These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Competitive Intelligence: Significance in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historically noncompetitive, the higher education sector is now having to adjust dramatically to new and increasing demands on numerous levels. To remain successfully operational within the higher educational market universities today must consider all relevant forces which can impact present and future planning. Those institutions that were…

Barrett, Susan E.

2010-01-01

2

Reported Significant Observation (RSO) studies. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The Reported Significant Observation (RSO) study used in the field of safety is an information-gathering technique where employee-participants describe situations they have personally witnessed involving good and bad practices and safe and unsafe conditions. This information is useful in the risk assessment process because it focuses on hazards and thereby facilitates their elimination. However, RSO cannot be the only component in a risk assessment program. Used by the Air Force in their aviation psychology program and further developed by John C. Flanagan, RSO is more commonly known as the ``Critical Incident Technique.`` However, the words ``Critical`` and ``Incident`` had other connotations in nuclear safety, prompting early users within the Aerojet Nuclear Company to coin the more fitting title of ``Reported Significant Observations.`` The technique spread slowly in the safety field primarily because the majority of users were researchers interested in after-the-fact data, with application to everyday problems and behavioral factors. RSO was formally recognized as a significant hazard reduction tool during the development of the Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) program for the US Atomic Energy Commission. The Department of Energy (DOE) has, in turn, adopted MORT for its system safety program, and this has resulted in RSO being a modern and viable technique for DOE contractor safety programs.

Eicher, R.W.

1992-12-01

3

Editor's Note: Teaching Observation--Aim Higher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Observation is a fundamental process in science. It is a skill that many science curricula emphasize. It seems like such a simple skill, but observation skills are not quite so simply mastered. Like anything else, just watching and observing does little to improve the skill. In order to improve, we must pay explicit attention to how and why we observe in science. In this issue, we explore what it means to observe and how to teach skills that will lead to more thoughtful observations.

Ohana, Chris

2008-02-01

4

Earth observations and photography experiment: Summary of significant results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observation and photographic data from the Apollo Soyuz Test Project are analyzed. The discussion is structured according to the fields of investigation including: geology, desert studies, oceanography, hydrology, and meteorology. The data were obtained by: (1) visual observations of selected Earth features, (2) hand-held camera photography to document observations, and (3) stereo mapping photography of areas of significant scientific interest.

El-Baz, F.

1978-01-01

5

Satellite Significant Wave Height Observations in Coastal and Shelf Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant wave height (SWH) observations from the Jason-1 satellite are compared against buoy observations and a spectral wave model for the North Sea/Baltic Sea region. The comparisons are from year 2005 and demon- strate that the satellite SWH observations are very con- sistent, with a mean bias of 0.07 m and a standard devi- ation of 0.36 m when compared with buoys. The error statistics have been derived for the individual buoys and a detailed validation of the wave model is carried out us- ing the satellite observations. It is shown that the 20 Hz std dev of SWH can be used as an indicator of the quality of the observations and that a significant amount of near coastal observations can be obtained even within 10 km from the coast.

Høyer, J. L.; Nielsen, J. W.

2006-07-01

6

Has the Sun Significantly Impacted Recent Voyager Observations?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using our models HAFSS (HAF Source Surface) and HHMS-PI (Hybrid Heliospheric Modeling System with Pickup Protons) we have been analyzing some of the recent (e.g., July 2012, etc.) solar events to determine if the effects of the events might be seen in the outer heliosphere, heliosheath, etc. Our analyses provide insights into the phenomena in these regions. Both models are three-dimensional (3D) time dependent simulations that use solar observations as input. HAFSS is a kinematic model. HHMS-PI is a numerical magnetohydrodynamic solar wind (SW) simulation model. Both HHMS-PI and HAFSS are ideally suited for these analyses since starting from the Sun they model the slowly evolving background SW and the impulsive, time-dependent events associated with solar activity (e.g., coronal mass ejections (CMEs). HHMS-PI/HAFSS make it possible to track interplanetary shocks as they propagate, interact, and evolve en route to various spacecraft (s/c) where they are observed. Our models have been used to reproduce s/c data from ACE to Ulysses, Cassini, and Voyagers 1 and 2. Our published results in refereed scientific journals showed that: a.) Our models naturally reproduce dynamic 3D spatially asymmetric effects observed throughout the heliosphere. b.) Pre-existing SW background conditions have a strong influence on the propagation of shock waves from solar events. c.) Time-dependence is a crucial aspect of interpreting s/c data. d.) Shock interactions resulting from multiple solar events lead to complicated time-series observations at individual s/c. We believe the answer to the question in the title of this abstract is: Yes, we do think the Sun has significantly impacted recent Voyager observations.

Intriligator, D. S.; Sun, W.; Detman, T. R.; Dryer, Ph. D., M.; Deehr, C. S.; Intriligator, J.; Webber, W. R.

2013-12-01

7

The Inception of the Meaning and Significance of Endowment in American Higher Education, 1890-1930  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Endowments of institutions of higher education in the United States have attracted widespread attention in recent decades due to their meteoric rise in value and their precipitous decline during the recent recession. But there has been little research on the beginnings of the significant interest in and importance of…

Kimball, Bruce A.; Johnson, Benjamin Ashby

2012-01-01

8

Children with Sickle Cell Disease Had Significantly Higher Medical Costs Than Those without SCD  

MedlinePLUS

... What's this? Submit Button CDC Features Children with Sickle Cell Disease had Significantly Higher Medical Costs Than Those Without ... Mvundura M, Kavanagh PL, Sprinz PG, Grosse, SD. Sickle Cell Disease-Related Pediatric Medical Expenditures in the U.S. Am ...

9

Academic Entrepreneurship (Re)defined: Significance and Implications for the Scholarship of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past several decades higher education scholars have conducted a significant amount of research aimed at understanding the implications of enhanced interactions between the academy and the private marketplace. Accordingly, a voluminous literature that includes conceptualizations and discussions of "academic entrepreneurship" has emerged.…

Mars, Matthew M.; Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia

2010-01-01

10

The significance of CP29 reversible phosphorylation in thylakoids of higher plants under environmental stresses.  

PubMed

Reversible phosphorylation of proteins is a key event in many fundamental cellular processes. Under stressful conditions, many thylakoid membrane proteins in photosynthetic apparatus of higher plants undergo rapid phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in response to environmental changes. CP29 is the most frequently phosphorylated protein among three minor antennae complexes in higher plants. CP29 phosphorylation in dicotyledons has been known for several decades and is well characterized. However, CP29 phosphorylation in monocotyledons is less studied and appears to have a different phosphorylation pattern. In this review, we discuss recent advancements in CP29 phosphorylation and dephosphorylation studies and its physiological significance under environmental stresses in higher plants, especially in the monocotyledonous crops. Physiologically, the phosphorylation of CP29 is likely to be a prerequisite for state transitions and the disassembly of photosystem II supercomplexes, but not involved in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). CP29 is phosphorylated in monocots exposed to environmental cues, with its subsequent lateral migration from grana stacks to stroma lamellae. However, neither CP29 phosphorylation nor its lateral migration occurs in dicotyledonous plants after drought, cold, or salt stress. Since the molecular mechanisms of differential CP29 phosphorylation under stresses are not fully understood, this review provides insights for future studies regarding the physiological function of CP29 reversible phosphorylation. PMID:23349136

Chen, Yang-Er; Zhao, Zhong-Yi; Zhang, Huai-Yu; Zeng, Xian-Yin; Yuan, Shu

2013-03-01

11

The significance of observed rotational magnetic hysteresis in lunar samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rotational magnetic hysteresis curves for lunar soils 10084, 12070, and 14259, and rock 14053 have been published. There is no adequate explanation to date for the observed large hysteresis at high fields. Lunar rock magnetism researchers consider fine particle iron to be the primary source of stable magnetic remanence in lunar samples. Iron has cubic anisotropy with added shape anisotropy for extreme particle shapes. The observed high-field hysteresis must have its source in uniaxial or unidirectional anisotropy. This implies the existence of minerals with uniaxial anisotropy or exchange-coupled spin states. Therefore, the source of this observed high-field hysteresis must be identified and understood before serious paleointensity studies are made. It is probable that the exchange-coupled spin states and/or the source of uniaxial anisotropy responsible for the high-field hysteresis might be influenced by the lunar surface diurnal temperature cycling. The possible sources of high-field hysteresis in lunar samples are presented and considered.

Wasilewski, P.

1974-01-01

12

Higher topological invariants of magnetic field lines: observational aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topology of magnetic field lines is directly involved in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theorems and equations. Being an invariant of motion in ideal MHD conditions, the magnetic field-line topology is a natural obstacle to the relaxation of magnetic field into a current-free (potential) field and contrariwise limits a dynamo generation. Usage of these conservational laws and writing of numerical relations require a quantification of topology. One of the simplest existing measures of magnetic topology is the mutual magnetic helicity, that expresses the combined action of interaction and linkage between different magnetic field lines. For practical purposes there exists the revised concept of relative magnetic helicity, that allows to estimate the complexity of field-line topology in case of open volume, i.e. when magnetic lines cross the boundaries of given 3D region. At the same time this concept remains a simple interpretation of linkage number in terms of individual lines. Our point however is that magnetic helicity is far from being unique or comprehensive quantification of magnetic field-line topology. To improve the situation we introduce a set of higher invariants which extends the idea of relative helicity and provides a new means to describe the magnetic field-line topology. To practically study the possibility of implementation of higher topological invariants we reconstruct several moments of mutual helicity from observed solar vector magnetograms with extrapolated magnetic field above the photosphere and discuss to what extent such knowledge could be instructive for understanding of the solar magnetic field evolution.

Illarionov, Egor; Smirnov, Alexander; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Sokoloff, Dmitry; Akhmet'ev, Peter

13

Higher resolution stimulus facilitates depth perception: MT+ plays a significant role in monocular depth perception  

PubMed Central

Today, we human beings are facing with high-quality virtual world of a completely new nature. For example, we have a digital display consisting of a high enough resolution that we cannot distinguish from the real world. However, little is known how such high-quality representation contributes to the sense of realness, especially to depth perception. What is the neural mechanism of processing such fine but virtual representation? Here, we psychophysically and physiologically examined the relationship between stimulus resolution and depth perception, with using luminance-contrast (shading) as a monocular depth cue. As a result, we found that a higher resolution stimulus facilitates depth perception even when the stimulus resolution difference is undetectable. This finding is against the traditional cognitive hierarchy of visual information processing that visual input is processed continuously in a bottom-up cascade of cortical regions that analyze increasingly complex information such as depth information. In addition, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results reveal that the human middle temporal (MT+) plays a significant role in monocular depth perception. These results might provide us with not only the new insight of our neural mechanism of depth perception but also the future progress of our neural system accompanied by state-of- the-art technologies. PMID:25327168

Tsushima, Yoshiaki; Komine, Kazuteru; Sawahata, Yasuhito; Hiruma, Nobuyuki

2014-01-01

14

Higher Education in Balkan Region and its Contribution to the Earth Observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The needs for spatial data as well as techniques of Earth Observation are changing, and new professional areas are developing very rapidly. In addition, scientific work and its connection with the teaching process have influenced the introduction of new cognitions into the higher education programs in general. Considering these facts, in the period shorter than one decade, the higher education institutions in the Balkan region, which have study programs in the fields of spatial data acquisition, analysis and spatial decisions, have made significant changes of the curricula. In our research, we have analyzed the current higher education programs in the Balkan region having focused on curricula related to the Earth Observation. Due to historical reasons, these curricula have its roots in surveying study programs in the most Balkan countries. The competences of classical surveying higher educational programs have been changing and nowadays include the wider area of spatial data acquisition, geoinformatics. In parallel, we present the current Earth Observation activities in the selected countries from the Balkan region. Based on the results of our research in the framework of the European program Observe, which aims to establish a new Balkan Earth Observation (EO) community of multilevel stakeholders that will make use of state of the art technological developments, products and knowhow from the existing European EO community and industry, we estimate the contribution of advanced higher educational programs to the Earth Observation activities in the selected countries.

Lisec, A.; Fras, M. K.

2012-07-01

15

The Importance and Impact of Three Significant Political Decisions upon Higher Education in Tennessee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three key political decisions made in Tennessee higher education that have brought about major changes in structure and have implications for the future are discussed. The decisions are: creation of the Tennessee Higher Education Commission (THEC) in 1967, the creation of the State Board of Regents (SBR) in 1972, and the establishment of the…

Tennessee Higher Education Commission, Nashville.

16

Significantly higher cytokine and chemokine levels in patients with Japanese spotted fever than in those with Tsutsugamushi disease.  

PubMed

Tetracyclines are administered to cure Japanese spotted fever (JSF) and tsutsugamushi disease (TD). It is generally said that the clinical course of JSF is worse than that of TD despite antibiotic treatment. The precise mechanism underlying the more severe clinical course of JSF is not fully understood. We therefore examined whether the differential cytokine profile between these two infectious diseases contributes to the difference in clinical severity. The serum concentrations of various cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-?], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and gamma interferon [IFN-?]) and chemokines (IL-8, interferon-inducible protein 10 [IP-10], monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1], macrophage inflammatory protein 1? [MIP-1?], MIP-1?, and eotaxin) were measured in 32 TD and 21 JSF patients. The results showed that serum levels of TNF-? in the acute phases of TD and JSF were significantly increased, with a higher concentration of TNF-? in patients with JSF (mean, 39.9 pg/ml) than in those with TD (mean, 13.8 pg/ml). Comparatively higher levels of other cytokines and chemokines (IL-6, IFN-?, IL-8, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1?, and MIP-1?) were also observed in the acute phase of JSF. The clinical severity score (3.67 ± 1.71) of JSF patients was higher than that of TD patients (1.47 ± 0.77). Our findings revealed that the cytokine and chemokine levels in the acute phase of JSF were significantly higher than those in the acute phase of TD. The differential cytokine levels may be related to the difference in clinical severity between JSF and TD. PMID:24671792

Tai, Katsunori; Iwasaki, Hiromichi; Ikegaya, Satoshi; Takada, Nobuhiro; Tamaki, Yukiko; Tabara, Kenji; Ueda, Takanori

2014-06-01

17

Higher Melt Fractions are Generated in Metamorphosed Hydrothermally Altered Rocks: Significance to Ore Genesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Felsic magma-related ore deposits are Earth's largest source of Cu and Mo, and a major source of Au. Despite this, there have been few field-based studies of processes that affect metal distribution in magma source regions. Based on geochemical studies at ore deposits, it has been suggested that in magmatic arcs, magmas and metal may be derived from subducted oceanic slab, overlying metasomatized mantle wedge, or from the lower crust during anatexis. Intrusion-related Au systems form distally to arcs and are typically associated with reduced granitic magmas thought to be largely derived from partial melting of crustal rocks, casting into question the absolute need for oceanic slab or mantle involvement. Even within arcs, evolution of ore producing magmas may involve mixing between mantle- and crust-derived magmas. It is therefore crucial to understand processes that influence the metal content of these crust-derived magmas. We have compared melting of alteration zones in metamorphosed gold deposits with that of unaltered rocks of the same protolith using the computer program THERMOCALC to examine the relative contributions of metal-rich and metal-poor source regions to crust-derived magmas. Potassium enrichment, caused by pre-metamorphic hydrothermal alteration, is found to stabilize a higher proportion of muscovite and biotite at high metamorphic grades than is possible in unaltered rocks. Because these micas contain water, they control the melt fraction generated through dehydration melting. Therefore, in the vicinity of metamorphosed gold mineralization, the greatest volume of felsic melt is generated in the more metal- and sulfur-rich rocks. Sulfides and Au dissolve, and are physically incorporated into the resulting felsic melt, which thereby becomes metal- and S-enriched. Since the presence of melt significantly weakens rocks, strain preferentially partitions into these melt-rich mineralized zones promoting melt segregation there. As strain increases, high-melt domains become shear zones that expand and link up with other incipient shear zones, forming low pressure channelways for migrating melts. In this way, mineralized zones become part of a regional network of magma pathways through the crust, capable of continuously enriching migrating magmas in metal.

Tomkins, A. G.; Weinberg, R. F.; McFarlane, C. R.

2007-12-01

18

The Significance of Blackstone's Understanding of Sovereign Immunity for America's Public Institutions of Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that from the perspective of America's public institutions of higher education, Blackstone's greatest legacy is his understanding of sovereign immunity. Explores the similarities between Blackstone's understanding of sovereign immunity and the current jurisprudence of the U.S. Supreme Court. (EV)

Snow, Brian A.; Thro, William E.

2001-01-01

19

The study of higher origin of facial artery and its surgical significance.  

PubMed

Facial artery plays a key role in blood supply of the face. Facial artery one of the anterior branches of the external carotid artery originates within the carotid triangle. Variation in the origin of the facial artery was observed on two sides out of 60 sides in 30 cadavers. Facial artery was observed originating at the level just below the maxillary artery within the parotid gland. Facial artery may originate as linguo-facial trunk or thyro-linguo-facial trunk. Other developmental variations have also been described in the literature like, agenesis of facial artery, enlarged facial artery, hypoplastic facial artery. Variability in situation may complicate the surgery. Therefore maxillofacial surgeon, plastic surgeons and head & neck surgeon should be aware of such variation. PMID:25621238

Mangalgiri, Ashutosh; Namdev, Laxmi Narayan; Mahore, Devendra; Kapre, Madan

2015-03-01

20

Serum concentration of alpha-1 antitrypsin is significantly higher in colorectal cancer patients than in healthy controls  

PubMed Central

Background The association between alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency and colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently controversial. The present study compares AAT serum concentrations and gene frequencies between a group of CRC patients and a control group of healthy unrelated people (HUP). Methods 267 CRC subjects (63% males, 72?±?10 years old) were enlisted from a Hospital Clinic setting in Asturias, Spain. The HUP group comprised 327 subjects (67% males, mean age 70?±?7.5 years old) from the same geographical region. Outcome measures were AAT serum concentrations measured by nephelometry, and AAT phenotyping characterization by isoelectric focusing. Results Significantly higher serum concentrations were found among CRC (208?±?60) than in HUP individuals (144?±?20.5) (p?=?0.0001). No differences were found in the phenotypic distribution of the Pi*S and Pi*Z allelic frequencies (p?=?0.639), although the frequency of Pi*Z was higher in CRC (21%) than in HUP subjects (15%). Conclusions The only statistically significant finding in this study was the markedly higher AAT serum concentrations found in CRC subjects compared with HUP controls, irrespective of whether their Pi* phenotype was normal (Pi*MM) or deficient (Pi*MS, Pi*MZ and Pi*SZ). Although there was a trend towards the more deficient Pi* phenotype the more advanced the tumor, the results were inconclusive due to the small sample size. Consequently, more powerful studies are needed to reach firmer conclusions on this matter. PMID:24886427

2014-01-01

21

DHA Serum Levels Were Significantly Higher in Celiac Disease Patients Compared to Healthy Controls and Were Unrelated to Depression  

PubMed Central

Objectives Celiac disease (CD), a genetically predisposed intolerance for gluten, is associated with an increased risk of major depressive disorder (MDD). We investigated whether dietary intake and serum levels of the essential n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) found in fatty fish play a role in this association. Methods Cross-sectional study in 71 adult CD patients and 31 healthy volunteers, matched on age, gender and level of education, who were not using n-3 PUFA supplements. Dietary intake, as assessed using a 203-item food frequency questionnaire, and serum levels of EPA and DHA were compared in analyses of covariance, adjusting for potential confounders. Serum PUFA were determined using gas chromatography. Results Mean serum DHA was significantly higher in CD patients (1.72 mass%) than controls (1.28 mass%) after multivariable adjustment (mean diff. 0.45 mass%; 95% CI: 0.22–0.68; p?=?0.001). The mean intake of EPA plus DHA did not differ between CD patients and controls after multivariable adjustment (0.15 and 0.22 g/d, respectively; p?=?0.10). There were no significant differences in intake or serum levels of EPA and DHA between any of the CD patient groups (never depressed, current MDD, minor/partially remitted MDD, remitted MDD) and controls. Conclusions Patients on a long term gluten-free diet had similar intakes of EPA plus DHA compared to controls. Contrary to expectations, DHA serum levels were significantly higher in CD patients compared to healthy controls and were unrelated to MDD status. PMID:24841484

van Hees, Nathalie J. M.; Giltay, Erik J.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Janssen, Nadine; van der Does, Willem

2014-01-01

22

In this most recent Chandra observation, we see no significant time variability (right, 0th  

E-print Network

In this most recent Chandra observation, we see no significant time variability (right, 0th order Chandra grating data Line diagnostics The two sources are separated by only 3.5 pixels, which ne the Provosts Office at Swarthmore College and acknowledge support from Chandra grant G09-0019 to West Chester

Cohen, David

23

Modelling extreme values of processes observed at irregular time step. Application to significant wave height.  

E-print Network

wave height. Nicolas Raillard1,2,3 , Pierre Ailliot1 , Jian-feng Yao4 Septembre 16, 2011 1 Laboratoire-Kong. Abstract The distribution of extremes such as flood peaks, maximum wave height or minimum daily returns of significant wave heights observed in North Atlantic. One of these time series exhibits missing data (buoy data

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

24

Significantly higher expression levels of androgen receptor are associated with erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene related gene positive prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Erythroblastosis virus E26 related gene (ERG) overexpression is correlated with the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene, a rearrangement known to be present in about 50% of cases of prostate cancer. Androgen receptor (AR) is a known regulator of the TMPRSS2 gene. Despite knowledge of this relationship, limited data is available on the specific relationship of AR expression to TMPRSS2-ERG fusion (ERG) status in prostate cancer (PCa). We used multiplexed immunohistochemistry, multispectral imaging technology and tissue microarray (TMA) to elucidate this relationship. Two prostate tissue microarrays were created from two cohorts of hormonal naïve patients’ prostatectomy specimens: progression TMA (pTMA, from 95 PCa patients) and outcome TMA (oTMA, from 183 PCa patients with at least 5-year follow-up information). Each of the two TMAs were triple-stained with ERG, AR and E-cadherin antibodies and visualized with a different chromogen. We found marked difference in AR expression levels between ERG positive (ERG+) and ERG negative (ERG-) prostate cancer. The difference was significant in localized (pT2) prostate cancer. We also found that AR expression levels were significantly higher in PCa tissue compared to benign prostate tissue, with the highest expression levels in ERG+ metastatic cancer. Neither AR nor ERG expression was associated with clinical outcome. Our findings confirm that TMPRSS2-ERG fusion is AR-dependent and is associated with increased AR expression. Our data suggest that the AR pathway may play an important role in the development of ERG+ PCa and ERG status may be useful in stratifying PCa patients for hormonal therapy. PMID:25374927

Rosenbaum, Jason; Drew, Sally; Huang, Wei

2014-01-01

25

Observational Signatures for Reissner-Nordstom Black Hole with Significant Charge at the Galactic Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive an analytical expression of a shadow size as a function of a charge in the Reissner - Nordström (RN) metric. Using the derived expression we consider shadows for negative tidal charges and charges corresponding to naked singularities q = Q2/M2 > 1, where Q and M are black hole charge and mass, respectively. An introduction of a negative tidal charge q can describes black hole solutions in theories with extra dimensions, so following the approach we consider an opportunity to extend RN metric to negative Q2, while for the standard RN metric Q2 is always non-negative. We found that for q > 9/8 black hole shadows disappear. Significant tidal charges q = -6.4 are not consistent with observations of a minimal spot size at the Galactic Center observed in mm-band, moreover, these observations demonstrate that in comparison with the Schwarzschild black hole a Reissner - Nordström black hole with a significant charge q ? 1 provides a better fit of recent observational data for the black hole at the Galactic Center.

Zakharov, Alexander F.

2013-12-01

26

Tribes and Territories in the 21st Century: Rethinking the Significance of Disciplines in Higher Education. International Studies in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "tribes and territories" metaphor for the cultures of academic disciplines and their roots in different knowledge characteristics has been used by those interested in university life and work since the early 1990s. This book draws together research, data and theory to show how higher education has gone through major change since then and how…

Trowler, Paul, Ed.; Saunders, Murray, Ed.; Bamber, Veronica, Ed.

2012-01-01

27

Human isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium from Taiwan displayed significantly higher levels of antimicrobial resistance than those from Denmark.  

PubMed

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a major zoonotic pathogen with a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. This pathogen can disseminate across borders and spread far distances via the food trade and international travel. In this study, we compared the genotypes and antimicrobial resistance of 378 S. Typhimurium isolates collected in Taiwan and Denmark between 2009 and 2010. Genotyping revealed that many S. Typhimurium strains were concurrently circulating in Taiwan, Denmark and other countries in 2009 and 2010. When compared to the isolates collected from Denmark, the isolates from Taiwan displayed a significantly higher level of resistance to 11 of the 12 tested antimicrobials. Seven genetic clusters (A-G) were designated for the isolates. A high percentage of the isolates in genetic clusters C, F and G were multidrug-resistant. Of the isolates in cluster C, 79.2% were ASSuT-resistant, characterized by resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. In cluster F, 84.1% of the isolates were ACSSuT-resistant (resistant to ASSuT and chloramphenicol). Cluster G was unique to Taiwan and characterized in most isolates by the absence of three VNTRs (ST20, ST30 and STTR6) as well as a variety of multidrug resistance profiles. This cluster exhibited very high to extremely high levels of resistance to several first-line drugs, and among the seven clusters, it displayed the highest levels of resistance to cefotaxime and ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. The high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in S. Typhimurium from Taiwan highlights the necessity to strictly regulate the use of antimicrobials in the agriculture and human health care sectors. PMID:23279815

Torpdahl, Mia; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Liang, Shiu-Yun; Li, Ishien; Wei, Sung-Hsi; Chiou, Chien-Shun

2013-02-01

28

Observation of a Significant Excess of ?0?0 Events in B Meson Decays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of the decay B0??0?0 based on a sample of 124×106 BB¯ pairs recorded by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. We observe 46±13±3 events, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic, corresponding to a significance of 4.2 standard deviations including systematic uncertainties. We measure the branching fraction B(B0??0?0)=(2.1±0.6±0.3)×10-6, averaged over B0 and B¯0 decays.

Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Hicheur, A.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Robbe, P.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Palano, A.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Abrams, G. S.; Borgland, A. W.; Breon, A. B.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Cahn, R. N.; Charles, E.; Day, C. T.; Gill, M. S.; Gritsan, A. V.; Groysman, Y.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kadel, R. W.; Kadyk, J.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kral, J. F.; Kukartsev, G.; Leclerc, C.; Levi, M. E.; Lynch, G.; Mir, L. M.; Oddone, P. J.; Orimoto, T. J.; Pripstein, M.; Roe, N. A.; Romosan, A.; Ronan, M. T.; Shelkov, V. G.; Telnov, A. V.; Wenzel, W. A.; Ford, K.; Harrison, T. J.; Hawkes, C. M.; Knowles, D. J.; Morgan, S. E.; Penny, R. C.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Goetzen, K.; Held, T.; Koch, H.; Lewandowski, B.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Schmuecker, H.; Steinke, M.; Barlow, N. R.; Boyd, J. T.; Chevalier, N.; Cottingham, W. N.; Kelly, M. P.; Latham, T. E.; Mackay, C.; Wilson, F. F.; Abe, K.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Thiessen, D.; Kyberd, P.; McKemey, A. K.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Golubev, V. B.; Ivanchenko, V. N.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Yushkov, A. N.; Best, D.; Bruinsma, M.; Chao, M.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Mommsen, R. K.; Roethel, W.; Stoker, D. P.; Buchanan, C.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Shen, B. C.; del Re, D.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hill, E. J.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Paar, H. P.; Rahatlou, Sh.; Sharma, V.; Berryhill, J. W.; Campagnari, C.; Dahmes, B.; Kuznetsova, N.; Levy, S. L.; Long, O.; Lu, A.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Verkerke, W.; Beck, T. W.; Beringer, J.; Eisner, A. M.; Heusch, C. A.; Lockman, W. S.; Schalk, T.; Schmitz, R. E.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Turri, M.; Walkowiak, W.; Williams, D. C.; Wilson, M. G.; Albert, J.; Chen, E.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dvoretskii, A.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Porter, F. C.; Ryd, A.; Samuel, A.; Yang, S.; Jayatilleke, S.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Abe, T.; Blanc, F.; Bloom, P.; Chen, S.; Clark, P. J.; Ford, W. T.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Rankin, P.; Roy, J.; Smith, J. G.; van Hoek, W. C.; Zhang, L.; Harton, J. L.; Hu, T.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Zhang, J.; Altenburg, D.; Brandt, T.; Brose, J.; Colberg, T.; Dickopp, M.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Hauke, A.; Lacker, H. M.; Maly, E.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Nogowski, R.; Otto, S.; Schubert, J.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Spaan, B.; Wilden, L.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Brochard, F.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Grenier, P.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Vasileiadis, G.; Verderi, M.; Khan, A.; Lavin, D.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Swain, J. E.; Andreotti, M.; Azzolini, V.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Piemontese, L.; Sarti, A.; Treadwell, E.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Biasini, M.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Falciai, D.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Pioppi, M.; Zallo, A.; Buzzo, A.; Capra, R.; Contri, R.; Crosetti, G.; Vetere, M. Lo; Macri, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Bailey, S.; Morii, M.; Won, E.; Bhimji, W.; Bowerman, D. A.; Dauncey, P. D.; Egede, U.; Eschrich, I.; Gaillard, J. R.; Morton, G. W.; Nash, J. A.; Sanders, P.; Taylor, G. P.; Grenier, G. J.; Lee, S.-J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Lamsa, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Yi, J.; Davier, M.; Grosdidier, G.; Höcker, A.; Laplace, S.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Petersen, T. C.; Plaszczynski, S.; Schune, M. H.; Tantot, L.; Wormser, G.; Brigljevi?, V.; Cheng, C. H.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bevan, A. J.; Coleman, J. P.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Kay, M.; Parry, R. J.; Payne, D. J.; Sloane, R. J.; Touramanis, C.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Shorthouse, H. W.; Strother, P.; Vidal, P. B.; Brown, C. L.; Cowan, G.; Flack, R. L.; Flaecher, H. U.; George, S.; Green, M. G.; Kurup, A.; Marker, C. E.; McMahon, T. R.; Ricciardi, S.; Salvatore, F.; Vaitsas, G.; Winter, M. A.; Brown, D.; Davis, C. L.; Allison, J.; Barlow, R. J.; Forti, A. C.; Hart, P. A.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Jackson, F.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lyon, A. J.; Weatherall, J. H.; Williams, J. C.; Farbin, A.; Jawahery, A.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lae, C. K.; Lillard, V.; Roberts, D. A.; Blaylock, G.; Dallapiccola, C.; Flood, K. T.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Kofler, R.; Koptchev, V. B.; Moore, T. B.; Saremi, S.; Staengle, H.; Willocq, S.; Cowan, R.; Sciolla, G.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Mangeol, D. J.; Patel, P. M.; Lazzaro, A.; Palombo, F.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Eschenburg, V.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Reidy, J.

