnetic remanence in lunar samples. Iron has cubic anisotropy with added shape anisotropy for extreme particle shapes. The observed high-field hysteresis must have its source in uniaxial or unidirectional anisotropy. This implies the existence of minerals with uniaxial anisotropy or exchange-coupled spin states. Therefore, the source of this observed high-field hysteresis must be identified and understood before serious paleointensity studies are made. It is probable that the exchange-coupled spin states and/or the source of uniaxial anisotropy responsible for the high-field hysteresis might be influenced by the lunar surface diurnal temperature cycling. The possible sources of high-field hysteresis in lunar samples are presented and considered.

Wasilewski, P.

1974-01-01

10

Higher topological invariants of magnetic field lines: observational aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topology of magnetic field lines is directly involved in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theorems and equations. Being an invariant of motion in ideal MHD conditions, the magnetic field-line topology is a natural obstacle to the relaxation of magnetic field into a current-free (potential) field and contrariwise limits a dynamo generation. Usage of these conservational laws and writing of numerical relations require a quantification of topology. One of the simplest existing measures of magnetic topology is the mutual magnetic helicity, that expresses the combined action of interaction and linkage between different magnetic field lines. For practical purposes there exists the revised concept of relative magnetic helicity, that allows to estimate the complexity of field-line topology in case of open volume, i.e. when magnetic lines cross the boundaries of given 3D region. At the same time this concept remains a simple interpretation of linkage number in terms of individual lines. Our point however is that magnetic helicity is far from being unique or comprehensive quantification of magnetic field-line topology. To improve the situation we introduce a set of higher invariants which extends the idea of relative helicity and provides a new means to describe the magnetic field-line topology. To practically study the possibility of implementation of higher topological invariants we reconstruct several moments of mutual helicity from observed solar vector magnetograms with extrapolated magnetic field above the photosphere and discuss to what extent such knowledge could be instructive for understanding of the solar magnetic field evolution.

Illarionov, Egor; Smirnov, Alexander; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Sokoloff, Dmitry; Akhmet'ev, Peter

11

Docosahexaenoic acid content is significantly higher in ghrita prepared by traditional Ayurvedic method  

PubMed Central

Background: Ghee (clarified butter) also known as ghrita, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda. Ghee is mostly prepared by traditional method in Indian households or by direct cream method at industry level. Ayurvedic classics mention that ghrita made from cow milk is superior. However, there is no scientific comparison available on preparation methods and essential fatty acids content of ghrita. Objective: To investigate fatty acid composition of ghrita prepared by traditional/Ayurvedic method and commercial method (direct cream method). Materials and Methods: Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) extracted from ghrita samples were analysed on Gas Chromatography (GC) Shimadzu B using capillary column BPX70 (0.32 mm*60 m, ID of 0.25 mm). The fatty acids in the samples were identified by comparing peaks with the external standard 68A (Nu-Chek-Prep, Inc.USA). Significant differences between the experimental groups were assessed by analysis of variance. Results: Distribution of fatty acids was compared in ghrita samples prepared by traditional method and direct cream method which is commercially used. Saturated fatty acids were predominant in both the groups. Mono unsaturated fatty acids and poly unsaturated fatty acids were in the range of 17-18% and 3-6% respectively. DHA content was significantly higher in ghee prepared by traditional method using curd starter fermentation. Conclusion: The findings suggested that ghrita prepared by traditional ayurvedic methods contains higher amount of DHA; Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which is a major component of retinal and brain tissues and remains important in prevention of various diseases. PMID:24948858

Joshi, Kalpana S.

2014-01-01

12

Higher resolution stimulus facilitates depth perception: MT+ plays a significant role in monocular depth perception  

PubMed Central

Today, we human beings are facing with high-quality virtual world of a completely new nature. For example, we have a digital display consisting of a high enough resolution that we cannot distinguish from the real world. However, little is known how such high-quality representation contributes to the sense of realness, especially to depth perception. What is the neural mechanism of processing such fine but virtual representation? Here, we psychophysically and physiologically examined the relationship between stimulus resolution and depth perception, with using luminance-contrast (shading) as a monocular depth cue. As a result, we found that a higher resolution stimulus facilitates depth perception even when the stimulus resolution difference is undetectable. This finding is against the traditional cognitive hierarchy of visual information processing that visual input is processed continuously in a bottom-up cascade of cortical regions that analyze increasingly complex information such as depth information. In addition, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results reveal that the human middle temporal (MT+) plays a significant role in monocular depth perception. These results might provide us with not only the new insight of our neural mechanism of depth perception but also the future progress of our neural system accompanied by state-of- the-art technologies. PMID:25327168

Tsushima, Yoshiaki; Komine, Kazuteru; Sawahata, Yasuhito; Hiruma, Nobuyuki

2014-01-01

13

Higher Education in Balkan Region and its Contribution to the Earth Observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The needs for spatial data as well as techniques of Earth Observation are changing, and new professional areas are developing very rapidly. In addition, scientific work and its connection with the teaching process have influenced the introduction of new cognitions into the higher education programs in general. Considering these facts, in the period shorter than one decade, the higher education institutions in the Balkan region, which have study programs in the fields of spatial data acquisition, analysis and spatial decisions, have made significant changes of the curricula. In our research, we have analyzed the current higher education programs in the Balkan region having focused on curricula related to the Earth Observation. Due to historical reasons, these curricula have its roots in surveying study programs in the most Balkan countries. The competences of classical surveying higher educational programs have been changing and nowadays include the wider area of spatial data acquisition, geoinformatics. In parallel, we present the current Earth Observation activities in the selected countries from the Balkan region. Based on the results of our research in the framework of the European program Observe, which aims to establish a new Balkan Earth Observation (EO) community of multilevel stakeholders that will make use of state of the art technological developments, products and knowhow from the existing European EO community and industry, we estimate the contribution of advanced higher educational programs to the Earth Observation activities in the selected countries.

Lisec, A.; Fras, M. K.

2012-07-01

14

The Importance and Impact of Three Significant Political Decisions upon Higher Education in Tennessee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three key political decisions made in Tennessee higher education that have brought about major changes in structure and have implications for the future are discussed. The decisions are: creation of the Tennessee Higher Education Commission (THEC) in 1967, the creation of the State Board of Regents (SBR) in 1972, and the establishment of the…

Tennessee Higher Education Commission, Nashville.

15

The Significance of the African Historical Contribution and Foreign Language Study in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the benefits of incorporating African-Caribbean contributions to U.S. history and culture at the level of higher education, such as promoting global interconnectedness, correcting misinformation about African Americans, recognizing and profiting from knowledge acquired by ancient civilizations, and strengthening economic competitiveness.…

Jackson, Shirley

1991-01-01

16

Coping with the Sluggish Economy: State Responses to Revenue Shortfalls and Their Significance for Public Schools and Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responses of southern states to revenue shortfalls and their significance for public schools and higher education are examined in this report. Many different actions have been take to address state fiscal problems: most strategies require changes in revenue polices that increase taxes and fees or reallocate funds, and many have mandated spending…

Gaines, Gale

17

DHA Serum Levels Were Significantly Higher in Celiac Disease Patients Compared to Healthy Controls and Were Unrelated to Depression  

PubMed Central

Objectives Celiac disease (CD), a genetically predisposed intolerance for gluten, is associated with an increased risk of major depressive disorder (MDD). We investigated whether dietary intake and serum levels of the essential n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) found in fatty fish play a role in this association. Methods Cross-sectional study in 71 adult CD patients and 31 healthy volunteers, matched on age, gender and level of education, who were not using n-3 PUFA supplements. Dietary intake, as assessed using a 203-item food frequency questionnaire, and serum levels of EPA and DHA were compared in analyses of covariance, adjusting for potential confounders. Serum PUFA were determined using gas chromatography. Results Mean serum DHA was significantly higher in CD patients (1.72 mass%) than controls (1.28 mass%) after multivariable adjustment (mean diff. 0.45 mass%; 95% CI: 0.22–0.68; p?=?0.001). The mean intake of EPA plus DHA did not differ between CD patients and controls after multivariable adjustment (0.15 and 0.22 g/d, respectively; p?=?0.10). There were no significant differences in intake or serum levels of EPA and DHA between any of the CD patient groups (never depressed, current MDD, minor/partially remitted MDD, remitted MDD) and controls. Conclusions Patients on a long term gluten-free diet had similar intakes of EPA plus DHA compared to controls. Contrary to expectations, DHA serum levels were significantly higher in CD patients compared to healthy controls and were unrelated to MDD status. PMID:24841484

van Hees, Nathalie J. M.; Giltay, Erik J.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Janssen, Nadine; van der Does, Willem

2014-01-01

18

Risk and prognostic significance of tuberculosis in patients from The TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To assess the risk and the prognostic significance of tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in patients from The TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database, a multi-centre prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients receiving HIV care in the Asia-Pacific region. METHODS: The risk of TB diagnosis after recruitment was assessed in patients with prospective follow-up. TB diagnosis was fitted as a time-dependent variable in

Jialun Zhou; Julian Elliott; Patrick CK Li; Poh Lim; Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul; Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy; Tuti Parwati Merati; Sanjay Pujari; Yi-Ming A Chen; Praphan Phanuphak; Saphonn Vonthanak; Thira Sirisanthana; Somnuek Sungkanuparph; Christopher KC Lee; Adeeba Kamarulzaman; Shinichi Oka; Fujie Zhang; Goa Tau; Rossana Ditangco

2009-01-01

19

What Does "Peer" Mean in Teaching Observation for the Professional Development of Higher Education Lecturers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The observation of teaching remains an integral process for the enhancement of practice as part of academic continuing professional development in higher education in the UK. This paper argues that failure to recognise the potential for peer-orientated development to reinforce restrictive norms of practice will be detrimental to the project of…

Weller, Saranne

2009-01-01

20

A Critical Evaluation of Peer Review via Teaching Observation within Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To provide a best practice framework for peer review via teaching observation as a method of appraising teaching performance within UK higher education (HE) institutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses secondary data analysis via the current literature on peer review and peer appraisal, as well as use of primary data obtained…

Blackmore, Jacqueline A.

2005-01-01

21

Significantly higher expression levels of androgen receptor are associated with erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene related gene positive prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Erythroblastosis virus E26 related gene (ERG) overexpression is correlated with the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene, a rearrangement known to be present in about 50% of cases of prostate cancer. Androgen receptor (AR) is a known regulator of the TMPRSS2 gene. Despite knowledge of this relationship, limited data is available on the specific relationship of AR expression to TMPRSS2-ERG fusion (ERG) status in prostate cancer (PCa). We used multiplexed immunohistochemistry, multispectral imaging technology and tissue microarray (TMA) to elucidate this relationship. Two prostate tissue microarrays were created from two cohorts of hormonal naïve patients’ prostatectomy specimens: progression TMA (pTMA, from 95 PCa patients) and outcome TMA (oTMA, from 183 PCa patients with at least 5-year follow-up information). Each of the two TMAs were triple-stained with ERG, AR and E-cadherin antibodies and visualized with a different chromogen. We found marked difference in AR expression levels between ERG positive (ERG+) and ERG negative (ERG-) prostate cancer. The difference was significant in localized (pT2) prostate cancer. We also found that AR expression levels were significantly higher in PCa tissue compared to benign prostate tissue, with the highest expression levels in ERG+ metastatic cancer. Neither AR nor ERG expression was associated with clinical outcome. Our findings confirm that TMPRSS2-ERG fusion is AR-dependent and is associated with increased AR expression. Our data suggest that the AR pathway may play an important role in the development of ERG+ PCa and ERG status may be useful in stratifying PCa patients for hormonal therapy. PMID:25374927

Rosenbaum, Jason; Drew, Sally; Huang, Wei

2014-01-01

22

Tribes and Territories in the 21st Century: Rethinking the Significance of Disciplines in Higher Education. International Studies in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "tribes and territories" metaphor for the cultures of academic disciplines and their roots in different knowledge characteristics has been used by those interested in university life and work since the early 1990s. This book draws together research, data and theory to show how higher education has gone through major change since then and how…

Trowler, Paul, Ed.; Saunders, Murray, Ed.; Bamber, Veronica, Ed.

2012-01-01

23

Direct observations of higher frequency density fluctuations in the interplanetary plasma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct observations from the plasma spectrometers on Pioneer 6 at 1 AU in December, 1965, have been used to obtain the power associated with fluctuations in the number density of solar-wind protons in the frequency range from .001 to .01 Hz. A power-law spectrum is obtained in this frequency range. The extension of the power-law density spectrum based on direct observations to these higher frequencies is consistent with previous extrapolations of both spacecraft and interplanetary scintillation observations and with the dominance of large-scale turbulence in the solar wind. This result is also consistent with direct observations of the solar-wind proton speed and the interplanetary magnetic field.

Intriligator, D. S.

1975-01-01

24

At 2 weeks of age, protein fractional break-down rates were significantly higher in line LG  

E-print Network

-dependent proteolytic pathways is mainly responsible for skeletal muscle protein loss. Increased ATP compared to line HG, showing divergence in the rate of muscle protein degradation with selection for growth extreme genotypes of pigs an higher muscle pro- tein turnover in the LG than in the HG line. In 4-week

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

25

Higher Education in the United Arab Emirates: An Analysis of the Outcomes of Significant Increases in Supply and Competition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the last decade, several countries across the Middle and Far East have established higher education hubs, some of which have grown rapidly by attracting foreign universities to set up international branch campuses. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is by far the largest host of international branch campuses globally, having over 40 providers…

Wilkins, Stephen

2010-01-01

26

Observations and Interpretation of Strain Changes Caused by Volcanic Activity: Significance for Earthscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sacks-Evertson borehole strainmeters installed in a number of tectonically active regions have recorded strain changes due to activity in volcanic systems in Japan, Iceland and California. The eruption of Izu-Oshima, Japan, in 1986 produced observed strain changes at distances up to ~55 km from the volcano. Data for the first stage of the eruption show that, while the ultimate reservoir was relatively shallow (5-10 km deep), during and immediately following the eruption that shallow reservoir was replenished by magma flowing up from a reservoir about 30 km deep. The second stage of the eruption (a fissure eruption) was preceded (by almost 2 hours) by strain changes due to dike initiation and propagation. Large strain changes continued for about 10 days after the eruption. These strain changes are well satisfied by a model comprised of a reservoir and 2 dikes. One dike (to the north-west) resulted in fissures in the caldera and on the north-west flank; formation of this dike initiated about 2 hours before the fissuring. The second dike, which did not break the surface, propagated more slowly to the south-west and caused strain changes that continued for many days after the eruptive activity. The 1991 and 2000 eruptions of Hekla, Iceland, were well recorded by borehole strainmeters. Only one site was close enough (15 km) to record pre-eruptive (by about 30 min) changes due to dike propagation but the strain data were sufficient to allow modeling of the eruption in terms of a deflating Mogi reservoir together with a vertically propagating dike. The 2000 eruption was somewhat smaller than the 1991 event but the strain records were very similar. That, together with the increase in local seismicity, allowed a specific prediction and warning to be issued 20 minutes before the eruption. These examples (and data from Long Valley showing significant deformation triggered by the Landers earthquake) have allowed new insight into the physics of volcanic activity despite the fact that the strainmeter arrays (Japan, Iceland) were not designed for monitoring the volcanoes. The Earthscope plan includes several arrays of borehole strainmeters for monitoring selected volcanoes. This clearly presents an opportunity for significantly improving our understanding of volcanoes.

Linde, A. T.; Sacks, I. S.

2002-12-01

27

Significantly higher occurrence of Cryptosporidium infection in Roma children compared with non-Roma children in Slovakia.  

PubMed

Cryptosporidiosis is considered to be a widespread world zoonosis. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium species was investigated in Roma children in a district of Eastern Slovakia and, at the same time, also in children of non-Roma parents. In total, 103 children (54 boys and 49 girls) between 0 and 14 years of age were involved in this study. Fifty-three were Roma children and 50 children represented a non-Roma control group. Fecal samples were examined: immunologically [enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test to prove antigen in the feces] and by molecular analysis [nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR)]. After the sequencing of the PCR, the products were identified as species of Cryptosporidium muris. Based on the results, the relative risk (RR) of the Cryptosporidium infection occurrence was calculated and we came to the conclusion that the risk of Cryptosporidium infection was almost 12 times higher in the Roma children compared to the non-Roma children. PMID:24619113

Hasajová, A; Valen?áková, A; Mal?eková, B; Danišová, O; Halán, M; Goldová, M; Sak, B; Kv?to?ová, D; Kvá?, M; Halánová, M

2014-08-01

28

On the Significance of Electrostatic Probe Observations of Electron Density Irregularities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an earlier paper [Dyson, 1969], hereafter referred to as paper 1, observations of electron density irregularities by the electrostatic probe aboard the Alouette 2 satellite were presented. In that paper the Iatitudinal and diurnal occurrences of these irregularities (termed 'fine structure') were presented and compared with simultaneous observations of spread F made by the Alouette 2 topside sounder. This

P. L. Dyson

1971-01-01

29

Image enhancement filters significantly improve reading performance for low vision observers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As people age, so do their photoreceptors; many photoreceptors in central vision stop functioning when a person reaches their late sixties or early seventies. Low vision observers with losses in central vision, those with age-related maculopathies, were studied. Low vision observers no longer see high spatial frequencies, being unable to resolve fine edge detail. We developed image enhancement filters to compensate for the low vision observer's losses in contrast sensitivity to intermediate and high spatial frequencies. The filters work by boosting the amplitude of the less visible intermediate spatial frequencies. The lower spatial frequencies. These image enhancement filters not only reduce the magnification needed for reading by up to 70 percent, but they also increase the observer's reading speed by 2-4 times. A summary of this research is presented.

Lawton, T. B.

1992-01-01

30

Patient Age Is Significantly Related to the Progression of Papillary Microcarcinoma of the Thyroid Under Observation  

PubMed Central

Background: We showed previously that subclinical low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) could be observed without immediate surgery. Patient age is an important prognostic factor of clinical papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). In this study, we investigated how patient age influences the observation of low-risk PTMC. Methods: Between 1993 and 2011, 1235 patients with low-risk PTMC chose observation without immediate surgery. They were followed periodically with ultrasound examinations. These patients were enrolled in this study. We divided them into three subsets based on age at the beginning of observation: young (<40 years), middle-aged (40–59 years), and old patients (?60 years). Observation periods ranged from 18 to 227 months (average 75 months). Results: We set three parameters for the evaluation of PTMC progression: (i) size enlargement, (ii) novel appearance of lymph-node metastasis, and (iii) progression to clinical disease (tumor size reaching 12?mm or larger, or novel appearance of nodal metastasis). The proportion of patients with PTMC progression was lowest in the old patients and highest in the young patients. On multivariate analysis, young age was an independent predictor of PTMC progression. However, none of the 1235 patients showed distant metastasis or died of PTC during observation. Although only 51 patients (4%) underwent thyrotropin (TSH) suppression based on physician preference, the PTMC of all patients enrolled in this TSH suppression study, except one, were clinically stable. To date, 191 patients underwent surgery for various reasons after observation. None showed recurrence except for one in the residual thyroid, and none died of PTC after surgery. Conclusions: Old patients with subclinical low-risk PTMC may be the best candidates for observation. Although PTMC in young patients may be more progressive than in older patients, it might not be too late to perform surgery after subclinical PTMC has progressed to clinical disease, regardless of patient age. PMID:24001104

Ito, Yasuhiro; Kihara, Minoru; Higashiyama, Takuya; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Miya, Akihiro

2014-01-01

31

Significant results from using earth observation satellites for mineral and energy resource exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of Earth-observation satellites orbit our world several times each day, providing new information about the land and sea surfaces and the overlying thin layer of atmosphere that makes our planet unique. Meteorological satellites have had the longest history of experimental use and most are now considered operational. The geologic information collected by the Landsat, Polar Orbiting Geophysical

W. D. Carter

1981-01-01

32

Teenagers' Significant Experiences in Aesthetic Areas: Some Empirical Observations Regarding the Role of Dramatic Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifteen sixteen-year-old Fenno-Swedish compulsory school pupils' descriptions and evaluations of significant, i.e. more or less "strong", experiences relating to dramatic art (film, theatre) were analysed and compared with reported experiences in other aesthetic areas (music, nature etc.). The drama area was represented in many experiences, but…

Finnas, Leif

2008-01-01

33

Meteorological significance of frontal thin-line angel echoes observed by CPS-9 radar  

E-print Network

STUDLES 17 17 20 20 24 A. Case No. 1, 10 December 1957 1. General 2. Synoptic situation . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ 3. Radar observations 4. Cold frontal and thin-line position isochrones 5. Meso-analysis of the surface wind field 6. Discussion...? meteor trails, aurorae, etc. ). To date the only invisible areas of the atmosphere admitted by the theory as being detect- able by radar are certain layers of the ionosphere. However, powerful modern radars are detecting echoes from targets...

Miller, Donald Bradford

2012-06-07

34

Observational constraints of homogeneous higher-dimensional cosmology with modified Chaplygin gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we have considered the flat FRW model of the universe in ( n + 2) dimension filled with dark matter (perfect fluid with negligible pressure) and the modified Chaplygin gas (MCG) type dark energy. We present the Hubble parameter in terms of the observable parameters ? m0, ? x0 and H 0 with the redshift z and other parameters like A, B, C, n and ?. From Stern data set (12 points), we have obtained the bounds of the arbitrary parameters by minimizing the ? 2 test. The best-fit values of the parameters are obtained by 66%, 90% and 99% confidence levels. Now to find the bounds of the parameters and to draw the statistical confidence contour, we first fixed three parameters C, n, ? and then fixed the three parameters A, n, ?. In the first case we find the bounds of ( A, B) and draw the contour between them for 4D ( n = 2), 5D ( n = 3) and 6D ( n = 4). In the second case we fixed three different values of A as 1, 1/3, -1/3 to find the bounds of ( B, C) and draw the contour between them. Here the parameter n determines the higher dimension and we perform a comparative study between three cases: 4D ( n = 2), 5D ( n = 3) and 6D ( n = 4), respectively. Next due to the joint analysis with the BAO observation, we have also obtained the bounds of the parameters ( A, B) by fixing some other parameters ? and A for 4D, 5D and 6D.

Ranjit, Chayan; Chakraborty, Shuvendu; Debnath, Ujjal

2013-05-01

35

Ecological observations on the molluscs of significance in the transmission of bilharziasis in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Further knowledge of the bionomics of bilharziasis vectors is necessary before more effective measures can be taken to control them. Such knowledge, acquired from long-term observations in a variety of habitats, should help to fill some of the gaps in knowledge of molluscan ecology. The present studies were conducted over a period of three to five years and included observations on the proved and suspected vectors of bilharziasis in Kenya. Records were kept of seasonal and regional distribution of the snails, population dynamics and infection rates. Seasonal distribution normally conformed to a definite pattern but was often so influenced by unseasonable weather and interference by man as to render it unrecognizable. Temperature, water fluctuations, types and amount of vegetation, dissolved oxygen and other physical and chemical characteristics of the water were recorded and an attempt was made to assess the importance of the changes in such environmental factors on the prevalence of the snails studied. No correlation could be found between vegetational changes in the habitat and the number of snails present, but complete coverage of the water surface with horizontal vegetation tended to an absence of snails. Except for torrential floods, water fluctuations seemed to have no effect on snail numbers and the chemical and physical properties of the water of negative habitats appeared to be within the range of tolerance of the species observed. It was not found possible to assess the effects of small temperature changes on reproduction in snails; it is suggested that further trials are justified. There was no obvious effect on numbers when snails were found with predators in the same habitat. Many otherwise adequate habitats were unintentionally rendered unsuitable for vector snails by direct interference by man. PMID:13980432

Teesdale, C.

1962-01-01

36

Observations on the nature, biosynthesis, secretion and significance of endogenous ouabain.  

PubMed

The human circulation contains four readily distinguishable biologically active inhibitors of the sodium pump that appear to be endogenous to mammals. Of these, one has been purified to homogeneity and by numerous chromatographic, mass spectral, biochemical, and physiological analyses has been shown to be a novel steroidal isomer of ouabain in which the location and orientation of two or more steroidal hydroxyl groups differ. The human endogenous "ouabain" (EO) is a high affinity reversible inhibitor of the pump with inotropic and vasopressor activity. Circulating levels of EO depend upon the adrenal cortex and metabolic events preceding and following pregnenolone formation are involved in EO biosynthesis. Within the adrenal gland, the stimulus-secretion mechanisms for EO secretion are distinct from those for aldosterone highlighting different regulation. Among Caucasians with essential hypertension, 30-45% have elevated circulating levels of EO. Sustained elevation of plasma ouabain in rats induces chronic hypertension with characteristics similar to those in patients and whose severity is determined by inherited factors and renal function. In conclusion, at least one of the mammalian counterparts to the cardiac glycosides is a novel steroidal isomer of ouabain. The isomer is secreted by the adrenal cortex, and augments cardiovascular function. The observation of this entity in the human circulation, the demonstration of its biosynthesis, and the existence of specific receptors suggest to us that EO is a novel adrenocortical hormone and may be part of a broader family of novel mammalian steroids that regulate the sodium pump and other processes. PMID:9682908

Hamlyn, J M; Lu, Z R; Manunta, P; Ludens, J H; Kimura, K; Shah, J R; Laredo, J; Hamilton, J P; Hamilton, M J; Hamilton, B P

1998-01-01

37

Observations of Academic Instruction for Students with Significant Intellectual Disability: Three States, Thirty-Nine Classrooms, One View  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of the validation process for alternate assessments, 39 classroom observations were conducted to gather data about current practices in providing academic instruction to students with significant intellectual disability. Using a standardized protocol, data were gathered using direct instructional observation, an Individualized Education…

Restorff, Diane E.; Abery, Brian H.

2013-01-01

38

Observations and computations of higher energy collective effects in the Fermilab Booster  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the experiments reported was to shed some light on the observed horizontal beam size growth in the Booster. A computational study of the effect of the impedance of the radio-frequency accelerating cavities has been carried out, and the results are compared with the experimental observations. Finally, possible cures for the instabilities are discussed.

Cornacchia, M.

1987-03-01

39

Dogs Are More Fun Than Computers: Seven Random Observations about Information Technology in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recipient of an award for leadership in information technology (IT) in higher education discusses some considerations in approaching IT use, including finding balance and avoiding burnout; transformations made possible by technology; problems and frustrations of rapid technological advance; organizational values and IT; and the manner in which…

McCredie, John W.

1999-01-01

40

The Globalization of Higher Education: Some Observations Regarding the Free Market and the National Interest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores how the globalization of higher education, for example through electronic delivery or franchising, has given rise to concerns, particularly about quality, but including cultural, economic, and political factors. Describes how some countries have made such efforts to regulate transnational offerings that they have created questionable…

Alderman, Geoffrey

2001-01-01

41

Iterative higher order sliding mode observer for nonlinear systems with unknown inputs  

E-print Network

Villeneuve-d'Ascq, France 3 Equipe Projet ALIEN, INRIA, France. Abstract This paper deals with the problem observers for which finite time convergence can be shown using Lyapunov stability arguments. 1 Introduction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

42

Observed increase in local cooling effect of deforestation at higher latitudes.  

PubMed

Deforestation in mid- to high latitudes is hypothesized to have the potential to cool the Earth's surface by altering biophysical processes. In climate models of continental-scale land clearing, the cooling is triggered by increases in surface albedo and is reinforced by a land albedo-sea ice feedback. This feedback is crucial in the model predictions; without it other biophysical processes may overwhelm the albedo effect to generate warming instead. Ongoing land-use activities, such as land management for climate mitigation, are occurring at local scales (hectares) presumably too small to generate the feedback, and it is not known whether the intrinsic biophysical mechanism on its own can change the surface temperature in a consistent manner. Nor has the effect of deforestation on climate been demonstrated over large areas from direct observations. Here we show that surface air temperature is lower in open land than in nearby forested land. The effect is 0.85 ± 0.44 K (mean ± one standard deviation) northwards of 45° N and 0.21 ± 0.53 K southwards. Below 35° N there is weak evidence that deforestation leads to warming. Results are based on comparisons of temperature at forested eddy covariance towers in the USA and Canada and, as a proxy for small areas of cleared land, nearby surface weather stations. Night-time temperature changes unrelated to changes in surface albedo are an important contributor to the overall cooling effect. The observed latitudinal dependence is consistent with theoretical expectation of changes in energy loss from convection and radiation across latitudes in both the daytime and night-time phase of the diurnal cycle, the latter of which remains uncertain in climate models. PMID:22094699

Lee, Xuhui; Goulden, Michael L; Hollinger, David Y; Barr, Alan; Black, T Andrew; Bohrer, Gil; Bracho, Rosvel; Drake, Bert; Goldstein, Allen; Gu, Lianhong; Katul, Gabriel; Kolb, Thomas; Law, Beverly E; Margolis, Hank; Meyers, Tilden; Monson, Russell; Munger, William; Oren, Ram; Paw U, Kyaw Tha; Richardson, Andrew D; Schmid, Hans Peter; Staebler, Ralf; Wofsy, Steven; Zhao, Lei

2011-11-17

43

Higher surface ozone concentrations over the Chesapeake Bay than over the adjacent land: Observations and models from the  

E-print Network

maximum concentration of 75 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) under the National Ambient Air Quality t s Observations of ozone are higher over the Chesapeake Bay than areas upwind on land. Dry deposition rates multiscale air quality (CMAQ) model a b s t r a c t Air quality models, such as the Community Multiscale Air

Dickerson, Russell R.

44

A retrospective observational study of low-level viraemia and its immunological and virological significance: which outcome to expect  

PubMed Central

Introduction Low-level viraemia (LLV) is observed in some patients with HIV-1 infection on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART). The significance of these findings remains controversial as it conflicts with traditional optimal clinic outcome. This study aims to evaluate the effect of LLV on the establishment of virological failure (VF) and immune deterioration. Methods Retrospective observational study of a cohort of HIV-1 infected patients of an Infectious Diseases Clinic, who presented an HIV-1 viral load of 20 to 200 cp/mL, during the year 2012. Patients who were not on ART or non-adherent in the previous 6 months were excluded. Compliance was quantified by clinical and pharmaceutical records. Adherence was defined as ?95% compliance rate. Demographic, clinical, immunological and therapeutic data were collected from clinical records. LLV was defined as a range of 20–200 cp/mL and stratified as transient (T-LLV): only one measurement, persistent (P-LLV): 2 consecutive measurements with an interval ?3 months and recurrent (R-LLV): ?1 T-LLV during an 18-month follow-up. Statistical analysis was performed with Microsoft Office® – Excel 2012. Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, t-test and chi-square test were performed for a significant p value <0.05. Results During 2012, 2161 HIV-1 infected patients were evaluated at our Clinic, 93% of which were on ART. LLV was documented in 378 (19%), adherence was verified in 151 (52%). The analysis of this cohort (n=151) revealed: 77 (51%) T-LLV, 13 (8.6%) R-LLV and 61 (40%) P-LLV. Mean viral load was 46 cp/mL. Mean TCD4 count was 665 cells/µL with a variation of +63 cells/µL during the study period. There was no VF documented. ART regimens were switched in 16 (11%) patients. Gastrointestinal disturbance was found in 13 (9%). Analysis showed no statistical differences between the analyzed variables (CD4 variation, time of diagnosis and treatment, duration of LLV persistence (less than or more than one year), number of ART regimens, ART regimen and type of NRTI backbone) for all groups (T-LLV, R-LLV, P-LLV), except for mean viral load that showed significant superiority in the T-LLV(38 cp/mL) and R-LLV(36 cp/mL) vs P-LLV(58 cp/mL) (p=0.01 and p<0.01, respectively). Conclusions The absence of significant differences in immunological and virological outcomes in this cohort and the absence of VF in all groups, suggests a scarce impact of LLV in patient's prognosis. Prospective studies, with longer follow-up could bring more accurate information. PMID:25397418

Silva, Joana; Pereira, Karen; Rijo, Joao; Alberto, Teresa; Cabanas, Joaquim; Gomes, Perpetua; Farinha, Helena; Mansinho, Kamal

2014-01-01

45

Global significance of a sub-Moho boundary layer (SMBL) deduced from high-resolution seismic observations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We infer the fine structure of a sub-Moho boundary layer (SMBL) at the top of the lithospheric mantle from high-resolution seismic observations of Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE) on superlong-range profiles in Russia. Densely recorded seismograms permit recognition of previously unknown features of teleseismic propagation of the well known Pn and Sn phases, such as a band of incoherent, scattered, high-frequency seismic energy, developing consistently from station to station, apparent velocities of sub-Moho material, and high-frequency energy to distances of more than 3000 km with a coda band, incoherent at 10 km spacing and yet consistently observed to the end of the profiles. Estimates of the other key elements of the SMBL were obtained by finite difference calculations of wave propagation in elastic 2D models from a systematic grid search through parameter space. The SMBL consists of randomly distributed, mild velocity fluctuations of 2% or schlieren of high aspect ratios (???40) with long horizontal extent (???20 km) and therefore as thin as 0.5 km only; SMBL thickness is 60-100 km. It is suggested that the SMBL is of global significance as the physical base of the platewide observed high-frequency phases Pn and Sn. It is shown that wave propagation in the SMBL waveguide is insensitive to the background velocity distribution on which its schlieren are superimposed. This explains why the Pn and Sn phases traverse geological provinces of various age, heat flow, crustal thickness, and tectonic regimes. Their propagation appears to be independent of age. temperature, pressure, and stress. Dynamic stretching of mantle material during subduction or flow, possibly combined with chemical differentiation have to be considered as scale-forming processes in the upper mantle. However, it is difficult to distinguish with the present sets of Pn/Sn array data whether (and also where) the boundary layer is a frozen-in feature of paleo-processes or whether it is a response to an on-going processes; nevertheless, the derived quantitative estimates of the SMBL properties provide important constraints for any hypothesis on scale-forming processes. Models to be tested by future numerical and field experiments are, for example, repeated subduction-convection stretching of oceanic lithosphere (marble-cake model) and schlieren formation at mid-ocean ridges. It is also proposed that the modeling of the observed blocking of Sn and Pn propagation at active plate margins offers a new tool to study the depth range of tectonics below the crust-mantle boundary. Finally, the deduced schlieren structure of the SMBL closes an important scale gap of three to four orders of magnitude between structural dimensions studied in petrological analysis of mantle samples (xenoliths or outcrop of oceanic lithosphere) and those imaged in classical seismological studies of the lithosphere.

Fuchs, K.; Tittgemeyer, M.; Ryberg, T.; Wenzel, F.; Mooney, W.

2002-01-01

46

Lower serum sodium level predicts higher risk of infection-related hospitalization in maintenance hemodialysis patients: an observational cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Hyponatremia is associated with increased mortality in chronic kidney disease with and without end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Increasing evidence suggests that hyponatremia is not only a marker of severe underlying disease, but also a direct contributor to mortality. However, specific pathogenesis or diseases contributing to mortality in the hyponatremic population are unknown. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between serum sodium level (sNa) and infection risk in ESRD patients. Methods This observational cohort study included 332 patients on maintenance hemodialysis in our dialysis unit in May 2009. The mean of 3 monthly measurements of glucose-corrected sNa before each dialysis session in May, June, and July 2009 was applied as baseline sNa. The primary endpoint was first infection-related hospitalization (IRH), and the secondary endpoint was death of any cause. Data were analyzed using Cox hazards modeling, adjusted for baseline demographics and characteristics, or laboratory data. Patients were followed until transfer, kidney transplantation, death, or study end on January 31, 2013. Results Mean sNa was 138.9 mEq/L (1st tertile: <138.0, n?=?104; 2nd tertile: 138.0–140.0, n?=?116; 3rd tertile: >140.0, n?=?112). During 39.5 months’ mean follow-up, 57 patients experienced IRH (56.4/1,000 patient-years overall; 89.7/1,000 in 1st tertile; 57.9/1,000 in 2nd tertile; 28.0/1,000 in 3rd tertile), and 68 patients died. The hazard ratio (HR) for IRH was higher for the 1st and 2nd tertiles than the 3rd tertile (unadjusted HR, 3.20; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.54–6.64; p?=?0.002; adjusted HR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.10–5.04; p?=?0.027; and unadjusted HR, 2.07; 95% CI, 0.98–4.40; p?=?0.058; adjusted HR, 2.11; 95% CI, 0.99–4.51; p?=?0.054 respectively). In a continuous model, higher sNa was associated with lower risk of IRH (adjusted HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.81–0.99; p?=?0.040), and lower all-cause mortality (adjusted HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83–1.00; p?=?0.049). Conclusions Lower sNa is an independent predictor of higher risk for infection-related hospitalization in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Infectious disease may partially account for the increased mortality observed in the hyponatremic population with ESRD. PMID:24354674

2013-01-01

47

The NASA Earth Observing System Higher-Education Alliance Curriculum Development Project at Middle Tennessee State University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last three years, geodata-rich undergraduate curricula were developed at Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) with major support from the NASA Earth Observing System Higher-Education Alliance ("GeoBrain") and additional support from Tennessee Space Grant and the NSF StepMT program. These curricula fall into three broad categories: (1) GIS-based curricula, (2) the free on-line textbook "Physical Regions and Features of the United States," and (3) presentation graphics (primarily satellite images) for faculty involved in teaching and research outside the United States. All three incorporate Earth Observing System data as well as data from other public sources. Most data was obtained through the GeoBrain data download website, the USGS Seamless Data Distribution System, or the National Atlas of the United States website. The three categories of curricula exemplify the diverse educational applications of satellite images and other map data. The GIS-based curricula (1) are built around ESRI GIS software and include an asteroid impact activity and a volcano activity. The free on-line textbook (2) provides a broad overview of the physical features of the United States and is intended as a supplement for undergraduate geoscience courses. Presentation graphics (3) have been created for faculty investigating Scottish archeology and historical/cultural issues in Portugal and Morocco. The three categories represent three distinctly different ways to use remotely-sensed data to improve undergraduate instruction.

Abolins, M. J.; Wylie, M.

2008-12-01

48

Low-altitude ISIS 1 observations of auroral radio emissions and their significance to the cyclotron maser instability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-altitude ISIS 1 observations are presented which support the cyclotron maser instability as the generation mechanism of most, but not all, auroral radio emissions. The observations confirm the ability of the mechanism to generate different wave modes and harmonics as the ratio of the plasma frequency to gyrofrequency f(N)/f(H) increases depending on the form of the energetic electron distribution function. The present observations correspond to conditions where f(N)/F(H) is always larger than 0.2 and is typically about 1.0. The observations and instability growth rate calculations indicate that second harmonic radiation in the extraordinary and the Z modes is directly generated at low altitudes. By far the most common signals observed near ISIS 1 perigee, however, are in the fundamental Z and whistler modes. The observations and calculations in the case of the Z mode suggest that the pertinent process involves a maser that does not saturate, i.e., that group velocity effects are important. The whistler mode is the most intense signal observed at low altitudes. Since the cyclotron maser generated whistler mode waves have peak growth rates for downward field-aligned propagation, they should be able to penetrate the ionosphere. This process may provide the explanation of occasional reports, dating back to the International Geophysical Year time period, of ground level detection of radio noise associated with the aurora.

Benson, Robert F.; Wong, H. K.

1987-01-01

49

Characteristics, distribution, origin, and significance of opaline silica observed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater, Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of outcrops and soil (regolith) rich in opaline silica (˜65-92 wt % SiO2) in association with volcanic materials adjacent to the ``Home Plate'' feature in Gusev crater is evidence for hydrothermal conditions. The Spirit rover has supplied a diverse set of observations that are used here to better understand the formation of silica and the activity, abundance, and

Steven W. Ruff; Jack D. Farmer; Wendy M. Calvin; Kenneth E. Herkenhoff; Jeffrey R. Johnson; Richard V. Morris; Melissa S. Rice; Raymond E. Arvidson; James F. Bell III; Philip R. Christensen; Steven W. Squyres

2011-01-01

50

Formation of 'single walled' TiO2 nanotubes with significantly enhanced electronic properties for higher efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

The present work establishes a process for the anodic growth of self-organized TiO(2) nanotubes with a single-walled morphology. This yields not only a much more defined tube geometry but also provides a significant increase in properties and prospect for a wide range of TiO(2) nanotube applications. PMID:23385481

Mirabolghasemi, Hamed; Liu, Ning; Lee, Kiyoung; Schmuki, Patrik

2013-03-11

51

The Taxonomic Significance of Species That Have Only Been Observed Once: The Genus Gymnodinium (Dinoflagellata) as an Example  

PubMed Central

Taxonomists have been tasked with cataloguing and quantifying the Earth’s biodiversity. Their progress is measured in code-compliant species descriptions that include text, images, type material and molecular sequences. It is from this material that other researchers are to identify individuals of the same species in future observations. It has been estimated that 13% to 22% (depending on taxonomic group) of described species have only ever been observed once. Species that have only been observed at the time and place of their original description are referred to as oncers. Oncers are important to our current understanding of biodiversity. They may be validly described species that are members of a rare biosphere, or they may indicate endemism, or that these species are limited to very constrained niches. Alternatively, they may reflect that taxonomic practices are too poor to allow the organism to be re-identified or that the descriptions are unknown to other researchers. If the latter are true, our current tally of species will not be an accurate indication of what we know. In order to investigate this phenomenon and its potential causes, we examined the microbial eukaryote genus Gymnodinium. This genus contains 268 extant species, 103 (38%) of which have not been observed since their original description. We report traits of the original descriptions and interpret them in respect to the status of the species. We conclude that the majority of oncers were poorly described and their identity is ambiguous. As a result, we argue that the genus Gymnodinium contains only 234 identifiable species. Species that have been observed multiple times tend to have longer descriptions, written in English. The styles of individual authors have a major effect, with a few authors describing a disproportionate number of oncers. The information about the taxonomy of Gymnodinium that is available via the internet is incomplete, and reliance on it will not give access to all necessary knowledge. Six new names are presented – Gymnodinium campbelli for the homonymous name Gymnodinium translucens Campbell 1973, Gymnodinium antarcticum for the homonymous name Gymnodinium frigidum Balech 1965, Gymnodinium manchuriensis for the homonymous name Gymnodinium autumnale Skvortzov 1968, Gymnodinium christenum for the homonymous name Gymnodinium irregulare Christen 1959, Gymnodinium conkufferi for the homonymous name Gymnodinium irregulare Conrad & Kufferath 1954 and Gymnodinium chinensis for the homonymous name Gymnodinium frigidum Skvortzov 1968. PMID:22952856

Thessen, Anne E.; Patterson, David J.; Murray, Shauna A.

2012-01-01

52

Is Skew of Mantle Upwelling Beneath Spreading Centers Globally Significant? Observations (EPR), Hints (MAR) and Predictions (Juan de Fuca)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One popular and long-held view for the origin of spreading center segmentation is the magma supply hypothesis, wherein magma is centrally injected at mantle depths into a ridge segment bounded by long-lived tectonic discontinuities and ridge parallel flow of magma governs segment-scale variations in magmatic and tectonic processes. An alternative hypothesis is that tectonic forces transmitted through oceanic plates are responsible for the creation and migration of ridge axis offsets. These two hypotheses are often considered as the end- member alternatives for the origin of ridge crest offsets. We have recently proposed a new hypothesis - that does not fit neatly between the two end-member alternatives noted above - for the origin of segmentation along fast-spreading ridges. In our model, segmentation of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) is a result of a skew between the axes of mantle upwelling and plate spreading. As a result of this skew, mantle upwellings organize into en echelon segments and large-offset overlapping spreading centers (OSCs) provide an accommodation zone that moves the lithospheric plate boundary from one segment of mantle upwelling to another. Between transforms and OSCs, the intrasegment variability in ridge crest processes is related to the cross-axis distance to a center of mantle upwelling: Where mantle upwelling intersects the plate boundary, volcanic eruptions are frequent, seafloor hydrothermalism is intense and persistent and the average lava composition is more primitive. By contrast, where mantle upwelling is offset from the axis of spreading the seafloor is more tectonized, eruptions are less frequent and the average lava composition is more evolved. Here we address the following question: Is skew of mantle upwelling a feature peculiar to the EPR near 9°N, or is there evidence that it is a global phenomenon? A key observation supporting our hypothesis is the azimuthal rotation of seismic anisotropy, and by inference mantle flow, beneath the spreading axis. We present models supporting our interpretation that the azimuth of mantle divergence controls the observed seismic anisotropy. We then reinterpret results from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) that also reveal an azimuthal rotation of seismic anisotropy beneath the ridge axis. A synthesis of results from the MAR further suggests that the relation of skewed mantle flow to tectonics is similar to that observed along the EPR and that variations in lithospheric thickness augment focusing of melt toward the segment center. Lastly, we make predictions for the orientation of mantle anisotropy beneath the Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca ridge. An upcoming seismic experiment to test these predictions is scheduled for 2008.

Toomey, D. R.; Hooft, E. E.; Wilcock, W. S.

2007-12-01

53

Significant Redistribution of Ce 4d Oscillator Strength Observed in Photoionization of Endohedral Ce-C{sub 82}{sup +} Ions  

SciTech Connect

Mass-selected beams of atomic Ce{sup q+} ions (q=2, 3, 4), of C{sub 82}{sup +} and of endohedral Ce-C{sub 82}{sup +} ions were employed to study photoionization of free and encaged cerium atoms. The Ce 4d inner-shell contributions to single and double ionization of the endohedral Ce-C{sub 82}{sup +} fullerene have been extracted from the data and compared with expectations based on theory and the experiments with atomic Ce ions. Dramatic reduction and redistribution of the ionization contributions to 4d photoabsorption is observed. More than half of the Ce 4d oscillator strength appears to be diverted to the additional decay channels opened by the fullerene cage surrounding the Ce atom.

Mueller, A.; Schippers, S. [Institut fuer Atom- und Molekuelphysik, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Habibi, M.; Esteves, D.; Wang, J. C.; Phaneuf, R. A. [Department of Physics, MS 220, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557-0058 (United States); Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Aguilar, A. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 7-100, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Dunsch, L. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstoffforschung Dresden, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)

2008-09-26

54

Significant redistribution of Ce 4d oscillator strength observed in photoionization of endohedral Ce@C82+ ions.  

PubMed

Mass-selected beams of atomic Ceq+ ions (q = 2, 3, 4), of C82+ and of endohedral Ce@C82+ ions were employed to study photoionization of free and encaged cerium atoms. The Ce 4d inner-shell contributions to single and double ionization of the endohedral Ce@C82+ fullerene have been extracted from the data and compared with expectations based on theory and the experiments with atomic Ce ions. Dramatic reduction and redistribution of the ionization contributions to 4d photoabsorption is observed. More than half of the Ce 4d oscillator strength appears to be diverted to the additional decay channels opened by the fullerene cage surrounding the Ce atom. PMID:18851442

Müller, A; Schippers, S; Habibi, M; Esteves, D; Wang, J C; Phaneuf, R A; Kilcoyne, A L D; Aguilar, A; Dunsch, L

2008-09-26

55

Significant ferrimagnetism observed in Aurivillius Bi4Ti3O12 doped by antiferromagnetic LaFeO3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly crystalline quality c-axis epitaxial nLaFeO3-Bi4Ti3O12 (n =0.5,1.0,1.5) thin films were deposited on SrTiO3 (001) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy characterizations confirm that there are designed even-odd number perovskite-block structures in n =0.5 and 1.5 films while it has even-even number ones in n =1.0 films. The remarkable physical property of n =0.5 and 1.5 samples is the presence of ferrimagnetism even up to room temperature. While it is antiferromagentic property in n =1.0 sample. The observed ferrimagentism is explained qualitatively by considering the crystal structure in nLaFeO3-Bi4Ti3O12.

Wu, Fei-Xiang; Chen, Zhong; Chen, Y. B.; Zhang, Shan-Tao; Zhou, Jian; Zhu, Yong-Yuan; Chen, Yan-Feng

2011-05-01

56

Significant ferrimagnetisms observed in superlattice composed of antiferromagnetic LaFeO3 and YMnO3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of LaFeO3/YMnO3 superlattices with various thicknesses are synthesized epitaxially on (001) and (111) SrTiO3 substrates. X-ray diffraction, high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, and sub-nanometer-scale resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy characterizations prove that grown superlattices have designed layer-by-layer structures, and there is atomically sharp interface between two successive constituent layers. Temperature-dependent magnetization and magnetic hysteresis loop measurements substantiate that there is significant ferrimagnetism generated at LaFeO3/YMnO3 interfaces. The generated ferrimagnetism is discussed by considering the magnetic structures in each constituent layer.

Chen, Y. B.; Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Shan-Tao; Wu, Fei-Xiang; Yao, Shu-Hua; Gu, Zheng-Bin; Wu, Di; Chen, Yan-Feng

2013-01-01

57

Significant strength gains observed in rugby players after specific resistance exercise protocols based on individual salivary testosterone responses.  

PubMed

Our previous work has demonstrated that professional athletes show protocol-dependent variability in salivary testosterone (T) responses to resistance exercise (RE). The current study examines the consistency and functional outcomes of prescribing a RE regimen based on T response. We hypothesized that prescribing an individual-specific RE protocol based on T response would enhance weight training gains. Sixteen amateur rugby players [(mean +/- SD) age: 20 +/- 2 years; height: 181.5 +/- 8.2 cm; weight: 94.2 +/- 11.1 kg] were characterized by their maximal (Tmax) and minimal (Tmin) T response to four RE protocols: four sets of 10 repetitions (reps) at 70% of one repetition maximum (1RM) with 2 minutes' rest between sets (4 x10-70%); three sets of five reps at 85% 1RM with 3 minutes' rest (3 x 5-85%); five sets of 15 reps at 55% of 1RM with 1 minute's rest (5 x 15-55%); and three sets of 5 reps at 40% 1RM with 3 minutes' rest (3 x 5-40%). Eight athletes then performed a 3-week training block performing only their Tmax protocol. The remaining eight only performed Tmin. After 3 weeks, the athletes were retested on the RE protocols and then crossed over and performed the alternate 3-week training block. All 16 athletes showed significant increases in estimated bench and leg press 1RM strength and bodyweight while performing Tmax. When Tmin was performed, 75% of athletes showed either no change or a significant decline in 1RM performance. Consistent protocol-responses over the experimental period were seen for both the Tmax and Tmin protocols in 12 of 16 athletes. Thus, a relationship between an individual's biologically available T response to RE and enhanced functional gains is reported. PMID:18550956

Beaven, C Martyn; Cook, Christian J; Gill, Nicholas D

2008-03-01

58

The significance of recruiting underrepresented minorities in medicine: an examination of the need for effective approaches used in admissions by higher education institutions  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to examine the significance of recruiting underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM). This would include African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans. The research findings support the belief that URMs, upon graduating, are more likely to become practitioners in underserved communities, thereby becoming a resource that prompts us to find effective ways to help increase their college enrollments statewide. This paper analyzes the recruitment challenges for institutions, followed by a review of creative and effective approaches used by organizations and universities. The results have shown positive outcomes averaging a 50% increase in minority enrollments and retention. In other areas, such as cognitive development, modest gains were achieved in programs that were shorter in duration. The results nevertheless indicated steps in the right direction inspiring further program developments. PMID:25192970

Figueroa, Obed

2014-01-01

59

The significance of recruiting underrepresented minorities in medicine: an examination of the need for effective approaches used in admissions by higher education institutions.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to examine the significance of recruiting underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM). This would include African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans. The research findings support the belief that URMs, upon graduating, are more likely to become practitioners in underserved communities, thereby becoming a resource that prompts us to find effective ways to help increase their college enrollments statewide. This paper analyzes the recruitment challenges for institutions, followed by a review of creative and effective approaches used by organizations and universities. The results have shown positive outcomes averaging a 50% increase in minority enrollments and retention. In other areas, such as cognitive development, modest gains were achieved in programs that were shorter in duration. The results nevertheless indicated steps in the right direction inspiring further program developments. PMID:25192970

Figueroa, Obed

2014-01-01

60

The Barbarians at the Gate. Playing the Higher Education Game: Observations from the Periphery of the Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education is considered by some to be synonymous with learning gained in an institution named as a university. The credentials gained from learning in such locations allow the holders to enter into the elite, which reproduces social exclusion to the benefit of that elite. In England, policy reform has opened up access to higher education to…

Leahy, Sheila Marie

2012-01-01

61

Treatment-associated polymorphisms in protease are significantly associated with higher viral load and lower CD4 count in newly diagnosed drug-naive HIV-1 infected patients  

PubMed Central

Background The effect of drug resistance transmission on disease progression in the newly infected patient is not well understood. Major drug resistance mutations severely impair viral fitness in a drug free environment, and therefore are expected to revert quickly. Compensatory mutations, often already polymorphic in wild-type viruses, do not tend to revert after transmission. While compensatory mutations increase fitness during treatment, their presence may also modulate viral fitness and virulence in absence of therapy and major resistance mutations. We previously designed a modeling technique that quantifies genotypic footprints of in vivo treatment selective pressure, including both drug resistance mutations and polymorphic compensatory mutations, through the quantitative description of a fitness landscape from virus genetic sequences. Results Genotypic correlates of viral load and CD4 cell count were evaluated in subtype B sequences from recently diagnosed treatment-naive patients enrolled in the SPREAD programme. The association of surveillance drug resistance mutations, reported compensatory mutations and fitness estimated from drug selective pressure fitness landscapes with baseline viral load and CD4 cell count was evaluated using regression techniques. Protease genotypic variability estimated to increase fitness during treatment was associated with higher viral load and lower CD4 cell counts also in treatment-naive patients, which could primarily be attributed to well-known compensatory mutations at highly polymorphic positions. By contrast, treatment-related mutations in reverse transcriptase could not explain viral load or CD4 cell count variability. Conclusions These results suggest that polymorphic compensatory mutations in protease, reported to be selected during treatment, may improve the replicative capacity of HIV-1 even in absence of drug selective pressure or major resistance mutations. The presence of this polymorphic variation may either reflect a history of drug selective pressure, i.e. transmission from a treated patient, or merely be a result of diversity in wild-type virus. Our findings suggest that transmitted drug resistance has the potential to contribute to faster disease progression in the newly infected host and to shape the HIV-1 epidemic at a population level. PMID:23031662

2012-01-01

62

An observational study of malaria in British travellers: Plasmodium ovale wallikeri and Plasmodium ovale curtisi differ significantly in the duration of latency  

PubMed Central

Objectives Ovale malaria is caused by two closely related species of protozoan parasite: Plasmodium ovale curtisi and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri Although clearly distinct genetically, there have been no studies comparing the morphology, life cycle or epidemiology of these parasites. We tested the hypothesis that the two species differ in the duration of latency prior to presentation with symptoms of blood-stage infection. Design PCR was used to identify P ovale curtisi and P ovale wallikeri infections among archived blood from UK malaria patients. Latency periods, estimated as the time between entry into the UK and diagnosis of malaria, were compared between the two groups. Setting UK National Reference Laboratory. Participants None. Archived parasite material and surveillance data for 74 P ovale curtisi and 60 P ovale wallikeri infections were analysed. Additional epidemiological data were taken from a database of 1045 imported cases. Outcomes None. Results No differences between the two species were identified by a detailed comparison of parasite morphology (N=9, N=8, respectively) and sex ratio (N=5, N=4) in archived blood films. The geometric mean latency period in P ovale wallikeri was 40.6?days (95% CI 28.9 to 57.0), whereas that for P ovale curtisi was more than twice as long at 85.7?days (95% CI 66.1 to 111.1; p=0.002). Further, the proportion of ovale malaria sensu lato which occurred in patients reporting chemoprophylaxis use was higher than for Plasmodium falciparum (OR 7.56; p<0.0001) or P vivax (OR 1.82; p<0.0001). Conclusions These findings provide the first difference of epidemiological significance observed between the two parasites which cause ovale malaria, and suggest that control measures aimed at P falciparum may not be adequate for reducing the burden of malaria caused by P ovale curtisi and P ovale wallikeri. PMID:23793668

Nolder, Debbie; Oguike, Mary C; Maxwell-Scott, Hector; Niyazi, Hatoon A; Smith, Valerie; Chiodini, Peter L; Sutherland, Colin J

2013-01-01

63

Observation of higher order radial modes in atomic layer deposition reinforced rolled-up microtube ring resonators.  

PubMed

We present a detailed investigation of the resonator properties of high-quality rolled-up SiO2 optical microtubes reinforced by atomic layer deposition. The evolution of the resonant modes with increasing film thickness and the transition to a multimode regime, including higher order radial modes, is discussed. Measurements and simulations show that the higher order modes exhibit high optical quality and an increased extension of the evanescent field from the resonator into the surrounding matrix, making them a promising solution for future on-chip sensor applications with increased sensitivity. PMID:25361348

Trommer, Jens; Böttner, Stefan; Li, Shilong; Kiravittaya, Suwit; Jorgensen, Matthew R; Schmidt, Oliver G

2014-11-01

64

Causal Attribution: Actor-Observer Bias in Academic Achievement among Students at an Institution of Higher Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study explores the attribution styles of in-group and out-group members. Eighty-four (42 female and 42 male) undergraduate students were randomly selected from the Faculty of Education at an institution of higher learning in Zimbabwe. A questionnaire was used to capture the opinions of the participants. The data was analysed using the…

Mudhovozi, P.; Gumani, M.; Maunganidze, L.; Sodi, T.

2010-01-01

65

Sino-U.S. Transnational Education--"Buying" an American Higher Education Program: A Participant Observation Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the social, political, economic, and cultural dimensions of a U.S.-based transnational education (TNE) program in China. TNE refers to education programs provided by an institution located in another country, and this study focused on higher (tertiary) education. Six questions provided the focus for this study: (1) What are…

Nix, Jerry Vincent

2009-01-01

66

Higher maternal prenatal cortisol and younger age predict greater infant reactivity to novelty at 4 months: an observation-based study.  

PubMed

Distress-linked activation of the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis is considered a pathway by which affect regulation impacts the fetal milieu and neurodevelopment. There is little direct evidence for this conceptual model. In 103 women [mean age 27.45 (±5.65) years] at 36-38 weeks gestation, salivary cortisol was measured before/after stress tasks; distress questionnaires were completed. At 18.49 (±1.83) weeks, infants underwent the Harvard Infant Behavioral Reactivity Protocol assessing cry/motor responses to novelty; women reported on infant behavior and postnatal distress. Prenatal cortisol and distress were not significantly correlated (all ps?>?.10). Proportional odds logistic regressions showed that neither prenatal nor postnatal distress was associated with infant responses to the Harvard Protocol yet pre-stress cortisol and maternal age were: The odds of being classified as High Reactive were 1.60 times higher [95% CI: 1.04, 2.46] for each unit of added cortisol and .90 times lower [95% CI: .82, .99] for every additional year in maternal age. No associations were found between cortisol or prenatal distress and mother-rated infant behavior; postnatal distress was positively associated with mother-rated infant negative behavior (p?=?.03). Observer and mother-rated infant behavior were not associated (all ps?>?.05). Based on independent observations of infants in contrast to maternal perceptions, these results lend support to the hypothesis that pregnant women's HPA-axis activity influences infant behavior. The impact of maternal distress was not supported, except in so far as postnatal distress may increase the likelihood of making negative judgments about infant behavior. PMID:22778036

Werner, Elizabeth; Zhao, Yihong; Evans, Lynn; Kinsella, Michael; Kurzius, Laura; Altincatal, Arman; McDonough, Laraine; Monk, Catherine

2013-11-01

67

Red and Processed Meat Intake Is Associated with Higher Gastric Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Observational Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Red and processed meat was concluded as a limited-suggestive risk factor of gastric cancer by the World Cancer Research Fund. However, recent epidemiological studies have yielded inconclusive results. Methods We searched Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from their inception to April 2013 for both cohort and case-control studies which assessed the association between red and/or processed meat intake and gastric cancer risk. Study-specific relative risk estimates were polled by random-effect or fixed-effect models. Results Twelve cohort and thirty case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. Significant associations were found between both red (RR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.22–1.73) and processed (RR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.26–1.65) meat intake and gastric cancer risk generally. Positive findings were also existed in the items of beef (RR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.04–1.57), bacon (RR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.17–1.61), ham (RR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.00–2.06), and sausage (RR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.16–1.52). When conducted by study design, the association was significant in case-control studies (RR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.33–1.99) but not in cohort studies (RR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.90–1.17) for red meat. Increased relative risks were seen in high-quality, adenocarcinoma, cardia and European-population studies for red meat. And most subgroup analysis confirmed the significant association between processed meat intake and gastric cancer risk. Conclusions Our findings indicate that consumption of red and/or processed meat contributes to increased gastric cancer risk. However, further investigation is needed to confirm the association, especially for red meat. PMID:23967140

Zhang, Chi; Zhu, Chen; Tao, Guangzhou; Zhao, Lianjun; Tang, Shaowen; Shu, Zheng; Cai, Jing; Dai, Shengbin; Qin, Qin; Xu, Liping; Cheng, Hongyan; Sun, Xinchen

2013-01-01

68

High prevalence of asthma symptoms in Warao Amerindian children in Venezuela is significantly associated with open-fire cooking: a cross-sectional observational study  

PubMed Central

Background The International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) reported a prevalence of asthma symptoms in 17 centers in nine Latin American countries that was similar to prevalence rates reported in non-tropical countries. It has been proposed that the continuous exposure to infectious diseases in rural populations residing in tropical areas leads to a relatively low prevalence of asthma symptoms. As almost a quarter of Latin American people live in rural tropical areas, the encountered high prevalence of asthma symptoms is remarkable. Wood smoke exposure and environmental tobacco smoke have been identified as possible risk factors for having asthma symptoms. Methods We performed a cross-sectional observational study from June 1, 2012 to September 30, 2012 in which we interviewed parents and guardians of Warao Amerindian children from Venezuela. Asthma symptoms were defined according to the ISAAC definition as self-reported wheezing in the last 12 months. The associations between wood smoke exposure and environmental tobacco smoke and the prevalence of asthma symptoms were calculated by means of univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results We included 630 children between two and ten years of age. Asthma symptoms were recorded in 164 of these children (26%). The prevalence of asthma symptoms was associated with the cooking method. Children exposed to the smoke produced by cooking on open wood fires were at higher risk of having asthma symptoms compared to children exposed to cooking with gas (AOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.18 - 3.84). Four percent of the children lived in a household where more than ten cigarettes were smoked per day and they had a higher risk of having asthma symptoms compared to children who were not exposed to cigarette smoke (AOR 2.69, 95% CI 1.11 - 6.48). Conclusion Our findings suggest that children living in rural settings in a household where wood is used for cooking or where more than ten cigarettes are smoked daily have a higher risk of having asthma symptoms. PMID:23870058

2013-01-01

69

Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium Resulted in Significantly Higher Tissue Chromium Burden Compared With Trivalent Chromium Following Similar Oral Doses to Male F344/N Rats and Female B6C3F1 Mice  

PubMed Central

In National Toxicology Program 2-year studies, hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] administered in drinking water was clearly carcinogenic in male and female rats and mice, resulting in small intestine epithelial neoplasms in mice at a dose equivalent to or within an order of magnitude of human doses that could result from consumption of chromium-contaminated drinking water, assuming that dose scales by body weight3/4 (body weight raised to the 3/4 power). In contrast, exposure to trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] at much higher concentrations may have been carcinogenic in male rats but was not carcinogenic in mice or female rats. As part of these studies, total chromium was measured in tissues and excreta of additional groups of male rats and female mice. These data were used to infer the uptake and distribution of Cr(VI) because Cr(VI) is reduced to Cr(III) in vivo, and no methods are available to speciate tissue chromium. Comparable external doses resulted in much higher tissue chromium concentrations following exposure to Cr(VI) compared with Cr(III), indicating that a portion of the Cr(VI) escaped gastric reduction and was distributed systemically. Linear or supralinear dose responses of total chromium in tissues were observed following exposure to Cr(VI), indicating that these exposures did not saturate gastric reduction capacity. When Cr(VI) exposure was normalized to ingested dose, chromium concentrations in the liver and glandular stomach were higher in mice, whereas kidney concentrations were higher in rats. In vitro studies demonstrated that Cr(VI), but not Cr(III), is a substrate of the sodium/sulfate cotransporter, providing a partial explanation for the greater absorption of Cr(VI). PMID:20843897

Collins, Bradley J.; Stout, Matthew D.; Levine, Keith E.; Kissling, Grace E.; Fennell, Timothy R.; Walden, Ramsey; Abdo, Kamal; Pritchard, John B.; Fernando, Reshan A.; Burka, Leo T.; Hooth, Michelle J.

2010-01-01

70

An Intermediate-Mass Black Hole in the Globular Cluster G1: Improved Significance from New Keck and Hubble Space Telescope Observations  

E-print Network

We present dynamical models for the massive globular cluster G1. The goal is to measure or place a significant upper limit on the mass of any central black hole. Whether or not globular clusters contain central massive black holes has important consequences for a variety of studies. We use new kinematic data obtained with Keck and new photometry from the Hubble Space Telescope. The Keck spectra allow us to obtain kinematics out to large radii that are required to pin down the mass-to-light ratio of the dynamical model and the orbital structure. The Hubble Space Telescope observations give us a factor of two better spatial resolution for the surface brightness profile. By fitting non-parametric, spherical, isotropic models we find a best-fit black hole mass of 1.7(+-0.3)e4 Msun. Fully general axisymmetric orbit-based models give similar results, with a black hole mass of 1.8(+-0.5)e4 Msun. The no-black hole model has Delta_chi^2=5 (marginalized over mass-to-light ratio), implying less than 3% significance. We have taken into account any change in the mass-to-light ratio in the center due to stellar remnants. These results are consistent with our previous estimate in Gebhardt, Rich & Ho (2002), and inconsistent with the analysis of Baumgardt et al. (2003) who claim that G1 does not show evidence for a black hole. These new results make G1 the best example of a cluster that contains an intermediate-mass black hole.

Karl Gebhardt; R. Michael Rich; Luis C. Ho

2005-08-10

71

Circulating levels of IL-18 are significantly influenced by the IL-18 +183 A/G polymorphism in coronary artery disease patients with diabetes type 2 and the metabolic syndrome: an Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Background Increased IL-18 serum levels have been associated with diabetes type 2, metabolic syndrome and the severity of atherosclerosis. The present study investigated the presence and influence of IL-18 genetic variants on gene- and protein expression in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. Methods The +183 A/G (rs 5744292), -137 G/C (rs 187238) and -607 C/A (rs 1946518) polymorphisms were determined in 1001 patients with angiographically verified stable CAD, and in 204 healthy controls. IL-18 gene-expression was measured in circulating leukocytes in 240 randomly selected patients. Circulating IL-18 and IL-18 binding protein levels were measured immunologically in all patients. Results The +183 G-allele associated significantly with lower serum levels of IL-18 (p = 0.002, adjusted for age, glucose, body mass index and gender) and a 1.13- fold higher IL-18 gene-expression (p = 0.010). No influence was observed for the -137 G/C and -607 C/A polymorphisms. The IL-18 binding protein levels were not influenced by IL-18 genotypes. IL-18 levels were significantly higher in men as compared to women, and in patients with diabetes type 2 and metabolic syndrome compared to those without (p ? 0.001, all). The reduction in IL-18 levels according to the +183 G-allele was 3-4 fold more pronounced in diabetes and metabolic syndrome as compared to unaffected patients. Finally, the +183 AA genotype was more frequent in patients with hypertension (p = 0.042, adjusted for age, body mass index and gender). Conclusion The reduction in serum IL-18 levels across increasing numbers of +183G-alleles was especially apparent in patient with diabetes type 2 and metabolic syndrome, suggesting a beneficial GG genotype in relation to cardiovascular outcome in these patients. Clinical Trial Registration Number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00222261 PMID:22141572

2011-01-01

72

Significant concentrations of nitryl chloride observed in rural continental Europe associated with the influence of sea salt chloride and anthropogenic emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first measurements of nitryl chloride (ClNO2) over continental Europe. Significant quantities of ClNO2, up to 800 pptv, were measured at a mountaintop field site in Hessen, southwest Germany. ClNO2 was detected during the majority of nights between the 15th August and 16th September 2011, its largest mixing ratios being associated with air masses influenced by sea salt and anthropogenic NOx emissions. ClNO2 persisted in measurable quantities until early afternoons on days with low photolysis frequencies. As a consequence, early morning production rates of Cl atoms could significantly exceed the production of OH via ozone photolysis, likely leading to increased O3 production.

Phillips, G. J.; Tang, M. J.; Thieser, J.; Brickwedde, B.; Schuster, G.; Bohn, B.; Lelieveld, J.; Crowley, J. N.

2012-05-01

73

Clinical significance of no-reflow phenomenon observed on angiography after successful treatment of acute myocardial infarction with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical significance of the angiographic no-reflow phenomenon was evaluated in 93 patients with acute myocardial infarction treated by percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). On the basis of the post-PTCA angiograms, patients were divided into three groups: normal angiogram (group 1, n=65), slight no-reflow (group 2, n = 13), and severe no-reflow (group 3, n = 15). Regional wall motion

Itsuro Morishima; Takahito Sone; Shinji Mokuno; Shin Taga; Akemi Shimauchi; Yoshitaka Oki; Junichiro Kondo; Hideyuki Tsuboi; Hiromi Sassa

1995-01-01

74

Is statistical significance always significant?  

PubMed

One way in which we learn new information is to read the medical literature. Whether or not we do primary research, it is important to be able to read literature in a critical fashion. A seemingly simple concept in reading is to interpret p values. For most of us, if we find a p value that is <.05, we take the conclusion to heart and quote it at every opportunity. If the p value is >.05, we discard the paper and look elsewhere for useful information. Unfortunately, this is too simplistic an approach. The real utility of p values is to consider them within the context of the experiment being performed. Defects in study design can make an interpretation of a p value useless. One has to be wary of type I (seeing a "statistically significant" difference just because of chance) and type II (failing to see a difference that really exists) errors. Examples of the former are publication bias and the performance of multiple analyses; the latter refers to a trial that is too small to demonstrate the difference. Finding significant differences in surrogate or intermediate endpoints may not help us. We need to know if those endpoints reflect the behavior of clinical endpoints. Selectively citing significant differences and disregarding studies that do not find them is inappropriate. Small differences, even if they are statistically significant, may require too much resource expenditure to be clinically useful. This article explores these problems in depth and attempts to put p values in the context of studies. PMID:16207667

Koretz, Ronald L

2005-06-01

75

Observation of Significant enhancement in the efficiency of a DSSC by InN nanoparticles over TiO 2-nanoparticle films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the effect of InN deposited over TiO 2 nanoparticle (NP) films on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using N3 dye with I/I3- electrolyte. A 10-20% increase in efficiency was observed for InN deposited, N3 sensitized 5-8.5 ?m thick TiO 2 films as compared to similar non-treated films. The deposition of InN was carried out in the temperature range of 573-723 K organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OMCVD). Spectral shifts and DFT calculations with a model anchoring group (R'COOH) both suggest binding of the N3 dye directly to both InN and the InN/TiO 2 sites.

Wang, Tsai-Te; Raghunath, P.; Lu, Yun-Fang; Liu, Yu-Chang; Chiou, Chwei-Huawn; Lin, M. C.

2011-06-01

76

Nipple discharge: is its significance as a risk factor for breast cancer fully understood? Observational study including 915 consecutive patients who underwent selective duct excision.  

PubMed

Nipple discharge (ND) is a common symptom seen in breast cancer clinics. The primary aim of this study was to identify preoperative risk factors for breast cancer in patients with pathologic ND. The secondary aim was to assess the clinical and pathological effectiveness of physical examination, galactography, cytological examination of the discharge, selective duct excision and ductoscopy. All patients operated on between 1975 and 2008 who presented with ND as their only symptom was analyzed. Discharge's characteristics, cytological data and galactography reports were recorded. The relationship between each individual finding and the risk of breast cancer was calculated. For each diagnostic tool, the sensitivity, specificity and complication rates were calculated and compared. Nine-hundred-fifteen patients underwent selective duct excision. Two-hundred-nineteen patients (23.9%) were found to be affected by carcinoma. In 100/330 (30.3%) patients with bloody discharge and in 42/239 (17.6%) patients with serous secretion cancer was detected (P = 0.004, P = 0.013, respectively). Patients with sero-sanguinous or coloured discharge had the same risk of cancer as the population analyzed (23.9%, P = NS). Galactographic finding of irregular stenosis seemed to be associated with a higher risk of cancer (P = 0.0001). Cytological findings C5 and C4 were associated with cancer (P = 0.001). Selective duct excision showed highest sensitivity and specificity. In conclusion, the well established role of bloody secretion is confirmed. The supposed benign aetiology of serous, coloured or sero-sanguinous discharge is questionable. The high specificity of the cytological exam justifies routine examination of the ND. Selective duct excision can be considered as the diagnostic gold-standard. PMID:20354781

Montroni, Isacco; Santini, Donatella; Zucchini, Giorgia; Fiacchi, Monica; Zanotti, Simone; Ugolini, Giampaolo; Manaresi, Alessio; Taffurelli, Mario

2010-10-01

77

Self-report and Direct Observer's Perceived Leadership Practices of Chief Student Affairs Officers in Selected Institutions of Higher Education in the United States  

E-print Network

in empowering their organizations to higher levels of excellence and in achieving greater influence in their institutions. Additionally, the researcher examined the relationship between the leadership practices of chief student affairs officers and the leaders...