2003-12-01

29

What Does "Peer" Mean in Teaching Observation for the Professional Development of Higher Education Lecturers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The observation of teaching remains an integral process for the enhancement of practice as part of academic continuing professional development in higher education in the UK. This paper argues that failure to recognise the potential for peer-orientated development to reinforce restrictive norms of practice will be detrimental to the project of…

Weller, Saranne

2009-01-01

30

Central adiposity is significantly higher in female compared to male in Pakistani type 2 diabetes mellitus patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) rates are increasing rapidly in South Asians. Cardiovascular complications are more frequent and occur earlier in our patients than patients in many other ethnic groups. Reasons for this are not fully understood. Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the body total and central fat percentage in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients and to check correlation with BMI, waist circumference and metabolic profile. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study conducted at endocrine clinic, Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan, from May to December 2012. Materials and Methods: Patients of either gender with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly selected. A separate proforma for each patient was recorded for demographics, risk factors, bioelectrical impedance measurement for body fat and investigations. Statistical Analysis: Correlation between body fat and other covariate were compared by Pearson correlation coefficient test. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. SPSS19.0 was used to analyze the data. Results: One hundred and seventy five patients (95 male and 80 female) with mean age of 54.1 ± 12 years were evaluated. Mean duration of diabetes was 8.1 years, mean HbA1c was 8.1% and 53.7% were on oral agents and rest were on insulin with or without oral agents. Hypertension was present in 65.7%, 13.7% had known coronary artery disease and 2.3% had cerebrovascular disease. Mean BMI in males was 29.1 ± 4.74 kg/m2 and females 31.7 ± 5.3 kg/m2. Mean waist circumference in males was 107.3 ± 16.6 cm and 103 ± 12 cm in females. Total body fat percentage (%BF) in males was 30.9 ± 7.1% and females 40 ± 8.2% with 89% of the total cohort having total body fat percentage above the normal, less than 25% central fat percentage was 13.3 ± 5.2% in males and 14.6 ± 5.5% in females with 79.4% of cohort having increased central fat (normal <9%). Total and central body fat correlated with BMI (r = 0.68, P < 0.001) and waist circumference (r = 0.66, P < 0.001) but not with HbA1c, triglyceride level or with fasting or random blood glucose levels. Women had significantly higher total body fat percentage compared to men (P < 0.001) although central fat percentage was similar in both sexes. Conclusions: High body fat percentage, waist circumference are seen especially in woman and central body fat percentage in both sexes among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pakistan. Body fat percentage should be measured and followed as this may be an important contributing factor to the high macrovascular complication rate in this part of world. PMID:25593830

Akhter, Omer; Fiazuddin, Faraz; Shaheryar, Ayesha; Niaz, Warda; Siddiqui, Danial; Awan, Safia; Ram, Nanik; Akhter, Jaweed

2015-01-01

31

At 2 weeks of age, protein fractional break-down rates were significantly higher in line LG  

E-print Network

-dependent proteolytic pathways is mainly responsible for skeletal muscle protein loss. Increased ATP compared to line HG, showing divergence in the rate of muscle protein degradation with selection for growth extreme genotypes of pigs an higher muscle pro- tein turnover in the LG than in the HG line. In 4-week

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

32

Observations and Interpretation of Strain Changes Caused by Volcanic Activity: Significance for Earthscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sacks-Evertson borehole strainmeters installed in a number of tectonically active regions have recorded strain changes due to activity in volcanic systems in Japan, Iceland and California. The eruption of Izu-Oshima, Japan, in 1986 produced observed strain changes at distances up to ~55 km from the volcano. Data for the first stage of the eruption show that, while the ultimate reservoir was relatively shallow (5-10 km deep), during and immediately following the eruption that shallow reservoir was replenished by magma flowing up from a reservoir about 30 km deep. The second stage of the eruption (a fissure eruption) was preceded (by almost 2 hours) by strain changes due to dike initiation and propagation. Large strain changes continued for about 10 days after the eruption. These strain changes are well satisfied by a model comprised of a reservoir and 2 dikes. One dike (to the north-west) resulted in fissures in the caldera and on the north-west flank; formation of this dike initiated about 2 hours before the fissuring. The second dike, which did not break the surface, propagated more slowly to the south-west and caused strain changes that continued for many days after the eruptive activity. The 1991 and 2000 eruptions of Hekla, Iceland, were well recorded by borehole strainmeters. Only one site was close enough (15 km) to record pre-eruptive (by about 30 min) changes due to dike propagation but the strain data were sufficient to allow modeling of the eruption in terms of a deflating Mogi reservoir together with a vertically propagating dike. The 2000 eruption was somewhat smaller than the 1991 event but the strain records were very similar. That, together with the increase in local seismicity, allowed a specific prediction and warning to be issued 20 minutes before the eruption. These examples (and data from Long Valley showing significant deformation triggered by the Landers earthquake) have allowed new insight into the physics of volcanic activity despite the fact that the strainmeter arrays (Japan, Iceland) were not designed for monitoring the volcanoes. The Earthscope plan includes several arrays of borehole strainmeters for monitoring selected volcanoes. This clearly presents an opportunity for significantly improving our understanding of volcanoes.

Linde, A. T.; Sacks, I. S.

2002-12-01

33

Spectroscopic observation of higher vibrational levels of C2 through visible band systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Higher vibrational levels of the C2 molecule than those observed so far were investigated for the X{}^1? _g^ +, A1?u, a3?u, c{}^3? _u^ +, and d3?g states through the Phillips, Swan, and d{}^3? _g - c{}^3? _u^ + band systems under a jet-cooled condition. The term values and the molecular constants for 21 new vibronic levels were determined from rotationally resolved excitation spectra. The determined term values and rotational constants were compared to those derived from high-level ab initio potential curves. Perturbations identified in low J levels of the d3?g(v = 8) state are most likely to be caused by the 15?g(v = 3) state.

Nakajima, Masakazu; Endo, Yasuki

2013-12-01

34

Spectroscopic observation of higher vibrational levels of C2 through visible band systems.  

PubMed

Higher vibrational levels of the C2 molecule than those observed so far were investigated for the X(1)?(g)(+), A(1)?(u), a(3)?(u), c(3)?(u)(+), and d(3)?(g) states through the Phillips, Swan, and d(3)?(g)-c(3)?(u)(+) band systems under a jet-cooled condition. The term values and the molecular constants for 21 new vibronic levels were determined from rotationally resolved excitation spectra. The determined term values and rotational constants were compared to those derived from high-level ab initio potential curves. Perturbations identified in low J levels of the d(3)?(g) (v = 8) state are most likely to be caused by the 1(5)?(g) (v = 3) state. PMID:24387373

Nakajima, Masakazu; Endo, Yasuki

2013-12-28

35

Teenagers' Significant Experiences in Aesthetic Areas: Some Empirical Observations Regarding the Role of Dramatic Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifteen sixteen-year-old Fenno-Swedish compulsory school pupils' descriptions and evaluations of significant, i.e. more or less "strong", experiences relating to dramatic art (film, theatre) were analysed and compared with reported experiences in other aesthetic areas (music, nature etc.). The drama area was represented in many experiences, but…

Finnas, Leif

2008-01-01

36

Avoidance tests with earthworms and springtails: Defining the minimum exposure time to observe a significant response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the ability of organisms to avoid contaminated soils, avoidance tests have a great potential as early screening tools in lower tier levels of ERA schemes. Aiming at their standardization, the definition of the minimum exposure time necessary to observe an avoidance response to a contaminant is needed. To fill this gap, avoidance tests with earthworms (Eisenia andrei) and

Tiago Natal-da-Luz; Mónica J. B. Amorim; Jörg Römbke; José Paulo Sousa

2008-01-01

37

Ecological observations on the molluscs of significance in the transmission of bilharziasis in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Further knowledge of the bionomics of bilharziasis vectors is necessary before more effective measures can be taken to control them. Such knowledge, acquired from long-term observations in a variety of habitats, should help to fill some of the gaps in knowledge of molluscan ecology. The present studies were conducted over a period of three to five years and included observations on the proved and suspected vectors of bilharziasis in Kenya. Records were kept of seasonal and regional distribution of the snails, population dynamics and infection rates. Seasonal distribution normally conformed to a definite pattern but was often so influenced by unseasonable weather and interference by man as to render it unrecognizable. Temperature, water fluctuations, types and amount of vegetation, dissolved oxygen and other physical and chemical characteristics of the water were recorded and an attempt was made to assess the importance of the changes in such environmental factors on the prevalence of the snails studied. No correlation could be found between vegetational changes in the habitat and the number of snails present, but complete coverage of the water surface with horizontal vegetation tended to an absence of snails. Except for torrential floods, water fluctuations seemed to have no effect on snail numbers and the chemical and physical properties of the water of negative habitats appeared to be within the range of tolerance of the species observed. It was not found possible to assess the effects of small temperature changes on reproduction in snails; it is suggested that further trials are justified. There was no obvious effect on numbers when snails were found with predators in the same habitat. Many otherwise adequate habitats were unintentionally rendered unsuitable for vector snails by direct interference by man. PMID:13980432

Teesdale, C.

1962-01-01

38

Diagnostic significance of angiographically observed visceral aneurysms with regard to polyarteritis nodosa.  

PubMed

During a 10-year period, intraparenchymal aneurysms were found in 38 of 748 patients at selective abdominal angiography with magnification technique. According to strict criteria, 17 patients were classified as suffering from necrotizing vasculitis of the polyarteritis nodosa group (PAN), 7 from severe arterial hypertension, and 3 from rheumatoid arthritis. The diagnoses of 5 patients remained to be confirmed, and each of the remaining 6 patients suffered from various other diseases. PAN was diagnosed histopathologically in 2 patients without angiographic aneurysms. Based on the 156 patients in whom the indication for angiography was suspicion of arteritis, the angiographic diagnosis of PAN had a sensitivity of 89 percent and a specificity of 90 percent, a positive predictive value of 55 percent and a negative predictive value of 98 percent. The mean number of both renal and hepatic aneurysms was higher in patients with PAN than in the other patients (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.05, respectively). Five PAN patients had numerous and large aneurysms, whereas the aneurysms of the other 12 PAN patients did not differ from those of patients with other diseases. Patients with PAN had renal infarcts more often than the other patients (p less than 0.05). Our findings suggest that visceral angiography is useful in establishing the diagnosis of PAN, but the angiographic finding of aneurysms is not pathognomonic. PMID:1674424

Hekali, P; Kajander, H; Pajari, R; Stenman, S; Somer, T

1991-03-01

39

Narrow-band imaging observation of colorectal lesions using NICE classification to avoid discarding significant lesions  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the risk of failing to detect diminutive and small colorectal cancers with the “resect and discard” policy. METHODS: Patients who received colonoscopy and polypectomy were recruited in the retrospective study. Probable histology of the polyps was predicted by six colonoscopists by the use of NICE classification. The incidence of diminutive and small colorectal cancers and their endoscopic features were assessed. RESULTS: In total, we found 681 cases of diminutive (1-5 mm) lesions in 402 patients and 197 cases of small (6-9 mm) lesions in 151 patients. Based on pathology of the diminutive and small polyps, 105 and 18 were non-neoplastic polyps, 557 and 154 were low-grade adenomas, 18 and 24 were high-grade adenomas or intramucosal/submucosal (SM) scanty invasive carcinomas, 1 and 1 were SM-d carcinoma, respectively. The endoscopic features of invasive cancer were classified as NICE type 3 endoscopically. CONCLUSION: The risk of failing to detect diminutive and small colorectal invasive cancer with the “resect and discard” strategy might be avoided through the use of narrow-band imaging observation with the NICE classification scheme and magnifying endoscopy. PMID:25512769

Hattori, Santa; Iwatate, Mineo; Sano, Wataru; Hasuike, Noriaki; Kosaka, Hidekazu; Ikumoto, Taro; Kotaka, Masahito; Ichiyanagi, Akihiro; Ebisutani, Chikara; Hisano, Yasuko; Fujimori, Takahiro; Sano, Yasushi

2014-01-01

40

Kimberlite-Clan-Rocks in India: Significance of new VGP, T, and GP Observations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although India is acknowledged for the first description of diamond some 2000 BCE, it should also rightfully be credited for the 17th C recognition that diamond is a product of volcanism. With this extraordinary background, it is surprising that the host rocks remain controversial, being neither archetypical kimberlites, nor classic lamproites. Lacking affinities to micro-diamond-bearing UHPT metamorphic rocks and being unequivocally volcanic, the term Kimberlite-Clan-Rock (KCR) is applied. Over 200 KCR pipes and dikes, many of which are richly mineralized, have recently been discovered in the Diamond Corridor (1000 x 200 km) of the Eastern Dharwar Craton, and in adjoining cratons to the N and NE. From 32 absolute age determinations on KCRs, the remaining intrusions, in comparable stratigraphic settings, are assumed to be 1.1 Ga, equivalent to the Argyle lamproite (Australia, highest diamond grade), and the Premier kimberlite (RSA, largest known diamond). India has the largest number of known Proterozoic KCR intrusions that over the centuries have produced a wealth of famous diamonds. The primary source of these extraordinary stones, however, remains unknown, possibly because the unusual host rocks defy conventional exploration protocols. Six new observations make the setting even more unusual: (1) Coeval, large scale magmatism in the Kalahari (>2 m sq km) and Laurentian (>300 k cub km) Cratons at 1085-1112 Ma, during assembly of Rodinia, confirms the relation between and among KCR volcanism, LIPs, and supercontinents; Proterozoic Rodinia, into which the India KCRs, Argyle and Premier were intruded, was constructive, whereas the other, globally-wide, diamond-intrusive event, that occurred during the Mesozoic (80-120 Ma), was related to the breakup of Pangea and the dispersion of Gondwana; both events occurred during long period geomagnetic chrons implying a core relation, and superplume activity from the CMB. (2)The transcontinental Mumbai-Chennai gravity lineament that separates diamond (North) from barren (South) KCRs is interpreted as a sub-lithospheric, architectural discontinuity, with a shallow keel to the N and deeper penertration to the S. (3)An intrusive carbonatite stock into one KCR, and intensely carbonatized xenoliths in another, has rekindled the unsettled VGP debate of kimberlite-carbonatite relations; the new discoveries strongly support a kinship. (4) An eclogite xenolith from Kaliandurg has euhedral inclusions of re-equilibrated majorite in garnet; the assemblage has important implications for depths of origin (in or close to the TZ), and the controversial issue of Archean ocean crust recycling, recognizing that there are other ways to generate mantle eclogites. (5) Heterogeneities in the source regions of KCRs, and in the degrees of mantle melting, metasomatism and mixing, are well displayed in the Chigicherla KCR cluster; CC5 has unprecedented 2-10cm diameter autoliths (ol + cc + sp + perv), that are partially to totally assimilated in closely associated bodies, or are absent in others; (6)Groundmass olivine in KCRs from Naryanpet (non-diamond) and Wajrakur (diamond-bearing) have densely packed, crystal-oriented laths of rutile in association with blebs of metal + sulfide; these intergrowths bear on the unresolved solubility of Ti in olivine and its appeal to super high P-T conditions in diamond and coesite-bearing metamorphic terrains; the KCR settings, however, imply crystallization of olivine at low P, coupled with or followed by Ti metasomatism. With increased activities in diamond exploration many more VGP, T and GP mantle revelations are expected from this geologically classic and historically important part of the sub-continent.

Haggerty, S. E.

2005-05-01

41

The UNESCO-CEPES Jubilee: An Opportune Event for Some Observations about Higher Education in Romania.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Romania's prime minister evokes the role of UNESCO-CEPES as a forum for discussion of the principal issues of higher education. The pre-1989 activities of the Centre are compared to the post-1989 ones and to the role of the Centre in supporting the general reform of higher education in Central and Eastern Europe. (EV)

Nastase, Adrian

2003-01-01

42

Using Teaching Observations to Reflect Upon and Improve Teaching Practice in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to improve teaching and learning within a faculty, an action research intervention involving peer observation of teaching staff via an expert was designed and implemented. A total of ten staff (including the first author) were observed over the year. The process consisted of observation at class, a written report, discussion between…

Atkinson, Douglas J.; Bolt, Susan

2010-01-01

43

Middle School Teams Increasing Access to General Education for Students with Significant Disabilities: Issues Encountered and Activities Observed across Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The experiences of three students with significant disabilities and their educational teams were studied during these students' first year of receiving general education services. Interviews were conducted with general educators, special educators, and parents to identify issues encountered during the year. Also, classroom observations were…

Matzen, Katherine; Ryndak, Diane; Nakao, Taketo

2010-01-01

44

Severe Septic Patients with Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup JT Show Higher Survival Rates: A Prospective, Multicenter, Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Objective In a previous cohort study (n=96), we found an association between mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplogroup JT and increased survival of severe septic patients, after controlling for age and serum lactic acid levels. The aim of this research was to increase the predictive accuracy and to control for more confounder variables in a larger cohort (n=196) of severe septic patients, to confirm whether mtDNA haplogroup JT influences short and medium-term survival in these patients. Methods We conducted a prospective, multicenter, observational study in six Spanish Intensive Care Units. We determined 30-day and 6-month survival and mtDNA haplogroup in this second cohort of 196 patients and in the global cohort (first and second cohorts combined) with 292 severe septic patients. Multiple logistic regression and Cox regression analyses were used to test for the association of mtDNA haplogroups JT with survival at 30-days and 6-months, controlling for age, sex, serum interleukin-6 levels and SOFA score. Results Logistic and Cox regression analyses showed no differences in 30-day and 6-month survival between patients with mtDNA haplogroup JT and other haplogroups in the first cohort (n=96). In the second cohort (n=196), these analyses showed a trend to higher 30-day and 6-month survival in those with haplogroup JT. In the global cohort (n=292), logistic and Cox regression analyses showed higher 30-day and 6-month survival for haplogroup JT. There were no significant differences between J and T sub-haplogroups in 30-day and 6-month survival. Conclusions The global cohort study (first and second cohorts combined), the largest to date reporting on mtDNA haplogroups in septic patients, confirmed that haplogroup JT patients showed increased 30-day and 6-month survival. This finding may be due to single nucleotide polymorphism defining the whole haplogroup JT and not separately for J or T sub-haplogroups. PMID:24069186

Martín, María M.; López-Gallardo, Esther; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Labarta, Lorenzo; Díaz, César; Borreguero-León, Juan María; Jiménez, Alejandro; Montoya, Julio; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo

2013-01-01

45

The significance of low-level viraemia in diverse settings: analysis of the Treat Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD) and the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD)  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of the study was to assess the significance of low-level viraemia (LLV) and the timing of treatment change in low/middle-income country (L/MIC) compared with high-income country (HIC) settings. Methods Patients with virological control following commencement of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) were included in the study. LLV was defined as undetectable viral load (<50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL) followed by confirmed detectable viral load < 1000 copies/mL. Virological failure was defined as viral load > 1000 copies/mL. Kaplan–Meier plots of time to virological failure by prior LLV and income category were generated. Regimen changes in the setting of LLV were compared between sites. Sensitivity analysis of rates of LLV and virological failure by person-years and number of tests was conducted for differing definitions of LLV and virological failure. Results A total of 1748 patients from HICs and 823 patients from L/MICs were included in the study. One hundred and ninety-six (11.2%) HIC participants and 36 (4.4%) L/MIC participants experienced at least one episode of LLV. Of the patients who underwent regimen switch in HIC settings, the majority changed from a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)/protease inhibitor (PI) regimen to an NRTI/nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) regimen (26.8%). Very few switches were made in L/MIC settings. Rates of LLV were significantly higher for HICs compared with L/MICs per 1000 person-years (28.6 and 9.9 per 1000 person-years, respectively), but not in terms of the number of tests (9.4 and 7.2 per 1000 tests, respectively). Rates of virological failure per test were significantly higher for L/MICs compared with HICs (30.7 vs. 19.6 per 1000 tests, respectively; P < 0.001). LLV was a significant predictor of virological failure at 2 years in L/MICs [0.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11–0.50; P = 0.043] but not in HICs (0.13; 95% CI 0.08–0.22; P = 0.523). Conclusions LLV is weakly predictive of virological failure at 2 years in L/MICs but not in HICs. This suggests that interventions targeted at subjects with LLV in L/MICs would help to improve treatment outcomes. PMID:24460817

Kanapathipillai, R; McManus, H; Cuong, DD; Ng, OT; Kinh, NV; Giles, M; Read, T; Woolley, I

2014-01-01

46

HIV-Positive Nigerian Adults Harbor Significantly Higher Serum Lumefantrine Levels than HIV-Negative Individuals Seven Days after Treatment for Plasmodium falciparum Infection  

PubMed Central

Management of coinfection with malaria and HIV is a major challenge to public health in developing countries, and yet potential drug-drug interactions between antimalarial and antiviral regimens have not been adequately investigated in people with both infections. Each of the constituent components of artemether-lumefantrine, the first-line regimen for malaria treatment in Nigeria, and nevirapine, a major component of highly active antiretroviral therapy, are drugs metabolized by the cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme system, which is also known to be induced by nevirapine. We examined potential interactions between lumefantrine and nevirapine in 68 HIV-positive adults, all of whom were diagnosed with asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections by microscopy. Post hoc PCR analysis confirmed the presence of P. falciparum in only a minority of participants. Day 7 capillary blood levels of lumefantrine were significantly higher in HIV-positive participants than in 99 HIV-negative controls (P = 0.0011). Associations between day 7 levels of lumefantrine and risk of persistent parasitemia could not be evaluated due to inadequate power. Further investigations of the impact of nevirapine on in vivo malaria treatment outcomes in HIV-infected patients are thus needed. PMID:23774430

Chijioke-Nwauche, Ifeyinwa; van Wyk, Albert; Nwauche, Chijioke; Beshir, Khalid B.; Kaur, Harparkash

2013-01-01

47

HIV-positive nigerian adults harbor significantly higher serum lumefantrine levels than HIV-negative individuals seven days after treatment for Plasmodium falciparum infection.  

PubMed

Management of coinfection with malaria and HIV is a major challenge to public health in developing countries, and yet potential drug-drug interactions between antimalarial and antiviral regimens have not been adequately investigated in people with both infections. Each of the constituent components of artemether-lumefantrine, the first-line regimen for malaria treatment in Nigeria, and nevirapine, a major component of highly active antiretroviral therapy, are drugs metabolized by the cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme system, which is also known to be induced by nevirapine. We examined potential interactions between lumefantrine and nevirapine in 68 HIV-positive adults, all of whom were diagnosed with asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections by microscopy. Post hoc PCR analysis confirmed the presence of P. falciparum in only a minority of participants. Day 7 capillary blood levels of lumefantrine were significantly higher in HIV-positive participants than in 99 HIV-negative controls (P = 0.0011). Associations between day 7 levels of lumefantrine and risk of persistent parasitemia could not be evaluated due to inadequate power. Further investigations of the impact of nevirapine on in vivo malaria treatment outcomes in HIV-infected patients are thus needed. PMID:23774430

Chijioke-Nwauche, Ifeyinwa; van Wyk, Albert; Nwauche, Chijioke; Beshir, Khalid B; Kaur, Harparkash; Sutherland, Colin J

2013-09-01

48

Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS): Improved experimental design and observation of new higher-order processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the optical and electronic arrangement which has permitted the straightforward measurement of coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectra (CARS) and of higher-order processes not previously reported is described in this paper. The CARS spectrum of a dilute solution of diphenyloctatetraene in benzene is presented. This spectrum demonstrates the significantly greater signal-to-noise ratio possible with CARS as compared to conventional

Ilan Chabay; Gary K. Klauminzer; Bruce S. Hudson

1976-01-01

49

Significant geomagnetic differences in both phase and amplitude observed at "conjugate" polar latitudes near the December 1903 Solstice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During Roald Amundsen's exploration of the Northwest Passage (1903-1906) he conducted systematic measurements of diurnal and seasonal variations of the north magnetic dip pole (NMDP) at Gjøahavn (~ 68 N, 95 E). The NMDP variations have been largely interpreted as indicating control by the polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF); the Svalgard-Mansurov (S-M) effect. In Sir Robert Scott's Discovery expedition, geomagnetic observations were made in 1903 from Cape Armitage, Antarctica (~78 S, 168 E). Unwittingly, the measurements of Amundsen and Scott were acquired near conjugate ends of the same magnetic field lines. While their separation in solar local time is ~ 5 hours, they differ in magnetic local time less than 1/2 hour. However, up to this time no direct comparison of the two sets of magnetic observations has ever been made. This presentation contains an analysis of magnetic perturbations observed at both locations for comparison with contemporary and present day monthly-averaged diurnal variations, even if the overlap in data among these expeditions is somewhat limited. The near magnetic conjugacy of Gjøahavn- Cape Armitage locations makes these measurements valuable. Our analysis shows: (1) While similar variations appeared at both ends of the joining magnetic field they manifest significant differences in both phase and amplitude, (2) present day NMDP variations appear consistent with the S-M effect analyses when compared with satellite measurements of solar wind/IMF measurements, (3) differences at the "conjugate" locations cannot be explained in terms of the S-M effect alone. The roles of lobe cell and ionospheric conductance at polar magnetically "conjugate" locations are used to explain the observed phase and amplitude differences.

Egeland, Alv; Deehr, Charles

2014-05-01

50

Observation of New Photoluminescence Emission in the YAG Structure and Its significant Effects on the Material Optical Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yttrium Aluminum Garnets, Y3Al5O12 (YAG) are widely used as host materials for transition and rare earth elements in laser, optoelectronic and scintillation applications. They are the most important solid state laser host materials and the most promising scintillation materials. New photoluminescence peaks were observed at 700 and 800 nm in undoped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) single crystals. This luminescence has great effects on the optical properties of rare-earth doped YAG crystals and their performance in laser and scintillation applications. Photoluminescence measurements revealed a number of luminescence peaks in all YAG crystals regardless of the growth conditions due to native defects and low-level impurities. The strong 700 and 800 nm emissions were attributed to low level of iron impurities as confirmed by Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry analysis. This study reveals that iron is a native impurity in all YAG crystals that plays a significant role on modifying the optical and scintillation properties of this important class of photonic materials.

Selim, Farida; Varney, Chhristopher; Reda, Sherif; Mackay, David

2012-02-01

51

Significantly increased monounsaturated lipids relative to polyunsaturated lipids in six types of cancer microenvironment are observed by mass spectrometry imaging  

PubMed Central

Six different types of cancer (i.e., breast, lung, colorectal, esophageal, gastric, and thyroid cancer) have high rates of incidence or mortality worldwide. It has been shown that activation of de novo lipogenesis is an early and common event in the cancer microenvironment. In this study, we performed lipid imaging and profiling for 134 tissue samples from six different types of cancer using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, with 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 1,8-bis(dimethyl-amino)naphthalene as matrices in the positive and negative ion modes, respectively. Multivariate statistical analysis coupled with lipid distribution images revealed that significantly increased levels of monounsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated phosphatidylcholines relative to polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines were observed in the cancer microenvironment compared with the adjacent normal tissue. The immunohistochemical assay indicated that fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and choline kinase ? were up-regulated in the cancer microenvironment compared with the adjacent normal tissue. Our findings suggest that de novo lipogenesis was activated in six types of cancer to promote a biosynthesis of lipids with monounsaturated acyl chains and to suppress a biosynthesis of polyunsaturated lipids in the cancer microenvironment. PMID:25091112

Guo, Shuai; Wang, Yanmin; Zhou, Dan; Li, Zhili

2014-01-01

52

Observation and calculation of higher-order sideband transitions in a flux qubit coupled to a SQUID-based resonator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Qubit-resonator coupled systems have been intensively studied because of their potential usefulness in quantum information processing. We investigated a superconducting flux qubit coupled to a resonator mode (SQUID plasma mode) associated with a dc SQUID used to read out the qubit state. Higher-order red and blue sideband transitions with |M| = 1, 2, and 3, where M represents the change in the quantum number of the resonator state, were clearly observed away from the symmetry point. We calculated the transition matrix elements between the dressed states and examined their dependence on both the coupling strength and the flux bias for the qubit. The observation of the sidebands up to |M| = 3 is consistent with the calculation results.

Shimazu, Y.; Shirasaki, R.; Toda, S.; Yamanashi, H.

2014-12-01

53

Significant Labor and Employment Law Issues in Higher Education During the Past Decade and What To Look for Now: A Union Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A union perspective of major issues in higher education labor law in the 1990s includes the 11th Circuit Court cases on whether Congress abrogated states' 11th Amendment immunity for suits under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) and under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Analyzes contract issues of protection around age…

Hendrickson, Rachel

2000-01-01

54

Primary bacteraemia is associated with a higher mortality risk compared with pulmonary and intra-abdominal infections in patients with sepsis: a prospective observational cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether common infection foci (pulmonary, intra-abdominal and primary bacteraemia) are associated with variations in mortality risk in patients with sepsis. Design Prospective, observational cohort study. Setting Three surgical intensive care units (ICUs) at a university medical centre. Participants A total of 327 adult Caucasian patients with sepsis originating from pulmonary, intra-abdominal and primary bacteraemia participated in this study. Primary and secondary outcome measures The patients were followed for 90?days and mortality risk was recorded as the primary outcome variable. To monitor organ failure, sepsis-related organ failure assessment (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, SOFA) scores were evaluated at the onset of sepsis and throughout the observational period as secondary outcome variables. Results A total of 327 critically ill patients with sepsis were enrolled in this study. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the 90-day mortality risk was significantly higher among patients with primary bacteraemia than among those with pulmonary and intra-abdominal foci (58%, 35% and 32%, respectively; p=0.0208). To exclude the effects of several baseline variables, we performed multivariate Cox regression analysis. Primary bacteraemia remained a significant covariate for mortality in the multivariate analysis (HR 2.10; 95% CI 1.14 to 3.86; p=0.0166). During their stay in the ICU, the patients with primary bacteraemia presented significantly higher SOFA scores than those of the patients with pulmonary and intra-abdominal infection foci (8.5±4.7, 7.3±3.4 and 5.8±3.5, respectively). Patients with primary bacteraemia presented higher SOFA-renal score compared with the patients with other infection foci (1.6±1.4, 0.8±1.1 and 0.7±1.0, respectively); the patients with primary bacteraemia required significantly more renal replacement therapy than the patients in the other groups (29%, 11% and 12%, respectively). Conclusions These results indicate that patients with sepsis with primary bacteraemia present a higher mortality risk compared with patients with sepsis of pulmonary or intra-abdominal origins. These results should be assessed in patients with sepsis in larger, independent cohorts. PMID:25564146

Mansur, Ashham; Klee, Yvonne; Popov, Aron Frederik; Erlenwein, Joachim; Ghadimi, Michael; Beissbarth, Tim; Bauer, Martin; Hinz, José

2015-01-01

55

Low-altitude ISIS 1 observations of auroral radio emissions and their significance to the cyclotron maser instability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-altitude ISIS 1 observations are presented which support the cyclotron maser instability as the generation mechanism of most, but not all, auroral radio emissions. The observations confirm the ability of the mechanism to generate different wave modes and harmonics as the ratio of the plasma frequency to gyrofrequency f(N)/f(H) increases depending on the form of the energetic electron distribution function. The present observations correspond to conditions where f(N)/F(H) is always larger than 0.2 and is typically about 1.0. The observations and instability growth rate calculations indicate that second harmonic radiation in the extraordinary and the Z modes is directly generated at low altitudes. By far the most common signals observed near ISIS 1 perigee, however, are in the fundamental Z and whistler modes. The observations and calculations in the case of the Z mode suggest that the pertinent process involves a maser that does not saturate, i.e., that group velocity effects are important. The whistler mode is the most intense signal observed at low altitudes. Since the cyclotron maser generated whistler mode waves have peak growth rates for downward field-aligned propagation, they should be able to penetrate the ionosphere. This process may provide the explanation of occasional reports, dating back to the International Geophysical Year time period, of ground level detection of radio noise associated with the aurora.

Benson, Robert F.; Wong, H. K.

1987-01-01

56

The significance of heart rate in free swimming cod, Gadus morhua: Some observations with ultra?sonic tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra sonic transmitters (cylindrical, 1.5 cm diameter × 7 cm long) with three?week battery life were used to examine the heart rate and electrocardiogram (ECG) of cod in swimming experiments. The maximum heart rate was observed when the period between the recovery (T) wave and the initial wave (P) of the ECG was zero and was limited by the P

C. S. Wardle; J. W. Kanwisher

1973-01-01

57

The significance of recruiting underrepresented minorities in medicine: an examination of the need for effective approaches used in admissions by higher education institutions  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to examine the significance of recruiting underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM). This would include African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans. The research findings support the belief that URMs, upon graduating, are more likely to become practitioners in underserved communities, thereby becoming a resource that prompts us to find effective ways to help increase their college enrollments statewide. This paper analyzes the recruitment challenges for institutions, followed by a review of creative and effective approaches used by organizations and universities. The results have shown positive outcomes averaging a 50% increase in minority enrollments and retention. In other areas, such as cognitive development, modest gains were achieved in programs that were shorter in duration. The results nevertheless indicated steps in the right direction inspiring further program developments. PMID:25192970

Figueroa, Obed

2014-01-01

58

The Taxonomic Significance of Species That Have Only Been Observed Once: The Genus Gymnodinium (Dinoflagellata) as an Example  

PubMed Central

Taxonomists have been tasked with cataloguing and quantifying the Earth’s biodiversity. Their progress is measured in code-compliant species descriptions that include text, images, type material and molecular sequences. It is from this material that other researchers are to identify individuals of the same species in future observations. It has been estimated that 13% to 22% (depending on taxonomic group) of described species have only ever been observed once. Species that have only been observed at the time and place of their original description are referred to as oncers. Oncers are important to our current understanding of biodiversity. They may be validly described species that are members of a rare biosphere, or they may indicate endemism, or that these species are limited to very constrained niches. Alternatively, they may reflect that taxonomic practices are too poor to allow the organism to be re-identified or that the descriptions are unknown to other researchers. If the latter are true, our current tally of species will not be an accurate indication of what we know. In order to investigate this phenomenon and its potential causes, we examined the microbial eukaryote genus Gymnodinium. This genus contains 268 extant species, 103 (38%) of which have not been observed since their original description. We report traits of the original descriptions and interpret them in respect to the status of the species. We conclude that the majority of oncers were poorly described and their identity is ambiguous. As a result, we argue that the genus Gymnodinium contains only 234 identifiable species. Species that have been observed multiple times tend to have longer descriptions, written in English. The styles of individual authors have a major effect, with a few authors describing a disproportionate number of oncers. The information about the taxonomy of Gymnodinium that is available via the internet is incomplete, and reliance on it will not give access to all necessary knowledge. Six new names are presented – Gymnodinium campbelli for the homonymous name Gymnodinium translucens Campbell 1973, Gymnodinium antarcticum for the homonymous name Gymnodinium frigidum Balech 1965, Gymnodinium manchuriensis for the homonymous name Gymnodinium autumnale Skvortzov 1968, Gymnodinium christenum for the homonymous name Gymnodinium irregulare Christen 1959, Gymnodinium conkufferi for the homonymous name Gymnodinium irregulare Conrad & Kufferath 1954 and Gymnodinium chinensis for the homonymous name Gymnodinium frigidum Skvortzov 1968. PMID:22952856

Thessen, Anne E.; Patterson, David J.; Murray, Shauna A.

2012-01-01

59

Significant Redistribution of Ce 4d Oscillator Strength Observed in Photoionization of Endohedral Ce-C{sub 82}{sup +} Ions  

SciTech Connect

Mass-selected beams of atomic Ce{sup q+} ions (q=2, 3, 4), of C{sub 82}{sup +} and of endohedral Ce-C{sub 82}{sup +} ions were employed to study photoionization of free and encaged cerium atoms. The Ce 4d inner-shell contributions to single and double ionization of the endohedral Ce-C{sub 82}{sup +} fullerene have been extracted from the data and compared with expectations based on theory and the experiments with atomic Ce ions. Dramatic reduction and redistribution of the ionization contributions to 4d photoabsorption is observed. More than half of the Ce 4d oscillator strength appears to be diverted to the additional decay channels opened by the fullerene cage surrounding the Ce atom.

Mueller, A.; Schippers, S. [Institut fuer Atom- und Molekuelphysik, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Habibi, M.; Esteves, D.; Wang, J. C.; Phaneuf, R. A. [Department of Physics, MS 220, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557-0058 (United States); Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Aguilar, A. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 7-100, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Dunsch, L. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstoffforschung Dresden, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)

2008-09-26

60

Higher surface ozone concentrations over the Chesapeake Bay than over the adjacent land: Observations and models from the DISCOVER-AQ and CBODAQ campaigns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air quality models, such as the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, indicate decidedly higher ozone near the surface of large interior water bodies, such as the Great Lakes and Chesapeake Bay. In order to test the validity of the model output, we performed surface measurements of ozone (O3) and total reactive nitrogen (NOy) on the 26-m Delaware II NOAA Small Research Vessel experimental (SRVx), deployed in the Chesapeake Bay for 10 daytime cruises in July 2011 as part of NASA's GEO-CAPE CBODAQ oceanographic field campaign in conjunction with NASA's DISCOVER-AQ air quality field campaign. During this 10-day period, the EPA O3 regulatory standard of 75 ppbv averaged over an 8-h period was exceeded four times over water while ground stations in the area only exceeded the standard at most twice. This suggests that on days when the Baltimore/Washington region is in compliance with the EPA standard, air quality over the Chesapeake Bay might exceed the EPA standard. Ozone observations over the bay during the afternoon were consistently 10-20% higher than the closest upwind ground sites during the 10-day campaign; this pattern persisted during good and poor air quality days. A lower boundary layer, reduced cloud cover, slower dry deposition rates, and other lesser mechanisms, contribute to the local maximum of ozone over the Chesapeake Bay. Observations from this campaign were compared to a CMAQ simulation at 1.33 km resolution. The model is able to predict the regional maximum of ozone over the Chesapeake Bay accurately, but NOy concentrations are significantly overestimated. Explanations for the overestimation of NOy in the model simulations are also explored.

Goldberg, Daniel L.; Loughner, Christopher P.; Tzortziou, Maria; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Marufu, Lackson T.; Dickerson, Russell R.

2014-02-01

61

Higher surface ozone concentrations over the Chesapeake Bay than over the adjacent land: Observations and models from the  

E-print Network

multiscale air quality (CMAQ) model a b s t r a c t Air quality models, such as the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, indicate decidedly higher ozone near the surface of large interior water bodies-CAPE CBODAQ oceanographic field campaign in conjunction with NASA's DISCOVER-AQ air quality field campaign

Dickerson, Russell R.

62

July 14 fits these criteria: compared to July 16 and other days, much higher winds observed over portions of the lakes; little rain over lakes observed. (All  

E-print Network

portions of the lakes; little rain over lakes observed. (All times are Greenwich Mean Time). We decided the Great Lakes. The particle concentrations generally decreased with altitude and increased exponentially Lakes.1 In this project, we modeled the potential impacts of these newly discovered particles, since

Collins, Gary S.

63

Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium Resulted in Significantly Higher Tissue Chromium Burden Compared With Trivalent Chromium Following Similar Oral Doses to Male F344/N Rats and Female B6C3F1 Mice  

PubMed Central

In National Toxicology Program 2-year studies, hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] administered in drinking water was clearly carcinogenic in male and female rats and mice, resulting in small intestine epithelial neoplasms in mice at a dose equivalent to or within an order of magnitude of human doses that could result from consumption of chromium-contaminated drinking water, assuming that dose scales by body weight3/4 (body weight raised to the 3/4 power). In contrast, exposure to trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] at much higher concentrations may have been carcinogenic in male rats but was not carcinogenic in mice or female rats. As part of these studies, total chromium was measured in tissues and excreta of additional groups of male rats and female mice. These data were used to infer the uptake and distribution of Cr(VI) because Cr(VI) is reduced to Cr(III) in vivo, and no methods are available to speciate tissue chromium. Comparable external doses resulted in much higher tissue chromium concentrations following exposure to Cr(VI) compared with Cr(III), indicating that a portion of the Cr(VI) escaped gastric reduction and was distributed systemically. Linear or supralinear dose responses of total chromium in tissues were observed following exposure to Cr(VI), indicating that these exposures did not saturate gastric reduction capacity. When Cr(VI) exposure was normalized to ingested dose, chromium concentrations in the liver and glandular stomach were higher in mice, whereas kidney concentrations were higher in rats. In vitro studies demonstrated that Cr(VI), but not Cr(III), is a substrate of the sodium/sulfate cotransporter, providing a partial explanation for the greater absorption of Cr(VI). PMID:20843897

Collins, Bradley J.; Stout, Matthew D.; Levine, Keith E.; Kissling, Grace E.; Fennell, Timothy R.; Walden, Ramsey; Abdo, Kamal; Pritchard, John B.; Fernando, Reshan A.; Burka, Leo T.; Hooth, Michelle J.

2010-01-01

64

Observations of a rapidly flowing and significantly retreated Jakobshavn Isbrae and the proglacial ice mélange from a ground based radar interferometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jakobshavn Isbrae has experienced several changes in seasonal behavior over the last decade. During the period of floating ice tongue loss and late summer grounded calving from 2000-2010, the calving front experienced a seasonally modulated ~5km advance and retreat as calving ceased during the winter and re-initiated in the spring. During that time the glacier doubled its speed and the terminus retreated ~14 km. The glacier entered a new seasonal pattern in 2010 when it continued to calve throughout the winter and subsequently failed to significantly re-advance. The glacier continues to evolve into 2012; it is now moving at a new maximum speed and the terminus has already reached a new minimum position in mid-summer, far earlier than in previous years. The calving style has changed from full glacier thick icebergs that calve as episodic events at one week to few week intervals to smaller sub-kilometer icebergs that calve more frequently. A two-week field campaign was conducted observing the terminus and proglacial ice mélange during in August 2012. A group of ground based radar interferometers were deployed to monitor changes in speed and surface deformation in response to calving events and tidal cycles, helping to illustrate the new style of calving, which leads to significantly smaller icebergs in the fjord. Observations are compared against GPS instruments deployed along the terminus as well as time-lapse photography and satellite data. The radars not only capture the motion of glacier ice, but are also well suited to document the response of the ice melange to calving events. The effects of atmospheric variability on ground based radar interferometry can be important.

Cassotto, R. K.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Amundson, J. M.; Truffer, M.; de la Pena, S.; Joughin, I. R.

2012-12-01

65

An Intermediate-Mass Black Hole in the Globular Cluster G1: Improved Significance from New Keck and Hubble Space Telescope Observations  

E-print Network

We present dynamical models for the massive globular cluster G1. The goal is to measure or place a significant upper limit on the mass of any central black hole. Whether or not globular clusters contain central massive black holes has important consequences for a variety of studies. We use new kinematic data obtained with Keck and new photometry from the Hubble Space Telescope. The Keck spectra allow us to obtain kinematics out to large radii that are required to pin down the mass-to-light ratio of the dynamical model and the orbital structure. The Hubble Space Telescope observations give us a factor of two better spatial resolution for the surface brightness profile. By fitting non-parametric, spherical, isotropic models we find a best-fit black hole mass of 1.7(+-0.3)e4 Msun. Fully general axisymmetric orbit-based models give similar results, with a black hole mass of 1.8(+-0.5)e4 Msun. The no-black hole model has Delta_chi^2=5 (marginalized over mass-to-light ratio), implying less than 3% significance. We have taken into account any change in the mass-to-light ratio in the center due to stellar remnants. These results are consistent with our previous estimate in Gebhardt, Rich & Ho (2002), and inconsistent with the analysis of Baumgardt et al. (2003) who claim that G1 does not show evidence for a black hole. These new results make G1 the best example of a cluster that contains an intermediate-mass black hole.

Karl Gebhardt; R. Michael Rich; Luis C. Ho

2005-08-10

66

Tectonic activity as a significant source of crustal tetrafluoromethane emissions to the atmosphere: Observations in groundwaters along the San Andreas Fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tetrafluoromethane (CF4) concentrations were measured in 14 groundwater samples from the Cuyama Valley, Mil Potrero and Cuddy Valley aquifers along the Big Bend section of the San Andreas Fault System (SAFS) in California to assess whether tectonic activity in this region is a significant source of crustal CF4 to the atmosphere. Dissolved CF4 concentrations in all groundwater samples but one were elevated with respect to estimated recharge concentrations including entrainment of excess air during recharge (Cre; ?30 fmol kg-1 H2O), indicating subsurface addition of CF4 to these groundwaters. Groundwaters in the Cuyama Valley contain small CF4 excesses (0.1-9 times Cre), which may be attributed to an in situ release from weathering and a minor addition of deep crustal CF4 introduced to the shallow groundwater through nearby faults. CF4 excesses in groundwaters within 200 m of the SAFS are larger (10-980 times Cre) and indicate the presence of a deep crustal flux of CF4 that is likely associated with the physical alteration of silicate minerals in the shear zone of the SAFS. Extrapolating CF4 flux rates observed in this study to the full extent of the SAFS (1300 km × 20-100 km) suggests that the SAFS potentially emits (0.3- 1) ×10-1 kg CF4 yr-1 to the Earth's surface. For comparison, the chemical weathering of ? 7.5 ×104km2 of granitic rock in California is estimated to release (0.019- 3.2) ×10-1 kg CF4 yr-1. Tectonic activity is likely an important, and potentially the dominant, driver of natural emissions of CF4 to the atmosphere. Variations in preindustrial atmospheric CF4 as observed in paleo-archives such as ice cores may therefore represent changes in both continental weathering and tectonic activity, including changes driven by variations in continental ice cover during glacial-interglacial transitions.

Deeds, Daniel A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Mühle, Jens; Weiss, Ray F.

2015-02-01

67

An Intermediate-Mass Black Hole in the Globular Cluster G1: Improved Significance from New Keck and Hubble Space Telescope Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present dynamical models for the massive globular cluster G1. The goal is\\u000ato measure or place a significant upper limit on the mass of any central black\\u000ahole. Whether or not globular clusters contain central massive black holes has\\u000aimportant consequences for a variety of studies. We use new kinematic data\\u000aobtained with Keck and new photometry from the

Karl Gebhardt; R. Michael Rich; Luis C. Ho

2005-01-01

68

Observation of Significant enhancement in the efficiency of a DSSC by InN nanoparticles over TiO 2-nanoparticle films  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the effect of InN deposited over TiO2 nanoparticle (NP) films on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using N3 dye with I-\\/I3- electrolyte. A 10–20% increase in efficiency was observed for InN deposited, N3 sensitized 5–8.5?m thick TiO2 films as compared to similar non-treated films. The deposition of InN was carried out in the temperature range

Tsai-Te Wang; P. Raghunath; Yun-Fang Lu; Yu-Chang Liu; Chwei-Huawn Chiou; M. C. Lin

2011-01-01

69

Significant RF-EMF and thermal levels observed in a computational model of a person with a tibial plate for grounded 40?MHz exposure.  

PubMed

Using numerical modeling, a worst-case scenario is considered when a person with a metallic implant is exposed to a radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF). An adult male standing on a conductive ground plane was exposed to a 40?MHz vertically polarized plane wave field, close to whole-body resonance where maximal induced current flows are expected in the legs. A metal plate (50-300?mm long) was attached to the tibia in the left leg. The findings from this study re-emphasize the need to ensure compliance with limb current reference levels for exposures near whole-body resonance, and not just rely on compliance with ambient electric (E) and magnetic (H) field reference levels. Moreover, we emphasize this recommendation for someone with a tibial plate, as failure to comply may result in significant tissue damage (increases in the localized temperature of 5-10?°C were suggested by the modeling for an incident E-field of 61.4?V/m root mean square (rms)). It was determined that the occupational reference level for limb current (100?mA?rms), as stipulated in the 1998 guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), is satisfied if the plane wave incident E-field levels are no more than 29.8?V/m?rms without an implant and 23.4?V/m?rms for the model with a 300?mm implant. PMID:24578303

McIntosh, Robert L; Iskra, Steve; Anderson, Vitas

2014-05-01

70

Ritonavir and Efavirenz Significantly Alter the Metabolism of Erlotinib—an Observation in Primary Cultures of Human Hepatocytes That Is Relevant to HIV Patients with Cancer  

PubMed Central

Erlotinib is approved for the treatment of non–small cell lung and pancreatic cancers, and is metabolized by CYP3A4. Inducers and inhibitors of CYP3A enzymes such as ritonavir and efavirenz, respectively, may be used as part of the highly active antiretroviral therapy drugs to treat patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). When HIV patients with a malignancy need treatment with erlotinib, there is a potential of as-yet-undefined drug-drug interaction. We evaluated these interactions using human hepatocytes benchmarked against the interaction of erlotinib with ketoconazole and rifampin, the archetype cytochrome P450 inhibitor and inducer, respectively. Hepatocytes were treated with vehicle [0.1% dimethylsulfoxide, ritonavir (10 ?M)], ketoconazole (10 ?M), efavirenz (10 ?M), or rifampin (10 ?M) for 4 days. On day 5, erlotinib (5 ?M) was incubated with the above agents for another 24–48 hours. Concentrations of erlotinib and O-desmethyl erlotinib were quantitated in collected samples (combined lysate and medium) using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The half-life (t1/2) of erlotinib increased from 10.6 ± 2.6 to 153 ± 80 and 23.9 ± 4.8 hours, respectively, upon treatment with ritonavir and ketoconazole. The apparent intrinsic clearance (CLint, app) of erlotinib was lowered 16-fold by ritonavir and 1.9-fold by ketoconazole. Efavirenz and rifampin decreased t1/2 of erlotinib from 10.3 ± 1.1 to 5.0 ± 1.5 and 3.4 ± 0.2 hours, respectively. Efavirenz and rifampin increased the CLint, app of erlotinib by 2.2- and 2-fold, respectively. Our results suggest that to achieve desired drug exposure, the clinically used dose (150 mg daily) of erlotinib may have to be significantly reduced (25 mg every other day) or increased (300 mg daily), respectively, when ritonavir or efavirenz is coadministered. PMID:23913028

Pillai, Venkateswaran C.; Parise, Robert A.; Christner, Susan M.; Gramignoli, Roberto; Strom, Stephen C.; Rudek, Michelle A.; Beumer, Jan H.

2013-01-01

71

Observations of Co4+ in a Higher Spin State and the Increase in the Seebeck Coefficient of Thermoelectric Ca3Co4O9  

SciTech Connect

Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} has a unique structure that leads to exceptionally high thermoelectric transport. Here we report the achievement of a 27% increase in the room-temperature in-plane Seebeck coefficient of Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} thin films. We combine aberration-corrected Z-contrast imaging, atomic-column resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and density-functional calculations to show that the increase is caused by stacking faults with Co4+-ions in a higher spin state compared to that of bulk Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9}. The higher Seebeck coefficient makes the Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} system suitable for many high temperature waste-heat-recovery applications.

Klie, Robert F [University of Illinois, Chicago; Qiao, Q. [University of Illinois, Chicago; Paulauskas, T. [University of Illinois, Chicago; Gulec, A. [University of Illinois, Chicago; Rebola, A. [University of Illinois, Chicago; Ogut, Serdar [University of Illinois, Chicago; Prange, Micah P [Vanderbilt University; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C [ORNL; Pantelides, Sokrates T. [Vanderbilt University; Kolesnik, S. [Northern Illinois University; Dabrowski, B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ozdemir, M. [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; Boyraz, C. [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; Mazumdar, Dipanjan [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; Gupta, Dr. Arunava [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa

2012-01-01

72

Higher anthraxolites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent years have been marked by progress in studying the structure of natural X-ray amorphous substances, anthraxolites included, by scanning electron and atomic power microscopy. Integration of the available data on molecular and supramolecular structure of higher anthraxolites from Karelia, Novaya Zemlya, and the Urals allowed elaboration of new classification criteria for solid bitumen, namely, degree of structure perfection and micromineral composition. This approach will help to eliminate disadvantages of traditional investigation of solid bitumen.

Filippov, M. M.; Cherevko, N. K.; Golubev, E. A.

2007-12-01

73

Chlorophyll a: Nitrogen was the limiting nutrient, with significantly higher  

E-print Network

to assess nutrient limitation in aquatic ecosystems. The addition of nitrogen in the form of nitrate (NO3 -) or phosphorus as orthophosphate (PO4 3-) has been shown to dramatically change the amount of biofilm that can of the agar was the only surface exposed to light and stream water. Cups were fastened to L-shaped aluminum

Hall, Sharon J.

74

Higher charmonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper gives results for the spectrum, all allowed E1 radiative partial widths (and some important M1 widths) and all open-charm strong decay amplitudes of all 40 c cmacr states expected up to the mass of the 4S multiplet, just above 4.4 GeV. The spectrum and radiative widths are evaluated using two models, the relativized Godfrey-Isgur model and a nonrelativistic potential model. The electromagnetic transitions are evaluated using Coulomb plus linear plus smeared hyperfine wave functions, both in a nonrelativistic potential model and in the Godfrey-Isgur model. The open-flavor strong decay amplitudes are determined assuming harmonic oscillator wave functions and the P30 decay model. This work is intended to motivate future experimental studies of higher-mass charmonia, and may be useful for the analysis of high-statistics data sets to be accumulated by the BES, CLEO, and GSI facilities.

Barnes, T.; Godfrey, S.; Swanson, E. S.

2005-09-01

75

Higher charmonia  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives results for the spectrum, all allowed E1 radiative partial widths (and some important M1 widths) and all open-charm strong decay amplitudes of all 40 cc states expected up to the mass of the 4S multiplet, just above 4.4 GeV. The spectrum and radiative widths are evaluated using two models, the relativized Godfrey-Isgur model and a nonrelativistic potential model. The electromagnetic transitions are evaluated using Coulomb plus linear plus smeared hyperfine wave functions, both in a nonrelativistic potential model and in the Godfrey-Isgur model. The open-flavor strong decay amplitudes are determined assuming harmonic oscillator wave functions and the {sup 3}P{sub 0} decay model. This work is intended to motivate future experimental studies of higher-mass charmonia, and may be useful for the analysis of high-statistics data sets to be accumulated by the BES, CLEO, and GSI facilities.

Barnes, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States) and Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Godfrey, S. [Ottawa-Carleton Institute for Physics, Department of Physics, Carleton University, Ottawa K1S 5B6 (Canada); Swanson, E.S. [Rudolph Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, Oxford University, Oxford, OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)

2005-09-01

76

Surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet in the new CCSM: results for 1948-present and comparison with observations and higher-resolution models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest version of the Community Climate System Model, CCSM4, has been coupled to the Glimmer ice sheet model in order to simulate interactive ice sheets. The surface mass balance is computed in the land surface component of CCSM, using an energy-balance scheme with multiple elevation classes in each grid cell. We present initial results of the 20th-century surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet with the new scheme. The land model is run in two configurations: (1) forced with atmospheric climatology from reanalysis, 1948-present, and (2) coupled on a half-hourly time scale to the CCSM atmosphere model. Results are compared to observations and to output from a high-resolution regional model. The sensitivity of the simulated surface mass balance to several key parameters (e.g., ice albedo and temperature lapse rate) is examined. This work is being done in preparation for IPCC AR5 climate change simulations using CCSM4 with a dynamic Greenland ice sheet.

Vizcaíno, Miren; Lipscomb, William H.

2010-05-01

77

Significance of a Correlation Coefficient  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To assess the significance of any particular instance of r, enter the values of N[>6] and r into the designated cells, then click the 'Calculate' button. Application of this formula to any particular observed sample value of r will accordingly test the null hypothesis that the observed value comes from a population in which rho=0.

Lowry, Richard

2009-01-12

78

Asian Americans and Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unfortunately the story of Asian Americans and higher education is not one of unqualified success. This paper attempts to overview the historical significance and present the problems of Asian Americans in higher education. The first problem is the lack of oral and writing skills among Asian Americans. Part of this problem is cultural, referring…

Endo, Russell

79

Tort Litigation in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies the significant trends and notable decisions in tort litigation regarding higher education in 1999. Cases for this year show that litigation remains common in higher education, and that many cases challenged the traditional norms of education law. An unmistakable trend is the increasing tendency to see student and university…

Lake, Peter F.

2000-01-01

80

Women in Higher Education, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of the issues of a 1996 newsletter on women students, teachers, and administrators in higher education. Each issue includes feature articles, news on higher education, profiles of significant people in the field, and job announcements. The issues' main articles concern: (1) a successful campaign to increase female…

Wenniger, Mary Dee, Ed.

1996-01-01

81

Disruptive Technologies in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses the role of "disruptive" innovative technologies in higher education. In this country and elsewhere, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have invested significant sums in learning technologies, with Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) being more or less universal, but these technologies have not been universally adopted and…

Flavin, Michael

2012-01-01

82

Financing Higher Education. Current Patterns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature of the changes in the patterns of financing and control of higher education systems which have been observed in the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries over the last decade are discussed. In particular, the report analyzes the links between expenditure patterns, costs and efficiency in higher education…

Williams, Gareth

83

Minimizing Significant Figure Fuzziness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the principles and problems associated with the use of significant figures. Explains uncertainty, the meaning of significant figures, the Simple Rule, the Three Rule, and the 1-5 Rule. Also provides examples of the Rules. (ML)

Fields, Lawrence D.; Hawkes, Stephen J.

1986-01-01

84

Ecologically Significant Wetlands  

E-print Network

Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the Flathead, Stillwater, and Swan River Valleys FINAL REPORT Also: Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the North Fork of the Flathead River Valley Appendix 29b #12;Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the Flathead, Stillwater, and Swan River Valleys JUNE 1, 1999 DEQ

85

The palatability of the diets containing milo corn was confirmed as well as the good beha-viour of the pigs in all groups since no statistically significant difference was observed with res-  

E-print Network

The palatability of the diets containing milo corn was confirmed as well as the good beha- viour, pigs fed with milo corn exhibited a slightly higher food conversion ratio than these fed exclusively with maize. This reduction of feed efficiency when using milo corn was particularly marked during the growing

Boyer, Edmond

86

Clinical significance of translocation.  

PubMed Central

The gastrointestinal tract, besides being the organ responsible for nutrient absorption, is also a metabolic and immunological system, functioning as an effective barrier against endotoxin and bacteria in the intestinal lumen. The passage of viable bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract through the epithelial mucosa is called bacterial translocation. Equally important may be the passage of bacterial endotoxin through the mucosal barrier. This article reviews the evidence that translocation of both endotoxin and bacteria is of clinical significance. It summarises recent published works indicating that translocation of endotoxin in minute amounts is a physiological important phenomenon to boost the reticuloendothelial system (RES), especially the Kupffer cells, in the liver. Breakdown of both the mucosal barrier and the RES capacity results in systemic endotoxaemia. Systemic endotoxaemia results in organ dysfunction, impairs the mucosal barrier, the clotting system, the immune system, and depresses Kupffer cell function. If natural defence mechanisms such as lipopolysaccharide binding protein, high density lipoprotein, in combination with the RES, do not respond properly, dysfunction of the gut barrier results in bacterial translocation. Extensive work on bacterial translocation has been performed in animal models and occurs notably in haemorrhagic shock, thermal injury, protein malnutrition, endotoxaemia, trauma, and intestinal obstruction. It is difficult to extrapolate these results to humans and its clinical significance is not clear. The available data show that the resultant infection remains important in the development of sepsis, especially in the critically ill patient. Uncontrolled infection is, however, neither necessary nor sufficient to account for the development of multiple organ failure. A more plausible sequelae is that bacterial translocation is a later phenomenon of multiple organ failure, and not its initiator. It is hypothesized that multiple organ failure is more probably triggered by the combination of tissue damage and systemic endotoxaemia. Endotoxaemia, as seen in trauma patients especially during the first 24 hours, in combination with tissue elicits a systemic inflammation, called Schwartzmann reaction. Interferon gamma, a T cell produced cytokine, is thought to play a pivotal part in the pathogenesis of this reaction. This reaction might occur only if the endotoxin induced cytokines like tumour necrosis factor and interleukin 1, act on target cells prepared by interferon gamma. After exposure to interferon gamma target cells become more sensitive to stimuli like endotoxin, thus boosting the inflammatory cycle. Clearly, following this line of reasoning, minor tissue damage or retroperitoneal haematoma combined with systemic endotoxaemia could elicit this reaction. The clinically observed failure of multiple organ systems might thus be explained by the interaction of tissue necrosis and high concentrations of endotoxin because of translocation. Future therapeutic strategies could therefore focus more on binding endotoxin in the gut before the triggering event, for example before major surgery. Such a strategy could be combined with the start of early enteral feeding, which has been shown in animal studies to have a beneficial effect on intestinal mucosal barrier function and in traumatized patients to reduce the incidence of septic complications. PMID:8125386

Van Leeuwen, P A; Boermeester, M A; Houdijk, A P; Ferwerda, C C; Cuesta, M A; Meyer, S; Wesdorp, R I

1994-01-01

87

Teaching Significant Figures  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that students would not be so careless about significant figures if they could actually see a demonstration of figures which are not significant. Such a demonstration is described, as is a simple teaching machine designed to give students facility in identifying insignificant figures in their calculations.

Tracy H. Logan

1964-01-01

88

NASA: Higher Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA has a significant educational outreach mission, and this site dedicated to higher education is a wonderful find. The first notable feature on the site is the Read About It area, which contains profiles such as "Beginner's Guide to Aeronautics," "Commercial Space Transportation," and a complete archive of past items. Moving on, the Current Opportunities area contains archived lectures, webcasts, and online workshops on astronomy. Another fun piece of the site is the Do-It-Yourself Podcasts area, found on the lower left. Here visitors can take NASA audio and video files and create their own podcasts on rocket science, micro-g, lab safety, and other topics. The site also contains links to NASA Television and the Have You Seen? areas, the latter of which features video highlights from NASA programs and contests.

2012-05-25

89

Significant lexical relationships  

SciTech Connect

Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

90

Reclaiming Our Soul: Democracy and Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores how, as higher education faces new financial realities together with escalating demands for more accountability, a call to reclaim the soul of higher education and with it, the soul of democracy, will require significant institutional and personal transformations. (EV)

Chickering, Arthur W.

2003-01-01

91

Propagation of Significant Figures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows that the rules of thumb for propagating significant figures through arithmetic calculations frequently yield misleading results. Also describes two procedures for performing this propagation more reliably than the rules of thumb. However, both require considerably more calculational effort than do the rules. (JN)

Schwartz, Lowell M.

1985-01-01

92

Higher Education Exchange, 2004  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Higher Education Exchange is part of a movement to strengthen higher education's democratic mission and foster a more democratic culture throughout American society. Working in this tradition, the Higher Education Exchange publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic…

Brown, David W., Ed; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

2004-01-01

93

Higher Education Exchange, 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

2008-01-01

94

Pollen vacuoles and their significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuoles of several types can be observed in pollen throughout its development. Their physiological significance reflects\\u000a the complexity of the biological process leading to functional pollen grains. Vacuolisation always occurs during pollen development\\u000a but when ripe pollen is shed the extensive translucent vacuoles present in the vegetative parts in previous stages are absent.\\u000a Vacuole functions vary according to developmental stage

Ettore Pacini; Cédric Jacquard; Christophe Clément

2011-01-01

95

Signal Significance in Particle Physics  

E-print Network

The concept of the "statistical significance" of an observation, and how it is used in particle physics experiments is reviewed. More properly known as a "p-value," the statistical foundations for this concept are reviewed from a freqentist perspective. The discovery of the top quark at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider and a more recent analysis of data recorded at Fermilab are used to illustrate practical applications of these concepts.

Pekka K. Sinervo

2002-08-05

96

Employment Discrimination in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews court decisions related to employment discrimination in higher education. The most significant development was a series of cases affirming that Eleventh Amendment immunity from private money damage claims brought pursuant to various federal employment discrimination statutes applied to state colleges and universities. (SLD)

Hustoles, Thomas P.; Griffin, Oren R.

2000-01-01

97

Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews court cases in 1999 related to disability discrimination in higher education focusing on the Americans with Disabilities Act and section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The "Garrett" case regarding Eleventh Amendment immunity is the case most likely to be significant in the development of the law of disability discrimination. (SLD)

Weber, Mark C.

2000-01-01

98

Women in Higher Education, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 12 issues of this newsletter focus on issues concerned with women students, faculty, and administrators in higher education. Each issue includes feature articles, news items, and profiles of significant people. The issues' main articles address: women in athletics; leadership development for women; the first year in academic administration;…

Wenniger, Mary Dee, Ed.

1997-01-01

99

Higher Education in Portugal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes trends in Portugese higher education. Recent changes in the organization of institutions of higher education, the types of academic degrees granted, and characteristics of the student population are described. Factors affecting employment of college graduates are discussed. (AM)

Western European Education, 1982

1982-01-01

100

Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.  

PubMed

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors influencing their growth and the various susceptible commodities that are contaminated. Finally, decision trees are included to assist the user in making informed choices about the likely mycotoxins present in the various crops. PMID:23477193

2012-01-01

101

Significant Radionuclides Determination  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

Jo A. Ziegler

2001-07-31

102

India's Higher Education Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream…

Altbach, Philip G.

2014-01-01

103

The Risks of Privatisation of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The presentation looks at the latest statistics on participation in Higher Education, to question whether privatisation of systems has significant effects on participation, affordability and equity of Higher Education. It further looks into questions of autonomy and governance of Higher Education systems in private and public systems, and finally…

Camilleri, Anthony F.

2008-01-01

104

The significance of gamma ray observations for neutrino astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Celestial gamma-rays and neutrinos are formed in some of the same astrophysical interactions, but have important different properties. Measurements of these radiations were used to study the presence and dynamic effects of energetic charged cosmic ray particles, element synthesis and particle acceleration. In addition, since gamma-rays in the energy range from several MeV to at least 10 to the 12th power eV and neutrinos both have very low interaction cross sections, they have a very high penetrating power and reach the earth from almost any part of the galaxy or universe. Therefore, they retain the detailed imprint of spectral, directional and temporal features imposed at their birth, even if they were born in regions opaque to visible light and X-rays.

Fichtel, C. E.