Rozeboom, David John

2009-05-15

78

Ritonavir and Efavirenz Significantly Alter the Metabolism of Erlotinib--an Observation in Primary Cultures of Human Hepatocytes That Is Relevant to HIV Patients with Cancer  

PubMed Central

Erlotinib is approved for the treatment of non–small cell lung and pancreatic cancers, and is metabolized by CYP3A4. Inducers and inhibitors of CYP3A enzymes such as ritonavir and efavirenz, respectively, may be used as part of the highly active antiretroviral therapy drugs to treat patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). When HIV patients with a malignancy need treatment with erlotinib, there is a potential of as-yet-undefined drug-drug interaction. We evaluated these interactions using human hepatocytes benchmarked against the interaction of erlotinib with ketoconazole and rifampin, the archetype cytochrome P450 inhibitor and inducer, respectively. Hepatocytes were treated with vehicle [0.1% dimethylsulfoxide, ritonavir (10 ?M)], ketoconazole (10 ?M), efavirenz (10 ?M), or rifampin (10 ?M) for 4 days. On day 5, erlotinib (5 ?M) was incubated with the above agents for another 24–48 hours. Concentrations of erlotinib and O-desmethyl erlotinib were quantitated in collected samples (combined lysate and medium) using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The half-life (t1/2) of erlotinib increased from 10.6 ± 2.6 to 153 ± 80 and 23.9 ± 4.8 hours, respectively, upon treatment with ritonavir and ketoconazole. The apparent intrinsic clearance (CLint, app) of erlotinib was lowered 16-fold by ritonavir and 1.9-fold by ketoconazole. Efavirenz and rifampin decreased t1/2 of erlotinib from 10.3 ± 1.1 to 5.0 ± 1.5 and 3.4 ± 0.2 hours, respectively. Efavirenz and rifampin increased the CLint, app of erlotinib by 2.2- and 2-fold, respectively. Our results suggest that to achieve desired drug exposure, the clinically used dose (150 mg daily) of erlotinib may have to be significantly reduced (25 mg every other day) or increased (300 mg daily), respectively, when ritonavir or efavirenz is coadministered. PMID:23913028

Pillai, Venkateswaran C.; Parise, Robert A.; Christner, Susan M.; Gramignoli, Roberto; Strom, Stephen C.; Rudek, Michelle A.; Beumer, Jan H.

2013-01-01

79

Ritonavir and efavirenz significantly alter the metabolism of erlotinib--an observation in primary cultures of human hepatocytes that is relevant to HIV patients with cancer.  

PubMed

Erlotinib is approved for the treatment of non-small cell lung and pancreatic cancers, and is metabolized by CYP3A4. Inducers and inhibitors of CYP3A enzymes such as ritonavir and efavirenz, respectively, may be used as part of the highly active antiretroviral therapy drugs to treat patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). When HIV patients with a malignancy need treatment with erlotinib, there is a potential of as-yet-undefined drug-drug interaction. We evaluated these interactions using human hepatocytes benchmarked against the interaction of erlotinib with ketoconazole and rifampin, the archetype cytochrome P450 inhibitor and inducer, respectively. Hepatocytes were treated with vehicle [0.1% dimethylsulfoxide, ritonavir (10 ?M)], ketoconazole (10 ?M), efavirenz (10 ?M), or rifampin (10 ?M) for 4 days. On day 5, erlotinib (5 ?M) was incubated with the above agents for another 24-48 hours. Concentrations of erlotinib and O-desmethyl erlotinib were quantitated in collected samples (combined lysate and medium) using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The half-life (t(½)) of erlotinib increased from 10.6 ± 2.6 to 153 ± 80 and 23.9 ± 4.8 hours, respectively, upon treatment with ritonavir and ketoconazole. The apparent intrinsic clearance (C(Lint, app)) of erlotinib was lowered 16-fold by ritonavir and 1.9-fold by ketoconazole. Efavirenz and rifampin decreased t1/2 of erlotinib from 10.3 ± 1.1 to 5.0 ± 1.5 and 3.4 ± 0.2 hours, respectively. Efavirenz and rifampin increased the C(Lint, app) of erlotinib by 2.2- and 2-fold, respectively. Our results suggest that to achieve desired drug exposure, the clinically used dose (150 mg daily) of erlotinib may have to be significantly reduced (25 mg every other day) or increased (300 mg daily), respectively, when ritonavir or efavirenz is coadministered. PMID:23913028

Pillai, Venkateswaran C; Venkataramanan, Raman; Parise, Robert A; Christner, Susan M; Gramignoli, Roberto; Strom, Stephen C; Rudek, Michelle A; Beumer, Jan H

2013-10-01

80

Higher Education or Higher Skilling?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education may return to education for a minority, an unlikely course; concentrate on higher skilling, the road we are on today; or restore general education, the most attractive possibility, which can be implemented by restoring basic education in literacy, history, human biology, and language. (JH)

Muller, Steven

1974-01-01

81

Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Decisions made by federal and state courts during 1983 concerning higher education are reported in this chapter. Issues of employment and the treatment of students underlay the bulk of the litigation. Specific topics addressed in these and other cases included federal authority to enforce regulations against age discrimination and to revoke an…

Hendrickson, Robert M.; Gregory, Dennis E.

82

Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Litigation in 1987 was very brisk with an increase in the number of higher education cases reviewed. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under four major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining and denial of employee benefits; (3)…

Hendrickson, Robert M.

83

Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The higher education case law in 1988 is extensive. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under five major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining, and denial of employee benefits; (3) students, involving admissions, financial aid, First…

Hendrickson, Robert M.; Finnegan, Dorothy E.

84

Biomagnification of higher brominated PBDE congeners in an urban terrestrial food web in north China based on field observation of prey deliveries.  

PubMed

As an important group of brominated flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) persist in the wildlife food webs. However, the biomagnification of PBDEs has not been adequately studied in the terrestrial food webs. In this study, a terrestrial food web composed of common kestrels, sparrows, rats, grasshoppers, and dragonflies in the urban environment from northern China was obtained. A field prey delivery study, reinforced by ?¹³C and ?¹?N analyses, indicates that sparrows are the primary prey items of common kestrels. Concentrations of PBDEs were in the following order: common kestrel > sparrow > rat > grasshopper and dragonfly with BDE-209 as the dominant congener. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) were calculated as the ratio between the lipid normalized concentrations in the predator and prey. The highest BMF (6.9) was determined for BDE-153 in sparrow/common kestrel food chain. Other higher brominated congeners, such as BDE-202, -203, -154, -183, -197, and -209, were also biomagnified in this terrestrial food chain with BMF of 1.3-4.7. BDE-47, -99, and -100 were found to be biodiluted from sparrow to common kestrel (BMFs < 1). Measured BMF values for BDE-153, -47, -99, and -100 were consistent with predicted values from a nonsteady-state model in American kestrels from another study. Retention factors and metabolism of BDE congeners may be confounding factors influencing the measured BMFs in this current study. PMID:21612266

Yu, Le-Huan; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Liu, Li-Yu; Song, Jie; Sun, Quan-Hui; Zhang, Xiu-Lan; Chen, Da; Mai, Bi-Xian

2011-06-15

85

Higher anthraxolites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent years have been marked by progress in studying the structure of natural X-ray amorphous substances, anthraxolites included, by scanning electron and atomic power microscopy. Integration of the available data on molecular and supramolecular structure of higher anthraxolites from Karelia, Novaya Zemlya, and the Urals allowed elaboration of new classification criteria for solid bitumen, namely, degree of structure perfection and micromineral composition. This approach will help to eliminate disadvantages of traditional investigation of solid bitumen.

Filippov, M. M.; Cherevko, N. K.; Golubev, E. A.

2007-12-01

86

Possibility to observe higher n{sup 3}D{sub 1} bottomonium states in the e{sup +}e{sup -} processes  

SciTech Connect

The possibility to observe new bottomonium states with J{sup PC}=1{sup --} in the region 10.7-11.1 GeV is discussed. The analysis of the dielectron widths shows that the (n+1){sup 3}S{sub 1} and n{sup 3}D{sub 1} states (n{>=}3) may be mixed with a rather large mixing angle, {theta}{approx_equal}30 deg., and this effect provides the correct values of {gamma}{sub ee}({upsilon}(10580)) and {gamma}{sub ee}({upsilon}(11020)). On the other hand, the S-D mixing gives rise to an increase by 2 orders of magnitude of the dielectron widths of the mixed {upsilon}-tilde(n{sup 3}D{sub 1}) resonances (n=3, 4, 5), which originate from pure D-wave states. The value {gamma}{sub ee}({upsilon}-tilde(3D))=0.095{sub -0.025}{sup +0.028} keV is obtained, being only {approx}3 times smaller than the dielectron width of {upsilon}(10580), while {gamma}{sub ee}({upsilon}-tilde(5D)){approx}135 eV appears to be close to {gamma}{sub ee}({upsilon}(11020)) and therefore this resonance may become manifest in the e{sup +}e{sup -} experiments. The mass differences between M(nD) and M((n+1)S) (n=4, 5) are shown to be rather small, 50{+-}10 MeV.

Badalian, A. M. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bakker, B. L. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Danilkin, I. V. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-02-01

87

Chlorophyll a: Nitrogen was the limiting nutrient, with significantly higher  

E-print Network

grow in two or three weeks. We wished to determine how the rate of biomass growth changes in response to nutrient additions over a longer period of time (ie. more than 3 weeks). RESULTS METHODS Preparation, Denise Bruesewitz (Colby College, Waterville, ME) and Jennifer Tank (University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame

Hall, Sharon J.

88

ANEUPLOIDY IN HIGHER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper reviews the significance and frequency of naturally occurring aneuploidy in higher plants. The role and mechanism of induction of aneuploidy by radiation, chemicals, thermal shocks, and self hybridization of polyploids and aneuploids in generating primary and secondary ...

89

Inside Higher Ed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The wide, wide, wide world of higher education has found a new chronicler in the form of the Inside Higher Ed website. The group was founded in 2004 by three higher education journalism and recruitment executives who felt that "the time was right for new models of providing information and career services for professionals in academe." First-time visitors should consider signing up to receive the electronic updates, or just browsing through some of the latest news stories. Also, each news story has a place where visitors can chime in with their own opinions, if they so desire. The site also has a good job posting area, so persons looking to make a career move (or secure a first-time position) will want to look at this area of the site closely. Finally, the "Views" section contains some first-hand observations about such topics as blogs, the importance of jobs in far-flung places, and Saul Bellow.

90

Adaptive Significance of Floral Movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Darwin observed the reconfiguration of pollinia in orchards and referred to it as a function to reduce self-pollination, diverse floral movements have been investigated and various hypotheses have been proposed to explain their adaptive significance. However, adaptive significance of floral movement in some species has yet to be fully explained. Increasing evidence suggests that some floral movements, which have

Cheng-Jiang Ruan

2011-01-01

91

Anthropological significance of phenylketonuria.  

PubMed

The highest incidence rates of phenylketonuria (PKU) have been observed in Ireland and Scotlant. Parents heterozygous for PKU in Norway differ significantly from the general population in the Rhesus, Kell and PGM systems. The parents investigated showed an excess of Rh negative, Kell plus and PGM type 1 individuals, which makes them similar to the present populations in Ireland and Scotlant. It is postulated that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated sub-population of Celtic origin, who came or were brought here, 1ooo years ago. Bronze objects of Western European (Scottish, Irish) origin, found in Viking graves widely distributed in Norway, have been taken as evidence of Vikings returning with loot (including a number of Celts) from Western Viking settlements. The continuity of residence since the Viking age in most habitable parts of Norway, and what seems to be a nearly complete regional relationship between the sites where Viking graves contain western imported objects and the birthplaces of grandparents of PKUs identified in Norway, lend further support to the hypothesis that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated subpopulation. The remarkable resemblance between Iceland and Ireland, in respect of several genetic markers (including the Rhesus, PGM and Kell systems), is considered to be an expression of a similar proportion of people of Celtic origin in each of the two countries. Their identical, high incidence rates of PKU are regarded as further evidence of this. The significant decline in the incidence of PKU when one passes from Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, to Denmark and on to Norway and Sweden, is therefore explained as being related to a reduction in the proportion of inhabitants of Celtic extraction in the respective populations. PMID:803884

Saugstad, L F

1975-01-01

92

Women in Higher Education, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of the issues of a 1996 newsletter on women students, teachers, and administrators in higher education. Each issue includes feature articles, news on higher education, profiles of significant people in the field, and job announcements. The issues' main articles concern: (1) a successful campaign to increase female…

Wenniger, Mary Dee, Ed.

1996-01-01

93

Disruptive Technologies in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses the role of "disruptive" innovative technologies in higher education. In this country and elsewhere, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have invested significant sums in learning technologies, with Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) being more or less universal, but these technologies have not been universally adopted and…

Flavin, Michael

2012-01-01

94

Tort Litigation in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies the significant trends and notable decisions in tort litigation regarding higher education in 1999. Cases for this year show that litigation remains common in higher education, and that many cases challenged the traditional norms of education law. An unmistakable trend is the increasing tendency to see student and university…

Lake, Peter F.

2000-01-01

95

Tests of Significance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site gives an explanation, a definition of and an example for tests of significance. Topics include null and alternative hypotheses for population mean, one-sided and two-sided z and t tests, levels of significance, and matched pairs analysis. Overall, this is a nice presentation of significance tests for any mathematics classroom.

Lacey, Michelle

2008-12-25

96

Detecting Novelty and Significance  

PubMed Central

Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

2013-01-01

97

Higher Education Graduate Certificate  

E-print Network

2 Higher Education Graduate Certificate in Higher Education Administration Program Handbook College-1997 Fax (806) 742-2197 http://www.educ.ttu.edu Effective Fall 2012 #12;3 Higher Education GraduateCertificateinHigherEducationAdministrationProgram Program Overview The Higher Education Program is committed to excellence in preparing and supporting

Rock, Chris

98

Higher Education Masterof Education  

E-print Network

2 Higher Education Masterof Education (M.ttu.edu Effective Fall 2013, Updated 12/09/13 #12;3 Higher Education Masters of Education Program Overview The Higher Education Program is committed to excellence in preparing and supporting instructional

Rock, Chris

99

NASA: Higher Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA has a significant educational outreach mission, and this site dedicated to higher education is a wonderful find. The first notable feature on the site is the Read About It area, which contains profiles such as "Beginner's Guide to Aeronautics," "Commercial Space Transportation," and a complete archive of past items. Moving on, the Current Opportunities area contains archived lectures, webcasts, and online workshops on astronomy. Another fun piece of the site is the Do-It-Yourself Podcasts area, found on the lower left. Here visitors can take NASA audio and video files and create their own podcasts on rocket science, micro-g, lab safety, and other topics. The site also contains links to NASA Television and the Have You Seen? areas, the latter of which features video highlights from NASA programs and contests.

2012-07-02

100

Ecologically Significant Wetlands  

E-print Network

habitat for wildlife and rare plants and animals. The quality and significance of each site was ranked of concentrations of rare plants or animals, and intact uplands. Of the approximately 100 potential wetlands

101

Significant reduction of the GLUT3 level, but not GLUT1 level, was observed in the brain tissues of several scrapie experimental animals and scrapie-infected cell lines.  

PubMed

Glucose transporters 1 (GLUT1) and 3 (GLUT3) belong to the solute carrier family 2 (SLC2, facilitated glucose transporter) and are the two most important glucose transporters (GLUTs) in brain tissue, and between them, GLUT3 is the primary one for neurons, which is responsible for glucose uptake. To obtain insights into the possible alterations of GLUT1 and GLUT3 in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), the protein levels of GLUT1 and GLUT3 in the brain tissues of agents 263K- and 139A-infected hamsters, as well as agents 139A- and ME7-infected mice, were evaluated. Western blots, immunofluorescent assay (IFA), and immunohistochemical (IHC) assays revealed that at the terminal stages of the infection, GLUT3 level in the brain tissues of scrapie-infected rodents was significantly downregulated, while GLUT1 level remained almost unchanged. The decline of GLUT3 level was closely related with prolonged incubation time. In line with these results in vivo, the GLUT3 level in a prion persistently infected cell line SMB-S15 was also lower than that of its normal cell line SMB-PS. Moreover, the level of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1?), which positively regulated the expressions of GLUTs, was also markedly downregulated in the brains of several scrapie-infected animals. In vitro glucose uptake assays illustrated a markedly decreased 2-[N-(7-nitrobenze-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxyglucose uptake activity in SMB-S15 cells. Our data indicate that the reduction of GLUT3 is a common phenomenon in prion diseases, which occurs much earlier than the appearance of clinical symptoms. Defect in glucose uptake and metabolism of neurons, like in other neurodegenerative diseases, for example, Alzheimer's disease (AD), may be one of the essential processes in the pathogenesis of prion diseases. PMID:24243341

Yan, Yu-E; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Ke; Xu, Yin; Ren, Ke; Zhang, Bao-Yun; Shi, Ming; Chen, Cao; Shi, Qi; Tian, Chan; Zhao, Gang; Dong, Xiao-Ping

2014-04-01

102

Higher Education Exchange, 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

2011-01-01

103

Higher Education Exchange, 2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

2012-01-01

104

Higher Education Exchange, 2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Higher Education Exchange" is part of a movement to strengthen higher education's democratic mission and foster a more democratic culture throughout American society. Working in this tradition, the "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic…

Brown, David W., Ed; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

2005-01-01

105

Higher Education Exchange, 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

2008-01-01

106

Higher Education Exchange, 2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

2010-01-01

107

Nevada System Higher Education  

E-print Network

Nevada System of Higher Education State Operating Budget Budget to Actual Comparison #12;NEVADA SYSTEM OF HIGHER EDUCATION BOARD OF REGENTS Mr. Kevin J. Page, Chair Mr. Rick Trachok, Vice OFFICERS OF THE NEVADA SYSTEM OF HIGHER EDUCATION Mr. Daniel J. Klaich, Chancellor Nevada System of Higher

Hemmers, Oliver

108

International Student Higher Education  

E-print Network

International Student Higher Education Code of Conduct #12;An independent National Commission has Commission, Prof. R. Fernhout (chairman) Dear Student, Welcome to higher education in the Netherlands. We institutions of higher education have drawn up a Code of Conduct International Student Higher Education

van Suijlekom, Walter

109

Significant lexical relationships  

SciTech Connect

Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

110

Coincidence to significance.  

PubMed

This article will describe the author's entrepreneurial experiences related to challenges of initiating, negotiating and completing a health promotion project for a Fortune 500 company. The events described begin with her casual meeting of a director of the health promotion section of an international food company and wncludes with the author's final development of a significant employee injury prevention program. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate professional challenges an occupational therapist may encounter to successfully complete a corporate project. PMID:23931009

Herring, C

1989-01-01

111

Higher Education Exchange, 2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" discuss the concept of growing public scholars; each contribution incorporates a student component. Articles include: (1) "Foreword"…

Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

2007-01-01

112

The Higher Education Enterprise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education not only contributes to the development of the human resources and intellectual betterment of the nation but is also a major economic enterprise. This research brief reviews and highlights data on the size and growth of higher education and illustrates how higher education institutions are preparing the future labor force. It…

Ottinger, Cecilia A.

1991-01-01

113

Disorders in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conditions affecting the moral and intellectual integrity of American colleges and universities are discussed in a series of papers collected from the 56th American Assembly on "The Integrity of Higher Education." An erosion of public confidence in higher education is noted and it is suggested that the expectations of higher education have not…

Walton, Clarence C.; Bolman, Frederick deW.

114

Nevada System Higher Education  

E-print Network

Nevada System of Higher Education State Operating Budget Budget to Actual Comparison of 260 #12;NEVADA SYSTEM OF HIGHER EDUCATION BOARD OF REGENTS Dr. Jason Geddes, Chair Mr. Kevin J. Page of Regents OFFICERS OF THE NEVADA SYSTEM OF HIGHER EDUCATION Mr. Daniel J. Klaich, Chancellor Nevada System

Hemmers, Oliver

115

Evolution in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In preparation for the awarding of an international prize, a foundation reviewed the situation of higher education in Europe and developed a model for assessing higher education policy and practice. The resulting model and conclusions concerning effective strategies for change in higher education are reported. (MSE)

Mohn, Reinhard

1991-01-01

116

Reclaiming Our Soul: Democracy and Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores how, as higher education faces new financial realities together with escalating demands for more accountability, a call to reclaim the soul of higher education and with it, the soul of democracy, will require significant institutional and personal transformations. (EV)

Chickering, Arthur W.

2003-01-01

117

Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews court cases in 1999 related to disability discrimination in higher education focusing on the Americans with Disabilities Act and section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The "Garrett" case regarding Eleventh Amendment immunity is the case most likely to be significant in the development of the law of disability discrimination. (SLD)

Weber, Mark C.

2000-01-01

118

Women in Higher Education, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of the twelve consecutive numbers of the newsletter "Women in Education", published during 1998. This newsletter focus on issues concerned with women students, women faculty, and women administrators in higher education. Each issue includes feature articles, news items, and profiles of significant people. Feature articles…

Wenniger, Mary Dee Ed.

1998-01-01

119

Technology: Higher Education's Magic Bullet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attaining the goals that higher-education reformers target (making the academy more accessible, affordable, and effective) via technology is likely to require a significant overhaul of postsecondary institutions, including the use of time, resource allocation, roles of faculty/staff, and institutional mission. Closer examination of how technology…

Van Dusen, Gerald C.

1998-01-01

120

Women in Higher Education, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 12 issues of this newsletter focus on issues concerned with women students, faculty, and administrators in higher education. Each issue includes feature articles, news items, and profiles of significant people. The issues' main articles address: women in athletics; leadership development for women; the first year in academic administration;…

Wenniger, Mary Dee, Ed.

1997-01-01

121

Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.  

PubMed

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors influencing their growth and the various susceptible commodities that are contaminated. Finally, decision trees are included to assist the user in making informed choices about the likely mycotoxins present in the various crops. PMID:23477193

2012-01-01

122

Determining safe limits for significant task parameters during manual lifting.  

PubMed

This experimental study investigated the effect of lifting task parameters (i.e., lifting weight, frequency, coupling, asymmetric angle, and vertical, horizontal, and travel distances) for various dynamic human lifting activities on the ground reaction forces of workers. Ten male workers loaded containers from different levels asymmetrically during experimental trials. The experimental design evolved using Taguchi's Fractional Factorial Experiments. Three factors (lifting weight, frequency, and vertical distance) were observed to be significant. The results showed that vertical reaction forces increase when workers lift weight from floor to shoulder height frequently. It was also observed that instantaneous loading rate increases with more weight, vertical distance, and frequency; a significant extra loading rate is required to change the lower level of load, frequency, and vertical distance to higher levels. Safe limits for significant factors were determined to result in optimal performance of the manual lifting task. PMID:24702682

Singh, Ravindra Pratrap; Batish, Ajay; Singh, Tejinder Pal

2014-04-01

123

Reinventing Continuing Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Re-inventing continuing higher education is about finding ways to be a more central player in a region's civic, cultural, and economic life as well as in the education of individuals for work and citizenship. Continuing higher education will require data gathering, analytical tools, convening authority, interpretive skills, new models of delivery,…

Walshok, Mary Lindenstein

2012-01-01

124

Higher Education Exchange 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A foreword and nine articles discuss issues on the role of institutions of higher education in the rebuilding of a public life involving citizens across the country. After the foreword by David Brown and Deborah Witte, the papers are: (1) "The Public and Its Colleges: Reflections on the History of American Higher Education (R. Claire Snyder),…

Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

125

Reinventing Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education institutions are in the battle of a lifetime as they are coping with political and economic uncertainties, threats to federal aid, declining state support, higher tuition rates and increased competition from for-profit institutions. Amid all these challenges, these institutions are pressed to keep up with technological demands,…

Hayes, Dianne

2012-01-01

126

UNIVERSAL HIGHER EDUCATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS DOCUMENT IS A REPORT ON A GROUP INQUIRY INTO THE SUBSTANCE AND IMPLICATIONS OF UNIVERSAL HIGHER EDUCATION. ELEVEN CHAPTERS ARE PAPERS PRESENTED AT A CONFERENCE HELD UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE INSTITUTE OF HIGHER EDUCATION, TEACHERS COLLEGE, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, IN PUERTO RICO, NOVEMBER 15-21, 1964, FORECASTING THE FORM AND MISSION OF AMERICAN…

MCGRATH, EARL J.

127

Transitions in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers ideas towards a solution of some of the problems that arise due to the extension of higher education to an ever wider range of students: especially student drop-out. It suggests that, as far as is practical, the design and delivery of higher education should be based upon the major changes or transitions which the students…

Hussey, Trevor; Smith, Patrick

2010-01-01

128

Higher Education Exchange  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume begins with an essay by Noelle McAfee, a contributor who is familiar to readers of Higher Education Exchange (HEX). She reiterates Mathews' argument regarding the disconnect between higher education's sense of engagement and the public's sense of engagement, and suggests a way around the epistemological conundrum of "knowledge produced…

Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

2009-01-01

129

Higher Education Exchange, 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume begins with an essay by Noelle McAfee, a contributor who is familiar to readers of Higher Education Exchange (HEX). She reiterates Kettering's president David Mathews' argument regarding the disconnect between higher education's sense of engagement and the public's sense of engagement, and suggests a way around the epistemological…

Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

2009-01-01

130

Higher Education Doctorof Philosophy  

E-print Network

Higher Education Doctorof Philosophy Program Handbook College of Education Graduate Education and Research Texas Tech University Box 41071 Lubbock, TX 79409-1071 (806) 742-1997 Fax (806) 742-2197 www.educ.ttu.edu Effective Fall 2011a #12;2 Higher Education: Doctor

Rock, Chris

131

Quality in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains 21 new and classic papers and readings on quality philosophies and concepts, first, as they have been applied in business and industry but primarily as they relate to and can be applied in higher education. The introduction is titled "The Quality Approach in Higher Education: Context and Concepts for Change" by Brent D. Ruben.…

Ruben, Brent D., Ed.

132

Higher Education Exchange 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contributors to this issue of the Higher Education Exchange debate the issues around knowledge production, discuss the acquisition of deliberative skills for democracy, and examine how higher education prepares, or does not prepare, students for citizenship roles. Articles include: (1) "Foreword" (Deborah Witte); (2) "Knowledge, Judgment and…

Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

2006-01-01

133

Gender and Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

2011-01-01

134

The Risks of Privatisation of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The presentation looks at the latest statistics on participation in Higher Education, to question whether privatisation of systems has significant effects on participation, affordability and equity of Higher Education. It further looks into questions of autonomy and governance of Higher Education systems in private and public systems, and finally…

Camilleri, Anthony F.

2008-01-01

135

Higher Affine Connections  

E-print Network

For a smooth manifold $M$, it was shown in \\cite{BPH} that every affine connection on the tangent bundle $TM$ naturally gives rise to covariant differentiation of multivector fields (MVFs) and differential forms along MVFs. In this paper, we generalize the covariant derivative of \\cite{BPH} and construct covariant derivatives along MVFs which are not induced by affine connections on $TM$. We call this more general class of covariant derivatives \\textit{higher affine connections}. Related notions of \\textit{higher torsion} and \\textit{higher curvature} are considered also.

David N. Pham

2014-08-18

136

Opportunities and barriers: Gendered reality in Chinese higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of Chinese higher education, gender is still a significant issue, as is a general ignorance of gender discrimination\\u000a against women. Issues related to gender can be observed throughout the process of education: at the time of entering an institution,\\u000a during the educational process and as an outcome of education. The following seven aspects of sexual discrimination occur

Bohong Liu; Yani Li

2010-01-01

137

Valuing Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The question of the value of higher education is today set in the context of an unprecedented banking and financial crisis. In this context of fundamental change and financial realignment, it is important that we as members of the university remake our case for why the university deserves to be considered alongside all those other worthy causes…

Pillay, Gerald J.

2009-01-01

138

Corporatizing Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The process of changing U.S. higher education institutions along a corporate model has been going on for several decades. It consists of changes, some open, some obscured, on various fronts: the erosion of tenure by attrition; the simultaneous increase in the use of contingent faculty; the rise in tuition; the dramatic decrease in federal and…

Lerner, Gerda

2008-01-01

139

Higher education: Paradise lost?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Universities in many cultures and times have had “golden ages” the most recent throughout the Western World lasted from the end of World War II to about 1970. Now the prevailing mood is one of pessimism: the golden age is over. In fact, however, universal access postsecondary education is healthy and continuing to grow in most nations; mass access higher

Clark Kerr

1978-01-01

140

Higher Education Exchange 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine articles discuss the nature and structure of public scholarship. The articles are: (1) "Divided No More" by Parker J. Palmer, who urges academics to act publicly on their convictions; (2) "The Public Intellectual as Transgressor?" by William M. Sullivan, who urges the reinvention of a "public" orientation to intellectual life within higher…

Brown, David W., Ed.

141

Online Higher Education Commodity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyzes the current trend towards online education. It examines some of the reasons for the trend and the ramifications it may have on students, faculty and institutions of higher learning. The success and profitability of online programs and institutions such as the University of Phoenix has helped to make the move towards online…

Chau, Paule

2010-01-01

142

Higher Education Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight papers, arising from a June 1998 seminar on the professions and public life, examine issues related to the practice of public scholarship and the new connections that institutions of higher education are forging with the public. Following a foreword by Deborah Witte, the papers are: (1) "The Academy and Public Life: Healing the Rift" (Scott…

Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

143

Free Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The crisis of affordability in higher education is intensifying. Illustrations of its resonance abound: from the frequent news articles describing and amplifying the crisis and its sources to legislators' and candidates' proposed responses. Republicans' responses tend to be mainly punitive toward institutions; Democrats' proposals are more…

Reed, Jr., Adolph; Szymanski, Sharon

2004-01-01

144

Benchmarking for Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chapters in this collection explore the concept of benchmarking as it is being used and developed in higher education (HE). Case studies and reviews show how universities in the United Kingdom are using benchmarking to aid in self-regulation and self-improvement. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction to Benchmarking" (Norman Jackson and Helen…

Jackson, Norman, Ed.; Lund, Helen, Ed.

145

Microcomputers in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some of the areas in which Ontario educators currently employ microcomputers in higher education are addressed in several articles, bibliographies, and book reviews. Various uses of computer-managed instruction and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) at Humber College of Applied Arts and Technology are outlined by Frank A. Ford. Microcomputer CAI…

McLean, Robert S., Ed.; McLean, Ruth W., Ed.

1981-01-01

146

Shell Higher Olefins Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows how olefin isomerization and the exotic olefin metathesis reaction can be harnessed in industrial processes. Indicates that the Shell Higher Olefins Process makes use of organometallic catalysts to manufacture alpha-olefins and internal carbon-11 through carbon-14 alkenes in a flexible fashion that can be adjusted to market needs. (JN)

Lutz, E. F.

1986-01-01

147

Higher Education Funding Formulas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most critical components of the college or university chief financial officer's job is budget planning, especially using formulas. A discussion of funding formulas looks at advantages, disadvantages, and types of formulas used by states in budgeting for higher education, and examines how chief financial officers can position the campus…

McKeown-Moak, Mary P.

1999-01-01

148

Workstations in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five articles discuss various aspects of workstations and their applications in higher education. Highlights include microcomputers and workstations; UNIX operating system; campus-wide networks; software; Project SOCRATES and the interdisciplinary aspect of engineering; mechanical system design and simulation; and the Creation Station, a…

Weissman, Ronald F. E.; And Others

1988-01-01

149

Higher Education Exchange, 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annual collection focuses on the obligation of higher education to democracy. Scholars from a variety if disciplines explore this question and related issues, such as the civic mission of the university, what it means to be an "engaged" university, and how a university can itself by a "good citizen." Following a foreword by Deborah Witte, the…

Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

150

Unraveling Higher Education's Costs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The activity-based costing (ABC) method of analyzing institutional costs in higher education involves four procedures: determining the various discrete activities of the organization; calculating the cost of each; determining the cost drivers; tracing cost to the cost objective or consumer of each activity. Few American institutions have used the…

Gordon, Gus; Charles, Maria

1998-01-01

151

Higher Education Exchange 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A foreword and 11 articles discuss the nature and structure of public scholarship. The contents include: "Foreword" (Deborah Witte); (1) "Public Scholarship: The Dissemination of Knowledge" (Jean Cameron) which maintains the public has claims on higher education as a creator and disseminator of knowledge; (2) "Daring to Be Unprofessional" (David…

Brown, David W., Ed.

152

Higher spins and holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principles of quantum mechanics and relativity impose rigid constraints on theories of massless particles with nonzero spin. Indeed, Yang-Mills theory and General Relativity are the unique solution in the case of spin-1 and spin-2. In asymptotically flat spacetime, there are fundamental obstacles to formulating fully consistent interacting theories of particles of spin greater than 2. However, indications are that such theories are just barely possible in asymptotically anti-de Sitter or de Sitter spacetimes, where the non-existence of an S-matrix provides an escape from the theorems restricting theories in Minkowski spacetime. These higher spin gravity theories are therefore of great intrinsic interest, since they, along with supergravity, provide the only known field theories generalizing the local invariance principles of Yang-Mills theory and General Relativity. While work on higher spin gravity goes back several decades, the subject has gained broader appeal in recent years due to its appearance in the AdS/CFT correspondence. In three and four spacetime dimensions, there exist duality proposals linking higher spin gravity theories to specific conformal field theories living in two and three dimensions respectively. The enlarged symmetry algebra of the conformal field theories renders them exactly soluble, which makes them excellent laboratories for understanding in detail the holographic mechanism behind AdS/CFT duality. Steady progress is also being made on better understanding the space of possible higher spin gravity theories and their physical content. This work includes classifying the possible field multiplets and their interactions, constructing exact solutions of the nonlinear field equations, and relating higher spin theories to string theory. A full understanding of these theories will involve coming to grips with the novel symmetry principles that enlarge those of General Relativity and Yang-Mills theory, and one can hope that this will provide some insight into the unification of gravity with the other forces of nature. Per Kraus and Simon F RossGuest Editors

Kraus, Per; Ross, Simon F.

2013-05-01

153

Significance of Impaired Serum Gelatinases Activities in Metabolic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Introduction: A consortium of metabolic risk factors accelerate the onset of diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and certain cancers. Proteolytic enzymes like matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are regulated by a group of endogenous proteins called tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP). These TIMPs binds to active and alternate sites of activated MMPs and facilitate regulation. Impaired expression of MMPs may have a significant contribution in the pathogenesis of many tissues-destructive processes like tumor progression and cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Materials and Methods: This case control study lays stress on the possible role of impaired levels of circulating MMP-2 and 9 in metabolic syndrome (MetS). The age, sex-matched 388 subjects with 190 newly diagnosed patients, and 198 healthy controls were recruited. To screen the patients with MetS, biochemical analysis of patients for impaired glucose level, hypertension, body mass index (BMI), and lipid profile was performed. The circulating level of MMP-2 and -9 in serum was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in all patients and control. Results: All metabolic risk factors were statistically significant (P < 0.01) in patients against control group. The serum MMP-2 and -9 level was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in patients having MetS as compared with control group. Conclusions: Similar trend was observed in gender wise analysis of serum MMP level. Higher MMP level alteration observed in male patients as compared with female patients. PMID:24748744

Yadav, Suraj Singh; Singh, Manish Kumar; Dwivedi, Pradeep; Mandal, Raju Kumar; Usman, Kauser; Khattri, Sanjay; Pant, Kamlesh Kumar

2014-01-01

154

Higher spins in hyperspace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the Sp(2 n) invariant formulation of higher spin fields on flat and curved backgrounds of constant curvature. In this formulation an infinite number of higher spin fields are packed into single scalar and spinor master fields (hyperfields) propagating on extended spaces, to be called hyperspaces, parametrized by tensorial coordinates. We show that the free field equations on flat and AdS-like hyperspaces are related to each other by a generalized conformal transformation of the scalar and spinor master fields. We compute the four-point functions on a flat hyperspace for both scalar and spinor master fields, thus extending the two- and three-point function results of hep-th/0312244. Then using the generalized conformal transformation we derive two-, three- and four-point functions on AdS-like hyperspace from the corresponding correlators on the flat hyperspace.