1978-01-01

105

Multipoint scales: Mean and median differences and observed significance levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers in human?computer interaction (HCI) often use discrete multipoint scales (such as 5? or 7?point scales) to measure user satisfaction and preference. Many knowledgeable authors state that the median is the appropriate measure of central tendency for such ordinal scales, although others challenge this assertion. This article introduces a new point of view, based on a human factors consideration. When

James R. Lewis

1993-01-01

106

The detection of clinically significant erythrocyte alloantibodies using a human mononuclear phagocyte assay  

SciTech Connect

Red blood cell (RBC) allo- or autoantibodies, which markedly reduce the survival of transfused or autologous RBC, are considered to be clinically significant antibodies. The occurrence of antibodies against high-incidence antigens, which are occasionally associated with clinically significant RBC destruction or are of unknown clinical significance, often creates delays in providing blood to patients. In the majority of cases these antibodies are benign; however, clinically significant examples of these antibodies have been reported. An in vitro homologous human mononuclear phagocyte assay (MPA) was used to study antibodies directed against specificities associated with variable clinical significance. Two antibodies reported to be clinically significant and 25 antibodies known to be clinically insignificant were tested by MPA. The results indicate that clinically significant antibodies have a significantly higher score than do clinically insignificant antibodies, with no overlap observed between the two groups. An additional eight antibodies with unknown clinical significance were tested. None of these antibodies had scores in the clinically significant range.

Schanfield, M.S.; Stevens, J.O.; Bauman, D.

1981-01-01

107

Higher Education Exchange 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contributors to this issue of the Higher Education Exchange debate the issues around knowledge production, discuss the acquisition of deliberative skills for democracy, and examine how higher education prepares, or does not prepare, students for citizenship roles. Articles include: (1) "Foreword" (Deborah Witte); (2) "Knowledge, Judgment and…

Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

2006-01-01

108

Globalization and Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Links the question of higher education's role in society and culture today to two parallel processes: the questioning of the role of the nation-state in the global age, and the gradual decomposition of the welfare state. Suggests that higher education issues should not be looked at in isolation from developments concerning the institution of the…

Kwiek, Marek

2001-01-01

109

Higher Education Graduate Certificate  

E-print Network

College of Education online at http://www.educ.ttu.edu/future/admission/apply-now. Please make sure2 Higher Education Graduate Certificate in Higher Education Administration Program Handbook College of Education Graduate Education and Research Texas Tech University Box 41071 Lubbock, TX 79409-1071 (806) 742

Rock, Chris

110

Quality in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains 21 new and classic papers and readings on quality philosophies and concepts, first, as they have been applied in business and industry but primarily as they relate to and can be applied in higher education. The introduction is titled "The Quality Approach in Higher Education: Context and Concepts for Change" by Brent D. Ruben.…

Ruben, Brent D., Ed.

111

Higher Selberg Zeta Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper [KW2] we introduced a new type of Selberg zeta function for establishing a certain identity among the non-trivial zeroes of the Selberg zeta function and of the Riemann zeta function. We shall call this zeta function a higher Selberg zeta function. The purpose of this paper is to study the analytic properties of the higher Selberg zeta

Nobushige Kurokawa; Masato Wakayama

2004-01-01

112

US Higher Education Finance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review basic facts about higher education finance in the United States and analytical, empirical and policy issues in that realm. Examining trends in higher education finance, we demonstrate growth in the share of revenues provided by government up to about 1980, with a steady decline thereafter. Student financial aid, a feature of growing importance, is awarded to students on

Michael S. McPherson; Morton Owen Schapiro

113

Higher Education Exchange, 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume begins with an essay by Noelle McAfee, a contributor who is familiar to readers of Higher Education Exchange (HEX). She reiterates Kettering's president David Mathews' argument regarding the disconnect between higher education's sense of engagement and the public's sense of engagement, and suggests a way around the epistemological…

Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

2009-01-01

114

Chicanos in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This "special theme" journal issue focuses on higher education of Chicanos and Latinos. The journal includes the following articles: (1) "Dilemmas of Chicano and Latino Professors in U.S. Universities" (Hisauro Garza); (2) "Analysis of Tenure Among Hispanic Higher Education Faculty" (Richard R. Verdugo); (3) "Experiences of Multiple Marginality: A…

Flores, Juan M., Ed.

1992-01-01

115

Higher Selberg Zeta Functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper [KW2] we introduced a new type of Selberg zeta function for establishing a certain identity among the non-trivial zeroes of the Selberg zeta function and of the Riemann zeta function. We shall call this zeta function a higher Selberg zeta function. The purpose of this paper is to study the analytic properties of the higher Selberg zeta function z?(s), especially to obtain the functional equation. We also describe the gamma factor of z?(s) in terms of the triple sine function explicitly and, further, determine the complete higher Selberg zeta function with having a discussion of a certain generalized zeta regularization.

Kurokawa, Nobushige; Wakayama, Masato

116

Forecasting Higher Education's Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers predictions on trends in higher education to accommodate changing needs, lower budgets, and increased enrollment. They involve campus construction, security, administration, technology, interior design, athletics, and transportation. (EV)

Boyken, Don; Buck, Tina S.; Kollie, Ellen; Przyborowski, Danielle; Rondinelli, Joseph A.; Hunter, Jeff; Hanna, Jeff

2003-01-01

117

Higher order fractional derivatives  

E-print Network

Based on the Liouville-Weyl definition of the fractional derivative, a new direct fractional generalization of higher order derivatives is presented. It is shown, that the Riesz and Feller derivatives are special cases of this approach.

Richard Herrmann

2009-06-12

118

Higher spins & strings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is natural to believe that the free symmetric product orbifold CFT is dual to the tensionless limit of string theory on AdS3 × S3 × . At this point in moduli space, string theory is expected to contain a Vasiliev higher spin theory as a subsector. We confirm this picture explicitly by showing that the large level limit of the =4 cosets of arXiv:1305.4181, that are dual to a higher spin theory on AdS3, indeed describe a closed subsector of the symmetric product orbifold. Furthermore, we reorganise the full partition function of the symmetric product orbifold in terms of representations of the higher spin algebra (or rather its extension). In particular, the unbroken stringy symmetries of the tensionless limit are captured by a large chiral algebra which we can describe explicitly in terms of an infinite sum of representations, thereby exhibiting a vast extension of the conventional higher spin symmetry.

Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Gopakumar, Rajesh

2014-11-01

119

Higher Spin Entanglement Entropy  

E-print Network

In this paper, we develop a perturbation formulation to calculate the single interval higher spin R$\\acute{e}$nyi and entanglement entropy for two dimensional conformal field theory with $\\mathcal{W}_{\\infty}(\\lambda)$ symmetry. The system is at finite temperature and is deformed by higher spin chemical potential. We manage to compute higher spin R$\\acute{e}$nyi entropy with various spin deformations up to order $\\mathcal{O}(\\mu^2)$. For spin 3 deformation, we calculate exact higher spin R$\\acute{e}$nyi entropy up to $\\mathcal{O}(\\mu^4)$. When $\\lambda=3$, in the large $c$ limit, we find perfect match with tree level holographic higher spin entanglement entropy up to order $\\mu^4$ obtained by the Wilson line prescription. We also find quantum corrections to higher spin entanglement entropy which is beyond tree level holographic results. The quantum correction is universal at order $\\mu^4$ in the sense that it is independent of $\\lambda$. Our computation relies on a multi-valued conformal map from $n$-sheeted Riemann surface $\\mathcal{R}_n$ to complex plane and correlation functions of primary fields on complex plane. The method can be applied to general conformal field theories with $\\mathcal{W}$ symmetry.

Jiang Long

2014-12-04

120

Distributed video coding with progressive significance map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A distributed video coding (DVC) system based on wavelet transform and set partition coding (SPC) is presented in this paper. Conventionally the significance map (sig-map) of SPC is not conducive to Slepian-Wolf (SW) coding, because of the difficulty of generating a side information sig-map and the sensitivity to decoding errors. The proposed DVC system utilizes a higher structured significance map, named progressive significance map (prog-sig-map), which structures the significance information into two parts: a high-level summation significance map (sum-sig-map) and a low-level complementary significance map (comp-sig-map). This prog-sig-map alleviates the above difficulties and thus makes part of the prog-sig-map (specifically, the fixed-length-coded comp-sig-map) suitable for SW coding. Simulation results are provided showing the improved rate-distortion performance of the DVC system even with a simple system configuration.

Hu, Yang; Pearlman, William A.

2012-01-01

121

Alfvén wave in higher dimensional space time  

SciTech Connect

Following the wellknown spacetime decomposition technique as applied to (d+1) dimensions we write down the equations of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in a spatially flat generalised FRW universe. Assuming an equation of state for the background cosmic fluid we find solutions in turn for acoustic waves and also for Alfven waves in a warm (cold) magnetised plasma. Interestingly the different plasma modes closely resemble the flat space counterparts except that here the field variables all redshift with their time due to the expansion of the background. It is observed that in the ultrarelativistic limit the field parameters all scale as the free photon. The situation changes in the prerelativistic limit where the frequencies change in a bizarre fashion depending on initial conditions. It is observed that for a fixed magnetic field in a particular medium the Alfven wave velocity decreases with the number of dimensions, being the maximum in the usual 4D. Further for a fixed dimension the velocity attenuation is more significant in dust compared to the radiation era. We also find that in an expanding background the Alfven wave propagation is possible only in the high frequency range, determined by the strength of the external magnetic field, the mass density of the medium and also the dimensions of the spacetime. Further it is found that with expansion the cosmic magnetic field decays more sharply in higher dimensional cosmology, which is in line with observational demand.

Panigrahi, D.; Das, Ajanta; Chatterjee, S., E-mail: dibyendupanigrahi@yahoo.co.in, E-mail: ajanta.das@heritageit.edu, E-mail: chat_sujit1@yahoo.com [Relativity and Cosmology Research Centre, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)

2009-09-01

122

Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the  

E-print Network

Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the North Fork Flathead River Watershed Prepared See Also: Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the Flathead, Stillwater, & Swan River Valleys Appendix 29 #12;Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the North Fork Flathead River Watershed Prepared

123

Workstations in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five articles discuss various aspects of workstations and their applications in higher education. Highlights include microcomputers and workstations; UNIX operating system; campus-wide networks; software; Project SOCRATES and the interdisciplinary aspect of engineering; mechanical system design and simulation; and the Creation Station, a…

Weissman, Ronald F. E.; And Others

1988-01-01

124

Valuing Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The question of the value of higher education is today set in the context of an unprecedented banking and financial crisis. In this context of fundamental change and financial realignment, it is important that we as members of the university remake our case for why the university deserves to be considered alongside all those other worthy causes…

Pillay, Gerald J.

2009-01-01

125

Higher Education Exchange, 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annual collection focuses on the obligation of higher education to democracy. Scholars from a variety if disciplines explore this question and related issues, such as the civic mission of the university, what it means to be an "engaged" university, and how a university can itself by a "good citizen." Following a foreword by Deborah Witte, the…

Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

126

Evaluation in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the means of transforming classroom experience is by conducting action research with students. This paper reports about the action research with university students. It has been carried out within a semester of the course "Methods of Upbringing". Its goal has been to improve evaluation of higher education teaching. Different forms…

Bognar, Branko; Bungic, Maja

2014-01-01

127

Benchmarking for Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chapters in this collection explore the concept of benchmarking as it is being used and developed in higher education (HE). Case studies and reviews show how universities in the United Kingdom are using benchmarking to aid in self-regulation and self-improvement. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction to Benchmarking" (Norman Jackson and Helen…

Jackson, Norman, Ed.; Lund, Helen, Ed.

128

Online Higher Education Commodity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyzes the current trend towards online education. It examines some of the reasons for the trend and the ramifications it may have on students, faculty and institutions of higher learning. The success and profitability of online programs and institutions such as the University of Phoenix has helped to make the move towards online…

Chau, Paule

2010-01-01

129

Higher Education Accountability Plans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Washington state's public four-year universities and college have submitted their 2003-05 accountability plans to the Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB). The state operating budget directs the Board to review these plans and set biennial performance targets for each institution. For 2003-05, the four-year institutions are reporting on a…

Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2003

2003-01-01

130

Higher Education Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of 10 articles and stories highlights ongoing experiments in colleges and universities which address the relationship of higher education institutions and citizenship responsibility. Following a foreword by Deborah White, articles are: "The Civic Roots of Academic Social Science Scholarship in American" (R. Claire Snyder), which…

Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

131

Unraveling Higher Education's Costs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The activity-based costing (ABC) method of analyzing institutional costs in higher education involves four procedures: determining the various discrete activities of the organization; calculating the cost of each; determining the cost drivers; tracing cost to the cost objective or consumer of each activity. Few American institutions have used the…

Gordon, Gus; Charles, Maria

1998-01-01

132

Changing Values & Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A transcript of a two-member panel discussion on changing values and higher education is presented. The transcript includes two speeches and members' responses to the questions of the moderator and audience. The first paper, presented by Robert Beagle (Assistant to the President, Edinboro State College, Pennsylvania) stresses that the key to…

Wagschal, Harry; Beagle, Robert

133

Entrepreneurship and Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stimulating innovative and growth-oriented entrepreneurship is a key economic and societal challenge to which universities and colleges have much to contribute. This book examines the role that higher education institutions are currently playing through teaching entrepreneurship and transferring knowledge and innovation to enterprises and…

Potter, Jonathan, Ed.

2008-01-01

134

Higher education in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Egypt's policy on higher education, the author argues, must take account of the realities of declining government budgets and employment and increasing reliance on the private sector, which must become more competitive internationally. Education in Egypt must increase Egyptians'ability to cope with economic disequilibria: to respond quickly and effectively to changing technological and market opportunities. The Government of Egypt's strategy

Alan Richards

1992-01-01

135

Measurement and clinical significance of endothelin in neonatal urine.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to figure out the source of urinary endothelin (ET) and the clinical significance of its possible variations. Urinary ET levels were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 17 healthy newborns and 20 asphyxiated neonates on days 1, 3, 7 after birth. Plasma ET concentrations of healthy premature infants on day 7 and urinary ET levels in 10 healthy children were also observed at the same time. Results showed that: (1) Urinary ET levels and ET excretion rates were higher than plasma ET in preterm infants on days 7 after birth; (2) Both in preterm and full term infants, urinary ET concentrations fell from the 1st day to the 7th day after birth, ET excretion rates elevated markedly at the end of the 1st week, and they were significantly higher than that of children; (3) Urinary ET levels of asphyxiated group on days 1 and 3 were much higher than those of healthy neonates, and positively correlated with the severity of the illness and urinary NAG. We conclude that: (1) urinary ET mainly comes from the production in renal cells; (2) ET levels in healthy neonatal urine reflect the maturity of kidney; (3) measurement of urinary ET levels in asphyxiated neonates is helpful to judge the degree and to evaluate the prognosis of renal injury. PMID:9812764

Huang, H; Liu, W

1997-01-01

136

Theorising Student Engagement in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student engagement has become problematic following the rise of mass and universal forms of higher education. Significant attention has been devoted to identifying factors that are associated with higher levels of engagement, but it remains the case that the underlying reasons for student engagement and, indeed, the notion itself of "student…

Kahn, Peter E.

2014-01-01

137

Technology Use in Higher Education Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The significance of integrating technology use in higher education instruction is undeniable. The benefits include those related to access to instruction by underserved populations, adequately preparing students for future careers, capitalizing on best instructional practices, developing higher order thinking activities, and engaging students…

Elzarka, Sammy

2012-01-01

138

Sonocrystallization yields monoclinic paracetamol with significantly improved compaction behavior.  

PubMed

Ultrasound-assisted crystallization (sonocrystallization) was used to prepare a mixture of nano- and micrometer-sized crystals of the monoclinic form of paracetamol-a widely used analgesic known for its particularly problematic mechanical behavior under compression (i.e. poor tabletability). The nano- and micrometer-sized crystals yielded a powder which exhibits elastic moduli and bulk cohesions that are significantly higher than those observed in samples consisting of macrometer-sized crystals, thus leading to enhanced tabletability without the use of excipients, particle coating, salt, or cocrystal formation. Experimental compaction and finite element analysis were utilized to rationalize the significantly improved compaction behavior of the monoclinic form of paracetamol. PMID:25370777

Bu?ar, Dejan-Krešimir; Elliott, James A; Eddleston, Mark D; Cockcroft, Jeremy K; Jones, William

2015-01-01

139

The biological significance of ?-oxidation of fatty acids  

PubMed Central

The author focuses on the biological significance of ?-oxidation of fatty acids. Early studies revealed that there is a subsidiary pathway for ?-oxidation of fatty acids when ?-oxidation is blocked. Many studies demonstrated that the ?-oxidation serves to provide succinyl-CoA for the citric acid cycle and for gluconeogenesis under conditions of starvation and diabetes. Acylglucosylceramides which are composed of linoleic acid, long chain ?-hydroxy fatty acids, eicosasphingenine (or trihydroxyeicosasphingenine) and glucose, are responsible for normal epidermal permeability function in the skin. It is observed that ?- and (?-1)-oxidation of fatty acids are related to energy metabolism in some laboratory animals such as musk shrews and Mongolian gerbils. Studies confirmed that ?- and (?-1)-oxidation of fatty acids play crucial roles in the production of insect pheromones of honeybees and in the formation of biopolyesters of higher plants. In addition, the biological significance of ?-oxidation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes is described. PMID:24126285

MIURA, Yoshiro

2013-01-01

140

Conformal higher spin theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct gauge theory of interacting symmetric traceless tensors of all ranks s=0,1,2,3,… which generalizes Weyl-invariant dilaton gravity to the higher spin case, in any dimension d>2. The action is given by the trace of the projector to the subspace with positive eigenvalues of an arbitrary Hermitian differential operator overlineH, and the symmetric tensors emerge after expansion of the latter in power series in derivatives. After decomposition in perturbative series around conformally flat point overlineH=? with Euclidean metric, the action functional describes conformal higher spin theory. Namely, the linear in fluctuation term cancels, while the one quadratic in fluctuation breaks up as a sum of conformal higher spin theories, the latter being free gauge theories of symmetric traceless tensors of rank s with actions of d-4+2 s order in derivatives (in odd dimensions they are boundary terms), for all integer s, introduced in 4d case by Fradkin and Tseytlin and studied at the cubic order level by Fradkin and Linetsky. Higher orders in interaction are well-defined. The action appears to be the unique functional invariant w.r.t. general similarity transformations overlineH'=e ??<†overlineHe ??, the latter invariance plays the role of gauge symmetry group of the model. In the framework of the perturbative decomposition, the Hermitian part of ? gauges away the trace parts of the symmetric tensors parameterizing the fluctuation, while the anti-Hermitian one provides standard linearized gauge transformations of conformal higher spin fields. The action can be calculated as a semiclassical series in ? which counts the number of space-time derivatives and thereby exhibits itself as a parameter of low-energy expansion, like ?' in string theory, in so doing the classical term is given by the volume of the domain H( x, p)>0 (where H( x, p) is the Weyl symbol of overlineH), it does not contain derivatives and is interpreted as a cosmological term. At the same time, further terms of the ?-expansion are given by integrals of distributions localized on the constraint surface H( x, p)=0, and the conformal higher spin- s action arises from the ? d-4+2 s-correction. The full gauge invariance of the model is interpreted as covariance algebra of generalized Klein-Gordon equation overlineH|?>=0 for complex scalar field ?.

Segal, Arkady Y.

2003-08-01

141

Higher Education Jobs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those Scout Report readers who may be looking for a job in the vast world of higher education, the Higher Education Jobs website will be a real find. Online since 1996, the website serves as a clearinghouse of available job opportunities, ranging from such positions as a custodial engineer in a small college in western New York to an assistant professor of Egyptology at a major research university in California. Visitors to the site can begin by searching the new job listings by date, location, institution, or title. Of course, they may also perform more detailed searches as well, courtesy of the nice search engine made available here. Another option is for visitors to post their resume or vita so that employers seeking out new employees will have access to this information.

142

Higher Gauge Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Just as gauge theory describes the parallel transport of point particles using connections on bundles, higher gauge theory describes the parallel transport of 1-dimensional objects (e.g. strings) using 2-connections on 2-bundles. A 2-bundle is a categorified version of a bundle: that is, one where the fiber is not a manifold but a category with a suitable smooth structure. Where gauge

John C. Baez; Urs Schreiber

2005-01-01

143

Higher mass bottomonia  

E-print Network

We show the results of a quark model calculation of the bottomonium spectrum with self energy corrections due to the coupling to the meson-meson continuum. The bare masses used in the calculation are computed within the relativized quark model by Godfrey and Isgur. We also give results for the open-bottom strong decay amplitudes of higher bottomonia in a 3P0 model.

J. Ferretti; E. Santopinto

2014-11-19

144

Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the l

Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

2014-02-28

145

The Higher Dimensional Gravastars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new model of gravastar is obtained in D-dimensional Einstein gravity. This class of solutions includes the gravastar as an alternative to D-dimensional versions of the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole. The configuration of this new gravastar consists of three different regions with different equations of state: [I] Interior: 0 ? r < r 1, ? = - p; [II] Shell: r 1 ? r < r 2, ? = p; [III] Exterior: r 2 < r, ? = p = 0. The outer region of this gravastar corresponds to a higher dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole.

Rahaman, F.; Chakraborty, S.; Ray, Saibal; Usmani, A. A.; Islam, S.

2015-01-01

146

Higher-Order Containers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Containers are a semantic way to talk about strictly positive types. In previous work it was shown that containers are closed under various constructions including products, coproducts, initial algebras and terminal coalgebras. In the present paper we show that, surprisingly, the category of containers is cartesian closed, giving rise to a full cartesian closed subcategory of endofunctors. The result has interesting applications in generic programming and representation of higher order abstract syntax. We also show that the category of containers has finite limits, but it is not locally cartesian closed.

Altenkirch, Thorsten; Levy, Paul; Staton, Sam

147

ChemTeacher: Significant Figures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Significant Figures page includes resources for teaching students about understanding and using significant figures in calculations.

2012-07-19

148

Higher than Everest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tired of exploring planet Earth? Have you ever imagined what it would be like to explore the Moon? Ever wonder about the topography of Mars? In this unique guidebook all of your extraterrestrial wanderlust can be fulfilled as Paul Hodge takes you on a virtual tour of the most spectacular sites in the Solar System. Hodge includes the latest information about the Solar System into his vivid descriptions of imaginary, challenging expeditions. Imagine: -- Descending into a fabulous canyon on Mars, one that dwarfs the Earth's Grand Canyon; -- Trekking up Venus' precipitous and scorching Mt. Maxwell; -- Journeying through the snows of Saturn's rings and the incredibly high, icy cliff of Miranda, the moon closest to Uranus. A compelling, extensively illustrated introduction to such otherworldly environments, Higher than Everest makes you believe that someday these adventures may actually take place. Paul Hodge is Professor of Astronomy at the University of Washington, Seattle, and Editor-in-Chief of the Astronomical Journal. Higher than Everest is based on a popular undergraduate course on the planets that he has taught for many years. Hodge's research has spanned from interplanetary dust to the extragalactic distance scale and currently includes star-formation and galactic evolution, using the Hubble Space Telescope to investigate nearby galaxies. He has written several books, most recently Meteorite Craters and Impact Structures of the Earth (Cambridge 1994).

Hodge, Paul

2001-08-01

149

Biological significance of soluble IL-2 receptor  

PubMed Central

A NUMBER of receptors for growth factors and differentiation antigens have been found to be secreted or released by cells. Following mononuclear cell (MNC) activation and interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) expression, a soluble form of the Alpha;-chain of IL-2R (sIL-2R) is released. The sIL-2R has been shown to be present in the culture supernatants of activated MNCs as well as in normal sera and, in higher amounts, in sera from subjects affected by several diseases including neoplastic, infectious and autoimmune ones, and in sera from transplanted patients suffering allograft rejection. The blood sIL-2R levels depend on the number of producing cells and the number of molecules per cell, so that sIL-2R blood values may represent an index of the number and the functional state of producing cells, both normal and neoplastic. Thus, monitoring of the immune system, mostly T-cells and haematological malignancies might be targets for the measurement of sIL-2R. Since many conditions may influence sIL-2R production, little diagnostic use may result from these measurements. However, since blood sIL-2R levels may correlate with disease progression and/or response to therapy, their measurement may be a useful index of activity and extent of disease. The precise biological role of the soluble form of the IL-2R is still a matter of debate. However, we know that increased sIL-2R levels may be observed in association with several immunological abnormalities and that sIL-2R is able to bind IL-2. It is conceivable then that in these conditions the excess sIL-2R released in vivo by activated lymphoid cells or by neoplastic cells may somehow regulate IL-2-dependent processes. On the other hand, it cannot exclude that sIL-2R is a by-product without biological significance. Finally, it is puzzling that in many conditions in which an increase of blood sIL-2R values has been observed, MNCs display a decreased in vitro capacity to produce sIL-2R. These seemingly contrasting findings are discussed in the light of the data showing that sIL-2R production correlates with IL-2 production. PMID:18475497

Candore, Giuseppina; Cigna, Diego; Colucci, Antonio Tobia; Modica, Maria Assunta

1993-01-01

150

Teaching at higher levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undergraduate physics programmes for the 21st century were under discussion at a recent event held in Arlington, USA, open to two or three members of the physics faculties of universities from across the whole country. The conference was organized by the American Association of Physics Teachers with co-sponsorship from the American Institute of Physics, the American Physical Society and Project Kaleidoscope. Among the various aims were to learn about physics departments that have successfully revitalized their undergraduate physics programmes with innovative introductory physics courses and multi-track majors programmes. Engineers and life scientists were to be asked directly how physics programmes can better serve their students, and business leaders would be speaking on how physics departments can help to prepare their students for the diverse careers that they will eventually follow. It was planned to highlight ways that departments could fulfil their responsibilities towards trainee teachers, to identify the resources needed for revitalizing a department's programme, and to develop guidelines and recommendations for a funding programme to support collaborative efforts among physics departments for carrying out the enhancements required. More details about the conference can be found on the AAPT website (see http://www.aapt.org/programs/rupc.html). Meanwhile the UK's Higher Education Funding Council has proposed a two-pronged approach to the promotion of high quality teaching and learning, as well as widening participation in higher education from 1999-2000. A total of £60m should be available to support these initiatives by the year 2001-2002. As part of this scheme the Council will invite bids from institutions to support individual academics in enhancing learning and teaching, as well as in recognition of individual excellence. As with research grants, such awards would enable staff to pursue activities such as the development of teaching materials, textbooks and technology applications, the improvement of delivery methods and work on curriculum and assessment practice. In addition, around half of the funding total will be set aside to widen participation for all students who can benefit from higher education, with assistance to ensure that those students succeed.

1998-11-01

151

Springtime photochemical ozone production observed in the upper troposphere over East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft observations of ozone and its precursors (NO, NOy, CO, and non-methane hydrocarbons) were made near Japan in April 1998 to investigate the effect of transport and chemistry on tropospheric ozone over East Asia in spring. The average concentrations of ozone and its precursors in the upper troposphere were higher than those observed during February-March 1994. The significantly higher mixing

Y. Miyazaki; K. Kita; Y. Kondo; M. Ko; W. Hu; S. Kawakami; M. Koike; D. Blake; T. Ogawa

2001-01-01

152

Over-reporting significant figures—a significant problem?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundExcessive use of significant figures in numerical data gives a spurious impression of laboratory imprecision to clinicians. We describe reporting practices in 24 Asia-Pacific laboratories, assess whether these reporting formats and those used in the literature can be justified based on actual laboratory performance and outline how to choose the appropriate number of significant places.

Robert C. Hawkins; Tony Badrick; Peter E. Hickman

2007-01-01

153

Teacher as Token Dispenser: Effect of an Observer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data were collected on rate per minute of administering token reinforcement for one male and six female teachers enrolled in a behavior modification course. Comparison of reinforcement rates for observer-present versus absent indicated significantly higher rates of token delivery in the observer-present condition. Implications of this fact are…

Sattler, Howard E.; Swoope, Karen F.

1976-01-01

154

The direct observation of cosmic ray composition in JACEE  

SciTech Connect

No significant changes in spectral index for protons up to 500 TeV and higher intensity for helium above 2 TeV were observed. For heavier elements, a general tendency of intensity enhancement of medium heavies in the relative abundance above about 10 TeV/amu was observed.

Burnett, T.H.; Iwai, J.; Lord, J.J. (Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105 (USA)); Dake, S.; Oda, H. (Department of Physics, Kobe University, Kobe 657 (Japan)); Derrickson, J.H.; Fountain, W.F. (Space Science Laboratory, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL (USA)); Fuki, M. (Matsusho Gakuen Junior College, Matsumoto 390-12 (Japan)); Gregory, J.C.; Hayashi, T. (College of Science, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (USA)); Holynski, R.; Jurak, A. (Institute of Nuclear Physics, PL-30-055 Krakow (Poland)); Jones, W.V. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge LA 70803 (USA)); Miyamura, O. (Department of Applied Mathematics, Osaka University, Osaka 560 (Japan))

1989-03-01

155

P Values and Statistical Significance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, created by author Will G. Hopkins, defines what a p-value is, why .05 is significant, and when to use it. It also covers related topics such as one-tailed/two-tailed tests and hypothesis testing. Overall, this is a wonderful resource for students wanting to learn more about statistics, and more specially, significant testing.

Hopkins, Will G.

156

Guelph Physics Tutorials: Significant Digits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website offers a tutorial on significant digits. The tutorial includes an introduction to significant digits, example problems, and a series of self-paced questions. This is part of series of tutorials on physics and mathematics used in physics classes.

2008-09-03

157

Significant Scales in Community Structure  

PubMed Central

Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of “significance” of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine “good” resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationality plays no role. PMID:24121597

Traag, V. A.; Krings, G.; Van Dooren, P.

2013-01-01

158

Access and Equity in Higher Education in Antigua and Barbuda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across the international higher education spectrum access represents a significant issue. The literature is replete with analyses of access in various higher education systems. Low and inequitable patterns of participation in higher education are particularly prominent in developing countries. This dissertation is a case study of the higher

Hewlett-Thomas, Elsie

2009-01-01

159

Rotating Black Holes in Higher Dimensions  

E-print Network

The properties of higher-dimensional black holes can differ significantly from those of black holes in four dimensions, since neither the uniqueness theorem, nor the staticity theorem or the topological censorship theorem generalize to higher dimensions. We first discuss black holes of Einstein-Maxwell theory and Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory with spherical horizon topology. Here new types of stationary black holes are encountered. We then discuss nonuniform black strings and present evidence for a horizon topology changing transition.

Burkhard Kleihaus; Jutta Kunz; Francisco Navarro-Lerida

2007-11-07

160

SIGNIFICANT NATURAL HERITAGE AREAS (NC)  

EPA Science Inventory

The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, developed the Significant Natural Heritage Areas digital data to determine the a...

161

Statistical Significance vs. Practical Significance: An Exploration through Health Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between statistical and practical significance, including strengths and criticisms of both methods, as well as provide information surrounding the application of various effect sizes and confidence intervals within health education research. Provided are recommendations, explanations and…

Rosen, Brittany L.; DeMaria, Andrea L.

2012-01-01

162

Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures  

PubMed Central

A major goal in translational cancer research is to identify biological signatures driving cancer progression and metastasis. A common technique applied in genomics research is to cluster patients using gene expression data from a candidate prognostic gene set, and if the resulting clusters show statistically significant outcome stratification, to associate the gene set with prognosis, suggesting its biological and clinical importance. Recent work has questioned the validity of this approach by showing in several breast cancer data sets that “random” gene sets tend to cluster patients into prognostically variable subgroups. This work suggests that new rigorous statistical methods are needed to identify biologically informative prognostic gene sets. To address this problem, we developed Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures (SAPS) which integrates standard prognostic tests with a new prognostic significance test based on stratifying patients into prognostic subtypes with random gene sets. SAPS ensures that a significant gene set is not only able to stratify patients into prognostically variable groups, but is also enriched for genes showing strong univariate associations with patient prognosis, and performs significantly better than random gene sets. We use SAPS to perform a large meta-analysis (the largest completed to date) of prognostic pathways in breast and ovarian cancer and their molecular subtypes. Our analyses show that only a small subset of the gene sets found statistically significant using standard measures achieve significance by SAPS. We identify new prognostic signatures in breast and ovarian cancer and their corresponding molecular subtypes, and we show that prognostic signatures in ER negative breast cancer are more similar to prognostic signatures in ovarian cancer than to prognostic signatures in ER positive breast cancer. SAPS is a powerful new method for deriving robust prognostic biological signatures from clinically annotated genomic datasets. PMID:23365551

Beck, Andrew H.; Knoblauch, Nicholas W.; Hefti, Marco M.; Kaplan, Jennifer; Schnitt, Stuart J.; Culhane, Aedin C.; Schroeder, Markus S.; Risch, Thomas; Quackenbush, John; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin

2013-01-01

163

Clinical significance of TMPRSS4 in prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Transmembrane protease serine 4 (TMPRSS4) is a type-II transmembrane serine protease that plays an important role in the migration of cancer cells. This study aimed to investigate both the expression of TMPRSS4 and its clinical significance in prostate cancer. The expression of TMPRSS4 was evaluated in 73 pairs of prostate cancer and adjacent non-cancerous tissues by immunohistochemistry. The level of TMPRSS4 in prostate cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in adjacent non-cancerous tissues. High TMPRSS4 expression was significantly associated with advanced TNM stage and LNM. No association between TMPRSS4 expression and progression-free survival was observed in all patients. Stratified analyses according to clinical features revealed that patients with low TMPRSS4 expression had poor prognosis compared with those with high TMPRSS4 expression in subjects not receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In conclusion, TMPRSS4 showed abnormal expression in prostate cancer tissues. TMPRSS4 may be a potential prognostic biomarker for prostate cancer patients who did not undergo neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:25550850

Shi, Guohai; Yang, Xiaoqun; Dai, Bo; Zhang, Hailiang; Shen, Yijun; Zhu, Yao; Zhu, Yiping; Xiao, Wenjun; Ma, Chunguang; Wen, Linguo; Qin, Xiaojian; Cao, Dalong; Ye, Dingwei

2014-01-01

164

Higher Education and Work. Higher Education Policy Series 23.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between higher education and the world of work is examined in terms of the changing structures of higher education institutions and the effect of the relationship on curricula. An international perspective is provided on the changing nature of employment and the labor market; the increasing diversification of higher education…

Brennan, John, Ed.; And Others

165

Significant Dreams: Bizarre or Beautiful?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on highly significant dreams is filled with references to the bizarreness of their content. On the other hand, the concept of beauty is rarely if ever mentioned in relation to these dreams. Grounded in archetypal psychology's tenet that psychological life is aesthetic life, this article argues that the enduring, even life-long, influence some dreams have on the dreamer's

Roger M. Knudson

2001-01-01

166

Significant Figures in Speed Records  

Microsoft Academic Search

I HAD hoped that someone more competent than myself would have replied to Col. O'Gorman's letter, in which, in NATURE of Mar. 30, he offered an apologia for recording Sir Henry Segrave's speed to 8 significant figures, but probably most readers of this journal do not consider that motor speed records form a subject with which they are intimately concerned.

J. S. Dines

1929-01-01

167

Statistical significance for genomewide studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increase in genomewide experiments and the sequencing of multiple genomes, the analysis of large data sets has become commonplace in biology. It is often the case that thousands of features in a genomewide data set are tested against some null hypothesis, where a number of features are expected to be significant. Here we propose an approach to measuring

John D. Storey; Robert Tibshirani

2003-01-01

168

An Introduction Significance of Pain  

E-print Network

Inflammation or nerve damage !!65 -90 million in US !!Arthritis !!Neuropathic pain !!Back pain !!MigraineAn Introduction to: Pain #12;Significance of Pain !!Pain is adaptive !!Alerts us to danger !!Motivates escape and avoidance learning !!Motivates recuperation !!Congenital insensitivity to pain !!Pain

Meagher, Mary

169

Karyological observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Root tips prepared for metaphase chromosome analysis from seedlings germinated under microgravity on the Space Shuttle (oats and mung bean) or which were exposed to space flight as very young seedlings (sunflower) have been examined. Experimental constraints did not permit pre-fixation in space with a cytostatic agent but arrest was achieved in the first division cycle on Earth after recovery. The number of cells in division was significantly depressed in all three species. Several chromosomal abnormalities were encountered in flight material. Bridge formation was seen in sunflower, as was aneuploidy. Breakage and fracture of chromosomes was prevalent in oats. No aberrant features could be detected in the chromosomes of mung bean. These results, although preliminary, should serve to alert investigators of the need to assess carefully as many aspects of cell division in higher plants exposed to space flight conditions as possible.

Krikorian, A. D.; O'Connor, S. A.

1984-01-01

170

The Prognostic Significance of Circulating Tumour Cells  

PubMed Central

One hundred and sixteen patients with proved cancer of the breast were followed up for five years to detect circulating tumour cells. Such cells were found in 61 patients, but, irrespective of the stage of the disease, the five-year survival rate in these was not significantly different from those in whom no tumour cells were found. The higher incidence of patients without circulating tumour cells in Stage I was not sufficient to influence the survival rate of the whole group. While the validity of the identification of these cells is questionable, the results of this study indicate that the presence or absence of tumour cells in the blood is of no prognostic significance. PMID:6017697

Webster, D. R.; Sabbadini, E.

1967-01-01

171

Higher-order ionosphere modeling for CODE's next reprocessing activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CODE (the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe) is a joint venture between the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB, Bern, Switzerland), the Federal Office of Topography (swisstopo, Wabern, Switzerland), the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG, Frankfurt am Main, Germany), and the Institut für Astronomische und Phsyikalische Geodäsie of the Technische Universität München (IAPG/TUM, Munich, Germany). It acts as one of the global analysis centers of the International GNSS Service (IGS) and participates in the first IGS reprocessing campaign, a full reanalysis of GPS data collected since 1994. For a future reanalyis of the IGS data it is planned to consider not only first-order but also higher-order ionosphere terms in the space geodetic observations. There are several works (e.g. Fritsche et al. 2005), which showed a significant and systematic influence of these effects on the analysis results. The development version of the Bernese Software used at CODE is expanded by the ability to assign additional (scaling) parameters to each considered higher-order ionosphere term. By this, each correction term can be switched on and off on normal-equation level and, moreover, the significance of each correction term may be verified on observation level for different ionosphere conditions.

Lutz, S.; Schaer, S.; Meindl, M.; Dach, R.; Steigenberger, P.

2009-12-01

172

Numerical modeling of higher order magnetic moments in UXO discrimination  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The surface magnetic anomaly observed in unexploded ordnance (UXO) clearance is mainly dipolar, and consequently, the dipole is the only magnetic moment regularly recovered in UXO discrimination. The dipole moment contains information about the intensity of magnetization but lacks information about the shape of the target. In contrast, higher order moments, such as quadrupole and octupole, encode asymmetry properties of the magnetization distribution within the buried targets. In order to improve our understanding of magnetization distribution within UXO and non-UXO objects and to show its potential utility in UXO clearance, we present a numerical modeling study of UXO and related metallic objects. The tool for the modeling is a nonlinear integral equation describing magnetization within isolated compact objects of high susceptibility. A solution for magnetization distribution then allows us to compute the magnetic multipole moments of the object, analyze their relationships, and provide a depiction of the anomaly produced by different moments within the object. Our modeling results show the presence of significant higher order moments for more asymmetric objects, and the fields of these higher order moments are well above the noise level of magnetic gradient data. The contribution from higher order moments may provide a practical tool for improved UXO discrimination. ?? 2008 IEEE.

Sanchez, V.; Yaoguo, L.; Nabighian, M.N.; Wright, D.L.

2008-01-01

173

Higher rates of streptococcal colonization among children in the Pacific Rim Region correlates with higher rates of group A streptococcal disease and sequelae  

PubMed Central

Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngeal colonization rates were determined among 1061 asymptomatic students in Hawaii and American Samoa where acute rheumatic fever rates are high. All GAS isolates were emm sequence typed. Although pharyngeal colonization rates were low in Hawaii (3.4%), Pacific Islander children had significantly higher colonization rates (5.7% versus 1.2% in other ethnic groups, p<0.05). The colonization rate was higher in American Samoa (13%). Few emm types that were infrequently observed in symptomatic infections in Hawaii were repeatedly identified in both sites. These emm types were previously described among asymptomatic children suggesting a type-specific association with pharyngeal colonization. PMID:19681949

Erdem, G.; Sinclair, S.; Marrone, J. R.; I’atala, T. F.; Tuua, A.; Tuua, B.; Tuumua, F.; Dodd, A.; Mizumoto, C.; Medina, L.

2009-01-01

174

Asian American Giving to US Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asian Americans have had significant impacts on and within mainstream US society, and their great efforts and gifts in the name of charitable causes are no exception. This study aims to examine perceptions within American university development offices about Asian American giving to US higher education. The article begins with a literature review…

Tsunoda, Kozue

2010-01-01

175

Outsourcing in Higher Education: An Empirical Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To measure the degree of implementation and satisfaction level with the outsourcing initiatives from higher education institutions. Design/methodology/approach: Uses a survey questionnaire to measure the levels of satisfaction with the institutions' services and the questionnaire was based on six factors that are deemed significant in…

Gupta, Atul; Herath, S. Kanthi; Mikouiza, Nathalie C.

2005-01-01

176

Staff Development Needs in Pakistan Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Staff development is very significant for the achievement of overall goals of higher education in Pakistan. The success of innovations depends largely upon the skills of instructors; but in Pakistan, the people with a simple masters degree (without any pedagogical training) are inducted as teaching staff at the university level, so it is time to…

Ullah, Muhammad Hameed; Khan, Muhammad Naeem Ullah; Murtaza, Ali; Ud Din, Muhammad Naseer

2011-01-01

177

Higher Education for Sustainable Development in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the significance of developments across Chinese higher education in the field of education and learning for sustainable development (SD) and to assess the relative impact of these initiatives. Design/methodology/approach: This is a review of policy and practice to examine developments, challenges,…

Niu, Dongjie; Jiang, Dahe; Li, Fengting

2010-01-01

178

Statistical Significance of Threading Scores  

PubMed Central

Abstract We present a general method for assessing threading score significance. The threading score of a protein sequence, thread onto a given structure, should be compared with the threading score distribution of a random amino-acid sequence, of the same length, thread on the same structure; small p-values point significantly high scores. We claim that, due to general protein contact map properties, this reference distribution is a Weibull extreme value distribution whose parameters depend on the threading method, the structure, the length of the query and the random sequence simulation model used. These parameters can be estimated off-line with simulated sequence samples, for different sequence lengths. They can further be interpolated at the exact length of a query, enabling the quick computation of the p-value. PMID:22149633

Fayyaz Movaghar, Afshin; Launay, Guillaume; Schbath, Sophie; Gibrat, Jean-François

2012-01-01

179

Significant Figures and Rounding Rules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page deals with significant figures and rounding rules. It's primary audience is teachers of high-school and college-level science classes like Physics and Chemistry, but there are links to sites for students as well. For educators, this page describes recent research into the accuracy and safety of the standard rounding rule for multiplication and division and discusses the implicationsfor science education.

Mulliss, Christopher

2003-10-10

180

The Political Dynamics of Higher Education Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a framework informed by spatial models of politics to explain the dynamics of political competition in higher education policy and, in particular, the observed instability in the relationship between political variables and policy outcomes. To this end, I explore competing hypotheses for the relationship between government…

Dar, Luciana

2012-01-01

181

Antireticulin antibody: Incidence and diagnostic significance  

PubMed Central

Sera from 101 patients with adult coeliac disease, 46 patients with childhood coeliac disease, 50 patients with dermatitis herpetiformis, and 479 patients with various other diseases, including skin, gastrointestinal, haematological, and immunological disorders, have been tested for the presence of the antireticulin antibody. Positive sera were retested at higher dilutions. Antireticulin antibody was only found in a significant proportion of patients with three diseases, ie, coeliac disease, dermatitis herpetiformis, and Crohn's disease. Antireticulin antibody was present in 38 out of 101 patients (38%) with adult coeliac disease, 27 out of 46 patients (59%) with childhood coeliac disease, 11 out of 50 patients (22%) with dermatitis herpetiformis, and nine out of 38 patients (24%) with Crohn's disease. In the 434 other patients with various disorders the antireticulin antibody was present in only six 1·4%) (two patients were pregnant, one had vitiligo, one had tropical sprue, one had reticulum cell sarcoma, and one had pernicious anaemia). In patients with gluten-sensitive enteropathy, ie, coeliac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis, there was a significantly higher incidence in patients taking a normal diet compared with those on a gluten-free diet. The presence of antireticulin antibody would appear to be particularly helpful in diagnosing childhood coeliac disease as it was found in 22 out of 26 patients (85%) taking a normal diet. PMID:4574903

Seah, P. P.; Fry, Lionel; Holborow, E. J.; Rossiter, Mary A.; Doe, W. F.; Magalhaes, A. F.; Hoffbrand, A. V.

1973-01-01

182

Higher Education and Public Good  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Policy debate about whether to maintain public subsidies for higher education has stimulated reconsideration of the public mission of higher education institutions, especially those that provide student places conferring private benefits. If the work of higher education institutions is defined simply as the aggregation of private interests, this…

Marginson, Simon

2011-01-01

183

History of Higher Education, 1992.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annual compilation offers six articles on the history of higher education. In the first article, "The Historical Matrix of American Higher Education," Roger L. Geiger provides an overview of the history of American higher education. Following it, E. D. Duryea, Jurgen Herbst, and W. Bruce Leslie comment on his hypothesis which identifies eight…

History of Higher Education, 1992

1992-01-01

184

Contacts in Higher Education. Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide lists the universities and colleges in England directly funded by the Higher Education Funding Council for England, with contact information. It also includes other useful sources of information on higher education. The guide is divided into these sections: (1) higher education institutions; (2) regional contacts; (3) further education…

Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

185

Contacts in Higher Education. Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide lists the names and addresses of the universities and colleges funded by the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE). The guide is divided into these sections: (1) higher education institutions; (2) regional contacts; (3) further education colleges providing higher education courses; and (4) useful sources. (SLD)

Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

186

Commitment to Higher Vocational Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a history of the College of Higher Vocational Studies (CHVS) since it was established in 1991 and provides commentary on developments in higher vocational education in Hong Kong during a period of unprecedented change and development in the provision of the Higher Diploma. "Principal's Diary" (Bradford Imrie) describes the…

Imrie, Brad; And Others

187

Phosphate sensing in higher plants.  

PubMed

Phosphate (Pi) plays a central role as reactant and effector molecule in plant cell metabolism. However, Pi is the least accessible macronutrient in many ecosystems and its low availability often limits plant growth. Plants have evolved an array of molecular and morphological adaptations to cope with Pi limitation, which include dramatic changes in gene expression and root development to facilitate Pi acquisition and recycling. Although physiological responses to Pi starvation have been increasingly studied and understood, the initial molecular events that monitor and transmit information on external and internal Pi status remain to be elucidated in plants. This review summarizes molecular and developmental Pi starvation responses of higher plants and the evidence for coordinated regulation of gene expression, followed by a discussion of the potential involvement of plant hormones in Pi sensing and of molecular genetic approaches to elucidate plant signalling of low Pi availability. Complementary genetic strategies in Arabidopsis thaliana have been developed that are expected to identify components of plant signal transduction pathways involved in Pi sensing. Innovative screening methods utilize reporter gene constructs, conditional growth on organophosphates and the inhibitory properties of the Pi analogue phosphite, which hold the promise for significant advances in our understanding of the complex mechanisms by which plants regulate Pi-starvation responses. PMID:12010462

Abel, Steffen; Ticconi, Carla A; Delatorre, Carla A

2002-05-01

188

Multiwavelength Observations of AB Doradus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed the bright, magnetically active multiple star AB Doradus in a multiwavelength campaign centring around two large facility allocations in November 2006 and January, 2007. Our observations have covered at least three large flares. These flares were observed to produce significant hardening of the X-ray spectra during their very initial stages. We monitored flare-related effects using the Suzaku X-ray satellite and the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at 3.6 and 6 cm. Observations at 11 and 21 cm were also included, but they were compromised by interference. Optical monitoring was also provided by broadband B and V photometry and some high-dispersion spectrograms. From this multiwavelength coverage we find that the observed flare effects can be mainly associated with a large active region near longitude zero. The second major X-ray and microwave flare of Jan 8, 2007 was observed with a favourable geometry that allowed its initial high-energy impulsive phase to be observed in the higher frequency range of Suzaku's XIS detectors. The fractional circular polarisation (Stokes V/I) was measured in the uv data for the complete runs, for 25 min integrations and, at 4.80 GHz, for 5 min integrations, using the radio data of Nov 21 2006 and Jan 08 2007. Most of the full data sets showed V/I fractions from AB Dor B that were significant at greater than the 3? level. In several of the 5 min integrations at 4.80 and 8.64 GHz this fraction reached a significance level between 3 and 9?. Lack of angular resolution prevented identification of these high V/I values with one or other of the two low-mass red-dwarf components of AB Dor B.

Slee, O. B.; Erkan, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Budding, E.

2014-04-01

189

Where boosted significances come from  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an era of increasingly advanced experimental analysis techniques it is crucial to understand which phase space regions contribute a signal extraction from backgrounds. Based on the Neyman-Pearson lemma we compute the maximum significance for a signal extraction as an integral over phase space regions. We then study to what degree boosted Higgs strategies benefit ZH and tt¯H searches and which transverse momenta of the Higgs are most promising. We find that Higgs and top taggers are the appropriate tools, but would profit from a targeted optimization towards smaller transverse momenta. MadMax is available as an add-on to MadGraph 5.

Plehn, Tilman; Schichtel, Peter; Wiegand, Daniel

2014-03-01

190

Clinical Significance of Precipitous Labor  

PubMed Central

Background Precipitous labor is defined as expulsion of the fetus within less than 3 hours of commencement of regular contractions. We retrospectively examined our cases of precipitous labor to identify the clinical significance and perinatal outcomes following precipitous labor in singleton vertex deliveries. Methods A retrospective population-based study was conducted comparing women with singleton precipitous labor and those with labor of normal duration. We examined the clinical characteristics and outcomes by comparing patients with precipitous labor and those with labor of normal duration in 0 and two-parous singleton pregnant women. Results Using a multivariate analysis, precipitous labor in nulliparous women was independently associated with teenagers (adjusted OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 0.99 - 2.95, P = 0.049), preterm delivery (adjusted OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.16 - 2.70, P < 0.01) and hypertensive disorders (adjusted OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.19 - 2.65, P < 0.01), while in two-parous women, it was independently associated with hypertensive disorders (adjusted OR: 2.64, 95% CI: 1.33 - 5.24, P < 0.01). No significant differences were noted between the two groups regarding maternal or neonatal complications on both nulliparous and two-parous women. Conclusion Although precipitous labor was associated with hypertensive disorders in singleton vertex deliveries, it was not associated with maternal or neonatal outcomes. PMID:25584099

Suzuki, Shunji

2015-01-01

191

The Conditioning Role of State Higher Education Governance Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a study that examined whether the presence of a consolidated governing board for higher education conditions the impact various political factors have on state support for higher education. The existence of a consolidated governing board is shown to significantly alter the politics of the state higher education…

Tandberg, David A.

2013-01-01

192

Access to Higher Education in China: Differences in Opportunity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Access to higher education in China has opened up significantly in the move towards a mass higher education system. However, aggregate growth does not necessarily imply fair or reasonable distribution of opportunity. In fact, the expansion of higher education has a rather more complex influence on opportunity when admissions statistics are viewed…

Wang, Houxiong

2011-01-01

193

Institute of Higher Education: An Oral History (1964-2002).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This oral history is part of the celebration planned by the University of Georgia Institute of Higher Education to honor Cameron Fincher for his service to the field of higher education and the Institute. Dr, Fincher was interviewed by Delmer D. Dunn about the significant changes that have occurred in higher education over the past 50 years.…

Fincher, Cameron

194

Yawning and its physiological significance  

PubMed Central

Although yawning is a commonly witnessed human behavior, yet it has not been taught in much detail in medical schools because, until the date, no particular physiological significance has been associated with it. It is characterized by opening up of mouth which is accompanied by a long inspiration, with a brief interruption of ventilation and followed by a short expiration. Since time immemorial, yawning has been associated with drowsiness and boredom. However, this age old belief is all set to change as the results of some newer studies have pointed out that yawning might be a way by which our body is trying to accomplish some more meaningful goals. In this review, we have tried to put together some of the important functions that have been proposed by a few authors, with the hope that this article will stimulate the interest of newer researchers in this hitherto unexplored field. PMID:23776833

Gupta, Sharat; Mittal, Shallu

2013-01-01

195

Diagnostic significance of indium-111 granulocyte scintigraphy in febrile patients  

SciTech Connect

Sixty-eight patients with fever of unknown origin, 32 patients with postoperative fever, and 26 patients with therapy-resistant fever after bacteremia were investigated with (/sup 111/In) granulocyte scintigraphy for the detection of abscesses. The results showed that the value of (/sup 111/In)granulocyte scintigraphy in the detection of infectious foci vary in these three types of febrile conditions. The overall sensitivity and specificity were 86.5% and 87.8%, respectively. We observed, however, a relatively low predictive value of a positive result in the fever of unknown origin group (73.1%), and also a low predictive value of a negative result in the bacteremia group (66.7%). The C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in patients with a true-positive scintigram were significantly (p less than 0.001) higher than in patients with a true-negative scintigram. There was also a significant positive correlation (p less than 0.01) between the serum CRP concentration and the intensity of the granulocyte accumulations. There was no correlation between the peripheral leukocyte count or the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and the intensity of the granulocyte uptake. Therefore CRP, but not the leukocyte count or ESR, appears useful for selecting the patients who benefit most from granulocyte scintigraphy.

Syrjaelae, M.T.Va.; Valtonen, V.; Liewendahl, K.; Myllylae, G.

1987-02-01

196

Prognostic Significance of DR-70 Levels in Dysplastic Colorectal Polyps  

PubMed Central

Background. To investigate the relationship between DR-70 serum levels and dysplastic colon polyps. Materials and Methods. A total of 130 patients with adenomatous polyps detected by colonoscopy and divided into two groups including low versus high grade polyp, along with 50 healthy blood donors were included in the study. Blood samples from each participant were analyzed for serum CEA and DR-70 levels. Results. No statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of age or gender. The median DR-70 level was 0.5??g/mL in the healthy control group and 1.1??g/mL in group 1b (i.e., the high grade polyp) (P < 0.001). DR-70 was higher in group 1b as compared to group 1a (P < 0.001). However, the median DR-70 values for the low grade polyp group (i.e., group 1a) and the control group were similar (P = 0.067). In order to determine independent predictors of high grade dysplasia, CEA, DR-70, polyp size, and age parameters were subjected to multiple logistical regression analyses via the Enter method; the model was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusions. DR-70, a marker used to measure FDP, which is generated by all major cancers, is a potential marker to identify patients with advanced adenomatous polyps, that is, precursors of colorectal cancer. PMID:24348532

Yesil, Atakan; Babacan Abanonu, Gul; Colak, Yasar; Paker, Nurcan; Gonen, Can

2013-01-01

197

Alcohol intoxication in road traffic accidents leads to higher impact speed difference, higher ISS and MAIS, and higher preclinical mortality.  

PubMed

Alcohol is one of the most important personal risk factors for serious and fatal injuries, contributing to approximately one third of all deaths from accidents. It is also described that alcohol intoxication leads to a higher mortality in the clinical course. In this study, we hypothesized that alcohol intoxication leads to different accident kinematics, a higher ISS (Injury Severity Score), and higher preclinical mortality compared to sober patients. A technical and medical investigation of alcohol intoxicated road users was performed on the scene of the crash and at the primary admitting hospital. Alcohol testing was performed with either breath alcohol tests or measurement of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in a standard laboratory test. Between 1999 and 2010, 37,635 road traffic accidents were evaluated by the Accident Research Unit. Overall 20,741 patients were injured, 2.3% of the patients were killed. Among the injured patients, 2.2% with negative BAC were killed, compared to 4.6% fatal injuries in patients with a positive BAC (p < 0.0001). Of the patients with a positive BAC, 8.0% were severely injured, compared to 3.6% in the BAC negative group (p < 0.0001). Regarding the relative speed at impact (?v for motorized drivers, vehicle collision speed for pedestrians and bikers), there was a significant higher difference for BAC positive patients (30 ± 20) compared to the BAC negative patients (25 ± 19, p < 0.0001). Alcohol intoxication in trauma patients leads to higher preclinical mortality, higher impact speed difference, and higher injury severity. The subgroup analysis for different alcohol concentrations shows no difference in ISS, MAIS, and relative speed, but a correlation of increasing age of patients with higher alcohol concentrations. PMID:22819121

Stübig, Timo; Petri, Maximilian; Zeckey, Christian; Brand, Stephan; Müller, Christian; Otte, Dietmar; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl

2012-11-01

198

Family Background, Financial Constraints and Higher Education Attendance in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the 2004 China College Student Survey, conducted by the author, this paper finds that long-term factors such as scholastic ability and parental education are significantly correlated with higher education attendance. By contrast, short-term financial constraints are also significantly associated with higher education access, but to…

Li, Wenli

2007-01-01

199

The Demand for Higher Education in Turkey and Open Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Failure to meet considerably high demand for higher education in Turkey has always been one of the most significant concerns of Turkish Higher Education System for many years. In this respect, Anadolu University Open Education Faculty has played a significant role in the attempts to overcome this problem in Turkey for the last three decades. In…

Cekerol, Kamil

2012-01-01

200

The Nature of Work and the Stress of Higher Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Are occupational and work conditions associated with work-to-home conflict? If so, do those associations vary by gender? Among a sample of adults in Toronto, Canada, we found that men and women in higher-status occupations reported higher levels of work-to-home conflict than workers in lower-status jobs. In addition, we observed higher levels of…

Schieman, Scott; Whitestone, Yuko Kurashina; Van Gundy, Karen

2006-01-01

201

Adaptive significance of root grafting in trees  

SciTech Connect

Root grafting has long been observed in forest trees but the adaptive significance of this trait has not been fully explained. Various authors have proposed that root grafting between trees contributes to mechanical support by linking adjacent root systems. Keeley proposes that this trait would be of greatest advantage in swamps where soils provide poor mechanical support. He provides as evidence a greenhouse study of Nyssa sylvatica Marsh in which seedlings of swamp provenance formed between-individual root grafts more frequently than upland provenance seedlings. In agreement with this within-species study, Keeley observed that arid zone species rarely exhibit grafts. Keeley also demonstrated that vines graft less commonly than trees, and herbs never do. Since the need for mechanical support coincides with this trend, these data seem to support his model. In this paper, the authors explore the mechanisms and ecological significance of root grafting, leading to predictions of root grafting incidence. Some observations support and some contradict the mechanical support hypothesis.

Loehle, C.; Jones, R.

1988-12-31

202

The Impact of Significant Other Expressed Emotion on Patient Outcomes in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective: Previous literature has identified the importance of interpersonal processes for patient outcomes in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME), particularly in the context of significant other relationships. The current study investigated expressed emotion (EE), examining the independent effects of critical comments and emotional overinvolvement (EOI) in association with patient outcomes. Method: Fifty-five patients with CFS/ME and their significant others were recruited from specialist CFS/ME services. Significant other EE status was coded from a modified Camberwell Family Interview. Patient outcomes (fatigue severity, disability, and depression) were derived from questionnaire measures. Forty-four patients (80%) completed follow-up questionnaires 6-months after recruitment. Results: Significant other high-EE categorized by both high levels of critical comments and high EOI was predictive of worse fatigue severity at follow-up. High-critical EE was associated with higher levels of patient depressive symptoms longitudinally; depressive symptoms were observed to mediate the relationship between high critical comments and fatigue severity reported at follow-up. There were higher rates of high-EE in parents than in partners, and this was because of higher rates of EOI in parents. Conclusions: Patients with high-EE significant others demonstrated poorer outcomes at follow-up compared with patients in low-EE dyads. One mechanism for this appears to be as a result of increased patient depression. Future research should seek to further clarify whether the role of interpersonal processes in CFS/ME differs across different patient-significant other relationships. The development of significant other-focused treatment interventions may be particularly beneficial for both patients and significant others. PMID:25180548

2014-01-01

203

Higher-order spin noise statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical spin noise spectroscopy (SNS) is a minimally invasive route toward obtaining dynamical information about electrons and atomic gases by measuring mesoscopic time-dependent spin fluctuations. Recent improvements of the sensitivity of SNS should make it possible to observe higher-order spin correlators at thermodynamic equilibrium. We develop theoretical methods to explore higher-order (third and fourth) cumulants of the spin noise in the frequency domain. We make predictions for the possible functional form of these correlators in single quantum dot experiments and then apply the method of the stochastic path integral to estimate the effects of many-body interactions.

Li, Fuxiang; Saxena, Avadh; Smith, Darryl; Sinitsyn, Nikolai A.

2013-11-01

204

Polysaccharides: Occurrence, Significance, and Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polysaccharides are properties present significance in all living organisms where they carry out one or more of their diverse functions. While there is no specific category or definition of a complex polysaccharide, most are structurally complex. Polysaccharides contain 1-5 different monosaccharide (sugar) units. The different sugar units may have different anomeric configurations and/or be joined by different glycosidic linkages. Polysaccharides may be linear or branched. Branches may be short saccharide units on a linear backbone or the molecule may have a branch-on-branch structure; in either case, the branches may be isolated or clustered. Polysaccharides may contain non-carbohydrate groups. Esters or cyclic acetal groups, when present, can be removed by appropriate treatments. All polysaccharides are polydisperse, i. e., are present in a range of molecular weights rather than having a single molecular weight. Most are polymolecular, i. e., differ in fine structure from molecule to molecule. So most polysaccharides can be said to be structurally complex. They may be attached to protein molecules or to other polysaccharide molecules. They are solvated by water. Most dissolve in aqueous systems, especially if they are alkaline. Polysaccharides can be depolymerized by acids and heat, specific enzymes, and high pH systems following oxidation. Their hydroxyl groups can be esterified (acylated), etherified (alkylated), and oxidized. Amino groups can be acylated (and deacylated). Carboxyl groups can be converted into esters, amides, and amines. Structural modification makes the molecules even more complex and polymolecular and, perhaps, polydisperse.

Bemiller, James N.

205

Astrobiological Significance of Chemolithoautotrophic Acidophiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithoautotrophic bacteria) a dilemma in microbiology has concerned life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modem biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithohetherotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organoautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant role on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur- oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

2003-01-01

206

[Significance of comorbidity in the control of the quality of treatment of dialysis patients].  

PubMed

The Uruguayan Dialysis Registry (UDR) is an obligatory registry and includes all the patients on dialysis treatment in the country. The dialysis prevalence rate at 12-31-1997 was 604 pmp and the mortality rate in 1997 was 132 deaths per 1,000 patient years at risk. Adjusted mortality of each dialysis center in the country (n = 35) is calculated every year. In this paper, mortality in the different centers was compared applying the usual methodology in order to identify centers with higher mortality and the importance of comorbidity m the mortality comparison among centers was analyzed. 1. The prevalent and incident population of the 1992-1996 period was considered (n 2989). The mortality rate of each dialysis center, adjusted for age and nephropathy by indirect standardization, was calculated. The prevalent and incident population (1985-1991) of the UDR was used as standard. Standardized mortality rate (SMR) for each center and for the total population was obtained dividing observed deaths by expected deaths. 2. The prevalent population at january 1, 1994 was considered (n 1131) and the observation period was extended from january 1, 1994 to december 31, 1997. Demographic and co-morbidity data were collected at the start of the observation period. Multivariate analysis of survival was applied to identify significant risk factors (Cox hazard regression model). The mortality rate of each dialysis center was adjusted for the significant risk factors. Seven centers had significant higher mortality rate adjusted for age and nephropathy than the average of the standard population. Four year survival in the 7 centers (51.6%) was lower than in the other 28 centers (63.6%) (p = 0.0001). In the multivariate analysis, 5 variables (age, diabetes, arteriosclerotic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease) were significantly related with mortality. The relative risk of death, adjusted for the five significant risk factors showed higher significant mortality only in four centers. Three centers did not show mortality differences with the other centers when mortality was analyzed in the multivariate analysis with the significant risk factors. We concluded that adjusting the mortality rate to the significant risk factors allow to discriminate if the differences observed among centers are related or not to an unequal distribution of the risk factors. PMID:11795016

Mazzuchi, N; González, C; González-Martínez, F; Schwedt, E; Correa, A; Correa, F; Fernández-Cean, J

2001-01-01

207

Significant Results from SUMER/SOHO  

E-print Network

We briefly outline recent observations by solar spacecraft such as Yohkoh, SOHO, TRACE, and RHESSI, which have revolutionized what we know and don't know about the Sun. We then present some significant results, mainly from SUMER/SOHO but also complimentary from the other SOHO's experiments, such as CDS, EIT, UVCS, and LASCO. In particular, we present density-temperature structures, explosive events, velocity anisotropy, wave activity, coronal holes and the solar wind etc. These results have provided valuable clues to a better understanding of the two of the SOHO's principal scientific objectives namely, how the Sun's magnetic energy heats its million-degree corona, and feeds the solar wind.

B. N. Dwivedi

2006-11-08

208

Strategic Planning for Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The framework necessary for achieving a strategic planning posture in higher education is outlined. The most important benefit of strategic planning for higher education decision makers is that it forces them to undertake a more market-oriented and systematic approach to long- range planning. (Author/MLW)

Kotler, Philip; Murphy, Patrick E.