Florakis, Ioannis; Sorokin, Dmitri; Tsulaia, Mirian

2014-07-01

155

Online higher education commodity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the current trend towards online education. It examines some of the reasons for the trend and the ramifications\\u000a it may have on students, faculty and institutions of higher learning. The success and profitability of online programs and\\u000a institutions such as the University of Phoenix has helped to make the move towards online education more appealing to other

Paule Chau

2010-01-01

156

Higher Education and Hyperreality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter addresses the issue of educationalisation via Jean Baudrillard’s concept of the hyperreal and uses this concept\\u000a to consider why educational research and researchers often fail to interrogate the validity of policy claims that frame social\\u000a problems as educational problems. Here in the United Kingdom, as elsewhere, higher education is promulgated as a means of\\u000a addressing the interrelated problems

Michael Watts

157

Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the  

E-print Network

Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the North Fork Flathead River Watershed Prepared See Also: Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the Flathead, Stillwater, & Swan River Valleys Appendix 29 #12;Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the North Fork Flathead River Watershed Prepared

158

Antireticulin antibody: Incidence and diagnostic significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sera from 101 patients with adult coeliac disease, 46 patients with childhood coeliac disease, 50 patients with dermatitis herpetiformis, and 479 patients with various other diseases, including skin, gastrointestinal, haematological, and immunological disorders, have been tested for the presence of the antireticulin antibody. Positive sera were retested at higher dilutions. Antireticulin antibody was only found in a significant proportion of

P. P. Seah; Lionel Fry; E. J. Holborow; Mary A. Rossiter; W. F. Doe; A. F. Magalhaes; A. V. Hoffbrand

1973-01-01

159

AFTER BROWNE: The New Competitive Regime for English Higher Education  

E-print Network

students from poorer backgrounds will enter higher education at all given the significantly higher fees/debt (students at the newer universities being prepared to pay £8,000 or £9,000 and incur even higher levels of debt

Roger Brown

2011-01-01

160

Mining for Knowledge in Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data mining is used as a strategic decision-making tool in many public and private firms across multiple industries. Even though it is used frequently in business and government, the use of data mining is lacking in higher education. Higher educational institutions could see many benefits through the use of data mining. A significant amount of time appears to be wasted

Richard A. Huebner

2008-01-01

161

How External Misfortunes Shaped Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essay makes an attempt to trace the influences that external political and socioeconomic factors like World Wars I, II and Great Depression had on higher education in the U.S. Higher education - autonomous and self - contained system - proved to be one of the center points of main societal developments, at the same time being significantly…

Orkodashvili, Mariam

2008-01-01

162

Iterative higher derivations: integrability Iterative higher derivations: axiomatization  

E-print Network

Multiplicatively iterative higher derivations D. Homann1 P. Kowalski2 1n/a 2Instytut Matematyczny Uniwersytetu Wrocªawskiego Logic Colloquium 2012, Manchester Homann, Kowalski Higher derivations #12;Iterative higher! = 0 !) Homann, Kowalski Higher derivations #12;Iterative higher derivations: integrability Iterative

Kowalski, Piotr

163

Untreated HIV Infection is Associated with Higher Blood Alcohol Levels  

PubMed Central

Alcohol abuse has been associated with HIV/AIDS progression, but the effects of HIV infection and treatment on alcohol exposure have not been explored to date. This pilot study examines the relationship of untreated HIV infection to blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) relative to BAC following initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods Fifteen volunteers with untreated HIV/AIDS participated in two sets of alcohol or alcohol placebo administration studies prior to and following initiation of ART. Oral alcohol (1 g/kg) or alcohol placebo was administered, participants were followed for pharmacokinetics, subjective responses, and cognitive effects over 8 hours. Following initial alcohol studies, the ART regimen selected by participant clinicians was instituted. Observed ART dosing took place for at least 2 weeks. Participants then returned for a second set of alcohol/placebo administration studies while on ART. Results Participants had significantly higher BAC (p<0.001) prior to ART than following ART administration. Alcohol AUC was significantly higher in untreated HIV disease (p=0.011) with significantly higher Cmax (p=0.015) and Cmin (p=0.05). The elimination rate was not different between pre- and post-ART conditions. Despite declines in BAC following ART initiation, no differences in subjective responses were observed with alcohol administration. Conclusions Untreated HIV infection is associated with risk for higher BAC than that observed following ART. These findings indicate that patients with untreated HIV disease who ingest alcohol are at greater risk for alcohol associated adverse events and toxicities and underscores the need for simultaneous treatment of alcohol use disorders and HIV in patients with co-occurring conditions. PMID:22495786

McCance-Katz, Elinore F.; Lum, Paula J.; Beatty, George; Gruber, Valerie A.; Peters, Marion; Rainey, Petrie M.

2012-01-01

164

EEG Correlates of Action Observation in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate electrophysiological correlates of action observation electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded while participants\\u000a observed repetitive biological (human) or non-biological movements (at a rate of 2 Hz). Steady-state evoked potentials were\\u000a analyzed and their neural sources were investigated using low resolution electromagnetic tomography analysis (LORETA). Results\\u000a revealed significantly higher activation in the primary motor and premotor cortex, supplementary motor area as well

Elisa Mira Holz; Michael Doppelmayr; Wolfgang Klimesch; Paul Sauseng

2008-01-01

165

Biological significance of soluble IL-2 receptor  

PubMed Central

A NUMBER of receptors for growth factors and differentiation antigens have been found to be secreted or released by cells. Following mononuclear cell (MNC) activation and interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) expression, a soluble form of the Alpha;-chain of IL-2R (sIL-2R) is released. The sIL-2R has been shown to be present in the culture supernatants of activated MNCs as well as in normal sera and, in higher amounts, in sera from subjects affected by several diseases including neoplastic, infectious and autoimmune ones, and in sera from transplanted patients suffering allograft rejection. The blood sIL-2R levels depend on the number of producing cells and the number of molecules per cell, so that sIL-2R blood values may represent an index of the number and the functional state of producing cells, both normal and neoplastic. Thus, monitoring of the immune system, mostly T-cells and haematological malignancies might be targets for the measurement of sIL-2R. Since many conditions may influence sIL-2R production, little diagnostic use may result from these measurements. However, since blood sIL-2R levels may correlate with disease progression and/or response to therapy, their measurement may be a useful index of activity and extent of disease. The precise biological role of the soluble form of the IL-2R is still a matter of debate. However, we know that increased sIL-2R levels may be observed in association with several immunological abnormalities and that sIL-2R is able to bind IL-2. It is conceivable then that in these conditions the excess sIL-2R released in vivo by activated lymphoid cells or by neoplastic cells may somehow regulate IL-2-dependent processes. On the other hand, it cannot exclude that sIL-2R is a by-product without biological significance. Finally, it is puzzling that in many conditions in which an increase of blood sIL-2R values has been observed, MNCs display a decreased in vitro capacity to produce sIL-2R. These seemingly contrasting findings are discussed in the light of the data showing that sIL-2R production correlates with IL-2 production. PMID:18475497

Candore, Giuseppina; Cigna, Diego; Colucci, Antonio Tobia; Modica, Maria Assunta

1993-01-01

166

Characteristics of in Higher Education  

E-print Network

Characteristics of EXCELLENCE in Higher Education Requirements of Affiliation and Standards Education #12;Published by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education 3624 Market Street Philadelphia States Commission on Higher Education Twelfth edition All rights reserved. Previous editions of Standards

Aronov, Boris

167

West Virginia Higher Education Graduate  

E-print Network

West Virginia Higher Education Graduate Employment By Industry 2009 July 2010 Prepared for the West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission By George W. Hammond, Associate Director Adam Hoffer, Graduate Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission. Opinions expressed herein are the responsibility

Mohaghegh, Shahab

168

Effective Fall 2011 HIGHER EDUCATION  

E-print Network

1 Effective Fall 2011 HIGHER EDUCATION DOCTORATE PROGRAMS INTERNSHIP HANDBOOK.D.) Doctorate of Philosophy (Ph.D.) Higher Education Administration College of Education Program of Higher Education Texas Tech University Box 41071 Lubbock, TX 794091071 (806) 7421997 Fax (806

Rock, Chris

169

Higher Order Differential Attack Using Chosen Higher Order Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces an improved higher order differential attack using chosen higher order differences. We can find a lower\\u000a order of the higher order differential by choosing higher order differences. It follows that the designers of a block cipher\\u000a can evaluate the lower bound of the number of chosen plaintexts and the complexity required for the higher order differential\\u000a attack.

Shiho Moriai; Takeshi Shimoyama; Toshinobu Kaneko

1998-01-01

170

P Values and Statistical Significance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, created by author Will G. Hopkins, defines what a p-value is, why .05 is significant, and when to use it. It also covers related topics such as one-tailed/two-tailed tests and hypothesis testing. Overall, this is a wonderful resource for students wanting to learn more about statistics, and more specially, significant testing.

Hopkins, Will G.

2008-12-16

171

The Significance of Linguistic Generalizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the problem of defining the notion "linguistically significant generalization." A rigorous objective method for determining the significance of a generalization, based on probability theory, is proposed. The proposal is illustrated by applying it to examples central to theorizing in generative grammar. (Author/KM)

Hurford, James R.

1977-01-01

172

The significance of disciplinary differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is evident that disciplines have their distinctive cultural characteristics, this consideration tends to be largely overlooked in research into, as well as policy-making within, higher education. The paper aims to draw attention to some of the resulting inadequacies in analysis and to explore their consequences. After offering an overview of the various disciplinary cultures, it examines different facets

Tony Becher

1994-01-01

173

Significant Scales in Community Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of ``significance'' of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine ``good'' resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationality plays no role.

Traag, V. A.; Krings, G.; van Dooren, P.

2013-10-01

174

Human Races: Their Reality and Significance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of two questions is considered important: (1) why are there different races and how might they have come to be, and (2) given the observed biological differences among races, what, if any, is their significance for society. Discusses the race-IQ question and presents evidence to support environmental influence on IQ results. (DF)

Goldsby, Richard A.

1973-01-01

175

Higher Education and Social Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An agenda for future higher education research is proposed which incorporates four interconnected elements: changing social contexts; their implications for higher education; mechanisms of interaction between higher education and society; higher education's impact on society. The role of comparative research in investigating these topics is…

Brennan, John

2008-01-01

176

The Swedish Higher Education System  

E-print Network

state funds. Qualifications from all higher education in- stitutions that are recognized by the Gov#12;#12;#12;The Swedish Higher Education System The following description is approved by the Swedish Council for Higher Education. GENERAL Higher education institutions have great au- tonomy

Zhao, Yuxiao

177

Higher Education in Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an analysis of, and proposals for, international cooperation in higher education. Focuses on Latin American higher education, its current situation, and the expected transformation of the goals of higher education in the context of international cooperation. Describes the challenges that globalization poses to Latin American higher…

Romeao, Jose Raymundo Martins

2003-01-01

178

Meghan Miller Background and Significance  

E-print Network

1 Meghan Miller Background and Significance Autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) represent variable pathological symptoms from one individual to the next, representing a continual spectrum rather within the autism spectrum include Asperger, Fragile X, Angelman, Rett, Williams, Prader

Gleeson, Joseph G.

179

SIGNIFICANT NATURAL HERITAGE AREAS (NC)  

EPA Science Inventory

The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, developed the Significant Natural Heritage Areas digital data to determine the a...

180

Rotating Black Holes in Higher Dimensions  

E-print Network

The properties of higher-dimensional black holes can differ significantly from those of black holes in four dimensions, since neither the uniqueness theorem, nor the staticity theorem or the topological censorship theorem generalize to higher dimensions. We first discuss black holes of Einstein-Maxwell theory and Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory with spherical horizon topology. Here new types of stationary black holes are encountered. We then discuss nonuniform black strings and present evidence for a horizon topology changing transition.

Burkhard Kleihaus; Jutta Kunz; Francisco Navarro-Lerida

2007-10-11

181

Statistical Significance vs. Practical Significance: An Exploration through Health Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between statistical and practical significance, including strengths and criticisms of both methods, as well as provide information surrounding the application of various effect sizes and confidence intervals within health education research. Provided are recommendations, explanations and…

Rosen, Brittany L.; DeMaria, Andrea L.

2012-01-01

182

Oklahoma American Indian Higher Education, 1989. A Position Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistics suggest that American Indian higher education in Oklahoma has made significant progress over the past quarter century. However, a new era of higher education is beginning in which higher admission standards, higher tuition costs, and decreased financial aid will take their toll on American Indian enrollment. An estimated 25-40% of…

Bread, Jerry C.

183

Korean Higher Education Reforms and Changes since the 1990s  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Korean higher education has experienced significant changes since the 1990s. Terms like quality, excellence, competition, efficiency, restructuring, and accountability have become dominant in higher education discourse. These changes are integral parts of higher education reforms implemented by the South Korean government and higher educational…

Oh, Yun Suk

2011-01-01

184

Statistical significance for genomewide studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increase in genomewide experiments and the sequencing of multiple genomes, the analysis of large data sets has become commonplace in biology. It is often the case that thousands of features in a genomewide data set are tested against some null hypothesis, where a number of features are expected to be significant. Here we propose an approach to measuring

John D. Storey; Robert Tibshirani

2003-01-01

185

Iris mammillations: Significance and associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iris mammillations are rarely described, distinctive villiform protuberances that can cover the iris. In the majority of reported cases they are unilateral and sporadic, and are seen in association with oculodermal melanosis. In past literature and current clinical practice they are frequently confused with the iris nodules seen in neurofibromatosis type 1. Their clinical significance is not established, although it

Nicola K Ragge; J Acheson; A Linn Murphree

1996-01-01

186

An Introduction Significance of Pain  

E-print Network

An Introduction to: Pain #12;Significance of Pain !!Pain is adaptive !!Alerts us to danger !!Motivates escape and avoidance learning !!Motivates recuperation !!Congenital insensitivity to pain !!Pain was killing his buddies all around him. When a shell burst nearby, he felt an excruciating pain

Meagher, Mary

187

Status and Significance of Credentialing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the current status, significance, and future of credentialing in the field of environmental health. Also discusses four phases of a Bureau of Health Professions (BHP) Credentialing Program and BHP-funded projects related to their development and implementation. Phases include role delineation, resources development, examination…

Musgrave, Dorothea

1984-01-01

188

(significance maps) (distributed source coding;  

E-print Network

-- SPIHT Wyner-Ziv (significance maps) 1 (distributed source coding; DSC) 1970 Slepian Wolf (noiseless coding of correlated information sources)[1] DSC (sensor networks) DSC ),( YXH ),( YXH )()( YHXH + DSC XY (joint decoding) ),( YXH DSC Slepian-Wolf Wyner-Ziv Wyner

Yang, Shih-Hsuan

189

RACE EQUALITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION  

E-print Network

RACE EQUALITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION Achievements, Future Challenges and Possible Solutions FRIDAY 11 and students within Higher Education; » and to provide an opportunity to network. The day will also include

Henderson, Gideon

190

Finite time observers and observability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A notion of finite time observer for partially observed deterministic control systems is introduced. The observer dynamics are given by a Hamilton-Jacobi equation, and the observer is consistent under a natural observability condition. An observability grammian for nonlinear systems is introduced, and is used to study the time evolution of sets of indistinguishable points

Matthew R. James

1990-01-01

191

Extensional Higher-Order Datalog?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We deflne a higher-order extension of Datalog based on the Horn fragment of higher-order logic introduced in (Wad91). Programs of Higher-Order Datalog can be understood declaratively as formulas in extensional higher-order logic, in which (for example) a unary predicate of unary predicates is a set of sets of data objects. The language retains all the basic principles of flrst-order logic

Vassilis Kountouriotis; Panos Rondogiannis; William W. Wadge

192

Higher Education Finance Manual 1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Higher Education Finance Manual (HEFM) is intended to serve as a guide to higher education planners and managers in their understanding and use of institutional finance data. It addresses higher education finance data from the layman's perspective. The document includes definitions of accounting terms and descriptions of generally accepted…

Collier, Douglas J.; Mertins, Paul J.

193

Higher Education and Public Good  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Policy debate about whether to maintain public subsidies for higher education has stimulated reconsideration of the public mission of higher education institutions, especially those that provide student places conferring private benefits. If the work of higher education institutions is defined simply as the aggregation of private interests, this…

Marginson, Simon

2011-01-01

194

Higher Education Studies in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rapid development of higher education in the postwar period has given rise to various problems, and higher education studies in Japan have developed in response to them. What have been the major issues, and how did academic research respond to them, in postwar Japan? This article delineates an outline of higher education studies in general,…

Kaneko, Motohisa

2010-01-01

195

A Tax for Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education pays off handsomely for society. Yet on a nationwide basis, states' support for higher education per full-time-equivalent student has fallen to just $6,290, the lowest in 15 years. A dedicated source of funds for higher education is problematic. But what if state and federal lawmakers applied the impeccable logic of the gas tax to…

Blumenstyk, Goldie

2012-01-01

196

Capital Formation in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for new capital in higher education and major areas where the interests of the business and higher education communities are aligned are considered. Higher education is a major employer and makes a large contribution to the gross national product. Human capital has become the accepted term for referring to the contribution of education,…

Frances, Carol; Coldren, Sharon L.

197

The Privitization of Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attributes the growth of private education to excess and differentiated demand for higher education. Argues that evidence shows that the higher quality of private education is exaggerated and that private school attendance does not result in higher salaries for graduates. Criticizes private education as not wholly self-financing, elitist, and…

Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

1991-01-01

198

Economic Trends and Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research brief highlights current and projected economic trends that affect higher education and discusses some of their implications. The brief is organized into three sections: (1) national economic conditions affecting higher education, which presents data on gross national product, inflation, the Higher Education Price Index, the federal…

Ottinger, Cecilia A.

1992-01-01

199

Postmodernism in Higher Educational Administration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Postmodernism has many inferences that can be applied to the theory and practice of higher educational administration. Today, in higher education administrators are continuously focused on strategies that will ensure the future of minority educational institutions. As a result postmodernism is an important factor in the future of higher…

Demaris, Michalyn C.; Kritsonis, William Allan

2007-01-01

200

Higher Education Learning Agreement form  

E-print Network

6 Higher Education Learning Agreement form Annex 1: Guidelines The purpose of the Learning. It is recommended to use this template. However, if the higher education institution already has an IT system hours and whether a third party is also involved, such as a higher education institution

Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

201

West Virginia Higher Education Graduate  

E-print Network

West Virginia Higher Education Graduate Employment And Wage Trends: 2003-2010 Summary Results October 2011 Prepared for the West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission By George W. Hammond Corporation Funding for this research was provided by the West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

Mohaghegh, Shahab

202

Benchmarking Higher Education ICT Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper benchmarks ICT infrastructure in the context of academic computing implementation at Malaysian higher education institutions. Three research questions are central to this study. What are the indicators for benchmarking ICT infrastructure? What is the general performance of higher education institutions in Malaysia? In order to answer these questions, a nationwide survey was conducted involving 90 higher education institutions

Shamsul Anuar Mokhtar; Rose Alinda Alias; Azizah Abdul Rahman

203

Higher Education Tuition Assistance And  

E-print Network

Higher Education Tuition Assistance And Work In West Virginia 2008 Results For PROMISE Scholarship and West Virginia Higher Education Grant Recipients October 2009 Revised: November 2009 Prepared for the West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission By George W. Hammond, Associate Director Adam Hoffer

Mohaghegh, Shahab

204

Doctor of Education Higher Education  

E-print Network

Doctor of Education Higher Education ProgramHandbook College of Education Graduate Education and Research Texas Tech University Box 41071 Lubbock, TX 79409-1071 (806) 742-1997 Fax (806) 742-2197 www.educ.ttu.edu Effective Fall 2011 #12;2 Higher Education Program Overview The Higher Education program is committed

Rock, Chris

205

Higher Nervous Activity of Man: Motivational-Emotional Aspects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of experimental research on various manifestations of human higher nervous activity are reported. Principal attentional is devoted to the motivational emotional aspect of higher nervous activity, including the applied significance of research in t...

P. V. Simonov

1975-01-01

206

The Political Dynamics of Higher Education Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a framework informed by spatial models of politics to explain the dynamics of political competition in higher education policy and, in particular, the observed instability in the relationship between political variables and policy outcomes. To this end, I explore competing hypotheses for the relationship between government…

Dar, Luciana

2012-01-01

207

Higher Education Vertical Infrastructure Maintenance Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assist higher education facility officers in documenting their financial needs for renewing and renovating existing physical facilities, this study examined the accuracy against observed conditions of the tools used to identify vertical infrastructure maintenance needs in a large public university. Data developed for U.S. Army facilities is…

Weidner, Theodore J.

208

Mark Edwards: Mission Impossible in Higher Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case chronicles some of the problems a corporate executive encountered on his transition from the private sector to the deanship of the College of Business in a university of higher education. His deanship, which resulted from the recent reorganization at State University, gave him significant responsibility for undergraduate and graduate…

Santora, Joseph C.; Sarros, James C.

2008-01-01

209

Outsourcing in Higher Education: An Empirical Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To measure the degree of implementation and satisfaction level with the outsourcing initiatives from higher education institutions. Design/methodology/approach: Uses a survey questionnaire to measure the levels of satisfaction with the institutions' services and the questionnaire was based on six factors that are deemed significant in…

Gupta, Atul; Herath, S. Kanthi; Mikouiza, Nathalie C.

2005-01-01

210

Financing higher education: lessons from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In China, debates about higher education finance led to the introduction of a cost-sharing model, whereby students were required to pay tuition fees, over a decade ago. However, there is still significant resistance towards such a system within the broader society. In order to share insights into the development of the cost-sharing policy in China with international readers and scholars,

Li Fengliang

2012-01-01

211

Higher education for sustainable development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the significance of developments across Chinese higher education in the field of education and learning for sustainable development (SD) and to assess the relative impact of these initiatives. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This is a review of policy and practice to examine developments, challenges, and prospects for education for sustainable development (ESD)

Dongjie Niu; Dahe Jiang; Fengting Li

2010-01-01

212

Financing Higher Education: Lessons from China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In China, debates about higher education finance led to the introduction of a cost-sharing model, whereby students were required to pay tuition fees, over a decade ago. However, there is still significant resistance towards such a system within the broader society. In order to share insights into the development of the cost-sharing policy in China…

Fengliang, Li

2012-01-01

213

Higher Education for Sustainable Development in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the significance of developments across Chinese higher education in the field of education and learning for sustainable development (SD) and to assess the relative impact of these initiatives. Design/methodology/approach: This is a review of policy and practice to examine developments, challenges,…

Niu, Dongjie; Jiang, Dahe; Li, Fengting

2010-01-01

214

Improving Measurement of Productivity in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education is a linchpin of the American economy and society: Teaching and research at colleges and universities contribute significantly to the nation's economic activity, both directly and through their impact on future growth; federal and state governments support teaching and research with billions of taxpayers' dollars; and individuals,…

Sullivan, Teresa A., Ed.; Mackie, Christopher, Ed.; Massy, William F., Ed.; Sinha, Esha, Ed.

2012-01-01

215

Where boosted significances come from  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an era of increasingly advanced experimental analysis techniques it is crucial to understand which phase space regions contribute a signal extraction from backgrounds. Based on the Neyman-Pearson lemma we compute the maximum significance for a signal extraction as an integral over phase space regions. We then study to what degree boosted Higgs strategies benefit ZH and tt¯H searches and which transverse momenta of the Higgs are most promising. We find that Higgs and top taggers are the appropriate tools, but would profit from a targeted optimization towards smaller transverse momenta. MadMax is available as an add-on to MadGraph 5.

Plehn, Tilman; Schichtel, Peter; Wiegand, Daniel

2014-03-01

216

Reforming Higher Education. Higher Education Policy Series 50.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the relationship between higher education policy and the state in the United Kingdom, discussing how changing concepts of the nature of the state and its role have affected the development of higher education policy. The book studies shifts from state-subsidized independence to ambiguous but increased dependence on state…

Kogan, Maurice; Hanney, Stephen

217

Yawning and its physiological significance  

PubMed Central

Although yawning is a commonly witnessed human behavior, yet it has not been taught in much detail in medical schools because, until the date, no particular physiological significance has been associated with it. It is characterized by opening up of mouth which is accompanied by a long inspiration, with a brief interruption of ventilation and followed by a short expiration. Since time immemorial, yawning has been associated with drowsiness and boredom. However, this age old belief is all set to change as the results of some newer studies have pointed out that yawning might be a way by which our body is trying to accomplish some more meaningful goals. In this review, we have tried to put together some of the important functions that have been proposed by a few authors, with the hope that this article will stimulate the interest of newer researchers in this hitherto unexplored field. PMID:23776833

Gupta, Sharat; Mittal, Shallu

2013-01-01

218

[Human caspase-14 expression in malignant melanoma and its significance].  

PubMed

Objective To detect the caspase-14 expression in malignant melanoma cells and tumor tissues and its effect on tumor resistance to drug. Methods The mRNA and protein level of caspase-14 in 4 melanoma cell lines (A375, A875, M14, and SK-Mel-1) and the melanocytes, was detected by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. Caspase-14 expression in 34 malignant melanoma tumor tissues and 10 dermal nevus tissues was determined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Results Caspase-14 expression was seen in melanoma cells and melanocytes. It was higher in melanoma-associated antigen 1 recognized by T cells (MART-1) positive cells than in MART-1 negative cells. The cells expressing the lower caspase-14 were more sensitive to the treatment with either chemotherapy drugs camptothecin and cisplatin or radiotherapy than the ones expressing the higher caspase-14 (P<0.01). Caspase-14 expression was observed in 70% dermal nevus, as well as 97% in malignant melanoma tissues, and the difference between them was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Caspase-14 is expressed in tissues and cells of malignant melanoma. Our data indicated that the expression level of caspase-14 affected the drug sensitivity of melanoma. PMID:25374083

Wang, Xinyuan; Zhang, Ji; Cheng, Yao; DU, Jipei; Chen, Degao; Yang, Zhimei; Wang, Yufang; Huang, Ning

2014-11-01

219

[Significance of aldosterone antagonist therapy].  

PubMed

Since the introduction of ACE-inhibitors into clinical practice, the diuretic treatment with the classical aldosterone antagonist spironolactone has disappeared. It was generally believed that chronic treatment with ACE-inhibitors significantly reduces aldosterone secretion via reduction of angiotensin II-dependent aldosterone formation. However, aldosterone "escape" occurs: Even during chronic treatment with ACE-inhibitors, plasma levels of aldosterone rise again, which is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, extrarenal actions of aldosterone have been demonstrated, which detrimentally affect coagulation, autonomic activity, inflammatory signalling, hemodynamics, and fibrosis, subsequently leading to cardiovascular damage. Recently published studies (RALES, EPHESUS) convincingly support the concept of detrimental cardiovascular aldosterone actions even during chronic ACE-inhibition. In addition to those cardiovascular effects, aldosterone antagonism has beneficial impacts on ascites, chronic renal disease, renal volume regulation, and hypokalemia induced by diuretics. Of note, aldosterone dependent mechanisms are believed to be even involved in essential hypertension, and the value of aldosterone antagonism is currently tested in those patients. In conclusion, an old-fashioned, previously abandoned treatment strategy is currently celebrating its revival. PMID:14997312

Christ, M; Grimm, W; Maisch, B

2004-03-01

220

Learning Entrepreneurship in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: There is a constant need to produce more entrepreneurial graduates from higher education institutions. This paper aims to present and discuss several successful cases of entrepreneurial learning environments in order to suggest some important aspects that higher education institutions should consider. Design/methodology/approach: The…

Taatila, Vesa P.

2010-01-01

221

Feminist Research in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay provides an overview of feminist methodology and its potential to enhance the study of higher education. Foregrounding the multiple purposes and research relationships developed through feminist research, the essay urges higher education scholars to engage feminist theories, epistemologies, and methods to inform policy, research, and…

Ropers-Huilman, Rebecca; Winters, Kelly T.

2011-01-01

222

Queering Transformation in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transformation in higher education has tended to focus on race and sex, at the expense of other forms of discrimination. This article addresses the silencing of "queer" issues in higher education. Using queer theory as a framework, and drawing on current literature, popular media reports, two personal critical incidents and a project…

Msibi, Thabo

2013-01-01

223

Does Higher Education Need Deschooling?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an attempt to overcome the contemporary obsession with "learning" and proposes that current practices in higher education are aligned too closely with the educational theories and practices developed within pre-university compulsory education. The author takes the position that higher education is substantially different from…

Butson, Russell

2011-01-01

224

The Higher Education Research Archipelago  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ever since he stumbled into doing higher education research as a young academic in the 1980s, the author has been trying to understand it as a "field" of study. His career, as a former business lecturer, then an academic developer and now an associate professor for higher education working in an Education Faculty has given him opportunities to see…

Macfarlane, Bruce

2012-01-01

225

Canuck-Do Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how, like Australia, Canadian higher education has experienced large-scale cuts in government funding, the deregulation of tuition and general cost shifting to students, inability to accommodate increased student demand, faculty "brain drain" and shortages, and an erosion of public policy toward viewing higher education as a business.…

Rosenfeld, Mark

2003-01-01

226

Fact Book on Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) Fact Book on Higher Education" is one of the nation's most comprehensive collections of comparative data on higher education. For decades, state leaders, policy-makers, researchers and journalists have used the "Fact Book" to find useful data quickly--and to learn more about long-term trends and…

Marks, Joseph L.; Diaz, Alicia A.

2009-01-01

227

Policy change in higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following developments in the 1980s, the 1990s seem to promise for many governments and societies an increasing concern about the role and relevance of their respective higher education systems. This concern seems to be brought about by several factors such as financial stringency, increased demand, effective articulation between higher and other education sectors, labour market priorities, aging populations, changes in

V. Lynn Meek; Leo C. J. Goedegebuure; Osmo Kivinen; Risto Rinne

1991-01-01

228

Higher Education Learning Agreement form  

E-print Network

6 Higher Education Learning Agreement form Annex 1: Guidelines The purpose of the Learning that the student will receive recognition in his/her degree for the educational components successfully completed abroad. It is recommended to use this template. However, if higher education institutions already have

Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

229

Higher Education Learning Agreement form  

E-print Network

Higher Education Learning Agreement form Student's name LEARNING AGREEMENT FOR STUDIES The Student look at Annex 1, for end notes please look at Annex 2. 1 #12;Higher Education Learning Agreement form of educational components in the student's degree that would normally be completed at the sending institution

Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

230

Higher Education Marketing: A Challenge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that similarities between education and other services may not be sufficient to conclude that services marketing methods can be easily transferred to all markets in higher education. Article identifies and discusses why higher education marketing is a particular challenge. Suggests that understanding these challenges can help in making…

Canterbury, Richard

1999-01-01

231

Higher Education Marketing: A Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Similarities between higher education and other services may not be sufficient to conclude that services marketing methods transfer easily to all markets in higher education. High school students are a market segment offered as an example of how distinctive issues may apply.

Richard M. Canterbury

2000-01-01

232

Higher Education Marketing: A Challenge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses similarities and differences in the marketing of higher education and other services, especially in regard to marketing to high school students. Considers the importance of the college choice decision, the adolescent's competence to choose wisely in light of promotional efforts, family influences, and the question of what higher…

Canterbury, Richard M.

1999-01-01

233

History of American Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"History of American Higher Education" documents the fascinating evolution of American colleges and universities, touching on the historical events that shaped them, from the colonial era through the early twenty-first century. Throughout history, higher education has played an important role in the transmission of cultural identity from one…

McCarthy, Margaret Cain

2011-01-01

234

Higher Education: Open for Business  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book addresses a problem in higher learning, which is newly recognized in the academic spotlight: the overcommercialization of higher education. The book asks that you, the reader, think about the following: Did you go to a Coke or Pepsi school? Do your children attend a Nike or Adidas school? Is the college in your town a Dell or Gateway…

Gilde, Christian, Ed.

2007-01-01

235

History of Higher Education, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The six papers in this annual volume on the history of higher education cover some of the changes that evolved over the years in various U.S. Institutions. The first paper is: "The Articulation of Secondary and Higher Education: Four Historical Models at the University of Georgia" (J. Patrick McCarthy), which discusses the efforts of trustees and…

Geiger, Roger L., Ed.

1999-01-01

236

Minority Access to Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Asian Americans are entitled to equal access to all institutions of higher education. Ensuring greater access and participation by minorities in higher education is one of the most practical ways of moving America closer to the ideal of equal opportunity, which is the actualization of the American dream.…

Jackson, Nathaniel

2012-01-01

237

Customer Service in Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In today's highly competitive world, higher education needs to look more closely at improving customer service on campus. As the consumers of education become more aware of their rights, they will be demanding the same service of educational institutions as they do commercial businesses. Higher education needs to investigate what busienss has been doing in the area of customer service

Robert G. Sines Jr; Eric A. Duckworth

1994-01-01

238

Higher Education Doctor of Philosophy  

E-print Network

Higher Education Doctor of Philosophy Program Handbook College of Education Graduate Education and Research Texas Tech University Box 1071 Lubbock, TX 79409-1071 (806) 742-1997 Fax (806) 742-2197 www.educ.ttu.edu Effective Fall 2012-2013 #12;2 Doctor of Philosophy Program Overview The Higher Education program

Rock, Chris

239

Higher Education Doctor of Philosophy  

E-print Network

Higher Education Doctor of Philosophy Program Handbook College of Education Graduate Education and Research Texas Tech University Box 1071 Lubbock, TX 79409-1071 (806) 742-1997 Fax (806) 742-2197 www.educ.ttu.edu Effective Fall 2013-2014 #12;2 Doctor of Philosophy Program Overview The Higher Education program

Rock, Chris

240

"Accessions": Researching, Designing Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief viewpoint piece depicts educational (dis)engagements apparent in researching and (re)designing higher education in and through "Accessions". "Accessions", a collaborative research-design project, probed at how cultures, climates and conditions of higher education may be reproducing or reshaping social inequalities and divisions. Here,…

Taylor, Yvette

2011-01-01

241

Normative Crisis of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines the effects of business cycles and government financial aid to technocratic education on traditional higher education norms and on student attitudes; also considered is the present overconcentration of higher education on accommodating its curriculums and programs to labor market changes. (MF)

Schaffer, Edward

1978-01-01

242

Higher Education Trends and Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most people in higher education believe in continuity, in respecting traditions. That makes it easy to miss the startling changes and compelling opportunities that confront the academic enterprise. In this article, the author presents a few trends that are dramatically altering higher education in New England: (1) more women than men are attending…

Cronin, Joseph M.

2006-01-01

243

Tax Benefits and Higher Education  

E-print Network

Tax Benefits and Higher Education #12;Making Tax Benefits Work for You While"tax"and"benefit"seem like contradictory terms,the fact is that there are a number of tax incentives to help taxpayers offset the cost of higher education. You may be eligible for certain tax benefits if you,your spouse or your

Gelfond, Michael

244

Higher Education, Poverty and Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a presumption among many policy makers that higher education is not necessary for economic growth and development; it is literacy and basic education and at best secondary education that are argued to be important. Estimates of internal rate of return contributed to strengthening of such a presumption. Accordingly, higher education has…

Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

2010-01-01

245

Higher Education: An International Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides a review of higher education systems in selected developed countries and compares higher education in the United States and other countries. The report draws on data from the Indicators of National Education Systems Project of the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) of the Organisation for Economic…

Phelps, Richard P.; Dietrich, Greta L.; Phillips, Gabriele; McCormack, Kevin A.

246

Optimal Hedging with Higher Moments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes a utility-based framework for the determination of optimal hedge ratios that can allow for the impact of higher moments on the hedging decision. The approach is applied to a set of 20 commodities that are hedged with futures contracts. We find that in sample, the performance of hedges constructed allowing for non-zero higher moments is only very

Chris Brooks; A. Cerny; J. Miffre

2006-01-01

247

Tort Litigation in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of case law relating to tort litigation in 1998 does not reveal any watershed cases that change the legal landscape for institutions of higher education, but it does show that institutions of higher education continue to face a myriad of tort claims of a diverse nature from diverse and expanding constituencies. (SLD)

von Gerichten, Edward

1999-01-01

248

The Overselling of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is not enough substance behind a degree to warrant the ubiquitous belief that a stint in higher education is a "sine qua non" for success in America. While college diplomas may translate into higher-paying jobs for some, high school signifies little in the way of education these days, so jaded employers' estimates of the real value of…

Leef, George C.