1981-01-01

209

Afrocentricity: Implications for Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some ideas about how Afrocentricity can be promoted and integrated in institutions of higher education in the United States. It argues that Afrocentricity offers an alternative to the more dominant Eurocentric view found in higher education and the world and states that the Eurocentric view subscribes to itself exclusive rights to…

Schiele, Jerome H.

1994-01-01

210

Tax Benefits and Higher Education  

E-print Network

Tax Benefits and Higher Education #12;Making Tax Benefits Work for You While"tax"and"benefit"seem like contradictory terms,the fact is that there are a number of tax incentives to help taxpayers offset the cost of higher education. You may be eligible for certain tax benefits if you,your spouse or your

Gelfond, Michael

211

Higher Education and the Masses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The responsibility and relationship of the Asian system of higher education to the masses is the theme of these proceedings of the German Foundation for International Development (DSE) and the Regional Institute of Higher Education and Development (RIHED) joint conference. Objectives of the conference were the following: (1) to examine the…

1978

212

The Overselling of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is not enough substance behind a degree to warrant the ubiquitous belief that a stint in higher education is a "sine qua non" for success in America. While college diplomas may translate into higher-paying jobs for some, high school signifies little in the way of education these days, so jaded employers' estimates of the real value of…

Leef, George C.

2006-01-01

213

Minority Access to Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Asian Americans are entitled to equal access to all institutions of higher education. Ensuring greater access and participation by minorities in higher education is one of the most practical ways of moving America closer to the ideal of equal opportunity, which is the actualization of the American dream.…

Jackson, Nathaniel

2012-01-01

214

Feminist Research in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay provides an overview of feminist methodology and its potential to enhance the study of higher education. Foregrounding the multiple purposes and research relationships developed through feminist research, the essay urges higher education scholars to engage feminist theories, epistemologies, and methods to inform policy, research, and…

Ropers-Huilman, Rebecca; Winters, Kelly T.

2011-01-01

215

The State and Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the federal influence on higher education is important, throughout the United States' history the state role in higher education has been a vital and changing one, and not always uniform. In 1976, two-thirds of the institutional revenue coming from government came from the states, making the state issue an important one. One of the most…

Millard, Richard M.

216

Directory of Higher Education, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory contains addresses or other contact information for members of the Illinois Board of Higher Education and administrators at Illinois public and private colleges. Mailing addresses are given for members of the state Board of Higher Education and members of the boards of the institutions listed, and telephone numbers are provided for…

Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

217

Directory of Higher Education, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory contains addresses or other contact information for members of the Illinois Board of Higher Education and administrators at Illinois public and private colleges and universities. Mailing addresses are given for members of the state Board of Higher Education and members of the boards of the institutions listed. Telephone numbers are…

Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

218

Directory of Higher Education, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory lists the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of members of higher education organizations in the state of Illinois. Included for the Illinois Board of Higher Education is an organization chart, list of board and staff members, and a list of members of the Illinois Century Network. Board members and administrative officers are…

Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

219

Tort Litigation in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of case law relating to tort litigation in 1998 does not reveal any watershed cases that change the legal landscape for institutions of higher education, but it does show that institutions of higher education continue to face a myriad of tort claims of a diverse nature from diverse and expanding constituencies. (SLD)

von Gerichten, Edward

1999-01-01

220

The Higher Education Research Archipelago  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ever since he stumbled into doing higher education research as a young academic in the 1980s, the author has been trying to understand it as a "field" of study. His career, as a former business lecturer, then an academic developer and now an associate professor for higher education working in an Education Faculty has given him opportunities to see…

Macfarlane, Bruce

2012-01-01

221

Higher Still in European Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1999, Scotland's "Higher Still" will incorporate all upper-secondary academic and vocational courses in a unified curriculum and assessment system for postcompulsory education. Higher Still's objectives, strategies, and "system architecture" are compared to those of Austria, England, Finland, France, Germany, Norway, and Sweden, studied by the…

Raffe, David

1997-01-01

222

Innovation processes in higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper contains a brief description of the research we have undertaken on innovations and innovation processes in higher education [1]. Within the framework of a larger project (a study of educational planning for Swedish Higher Education [2]), we have made seven case studies of innovation processes and tried to relate them to an attempt towards a general theory of

Barbro Berg; Bertil Östergren

1979-01-01

223

Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan

2012-01-01

224

Alternative Models for Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education is beset from all sides by criticism, fear, doubt, uncertainty, and prophecies of doom. While the young call for change, the faculty often resist anything that might reduce their privileges and prerogatives. Before alternative models to the present system of higher education can be considered, it is useful to question present…

Caffrey, John G.

225

Institutional Change and Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Institutional change includes the supplanting of the old model of production with a new one, the elimination of old markets and the emergence of new ones. As higher education around the world shifts from national markets to an integrated transnational market, and possibly toward a virtual market, Christian higher education, like other market…

Loomis, Steven; Rodriguez, Jacob

2009-01-01

226

Funding Higher Education: Student Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report documents the results of a survey of 1,139 students at the University of Central England (UCE) in Birmingham in regard to their financial circumstances and their views on the funding of higher education. The report also examines the advantages and disadvantages of six specific higher education funding proposals put forth in recent…

Mason, Selena; Harvey, Lee

227

Canuck-Do Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how, like Australia, Canadian higher education has experienced large-scale cuts in government funding, the deregulation of tuition and general cost shifting to students, inability to accommodate increased student demand, faculty "brain drain" and shortages, and an erosion of public policy toward viewing higher education as a business.…

Rosenfeld, Mark

2003-01-01

228

Higher Education Marketing: A Challenge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that similarities between education and other services may not be sufficient to conclude that services marketing methods can be easily transferred to all markets in higher education. Article identifies and discusses why higher education marketing is a particular challenge. Suggests that understanding these challenges can help in making…

Canterbury, Richard

1999-01-01

229

Higher Education and Social Commitment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proceedings of the Regional Institute of Higher Education and Development's seminar and the meaning and implications of social commitment in higher education are reported. The welcoming address (S. Nasution) and the opening address (Y. B. Dato' Murad bin Mohd. Noor) welcome the participants and set the tone for the discussions to follow. The…

Nasution, S.; Virasai, Banphot, Eds.

230

Normative Crisis of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines the effects of business cycles and government financial aid to technocratic education on traditional higher education norms and on student attitudes; also considered is the present overconcentration of higher education on accommodating its curriculums and programs to labor market changes. (MF)

Schaffer, Edward

1978-01-01

231

Innovations in Higher Education? Hah!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One can hardly mention higher education today without hearing the word "innovation," or its understudies "change," "reinvention," "transformation." Last summer the National Governors Association opened its meeting with a plenary session on higher education, innovation, and economic growth. But there is nothing funny about the need for innovation…

Kirschner, Ann

2012-01-01

232

The Opening of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a 1974 report presented to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Martin Trow laid out a framework for understanding large-scale, worldwide changes in higher education. Trow's essay also pointed to the problems that "arise out of the transition from one phase to another in a broad pattern of development of higher

Matkin, Gary W.

2012-01-01

233

AMR, stability and higher accuracy  

E-print Network

Efforts to achieve better accuracy in numerical relativity have so far focused either on implementing second order accurate adaptive mesh refinement or on defining higher order accurate differences and update schemes. Here, we argue for the combination, that is a higher order accurate adaptive scheme. This combines the power that adaptive gridding techniques provide to resolve fine scales (in addition to a more efficient use of resources) together with the higher accuracy furnished by higher order schemes when the solution is adequately resolved. To define a convenient higher order adaptive mesh refinement scheme, we discuss a few different modifications of the standard, second order accurate approach of Berger and Oliger. Applying each of these methods to a simple model problem, we find these options have unstable modes. However, a novel approach to dealing with the grid boundaries introduced by the adaptivity appears stable and quite promising for the use of high order operators within an adaptive framework.

Luis Lehner; Steven L. Liebling; Oscar Reula

2005-10-25

234

Accretionary orogens: definition, character, significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classic models of orogens involve a Wilson cycle of ocean opening and closing with orogenesis related to continent-continent collision. Such models fail to explain the geological history of a significant number of orogenic belts throughout the world in which deformation, metamorphism and crustal growth took place in an environment of on-going plate convergence. These belts are termed accretionary orogens but have also been refereed to as non-collisional orogens, Pacific-type orogens, Turkic-type and exterior orogens. Accretionary orogens evolve in generally curvilinear belts comprising dominantly mafic to silicic igneous rocks and their sedimentary products and accumulated largely in marine settings. They are variably deformed and metamorphosed by tectono-thermal events aligned parallel to, and punctuating, facies trends. Accretionary orogens form at sites of subduction of oceanic lithosphere and consist of magmatic arcs systems along with material accreted from the downgoing plate and eroded from the upper plate. Deformational features include structures formed in extension and compressive environments during steady-state convergence (arc/backarc vs. accretionary prism) that are overprinted by short regional compressive orogenic events. Orogenesis takes place through coupling across the plate boundary with strain concentrated in zones of mechanical and thermal weakening such as the magmatic arc and back arc region. Potential driving mechanisms for coupling include accretion of buoyant lithosphere (terrane accretion), flat slab subduction, and rapid absolute upper plate motion over-riding the downgoing plate. The Circum-Pacific region provides outstanding examples of accretionary orogens. The Pacific formed during breakup of Rodinia in the Neoproterozoic and has never subsequently closed, resulting in a series of overall ocean-ward younging orogenic systems that have always faced an open ocean, yet have been the sites of repeated tectono-thermal events and continental growth. Accretionary orogens have been active throughout Earth history. They have been responsible for major growth of the continental lithosphere through the addition of juvenile magmatic products and include Archean greenstone belts, the Paleoproterozoic Birimian orogen (W. Africa), the Arabian-Nubian shield (Pan African) and Paleozoic orogens in Asia.

Cawood, P. A.; Kroener, A.; Windley, B. F.

2003-04-01

235

Significant association between DRD3 gene body methylation and schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The current study was the first one to reveal the contribution of DRD3 methylation to the risk of different (SCZ) subtypes. This study comprised a total of 30 paranoid (15 males and 15 females) and 29 undifferentiated (15 males and 14 females) SCZ patients and 26 age- and gender-matched controls. Our results showed a significant association of CpG2 with SCZ. A breakdown analysis by gender showed that CpG2 and CpG3 methylation were significantly higher in male patients than male controls, and that CpG5 methylation was significantly higher in female patients than female controls. A further breakdown analysis by both gender and SCZ subtype showed that CpG2 and CpG3 methylation were significantly higher in male paranoid SCZ and male undifferentiated SCZ than male controls. In contrast, CpG2 and CpG3 methylation were significantly lower in female undifferentiated SCZ than female controls. Additionally, CpG5 methylation was significantly higher in female paranoid SCZ than female controls. In conclusion, our findings supported that DRD3 gene body hypermethylation was significantly associated with the risk of SCZ. Future study is needed to clarify the mechanisms by which DRD3 gene body hypermethylation contributes to the risk of SCZ. PMID:25262640

Dai, Dongjun; Cheng, Jia; Zhou, Kena; Lv, Yuelong; Zhuang, Qidong; Zheng, Rongjiong; Zhang, Kai; Jiang, Danjie; Gao, Shugui; Duan, Shiwei

2014-12-30

236

Higher order processes in random Raman lasing.  

PubMed

Random Raman lasers offer a unique opportunity to study many exciting dynamics of light propagation in turbid media. One of the most notable features observed to exist in the recently discovered random Raman laser are the presence of higher order stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) processes. The higher order Stokes generation likely comes from photons that have the longest pathlengths, thus have the most gain. This makes these photons particularly likely to offer interesting insight into wave propagation effects such as coherent backscattering and optical Anderson localization. In this work, we use Monte Carlo simulations to investigate how these higher order processes occur and what properties they are expected to exhibit when considering only transport equation dynamics. This knowledge will allow us to look for deviations from this theory in future experiments to determine if wavelike properties play an active role in random Raman lasing. PMID:25395737

Hokr, Brett H; Bixler, Joel N; Yakovlev, Vladislav V

2014-11-01

237

Astrobiological Significance of Microbial Extremophiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The microflora of the cryosphere of planet Earth provides the best analogs for life forms that might be found in the permafrost or polar ice caps of Mars, near the surface of the cometary nuclei, or in the liquid water beneath and the ice crusts of icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The importance of study alkaliphilic microorganisms for astrobiology was enhanced by the findings of abundant carbonates and carbonate globules rimmed with possibly biogenic magnetites in association with the putative microfossils in the ALH84001 meteorite. Although the ALH84001 "nanofossils" were to small and simple to be unambiguously recognized as biogenic, they stimulated Astrobiology research and studies of microbial extremophiles and biomarkers in ancient rocks and meteorites. Recent studies of CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites have resulted in the detection of the well-preserved mineralized remains of coccoidal and filamentous microorganisms in cyanobacterial mats. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis has shown anomalous biogenic element ratios clearly indicating they are not recent biological contaminants. This paper reviews microbial extremophiles in context of their significance to Astrobiology. The study of halophilic microorganisms was started from work with saline soils and lakes, and one of the record of good growth for Haloferax mediterranei was shown at 30 percent NaC1. Although alkali-tolerant nitrifying bacteria had previously been reported, the first described alkaliphilic microorganism was the bacterium Streptococcus faecalis. Halophilic and alkaliphilic forms are relevant to conditions that might be found in closed impact basins and craters on Mars filled with evaporite deposits. The first obligately acidophilic bacterium described was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxydans (formally Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Later thermophilic lithotrophic acidophiles were found, and the hyperacidophilic moderately thermophilic species of the genus Picrophilus were found to grow at negative pH. The epoch of study of thermophilic microorganisms starts with the discovery of Thermus aquaticus, and presently the maximum temperature for growth at 113 C was found for Pyrolobus fumarii. The microorganisms capable of growth at high temperatures and in hyperacidic environments on Earth are good analogs for life that might be able to survive in hot acidic droplets in the upper regimes of the atmosphere of Venus. The study of barophiles was made possible by engineering achievements leading to the development of the submersible crafts used to study the Black Smokers of the Deep-sea Hydrothermal vents. The first described radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans can survive ionizing irradiation and other DNA-damaging assaults at doses that are lethal to all other organisms. These microbes are models for life that might endure high radiation environments in the ice near the surface of comets or on the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn and in the seafloor deep beneath icy crusts Europa and Enceladus. This paper presents ESEM and FESEM images showing intact microbes preserved in the deep ice cores extracted from just above Lake Vostok, Antarctica that are considered analogs for life forms that might survive on comets and icy moons.

Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

2007-01-01

238

Significance of nonrespiratory airflow during swallowing.  

PubMed

This study was designed to further our understanding of a potentially significant clinical event of negative nasal airflow near the end of the respiratory pause (inhibition) to accommodate swallowing. This negative flow, referred to as "SNIF," or swallow noninspiratory flow, occurs at the onset of airway reestablishment at the conclusion of the oropharyngeal swallow. Using simultaneous digital video fluoroscopic and nasal respiratory airflow recordings on 82 healthy adults (21-97 years old), the objectives of this study were to determine (1) the frequency of occurrence of SNIF during a 5-ml natural cup-drinking task, (2) differences in SNIF occurrence by age group, and (3) the temporal relationship between SNIF and other swallowing events. Results revealed that for most participants SNIF was observed in both swallowing trials. There was a statistically significant difference in SNIF occurrence by age category, with SNIF observed less frequently in the oldest participants. The peak onset of SNIF is closely related to the first release of contact between the soft palate and tongue base with the posterior pharyngeal wall and opening of the laryngeal vestibule. Based on this, and in agreement with previous investigators, we suggest that this negative flow may be related to a partial vacuum established by the relaxation of pharyngeal contraction near the conclusion of the pharyngeal swallow. The more frequent occurrence of SNIF in younger adults and less in older adults suggests a reduction in pharyngeal pressure associated with healthy aging. PMID:21748449

Brodsky, Martin B; McFarland, David H; Michel, Yvonne; Orr, Suzanne B; Martin-Harris, Bonnie

2012-06-01

239

Observation of dispersive wave emission by temporal cavity solitons.  

PubMed

We examine a coherently-driven, dispersion-managed, passive Kerr fiber ring resonator and report, to the best of our knowledge, the first direct experimental observation of dispersive wave emission by temporal cavity solitons (CSs). Our observations are in excellent agreement with analytical predictions and they are fully corroborated by numerical simulations. These results lead to a better understanding of the behavior of temporal CSs under conditions where higher-order dispersion plays a significant role. Significantly, since temporal CSs manifest themselves in monolithic microresonators, our results are likely to explain the origins of spectral features observed in broadband Kerr frequency combs. PMID:25360913

Jang, Jae K; Erkintalo, Miro; Murdoch, Stuart G; Coen, Stéphane

2014-10-01

240

Higher Education: Labor Market Linkage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the methodology of three case studies investigating the linkage between higher education and the world of work in the Sudan, Zambia, and Tanzania. Summarizes 12 main findings. Suggests the studies remain traditional human resources planning efforts. (NEC)

Asayeghn, Desta

1982-01-01

241

Higher-Dimensional Communication and S.E.T.I  

E-print Network

In cosmologies with more than four dimensions, of the type required for unification, it is possible for signals to have velocities in excess of that of light. Using a five-dimensional model which otherwise agrees with observations, two subjects are reviewed: (a) An exact solution of the field equations which describes a 4D spacetime with a large cosmological constant and waves travelling in ordinary 3D space with velocities exceeding lightspeed. (b) An example where the 4D interval or proper time is modulated by the systematic variation of the scalar field associated with the fifth dimension, providing a simple signalling method. These and related consequences of higher-dimensional cosmology have significant implications for astrophysics, and especially the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence.

Paul S. Wesson

2014-06-07

242

Local Knowledge and Wisdom in Higher Education. Issues in Higher Education Series, Volume 14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers in this collection, derived from several sessions of the Commission for Indigenous Education, contain insightful accounts of the role of indigenous knowledge in higher education institutions across a variety of societies. The contributors examine the move to reaffirm the significance of local knowledge and wisdom and the resulting…

Teasdale, G. R., Ed.; Rhea, Zane Ma, Ed.

243

Higher Learning, Greater Good: The Private and Social Benefits of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A college education has long been acknowledged as essential for both personal success and economic growth. But the measurable value of its nonmonetary benefits has until now been poorly understood. Walter W. McMahon, a leading education economist, carefully describes these benefits and suggests that higher education accrues significant social and…

McMahon, Walter W.

2009-01-01

244

On the Philosophy of Higher Education. Revised Edition. The Jossey-Bass Series in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic academic issues such as institutional objectives, educational ethics, and methods of academic decision-making are examined in light of significant new social, economic, legal, and educational developments in this revision of the 1977 edition of "On the Philosophy of Higher Education." Focus is on the tension between pure research and social…

Brubacher, John S.

245

Higher requirements of dialysis in severe lithium intoxication.  

PubMed

Severe lithium poisoning is a frequent condition in the intoxicated intensive care unit population. Dialysis is the treatment of choice, but no clinical markers predicting higher requirement for dialysis have been identified to date. We analyze the characteristics of lithium overdose patients needing dialysis to improve lithium clearance, and identify the ones associated with higher dialysis requirement. This is an observational, retrospective study of 14 patients with lithium poisoning admitted from 2004 to 2009. Median age was 41.8 ± 16.1 years. Poisonings were acute in 7.1%, acute-on-chronic in 64.28%, and chronic in 28.5% of cases. Comparing clinical and biochemical data in patients requiring more than one dialysis session with those requiring only one session, the univariate analysis showed differences at admission in creatinine clearance (40.5 ± 23 vs. 73.3 ± 24.9 mL/min, P = 0.025), white blood cells (17,528 ± 3,530 vs. 11,580 ± 3360 cells/L, P = 0.007), and blood sodium concentration (134.8 ± 5.9 vs. 141.8 ± 8.4 mmol/L, P=0.035). We measured the degree of association between the number of sessions and the variables with partial correlations. High lithium levels (P = 0.006, r = 0.69), low creatinine clearance (P = 0.04, r = -0.55), and low blood sodium concentration (P = 0.024, r = -0.59) were associated with a greater number of dialysis sessions. The correlation remained significant for blood sodium concentration (P = 0.016, r = -0.67) after adjustment for creatinine clearance and initial lithium levels. Presence on admission of low creatinine clearance, low blood sodium concentration, and/or high lithium levels correlated with a higher number of dialysis sessions in severe lithium poisoning. These factors, especially low blood sodium concentration, are associated with higher dialysis requirements in severe lithium intoxication. PMID:22962699

Lopez, Juan Carlos; Perez, Xose; Labad, Javier; Esteve, Francisco; Manez, Rafael; Javierre, Casimiro

2012-07-01

246

Higher plant biomarkers reflect palaeovegetation changes during Jurassic times  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relative abundances of three higher-plant-derived biomarkers, retene, cadalene and ip-iHMN, have been measured in marine sedimentary rocks from the northwest margin of Australia. It is thought that each biomarker represents input from a different plant type. The distributions of these three compounds form a fingerprint, representing higher plant input (HPF). Variations in HPF in Oxfordian sediments were nearly identical in all three locations, with retene becoming very abundant relative to the other two compounds with decreasing age of the sediment. This finding strongly suggests that the composition of terrestrial input during deposition largely determines HPF and that the possible effects of diagenesis and catagenesis on the distribution of the three biomarkers are relatively unimportant. The marked increase in the abundance of retene relative to that of cadalene during the Oxfordian is interpreted to reflect an increase in the contribution of plants that produced precursors for retene, i.e., conifers, brought about by a significant change in climate. This was exemplified by measuring the distributions of retene and cadalene, expressed in the higher plant parameter (HPP) for a suite of sediments from the Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia, covering the complete Jurassic period. The HPP profile displays three major cycles, each covering a period of at least 10 million years. This profile not only compared well with published palaeoclimate data, but also showed a remarkable similarity with second order cycles in the global sea level curve, thus strongly supporting the proposal that variations in HPF and HPP are indications of changes in palaeoclimate. The relation with global sea level further suggests that global factors, e.g., the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, may play a major role in determining the observed variations in the distributions of these higher-plant-derived biomarkers.

van Aarssen, Ben G. K.; Alexander, Robert; Kagi, Robert I.

2000-04-01

247

Higher-spin theory and holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical reviews recent developments in higher-spin gauge theories and their applications to holographic dualities. The analysis of higher-spin theories has a very long history, but it took until the mid 1980s for the first consistent higher-spin interactions to be constructed by Bengtsson, Bengtsson and Brink [1] and Berends, Burgers and van Dam [2]. Somewhat later it was shown by Fradkin and Vasiliev [3] that consistent higher-spin gauge theories that involve gravity should necessarily be defined on a curved background. The first consistent interacting higher-spin theories were then formulated at the classical level by Vasiliev in the early 1990s [4]. These higher-spin theories involve an infinite number of massless higher-spin fields that support higher-spin gauge symmetries, and indeed, are largely characterized by this underlying gauge symmetry. The simplest examples are provided by higher-spin theories on (anti)-de Sitter spaces, and in a sense, this anticipated the AdS/CFT correspondence. Indeed, in the tensionless limit of string theory, the massive excitations of string theory become massless, and hence define higher-spin gauge fields. On the other hand, from the dual gauge theory perspective, this is the limit in which the field theory becomes free, and therefore has many conserved higher-spin currents. By the usual AdS/CFT dictionary, these are dual to the higher-spin gauge symmetries of the bulk description. Following this line of argument, Sundborg [5] and Witten [6] suggested in 2001 that a duality relating a higher-spin theory on AdSd to a weakly coupled (d - 1)-dimensional conformal field theory should exist. A concrete proposal was then made by Klebanov and Polyakov [7] who conjectured that the simplest version of a higher-spin gauge theory on AdS4 should be dual to the 3d O(N ) vector model. Recently, much support for this conjecture was obtained by Giombi and Yin [8], and in turn, this has triggered a significant amount of activity in this general area. Among other things, the constraints that are implied by the higher-spin symmetries were analysed (see the paper by Maldacena and Zhiboedov in this issue [9]), and a fairly concrete proposal for how higher-spin theories are related to string theory was made (see the paper by Chang, Minwalla, Sharma and Yin in this issue [10]). Furthermore, a lower dimensional version of the conjecture was put forward by Gaberdiel and Gopakumar [11] that was subsequently also checked in some detail. These dualities hold the promise of offering insights into the inner workings of the AdS/CFT correspondence since they are complex enough to capture the essence of the duality, while at the same time being sufficiently simple in order to allow for a detailed analysis. Moreover, the methods specifically developed in higher-spin theory may be useful for understanding a general mechanism underlying holography, both in higher-spin models and beyond (see the paper by Vasiliev in this issue [12]). Another fascinating aspect of these higher-spin theories lies in the fact that the higher-spin symmetries mix generically fields of different spin, and in particular, the spin-2 metric and higher-spin excitations are related to one another by gauge transformations. As a result, higher-spin theories require a modification of the standard framework of Riemannian geometry since the usual diffeomorphism-invariant tensors are not gauge invariant any longer. In particular, higher-spin theories may therefore open the way towards understanding fundamental concepts of space-time geometry; for example, they may well have key lessons in store for how string theory resolves space-time singularities. In this issue we have collected together a number of review papers, summarizing the aforementioned recent developments, as well as research papers indicating current directions of interest in the study of higher-spin gauge theories. We hope that it will be useful, both for beginners interested in an introduction to the subject, and for experts

Gaberdiel, Matthias; Vasiliev, Mikhail

2013-05-01

248

Higher Education in Bulgaria. Monographs on Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like other volumes in this series, this monograph follows a pattern that makes comparisons across systems easier. The history of the Bulgarian higher education system is given, focusing on the period after 1989. The legal basis for education in Bulgaria is analyzed, as is the evolving system of governance. The participation of Bulgarian education…

Georgieva, Patricia

249

Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1993 after a government white paper called for more coherence in the reporting and collection of higher education statistics in the United Kingdom, the Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) is "the central source for higher education statistics." Not surprisingly, the site features a detailed area devoted to publications and data sets available from the HESA, some of which are available for no cost on the Web site, and others which may be ordered on CD-ROM. There are also a number of data sets available at no charge that may be viewed and printed, or downloaded for free. The data sets are mostly from 1994 to 2002, and include statistics on students (such as ethnicity, subject of study, and institution level), staff, and institutional incomes and expenditures. The site is rounded out with a collection of related links that lead to related government bodies and funding councils.

250

Holographic holes in higher dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend the holographic construction of [1] from AdS3 to higher dimensions. In particular, we show that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of codimension-two surfaces in the bulk with planar symmetry can be evaluated in terms of the `differential entropy' in the boundary theory. The differential entropy is a certain quantity constructed from the entanglement entropies associated with a family of regions covering a Cauchy surface in the boundary geometry. We demonstrate that a similar construction based on causal holographic information fails in higher dimensions, as it typically yields divergent results. We also show that our construction extends to holographic backgrounds other than AdS spacetime and can accommodate Lovelock theories of higher curvature gravity.

Myers, Robert C.; Rao, Junjie; Sugishita, Sotaro

2014-06-01

251

Are Carotid Stent Fractures Clinically Significant?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Late stent fatigue is a known complication after carotid artery stenting (CAS) for cervical carotid occlusive disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical significance of carotid stent fractures. Materials and Methods: A single-center retrospective review of 253 carotid bifurcation lesions treated with CAS and mechanical embolic protection from April 2001 to December 2009 was performed. Stent integrity was analyzed by two independent observers using multiplanar cervical plain radiographs with fractures classified into the following types: type I = single strut fracture; type II = multiple strut fractures; type III = transverse fracture; and type IV = transverse fracture with dislocation. Mean follow-up was 32 months. Results: Follow-up imaging was completed on 106 self-expanding nitinol stents (26 closed-cell and 80 open-cell stents). Eight fractures (7.5%) were detected (type I n = 1, type II n = 6, and type III n = 1). Seven fractures were found in open-cell stents (Precise n = 3, ViVEXX n = 2, and Acculink n = 2), and 1 fracture was found in a closed-cell stent (Xact n = 1) (p = 0.67). Only a previous history of external beam neck irradiation was associated with fractures (p = 0.048). No associated clinical sequelae were observed among the patients with fractures, and only 1 patient had an associated significant restenosis ({>=}80%) requiring reintervention. Conclusions: Late stent fatigue after CAS is an uncommon event and rarely clinically relevant. Although cell design does not appear to influence the occurrence of fractures, lesion characteristics may be associated risk factors.

Garcia-Toca, Manuel; Rodriguez, Heron E.; Naughton, Peter A. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Division of Vascular Surgery (United States); Keeling, Aiofee [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States); Phade, Sachin V.; Morasch, Mark D.; Kibbe, Melina R.; Eskandari, Mark K., E-mail: meskanda@nmh.org [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Division of Vascular Surgery (United States)

2012-04-15

252

Reliability of Bridges: Significant Addition to Civil Engineering Curriculum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rapid highway system development in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s has resulted in a large number of bridges reaching a stage in need of repair, rehabilitation, or replacement. Truck loads have also been steadily increasing since then. This has made the situation even worse. Many developed countries are currently experiencing a problem of aging and deteriorated bridge networks as well as observed growth of load in both magnitude and volume. These structures safety has been of concern. The bridges experiencing vehicular overloads are subjected to a higher risk of distress, damage, and even catastrophic failure that will jeopardize human lives. Evaluation, repair, and rehabilitation are necessary for the preservation of the load capacity and service performance of these existing bridges. To minimize cost of replacement or repair, the evaluation needs to accurately reveal the current load carrying capacity of the bridge and to cover future loads and further changes in the capacity. Note that this involves a significant amount of uncertainty. To this end, the reliability theory of structures can be a helpful tool to quantify the risk involved in this process of bridge assessment. Addition of a semester-long course on reliability of bridges in the civil engineering curriculum can greatly help the students understand the fundamental concepts of bridge safety. Civil engineering graduates will have the capability in evaluating bridge safety which they can confidently use in their future career. As a result, this will encourage students to specialize in the field of bridge reliability and eventually the nations bridge assessment experts will grow in number. These experts will have the technical know-how to help maintain bridge infrastructures to avoid catastrophic failures and most significantly of all, save lives.

Pablo, Reynaldo

2009-10-02

253

Pesticides in the atmosphere in Minnesota: Partitioning, deposition, and significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmosphere is recognized as an important pathway by which pesticides are transported and deposited in the areas far from their sources. The observations of pesticides in rain, air, and surface runoff in Minnesota (1993-1996) contribute to understand the significance of the atmospheric deposition. The vapor/particle partitioning of pesticides in the urban area of Minnesota elucidated a strong dependency on the subcooled liquid vapor pressure, but not the same as predicted by Junge's model. The air concentrations before and after a single 24-hour rain event indicated that rain scavenging is efficient for removing water-soluble herbicides. Concentrations of many herbicides in 43 sequential rain samples followed the same pattern: much higher concentration at the beginning of the rain than that in the rest of rain event. The most frequently detected pesticides were alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, and acetochlor. Concentration and fluxes of most pesticides in rain depicted a distinct seasonal pattern. The presence of agriculture pesticides in urban rain demonstrates that pesticides are being transported regionally through the atmosphere. The relatively consistent year-to-year flux of pesticides in Minneapolis indicates the regional background of pesticides in rain. The intensive row-crop agricultural area showed a significantly greater annual flux than the other four sampling sites that were in areas of either urbanization or less intensive agriculture. A multi-year paired study of pesticides in rain and storm runoff in three watersheds in Minnesota was conducted to compare the mass loadings from two pathways to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Seven other larger watersheds were selected from previous research to perform the same assessment. The mass contributed from the rain was 40 to 200 times greater than the riverine load in the urban watershed and equal to five times greater in the two agricultural watersheds in Minnesota. The magnitude of mass in rain is similar, if is not greater than, to that in runoff, over many orders of magnitude differences in the sizes of watersheds.

Ma, Lin

2000-11-01

254

Enzymatic DNA oxidation: mechanisms and biological significance  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation at cytosines (5mC) is a major epigenetic modification involved in the regulation of multiple biological processes in mammals. How methylation is reversed was until recently poorly understood. The family of dioxygenases commonly known as Ten-eleven translocation (Tet) proteins are responsible for the oxidation of 5mC into three new forms, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). Current models link Tet-mediated 5mC oxidation with active DNA demethylation. The higher oxidation products (5fC and 5caC) are recognized and excised by the DNA glycosylase TDG via the base excision repair pathway. Like DNA methyltransferases, Tet enzymes are important for embryonic development. We will examine the mechanism and biological significance of Tet-mediated 5mC oxidation in the context of pronuclear DNA demethylation in mouse early embryos. In contrast to its role in active demethylation in the germ cells and early embryo, a number of lines of evidence suggest that the intragenic 5hmC present in brain may act as a stable mark instead. This short review explores mechanistic aspects of TET oxidation activity, the impact Tet enzymes have on epigenome organization and their contribution to the regulation of early embryonic and neuronal development. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(11): 609-618] PMID:25341925

Xu, Guo-Liang; Walsh, Colum P.