2006-01-01

249

Glacial marine sedimentation: Paleoclimatic significance  

SciTech Connect

This publication resulted from a symposium held during the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America. Many, but not all, contributors to the symposium have papers in this volume. This Special Paper consists of 14 chapters and a Subject/Geographic index. Each chapter has is own list of references. The papers cover a wide range of modem climate/ ocean environments, including papers on glacial marine sediments from Antarctica, the fiords of Alaska, and sediments from the Canadian High Arctic. In addition, three papers discuss [open quote]old[close quotes] glacial marine records (i.e., pre-Tertiary), and one paper discusses the Yakataga Formation of the Gulf of Alaska which is a Miocene-to-late-Pleistocene sequence. The last chapter in the book includes a survey and summary of the evidence for the paleoclimatic significance of glacial marine sediments by the two editors, John Anderson and Gail Ashley. It is worth noting that Anderson and Domack state in the Foreword that there is a considerable variation in terminology; hence they employ a series of definitions which they urge the other authors to employ. They define and explain what they mean by [open quotes]polar ice cap,[close quotes] [open quote]polar tundra (subpolar),[close quotes] and [open quotes]temperate oceanic and boreal[close quotes] in terms of the dominant glacial and glacial marine processes. Although one might quarrel with the terminology, the broad differences between these three glaciological regimes are indeed fundamental and need to be sought in the geological record. The flavor of the volume can be judged by some of the chapter titles. Contributions on Antarctica include a paper by Anderson and other entitled [open quote]Sedimentary facies associated with Antarctica's floating ice masses[close quotes] and a companion paper by Anderson and Domack which deals with the extremely complex glacial marine facies (13 facies are delimited) in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica.

Anderson, J.B.; Ashley, G.M. (eds.)

1991-01-01

250

OBSERVATIONAL OUTCOMES  

E-print Network

OBSERVATIONAL MEDICAL OUTCOMES PARTNERSHIP 1 OBSERVATIONAL MEDICAL: that whilst we falsely admire and extol the powers of the human mind, we do not search for its real helps." -- Novum Organum: Aphorisms [Book One], 1620, Sir Francis Bacon #12;OBSERVATIONAL MEDICAL OUTCOMES

251

Higher Minimum Wage and High School Dropout Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore whether higher levels of the real minimum wage have differing effects on high school dropout rates across students of various races and ethnicities (whites, African Americans, Hispanics, and Asians). Using a panel of data across Maryland counties and annual observations in 1993-2004, we found higher real minimum wages to be associated with higher dropout rates for Hispanic students,

Stephanie O. Crofton; William L. Anderson; Emily C. Rawe

2009-01-01

252

Accretionary orogens: definition, character, significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classic models of orogens involve a Wilson cycle of ocean opening and closing with orogenesis related to continent-continent collision. Such models fail to explain the geological history of a significant number of orogenic belts throughout the world in which deformation, metamorphism and crustal growth took place in an environment of on-going plate convergence. These belts are termed accretionary orogens but have also been refereed to as non-collisional orogens, Pacific-type orogens, Turkic-type and exterior orogens. Accretionary orogens evolve in generally curvilinear belts comprising dominantly mafic to silicic igneous rocks and their sedimentary products and accumulated largely in marine settings. They are variably deformed and metamorphosed by tectono-thermal events aligned parallel to, and punctuating, facies trends. Accretionary orogens form at sites of subduction of oceanic lithosphere and consist of magmatic arcs systems along with material accreted from the downgoing plate and eroded from the upper plate. Deformational features include structures formed in extension and compressive environments during steady-state convergence (arc/backarc vs. accretionary prism) that are overprinted by short regional compressive orogenic events. Orogenesis takes place through coupling across the plate boundary with strain concentrated in zones of mechanical and thermal weakening such as the magmatic arc and back arc region. Potential driving mechanisms for coupling include accretion of buoyant lithosphere (terrane accretion), flat slab subduction, and rapid absolute upper plate motion over-riding the downgoing plate. The Circum-Pacific region provides outstanding examples of accretionary orogens. The Pacific formed during breakup of Rodinia in the Neoproterozoic and has never subsequently closed, resulting in a series of overall ocean-ward younging orogenic systems that have always faced an open ocean, yet have been the sites of repeated tectono-thermal events and continental growth. Accretionary orogens have been active throughout Earth history. They have been responsible for major growth of the continental lithosphere through the addition of juvenile magmatic products and include Archean greenstone belts, the Paleoproterozoic Birimian orogen (W. Africa), the Arabian-Nubian shield (Pan African) and Paleozoic orogens in Asia.

Cawood, P. A.; Kroener, A.; Windley, B. F.

2003-04-01

253

Costs and Difficulties on the Way to a Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A higher education continues to be a significant value to young people; this is manifested clearly in the growth of the numbers enrolled in higher educational institutions of Russia. This article examines "the process by which young people achieve their goal"--obtaining a higher education--as a set of stages linked to specific kinds of costs. The…

Mogil'chak, E. L.

2012-01-01

254

Inclusion in Higher Education: Issues in University-School Partnership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The significant under-representation of people from low socio-economic backgrounds in higher education in Australia has been placed squarely at the front of the Australian Federal Government's higher education agenda. The barriers for students from low socio-economic backgrounds to access higher education are broad and multi-causal. The…

Armstrong, D.; Cairnduff, A.

2012-01-01

255

Institute of Higher Education: An Oral History (1964-2002).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This oral history is part of the celebration planned by the University of Georgia Institute of Higher Education to honor Cameron Fincher for his service to the field of higher education and the Institute. Dr, Fincher was interviewed by Delmer D. Dunn about the significant changes that have occurred in higher education over the past 50 years.…

Fincher, Cameron

256

Access to Higher Education in China: Differences in Opportunity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Access to higher education in China has opened up significantly in the move towards a mass higher education system. However, aggregate growth does not necessarily imply fair or reasonable distribution of opportunity. In fact, the expansion of higher education has a rather more complex influence on opportunity when admissions statistics are viewed…

Wang, Houxiong

2011-01-01

257

Astrobiological Significance of Microbial Extremophiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The microflora of the cryosphere of planet Earth provides the best analogs for life forms that might be found in the permafrost or polar ice caps of Mars, near the surface of the cometary nuclei, or in the liquid water beneath and the ice crusts of icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The importance of study alkaliphilic microorganisms for astrobiology was enhanced by the findings of abundant carbonates and carbonate globules rimmed with possibly biogenic magnetites in association with the putative microfossils in the ALH84001 meteorite. Although the ALH84001 "nanofossils" were to small and simple to be unambiguously recognized as biogenic, they stimulated Astrobiology research and studies of microbial extremophiles and biomarkers in ancient rocks and meteorites. Recent studies of CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites have resulted in the detection of the well-preserved mineralized remains of coccoidal and filamentous microorganisms in cyanobacterial mats. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis has shown anomalous biogenic element ratios clearly indicating they are not recent biological contaminants. This paper reviews microbial extremophiles in context of their significance to Astrobiology. The study of halophilic microorganisms was started from work with saline soils and lakes, and one of the record of good growth for Haloferax mediterranei was shown at 30 percent NaC1. Although alkali-tolerant nitrifying bacteria had previously been reported, the first described alkaliphilic microorganism was the bacterium Streptococcus faecalis. Halophilic and alkaliphilic forms are relevant to conditions that might be found in closed impact basins and craters on Mars filled with evaporite deposits. The first obligately acidophilic bacterium described was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxydans (formally Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Later thermophilic lithotrophic acidophiles were found, and the hyperacidophilic moderately thermophilic species of the genus Picrophilus were found to grow at negative pH. The epoch of study of thermophilic microorganisms starts with the discovery of Thermus aquaticus, and presently the maximum temperature for growth at 113 C was found for Pyrolobus fumarii. The microorganisms capable of growth at high temperatures and in hyperacidic environments on Earth are good analogs for life that might be able to survive in hot acidic droplets in the upper regimes of the atmosphere of Venus. The study of barophiles was made possible by engineering achievements leading to the development of the submersible crafts used to study the Black Smokers of the Deep-sea Hydrothermal vents. The first described radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans can survive ionizing irradiation and other DNA-damaging assaults at doses that are lethal to all other organisms. These microbes are models for life that might endure high radiation environments in the ice near the surface of comets or on the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn and in the seafloor deep beneath icy crusts Europa and Enceladus. This paper presents ESEM and FESEM images showing intact microbes preserved in the deep ice cores extracted from just above Lake Vostok, Antarctica that are considered analogs for life forms that might survive on comets and icy moons.

Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

2007-01-01

258

The Demand for Higher Education in Turkey and Open Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Failure to meet considerably high demand for higher education in Turkey has always been one of the most significant concerns of Turkish Higher Education System for many years. In this respect, Anadolu University Open Education Faculty has played a significant role in the attempts to overcome this problem in Turkey for the last three decades. In…

Cekerol, Kamil

2012-01-01

259

Family Background, Financial Constraints and Higher Education Attendance in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the 2004 China College Student Survey, conducted by the author, this paper finds that long-term factors such as scholastic ability and parental education are significantly correlated with higher education attendance. By contrast, short-term financial constraints are also significantly associated with higher education access, but to…

Li, Wenli

2007-01-01

260

Internationalization in Higher Education in China: A Practitioner's Reflection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since higher education reforms were started in the mid-1980s, higher education in China has experienced significant transformations. Changes have not only been revealed by the increase in numbers of undergraduates, but also by a significant expansion in postgraduate education in mainland China. In order to enhance its global competitiveness, the…

Wang, Yibing

2008-01-01

261

Higher Education and Research Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The lecture outlines the links between research and higher education. To do so, it looks at existing situations of different countries in each area, points out differences, and encourages collaboration across frontiers.

P. Swinnerton-Dyer

1991-01-01

262

American Indian Higher Education Consortium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC), since 1972, has been the collective spirit and voice of our nation's Tribal Colleges and Universities, advocating on behalf of individual institutions of higher education that are defined and controlled by their respective tribal nations. AIHEC's mission is to nurture, advocate, and protect American Indian history, culture, art and language, and the legal and human rights of American Indian people to their own sense of identity and heritage.

263

Placental isoprostane is significantly increased in preeclampsia.  

PubMed

We determined placental tissue levels, production rates, and secretion rates of isoprostanes for placentas obtained from women with normal pregnancies and women with preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. Isoprostanes are markers of oxidative stress that exert biological actions such as vasoconstriction. Placental tissue was rinsed and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen to determine tissue levels of total and free isoprostane. Placental tissue pieces were also incubated in serum-free DMEM for 48 h at 37 degrees C in 95% air/5% CO(2) to determine production rates. Isolated placental cotyledons were perfused for the determination of secretion rates. All samples were analyzed by EIA for isoprostane using an antibody specific for 8-Iso-PGF(2) (15-F(2t)-IsoP). In addition, medium samples were analyzed for malondialdehyde (MDA), a breakdown product of lipid peroxidation. We found that tissue levels of free isoprostane and total isoprostane (free plus esterified forms) were significantly higher for preeclamptic placentas than for normal placentas. Concentrations of isoprostane and MDA in the medium increased progressively during 48 h of incubation of placental explants. At 48 h of incubation, the mean concentrations of both isoprostane and MDA were significantly higher for the placentas from preeclamptic women than for the placentas from normal pregnant women. Concentrations of MDA were highly correlated with those of isoprostane. Induction of oxidative stress with xanthine plus xanthine oxidase increased placental production of isoprostane by normal tissue to a level similar to that of preeclamptic tissue. Placental secretion of isoprostane was eightfold greater toward the maternal side of the placenta than toward the fetal side, and was increased sixfold on the maternal side and twofold on the fetal side by inducing oxidative stress with t-butyl hydroperoxide. This study presents new information that isoprostanes are formed and secreted by the human placenta and provides convincing evidence that oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation are abnormally increased in placentas of preeclamptic women. PMID:10877821

Walsh, S W; Vaughan, J E; Wang, Y; Roberts, L J

2000-07-01

264

Quantifying the Clinical Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. Methods and Results A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p?=?0.0001). Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p?=?0.03). Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p?=?0.001). Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23049760

Allsop, David J.; Copeland, Jan; Norberg, Melissa M.; Fu, Shanlin; Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Budney, Alan J.

2012-01-01

265

Change of Higher Education in Response to European Pressures: Conceptualization and Operationalization of Europeanization of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on change in higher education in response to environmental pressures, more specifically pressures coming from European integration initiatives with respect to higher education, e.g. the Bologna Process. Significant research attention has so far been focused on the supposed impact of European initiatives on higher education…

Vukasovic, Martina

2013-01-01

266

Inclusion in higher education: issues in university–school partnership  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significant under-representation of people from low socio-economic backgrounds in higher education in Australia has been placed squarely at the front of the Australian Federal Government's higher education agenda. The barriers for students from low socio-economic backgrounds to access higher education are broad and multi-causal. The significance of policies and interventions promoting the theme of ‘inclusive education’, not just in

D. Armstrong; A. Cairnduff

2011-01-01

267

Observation of dispersive wave emission by temporal cavity solitons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine a coherently-driven, dispersion-managed, passive Kerr fiber ring resonator and report the first direct experimental observation of dispersive wave emission by temporal cavity solitons. Our observations are in excellent agreement with analytical predictions and they are fully corroborated by numerical simulations. These results lead to a better understanding of the behavior of temporal cavity solitons under conditions where higher-order dispersion plays a significant role. Significantly, since temporal cavity solitons manifest themselves in monolithic microresonators, our results are likely to explain the origins of spectral features observed in broadband Kerr frequency combs.

Jang, Jae K.; Erkintalo, Miro; Murdoch, Stuart G.; Coen, Stéphane

2014-10-01

268

Observation of dispersive wave emission by temporal cavity solitons.  

PubMed

We examine a coherently-driven, dispersion-managed, passive Kerr fiber ring resonator and report, to the best of our knowledge, the first direct experimental observation of dispersive wave emission by temporal cavity solitons (CSs). Our observations are in excellent agreement with analytical predictions and they are fully corroborated by numerical simulations. These results lead to a better understanding of the behavior of temporal CSs under conditions where higher-order dispersion plays a significant role. Significantly, since temporal CSs manifest themselves in monolithic microresonators, our results are likely to explain the origins of spectral features observed in broadband Kerr frequency combs. PMID:25360913

Jang, Jae K; Erkintalo, Miro; Murdoch, Stuart G; Coen, Stéphane

2014-10-01

269

heliocentric observations  

E-print Network

distances, deep CCD observations have been performed on the fields of several comets in 5--19 AU range, i.e. where the subli­ mation of water ice cannot explain the comae that are observed in some comets

Meech, Karen Jean

270

Revitalizing Higher Education. The Stanford Forum for Higher Education Futures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains six essays on higher education which provide lessons and successful techniques for meeting the challenges of the future. The first essay, "Academic Renewal at Michigan" (James Duderstadt), describes the modern research university as a complex corporate conglomerate in danger of diluting its core business. The successful…

Meyerson, Joel W., Ed.; Massy, William F., Ed.

271

Biomarker Discovery Using Statistically Significant Gene Sets  

PubMed Central

Abstract Analysis of large gene expression data sets in the presence and absence of a phenotype can lead to the selection of a group of genes serving as biomarkers jointly predicting the phenotype. Among gene selection methods, filter methods derived from ranked individual genes have been widely used in existing products for diagnosis and prognosis. Univariate filter approaches selecting genes individually, although computationally efficient, often ignore gene interactions inherent in the biological data. On the other hand, multivariate approaches selecting gene subsets are known to have a higher risk of selecting spurious gene subsets due to the overfitting of the vast number of gene subsets evaluated. Here we propose a framework of statistical significance tests for multivariate feature selection that can reduce the risk of selecting spurious gene subsets. Using three existing data sets, we show that our proposed approach is an essential step to identify such a gene set that is generated by a significant interaction of its members, even improving classification performance when compared to established approaches. This technique can be applied for the discovery of robust biomarkers for medical diagnosis. PMID:21457009

Kim, Hoon; Watkinson, John

2011-01-01

272

Spectroscopic Observations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a series of three activities about light and spectra. First, learners will construct their own spectroscope, observe common light sources, record the observed spectra, and compare their findings. Next, learners will use their spectroscopes to observe the spectra from different gas tubes and compare each observed spectrum to known spectra. Finally, they will observe a solar spectrum created by a prism, view a solar spectrum on paper, and attempt to determine the elements present in the Sun. This activity requires spectroscope posters and gratings available from the Stanford Solar Center (http://solar-center.stanford.edu/posters/), fluorescent and incandescent light sources, and emission lamps and power sources. This activity is from the Stanford Solar Center's All About the Sun: Sun and Stars activity guide for Grades 5-8 and can also accompany the Stanford Solar Center's Build Your Own Spectroscope activity.

273

The Impact of Significant Other Expressed Emotion on Patient Outcomes in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective: Previous literature has identified the importance of interpersonal processes for patient outcomes in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME), particularly in the context of significant other relationships. The current study investigated expressed emotion (EE), examining the independent effects of critical comments and emotional overinvolvement (EOI) in association with patient outcomes. Method: Fifty-five patients with CFS/ME and their significant others were recruited from specialist CFS/ME services. Significant other EE status was coded from a modified Camberwell Family Interview. Patient outcomes (fatigue severity, disability, and depression) were derived from questionnaire measures. Forty-four patients (80%) completed follow-up questionnaires 6-months after recruitment. Results: Significant other high-EE categorized by both high levels of critical comments and high EOI was predictive of worse fatigue severity at follow-up. High-critical EE was associated with higher levels of patient depressive symptoms longitudinally; depressive symptoms were observed to mediate the relationship between high critical comments and fatigue severity reported at follow-up. There were higher rates of high-EE in parents than in partners, and this was because of higher rates of EOI in parents. Conclusions: Patients with high-EE significant others demonstrated poorer outcomes at follow-up compared with patients in low-EE dyads. One mechanism for this appears to be as a result of increased patient depression. Future research should seek to further clarify whether the role of interpersonal processes in CFS/ME differs across different patient-significant other relationships. The development of significant other-focused treatment interventions may be particularly beneficial for both patients and significant others. PMID:25180548

2014-01-01

274

Black Holes in Higher Dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Black holes in four dimensions Gary Horowitz; Part II. Five Dimensional Kaluza-Klein Theory: 2. The Gregory-Laflamme instability Ruth Gregory; 3. Final state of Gregory-Laflamme instability Luis Lehner and Frans Pretorius; 4. General black holes in Kaluza-Klein theory Gary Horowitz and Toby Wiseman; Part III. Higher Dimensional Solutions: 5. Myers-Perry black holes Rob Myers; 6. Black rings Roberto Emparan and Harvey Reall; Part IV. General Properties: 7. Constraints on the topology of higher dimensional black holes Greg Galloway; 8. Blackfolds Roberto Emparan; 9. Algebraically special solutions in higher dimensions Harvey Reall; 10. Numerical construction of static and stationary black holes Toby Wiseman; Part V. Advanced Topics: 11. Black holes and branes in supergravity Don Marolf; 12. The gauge/gravity duality Juan Maldacena; 13. The fluid/gravity correspondence Veronika Hubeny, Mukund Rangamani and Shiraz Minwalla; 14. Horizons, holography and condensed matter Sean Hartnoll; Index.

Horowitz, Gary T.

2012-04-01

275

Complex higher order derivative theories  

SciTech Connect

In this work is considered a complex scalar field theory with higher order derivative terms and interactions. A procedure is developed to quantize consistently this system avoiding the presence of negative norm states. In order to achieve this goal the original real scalar high order field theory is extended to a complex space attaching a complex total derivative to the theory. Next, by imposing reality conditions the complex theory is mapped to a pair of interacting real scalar field theories without the presence of higher derivative terms.

Margalli, Carlos A.; Vergara, J. David [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, Mexico 04510 DF (Mexico)

2012-08-24

276

Higher Learning, Greater Good: The Private and Social Benefits of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A college education has long been acknowledged as essential for both personal success and economic growth. But the measurable value of its nonmonetary benefits has until now been poorly understood. Walter W. McMahon, a leading education economist, carefully describes these benefits and suggests that higher education accrues significant social and…

McMahon, Walter W.

2009-01-01

277

Ramadan Observance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment from Religion & Ethics Newsweekly, an American Muslim family observes Ramadan, the month in which Muslims fast daily from sunrise to sunset in order to demonstrate piety and develop self-restraint.

Wnet

2008-08-21

278

Aptitude Tests for Higher Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two research studies reported in the three publications discussed in this article had their origins in discussions of the Robbins Committee prior to 1963. Two of the Committee's recommendations related to possible changes in the selection of students for higher education. (Author/RK)

Entwistle, N. J.

1974-01-01

279

History of Higher Education, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The four papers in this annual volume on the history of higher education cover some of the changes that evolved over the years in various U.S. institutions. The first paper is: "The Harvard Tutors: The Beginning of an Academic Profession, 1690-1825" (John D. Burton), which discusses the shift from Harvard's original tutorship model to its modern…

Geiger, Robert L., Ed.

1996-01-01

280

Higher Education Student Affairs (HESA)  

E-print Network

Higher Education Student Affairs (HESA) Program Practicum Handbook Updated August 2013 #12; 2 Practicum Report (supervisor) ­ page 17 Helpful Resources Basic Student Affairs Competancy Summary ­ page 18 Developing Learning Outcomes ­ page 22 Student Affairs Online Resources ­ page 24 Glossary of Student Affairs

Galles, David

281

Higher Education Profiles & Trends 2013  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The statute [T.C.A. Section 49-7-202(c)(7)] requires the Tennessee Higher Education Commission to prepare a biennial report for the governor and the general assembly, "commenting upon major developments, trends, new policies, budgets and financial considerations which in the judgment of the commission will be useful to the governor and to the…

Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2013

2013-01-01

282

THE CHRONICLE of Higher Education  

E-print Network

not being perceived as aggressive. Often subtle discrimination is rooted in gender stereotypes -especiallyTHE CHRONICLE of Higher Education September 16, 2009 How the 'Snow-Woman Effect' Slows Women's Progress By Mary Ann Mason The percentage of college presidents who are women more than doubled in the 20

Kammen, Daniel M.

283

The Economics of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, one particular complex of issues being considered by Congress as part of the Higher Education Act (HEA) reauthorization process is addressed. These issues have to do with the rising costs of college attendance, their consequent impact on accessibility, and the appropriate federal role, if any, in regulating price increases. As a…

Fong, Bobby

2005-01-01

284

Higher Education for Our Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public higher education is currently experiencing a decline in financial support from state governments, an acceleration of enrollment growth, and a shift from a transformational to a transactional student relationship. Private institutions are also struggling with increasing operational costs, and decreases in revenue from endowments and…

Burnett, Dana D.; Collins, Natalia D.

2010-01-01

285

A Changing Higher Education Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Economics, demographics, technology, and accountability demands are challenging program relevance, tenure, and research in higher education. Universities must have a clear sense of the future and be carefully deliberate about purposes and methods in order to respond to opportunities and serve as a catalyst for new visions. (SK)

Sullivan, Eleanor J.

1997-01-01

286

Fiscal Issues in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty colleges and life insurance presidents met to discuss key historical and contemporary factors influencing fiscal management in higher education, including inflation, salaries, diminishing enrollment figures, energy costs, federal regulations and the increasing cost of research. Differences and similarities between business and academia were…

Rigolot, Carol, Ed.

287

Rethinking Higher Education Capital Finance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Capital finance in institutions of higher education is analyzed in light of changes in the Tax Reform Act of 1986 affecting the ability of institutions to finance capital projects and the likelihood of changes in the government's view of tax-exempt financing. The options for colleges and universities are analyzed in the following areas: (1)…

King, George A.

1988-01-01

288

Women in Higher Education Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains 11 papers on the under-representation of women in higher education management in Bahrain, Finland, France, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Peru, the United States and Canada, the South Pacific and the West Indies. All papers were written by women vice-chancellors, presidents and senior managers of universities in those…

Commonwealth Secretariat, London (England).

289

Supercomplexity in Higher Education Kinesiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article employs Barnett's (2004) specifications of the aspects that describe the times of "supercomplexity." This term characterizes the challenges universities are facing regarding the expanding and competing forces that are affecting higher education, particularly in the West. Outside forces related to globalization, digital technologies,…

Block, Betty A.; Estes, Steve

2011-01-01

290

Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure highlights some of the performance indicators used by Connecticut's public higher education institution to demonstrate accountability. This paper reports on the results of these goals: (1) Student Learning; (2) Learning in K-12; (3) Access and Affordability; (4) Economic Development; (5) Societal Needs; and (6) Resource Efficiency.…

Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

2008-01-01

291

Class Struggle in Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public higher education has undergone a process similar to that in the national polity: a one-sided struggle by those with power to shape the institution to be more market driven, more focused on what will generate (non-state) revenues, more dominated by top administrators, and less concerned about the working class and people of color. This article examines these trends nationally

Dan Clawson; Mishy Leiblum

2008-01-01

292

On Nonlinear Higher Spin Curvature  

E-print Network

We present the first nonlinear term of the higher spin curvature which is covariant with respect to deformed gauge transformations that are linear in the field. We consider in detail the case of spin 3 after presenting spin 2 as an example, and then construct the general spin s quadratic term of the deWit-Freedman curvature.

Ruben Manvelyan; Karapet Mkrtchyan; Werner Rühl; Murad Tovmasyan

2011-02-01

293

Project Management in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study identified factors that influenced the use of project management in higher education research projects. Using a qualitative grounded theory approach that included in-depth interviews with assistant professors, the researcher examined how these individuals were using project management processes and tools and factors that enabled,…

Alpert, Shannon Atkinson

2011-01-01

294

Cleanliness & Learning in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1992 APPA published a seminal work titled "Custodial Staffing Guidelines for Educational Facilities." The work was based on a concept that was in the embryonic stage in 1986 and then grew in momentum through 1988 when the APPA Board of Directors commissioned a task force to address custodial staffing issues at institutions of higher education.…

Campbell, Jeffrey L.; Bigger, Alan S.

2008-01-01

295

Higher Education as Virtual Conversation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether or not it is an accurate portrayal, the old stereotype of higher education is the lecture hall, where students sit passively and take notes from a wise professor whose experience and knowledge can be shared only in the classroom. The professor's role is to dispense information, and the students' role is to receive it. However idealistic…

Robbins-Bell, Sarah

2008-01-01

296

Gender Issues within Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook functions as a crown on the European Students' Union's work on gender equality over the past two years. Since the establishment of the Gender Equality Committee, a lot of work has been done to improve gender equality in higher education generally, and in student unions more particularly. This handbook gathers the experiences and…

European Students' Union (NJ1), 2008

2008-01-01

297

Competitive Strategies in Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study emphasises the role of heads of departments in higher education. They are in a key position to shape the future direction and strategy of their subunits. They can also make an important contribution to the strategy of the whole organisation, which should be broad enough to allow different competitive strategies of subunits. The results of this study show

Juha Kettunen

298

What's Ahead for Higher Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forces that will greatly affect higher education in the 1980s are described, and trends during the 1970s are briefly reviewed, with an emphasis on educational finance. During the 1970s, the number of students increased by 24.3 percent, total educational and general revenues more than doubled, the state's proportion of these revenues rose by 5.2…

Pickens, William H.

299

Gender Equity in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 bans discrimination in schools receiving federal financial assistance with regard to both academics and athletics. The law has helped ensure that women have access to both academic and athletic opportunities at most higher education institutions in the United States, dramatically increasing the range…

Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2006

2006-01-01

300

Ethical Problems in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerns about ethics in college administration and governance stem from a variety of sources, including competition, decreasing resources, growing scale and impact of higher education, and consumer sophistication. Trustees must be conscious of ethical dilemmas and conflicts of interest and take responsibility for their conduct and decisions. (MSE)

Ylvisaker, Paul N.

1983-01-01

301

Digital Storytelling in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Digital storytelling is a promising instructional strategy as well as an emerging field of study in higher education. Courses on digital storytelling are offered in communications and creative writing programs at a number of universities. However, the potential for digital storytelling extends far beyond the fields of communication and media…

McLellan, Hilary

2007-01-01

302

Digital Resilience in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education institutions face a number of opportunities and challenges as the result of the digital revolution. The institutions perform a number of scholarship functions which can be affected by new technologies, and the desire is to retain these functions where appropriate, whilst the form they take may change. Much of the reaction to…

Weller, Martin; Anderson, Terry

2013-01-01

303

Public Perceptions of Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that the importance of higher education on Great Britain's economic and social fortunes is appreciated by academics but not by the general public. Reviews public relations efforts by universities in France, Germany, and the United States and recommends more effective public relations efforts by British universities. (CFR)

Benjamin, T. Brooke

1993-01-01

304

American Higher Education in Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American higher education is in transition and if there ever was a "golden age" for faculty, it probably is behind us. The best historical data on the composition of faculty is collected annually by the American Mathematical Society. Between 1967 and 2009, the share of full-time faculty with PhDs remained constant at about 90 percent at doctoral…

Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

2011-01-01

305

Measuring Utah Higher Education, 2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report looks at three areas of performance: (1) Access and Preparation--How well are students able to gain access to college and are they well prepared?; (2) Quality--Are students receiving a quality education?; and (3) Efficiency and Finance--How is Higher Education financed and what are the trends? The report also includes the findings of…

Utah System of Higher Education, 2005

2005-01-01

306

Student Loans for Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student loans are a rapidly growing $85 billion a year industry fueled by the substantial higher economic returns associated with a college education, increased demand from students and their parents, and grant and scholarship funds that have not kept pace with rising school tuition and fees. This report describes federally subsidized and…

Simons, Charlene Wear

2008-01-01

307

Higher Education: A Critical Business.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current concepts of critical thinking need to be reconstrued into the much broader concept of "critical being" and applied to higher education. Under this construct, critical persons (students) become more than just critical thinkers; they engage critically with the world and with themselves; they not only reflect critically on knowledge, but also…

Barnett, Ronald

308

Higher Education Consulting Data Mining  

E-print Network

Higher Education Consulting Data Mining Certificate Program "As competitive as the job market-enter the job market." Tom Bohannon Assistant Vice President Office of Information Management and Testing Services Baylor University "By partnering with SAS, I believe we can more quickly provide an educational

Lin, Zhangxi

309

A Balanced Higher Education System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores what is meant by "a balanced higher education system". It argues that the Clarkian "triangle of coordination" (Clark, 1983) and the more recent model of Martinez and Richardson (2003) should be replaced by one that distinguishes between "self" and "collective" interests in both the academy and the wider society. Such a scheme…

Brown, Roger

2011-01-01

310

Higher-Dimensional Communication and S.E.T.I  

E-print Network

In cosmologies with more than four dimensions, of the type required for unification, it is possible for signals to have velocities in excess of that of light. Using a five-dimensional model which otherwise agrees with observations, two subjects are reviewed: (a) An exact solution of the field equations which describes a 4D spacetime with a large cosmological constant and waves travelling in ordinary 3D space with velocities exceeding lightspeed. (b) An example where the 4D interval or proper time is modulated by the systematic variation of the scalar field associated with the fifth dimension, providing a simple signalling method. These and related consequences of higher-dimensional cosmology have significant implications for astrophysics, and especially the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence.

Paul S. Wesson

2013-12-24

311

Magnetic higher-mass stars in the early stages of their evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, significant investigations have been made through the use of high-resolution spectropolarimetry to probe the surface magnetic field characteristics of young higher-mass (M >~ 1.5 M?) stars from pre-main sequence to zero-age main sequence evolutionary phases. The results of these observational campaigns suggest that these young higher-mass stars host similar magnetic properties to their main sequence descendants - strong, stable, globally-ordered fields that are detected in approximately 10 percent of all stars. This strongly contrasts with lower-mass stars, where it is generally accepted that a solar-like dynamo is in operation that generates more complex, globally-weak fields that are ubiquitous. The consensus is magnetic fields in higher-mass stars are fossil remnants of a magnetic field present in the molecular cloud, or generated very early during stellar formation. This review discusses the spectropolarimetric observations of higher-mass stars and how these observations have guided our current understanding of the magnetic characteristics of young higher-mass stars.

Grunhut, Jason H.; Alecian, E.

2014-08-01

312

EDITORIAL: Deeper, broader, higher, better?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Honorary Editor The standard of educational achievement in England and Wales is frequently criticized, and it seems to be an axiom of government that schools and teachers need to be shaken up, kept on a tight rein, copiously inspected, shamed and blamed as required: in general, subjected to the good old approach of: ' Find out what Johnny is doing and tell him to stop.' About the only exception to this somewhat severe attitude is at A-level, where the standard is simply golden. Often, comparisons are made between the performance of, say, English children and that of their coevals in other countries, with different customs, systems, aims and languages. But there has been a recent comparison of standards at A-level with a non-A-level system of pre-university education, in an English-speaking country that both sends students to English universities and accepts theirs into its own, and is, indeed, represented in the UK government at well above the level expected from its ethnical weighting in the population. This semi-foreign country is Scotland. The conclusions of the study are interesting. Scotland has had its own educational system, with `traditional breadth', and managed to escape much of the centralized authoritarianism that we have been through south of the border. It is interesting to note that, while for the past dozen years or so the trend in A-level Physics entries has been downwards, there has been an increase in the take-up of Scottish `Highers'. Highers is a one-year course. Is its popularity due to its being easier than A-level? Scottish students keen enough to do more can move on to the Certificate of Sixth Year Studies, and will shortly be able to upgrade a Higher Level into an Advanced Higher Level. A comparability study [ Comparability Study of Scottish Qualifications and GCE Advanced Levels: Report on Physics January 1998 (free from SQA)] was carried out by the Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) with the aim (amongst others) of helping universities make a fair comparison between grades attained in A-Levels and Highers, CSYS and Advanced Highers. It was a fairly limited exercise, but a careful one, carried out by examiners and teachers rather than statisticians. They compared syllabuses, questions and candidates' answers. I quote: '... the two years of study for A-level perhaps means that there is a secure, consolidated grasp of the basics; more than the Higher candidate after one year. But there is no evidence of this from candidates' scripts.' Comparing syllabuses, the report noted a greater mathematical demand in Scotland: 'The rigour or depth of treatment is generally lower in the Syllabus Y [an A-level syllabus.] than in CSYS or Advanced Higher because many topics have a qualitative treatment rather than the mathematical treatment of CSYS and AH.' Adding a certain sting to its tail, the report concludes: `Many of the CSYS candidates will have achieved excellent grades at Higher... in four or five subjects before proceeding to CSYS. Scottish candidates tend to have qualifications in a broader range of subjects.' Perhaps this is why they get to be in charge everywhere.

Dobson, Ken

1998-07-01

313

Glutamine Synthetases of Higher Plants 1  

PubMed Central

The chromatographic properties of glutamine synthetase isoforms have been investigated in a wide range of higher plant leaves and shoots using ion exchange chromatography. Different patterns of glutamine synthetase isoform content were observed. Among higher plants, four patterns or groups could be recognized. The first group is characterized by having only cytosolic glutamine synthetase, whereas the second group is distinguished by having only chloroplastic glutamine synthetase. The third group is characterized by cytosolic glutamine synthetase being a minor component of the total leaf glutamine synthetase activity. The fourth group is distinct from the other groups in having high cytosolic and chloroplast glutamine synthetase activity. Immunological studies have been undertaken on a few species from each group to identify unambiguously both cytosolic and chloroplastic glutamine synthetases. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16662965

McNally, Sheila F.; Hirel, Bertrand; Gadal, Pierre; Mann, A. Fred; Stewart, George R.

1983-01-01

314

Solar Observations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity involving observations of the Sun. Learners use pinhole cameras, solar telescopes, and/or solar viewing glasses to make solar observations, draw what they see, and identify sunspots, if they are present. Then, learners go online and compare their drawings to images obtained by the SOHO spacecraft. This activity requires the use a sunny outdoor location. This activity also require use of safe methods for observing the Sun, such as pinhole cameras, telescopes with proper solar filters attached, and/or viewing glasses that are designated for safe solar viewing. No one should look at the Sun unless one or more of these methods is used in a proper fashion.

315

OECD Observer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) publishes hundreds of technical reports, working papers, and development updates every year, and as a result it can be hard to stay on top of all the research the group is disseminating to the public. One way to stay on top of all of this material is by taking a close look at the OECD Observer, which is meant to complement the print version of the same name. Here visitors can browse such sections as economy, society, development, and government to find out the latest work being done at the OECD. Some of the more recent topics that have been addressed within the Observer's pages include the so-called knowledge economy, sustainable business practices, taxation, and governmental corruption. At the site, visitors may also sign up to receive email updates from the Observer.