2014-01-01

255

Epistemological Development in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has been carried out on students' epistemological development in higher education for at least 50 years. Researchers on both sides of the Atlantic have converged on accounts that describe students' epistemological development in terms of a sequence or hierarchy of qualitatively distinct stages or positions. The rich qualitative data…

Richardson, John T. E.

2013-01-01

256

Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure highlights some of the performance indicators used by Connecticut's public higher education institution to demonstrate accountability. This paper reports on the results of these goals: (1) Student Learning; (2) Learning in K-12; (3) Access and Affordability; (4) Economic Development; (5) Societal Needs; and (6) Resource Efficiency.…

Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

2008-01-01

257

Higher Education Space: Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study of changing demands for space in United Kingdom (UK) higher education. Physical spaces that universities require are related to their functions in complex ways, and the connections between space and academic performance are not well understood. No simple algorithm can calculate a single university's space needs, but a…

Temple, Paul; Barnett, Ronald

2007-01-01

258

RACE EQUALITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION  

E-print Network

RACE EQUALITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION Achievements, Future Challenges and Possible Solutions FRIDAY 11 will support understanding and thinking in the area of race equality. The aims of the conference are to: » debate the subject of race equality and the challenges facing the sector; » raise awareness of race

Henderson, Gideon

259

Higher Education Profiles & Trends 2013  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The statute [T.C.A. Section 49-7-202(c)(7)] requires the Tennessee Higher Education Commission to prepare a biennial report for the governor and the general assembly, "commenting upon major developments, trends, new policies, budgets and financial considerations which in the judgment of the commission will be useful to the governor and to the…

Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2013

2013-01-01

260

Higher Education's Coming Leadership Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The full impact of the current recession on American higher education remains uncertain, but drops in applications, faculty autonomy and job security, frozen salaries and hiring processes, and scaling back of new facilities and programs are already being seen. American colleges face tough times ahead for teaching, research, and capital projects…

Appadurai, Arjun

2009-01-01

261

Higher Education for Welfare Mothers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What impact might higher education have on the economic situation and personal growth of welfare mothers? The results of a study confirm that the large majority of these mothers are able to succeed academically and that this education provided them with improved possibilities for employment and increased personal satisfaction. (Author)

Young, Barbara H.

1977-01-01

262

Gender Issues within Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook functions as a crown on the European Students' Union's work on gender equality over the past two years. Since the establishment of the Gender Equality Committee, a lot of work has been done to improve gender equality in higher education generally, and in student unions more particularly. This handbook gathers the experiences and…

European Students' Union (NJ1), 2008

2008-01-01

263

American Higher Education in Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American higher education is in transition and if there ever was a "golden age" for faculty, it probably is behind us. The best historical data on the composition of faculty is collected annually by the American Mathematical Society. Between 1967 and 2009, the share of full-time faculty with PhDs remained constant at about 90 percent at doctoral…

Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

2011-01-01

264

Higher Education for Our Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public higher education is currently experiencing a decline in financial support from state governments, an acceleration of enrollment growth, and a shift from a transformational to a transactional student relationship. Private institutions are also struggling with increasing operational costs, and decreases in revenue from endowments and…

Burnett, Dana D.; Collins, Natalia D.

2010-01-01

265

Internal Audit in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book describes a range of examples of internal audit in higher education as part of a process of the exchange of good practice. The book recognizes well-established links with audit theory from other contexts and makes use of theoretical perspectives explored in the financial sector. The chapters are: (1) "Quality Audit Issues" (Sally Brown…

Holmes, Alison, Ed.; Brown, Sally, Ed.

266

Electronic Assessment in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment is an important cornerstone of education. A world trend in staying abreast of the latest developments in the field of information and communication technology (ICT) has led to an increased demand for electronic assessment in education circles. The critical need and responsibility for higher education to stay on par with the latest…

Brink, Roelien; Lautenbach, Geoffrey

2011-01-01

267

The Battle for Higher Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To remain internationally competitive, states needed clearer, higher, and comparable K-12 learning standards aligned with college and career expectations, and as ambitious as those of the countries that lead the world in education. Idaho's old academic standards were not preparing students for postsecondary education, which contributed to the…

Luna, Tom; Rush, Mike; Gramer, Rod; Stewart, Roger

2014-01-01

268

A Balanced Higher Education System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores what is meant by "a balanced higher education system". It argues that the Clarkian "triangle of coordination" (Clark, 1983) and the more recent model of Martinez and Richardson (2003) should be replaced by one that distinguishes between "self" and "collective" interests in both the academy and the wider society. Such a scheme…

Brown, Roger

2011-01-01

269

Higher Education in American Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The wide-ranging impact of social, political and economic forces on higher education and their specific consequences for faculty, students, and administrators is addressed within the broad context of autonomy and accountability. The book is organized around several themes. The first section discusses such basic issues as: the historical…

Altbach, Philip G., Ed.; Berdahl, Robert O., Ed.

270

Massless higher spins and holography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We treat free large N superconformal field theories as holographic duals of higher spin (HS) gauge theories expanded around AdS spacetime with radius R. The HS gauge theories contain massless and light massive AdS fields. The HS current correlators are written in a crossing symmetric form including only exchange of other HS currents. This and other arguments point to the

E. Sezgin; P. Sundell

2002-01-01

271

Mobile Learning in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This mixed method research study investigated the beliefs of university faculty regarding mobile learning. As well as to determine if providing technology professional development to university faculty supports the increase of mobile learning opportunities in higher education. This study used the Beliefs About Mobile Learning Inventory (BAMLI) to…

Fraga, Lucretia M.

2012-01-01

272

History of Higher Education, 1995.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annual compilation presents four papers on different aspects of the history of higher education in Europe and the United States. The first paper is "The Rights of Man and the Rites of Youth: Fraternity and Riot at Eighteenth Century Harvard" by Leon Jackson. This paper argues that the lines of division in the student body at…

Geiger, Robert L., Ed.

1995-01-01

273

Digital Resilience in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education institutions face a number of opportunities and challenges as the result of the digital revolution. The institutions perform a number of scholarship functions which can be affected by new technologies, and the desire is to retain these functions where appropriate, whilst the form they take may change. Much of the reaction to…

Weller, Martin; Anderson, Terry

2013-01-01

274

Academic Rewards in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A colloquium series in higher education at the University of Minnesota in the fall and winter of 1977-1978 examined the influence of academic reward systems on faculty behavior and academic productivity. These essays are the collective results of their findings and recommendations. Essays include: "Perspectives from Psychology: Financial…

Lewis, Darrel R., Ed.; Becker, William E., Jr., Ed.

275

Student Loans for Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student loans are a rapidly growing $85 billion a year industry fueled by the substantial higher economic returns associated with a college education, increased demand from students and their parents, and grant and scholarship funds that have not kept pace with rising school tuition and fees. This report describes federally subsidized and…

Simons, Charlene Wear

2008-01-01

276

Catholic Higher Education as Mission  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article uses the work of Anthony J. Gittins to reframe our understanding of Catholic higher education as mission. The broad adoption of this framework would require a common intellectual foundation, the possibility of which is dismissed by many. An accessible ontology is implied, however, in the existential analysis and theology of Karl…

Lowery, Daniel

2012-01-01

277

The Future of Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of 12 essays addresses three themes related to the future of higher education: access, governance, and quality. The contributors represent teaching, research and management, universities, polytechnics, and colleges. The collected essays and their authors are as follows: "Reassessing the Future" (Tom Schuller); "Finished and…

Schuller, Tom, Ed.

278

Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews developments in 2000 in the law of disability discrimination as it relates to higher education, which falls into five categories: (1) definition of a qualified individual; (2) accommodations, access, undue burden, and fundamental alteration of programs; (3) intentional discrimination, harassment, and retaliation; (4) Eleventh Amendment…

Weber, Mark C.

2002-01-01

279

Transnational Higher Education in Uzbekistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides an overview of transnational higher education (THE) in Uzbekistan. It includes a brief account of THE current and future market trends. The data, gathered from a literature search, show that the demand for THE (off-campus) is growing even faster than the demand for international (on-campus) programmes. This paper then provides…

Sia, E. K.

2014-01-01

280

Women in Higher Education Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains 11 papers on the under-representation of women in higher education management in Bahrain, Finland, France, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Peru, the United States and Canada, the South Pacific and the West Indies. All papers were written by women vice-chancellors, presidents and senior managers of universities in those…

Commonwealth Secretariat, London (England).

281

Micro Revolution in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses of microcomputers in higher education are discussed, including their general use in the liberal arts and simulations in the humanities. Examples of and issues related to requiring students to purchase microcomputers are also discussed; one study indicates that it may be wrong to require all students to make such purchases. (JN)

Birchall, Steve

1983-01-01

282

Legislative Actions Affecting Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Legislative actions pertaining to Washington public higher education during the last two years are described. The reports list the major resolutions passed, laws enacted, and legislative appropriations. State legislation dealt with: establishment of the Washington library network; retirement systems; bookkeeping transactions; travel expenses; bond…

Washington State Council for Postsecondary Education, Olympia.

283

Student Diversity and Higher Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter traces the evolution of the concept of diversity in higher education, noting the real but slow progress in achieving greater inclusion. It highlights Harvard University's experiences, demonstrating why the goal of diversity remains so important to the actual quality and breadth of education for all students and why Harvard's existing…

Rudenstine, Neil L.

284

Higher Education Program Masters Higher Education Administrator Evaluation Rubric  

E-print Network

demonstrates sensitivity to cultural norms and organizational practices. Always conveys ideas and information norms and organizational practices. Seldom or never conveys ideas and information appropriately, and observations. Demonstrates a satisfactory understanding of theory and uses existing theory well. Informs

Rock, Chris

285

Glutamine Synthetases of Higher Plants 1  

PubMed Central

The chromatographic properties of glutamine synthetase isoforms have been investigated in a wide range of higher plant leaves and shoots using ion exchange chromatography. Different patterns of glutamine synthetase isoform content were observed. Among higher plants, four patterns or groups could be recognized. The first group is characterized by having only cytosolic glutamine synthetase, whereas the second group is distinguished by having only chloroplastic glutamine synthetase. The third group is characterized by cytosolic glutamine synthetase being a minor component of the total leaf glutamine synthetase activity. The fourth group is distinct from the other groups in having high cytosolic and chloroplast glutamine synthetase activity. Immunological studies have been undertaken on a few species from each group to identify unambiguously both cytosolic and chloroplastic glutamine synthetases. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16662965

McNally, Sheila F.; Hirel, Bertrand; Gadal, Pierre; Mann, A. Fred; Stewart, George R.

1983-01-01

286

Making Strangers at Home: Anthropologists Studying Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article seeks to isolate one major strand of work in American cultural anthropology together with its implications for the study of higher education. While the number of anthropologists who do research on higher education is fairly small, the importance of the field's theoretical and methodological contributions is significant. This article…

Shumar, Wesley

2004-01-01

287

Knowing Your "Lemons": Quality Uncertainty in UK Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the UK and elsewhere, higher education is increasingly and controversially being construed, especially within political discourse, as a marketised commodity service to paying customers. Notions of quality, broadly construed, will be of central significance in the development of new markets in higher education in the UK and beyond. Drawing upon…

Cooper, Paul

2007-01-01

288

Harmonious Expansion of China's Higher Education: A New Growth Pattern  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can one country narrow the regional disparity during the tremendous expansion of higher education? This issue remains unexamined and critical analysis is needed to unveil the spatial dynamics behind expansion of higher education. The spatial analysis shows that there is significant strategic interaction among neighboring provinces in China…

Gu, Jiafeng

2012-01-01

289

Politics, Interest Groups and State Funding of Public Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State support of public higher education has rapidly declined relative to total state spending. Much of this decline in support is due to the rapid growth in spending on such things as Medicaid. However, relative support of public higher education varies significantly between states. This study applies Tandberg's (2009) fiscal policy framework…

Tandberg, David A.

2010-01-01

290

Passionate Attachments: Higher Education, Policy, Knowledge, Emotion and Social Justice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explore the significance of the "affective turn" in respect to higher education policy in the UK. This turn centres on creating new subjects of attention for the "employable" student and the "non-traditional" student, the latter defined as students from backgrounds with no earlier history of higher education (working class or black students for…

Hey, Valerie; Leathwood, Carole

2009-01-01

291

Possible Future Directions for Higher Education and Private Foundation Cooperation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Private foundations have exercised a significant influence on higher education in the past and will probably continue to do so. In the future, foundations could cooperate with higher education in: bringing about a creative synthesis of the liberal arts with technology; developing the urban university; developing more effective management…

Miller, Richard I.

292

Governance Shifts in Higher Education: A Cross-National Comparison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article aims to interpret and compare recent governance shifts in higher education across several countries, both at the central government level and at the institutional or "corporate" level. In order to do that it reviews the most significant literature about alternative theoretical models of governance in higher education and uses these…

Lazzeretti, Luciana; Tavoletti, Ernesto

2006-01-01

293

EDITORIAL: Deeper, broader, higher, better?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Honorary Editor The standard of educational achievement in England and Wales is frequently criticized, and it seems to be an axiom of government that schools and teachers need to be shaken up, kept on a tight rein, copiously inspected, shamed and blamed as required: in general, subjected to the good old approach of: ' Find out what Johnny is doing and tell him to stop.' About the only exception to this somewhat severe attitude is at A-level, where the standard is simply golden. Often, comparisons are made between the performance of, say, English children and that of their coevals in other countries, with different customs, systems, aims and languages. But there has been a recent comparison of standards at A-level with a non-A-level system of pre-university education, in an English-speaking country that both sends students to English universities and accepts theirs into its own, and is, indeed, represented in the UK government at well above the level expected from its ethnical weighting in the population. This semi-foreign country is Scotland. The conclusions of the study are interesting. Scotland has had its own educational system, with `traditional breadth', and managed to escape much of the centralized authoritarianism that we have been through south of the border. It is interesting to note that, while for the past dozen years or so the trend in A-level Physics entries has been downwards, there has been an increase in the take-up of Scottish `Highers'. Highers is a one-year course. Is its popularity due to its being easier than A-level? Scottish students keen enough to do more can move on to the Certificate of Sixth Year Studies, and will shortly be able to upgrade a Higher Level into an Advanced Higher Level. A comparability study [ Comparability Study of Scottish Qualifications and GCE Advanced Levels: Report on Physics January 1998 (free from SQA)] was carried out by the Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) with the aim (amongst others) of helping universities make a fair comparison between grades attained in A-Levels and Highers, CSYS and Advanced Highers. It was a fairly limited exercise, but a careful one, carried out by examiners and teachers rather than statisticians. They compared syllabuses, questions and candidates' answers. I quote: '... the two years of study for A-level perhaps means that there is a secure, consolidated grasp of the basics; more than the Higher candidate after one year. But there is no evidence of this from candidates' scripts.' Comparing syllabuses, the report noted a greater mathematical demand in Scotland: 'The rigour or depth of treatment is generally lower in the Syllabus Y [an A-level syllabus.] than in CSYS or Advanced Higher because many topics have a qualitative treatment rather than the mathematical treatment of CSYS and AH.' Adding a certain sting to its tail, the report concludes: `Many of the CSYS candidates will have achieved excellent grades at Higher... in four or five subjects before proceeding to CSYS. Scottish candidates tend to have qualifications in a broader range of subjects.' Perhaps this is why they get to be in charge everywhere.

Dobson, Ken

1998-07-01

294

Higher-Twist Dynamics in Large Transverse Momentum Hadron Production  

SciTech Connect

A scaling law analysis of the world data on inclusive large-p{sub {perpendicular}} hadron production in hadronic collisions is carried out. A significant deviation from leading-twist perturbative QCD predictions at next-to-leading order is reported. The observed discrepancy is largest at high values of x{sub {perpendicular}} = 2p{sub {perpendicular}}/{radical}s. In contrast, the production of prompt photons and jets exhibits the scaling behavior which is close to the conformal limit, in agreement with the leading-twist expectation. These results bring evidence for a non-negligible contribution of higher-twist processes in large-p{sub {perpendicular}} hadron production in hadronic collisions, where the hadron is produced directly in the hard subprocess rather than by gluon or quark jet fragmentation. Predictions for scaling exponents at RHIC and LHC are given, and it is suggested to trigger the isolated large-p{sub {perpendicular}} hadron production to enhance higher-twist processes.

Arleo, Francois; /Annecy, LAPTH; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; Hwang, Dae Sung; /Sejong U.; Sickles, Anne M.; /Brookhaven

2009-12-17

295

Significance of pharmaceutical excipients in prescribed medicines: a case report  

PubMed Central

Key Clinical Message Pharmaceutical excipients need careful observation as they play a significant role in treatment outcomes. It is imperative for a physician to collect complete patient profile before prescribing new medications for current treatment. We present a case report on the significance of pharmaceutical excipients in prescribed medicines.

Maharaj, Sandeep; Pandey, Sureshwar; Maharaj, Keshwar; Sheik, Meera Sharief; Dhingra, Sameer

2014-01-01

296

FINAL REPORT. DETERMINING SIGNIFICANT ENDPOINTS FOR ECOLOGICAL RISK ANALYSES  

EPA Science Inventory

This research examines the ecological significance of radioactive and heavy metal contamination. Risks to non-human biota at higher levels of biological organization are assessed by using novel biological dosimeters in controlled, manipulative, dose/effects experiments, and by co...

297

Weather Observations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We will be observing the weather in our enviornment. Post your observations. Take a hike! Tell us what you see! Make sure and note the date/time/season. Take a walk in your neighboorhood- what signs show you the current season? Vacation? Make observations about the place you visited. Make obseravtions every week! Keep a journal about the changes you observe! Winter Storm ImageSeasonal ChangesAround the WorldSeasonsSeasons of the Year ...

sarahnp

2011-07-18

298

The positive significant effect of these treatments was observed mainly in single pregnant ewes; this observation was correlated with a significant increase of milk yields during machine  

E-print Network

. Hormonal treatments at the end of pregnancy, increasing plasma levels of prolactin, thyroxin and corticoids of sheep-meat in the E.E.C., and France 25 p. 100. Italy has a large flock, but produces little sheep-meat of the E.E.C. market. As sheep-meat is not under any common regulation, each member state applies its own

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

299

Diversity in Australian higher education?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores systematic relationships between management attitudes about recent transitions in the funding and structure of higher education in Australia (Meek and Goedegebuure, 1989) and the domains of the taxonomy emerging from ongoing organisational effectiveness research based on these institutions (Lysons, 1990b). The results reinforce the integrity of the previously established 4 group framework and flesh-out more fine-grained issues

Leo C. J. Goedegebuure; Art Lysons; V. Lynn Meek

1993-01-01

300

The Economics of Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter synthesises what economists have learned about a number of key topics related to the provision of higher education\\u000a and its roles in promoting economic development and well-being. The shift towards a global economy, as well as other economic\\u000a changes brought about by technological and institutional development, have raised new concerns about the importance of post-secondary\\u000a education in the

Jose-Gines Mora; Luis E. Vila

301

48 CFR 2110.7003 - Significant events.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 true Significant events. 2110.7003 Section 2110...System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP... 2110.7003 Significant events. The contractor is required...officer of all significant...

2010-10-01

302

48 CFR 2110.7003 - Significant events.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Significant events. 2110.7003 Section 2110...System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP... 2110.7003 Significant events. The contractor is required...officer of all significant...

2013-10-01

303

48 CFR 2110.7003 - Significant events.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Significant events. 2110.7003 Section 2110...System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP... 2110.7003 Significant events. The contractor is required...officer of all significant...

2012-10-01

304

48 CFR 2110.7003 - Significant events.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Significant events. 2110.7003 Section 2110...System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP... 2110.7003 Significant events. The contractor is required...officer of all significant...

2011-10-01

305

48 CFR 2110.7003 - Significant events.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Significant events. 2110.7003 Section 2110...System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP... 2110.7003 Significant events. The contractor is required...officer of all significant...

2014-10-01

306

Challenges Facing Higher Education at the Millennium. American Council on Education/Oryx Press Series on Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of 17 essays focuses on the major changes that higher education needs to make so that it can effectively pursue teaching and research and significantly contribute public service in a rapidly changing world. The essays include: (1) "Survey of the Main Challenges Facing Higher Education at the Millennium" (Luc E. Weber); (2) "Meeting…

Hirsch, Werner Z., Ed.; Weber, Luc E., Ed.

307

Characterization of lymph node metastasis and its clinical significance in the surgical treatment of gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to characterize lymph node metastasis and determine its clinical significance in the surgical treatment of gastric cancer. The medical charts of 920 gastric cancer patients who underwent radical surgical resection between March, 2010 and March, 2013, were retrospectively reviewed and statistically analyzed. Lymphatic metastasis was observed in 69.6% of the patients (640/920). The frequency of lymph node metastasis in patients with early-stage gastric cancer was 21.4% (18/84). Lymph node metastasis was observed in all the patients with stage IIIC-IV gastric cancer. The incidence of lymph node metastasis was higher among patients with tumors >7 cm in size. The most frequently affected lymph nodes in patients with proximal, central and distal gastric cancer were station no. 1 (34.2%), no. 3 (33.8%) and no. 6 (34.3%) lymph nodes, respectively. The frequency of lymph node metastasis in patients with Borrmann type IV cancer was significantly higher compared to that in patients with other Borrmann type cancers. Our study further demonstrated that lymphatic metastasis is closely correlated with TNM stage, location, depth of invasion and size of gastric tumors. Therefore, we recommend that a sufficient number of lymph nodes be examined from each patient to determine the extent of lymph node dissection based on Borrmann type, location, size, depth of invasion and histology of the cancer. PMID:25054052

ZUO, CHAO-HUI; XIE, HAILONG; LIU, JINGSHI; QIU, XIAO-XIN; LIN, JIN-GUAN; HUA, XIAO; QIN, ANG

2014-01-01

308

General relativistic plasma in higher dimensional spacetime  

SciTech Connect

The well known (3+1) decomposition of Thorne and Macdonald is invoked to write down the Einstein-Maxwell equations generalized to (d+1) dimensions and also to formulate the plasma equations in a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker-like spacetime in higher dimensions. Assuming an equation of state for the background metric we find solutions also as dispersion relations in different regimes of the universe in a unified manner, both for magnetized and for unmagnetized cold plasma. We find that for a free photon in an expanding background we get maximum redshift in 4D spacetime, while for a particular dimension this occurs in the pre-recombination era. Further wave propagation in magnetized plasma is possible for a restricted frequency range only, depending on the number of dimensions. It is worth pointing out that, unlike the case for the special relativistic result, this allowed range evolves with time. Interestingly the dielectric constant of the plasma media remains constant, not sharing the expansion of the background, which generalizes a similar 4D result of Holcomb and Tajima for a radiation background to the case of higher dimensions with cosmic matter obeying an equation of state. Further, like for the flat space static case, we observe the phenomenon of Faraday rotation in the higher dimensional case also.

Panigrahi, D; Chatterjee, S, E-mail: dibyendupanigrahi@yahoo.co.in, E-mail: chat_sujit1@yahoo.com [Relativity and Cosmology Research Centre, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)] [Relativity and Cosmology Research Centre, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)

2008-08-15

309

Uniformizing higher-spin equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vasiliev?s higher-spin (HS) theories in various dimensions are uniformly represented as a simple system of equations. These equations and their gauge invariances are based on two superalgebras and have a transparent algebraic meaning. For a given HS theory these algebras can be inferred from the vacuum HS symmetries. The proposed system of equations admits a concise AKSZ formulation. We also discuss novel HS systems including partially-massless and massive fields in AdS, as well as conformal and massless off-shell fields.

Alkalaev, K. B.; Grigoriev, M. A.; Skvortsov, E. D.

2015-01-01

310

Prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in Asia: a viewpoint from nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.  

PubMed

Exposure to ionizing radiation is a known environmental risk factor for a variety of cancers including hematological malignancies, such as leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and multiple myeloma. Therefore, for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors (surviving victims who were exposed to ionizing radiation emitted from the nuclear weapons), several cancer-screening tests have been provided annually, with government support, to detect the early stage of malignancies. An M-protein screening test has been used to detect multiple myeloma at an early stage among atomic bomb survivors. In the screening process, a number of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), in addition to multiple myeloma, have been identified. In 2009 and 2011, we reported the age- and sex-specific prevalence of MGUS between 1988 and 2004 and the possible role of radiation exposure in the development of MGUS using the screening data of more than 1000 patients with MGUS among approximately 52,000 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The findings included: (1) a significant lower overall prevalence (2.1%) than that observed in Caucasian or African-origin populations; (2) a significantly higher prevalence in men than in women; (3) an age-related increase in the prevalence; (4) a significantly higher prevalence in people exposed to higher radiation doses only among those exposed at age 20 years or younger; and (5) a lower frequency of immunoglobulin M MGUS in Japanese patients than in patients in Western countries. The large study of MGUS among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors has provided important findings for the etiology of MGUS, including a possible role of radiation exposure on the cause of MGUS and an ethnicity-related difference in the characteristics of MGUS. PMID:24461807

Iwanaga, Masako; Tomonaga, Masao

2014-02-01

311

The diagnosis and clinical significance of polyautoimmunity.  

PubMed

Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are chronic and heterogeneous conditions that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. The chronic nature of these diseases places a significant burden on the utilization of medical care, direct and indirect economic costs, and quality of life. ADs are observed in genetically susceptible individuals in whom their clinical expression is modified by permissive and protective environments occurring over time. These are complex traits, meaning that their inheritance does not follow a single-gene dominant or single-gene recessive Mendelian law, and thus that they are polygenic. ADs are often diagnosed according to classification criteria, however they share similar subphenotypes including signs and symptoms, non-specific autoantibodies and other immune changes, which are prone to taxonomic problems. Polyautoimmunity is defined as the presence of more than one AD in a single patient. When three or more ADs coexist, this condition is called multiple autoimmune syndrome (MAS), which represents the best example of polyautoimmunity as well as the effect of a single genotype on diverse autoimmune phenotypes. Its study will provide important clues to elucidate the common mechanisms of ADs (i.e., the autoimmune tautology). PMID:24424171

Anaya, Juan-Manuel

2014-01-01

312

PROMPT Ia SUPERNOVAE ARE SIGNIFICANTLY DELAYED  

SciTech Connect

The time delay between the formation of a population of stars and the onset of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) sets important limits on the masses and nature of SN Ia progenitors. Here, we use a new observational technique to measure this time delay by comparing the spatial distributions of SNe Ia to their local environments. Previous work attempted such analyses encompassing the entire host of each SN Ia, yielding inconclusive results. Our approach confines the analysis only to the relevant portions of the hosts, allowing us to show that even so-called prompt SNe Ia that trace star formation on cosmic timescales exhibit a significant delay time of 200-500 million years. This implies that either the majority of Ia companion stars have main-sequence masses less than 3 M {sub sun}, or that most SNe Ia arise from double white dwarf binaries. Our results are also consistent with a SNe Ia rate that traces the white dwarf formation rate, scaled by a fixed efficiency factor.

Raskin, Cody; Scannapieco, Evan; Rhoads, James [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Della Valle, Massimo [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello, 16-80131, Napoli (Italy)

2009-12-10

313

AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC: Clinical Significance  

PubMed Central

“Gain-of-function” and “loss-of-function” studies in human cancer cells and analysis of a transgenic mouse model have convincingly established that AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC performs a seminal role in regulating proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, and chemoresistance, the salient defining hallmarks of cancer. These observations are strongly buttressed by clinicopathologic correlations of AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC expression in a diverse array of cancers distinguishing AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC as an independent biomarker for highly aggressive metastatic disease with poor prognosis. AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC has been shown to be a marker predicting response to chemotherapy, and serum anti-AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC antibody titer also serves as a predictor of advanced stages of aggressive cancer. However, inconsistent findings have been reported regarding the localization of AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC protein in the nucleus or cytoplasm of cancer cells and the utility of nuclear or cytoplasmic AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC to predict the course and prognosis of disease. This chapter provides a comprehensive analysis of the existing literature to emphasize the common and conflicting findings relative to the clinical significance of AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC in cancer. PMID:23889987

Sarkar, Devanand; Fisher, Paul B.

2014-01-01

314

Higher Education Report Card, 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the graduating class of 2006, the average ACT score for all test takers in West Virginia was 20.6. While the rate is below the national average, scores have increased significantly for the second consecutive year. Research demonstrates that the best predictor of college success is a rigorous high school curriculum, and it is anticipated that…

West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission, 2006

2006-01-01

315

Global Contexts of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his 2008 bestseller, "The Post-American World," Fareed Zakaria argued that the most significant development of the early 21st century is not, as others have predicted, the inevitable decline of the United States as the world's super-power but rather "the rise of the rest." In subsequent works, Zakaria and many others, including leading…

Lovett, Clara M.

2013-01-01

316

No Significant Difference in Service Learning Online  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Institutions of higher education are realizing the importance of service learning initiatives in developing awareness of students' civic responsibilities, leadership and management skills, and social responsibility. These skills and responsibilities are the foundation of program outcomes in accredited higher education business programs at…

McGorry, Sue Y.

2012-01-01

317

Observation Station  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how a teacher integrates science observations into the writing center. At the observation station, students explore new items with a science theme and use their notes and questions for class writings every day. Students are exposed to a variety of different topics and motivated to write in different styles all while…

Rutherford, Heather

2011-01-01

318

Habitat Observations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners discover the wonders of the habitat surrounding them. After reading "The Empty Lot," a picture book by Dale Fife, learners observe and record in writing what happens in the natural environment around them. Spending time outdoors observing nature can help learners better understand and appreciate the world in which we live.

Aquariums, Association O.

2009-01-01

319

Significant gastrointestinal morbidity after sacrocolpopexy: The incidence and risk factors  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to quantify the risk of significant gastrointestinal (GI) morbidity after sacrocolpopexy (SCP), and to identify related risk factors. Methods A retrospective study was performed of 258 patients who underwent laparotomic SCP for symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse (POP) from November 2008 to August 2013. By the review of medical records, the frequency of significant GI morbidity that resulted in a prolonged initial hospitalization, readmission, or reoperation was assessed. Thereafter, risk factors for significant GI morbidity were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Ten patients (3.9%) were identified as having significant GI morbidity; nine (3.5%) had a prolonged initial hospital stay or were readmitted for the medical treatment of postoperative ileus and 1 (0.4%) underwent reoperation for small bowel obstruction. The occurrence of significant GI morbidity was significantly associated with patient's age and prior laparotomy. By multivariable logistic regression analysis, age (odds ratio [OR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.27; P=0.03) and prior laparotomy (OR, 6.82; 95% CI, 1.37-34.07; P=0.02) were found as independent risk factors for significant GI morbidity. Conclusion One in 25 (3.9%) women after SCP experiences significant GI morbidity. Particularly, women with older age and prior laparotomy have a higher risk for significant GI morbidity. This data will aid preoperative counseling for Korean POP patients undergoing SCP. PMID:25105104

Jo, Yu Ri; Kim, Ji Young

2014-01-01

320

Significance of Image Guidance to Clinical Outcomes for Localized Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To compare toxicity profiles and biochemical tumor control outcomes between patients treated with image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) and non-IGRT intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for clinically localized prostate cancer. Materials and Methods. Between 2009 and 2012, 65 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with IG-IMRT. This group of patients was retrospectively compared with a similar cohort of 62 patients who were treated between 2004 and 2009 with IMRT to the same dose without image guidance. Results. The median follow-up time was 4.8 years. The rectal volume receiving ?40 and ?70?Gy was significantly lower in the IG-IMRT group. Grade 2 and higher acute and late GI and GU toxicity rates were lower in IG-IMRT group, but there was no statistical difference. No significant improvement in biochemical control at 5 years was observed in two groups. In a Cox regression analysis identifying predictors for PSA relapse-free survival, only preradiotherapy PSA was significantly associated with biochemical control; IG-IMRT was not a statistically significant indicator. Conclusions. The use of image guidance in the radiation of prostate cancer at our institute did not show significant reduction in the rates of GI and GU toxicity and did not improve the biochemical control compared with IMRT. PMID:25110701

Zhong, Qiuzi; Gao, Hong; Li, Gaofeng; Xiu, Xia; Wu, Qinhong; Li, Ming; Xu, Yonggang

2014-01-01

321

The Role of Higher-Level Cognitive Function in Gait: Executive Dysfunction Contributes to Fall Risk in Alzheimer’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is generally understood as primarily affecting cognition while sparing motor function, at least until the later stages of the disease. Studies reported over the past 10 years, however, have documented a prevalence of falls in AD patients significantly higher than in age-matched normal elders; also persons with AD have been observed to have different walking patterns with

Pamela L. Sheridan; Jeffrey M. Hausdorff

2007-01-01

322

Azimuthal anisotropy: The higher harmonics  

SciTech Connect

We report the first observations of the fourth harmonic (v{sub 4}) in the azimuthal distribution of particles at RHIC. The measurement was done taking advantage of the large elliptic flow generated at RHIC. The integrated v{sub 4} is about a factor of 10 smaller than v{sub 2}. For the sixth (v{sub 6}) and eighth (v{sub 8}) harmonics upper limits on the magnitudes are reported.