316

Twist operators in higher dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study twist operators in higher dimensional CFT's. In particular, we express their conformal dimension in terms of the energy density for the CFT in a particular thermal ensemble. We construct an expansion of the conformal dimension in power series around n =1, with n being replica parameter. We show that the coefficients in this expansion are determined by higher point correlations of the energy-momentum tensor. In particular, the first and second terms, i.e. the first and second derivatives of the scaling dimension, have a simple universal form. We test these results using holography and free field theory computations, finding agreement in both cases. We also consider the `operator product expansion' of spherical twist operators and finally, we examine the behaviour of correlators of twist operators with other operators in the limit n ? 1.

Hung, Ling-Yan; Myers, Robert C.; Smolkin, Michael

2014-10-01

317

Twist operators in higher dimensions  

E-print Network

We study twist operators in higher dimensional CFT's. In particular, we express their conformal dimension in terms of the energy density for the CFT in a particular thermal ensemble. We construct an expansion of the conformal dimension in power series around n=1, with n being replica parameter. We show that the coefficients in this expansion are determined by higher point correlations of the energy-momentum tensor. In particular, the first and second terms, i.e. the first and second derivatives of the scaling dimension, have a simple universal form. We test these results using holography and free field theory computations, finding agreement in both cases. We also consider the `operator product expansion' of spherical twist operators and finally, we examine the behaviour of correlators of twist operators with other operators in the limit n ->1.

Hung, Ling-Yan; Smolkin, Michael

2014-01-01

318

Twist operators in higher dimensions  

E-print Network

We study twist operators in higher dimensional CFT's. In particular, we express their conformal dimension in terms of the energy density for the CFT in a particular thermal ensemble. We construct an expansion of the conformal dimension in power series around n=1, with n being replica parameter. We show that the coefficients in this expansion are determined by higher point correlations of the energy-momentum tensor. In particular, the first and second terms, i.e. the first and second derivatives of the scaling dimension, have a simple universal form. We test these results using holography and free field theory computations, finding agreement in both cases. We also consider the `operator product expansion' of spherical twist operators and finally, we examine the behaviour of correlators of twist operators with other operators in the limit n ->1.

Ling-Yan Hung; Robert C. Myers; Michael Smolkin

2014-07-24

319

Diversity in Australian higher education?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores systematic relationships between management attitudes about recent transitions in the funding and structure of higher education in Australia (Meek and Goedegebuure, 1989) and the domains of the taxonomy emerging from ongoing organisational effectiveness research based on these institutions (Lysons, 1990b). The results reinforce the integrity of the previously established 4 group framework and flesh-out more fine-grained issues

Leo C. J. Goedegebuure; Art Lysons; V. Lynn Meek

1993-01-01

320

Connecting curves in higher dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Connecting curves have been shown to organize the rotational structure of strange attractors in three-dimensional dynamical systems. We extend the description of connecting curves and their properties to higher dimensions within a special class of differential dynamical systems. The general properties of connecting curves are derived and selection rules stated. Examples are presented to illustrate these properties for dynamical systems of dimension n = 3, 4, 5.

Byrne, Greg; Gilmore, Robert; Cebral, Juan

2014-05-01

321

Subjective evaluation of higher dynamic range video  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High dynamic range (HDR) imaging is able to capture a wide range of luminance values, closer to what the human eye can perceive. However, for capture and display technologies, it is important to answer the question on the significance of higher dynamic range for user preference. This paper answers this question by investigating the added value of higher dynamic range via a rigorous set of subjective experiments using paired comparison methodology. Video sequences at four different peak luminance levels were displayed side-by-side on a Dolby Research HDR RGB backlight dual modulation display (aka `Pulsar'), which is capable of reliably displaying video content at 4000 cd=m2 peak luminance. The results of the subjective experiment demonstrate that the preference of an average viewer increases logarithmically with the increase in the maximum luminance level at which HDR content is displayed, with 4000 cd=m2 being the most attractive option.

Hanhart, Philippe; Korshunov, Pavel; Ebrahimi, Touradj

2014-09-01

322

School nurse intention to pursue higher education.  

PubMed

In 2011, the Institute of Medicine recommended that 80% of the nurses possess a minimum of a bachelor of science in nursing by 2020 and double the number of doctorally prepared nurses. This has prompted a significant number of registered nurses to advance their educational level. School nurses in Louisiana are not required to have a bachelor's degree. In many states, the bachelor's degree is required for all school nurses, and many school nurses are prepared at the masters' and doctoral levels. The purpose of this study was to examine the intention of Louisiana school nurses to pursue higher education in nursing. A survey was distributed to all members of the Louisiana School Nurses Organization, and results indicated that 65% of the participants were motivated to return to school. Incentives and barriers to pursuing higher education were identified, and strategies for overcoming these barriers were proposed. PMID:24142563

Broussard, Lisa; White, Debra

2014-10-01

323

Significance of serum magnesium levels in critically ill-patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Magnesium is one of the major electrolytes, deficiency of which is frequently overlooked in critical illness, leading to an adverse clinical outcome if not monitored regularly. Settings and Design: Single center prospective observational study of 2 years duration. Materials and Methods: The subjects studied were monitored for serum magnesium levels 2 times: Day 1 and day 4 of intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Patients were divided into normomagnesemic and hypomagnesemic groups and compared for various parameters. Results: Out of 70 critically ill-patients, 50 patients (71.43%) were normomagnesemic, 17 patients (24.29%) were hypomagnesemic and three patients were hypermagnesemic. The stay of the patients in ICU (P > 0.05), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II (APACHE-II) scoring (P = 0.34) and co-morbidity (P = 0.360) showed an insignificant variation between the two groups. Associated electrolyte abnormalities in hypomagnesemic patients were hypokalemia (58.82%), hyponatremia (47.05%), hypocalcemia (70.58%) and hypophosphatemia (29.41%). About 76.47% of hypomagnesemic population was on magnesium lowering drugs while as 46% of normomagnesemic population was on magnesium lowering drugs (P = 0.030). Mortality of hypomagnesemic group was 74.47% while that of normomagnesemic group was 36% (P = 0.004). Conclusion: Hypomagnesemia is a significant electrolyte abnormality in critically ill-patients. Critically ill hypomagnesemic patients have higher mortality than the normomagnesemic patients. PMID:24600576

Zafar, Mir Sadaqat Hassan; Wani, Javaid Iqbal; Karim, Raiesa; Mir, Mohammad Muzaffer; Koul, Parvaiz Ahmad

2014-01-01

324

Observational Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson on observational studies discusses the nature of such studies, the relationships between various data sets, and regression. Graphs illustrate the relationships, and exercises at the end test the user's comprehension and understanding. It is taken from the online textbook for Western Michigan University online introductory stats course.

Abebe, Asheber; Daniels, John E.; Kapenga, J. A.; Mckean, Joe W.

2008-12-25

325

Babylonian observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cuneiform tablets from Babylonia record lunar and solar eclipses, the presence and movement of comets, meteors and meteor showers. These have provided historical astronomers with much valuable data, but caution must be exercised when using such records, for accuracy of observation often ceded to astrological intent. In the future, texts from Assyria may also provide useful data for historical astronomers.

Brown, D. R.

326

Babylonian observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very few cuneiform records survive from Mesopotamia of datable astronomical observations made prior to the mid-eighth century BC. Those that do record occasional eclipses, and in one isolated case the dates of the heliacal rising and setting of Venus over a few years sometime in the first half of the second millennium BC. After the mid-eighth century BC the situation changes dramatically. Incomplete records of daily observations of astronomical and meteorological events are preserved from c. 747 BC until the Christian Period. These records are without accompanying ominous interpretation, although it is highly probable that they were compiled by diviners for astrological purposes. They include numerous observations of use to historical astronomers, such as the times of eclipses and occultations, and the dates of comet appearances and meteor showers. The question arises as to why such records do not survive from earlier times; celestial divination was employed as far back as the third millenium BC. It is surely not without importance that the earliest known accurate astronomical predictions accompany the later records, and that the mid-eighth century BC ushered in a period of centralised Assyrian control of Mesopotamia and the concomitant employment by the Assyrian ruler of large numbers of professional celestial diviners. The programme of daily observations evidently began when a high premium was first set on the accurate astronomical prediction of ominous events. It is in this light that we must approach this valuable source material for historical astronomy.

Brown, D.

327

Observing Silence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interpretation of silence depends on meanings that are negotiated in a particular social and cultural location, or place and space. Silence is an under- theorized and under-researched aspect of adult learning. The complexities and salience of silence in teaching and learning, methodological issues around observing and researching silence are explored. Theoretical Framework The ambiguity in the title of the

Paul Armstrong

328

Scholarship and diversity in higher education.  

PubMed

Colleges and universities which are less diverse in their communities are often characterized by values, behavior patterns, and linguistic traits impinging on the institutions' milieu. These traits differ in significant ways from those within the dominant society for which the institution is established. The diverse students, and faculty alike, find these policies to be quasi-exclusive and limited to the geographical and demo- graphical environments in which the institutions are located. This paper examines some of these traits that affect the experience in higher education for both students and faculty from minority groups. PMID:23614174

Akombo, David O

2013-01-01

329

Numerical relativity in higher dimensions  

E-print Network

We present an overview of recent developments in numerical relativity studies of higher dimensional spacetimes with a focus on time evolutions of black-hole systems. After a brief review of the numerical techniques employed for these studies, we summarize results grouped into the following three areas: (i) Numerical studies of fundamental properties of black holes, (ii) Applications of black-hole collisions to the modeling of Trans-Planckian scattering, (iii) Numerical studies of asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes in the context of the gauge-gravity duality.

Ulrich Sperhake

2013-01-16

330

Higher-derivative 3-algebras  

E-print Network

Starting with the N=8 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on D2-branes and incorporating higher-derivative corrections to lowest nontrivial order, we perform a duality to derive the Lorentzian 3-algebra theory along with a set of derivative corrections. We find that these corrections can be expressed entirely in terms of intrinsic 3-algebra quantities: the 3-bracket and covariant derivatives. Our analysis is performed for both bosonic and fermionic terms. We conjecture that the derivative corrections we obtain are relevant for Euclidean 3-algebra theories as well.

Mohsen Alishahiha; Sunil Mukhi

2008-08-22

331

Pneumothorax: observation  

PubMed Central

Pneumothorax based on the cause, it can be divided into two large categories; primary and secondary. The staging of pneumothorax plays a crucial role for treatment. Currently both thoracic surgeons and pulmonary physicians can handle efficiently treatment. Pulmonary physicians with the minimally medical thoracoscopy while thoracic surgeons with a more extensive intervention. Experience defines the outcome in most situations and not the method. In our current work we will present data regarding the observation of pneumothorax from a panel of experts. PMID:25337398

Li, Zhigang; Huang, Haidong; Li, Qiang; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Madesis, Athanasios; Diplaris, Konstantinos; Karaiskos, Theodoros; Zaric, Bojan; Branislav, Perin

2014-01-01

332

Asia Observer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "start page for observers of Asian affairs" complements resources such as Asia Society (described in the January 2, 1998 Scout Report) by providing an omnibus of links to news outlets, government resources, special topics and academic Websites, Asian newspapers, reference texts, human rights organizations, and more. In addition, the Find an Expert section allows users to access two large databases of scholars and researchers in Asian policy and Asian history and culture.

333

50 CFR 300.113 - Scientific observers.  

...provided observer services to the Federal government...authorize a vessel owner to arrange for an observer by alternative methods. An observer...point of hire location to return, equivalent to...higher from an accredited college or university with...

2014-10-01

334

The Hierarchical Face: Higher Rankings Lead to Less Cooperative Looks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 3 studies, we tested the hypothesis that the higher ranked an individual's group is, the less cooperative the facial expression of that person is judged to be. Study 1 established this effect among business school deans, with observers rating individuals from higher ranked schools as appearing less cooperative, despite lacking prior knowledge…

Chen, Patricia; Myers, Christopher G.; Kopelman, Shirli; Garcia, Stephen M.

2012-01-01

335

Higher-Twist Dynamics in Large Transverse Momentum Hadron Production  

SciTech Connect

A scaling law analysis of the world data on inclusive large-p{sub {perpendicular}} hadron production in hadronic collisions is carried out. A significant deviation from leading-twist perturbative QCD predictions at next-to-leading order is reported. The observed discrepancy is largest at high values of x{sub {perpendicular}} = 2p{sub {perpendicular}}/{radical}s. In contrast, the production of prompt photons and jets exhibits the scaling behavior which is close to the conformal limit, in agreement with the leading-twist expectation. These results bring evidence for a non-negligible contribution of higher-twist processes in large-p{sub {perpendicular}} hadron production in hadronic collisions, where the hadron is produced directly in the hard subprocess rather than by gluon or quark jet fragmentation. Predictions for scaling exponents at RHIC and LHC are given, and it is suggested to trigger the isolated large-p{sub {perpendicular}} hadron production to enhance higher-twist processes.

Arleo, Francois; /Annecy, LAPTH; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; Hwang, Dae Sung; /Sejong U.; Sickles, Anne M.; /Brookhaven

2009-12-17

336

Responses of Chinese Higher Education to the Information Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared to the advanced industrial countries, the use of information technology in Chinese higher education came relatively late. Nevertheless, recent Chinese practices have achieved significant progress in the country's efforts to bridge the digital divide. This article focuses special attention on the responses of Chinese higher education to…

Cai, Yuzhuo; Guo, Wenge

2006-01-01

337

Passionate Attachments: Higher Education, Policy, Knowledge, Emotion and Social Justice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explore the significance of the "affective turn" in respect to higher education policy in the UK. This turn centres on creating new subjects of attention for the "employable" student and the "non-traditional" student, the latter defined as students from backgrounds with no earlier history of higher education (working class or black students for…

Hey, Valerie; Leathwood, Carole

2009-01-01

338

Higher-Education Policies and Welfare Regimes: International Comparative Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries have experienced an unprecedented expansion in higher education during the second half of the twentieth century. This was only possible because higher education became part of national welfare policies. OECD countries differ, however, with respect to the significance of…

Pechar, Hans; Andres, Lesley

2011-01-01

339

Harmonious Expansion of China's Higher Education: A New Growth Pattern  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can one country narrow the regional disparity during the tremendous expansion of higher education? This issue remains unexamined and critical analysis is needed to unveil the spatial dynamics behind expansion of higher education. The spatial analysis shows that there is significant strategic interaction among neighboring provinces in China…

Gu, Jiafeng

2012-01-01

340

Higher Education Research of Intercollegiate Athletics: A Missed Opportunity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study demonstrated the lack of research on college sports in significant higher education academic journals and conferences. Higher education peer-reviewed journals and conferences were considered the most common areas to reasonably measure the frequency of opportunity for national dialogue among scholars. The results found one percent of…

Hirko, Scott

2008-01-01

341

The Higher Education Academy: Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Higher Education Academy supports a diverse network of "learning and teaching practitioners involved in engineering and materials across" the United Kingdom. Their work includes crafting high-quality events, conferences and a realm of information for educators, including newsletters and journals. In the Engineering Teaching Guides section, visitors can look over a dozen useful guides, including "Learning and Teaching in Laboratories" and "Approaches to the Teaching of Design." Also included as an engineering resource is the STEM blog which brings together a range of resources. Visitors can explore everything from the feedback of colleagues to the usage of information technology in the classroom. Additionally, the site contains access to the excellent journal, Engineering Education.

342

Grand Unification in Higher Dimensions  

SciTech Connect

We have recently proposed an alternative picture for the physics at the scale of gauge coupling unification, where the unified symmetry is realized in higher dimensions but is broken locally by a symmetry breaking defect. Gauge coupling unification, the quantum numbers of quarks and leptons and the longevity of the proton arise as phenomena of the symmetrical bulk, while the lightness of the Higgs doublets and the masses of the light quarks and leptons probe the symmetry breaking defect. Moreover, the framework is extremely predictive if the effective higher dimensional theory is valid over a large energy interval up to the scale of strong coupling. Precise agreement with experiments is obtained in the simplest theory --- SU(5) in five dimensions with two Higgs multiplets propagating in the bulk. The weak mixing angle is predicted to be sin^2theta_w = 0.2313 \\pm 0.0004, which fits the data with extraordinary accuracy. The compactification scale and the strong coupling scale are determined to be M_c \\simeq 5 x 10^14 GeV and M_s \\simeq 1 x 10^17 GeV, respectively. Proton decay with a lifetime of order 10^{34} years is expected with a variety of final states such as e^+pi^0, and several aspects of flavor, including large neutrino mixing angles, are understood by the geometrical locations of the matter fields. When combined with a particular supersymmetry breaking mechanism, the theory predicts large lepton flavor violating mu -> e and tau -> mu transitions, with all superpartner masses determined by only two free parameters. The predicted value of the bottom quark mass from Yukawa unification agrees well with the data. This paper is mainly a review of the work presented in hep-ph/0103125, hep-ph/0111068 and hep-ph/0205067.

Hall, Lawrence J.; Nomura, Yasunori

2002-12-10

343

Challenges Facing Higher Education at the Millennium. American Council on Education/Oryx Press Series on Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of 17 essays focuses on the major changes that higher education needs to make so that it can effectively pursue teaching and research and significantly contribute public service in a rapidly changing world. The essays include: (1) "Survey of the Main Challenges Facing Higher Education at the Millennium" (Luc E. Weber); (2) "Meeting…

Hirsch, Werner Z., Ed.; Weber, Luc E., Ed.

344

The diagnosis and clinical significance of polyautoimmunity.  

PubMed

Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are chronic and heterogeneous conditions that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. The chronic nature of these diseases places a significant burden on the utilization of medical care, direct and indirect economic costs, and quality of life. ADs are observed in genetically susceptible individuals in whom their clinical expression is modified by permissive and protective environments occurring over time. These are complex traits, meaning that their inheritance does not follow a single-gene dominant or single-gene recessive Mendelian law, and thus that they are polygenic. ADs are often diagnosed according to classification criteria, however they share similar subphenotypes including signs and symptoms, non-specific autoantibodies and other immune changes, which are prone to taxonomic problems. Polyautoimmunity is defined as the presence of more than one AD in a single patient. When three or more ADs coexist, this condition is called multiple autoimmune syndrome (MAS), which represents the best example of polyautoimmunity as well as the effect of a single genotype on diverse autoimmune phenotypes. Its study will provide important clues to elucidate the common mechanisms of ADs (i.e., the autoimmune tautology). PMID:24424171

Anaya, Juan-Manuel

2014-01-01

345

AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC: Clinical Significance  

PubMed Central

“Gain-of-function” and “loss-of-function” studies in human cancer cells and analysis of a transgenic mouse model have convincingly established that AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC performs a seminal role in regulating proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, and chemoresistance, the salient defining hallmarks of cancer. These observations are strongly buttressed by clinicopathologic correlations of AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC expression in a diverse array of cancers distinguishing AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC as an independent biomarker for highly aggressive metastatic disease with poor prognosis. AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC has been shown to be a marker predicting response to chemotherapy, and serum anti-AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC antibody titer also serves as a predictor of advanced stages of aggressive cancer. However, inconsistent findings have been reported regarding the localization of AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC protein in the nucleus or cytoplasm of cancer cells and the utility of nuclear or cytoplasmic AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC to predict the course and prognosis of disease. This chapter provides a comprehensive analysis of the existing literature to emphasize the common and conflicting findings relative to the clinical significance of AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC in cancer. PMID:23889987

Sarkar, Devanand; Fisher, Paul B.

2014-01-01

346

Development of temporary subtropical wetlands induces higher gas production  

PubMed Central

Temporary wetlands are short-term alternative ecosystems formed by flooding for irrigation of areas used for rice farming. The goal of this study is to describe the development cycle of rice fields as temporary wetlands in southern Brazil, evaluating how this process affect the gas production (CH4 and CO2) in soil with difference % carbon and organic matter content. Two areas adjacent to Lake Mangueira in southern Brazil were used during a rice-farming cycle. One area had soil containing 1.1% carbon and 2.4% organic matter, and the second area had soil with 2.4% carbon and 4.4% organic matter. The mean rates of gas production were 0.04 ± 0.02 mg CH4 m?2 d?1 and 1.18 ± 0.30 mg CO2 m?2 d?1 in the soil area with the lower carbon content, and 0.02 ± 0.03 mg CH4 m?2 d?1 and 1.38 ± 0.41 mg CO2 m?2 d?1 in the soil area with higher carbon content. Our results showed that mean rates of CO2 production were higher than those of CH4 in both areas. No statistically significant difference was observed for production of CH4 considering different periods and sites. For carbon dioxide (CO2), however, a Two-Way ANOVA showed statistically significant difference (p = 0.05) considering sampling time, but no difference between areas. The results obtained suggest that the carbon and organic matter contents in the soil of irrigated rice cultivation areas may have been used in different ways by soil microorganisms, leading to variations in CH4 and CO2 production. PMID:23508352

Canterle, Eliete B.; da Motta Marques, David; Rodrigues, Lucia R.

2013-01-01

347

CGRO Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This final report presents an investigation of the CGRO (Compton Gamma Ray Observatory) observations. The investigation includes: Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission at High Latitudes; and Echoes in X-Ray Novae; A Localized Excess of Gamma-Radiation; Transient Hard X-Ray Emission from Globular Clusters; and A Search for Be/X-Ray Binaries in Hard X-Rays; Hard X-Ray Emission from X-Ray Bursters; X-Ray Transients in Star-Forming Regions; Gamma-ray Emission from Globular Clusters; Shock High Energy Emission from Be-Star/Pulsar System PSR 1259-63m; Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy of Nearby OB Associations; Long Term Hard X-Ray Monitoring of X-Ray Busters; and Periodic Hard X-Ray Emission from GRO J1849-03.

Kaaret, Philip

1997-01-01

348

Astrolabe observations of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A previously reported bias in the right ascension residuals of astrolabe observations of Mars is removed by correcting for equinox motion and relating the observations to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's planetary ephemeris, DE111. The remaining residuals show a 'phase effect', the magnitude of which is solved for and compared with that previously found for meridian transit observations. The final residuals reveal no significant offset in either right ascension or declination. In modifying the residuals, use is also made of Fricke's (1980) correction for the motion of the FK 4 equinox.

Standish, E. M.; Debarbat, S.; Sanchez, M.

1981-01-01

349

much higher concentrations. Concentrations of isoprene and terpene emitted from Mango and Eucalyptus were significantly greater than emissions from  

E-print Network

-strains of known nitrogen-fixers (e.g. B. xenovorans) and/or nodulators (e.g. B. phymatum and B. tuberum). However, the Hypocalypteae and Podalyrieae are involved in nitrogen-fixing symbioses with rhizobial bacteria. Within

350

Significance of higher-order many-body interaction energy terms in water clusters and bulk water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitudes of the two- and three-body energy terms and their contribution to the interaction energy are computed for different water trimer arrangements at the second- to the fourth-order many-body perturbation (MP2 and MP4) levels of theory. Configurations in which the water molecules act as proton donor-acceptors, double acceptors and double donors were considered. The energy separation between the ‘cyclic’

Sotiris S. Xantheas

1996-01-01

351

Sources of Inspiration: The role of significant persons in young people's choice of science in higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this article were to investigate to which extent and in what ways persons influence students' choice of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in tertiary education, and to assess the suitability of an analytical framework for describing this influence. In total, 5,007 Norwegian STEM students completed a questionnaire including multiple-choice as well as open-ended questions about sources

Jørgen Sjaastad

2012-01-01

352

Sources of Inspiration: The role of significant persons in young people's choice of science in higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this article were to investigate to which extent and in what ways persons influence students' choice of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in tertiary education, and to assess the suitability of an analytical framework for describing this influence. In total, 5,007 Norwegian STEM students completed a questionnaire including multiple-choice as well as open-ended questions about sources

Jørgen Sjaastad

2011-01-01

353

Sources of Inspiration: The Role of Significant Persons in Young People's Choice of Science in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objectives of this article were to investigate to which extent and in what ways persons influence students' choice of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in tertiary education, and to assess the suitability of an analytical framework for describing this influence. In total, 5,007 Norwegian STEM students completed a…

Sjaastad, Jorgen

2012-01-01

354

Higher Order City Voronoi Diagrams  

E-print Network

We investigate higher-order Voronoi diagrams in the city metric. This metric is induced by quickest paths in the L1 metric in the presence of an accelerating transportation network of axis-parallel line segments. For the structural complexity of kth-order city Voronoi diagrams of n point sites, we show an upper bound of O(k(n - k) + kc) and a lower bound of {\\Omega}(n + kc), where c is the complexity of the transportation network. This is quite different from the bound O(k(n - k)) in the Euclidean metric. For the special case where k = n - 1 the complexity in the Euclidean metric is O(n), while that in the city metric is {\\Theta}(nc). Furthermore, we develop an O(k^2(n + c) log n)-time iterative algorithm to compute the kth-order city Voronoi diagram and an O(nc log^2(n + c) log n)-time divide-and-conquer algorithm to compute the farthest-site city Voronoi diagram.

Gemsa, Andreas; Liu, Chih-Hung; Wagner, Dorothea

2012-01-01

355

Quantization of higher spin fields  

SciTech Connect

In this article we quantize (massive) higher spin (1{<=}j{<=}2) fields by means of Dirac's constrained Hamilton procedure both in the situation were they are totally free and were they are coupled to (an) auxiliary field(s). A full constraint analysis and quantization is presented by determining and discussing all constraints and Lagrange multipliers and by giving all equal times (anti)commutation relations. Also we construct the relevant propagators. In the free case we obtain the well-known propagators and show that they are not covariant, which is also well known. In the coupled case we do obtain covariant propagators (in the spin-3/2 case this requires b=0) and show that they have a smooth massless limit connecting perfectly to the massless case (with auxiliary fields). We notice that in our system of the spin-3/2 and spin-2 case the massive propagators coupled to conserved currents only have a smooth limit to the pure massless spin-propagator, when there are ghosts in the massive case.

Wagenaar, J. W.; Rijken, T. A

2009-11-15

356

Chromosomal replicons of higher plants  

SciTech Connect

This brief discussion of replicons of higher plants offers a glimpse into the properties of chromosomal DNA replication. It gives evidence that the S phase of unrelated plant species is comprised of temporally ordered replicon families that increase in number with genome size. This orderly process, which assures a normal inheritance of genetic material to recipient daughter cells, is maintained at the level of replicon clusters by two mutually exclusive mechanisms, one involving the rate at which single replicons replicate their allotment of DNA, and another by means of the tempo-pause. The same two mechanisms are used by cells to alter the pattern of chromosomal DNA replication just prior to and during normal development. Both mechanisms are genetically determined and produce genetic effects when disturbed of disrupted by additional non-conforming DNAs. Further insight into how these two mechanisms operate requires more molecular information about the nature of replicons and the factors that govern when a replicon family replicates. Plant material is a rich and ideal source for this information just awaiting exploitation. 63 refs.

Van't Hof, J.

1987-03-16

357

Expression and Clinical Significance of Livin Protein in Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

In this study, the two-step PV method of immunohistochemistry was used to determine livin protein expression in HCC tissues, pericarcinoma tissues, hepatitis/hepatic cirrhosis tissues, and normal hepatic tissues, and livin protein expression was detected in the blood plasma of patients with HCC before and after surgery, subjects with hepatic cirrhosis and hepatitis, and healthy blood donors using ELISA. Livin protein expression was significantly higher in HCC tissues than that in normal hepatic tissues and hepatitis/hepatic cirrhosis tissues, with no significant difference between HCC tissues and pericarcinoma tissues. The HCC patients with positive livin protein expression had a significantly higher survival rate than those with negative livin protein expression. Livin protein expression was significantly higher in the blood plasma of patients with HCC before and after surgery and in patients with hepatic cirrhosis and hepatitis than that in healthy blood donors, whereas livin protein expression in the blood plasma of patients with HCC was not significantly different from that of patients with hepatic cirrhosis and hepatitis. Livin protein expression in HCC tissues did not correlate with that in the blood plasma of the same HCC patients. Livin protein expression may be a potential, effective indicator for assessing prognosis in patients with HCC. PMID:24223461

Gao, Ying-tang; Zhang, Qin; Jing, Li; Liu, Tong; Shi, Wen-xia; Zhai, Dao-kuan; Jing, Xiang; Du, Zhi

2013-01-01

358

Higher Education Literature Revisited: Citation Patterns Examined  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The discourse of the field of higher education is complex, as is its analysis. Citation analysis is means of examining communicative processes. This study investigates citations in the papers of three core journals in higher education, "Research in Higher Education, Review of Higher Education," and "Journal of Higher Education." The results…

Budd, John M.; Magnuson, Lauren

2010-01-01

359

Joint Negotiating Committee for Higher Education Staff  

E-print Network

JNCHES Joint Negotiating Committee for Higher Education Staff RACE EQUALITY: Communication and Consultation Report for Higher Education Institutions A JNCHES/ECU Higher Education Race Equality Project in England,Wales and Scotland, including the higher education (HE) funding councils and further and higher

Sussex, University of

360

UK Quality Code for Higher Education  

E-print Network

UK Quality Code for Higher Education Part C: Information about higher education provision Document practice 4 Information for the public about the higher education provider 4 Information for prospective UK Quality Code for Higher Education 1 About the Quality Code The UK Quality Code for Higher

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

361

State of the Regional Higher Education Centers  

E-print Network

State of the Regional Higher Education Centers Annual Report 2013-2014 #12;Higher Education Centers at the Old Dominion University Regional Higher Education Centers! In a time of rapid changes in higher and work, our Virginia Beach, Peninsula, and Tri-Cities Higher Education Centers provide convenient

362

Expensive Egos: Narcissistic Males Have Higher Cortisol  

PubMed Central

Background Narcissism is characterized by grandiosity, low empathy, and entitlement. There has been limited research regarding the hormonal correlates of narcissism, despite the potential health implications. This study examined the role of participant narcissism and sex on basal cortisol concentrations in an undergraduate population. Methods and Findings Participants were 106 undergraduate students (79 females, 27 males, mean age 20.1 years) from one Midwestern and one Southwestern American university. Narcissism was assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and basal cortisol concentrations were collected from saliva samples in a laboratory setting. Regression analyses examined the effect of narcissism and sex on cortisol (log). There were no sex differences in basal cortisol, F(1,97)?=?.20, p?=?.65, and narcissism scores, F(1,97)?=?.00, p?=?.99. Stepwise linear regression models of sex and narcissism and their interaction predicting cortisol concentrations showed no main effects when including covariates, but a significant interaction, ??=?.27, p?=?.04. Narcissism was not related to cortisol in females, but significantly predicted cortisol in males. Examining the effect of unhealthy versus healthy narcissism on cortisol found that unhealthy narcissism was marginally related to cortisol in females, ??=?.27, p?=?.06, but significantly predicted higher basal cortisol in males, ??=?.72, p?=?.01, even when controlling for potential confounds. No relationship was found between sex, narcissism, or their interaction on self-reported stress. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the HPA axis is chronically activated in males with unhealthy narcissism. This constant activation of the HPA axis may have important health implications. PMID:22292062

Reinhard, David A.; Konrath, Sara H.; Lopez, William D.; Cameron, Heather G.

2012-01-01

363

Gene copy number variation and its significance in cyanobacterial phylogeny  

PubMed Central

Background In eukaryotes, variation in gene copy numbers is often associated with deleterious effects, but may also have positive effects. For prokaryotes, studies on gene copy number variation are rare. Previous studies have suggested that high numbers of rRNA gene copies can be advantageous in environments with changing resource availability, but further association of gene copies and phenotypic traits are not documented. We used one of the morphologically most diverse prokaryotic phyla to test whether numbers of gene copies are associated with levels of cell differentiation. Results We implemented a search algorithm that identified 44 genes with highly conserved copies across 22 fully sequenced cyanobacterial taxa. For two very basal cyanobacterial species, Gloeobacter violaceus and a thermophilic Synechococcus species, distinct phylogenetic positions previously found were supported by identical protein coding gene copy numbers. Furthermore, we found that increased ribosomal gene copy numbers showed a strong correlation to cyanobacteria capable of terminal cell differentiation. Additionally, we detected extremely low variation of 16S rRNA sequence copies within the cyanobacteria. We compared our results for 16S rRNA to three other eubacterial phyla (Chroroflexi, Spirochaetes and Bacteroidetes). Based on Bayesian phylogenetic inference and the comparisons of genetic distances, we could confirm that cyanobacterial 16S rRNA paralogs and orthologs show significantly stronger conservation than found in other eubacterial phyla. Conclusions A higher number of ribosomal operons could potentially provide an advantage to terminally differentiated cyanobacteria. Furthermore, we suggest that 16S rRNA gene copies in cyanobacteria are homogenized by both concerted evolution and purifying selection. In addition, the small ribosomal subunit in cyanobacteria appears to evolve at extraordinary slow evolutionary rates, an observation that has been made previously for morphological characteristics of cyanobacteria. PMID:22894826

2012-01-01

364

[The significance of folate metabolism in complications of pregnant women].  

PubMed

Proper metabolism of folates has a crucial role for body homeostasis. Folate metabolism regulates changing of amino acids (homocysteine and methionine), purine and pyrimidine synthesis and DNA methylation. These whole biochemical processes have significant influence on hematopoietic, cardiovascular and nervous system functions. The disturbances of folate cycle could result in chronic hypertension, coronary artery disease, higher risk of heart infarction, could promote cancers development, and psychic and neurodegenerative diseases. No less important is the connection with complications appearing in pregnant woman (recurrent miscarriages, preeclampsia, fetus hypotrophy intrauterine death, preterm placenta ablation, preterm delivery) and fetus defects (Down syndrome, spina bifida, encephalomeningocele, myelomeningocele). The complex process of folate metabolism requires adequate activity of many enzymes and presence of co-enzymes. A key enzyme in folate metabolism is methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR - methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase), and 677C>T polymorphism of MTHFR gene is connected with lower enzymatic activity In several researches it was indicated that 677C>T MTHFR polymorphism is an independent factor influencing homocysteine concentration in serum, and also folate concentration in serum and red blood cells. Nevertheless, it was also observed the correlation of 677C>T MTHFR polymorphism with Down syndrome, and neural tube defects appearance in fetus. In European populations frequency of mutated 677TT genotype ranges from a few to several percent. Women carriers of 677TT or 677CT MTHFR genotypes are exposed on folate metabolism disturbances and on the consequences of incorrect folate process during pregnancy Nowadays in this group of women folic acid supplementation is widely recommended. In the light of modern knowledge the attention was also focused on the importance of metafolin administration that omitted pathways of folic acid transformation after administration, and in pregnant women certainly is valuable complement of supplementation in this respect. PMID:23819405

Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka

2013-05-01

365

THE UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD CATALYST HIGHER EDUCATION  

E-print Network

Page | 1 THE UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD & CATALYST HIGHER EDUCATION (SHEFFIELD) PLC. UNIVERSITY of Sheffield / Catalyst Higher Education (Sheffield) plc Project Co Accommodation: Accommodation / Catalyst Higher Education (Sheffield) plc LLFM: Lend Lease Facilities Management Ltd Project Co: Catalyst

Dixon, Peter

366

HIGHER EDUCATION PROGRAM College of Education  

E-print Network

HIGHER EDUCATION PROGRAM College of Education The Pennsylvania State University Suite 400 Rackley Building University Park, PA 16802-3201 (814-863-2690) http://www.ed.psu.edu/educ/eps/higher-education/ amp ................................................................................................................................... 5 THE HIGHER EDUCATION PROGRAM

Maroncelli, Mark

367

Quantum Accelerator Modes at higher order resonances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum Accelerator Modes (QAM) are produced by subjecting cold atoms to standing wave pulses, when these pulses are applied in the direction of gravity. A group of atoms get accelerated. Normally, QAMs are seen whenever pulse period is choosen close to an integer multiple of a time called the half Talbot time. These times are referred to as primary resonance times [1]. We, using BEC, show for the first time that QAMs can be observed at rational fractions of Talbot time, called higher order resonance times. The details and the latest experimental data will be presented. [1] G. Behin-Aein, V. Ramareddy, P. Ahmadi, G. S. Summy, Phys. Rev. Lett. (accepted for publication), arXiv physics/0609203.

Ramareddy, Vijayashankar; Behin-Aein, Ghazal; Talukdar, Ishan; Ahmadi, Peyman; Summy, Gil

2007-03-01

368

Mechanism of higher plant gravity sensing.  

PubMed

Higher plants have developed statocytes, specialized tissues or cells for gravity sensing, and subsequent signal formation. Root and shoot statocytes commonly harbor a number of amyloplasts, and amyloplast sedimentation in the direction of gravity is a critical process in gravity sensing. However, the molecular mechanism underlying amyloplast-dependent gravity sensing is largely unknown. In this review, we mainly describe the molecular basis for the gravity sensing mechanism, i.e., the molecules and their functions involved in amyloplast sedimentation. Several analyses of statocyte images in living plant organs have implied differences in the regulation of amyloplast movements between root and shoot statocytes. Amyloplasts in shoot statocytes display not only sedimentable but upward, saltatory movements, but the latter are rarely observed in root statocytes. A series of genetic studies on shoot gravitropism mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana has revealed that two intracellular components, the vacuolar membrane (VM) and actin microfilaments (AFs), within the shoot statocyte play important roles in amyloplast dynamics. Flexible VM structures surrounding the amyloplasts seem to allow them to freely sediment toward the bottom of cells. In contrast, long actin cables mediate the saltatory movements of amyloplasts. Thus, amyloplasts in shoot statocytes undergo a dynamic equilibrium of movement, and a proper intracellular environment for statocytes is essential for normal shoot gravitropism. Further analyses to identify the molecular regulators of amyloplast dynamics, including sedimentation, may contribute to an understanding of the gravity sensing mechanism in higher plants. PMID:23115136

Hashiguchi, Yasuko; Tasaka, Masao; Morita, Miyo T

2013-01-01

369

Alternative Energy for Higher Education  

SciTech Connect

This project provides educational opportunities creating both a teaching facility and center for public outreach. The facility is the largest solar array in Nebraska. It was designed to allow students to experience a variety of technologies and provide the public with opportunities for exposure to the implementation of an alternative energy installation designed for an urban setting. The project integrates products from 5 panel manufacturers (including monocrystalline, polycrystalline and thin film technologies) mounted on both fixed and tracking structures. The facility uses both micro and high power inverters. The majority of the system was constructed to serve as an outdoor classroom where panels can be monitored, tested, removed and replaced by students. As an educational facility it primarily serves students in the Creighton University and Metropolitan Community College, but it also provides broader educational opportunities. The project includes a real-time â??dashboardâ? and a historical database of the output of individual inverters and the corresponding meteorological data for researcher and student use. This allows the evaluation of both panel types and the feasibility of installation types in a region of the country subject to significant temperature, wind and precipitation variation.

Michael Cherney, PhD

2012-02-22

370

Creating Significant Learning Experiences across Disciplines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to use Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning to redesign courses and assess student learning. Significant improvements were found across the semester for students in the six courses, but there were differences in which taxa showed improvement in each course. The meta-analysis showed significant, positive…

Levine, Laura E.; Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Nicoll-Senft, Joan M.; Tessier, Jack T.; Watson, Cheryl L.; Wood, Rebecca M.

2008-01-01

371

Quantum computing using shortcuts through higher dimensions  

E-print Network

Quantum computation offers the potential to solve fundamental yet otherwise intractable problems across a range of active fields of research. Recently, universal quantum-logic gate sets - the building blocks for a quantum computer - have been demonstrated in several physical architectures. A serious obstacle to a full-scale implementation is the sheer number of these gates required to implement even small quantum algorithms. Here we present and demonstrate a general technique that harnesses higher dimensions of quantum systems to significantly reduce this number, allowing the construction of key quantum circuits with existing technology. We are thereby able to present the first implementation of two key quantum circuits: the three-qubit Toffoli and the two-qubit controlled-unitary. The gates are realised in a linear optical architecture, which would otherwise be absolutely infeasible with current technology.

Lanyon, B P; Almeida, M P; Jennewein, T; Ralph, T C; Resch, K J; Pryde, G J; O'Brien, J L; Gilchrist, A; White, A G

2008-01-01

372

Quantum computing using shortcuts through higher dimensions  

E-print Network

Quantum computation offers the potential to solve fundamental yet otherwise intractable problems across a range of active fields of research. Recently, universal quantum-logic gate sets - the building blocks for a quantum computer - have been demonstrated in several physical architectures. A serious obstacle to a full-scale implementation is the sheer number of these gates required to implement even small quantum algorithms. Here we present and demonstrate a general technique that harnesses higher dimensions of quantum systems to significantly reduce this number, allowing the construction of key quantum circuits with existing technology. We are thereby able to present the first implementation of two key quantum circuits: the three-qubit Toffoli and the two-qubit controlled-unitary. The gates are realised in a linear optical architecture, which would otherwise be absolutely infeasible with current technology.

B. P. Lanyon; M. Barbieri; M. P. Almeida; T. Jennewein; T. C. Ralph; K. J. Resch; G. J. Pryde; J. L. O'Brien; A. Gilchrist; A. G. White

2008-04-02

373

Prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in Asia: a viewpoint from nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.  

PubMed

Exposure to ionizing radiation is a known environmental risk factor for a variety of cancers including hematological malignancies, such as leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and multiple myeloma. Therefore, for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors (surviving victims who were exposed to ionizing radiation emitted from the nuclear weapons), several cancer-screening tests have been provided annually, with government support, to detect the early stage of malignancies. An M-protein screening test has been used to detect multiple myeloma at an early stage among atomic bomb survivors. In the screening process, a number of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), in addition to multiple myeloma, have been identified. In 2009 and 2011, we reported the age- and sex-specific prevalence of MGUS between 1988 and 2004 and the possible role of radiation exposure in the development of MGUS using the screening data of more than 1000 patients with MGUS among approximately 52,000 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The findings included: (1) a significant lower overall prevalence (2.1%) than that observed in Caucasian or African-origin populations; (2) a significantly higher prevalence in men than in women; (3) an age-related increase in the prevalence; (4) a significantly higher prevalence in people exposed to higher radiation doses only among those exposed at age 20 years or younger; and (5) a lower frequency of immunoglobulin M MGUS in Japanese patients than in patients in Western countries. The large study of MGUS among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors has provided important findings for the etiology of MGUS, including a possible role of radiation exposure on the cause of MGUS and an ethnicity-related difference in the characteristics of MGUS. PMID:24461807

Iwanaga, Masako; Tomonaga, Masao

2014-02-01

374

Panel Discussion: Social Media in Higher Education  

E-print Network

Kaplan & Michael (2010) assert that social media is "a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content." Web 2.0 is the second generation of Web-based technologies that emphasize social collaboration, interoperability, user-centered design, and user-generated information sharing (O’Rielly, 2005). Web 2.0 technologies are increasingly growing in popularity within the institutions of higher learning. Alexander (2006) believes that communities have gone through enormous change via significant innovation tools and services that promote new ways of collaboration. Huang and Behara (2007) state that cost is a major benefit to using Web 2.0 technologies in higher education because these technologies are available free of charge or for a nominal fee. The authors further note that Web 2.0 technologies allow students to utilize technologies as a part of their learning. Examples of social media technologies are as follows:

Daryl Nord; Jeretta Nord; Alex Koohang

375

Significant gastrointestinal morbidity after sacrocolpopexy: The incidence and risk factors  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to quantify the risk of significant gastrointestinal (GI) morbidity after sacrocolpopexy (SCP), and to identify related risk factors. Methods A retrospective study was performed of 258 patients who underwent laparotomic SCP for symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse (POP) from November 2008 to August 2013. By the review of medical records, the frequency of significant GI morbidity that resulted in a prolonged initial hospitalization, readmission, or reoperation was assessed. Thereafter, risk factors for significant GI morbidity were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Ten patients (3.9%) were identified as having significant GI morbidity; nine (3.5%) had a prolonged initial hospital stay or were readmitted for the medical treatment of postoperative ileus and 1 (0.4%) underwent reoperation for small bowel obstruction. The occurrence of significant GI morbidity was significantly associated with patient's age and prior laparotomy. By multivariable logistic regression analysis, age (odds ratio [OR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.27; P=0.03) and prior laparotomy (OR, 6.82; 95% CI, 1.37-34.07; P=0.02) were found as independent risk factors for significant GI morbidity. Conclusion One in 25 (3.9%) women after SCP experiences significant GI morbidity. Particularly, women with older age and prior laparotomy have a higher risk for significant GI morbidity. This data will aid preoperative counseling for Korean POP patients undergoing SCP. PMID:25105104

Jo, Yu Ri; Kim, Ji Young

2014-01-01

376

Absence of palmar digital triradius d observed in 2,681 Japanese families and clinical significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The absence of palmar digital triradius d (ADTd), a rare dermatoglyphic trait, was examined in 2,681 Japanese families. The frequency of individuals with this trait was 0.62%, but no sex difference was found. It appears more frequently on the left palm than the right and the bilateral occurrence seems to be more often in familial cases than sporadic ones.

Michio Okajima; Chizuko Iwayanagi

1986-01-01

377

Figure 1. Mean observed storm speed for the following supercell groups: significant tornadic  

E-print Network

velocity, which can be used to assess the potential for supercell formation, and for the risk of supercellular tornadoes. Several storm motion prediction methods have attained widespread operational on presence and damage rating of associated tornado(es), as recorded in Storm Data. The subsets were

378

Finding significant climatic frequencies from satellite observations, a case study for Lake Victoria basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Victoria is the second largest freshwater lake in the world by area. A dramatic fall in the water level of the lake between 2002 and 2007 attracted a lot of worldwide attention. A recent study on the Lake Victoria basin using data from GRACE, TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, TRMM and as well as GLDAS data products suggested the possibility of the expansion of Naluabaale Dam in Uganda for the declining water level in the lake. However, Lake Victoria does not receive water from a large catchment area: most of its water comes from rain that falls directly over the huge surface of the lake. For this reason, climatic contributions cannot be ignored in the recent declining. This research aims at analyzing the contribution of rainfall over the lake area between the years 1998 and 2008. Least squares spectral analysis (LSSA) is applied on 400 cycles of TOPEX/Poseidon and 232 cycles of Jason1 altimeter data along with monthly TRMM data from 1998 to 2008 to reveal the specific frequencies. From our results, yearly, half-yearly and seasonal frequencies along with a long term frequency are clearly visible in the Lake Victoria level variations. Key words. Lake Victoria, Least Squares Spectral Analysis, TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason1, TRMM

Forootan, E.; Sharifi, M. A.; van Loon, E. E.

2009-04-01

379

Addressing Grand Challenges in Earth Observation Science: The Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth observation is entering a new era where the increasing availability of free and open global satellite data sets combined with the computing power offered by modern information technologies opens up the possibility to process high-resolution data sets at global scale and short repeat intervals in a fully automatic fashion. This will not only boost the availability of higher level earth observation data in purely quantitative terms, but can also be expected to trigger a step change in the quality and usability of earth observation data. However, the technical, scientific, and organisational challenges that need to be overcome to arrive at this point are significant. First of all, Petabyte-scale data centres are needed for storing and processing complete satellite data records. Second, innovative processing chains that allow fully automatic processing of the satellite data from the raw sensor records to higher-level geophysical products need to be developed. Last but not least, new models of cooperation between public and private actors need to be found in order to live up to the first two challenges. This paper offers a discussion of how the Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring (EODC) - a catalyser for an open and international cooperation of public and private organisations - will address these three grand challenges with the aim to foster the use of earth observation for monitoring of global water resources.

Wagner, W.; Fröhlich, J.; Wotawa, G.; Stowasser, R.; Staudinger, M.; Hoffmann, C.; Walli, A.; Federspiel, C.; Aspetsberger, M.; Atzberger, C.; Briese, C.; Notarnicola, C.; Zebisch, M.; Boresch, A.; Enenkel, M.; Kidd, R.; von Beringe, A.; Hasenauer, S.; Naeimi, V.; Mücke, W.

2014-09-01

380

Higher in vitro resistance to oxidative stress in extra-pair offspring.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress is considered to act as a universal physiological constraint in life-history evolution of animals. This should be of interest for extra-pair paternity behaviour, and we tested here the prediction that offspring arising from extra-pair matings of female great tits show higher resistance to oxidative stress than within-pair offspring. Resistance to oxidative stress, measured as the whole blood resistance to a controlled free-radical attack, was significantly higher for extra-pair offspring as predicted although these were not heavier or in better body condition than within-pair offspring. Since resistance to oxidative stress has been suggested to enhance survival and reproductive rates, extra-pair offspring with superior resistance to oxidative stress, be it through maternal effects or paternal inheritance, may achieve higher fitness and thus provide significant indirect fitness benefits to their mothers. In addition, because oxidative stress affects colour signals and sperm traits, females may also gain fitness benefits by producing sons that are more attractive (sexy-sons hypothesis) and have sperm of superior quality (sexy-sperm hypothesis). Heritability of resistance to oxidative stress as well as maternal effects may both act as proximate mechanisms for the observed result. Disentangling these two mechanisms would require an experimental approach. Future long-term studies should also aim at experimentally testing whether higher resistance to oxidative stress of EP nestlings indeed translates into fitness benefits to females. PMID:21899636

Losdat, S; Helfenstein, F; Saladin, V; Richner, H

2011-11-01

381

Quality Assurance in Chinese Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quality assurance has been integrated into the fabric of higher education in China, with the issue of quality in higher education--how to evaluate it and how to enhance it--now taking centre stage in Chinese higher education. In the past decade, the development of quality assurance in Chinese higher education has covered a broad spectrum of…

Li, Yuan

2010-01-01

382

Redefining External Stakeholders in Nordic Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Present higher education reforms in the Nordic countries diminish the role and influence of the state on the governance of higher education institutions. While still providing a framework for the management of higher education, in general, the state supervises rather than controls higher education institutions (HEIs). The rhetoric of change…

Musial, Kazimierz

2010-01-01

383

ExtractEd from: Transforming higher  

E-print Network

ExtractEd from: Transforming higher educaTion Through Technology-enhanced learning EditEd by t.heacademy.ac.uk/technology isbn 978-1-907207-11-2 © the Higher Education academy december 2009 the Higher Education academy;TranSForming higher educaTion Through TechnoLogy-enhanced Learning 191 a BluePrinT for Transforma

Azzopardi, Leif

384

Higher Education and What World of Work?  

E-print Network

Higher Education and What World of Work? Seminar in Honour of Egbert de Weert Enschede, 28 June 2013 by Ulrich Teichler International Centre for Higher Education Research Kassel INCHER The relationships between higher education and the world of work are a major theme of higher education policy

Twente, Universiteit

385

A Strategic Vision for Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Where is the manual on American higher education in the 21st century? In this article, the author argues that there is none and that it is up to the federal government and higher education leaders to provide this strategic vision. She further states that the federal government and higher education leaders must have the vision to see where higher…

Spellings, Margaret

2005-01-01

386

Organizing Higher Education in a Knowledge Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The integration of higher education systems in the Western world has led both to development of overall strategies for the organization of higher education institutions by public authorities, as well as to strategies by higher education institutions aiming to position themselves within emerging higher education systems. This article first asks…

Bleiklie, Ivar

2005-01-01

387

Impact significance determination-Pushing the boundaries  

SciTech Connect

Impact significance determination practice tends to be highly variable. Too often insufficient consideration is given to good practice insights. Also, impact significance determinations are frequently narrowly defined addressing, for example, only individual, negative impacts, focusing on bio-physical impacts, and not seeking to integrate either the Precautionary Principle or sustainability. This article seeks to extend the boundaries of impact significance determination practice by providing an overview of good general impact significance practices, together with stakeholder roles and potential methods for addressing significance determination challenges. Relevant thresholds, criteria, contextual considerations and support methods are also highlighted. The analysis is then extended to address how impact significance determination practices change for positive as compared with negative impacts, for cumulative as compared with individual impacts, for socio-economic as compared with bio-physical impacts, when the Precautionary Principle is integrated into the process, and when sustainability contributions drive the EIA process and related impact significance determinations. These refinements can assist EIA practitioners in ensuring that the scope and nature of impact significance determinations reflect the broadened scope of emerging EIA requirements and practices. Suggestions are included for further refining and testing of the proposed changes to impact significance determination practice.

Lawrence, David P. [P.O. Station A, Box 3475, Langley, B.C., V3A 4R8 (Canada)], E-mail: lawenv@telus.net

2007-11-15

388

Robust semiparametric microarray normalization and significance analysis.  

PubMed

Microarray technology allows the monitoring of expression levels of thousands of genes simultaneously. A semiparametric location and scale model is proposed to model gene expression levels for normalization and significance analysis purposes. Robust estimation based on weighted least absolute deviation regression and significance analysis based on the weighted bootstrap are investigated. The proposed approach naturally combines normalization and significance analysis, and incorporates the variations due to normalization into the significance analysis properly. A small simulation study is used to compare finite sample performance of the proposed approach with alternatives. We also demonstrate the proposed method with a real dataset. PMID:16918920

Ma, Shuangge; Kosorok, Michael R; Huang, Jian; Xie, Hehuang; Manzella, Liliana; Soares, Marcelo Bento

2006-06-01

389

The significance of photovoltaics for energy production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industry-relevant development trends in photovoltaics are discussed. For crystalline Si the emphasis in on the development of production-friendly methods and of user-specific economical modules. For amorphous Si development priorities are higher efficiency, understanding of degradation mechanisms, and larger surfaces. For CdS/Cu2S the emphasis is on the understanding of the harmful properties of the heterogeneous structure, and on the fabrication of a competitive product. The present energy production applications of photovoltaic modules are energy-economically meaningless. The trend towards higher solar cell efficiencies ( 25%) and increasingly stringent environmental criteria are promising for photovoltaic energy supplies.

Ullrich, K.

1984-10-01

390

Multisensor Fire Observations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From space, we can understand fires in ways that are impossible from the ground. New Earth-observing satellites capture the significant impact of fires on our planet. In this animation of fires around the globe in 2002, each red dot marks a new fire. Dots change color to yellow after a few days and to black when fires burn out. From brush fires in Africa to forest fires in North America, satellites are locating every significant fire on Earth to within one kilometer. In the summer and fall burning seasons, particularly destructive fires occurred in Colorado, Arizona, and Oregon.

2006-12-09

391

Multisensor Fire Observations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From space, we can understand fires in ways that are impossible from the ground. New Earth-observing satellites capture the significant impact of fires on our planet. In this animation of fires around the globe in 2002, each red dot marks a new fire. Dots change color to yellow after a few days and to black when fires burn out. From brush fires in Africa to forest fires in North America, satellites are locating every significant fire on Earth to within one kilometer. In the summer and fall burning seasons, particularly destructive fires occurred in Colorado, Arizona, and Oregon.

Starr, Cindy; Mitchell, Horace; Jones, Randall; Kekesi, Alex; Newcombe, Marte; Perkins, Lori

2003-11-03

392

Higher Plant Cytochrome b5 Polypeptides Modulate Fatty Acid Desaturation  

PubMed Central

Background Synthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the endoplasmic reticulum of plants typically involves the fatty acid desaturases FAD2 and FAD3, which use cytochrome b5 (Cb5) as an electron donor. Higher plants are reported to have multiple isoforms of Cb5, in contrast to a single Cb5 in mammals and yeast. Despite the wealth of information available on the roles of FAD2 and FAD3 in PUFA synthesis, information regarding the contributions of various Cb5 isoforms in desaturase-mediated reactions is limited. Results The present functional characterization of Cb5 polypeptides revealed that all Arabidopsis Cb5 isoforms are not similarly efficient in ?-6 desaturation, as evidenced by significant variation in their product outcomes in yeast-based functional assays. On the other hand, characterization of Cb5 polypeptides of soybean (Glycine max) suggested that similar ?-6 desaturation efficiencies were shared by various isoforms. With regard to ?-3 desaturation, certain Cb5 genes of both Arabidopsis and soybean were shown to facilitate the accumulation of more desaturation products than others when co-expressed with their native FAD3. Additionally, similar trends of differential desaturation product accumulation were also observed with most Cb5 genes of both soybean and Arabidopsis even if co-expressed with non-native FAD3. Conclusions The present study reports the first description of the differential nature of the Cb5 genes of higher plants in fatty acid desaturation and further suggests that ?-3/?-6 desaturation product outcome is determined by the nature of both the Cb5 isoform and the fatty acid desaturases. PMID:22384013

Kumar, Rajesh; Tran, Lam-Son Phan; Neelakandan, Anjanasree K.; Nguyen, Henry T.

2012-01-01

393

The effect of higher harmonic forces on fatigue life of marine risers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Higher harmonic responses measured in flexible riser model tests conducted within the Norwegian Deepwater Programme (NDP) are studied to evaluate the effect of higher harmonics of force on the fatigue life of risers. A large third-harmonic contribution and sometimes a fifth-harmonic are observed for the majority of test cases. Since existing methods of fatigue life estimation account for the effect of hydrodynamic forces only at the frequency of vortex shedding, a new methodology is introduced which takes into account the influence of the higher harmonic components: First, a new response reconstruction technique is used to reconstruct the entire span-wise riser motion in both the cross-flow and in-line directions based on measurements at specific points along the length. Then, a force database obtained from forced in-line and cross-flow motions of rigid cylinders is used to estimate the higher harmonic components of the force along the entire riser length. A significant decrease in fatigue life is obtained when the higher harmonic components of the fluid forces are considered.

Modarres-Sadeghi, Y.; Mukundan, H.; Dahl, J. M.; Hover, F. S.; Triantafyllou, M. S.

2010-01-01

394

Significance of selected lineaments in Alabama  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four lineaments in the Alabama Appalachians that appear on ERTS-1 imagery have been geologically analysed. Two of the lineaments appear to have regional geologic significance, showing relationships to structural and stratigraphic frameworks, water and mineral resources, geophysical anomalies, and seismicity. The other two lineaments are of local geologic significance, but, nevertheless, have important environmental implications.

Drahovzal, J. A.; Neathery, T. L.; Wielchowsky, C. C.

1974-01-01

395

Statistical Significance for Genome-Wide Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increase in genome-wide experiments and the sequencing of multi- ple genomes, the analysis of large data sets has become commonplace in biology. It is often the case that thousands of features in a genome-wide data set are tested against some null hypothesis, where many features are expected to be significant. Here we propose an approach to statistical significance

John D. Storey; Robert Tibshirani

2003-01-01

396

Missing transverse energy significance at CMS  

E-print Network

Missing transverse energy significance may be used to help distinguish real missing transverse energy due to undetected particles from spurious missing transverse energy due to resolution smearing. We present a description of the missing transverse energy significance variable, and assess its performance in Z$\\rightarrow\\mu\\mu$, dijet, and W$\\rightarrow e\

Nathan Mirman; Yimin Wang; James Alexander

2014-09-10

397

Significant Reading Experiences of Superior English Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Superior high school students (975 finalists in the NCTE Achievement Awards Program) were surveyed to find what one book was most significant to each of them in their high school experiences, and the reason for the significance. In response to questionnaires, the students cited 416 different titles, 72% of which were novels. The top 10 books were…

Whitman, Robert S.

1964-01-01

398

Significant Reduction of Gibbs' Overshoot with Generalized Sampling Method  

E-print Network

Significant Reduction of Gibbs' Overshoot with Generalized Sampling Method Yufang Hao(1) , Achim we consider a generalized Shannon sampling method which allows the use of time- varying sample this generalized sampling method to approximate a periodic step function, we observe a strong reduction of Gibbs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

399

The adaptive significance of behavioural ontogeny in some. centrarchid fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on the ontogeny of behaviour in fish have seldom considered the adaptive significance of the order of appearance of the behaviours. Results of laboratory studies and field observations on the ontogeny of feeding, predator-avoidance, and agonistic behaviour in largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris, and pumpkinseed, Lepomis gibbosus, young indicate that the order of appearance of the

Joseph A. Brown

1985-01-01

400

Are child occupants a significant source of driving distraction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Driver distraction represents a well-documented and growing contribution to the road safety problem. This study used a naturalistic, observational approach to examine if children in vehicles are a significant source of driving distraction. Families with children aged between 1 and 8 years drove an instrumented “study vehicle” on their regular trips for 3 weeks. A discrete video recording system in

Sjaan Koppel; Judith Charlton; Chelvi Kopinathan; David Taranto

2011-01-01

401

Missouri Coordinating Board for Higher Education Fiscal Year 2005 Annual Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Coordinating Board for Higher Education and the Missouri Department of Higher Education present this fiscal year 2005 Annual Report to inform individuals of the state's status and progress in higher education. The Coordinating Board for Higher Education (CBHE) began the 2005 calendar year with a number of significant changes. The board and its…

Fitch, Gregory G.; Stein, Robert; Matchefts, Jim; Peterson, Dan; Imhoff, Donna; Miner, Brenda; Fennewald, Amy

2005-01-01

402

Observed Barium Emission Rates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The barium releases from the CRRES satellite have provided an opportunity for verifying theoretically calculated barium ion and neutral emission rates. Spectra of the five Caribbean releases in the summer of 1991 were taken with a spectrograph on board a U.S. Air Force jet aircraft. Because the line of sight release densities are not known, only relative rates could be obtained. The observed relative rates agree well with the theoretically calculated rates and, together with other observations, confirm the earlier detailed theoretical emission rates. The calculated emission rates can thus with good accuracy be used with photometric observations. It has been postulated that charge exchange between neutral barium and oxygen ions represents a significant source for ionization. If so. it should be associated with emissions at 4957.15 A and 5013.00 A, but these emissions were not detected.

Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.

1993-01-01

403

Higher order ionospheric effects in GNSS positioning in the European region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After removal of the Selective Availability in 2000, the ionosphere became the dominant error source for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), especially for the high-accuracy (cm-mm) demanding applications like the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) and Real Time Kinematic (RTK) positioning. The common practice of eliminating the ionospheric error, e.g. by the ionosphere free (IF) observable, which is a linear combination of observables on two frequencies such as GPS L1 and L2, accounts for about 99 % of the total ionospheric effect, known as the first order ionospheric effect (Ion1). The remaining 1 % residual range errors (RREs) in the IF observable are due to the higher - second and third, order ionospheric effects, Ion2 and Ion3, respectively. Both terms are related with the electron content along the signal path; moreover Ion2 term is associated with the influence of the geomagnetic field on the ionospheric refractive index and Ion3 with the ray bending effect of the ionosphere, which can cause significant deviation in the ray trajectory (due to strong electron density gradients in the ionosphere) such that the error contribution of Ion3 can exceed that of Ion2 (Kim and Tinin, 2007). The higher order error terms do not cancel out in the (first order) ionospherically corrected observable and as such, when not accounted for, they can degrade the accuracy of GNSS positioning, depending on the level of the solar activity and geomagnetic and ionospheric conditions (Hoque and Jakowski, 2007). Simulation results from early 1990s show that Ion2 and Ion3 would contribute to the ionospheric error budget by less than 1 % of the Ion1 term at GPS frequencies (Datta-Barua et al., 2008). Although the IF observable may provide sufficient accuracy for most GNSS applications, Ion2 and Ion3 need to be considered for higher accuracy demanding applications especially at times of higher solar activity. This paper investigates the higher order ionospheric effects (Ion2 and Ion3, however excluding the ray bending effects associated with Ion3) in the European region in the GNSS positioning considering the precise point positioning (PPP) method. For this purpose observations from four European stations were considered. These observations were taken in four time intervals corresponding to various geophysical conditions: the active and quiet periods of the solar cycle, 2001 and 2006, respectively, excluding the effects of disturbances in the geomagnetic field (i.e. geomagnetic storms), as well as the years of 2001 and 2003, this time including the impact of geomagnetic disturbances. The program RINEX_HO (Marques et al., 2011) was used to calculate the magnitudes of Ion2 and Ion3 on the range measurements as well as the total electron content (TEC) observed on each receiver-satellite link. The program also corrects the GPS observation files for Ion2 and Ion3; thereafter it is possible to perform PPP with both the original and corrected GPS observation files to analyze the impact of the higher order ionospheric error terms excluding the ray bending effect which may become significant especially at low elevation angles (Ioannides and Strangeways, 2002) on the estimated station coordinates.

Elmas, Z. G.; Aquino, M.; Marques, H. A.; Monico, J. F. G.

2011-08-01

404

MAXI observations of GRBs  

E-print Network

Monitor of all-sky image (MAXI) Gas Slit Camera (GSC) detects gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) including the bursts with soft spectra, such as X-ray flashes (XRFs). MAXI/GSC is sensitive to the energy range from 2 to 30 keV. This energy range is lower than other currently operating instruments which is capable of detecting GRBs. Since the beginning of the MAXI operation on August 15, 2009, GSC observed 35 GRBs up to the middle of 2013. One third of them are also observed by other satellites. The rest of them show a trend to have soft spectra and low fluxes. Because of the contribution of those XRFs, the MAXI GRB rate is about three times higher than those expected from the BATSE log N - log P distribution. When we compare it to the observational results of the Wide-field X-ray Monitor on the High Energy Transient Explorer 2, which covers the the same energy range to that of MAXI/GSC, we find a possibility that many of MAXI bursts are XRFs with Epeak lower than 20 keV. We discuss the source of soft GRBs observed only b...

Serino, Motoko; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Ohno, Masanori; Ogawa, Yuji; Nishimura, Yasunori; Fukushima, Kosuke; Higa, Masaya; Ishikawa, Kazuto; Ishikawa, Masaki; Kawamuro, Taiki; Kimura, Masashi; Matsuoka, Masaru; Mihara, Tatehiro; Morii, Mikio; Nakagawa, Yujin E; Nakahira, Satoshi; Nakajima, Motoki; Nakano, Yuki; Negoro, Hitoshi; Onodera, Takuya; Sasaki, Masayuki; Shidatsu, Megumi; Sugimoto, Juri; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Suwa, Fumitoshi; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Tachibana, Yutaro; Takagi, Toshihiro; Toizumi, Takahiro; Tomida, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Yohko; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Ueno, Shiro; Usui, Ryuichi; Yamada, Hisaki; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yamauchi, Makoto; Yoshidome, Koshiro; Yoshii, Taketoshi

2014-01-01

405

Higher diversity of deposit-feeding macrofauna enhances phytodetritus processing.  

PubMed

The link between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is an important question that remains unresolved, particularly in marine systems, in which cycling of organic matter by benthic organisms is of global significance. Direct observations of specific resource use by each species in single- and multispecies communities, as quantified by stable isotopes, facilitates a mechanistic understanding of the importance of each species for ecosystem functioning. We tested the effects of altered biodiversity (species richness) of deposit-feeding macrofauna on incorporation and burial of phytodetritus in combinations of three species representing natural communities found in the sediments of the species-poor Baltic Sea. The three species, two amphipods and a bivalve, had different rates of incorporation and burial and different needs for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). The amphipods exhibited clear resource partitioning in sympatry, as a result of vertical separation in the sediment and consequent differential use of food. Communities of several species incorporated more C and N than expected from the respective single-species treatments, due to higher incorporation by surface feeders in multispecies treatments. Community incorporation of N in the most diverse treatment even exceeded N incorporation by a single-species treatment of the best-performing species, showing transgressive over-yielding. This over-yielding was primarily due to positive complementarity in all treatments. Diverse soft bottoms are also likely to be more productive in the long run, as species-specific traits (subsurface feeding) preserve fresh phytodetritus by burying it to depths in the sediment at which the mineralization rate is low. The more diverse sediment communities showed more efficient trophic transfer of phytodetritus, a finding of general significance for understanding biological processes driving the transformation of nutrients and energy in benthic ecosystems. PMID:20503873

Karlson, Agnes M L; Nascimento, Francisco J A; Näslund, Johan; Elmgren, Ragnar

2010-05-01

406

32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...which significance is reached. For example, an action that would violate existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility for substantial periods; or cause irreparable harm to...

2010-07-01

407

32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...which significance is reached. For example, an action that would violate existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility for substantial periods; or cause irreparable harm to...

2011-07-01

408

32 CFR 1290.6 - Significant changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Significant changes. 1290.6 Section 1290.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

2011-07-01

409

32 CFR 1280.3 - Significant changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Significant changes. 1280.3 Section 1280.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS INVESTIGATING AND PROCESSING CERTAIN NONCONTRACTUAL CLAIMS AND REPORTING RELATED LITIGATION §...

2011-07-01

410

Prognostic Significance of DNA and Histone Methylation  

Cancer.gov

Nutritional Science Research Group Recently Funded Projects Prognostic Significance of DNA and Histone Methylation Principal Investigator: Piyathilake, Chandrika J Institution: University of Alabama at Birmingham   NCI/DCP Program Director: Ross, Sharon

411

SRS Process Facility Significance Fire Frequency  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the method and assumptions of a study performed to determine a site generic process facility significant fire initiator frequency and explains the proper way this value should be used.

Sarrack, A.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1995-10-01

412

On Testing a Guttman Scale for Significance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Guttman scale is discussed from the viewpoint of errors in response patterns. The errors are assumed to be distributed as a binomial. A double-barreled significance test is suggested having two probabilities: high probability and low probability. (Author)

Hofmann, Richard J.

1979-01-01

413

Hispanic Higher Education and HSIs. Fact Sheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents facts about Hispanic higher education. Facts on the following topics are presented: (1) Hispanic demographics; (2) Hispanic academic attainment; (3) Hispanic higher education; and (4) Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs).

Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities, 2012

2012-01-01

414

Introducing Management By Objectives in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Management By Objectives (MBO) system is introduced to higher education, its historical development traced, and its potential for solving the management crisis in higher education assessed. (Author/LBH)

Njoku, Eluma S.

1975-01-01

415

Higher Education Providers HEIDI -Online Information Database  

E-print Network

Higher Education Providers HEIDI - Online Information Database HEIDI Equality Representative Bodies Higher Education Funding Council for Wales Welsh Government Scottish Funding Council Scottish Government and Leadership Government Bodies and Agencies Office for National Statistics Learning Records Service Skills

Glasgow, University of

416

oregonstate.edu/recsports "redefining higher education"  

E-print Network

i oregonstate.edu/recsports "redefining higher education" ADVENTURE LEADERSHIP INSTITUTE(ALI) TM Climbing Centers Equipment Rental Bike/Ski Shop Adventure Club "redefining higher education" ADVENTURE OSU LLGs & ALI Outcomes Leadership through Adventure Certificate Tracks Additional Programs & Services

Escher, Christine

417

Chile's higher education: between market and state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presently, most Higher Education policy issues that are debated in Chilean society revolve around the question of the type of relations that should connect the Higher Education system with the state and society.

José Joaquín Brunner

1993-01-01

418

Expression of interleukin-22 and its significance in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis  

PubMed Central

In order to explore the role of IL-22 in the pathogenesis of CRS, we observed the expression of IL-22 and associated factors in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP). Immunohistochemical staining was applied to detect the expression of IL-22, IL-22R, STAT3, retinoic acid orphan receptor C (RORC) and aryl hydrocarbon recptor (AhR). There was significantly higher expression of IL-22 in CRSsNP than in controls (P<0.05). But the expression of IL-22 had no significant difference when comparing CRSwNP with CRSsNP and controls. The expression of IL-22R was significantly lower in CRSwNP compared to controls and CRSsNP (P<0.05). The expression of AhR was lower in CRSwNP than in CRSsNP (P<0.05). There was no significant difference of RORC and STAT3 among CRSwNP, CRSsNP and controls. IL-22 plays the important role in the pathogenesis of CRS, and further research is needed to understand the complex interactions with other cytokines and the exact mechanism of transcriptional regulation for IL-22. PMID:25337212

Wang, Xin; Gao, Mi; Xu, Yuan; Guo, Huamin; Zhao, Chunyuan

2014-01-01

419

Clinical significance of mucosal suppressors of cytokine signaling 3 expression in ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the clinical significance of mucosal expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and SOCS3 in human ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: Biopsy specimens for histological analysis and mRNA detection were obtained endoscopically from the rectum of 62 patients with UC (36 men; age 13-76 years). The patients were classified endoscopically according to Matts’ grade (grade 1 to 4). Expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 mRNAs was quantified in samples by competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). GAPDH was used as an internal control for efficiency of RT-PCR and amount of RNA. RESULTS: SOCS3 mRNA expression was significantly higher in inflamed mucosa of UC than in inactive mucosa. The level of expression was well correlated with the degree of both endoscopic and histologic inflammation. Interestingly, among the patients in remission, the group with relatively low expression of SOCS3 showed a higher rate of remission maintenance over a 12-mo period. In contrast, SOCS1 mRNA was expressed in both inflamed and non-inflamed colonic mucosa and was not correlated with the activity of colonic mucosa or prognosis. CONCLUSION: These observations suggest that increased expression of mucosal SOCS3, but not of SOCS1, may play a critical role in the development of the colonic inflammation of UC. PMID:17589943

Miyanaka, Yoshihiro; Ueno, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Shinji; Yoshioka, Kyoko; Hatakeyama, Tsuyoshi; Shimamoto, Masaru; Sumii, Masaharu; Chayama, Kazuaki

2007-01-01

420

Clinical significance of NOB1 expression in breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background: NIN/RPN Binding protein 1 homologue (NOBp1), encoded by NOB1 gene, was reported to play an essential role in the oncogenesis and prognosis of carcinomas. We conducted a study to reveal its expression and clinical significance in breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma. Methods: To explore the relationship between NOB1 expression and the clinical TNM (cTNM), 162 patients who undergone surgery were involved in the study. Compared to healthy tissues, abnormal localization and higher level of NOB1 in tumor cells was observed by Immunohistochemistry staining. Real-time PCR and western-blotting verified the up-regulation of NOB1 in carcinoma individuals. Results: A significant correlation between high level of NOB1 and the T stage, lymph node metastasis and cTNM was shown. Furthermore, patients with higher level of NOB1 predicted a declined overall survival (OS). Notably, multivariate analyses by Cox’s proportional hazard model revealed that expression of NOB1 was an independent prognostic factor in breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma. Conclusions: In summary, our present study clarify that the aberrant expression of NOB1 in breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma is possibly involved with tumorigenesis and development, and the NOB1 protein could act as a potential biomarker for prognosis assessment of breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma. Related mechanism is worthy of further investigation. PMID:24133592

Li, Xiao-Yu; Luo, Qi-Feng; Li, Jia; Wei, Chuan-Kui; Kong, Xiang-Jie; Zhang, Jun-Feng; Fang, Lin

2013-01-01

421

Properties of Higher Order Nonlinear Diffusion Filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a mathematical analysis of higher order variational methods and nonlinear diffusion filtering for image\\u000a denoising. Besides the average grey value, it is shown that higher order diffusion filters preserve higher moments of the\\u000a initial data. While a maximum-minimum principle in general does not hold for higher order filters, we derive stability in\\u000a the 2-norm in the continuous

Stephan Didas; Joachim Weickert; Bernhard Burgeth

2009-01-01

422

Fetal MRI at Higher Field Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a While fetal MRI has become a routine method at field strengths up to 1.5 T, the use of higher field strength is at an early\\u000a stage. A higher signal-to-noise ratio is accompanied by a higher energy deposition. In addition, parameters of sequences have\\u000a to be adjusted to achieve useful contrasts. Susceptibility effects and certain artifacts that increase with higher field

Andreas Stadlbauer; Daniela Prayer

423

The New Providers of Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines trends concerning new providers within higher education, such as entrepreneurial higher education, corporate universities, the provision of virtual higher education, and the system of competence certification in computer technology. Concludes with a brief discussion of how these new providers challenge the principle of academic freedom.…

Mendivil, Jorge Luis Ibarra

2002-01-01

424

Discipline and Theory in Higher Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education research is, by its nature, rather an introspective field of study. It is also highly dispersed within and beyond the academy: inherently, therefore, it is a multidisciplinary field of study. An analysis of 567 articles published in 15 leading higher education journals in 2010 demonstrates both the breadth of interest in higher…

Tight, Malcolm

2014-01-01

425

Discipline and Methodology in Higher Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education research is a multidisciplinary field, engaging researchers from across the academy who make use of a wide range of methodological approaches. This article examines the relation between discipline and methodology in higher education research, analysing a database of 567 articles published in 15 leading higher education journals…

Tight, Malcolm

2013-01-01

426

Private Higher Education and Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Western Europe, especially in Germany, private higher education is generally perceived as an alternative to public higher education for students from relatively affluent families; more broadly, there is a general perception that attending a private higher education institution is correlated to wealth. This perception is influenced by private…

Reisz, Robert D.; Stock, Manfred

2012-01-01

427

The Demand for Higher Education in Greece  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the reasons for enrolment demand in higher education in Greece through data collected from 400 students enrolled in the final year of post-secondary education in the Athens area. Results showed that Greek students choose to follow higher studies for a number of reasons but mainly because higher education offers high-level…

Saiti, Anna; Prokopiadou, Georgia

2008-01-01

428

Colorado Higher Education Financing Study. Executive Briefing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Commission initiated a funding to review national funding models for higher education led by the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS). Each institution contributed to the cost of the study and participated in the effort. NCHEMS' key recommendation is to move the funding discussions for higher education away from a…

Colorado Commission on Higher Education, 2006

2006-01-01

429

OER in Africa's Higher Education Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education in Africa has had diverse histories and trajectories, and has played different roles over time. This article is concerned with the evolution and future of higher education on the continent, and the role that open educational resources (OER) might play therein. It is generally accepted that "the university in Africa and higher…

Ngugi, Catherine N.

2011-01-01

430

Student volunteering in English higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volunteering in English higher education has come under political scrutiny recently, with strong cross?party support for schemes to promote undergraduate volunteering in particular. Recent targeted initiatives and proposals have sought to strengthen both the role of volunteering in higher education and synergies between higher education and voluntary sectors. There is, therefore, an emerging consensus among both politicians and academics that

Clare Holdsworth; Jocey Quinn

2010-01-01

431

Market segments for higher education : using geodemographics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports extracts from an exploratory, cross-sectional study undertaken in the rapidly changing environment of UK higher education. Begins with introductory material covering some recent changes in higher education and the relevance of marketing and market segmentation to institutional provision. Addresses the issue of access to higher education, however the perspective is largely managerial. Proposes geodemographic analysis as a useful way

David G. Tonks; Marc Farr

1995-01-01

432

The Changing Landscape of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The landscape of higher education--the growing variety of higher education institutions, the cultural environment, the competitive ecosystem--is changing rapidly and disruptively. The higher education landscape is metaphorically crossed with fault lines, those fissures in the landscape creating potential areas of dramatic change, and is as…

Staley, David J.; Trinkle, Dennis A.

2011-01-01

433

National Focus on Postmodernism in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The integration of postmodernism in higher education is a widely debated issue. Critics of postmodernism in higher education hold the position that postmodernism breeds an unruliness of knowledge. Academicians in higher education often choose to educate students through means of prescription rather than implementing innovation in classroom…

Williams, Monica G.

2007-01-01

434

Toward an Ethic of Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents an alternative ethic of higher education and considers policy choices of higher education resulting from this ethic. This alternative ethic asserts that higher education constitutes a primary social means for the forming of selves capable of participating widely and effectively in the affairs of a modern complex world. This…

Kadish, Mortimer R.

435

Evaluating public higher education in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to ensure accountability, and in order to prepare students for a globalised world, the higher education sector in Mexico is seeking to implement an evaluation of public higher education. Higher education institutions (HEIs) need to balance this goal against the need to protect their autonomy. This would be preserved if each institution were to operate an efficient

Gonzalo Varela-Petito

2011-01-01

436

Part Time Study in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is intended for adults considering enrolling in part-time study in higher education, examines the objectives and experiences of adults who have pursued part-time study in higher education in the United Kingdom. The following reasons why adults return to higher education are discussed: personal development; self-fulfillment;…

Neville, Colin

437

Higher education markets and public policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the major reforms to higher education being introduced throughout the world, market and “market-like” policy instruments are assuming increasing importance. Long perceived as a unique characteristic of the U.S. system of higher education, experiments with market competition in academic labor markets, institutional finance, student support, and the allocation of research funds are now evident in the higher education policy

David D. Dill

1997-01-01

438

Higher Education's Cultural Obligations: Views and Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perspectives on the cultural obligations of higher education are presented in this collection of papers. Higher education's possible and probable cultural function is addressed from the perspective of business, the arts, education, and religion. Also discussed is the role of institutions of higher education in establishing a system of values,…

Reid, John Y., Ed.

439

Twenty Years of Higher Education in Virginia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report on Virginia higher education briefly reviews the impact of economic recession, slashed budgets, increased tuition, and increasing politicization upon the state's higher education system, and then looks ahead to issues critical to the higher education's future in the state. The report proposes action in three areas: (1) adequate funding…

Davies, Gordon K.

440

The Management of Change in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the management of change in higher education, with a focus on the work of the Higher Education Funding Council for England. Meeting the challenges of higher education will require leaders of the highest caliber and managers who embrace change through developing management practices and strategic thinking. (SLD)

Newby, Howard

2003-01-01

441

Evaluating Public Higher Education in Mexico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to ensure accountability, and in order to prepare students for a globalised world, the higher education sector in Mexico is seeking to implement an evaluation of public higher education. Higher education institutions (HEIs) need to balance this goal against the need to protect their autonomy. This would be preserved if each…

Varela-Petito, Gonzalo

2011-01-01

442

UK Quality Code for Higher Education  

E-print Network

UK Quality Code for Higher Education Chapter B11: Research degrees Part B: Assuring and enhancing of sound practice 7 Higher education provider arrangements 7 The research environment 9 Selection Development Framework 35 #12;The UK Quality Code for Higher Education 1 About the Quality Code The UK Quality

Krauss, Thomas

443

Firm Size And Higher Education Graduate  

E-print Network

Firm Size And Higher Education Graduate Employment In West Virginia 2010 Summary Results For Work 2012 Prepared for the West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission By George W. Hammond, Associate Corporation Funding for this research was provided by the West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission

Mohaghegh, Shahab

444

Privatization Of Higher Education In Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study will trace the external factors influencing the liberalization, deregulation and privatization of higher education in Malaysia from 1970 to the present and to analyze the effects of liberalization, deregulation and privatization on the modes of privatization and the internal restructuring of institutions of higher learning to increase efficiency, reduce costs and improve quality. In the 1970s, higher education

G. Sivalingam

445

Higher Education and Civic Engagement: Comparative Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher Education and Civic Engagement provides an original and challenging contribution to contemporary debates on the civic purpose of higher education. It explores teaching and learning, research, and service in a range of international contexts. This book is essential reading for higher education leaders, faculty, administrators, and members of…

McIlrath, Lorraine, Ed.; Lyons, Ann, Ed.; Munck, Ronaldo, Ed.

2012-01-01

446

Higher Education and the Global Marketplace  

E-print Network

Higher Education and the Global Marketplace Entrepreneurial AActivity iin aa Dynamic EEnvironment and a unique friend who continues to inspire. IInn MMeemmoorriiaamm #12;Higher Education and the Global Marketplace: Twenty-Seventh Annual Earl V. Pullias Lecture Series in Higher Education Fall 2004

Armstrong Jr., Lloyd

447

NEJHE's Trends & Indicators in Higher Education, 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the New England Journal of Higher Education (NEJHE) Trends & Indicators in Higher Education, featuring 64 tables and charts exploring New England's demography, high school performance and graduation, college enrollment, college graduation rates and degree production, higher education financing, and university research. The…

Klemer, Sue, Comp.

2008-01-01

448

Resources and Higher Education. SRHE Monograph 51.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Resource allocation for higher education in England is addressed in 11 papers from a l982 Leverhulme seminar of the Society for Research into Higher Education. Major seminar questions include the following: whether higher education institutions should become less dependent upon public funds; the extent to which funds should flow through grants to…

Morris, Alfred, Ed.; Sizer, John, Ed.

449

Higher Education Research Institutes in Chinese Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Initially emerged in 1978, higher education research institutes (HERIs) in Mainland China have experienced rapid expansion and have become a major force in higher education reform in the last three decades. The development of these research institutes is closely related to the substantive growth of the higher education system itself as well as…

Wang, Qi; Liu, Nian Cai

2014-01-01

450

THE GLOBALIZATION OF JAPANESE HIGHER EDUCATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

globalization and global integration is a useful springboard for the examination of higher education trends that have recently begun to migrate from North America outward. These trends can be encapsulated in a new vision for higher education as a commercially viable business. Because of its well-established, differentiated, and widely privatized higher education sector, Japan serves as a particularly instructive test

J. E. ELLIOTT

2006-01-01

451

The Redesign of Governance in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report, part of a project called "Redesigning Higher Education", argues that a set of fundamental changes underlies the growing number of critical difficulties faced by higher education in the United States. It finds the governance structures of American higher education inadequate to deal with a changing and increasingly cost-conscious…

Benjamin, Roger; And Others

452

Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2009 Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

2009-01-01

453

Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2007 Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2007

2007-01-01

454

Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2008 Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

2008-01-01

455

Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2006 Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006

2006-01-01

456

From Higher Education To Work In West  

E-print Network

From Higher Education To Work In West Virginia 2008 Summary Results For Work Participation Achievement, Tuition Assistance, and Nearby States March 2010 Prepared for the West Virginia Higher Education Higher Education Policy Commission. Opinions expressed herein are the responsibility of the authors. #12

Mohaghegh, Shahab

457

From Higher Education To Work In West  

E-print Network

From Higher Education To Work In West Virginia 2010 Summary Results For Work Participation Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission By George W. Hammond, Associate Director With Graduate Research for this research was provided by the West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission. The opinions herein

Mohaghegh, Shahab

458

From Higher Education To Work In West  

E-print Network

From Higher Education To Work In West Virginia 2007 Summary Results For Work Participation Prepared for the West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission By George W. Hammond, Associate Director This research was conducted under contract with the West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission. Opinions

Mohaghegh, Shahab

459

Experiment Prevails Over Observation in Geophysical Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thomson and Tait gave their name to a text (T and T') that sums up nineteenth century mechanics. T and T' says that scientists gain knowledge of the natural universe and the laws that regulate it through Experience. T and T' divides Experience into Observation and Experiment. The posthumous (1912) edition of T and T' appeared seven years before Eddington's expeditions to observe the eclipse of 29 May 1919 that demonstrated the bending of starlight predicted by Einstein's general theory of relativity. During the 2005 centenary of young Einstein's remarkably productive year, Eddington's (1919) result was frequently remembered, but the description in 2005 of what Eddington did in 1919 often differed from what Eddington said that he did. In his words then, Eddington observed; in words from scientists, historians of science, and philosophers of science during 2005, Eddington often experimented. In 1912, T and T' had distinguished Observation from Experiment with an apt contrast: ""When, as in astronomy, we endeavour to ascertain these causes by simply watching, we observe; when, as in our laboratories, we interfere arbitrarily with the causes or circumstances of a phenomenon, we are said to experiment"". (italics in T and T'). Eddington himself conformed to this distinction in his report (Physical Society of London, 1920). In its Preface, he states that observations were made at each of two stations, and concludes that ""I think it may now be stated that Einstein's law of gravitation is definitely established by observation..."". Chapter V of that report deals with The Crucial Phenomena. In this chapter, some form of the word observe (noun, verb, adjective, adverb) appears 13 times. In this chapter, experiment appears only as experimental, and then only twice. Einstein's prediction, with Eddington's observations, profoundly impressed contemporary philosophers of science. Karl Popper, then aged 17, considered Eddington's findings to effect a turning point in his career, but during that career, Popper painted himself into a philosophical corner by disallowing observation as contaminated with psychological problems and by advocating an aggressive deductive application of crucial experiments. As a result, in a 1974 review of what he really meant, Popper at least twice remembered ""Eddington's famous eclipse experiments of 1919."" The Web in 2006 lists NASA and NOAA acronyms for recent and ongoing research programs with geophysical content. A significant subset of these acronyms end in E or in EX, meaning experiment, but the scientific work done in the associated programs is actually observation. Experiment stands for actual Observation. This reversal in meaning recognizes the higher status of Experiment compared to Observation in the competition for government grants.

Galvin, C.

2006-05-01

460

ASTROMETRIC MASSES OF 26 ASTEROIDS AND OBSERVATIONS ON ASTEROID POROSITY  

SciTech Connect

As an application of our recent observational error model, we present the astrometric masses of 26 main-belt asteroids. We also present an integrated ephemeris of 300 large asteroids, which was used in the mass determination algorithm to model significant perturbations from the rest of the main belt. After combining our mass estimates with those of other authors, we study the bulk porosities of over 50 main-belt asteroids and observe that asteroids as large as 300 km in diameter may be loose aggregates. This finding may place specific constraints on models of main-belt collisional evolution. Additionally, we observe that C-group asteroids tend to have significantly higher macroporosity than S-group asteroids.

Baer, James [James Cook University, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Townsville, QLD 4811 (Australia); Chesley, Steven R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Matson, Robert D., E-mail: jimbaer1@earthlink.net, E-mail: steve.chesley@jpl.nasa.gov [Science Applications International Corporation, 3030 Old Ranch Pkwy., Ste. 250, Seal Beach, CA 90740 (United States)

2011-05-15

461

Meaning reconstruction in bereavement: sense and significance.  

PubMed

Recently there has been growing empirical and theoretical attention to the role of meaning in grief along with increased recognition of the need for more sophisticated definitions of meaning. The present article highlights philosophical issues inherent in the study of meaning and grief reviews the place of meaning in current theories of grief and provides a brief overview of the ways that meaning has been operationalized by grief researchers, including sense-making, benefit finding, identity change, and purpose in life. It is argued that, in our focus on the ways mourners make sense of loss, we have neglected an important aspect of meaning: life significance. Life significance is the felt perception that some aspect of one's life experience "matters." The construct is explored as a potentially important outcome of bereavement; mourners may lose life significance along with their lost loved one, or they may develop new avenues to life significance as they confront mortality and rebuild shattered worldviews. Related literature, such as appreciation of life as a facet of posttraumatic growth, is surveyed for clues as to the role of life significance in grief. Suggestions for future study are offered. PMID:24520967

Hibberd, Rachel

2013-08-01

462

Observer effects on the rating of perceived exertion and affect during exercise in recreationally active males.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of introducing either a male or female observer on the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and affect of male runners during a moderate intensity running task. 10 moderately active men completed three 20-min. moderate intensity running trials at 60% of their peak treadmill running speed. Each participant completed three trials in random order: control, male-observed, and female-observed, where either the male or female observer joined the trial after 10 min. of the trial had elapsed, during which RPE and affect were monitored. The introduction of a female observer caused a significant decrease in RPE, whereas the introduction of a male observer caused a significant increase in RPE compared to the control trial. Affect was higher in the presence of both a male and female observer compared to control. It was concluded that there is a social, interpersonal, psychological dimension to RPE during exercise. PMID:23033758

Winchester, Rachel; Turner, Louise A; Thomas, Kevin; Ansley, Les; Thompson, Kevin G; Micklewright, Dominic; St Clair Gibson, Alan

2012-08-01

463

Hinode Observes an Active Sun  

NASA Video Gallery

The X-ray Telescope on the Japanese/NASA mission Hinode has been observing the full sun, nearly continuously, for an extended period. In this movie significant small-scale dynamic events can be obs...

464

Why Do Higher Education Students Drop Out? Evidence from Spain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper seeks to advance our understanding of the drop-out behavior of students in higher education. Our results are based on longitudinal data for 7000 students who embarked on short and long programs from one university in Spain and who were observed over an eight-year period ending in 2004. The statistical analysis is carried out in a…

Lassibille, Gerard; Gomez, Lucia Navarro

2008-01-01

465

Assessment in Higher Education. The Current Australian Scene.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responses by academic department heads in higher education institutions are reported regarding the current situation and recent trends in assessment purposes and practices; problems observed, improvements favored and suspected barriers to those improvements; and rules, policies, controls and review procedures are included. The author's comments on…

Roe, Ernest; Vasta, Ellie

1980-01-01

466

Leadership Styles of Effective Female Administrators in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increase number of females in leadership positions provides new opportunities to observe them as leaders. The purpose of this research was to study leadership and to identify the contextual, societal and cultural factors that determined and influenced the styles of leadership of female executives in higher education. The study profiled the…

Hough, Mayra Alayon

2010-01-01

467

The History of Disability Services in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2002, Brinckerhoff, McGuire, and Shaw observed that the field of postsecondary education and disability services had "moved through its adolescence and was embarking on adulthood" (xiii). Indeed, the field had undergone rapid expansion nationwide in the prior 30 years and grew into a full-fledged profession within higher education (Jarrow…

Madaus, Joseph W.

2011-01-01

468

Interacting Ghost Dark Energy Models in the Higher Dimensional Cosmology  

E-print Network

We investigate interacting ghost dark energy models in higher dimensional cosmology. We attempt to model dark matter within a barotropic fluid with $P_{b}=\\omega(t)_{b}\\rho$. In this work we consider four different models based on choosing equation of state parameter and interaction term. We confirm that our models agree with observational data.

J. Sadeghi; M. Khurshudyan; A. Movsisyan; H. Farahani

2014-01-26

469

Teaching Strategies and Gender in Higher Education Instrumental Studios  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates instrumental music teaching strategies in higher education settings, in order to identify those employed and their frequency and context of use. An instrument- and gender-balanced sample of 24 lessons from five institutions was analysed using a researcher-designed observational instrument. The results reveal the…

Zhukov, Katie

2012-01-01

470

Research Issues and Institutional Prospects for Higher Education Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores two new perspectives for the research on higher education. Building on the case of Europe with a special focus on France, it first addresses the trend toward more competition and more differentiation that can be observed in countries that traditionally were more egalitarian and the strong implication of European states in…

Musselin, Christine

2014-01-01

471

Statistical significance of cis-regulatory modules  

PubMed Central

Background It is becoming increasingly important for researchers to be able to scan through large genomic regions for transcription factor binding sites or clusters of binding sites forming cis-regulatory modules. Correspondingly, there has been a push to develop algorithms for the rapid detection and assessment of cis-regulatory modules. While various algorithms for this purpose have been introduced, most are not well suited for rapid, genome scale scanning. Results We introduce methods designed for the detection and statistical evaluation of cis-regulatory modules, modeled as either clusters of individual binding sites or as combinations of sites with constrained organization. In order to determine the statistical significance of module sites, we first need a method to determine the statistical significance of single transcription factor binding site matches. We introduce a straightforward method of estimating the statistical significance of single site matches using a database of known promoters to produce data structures that can be used to estimate p-values for binding site matches. We next introduce a technique to calculate the statistical significance of the arrangement of binding sites within a module using a max-gap model. If the module scanned for has defined organizational parameters, the probability of the module is corrected to account for organizational constraints. The statistical significance of single site matches and the architecture of sites within the module can be combined to provide an overall estimation of statistical significance of cis-regulatory module sites. Conclusion The methods introduced in this paper allow for the detection and statistical evaluation of single transcription factor binding sites and cis-regulatory modules. The features described are implemented in the Search Tool for Occurrences of Regulatory Motifs (STORM) and MODSTORM software. PMID:17241466

Schones, Dustin E; Smith, Andrew D; Zhang, Michael Q

2007-01-01

472

Legal Standards and Significance of DNA Evidence  

E-print Network

Legal Standards and the significance of DNA evidence Richard Gomulkiewicz; Norman A Slade Human Biology; Oct 1997; 69, 5; Research Library pg. 675 Legal Standards and the Significance of DNA Evidence RICHARD G O M U L K I E W I C Z ' AND NORMAN... and those from a crime scene, but considerably less attention has been given to the critical issue of determining the prob­ ability of guilt given a match. Using Bayes ' rule and simple algebra, we develop a measure of the strength of DNA evidence...

Gomulkiewicz, Richard; Slade, Norman A.

1997-10-01

473

Significance of autobiographical episodes and spacing effects in incidental memory.  

PubMed

Participants were presented with target words on two occasions, and were asked each time to generate a memory of a past episode associated with the targets. Participants were also instructed to rate the importance (significance elaboration) or pleasantness of the pisode (pleasantness elaboration) in an orienting task, followed by an unexpect d recall test. Significance elaboration led to better recall than pleasantness elaboration, but only in the spaced presentation. The spaced presentation led to better tree recall than massed presentation with significance elaboration, but the difference between the two types of presentation was not observed with pleasantness elaboration. These results suggest that the significance of an episode is more critical than the pleasantness of an episode in determining the effectiveness of autobiographical elaboration in facilitating recall. PMID:24611245

Toyota, Hiroshi

2013-10-01

474

DETERMINING SIGNIFICANT ENDPOINTS FOR ECOLOGICAL RISK ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Risk analyses, both human health and ecological, will be important factors in determining which DOE sites should be cleaned up and in deciding if acceptable performance standards have been met. Risk analysis procedures for humans use the individual as the 'unit' of observation, a...

475

SAPO Campus: a social media platform for Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

We b 2.0 services educational use is an important pedagogical asset with potential to induce significant transformations in teaching methodologies applied by Higher Educations Institutions (HEIs). Recent research has demonstrated that the educational use of these tools has the potential to promote an effective development of communication, sharing and collaboration skills by learning communities' members, contributing to more relevant learning

C. Santos; L. Pedro

476

Systems Thinking: A Missing Component in Higher Educational Planning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses difficulties within higher education management in achieving expected outcomes because of problematic elements in: artificial internal structures, funding formulae, the relative importance of system parameters versus system structure, and the significance of time scales and delays in influencing system behavior. Suggests that university…

Galbraith, Peter L.

1999-01-01

477

Satisfaction with Higher Education: Critical Data for Student Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education is a mainstay in the development and support of the economic, social and cultural development of the global society. Throughout history, academic institutions have sought to respond to the demands of endlessly changing and evolving environmental conditions. However, in the 21st century, a number of significant factors are changing…

Machado, Maria de Lourdes; Brites, Rui; Magalhaes, Antonio; Sa, Maria Jose

2011-01-01

478

Meditation in Higher Education: Does It Enhance Cognition?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We predicted that students in a sociology course that included contemplative practices (i.e., mindfulness meditation) would show an increase in performance on higher level cognitive abilities (executive functions) over the semester compared to a control group of students. Change in executive functions performance was not significantly different…

Helber, Casey; Zook, Nancy A.; Immergut, Matthew

2012-01-01

479

Education's Inequity: Opposition to Black Higher Education in Antebellum Connecticut  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the late 1820s, African Americans' access to primary and religious instruction expanded significantly throughout the urban Northeast, yet barriers to their higher education remained firm. Segregated in public "African" schools, blacks were also barred from most private academies. Collegiate education similarly remained out of reach. In…

Moss, Hilary J.

2006-01-01

480

How Universities Work: Understanding Higher Education Organization in Northwest China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores models of educational management used in postsecondary institutions in the five northwestern provinces of the People's Republic of China (Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, and Xinjiang). As higher education in the People's Republic of China expands and undergoes significant changes, a nuanced understanding of the…

Berger, Joseph B.; Hudson, Katherine E.; Ramirez, Gerardo Blanco

2013-01-01

481

Setting the Governmental Agenda for State Decentralization of Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State decentralization of higher education emerged as a significant governance trend of the 1980s to 1990s. Yet little is known about how or why decentralization first became an issue to which state governments paid serious attention. This study employs multiple theories to analyze the agenda-setting stage of policy formation in three states…

McLendon, Michael K.

2003-01-01

482

Special Issue: The Global Growth of Private Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume begins its global tour with the case of Mexico. The Mexican case is significant because of its original importance in defining the primary types of private higher education. It shows trends that reflect rapid transformations in the country and tensions in developing countries at the intersection of resource constraints, relatively weak…

Kinser, Kevin; Levy, Daniel C.; Casillas, Juan Carlos Silas; Bernasconi, Andres; Slantcheva-Durst, Snejana; Otieno, Wycliffe; Lane, Jason E.; Praphamontripong, Prachayani; Zumeta, William; LaSota, Robin

2010-01-01

483

Reconciling Organisational Culture and External Quality Assurance in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organisational culture and external quality assurance have both been presented as significant drivers of effectiveness, efficiency and excellence in higher education institutions. However, these assumptions have not been critically examined given the philosophical, conceptual and methodological contestations surrounding both constructs. A…

Naidoo, Dhaya

2013-01-01

484

Twisted Roots: The Western Impact on Asian Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historically and today, Western academic models, practices, and orientations on Asian universities in colonized and non-colonized countries have shaped their higher education systems. Japanese colonialism in Korea and Taiwan is also significant. Contemporary patterns of international educational exchange have also affected Asian university growth.…

Altbach, Philip G.

1989-01-01

485

Information as a Regulative Element in Higher Education Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The existence of information asymmetry has ascended to a significant role in higher education systems. The article makes an attempt to conceptualise the interaction of universities with their environment, stakeholders, and the state by paying special attention to the role and substance of information asymmetry. The existence of information…

Kivisto, Jussi; Holtta, Seppo

2008-01-01

486

Student Retention in Higher Education: Some Conceptual and Programmatic Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a review of conceptual perspectives on the salient issues affecting student retention in higher education generally, and minority student retention in particular, over the past few decades. Also summarizes programmatic strategies implemented at institutions as examples of student retention initiatives that have had significant impacts.…

Lang, Marvel

2002-01-01

487

Openness, Dynamic Specialization, and the Disaggregated Future of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Openness is a fundamental value underlying significant changes in society and is a prerequisite to changes institutions of higher education need to make in order to remain relevant to the society in which they exist. There are a number of ways institutions can be more open, including programs of open sharing of educational materials. Individual…

Wiley, David; Hilton, John, III

2009-01-01

488

Higher order microfibre modes for dielectric particle trapping and propulsion  

E-print Network

Optical manipulation in the vicinity of optical micro- and nanofibres has shown potential across several fields in recent years, including microparticle control, and cold atom probing and trapping. To date, most work has focussed on propagation of the fundamental mode through the fibre. However, along the maximum mode intensity axis, higher order modes have a longer evanescent field extension and larger field amplitude at the fibre waist compared to the fundamental mode, opening up new possibilities for optical manipulation and particle trapping. In this work, we demonstrate a microfibre/optical tweezers compact system for trapping and propelling dielectric particles based on the excitation of the first group of higher order modes at the fibre waist. Single polystyrene particles were trapped and propelled in the evanescent fields of higher order and fundamental modes near the surface of microfibres. Speed enhancement of particle propulsion was observed for the higher order modes compared to the fundamental mo...

Maimaiti, Aili; Sergides, Marios; Gusachenko, Ivan; Chormaic, Síle Nic

2014-01-01

489

Alendronate soluble solution: a higher adherence rate in the treatment of osteoporosis  

PubMed Central

Summary Introduction Since low adherence to a long-term therapy results in a poor clinical outcome and significantly increases healthcare costs, adherence to the treatment of chronic disorders is an issue of great interest. This is particularly true of the treatment of osteoporosis (OP). Purpose of study Adherence to the osteoporosis therapy in patients treated with bisphosphonates in tablet form has been evaluated in comparison with the adherence of those taking alendronate in soluble solution. Methods and materials Here we present a retrospective study of 245 patients treated with alendronate, risedronate and ibandronate tablets and a prospective study of 118 patients treated with soluble alendronate. In both studies, patients have been observed for a period of 12 months. Results The analysis of patients’ persistence with the treatment plan, assessed at three, six and 12 months, revealed a significantly higher adherence (p < 0.005) in the cohort of patients treated with soluble alendronate (92.37% at 12 months) compared with those who followed the course of treatment with tablets (65.4 %, 12 months). Conclusions The investigation showed higher adherence to the oral therapy with soluble alendronate, demonstrating that a formulation obtained by this method can contribute to a higher level of persistence with the treatment of a disease such as osteoporosis, which requires a long-term therapeutic plan.

Coaccioli, Stefano; Celi, Giorgio; Crapa, Mariano Edoardo; Masia, Francesco; Brandi, Maria Luisa

2014-01-01

490

Higher inherent fearfulness potentiates the effects of chronic stress in the Japanese quail.  

PubMed

There is considerable variability in the susceptibility of individuals to the adverse effects of chronic stress. In humans and other mammals, individual traits such as high anxiety are proposed as a vulnerability factor for the development of stress-related disorders. In the present study, we tested whether a similar behavioural trait in birds, higher emotional reactivity, also favours the occurrence of chronic stress-related behavioural and physiological dysfunction. For this, lines of Japanese quail divergently selected for a typical fear response in birds, the duration of tonic immobility, were subjected to unpredictable aversive stimulation over 2 weeks. Previous studies demonstrate that the selection program modifies the general underlying emotionality of the birds rather than exerting its effect only on tonic immobility. Interestingly, only birds selected for their higher emotionality exhibited significantly enhanced latency to first step and decreased locomotor activity in the open-field test after exposure to chronic stress compared to non-stressed control birds. This effect of chronic stress was selective for the tested dimension of bird emotional reactivity because there was no observed effect on the tonic immobility response. Moreover, chronically stressed birds selected for their higher emotionality exhibited significantly decreased basal corticosterone levels, a physiological marker of stress. These findings show that chronic stress is associated with changes in emotional reactivity and related physiological markers in birds. They also highlight emotional reactivity as an important predisposing factor for the occurrence of the adverse effects of chronic stress in birds. PMID:21871499

Calandreau, L; Favreau-Peigné, A; Bertin, A; Constantin, P; Arnould, C; Laurence, A; Lumineau, S; Houdelier, C; Richard-Yris, M A; Boissy, A; Leterrier, C

2011-12-01

491

Representativeness and Significance Factors in ESP Texts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of communicative approaches and strategies in specialized discourse has led to revising notions of representative and significant language. Particularly in work with academic genres, in science and technology settings, the need for determining these factors is growing. The application of specific language corpora becomes…

Fuentes, Alejandro Curado

492

Acremonium kiliense: Reappraisal of Its Clinical Significance?  

PubMed Central

A case of Acremonium kiliense peritonitis is described. Diagnosis was established by repeated isolation of the fungus from peritoneal dialysate and by its identification on the basis of morphological characteristics and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). This report and available literature suggest that A. kiliense may have a greater clinical significance than hitherto recognized. PMID:21450966

Khan, Ziauddin; Al-Obaid, Khaled; Ahmad, Suhail; Ghani, Amal Abdel; Joseph, Leena; Chandy, Rachel

2011-01-01

493

Phytochemical and nutritional significance of cactus pear  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses cactus pear fruit with special emphasis on its functional components. Besides their nutritional importance, their significance in plant physiology is also described. Opuntia sp. is characterized by high levels of amino acids, especially proline and taurine. The latter was recently re-evaluated in nutritional science as a conditional amino acid and was hitherto virtually unknown in plant tissues.

Florian C. Stintzing; Andreas Schieber; R. Carle

2001-01-01

494

Replication of Significant Correlations in Small Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers conducting studies involving individuals with exceptionalities are often prevented from involving large numbers of participants in their study samples. When this is the case, some say significant correlations are likely to replicate because the relation between two variables must be robust enough to be detected even with low…

Lemons, Christopher J.

2009-01-01

495

FROM STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE TO EFFECT ESTIMATION  

E-print Network

such as the American Psychological Association, and the absence of appropriate editorial pressure, statistical reform attachment psychology had to the methods. Results of the journal survey presented in this chapter, and someFROM STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE TO EFFECT ESTIMATION: STATISTICAL REFORM IN PSYCHOLOGY, MEDICINE

Burgman, Mark

496

The significance of qualitative difference for psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognition of qualitative differences is most significant when we consider different types of explanation in psychology. Behavior concepts alone, though giving a continuum in a single series, are inadequate to explain the appearance of qualitatively different phenomena which are not in the behavior continuum. Conscious facts are different from behavior facts. Genetic sequences disclose new qualitative facts. Purposive striving and

J. B. Miner

1927-01-01

497

The Historical Significance of the Universal Declaration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the historical significance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Focuses on the initiative for the Declaration and its elaboration, the precursors to modern human rights, the foundation of the Declaration, the rights contained in the Universal Declaration, three modes of human rights analysis, and global governance and human…

Eide, Asbjorn

1998-01-01

498

Significant Dates 1796 Death of John Anderson  

E-print Network

Significant Dates 1796 Death of John Anderson Anderson's Institution founded 1823 Glasgow Mechanics the Scottish College, the two open books. In addition to the two books in chief there is a symbol new. To mark the bicentenary of the death of John Anderson and the birth of the institution, the University

Mottram, Nigel

499

The Philosophical Significance of Universal Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout its long history, the project of a science of grammar has always been an inherently philosophical one, in which the study of grammar was taken to have special epistemological significance. I ask why 20th and 21st century inquiry into Universal Grammar (UG) has largely lost this dimension, a fact that I argue is partially responsible for…

Hinzen, Wolfram

2012-01-01

500

Significance of White Matter Hyperintensities in MCI  

E-print Network

Significance of White Matter Hyperintensities in MCI Charles DeCarli University of California at Davis Alzheimer's Disease Center Imaging of Dementia and Aging (IDeA) Laboratory #12;MCI is Early ADMCI Hyperintensities and MCI White Matter Hyperintensities and MCI Predictor VariablePredictor Variable Adjusted RR and

California at Davis, University of