Poskanzer, Arthur M.; STAR Collaboration

2004-03-12

323

Observing the evolution of the CMB  

E-print Network

Most cosmological parameters are expected to change significantly only on cosmological time scales, but given the large amount of information contained within the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) sky, we can expect that changes in the CMB should be observable on much shorter time scales. Here we quantify this expectation, examining the detectability of the dominant effects on short time scales. We find that an ideal future experiment with currently achievable sensitivity could detect the changing dipole due to our galactic motion in about 10 years, but that it would take around 4000 years to detect a change in the higher order multipoles.

Adam Moss; James P. Zibin; Douglas Scott

2007-09-26

324

much higher concentrations. Concentrations of isoprene and terpene emitted from Mango and Eucalyptus were significantly greater than emissions from  

E-print Network

, the Hypocalypteae and Podalyrieae are involved in nitrogen-fixing symbioses with rhizobial bacteria. Within-rhizobia. For this purpose, bacteria were isolated from the root nodules of the Hypocalyptus species, as well as Virgilia oroboides and Podalyria calyptrata. For each isolate, the 16S ribosomal RNA gene was amplified, sequenced

325

Sources of Inspiration: The Role of Significant Persons in Young People's Choice of Science in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objectives of this article were to investigate to which extent and in what ways persons influence students' choice of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in tertiary education, and to assess the suitability of an analytical framework for describing this influence. In total, 5,007 Norwegian STEM students completed a…

Sjaastad, Jorgen

2012-01-01

326

Observing Objects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on materials and their composition includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Science, Houghton M.

327

Ramadan Observance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment from Religion & Ethics Newsweekly, an American Muslim family observes Ramadan, the month in which Muslims fast daily from sunrise to sunset in order to demonstrate piety and develop self-restraint.

Wnet

2008-08-21

328

TAXONOMICALLY SIGNIFICANT COLOR REACTIONS OF BREVIBACTERIUM LINENS  

PubMed Central

Grecz, Nicholas (University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill.), and Gail M. Dack. Taxonomically significant color reactions of Brevibacterium linens. J. Bacteriol. 82:241–246. 1961.—Brevibacterium linens was observed to give characteristic color reactions with certain bases and acids. An intensive carmine-red color appeared immediately after addition of a drop of 5 n sodium hydroxide, 5 n potassium hydroxide, and saturated barium hydroxide. A light carmine-red was given by lithium hydroxide, and a light orange-red with a milky suspension of calcium hydroxide. No discernible color change was given with weak bases such as ammonium hydroxide, aniline, and pyridine. A characteristic salmon-pink color was produced when B. linens was rubbed with a glass rod in a drop of glacial acetic acid or filter paper; a brick-red color was produced with aniline under these conditions. With syrupy phosphoric acid a green color appeared within 3 to 4 min which turned blue after approximately 3 hr. The blue color was stable for several days. On the basis of these color reactions, B. linens could be distinguished from other microorganisms possessing yellow-orange pigmentation, i.e., Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus flavus, Micrococcus citreus, Mycobacterium phlei, Sarcina lutea. Therefore, these color changes may be used for the identification of B. linens. Original isolates of B. linens from cheese were tested by these spot reactions and all presumptive identifications could be subsequently confirmed by conventional methods. Blue and green colors appeared in all yellow-orange chromogens treated with sulfuric, perchloric, and hydrochloric acids and hence these colors were not specific for B. linens. PMID:13708147

Grecz, Nicholas; Dack, Gail M.

1961-01-01

329

Baseline tumor growth and immune control in laboratory mice are significantly influenced by subthermoneutral housing temperature  

PubMed Central

We show here that fundamental aspects of antitumor immunity in mice are significantly influenced by ambient housing temperature. Standard housing temperature for laboratory mice in research facilities is mandated to be between 20–26 °C; however, these subthermoneutral temperatures cause mild chronic cold stress, activating thermogenesis to maintain normal body temperature. When stress is alleviated by housing at thermoneutral ambient temperature (30–31 °C), we observe a striking reduction in tumor formation, growth rate and metastasis. This improved control of tumor growth is dependent upon the adaptive immune system. We observe significantly increased numbers of antigen-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes and CD8+ T cells with an activated phenotype in the tumor microenvironment at thermoneutrality. At the same time there is a significant reduction in numbers of immunosuppressive MDSCs and regulatory T lymphocytes. Notably, in temperature preference studies, tumor-bearing mice select a higher ambient temperature than non-tumor-bearing mice, suggesting that tumor-bearing mice experience a greater degree of cold-stress. Overall, our data raise the hypothesis that suppression of antitumor immunity is an outcome of cold stress-induced thermogenesis. Therefore, the common approach of studying immunity against tumors in mice housed only at standard room temperature may be limiting our understanding of the full potential of the antitumor immune response. PMID:24248371

Kokolus, Kathleen M.; Capitano, Maegan L.; Lee, Chen-Ting; Eng, Jason W.-L.; Waight, Jeremy D.; Hylander, Bonnie L.; Sexton, Sandra; Hong, Chi-Chen; Gordon, Christopher J.; Abrams, Scott I.; Repasky, Elizabeth A.

2013-01-01

330

The incidence of significant foodborne pathogens in domestic refrigerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interior surfaces of household refrigerators are at risk of becoming contaminated with foodborne pathogens, increasing the risks of cross-contamination to other food items, including higher risk ready-to-eat foods. This study determined the incidence of a number of significant foodborne pathogens, and the general hygienic status (as estimated by total viable counts (TVCs), and total coliform counts (TCCs)) on the

V. Jackson; I. S. Blair; D. A. McDowell; J. Kennedy; D. J. Bolton

2007-01-01

331

Stability transitions in the microtubule system and their possible significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In living organisms microtubules exist as highly labile or very stable structures. In higher eucaryotes, the main, and probably the only, physiological effectors capable of triggering microtubule transtions between lability and stability, are specialized proteins. In the present paper, general methods to assay and isolate these effectors are proposed. The properties of a particular protein (STOP protein) are shown. Finally the potential significance of such effectors in the generation of organelle movement and microtubule spatial self organization are discussed.

Job, D.

1991-05-01

332

Chlorophyll breakdown in higher plants and algae.  

PubMed

Leaf senescence is accompanied by the metabolism of chlorophyll (Chl) to nonfluorescent catabolites (NCCs). The pathway of Chl degradation comprises several reactions and includes the occurrence of intermediary catabolites. After removal of phytol and the central Mg atom from Chl by chlorophyllase and Mg dechelatase, respectively, the porphyrin macrocycle of pheophorbide (Pheide) a is cleaved. This two-step reaction is catalyzed by Pheide a oxygenase and RCC reductase and yields a primary fluorescent catabolite (pFCC). After hydroxylation and additional species-specific modifications, FCCs are tautomerized nonenzymically to NCCs inside the vacuole. Different subcellular compartments participate in Chl catabolism and, thus, transport processes across membranes are required. This review focuses on the catabolites and the individual reactions of Chl breakdown in higher plants. In addition, the pathway is compared to Chl conversion to red catabolites in an alga, Chlorella protothecoides. Finally, the significance and regulation of Chl degradation are discussed. PMID:11212360

Hörtensteiner, S

1999-10-15

333

The Higher Moments Dynamic on SIS Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic contact process or the SIS model is a well known epidemic process and have been studied for a wide class of people. In an epidemiological context, many authors worked on the SIS model considering only the dynamic of the first moments of infecteds, i.e., the mean value and the variance of the infected individuals. In this work, we study not only the dynamic of the first moments of infecteds but also on the dynamic of the higher moments. Recursively, we consider the dynamic equations for all the moments of infecteds and, applying the moment closure approximation, we obtain the stationary states of the state variables. We observe that the stationary states of the SIS model, in the moment closure approximation, can be used to obtain good approximations of the quasi-stationary states of the SIS model.

Pinto, Alberto; Martins, José; Stollenwerk, Nico

2009-09-01

334

OECD Observer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) publishes hundreds of technical reports, working papers, and development updates every year, and as a result it can be hard to stay on top of all the research the group is disseminating to the public. One way to stay on top of all of this material is by taking a close look at the OECD Observer, which is meant to complement the print version of the same name. Here visitors can browse such sections as economy, society, development, and government to find out the latest work being done at the OECD. Some of the more recent topics that have been addressed within the Observer's pages include the so-called knowledge economy, sustainable business practices, taxation, and governmental corruption. At the site, visitors may also sign up to receive email updates from the Observer.

335

Solar Observations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity involving observations of the Sun. Learners use pinhole cameras, solar telescopes, and/or solar viewing glasses to make solar observations, draw what they see, and identify sunspots, if they are present. Then, learners go online and compare their drawings to images obtained by the SOHO spacecraft. This activity requires the use a sunny outdoor location. This activity also require use of safe methods for observing the Sun, such as pinhole cameras, telescopes with proper solar filters attached, and/or viewing glasses that are designated for safe solar viewing. No one should look at the Sun unless one or more of these methods is used in a proper fashion.

336

Channel dependent types for higher-order mobile processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new expressive theory of types for the higher-order ?-calculus and demonstrates its applicability via two security analyses for higher-order code mobility. The new theory significantly improves our previous one presented in [55] by the use of . New dependent types control dynamic change of process accessibility via channel passing, while existential types guarantee safe scope-extrusion in

Nobuko Yoshida

2004-01-01

337

Channel dependent types for higher-order mobile processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new expressive theory of types for the higher-order ?-calculus and demonstrates its applicability via two security analyses for higher-order code mobility. The new theory significantly improves our previous one presented in [55] by the use of channel dependent\\/existential types. New dependent types control dynamic change of process accessibility via channel passing, while existential types guarantee safe

Nobuko Yoshida

2004-01-01

338

Observational Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson on observational studies discusses the nature of such studies, the relationships between various data sets, and regression. Graphs illustrate the relationships, and exercises at the end test the user's comprehension and understanding. It is taken from the online textbook for Western Michigan University online introductory stats course.

Abebe, Asheber; Daniels, John E.; Kapenga, J. A.; Mckean, Joe W.

2008-12-25

339

Prognostic significance of methyl-p-hydroxy-phenyllactate-esterase activity in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed Central

We assayed methyl-p-hydroxyphenyllactate esterase (MeHPLAase) activity in 63 cases of primary laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. MeHPLAase activity did not show any correlation with oestrogen, progesterone and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor levels. No significant relationship was found between MeHPLAase activity and age, sex, tumour site, T classification, stage of disease and EGFR status, whereas a significant inverse relationship was found between enzymatic activity and neck lymph node positivity at presentation. The median value of MeHPLAase activity tended to be higher in tumours with low histopathological grade than in those with high histopathological grade. During the follow-up period (median 50 months, range 2-90 months) locoregional recurrences were observed in 31 out of 63 (49%) cases. At the end of the study, 27 out of 63 (43%) patients had died of cancer. Cox univariate analysis using MeHPLAase activity as a continuous covariate showed that the levels of enzymatic activity were inversely associated with the risk of death and relapse. Assuming the mean value of enzymatic activity as the cut-off value, we found a statistically significant relationship between high MeHPLAase activity and longer relapse-free and overall survival. MeHPLAase activity status retained its prognostic significance also in the lymph node-negative subgroup of patients. On multivariate analysis, both EGFR and MeHPLAase activity proved to be independent factors for predicting a short relapse and the overall survival. PMID:9579830

Maurizi, M.; Ferrandina, G.; Almadori, G.; Scambia, G.; Cadoni, G.; D'Agostino, G.; Serra, F. G.; Piantelli, M.; Mancuso, S.; Ranelletti, F. O.

1998-01-01

340

Protein content of human apatite and brushite kidney stones: significant correlation with morphologic measures  

PubMed Central

Apatite and brushite kidney stones share calcium and phosphate as their main inorganic components. We tested the hypothesis that these stone types differ in the organic matrix present in the stones. Intact stones were intensively analyzed by micro-computed tomography (micro CT) for both morphology (including the volume of voids, i.e., regions without mineral) and mineral type. In order to extract all proteins present in kidney stones in soluble form we developed a three-step extraction procedure using the ground stone powder. Apatite stones had significantly higher levels of total protein content and void volume compared to brushite stones. The void volume was highly correlated with the total protein contents in all stones (r2=0.61, P<0.0001), and brushite stones contained significantly fewer void regions and proteins than did apatite stones (3.2±4.5% voids for brushite vs. 10.8±11.2% for apatite, P<0.005; 4.1±1.6% protein for brushite vs. 6.0±2.4% for apatite, P<0.03). Morphological observations other than void volume did not correlate with protein content of stones, and neither did the presence or absence of minor mineral components. Our results show that protein content of brushite and apatite stones is higher than was previously thought, and also suggest that micro CT-visible void regions are related to the presence of protein. PMID:18779958

Pramanik, Rocky; Asplin, John R.; Jackson, Molly E.; Williams, James C.

2010-01-01

341

Protein content of human apatite and brushite kidney stones: significant correlation with morphologic measures.  

PubMed

Apatite and brushite kidney stones share calcium and phosphate as their main inorganic components. We tested the hypothesis that these stone types differ in the amount of proteins present in the stones. Intact stones were intensively analyzed by microcomputed tomography (micro CT) for both morphology (including the volume of voids, i.e., space devoid of X-ray dense material) and mineral type. To extract all proteins present in kidney stones in soluble form we developed a three-step extraction procedure using the ground stone powder. Apatite stones had significantly higher levels of total protein content and void volume compared to brushite stones. The void volume was highly correlated with the total protein contents in all stones (r2 = 0.61, P < 0.0001), and brushite stones contained significantly fewer void regions and proteins than did apatite stones (3.2 +/- 4.5% voids for brushite vs. 10.8 +/- 11.2% for apatite, P < 0.005; 4.1 +/- 1.6% protein for brushite vs. 6.0 +/- 2.4% for apatite, P < 0.03). Morphological observations other than void volume did not correlate with protein content of stones, and neither did the presence or absence of minor mineral components. Our results show that protein content of brushite and apatite stones is higher than that was previously thought, and also suggest that micro CT-visible void regions are related to the presence of protein. PMID:18779958

Pramanik, Rocky; Asplin, John R; Jackson, Molly E; Williams, James C

2008-10-01

342

Higher order ionospheric effects in GNSS positioning in the European region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After removal of the Selective Availability in 2000, the ionosphere became the dominant error source for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), especially for the high-accuracy (cm-mm) demanding applications like the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) and Real Time Kinematic (RTK) positioning. The common practice of eliminating the ionospheric error, e.g. by the ionosphere free (IF) observable, which is a linear combination of observables on two frequencies such as GPS L1 and L2, accounts for about 99 % of the total ionospheric effect, known as the first order ionospheric effect (Ion1). The remaining 1 % residual range errors (RREs) in the IF observable are due to the higher - second and third, order ionospheric effects, Ion2 and Ion3, respectively. Both terms are related with the electron content along the signal path; moreover Ion2 term is associated with the influence of the geomagnetic field on the ionospheric refractive index and Ion3 with the ray bending effect of the ionosphere, which can cause significant deviation in the ray trajectory (due to strong electron density gradients in the ionosphere) such that the error contribution of Ion3 can exceed that of Ion2 (Kim and Tinin, 2007). The higher order error terms do not cancel out in the (first order) ionospherically corrected observable and as such, when not accounted for, they can degrade the accuracy of GNSS positioning, depending on the level of the solar activity and geomagnetic and ionospheric conditions (Hoque and Jakowski, 2007). Simulation results from early 1990s show that Ion2 and Ion3 would contribute to the ionospheric error budget by less than 1 % of the Ion1 term at GPS frequencies (Datta-Barua et al., 2008). Although the IF observable may provide sufficient accuracy for most GNSS applications, Ion2 and Ion3 need to be considered for higher accuracy demanding applications especially at times of higher solar activity. This paper investigates the higher order ionospheric effects (Ion2 and Ion3, however excluding the ray bending effects associated with Ion3) in the European region in the GNSS positioning considering the precise point positioning (PPP) method. For this purpose observations from four European stations were considered. These observations were taken in four time intervals corresponding to various geophysical conditions: the active and quiet periods of the solar cycle, 2001 and 2006, respectively, excluding the effects of disturbances in the geomagnetic field (i.e. geomagnetic storms), as well as the years of 2001 and 2003, this time including the impact of geomagnetic disturbances. The program RINEX_HO (Marques et al., 2011) was used to calculate the magnitudes of Ion2 and Ion3 on the range measurements as well as the total electron content (TEC) observed on each receiver-satellite link. The program also corrects the GPS observation files for Ion2 and Ion3; thereafter it is possible to perform PPP with both the original and corrected GPS observation files to analyze the impact of the higher order ionospheric error terms excluding the ray bending effect which may become significant especially at low elevation angles (Ioannides and Strangeways, 2002) on the estimated station coordinates.

Elmas, Z. G.; Aquino, M.; Marques, H. A.; Monico, J. F. G.

2011-08-01

343

Quality Assurance in Chinese Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quality assurance has been integrated into the fabric of higher education in China, with the issue of quality in higher education--how to evaluate it and how to enhance it--now taking centre stage in Chinese higher education. In the past decade, the development of quality assurance in Chinese higher education has covered a broad spectrum of…

Li, Yuan

2010-01-01

344

Illinois Higher Education Annual Report, May 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents information about the state of higher education in Illinois. Higher education entered the year 2000 with a full agenda and ended it as the top-rated system of higher education in a new national report card, "Measuring Up 2000" (National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education). Illinois received "A's in three of the six…

Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

345

Redefining External Stakeholders in Nordic Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Present higher education reforms in the Nordic countries diminish the role and influence of the state on the governance of higher education institutions. While still providing a framework for the management of higher education, in general, the state supervises rather than controls higher education institutions (HEIs). The rhetoric of change…

Musial, Kazimierz

2010-01-01

346

Higher order harmonic detection for exploring nonlinear interactions with nanoscale resolution  

PubMed Central

Nonlinear dynamics underpin a vast array of physical phenomena ranging from interfacial motion to jamming transitions. In many cases, insight into the nonlinear behavior can be gleaned through exploration of higher order harmonics. Here, a method using band excitation scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to investigate higher order harmonics of the electromechanical response, with nanometer scale spatial resolution is presented. The technique is demonstrated by probing the first three harmonics of strain for a Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 (PZT) ferroelectric capacitor. It is shown that the second order harmonic response is correlated with the first harmonic response, whereas the third harmonic is not. Additionally, measurements of the second harmonic reveal significant deviations from Rayleigh-type models in the form of a much more complicated field dependence than is observed in the spatially averaged data. These results illustrate the versatility of nth order harmonic SPM detection methods in exploring nonlinear phenomena in nanoscale materials. PMID:24045269

Vasudevan, R. K.; Okatan, M. Baris; Rajapaksa, I.; Kim, Y.; Marincel, D.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Jesse, S.; Valanoor, N.; Kalinin, S. V.

2013-01-01

347

Significance Testing for Outcome Changes via Latent Growth Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In addition to assessing the rate of change in outcome measures, it may be useful to test the significance of outcome changes during specific time periods within an entire observation period under study. While discussing the delta method and bootstrapping, this study demonstrates how to use these 2 methods to estimate the standard errors of the…

Wang, Jichuan

2004-01-01

348

The adaptive significance of behavioural ontogeny in some. centrarchid fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on the ontogeny of behaviour in fish have seldom considered the adaptive significance of the order of appearance of the behaviours. Results of laboratory studies and field observations on the ontogeny of feeding, predator-avoidance, and agonistic behaviour in largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris, and pumpkinseed, Lepomis gibbosus, young indicate that the order of appearance of the

Joseph A. Brown

1985-01-01

349

Impact of Including Higher Actinides in Fast Reactor Transmutation Analyses  

SciTech Connect

Previous fast reactor transmutation studies generally disregarded higher mass minor actinides beyond Cm-246 due to various considerations including deficiencies in nuclear cross-section data. Although omission of these higher mass actinides does not significantly impact the neutronic calculations and fuel cycle performance parameters follow-on neutron dose calculations related to fuel recycling, transportation and handling are significantly impacted. This report shows that including the minor actinides in the equilibrium fast reactor calculations will increase the predicted neutron emission by about 30%. In addition a sensitivity study was initiated by comparing the impact of different cross-section evaluation file for representing these minor actinides.

B. Forget; M. Asgari; R. Ferrer; S. Bays

2007-09-01

350

Addressing Grand Challenges in Earth Observation Science: The Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth observation is entering a new era where the increasing availability of free and open global satellite data sets combined with the computing power offered by modern information technologies opens up the possibility to process high-resolution data sets at global scale and short repeat intervals in a fully automatic fashion. This will not only boost the availability of higher level earth observation data in purely quantitative terms, but can also be expected to trigger a step change in the quality and usability of earth observation data. However, the technical, scientific, and organisational challenges that need to be overcome to arrive at this point are significant. First of all, Petabyte-scale data centres are needed for storing and processing complete satellite data records. Second, innovative processing chains that allow fully automatic processing of the satellite data from the raw sensor records to higher-level geophysical products need to be developed. Last but not least, new models of cooperation between public and private actors need to be found in order to live up to the first two challenges. This paper offers a discussion of how the Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring (EODC) - a catalyser for an open and international cooperation of public and private organisations - will address these three grand challenges with the aim to foster the use of earth observation for monitoring of global water resources.

Wagner, W.; Fröhlich, J.; Wotawa, G.; Stowasser, R.; Staudinger, M.; Hoffmann, C.; Walli, A.; Federspiel, C.; Aspetsberger, M.; Atzberger, C.; Briese, C.; Notarnicola, C.; Zebisch, M.; Boresch, A.; Enenkel, M.; Kidd, R.; von Beringe, A.; Hasenauer, S.; Naeimi, V.; Mücke, W.

2014-09-01

351

OCCURRENCE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF TRIMETHYLAMINE OXIDE  

E-print Network

333 OCCURRENCE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF TRIMETHYLAMINE OXIDE IN MARINE ANIMALS fi^^ i^ SPECIAL and Wildlife Service, Arnie J. Sucmela, Commissioner THE OCCURREMCE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF TRIMETSnAMIHE OXIDEJ. natiore of trimethylamine oxide 1 Occurrence 1 Occurrence in marine animals 2 Occurrence in fresh

352

Missing transverse energy significance at CMS  

E-print Network

Missing transverse energy significance may be used to help distinguish real missing transverse energy due to undetected particles from spurious missing transverse energy due to resolution smearing. We present a description of the missing transverse energy significance variable, and assess its performance in Z$\\rightarrow\\mu\\mu$, dijet, and W$\\rightarrow e\

Nathan Mirman; Yimin Wang; James Alexander

2014-09-10

353

The Vernier Caliper and Significant Figures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Misconceptions occur because the caliper is often read with the same significant figures as a meter stick; however, the precision of the vernier caliper is greater than the precision of a meter stick. Clarification of scale reading, precision of both tools, and significant figures are discussed. (JN)

Oberhofer, E. S.

1985-01-01

354

Teaching Significant Figures Using a Learning Cycle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an instructional strategy based on the learning cycle for teaching the use of significant figures. Provides explanations of teaching activities for each phase of the learning cycle (exploration, invention, application). Compares this approach to teaching significant figures with the traditional textbook approach. (TW)

Guymon, E. Park; And Others

1986-01-01

355

Evolution of the Significant Figure Rules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, almost all introductory physics textbooks include standardized "rules" on how to find the number of significant figures in a calculated value. And yet, 30 years ago these rules were almost nonexistent. Why have we increased the role of significant figures in introductory classes, and should we continue this trend? A look back at…

Carter, Ashley R.

2013-01-01

356

Long term higher urinary calcium excretion within the normal physiologic range predicts impaired bone status of the proximal radius in healthy children with higher potential renal acid load.  

PubMed

Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mass have been observed in children with idiopathic hypercalciuria. Whether urinary calcium excretion at the higher end of the normal physiologic range can influence bone health in healthy children independent of dietary intake is unknown. Urinary calcium was quantified in 603 24-h urine samples from 154 healthy children and adolescents who had ?3 urine collections and parallel 3-day weighed dietary records during the 4years preceding proximal forearm bone analyses by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Urinary potential renal acid load (uPRAL) was determined according to urine ionogram by subtracting measured quantitatively important mineral cations from nonbicarbonate anions. Urinary calcium excretion was significantly associated with volumetric (v)BMD (P=0.04), almost significantly with cortical bone mineral content (BMC) (P=0.05), but not with cortical cross-sectional area (CSA) (P=0.09), total CSA (P=0.3), or Strength-Strain Index (P=0.8) in the total population sample. Stratified analyses based on the median split of uPRAL showed that calcium excretion was negatively associated with vBMD (P=0.007), cortical BMC (P=0.001), and cortical CSA (P=0.004) in those children with higher uPRALs, but not in those with low uPRALs (P>0.3). In conclusion, long-term higher calciuria within the physiological range predicts reduced diaphyseal bone mass and bone density particularly in healthy children and adolescents with long-term unfavorable higher dietary acid load, i.e., with lower fruit and vegetable intake. PMID:22342797

Shi, Lijie; Libuda, Lars; Schönau, Eckhard; Frassetto, Lynda; Remer, Thomas

2012-05-01

357

Pneumothorax: observation.  

PubMed

Pneumothorax based on the cause, it can be divided into two large categories; primary and secondary. The staging of pneumothorax plays a crucial role for treatment. Currently both thoracic surgeons and pulmonary physicians can handle efficiently treatment. Pulmonary physicians with the minimally medical thoracoscopy while thoracic surgeons with a more extensive intervention. Experience defines the outcome in most situations and not the method. In our current work we will present data regarding the observation of pneumothorax from a panel of experts. PMID:25337398

Li, Zhigang; Huang, Haidong; Li, Qiang; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Madesis, Athanasios; Diplaris, Konstantinos; Karaiskos, Theodoros; Zaric, Bojan; Branislav, Perin; Zarogoulidis, Paul

2014-10-01

358

Pneumothorax: observation  

PubMed Central

Pneumothorax based on the cause, it can be divided into two large categories; primary and secondary. The staging of pneumothorax plays a crucial role for treatment. Currently both thoracic surgeons and pulmonary physicians can handle efficiently treatment. Pulmonary physicians with the minimally medical thoracoscopy while thoracic surgeons with a more extensive intervention. Experience defines the outcome in most situations and not the method. In our current work we will present data regarding the observation of pneumothorax from a panel of experts. PMID:25337398

Li, Zhigang; Huang, Haidong; Li, Qiang; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Madesis, Athanasios; Diplaris, Konstantinos; Karaiskos, Theodoros; Zaric, Bojan; Branislav, Perin

2014-01-01

359

Significance of Atmospheric Ozone as a Phytotoxicant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the recognition of ozone as a major phytotoxicant in crop plants in 1957, ozone type symptoms have been observed in a wide range of vegetation. These observations include leafy vegetables, field, forage, and textile crops, also shrubs, broad-leafed ornamental, fruit and forest trees, and various conifers. Fumigation experiments at various institutions have confirmed the etiological relation of ozone in

B. L. Richards; O. C. Taylor

1965-01-01

360

Taiwanese vegetarians have higher insulin sensitivity than omnivores.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to examine the effects of habitual consumption of Taiwanese vegetarian diets on hormonal secretion, and on lipid and glycaemic control. Of the ninety-eight healthy female adults recruited from Hualien, Taiwan (aged 31-45 years), forty-nine were Buddhist lactovegetarians and forty-nine were omnivores. Dietary intakes were measured, and blood levels of nutrients and hormones were analysed. Vegetarians consumed less energy, fat and protein, but more fibre than the omnivores. Compared with the omnivores, the vegetarians had, on average, lower BMI and smaller waist circumference. Except for slightly lower levels of thyroxine (T4) in vegetarians, vegetarians and omnivores both showed similar levels of triiodothyronine (T3), free T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone, T3:T4 ratio and cortisol. Compared with the omnivores, the vegetarians had significantly lower levels of fasting insulin (median: 35.3 v. 50.6 pmol/l) and plasma glucose (mean: 4.7 (se 0.05) v. 4.9 (se 0.05) mmol/l). Insulin resistance, as calculated by the homeostasis model assessment method, was significantly lower in the vegetarians than in the omnivores (median: 1.10 v. 1.56), while beta-cell function was not different between the two groups. BMI and diet were both independent predictors for insulin resistance, and contributed 18 and 15 % of the variation in insulin resistance, respectively. In conclusion, Taiwanese vegetarians had lower glucose and insulin levels and higher insulin sensitivity than did the omnivores. Diet and lower BMI were partially responsible for the high insulin sensitivity observed in young Taiwanese vegetarians. PMID:16441925

Hung, Chien-Jung; Huang, Po-Chao; Li, Yi-Hwei; Lu, Shao-Chun; Ho, Low-Tone; Chou, Hsu-Fang

2006-01-01

361

Observation of single top-quark production.  

PubMed

We report observation of the electroweak production of single top quarks in pp[over ] collisions at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV based on 2.3 fb(-1) of data collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. Using events containing an isolated electron or muon and missing transverse energy, together with jets originating from the fragmentation of b quarks, we measure a cross section of sigma(pp[over ]--> tb + X, tqb + X) = 3.94 + or - 0.88 pb. The probability to measure a cross section at this value or higher in the absence of signal is 2.5 x 10(-7), corresponding to a 5.0 standard deviation significance for the observation. PMID:19792787

Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Bu, X B; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calfayan, P; Calpas, B; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Carrera, E; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Cheu, E; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cuplov, V; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; DeVaughan, K; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Escalier, M; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jamin, D; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Mättig, P; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mitrevski, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Orduna, J; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero Y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padilla, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H

2009-08-28

362

Fishy Observations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (page 1 of the PDF), learners will visit a zoo, aquarium, or pet store to view a variety of fish. Learners sketch the different body types as well as observe where each fish spends most of its time in the aquarium and how it swims. Based on this data, learners write a one or two sentence summary of how its body shape helps each fish swim as it does and live where it does. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV: Rabbits.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

363

Prognostic Significance of DNA and Histone Methylation  

Cancer.gov

Nutritional Science Research Group Recently Funded Projects Prognostic Significance of DNA and Histone Methylation Principal Investigator: Piyathilake, Chandrika J Institution: University of Alabama at Birmingham   NCI/DCP Program Director: Ross, Sharon

364

The Significance of Form in Educational Drama.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the significance of dramatic form in fostering children's cognitive and affective development. Examines the work of John Dewey, Susanne Langer, Nelson Goodman, Gavin Bolton, and Robert Witkin. (PD)

Collins, Patrick M.

1984-01-01

365

32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...would violate existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility for...cause irreparable harm to animal or plant life could be...Significant beneficial effects also occur and must...

2012-07-01

366

32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...would violate existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility for...cause irreparable harm to animal or plant life could be...Significant beneficial effects also occur and must...

2014-07-01

367

32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...would violate existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility for...cause irreparable harm to animal or plant life could be...Significant beneficial effects also occur and must...

2013-07-01

368

Significant Figure Rules for General Arithmetic Functions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides some significant figure rules used in chemistry including the general theoretical basis; logarithms and antilogarithms; exponentiation (with exactly known exponents); sines and cosines; and the extreme value rule. (YP)

Graham, D. M.

1989-01-01

369

32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY...AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.39 ...in significant impacts to the environment...use appropriate methods to identify and...

2010-07-01

370

32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY...AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.39 ...in significant impacts to the environment...use appropriate methods to identify and...

2011-07-01

371

A Fast Randomisation Test for Rule Significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Randomisation is a method to test the statistical significance of a symbolic rule; it is, how- ever, very expensive. In this paper we present a sequential randomisation test which dramatically reduces the number of steps needed for a conclusion.

Ivo Duntsch; Gunther Gediga

2010-01-01

372

Significance of the tumor protease cathepsin D for the biology of breast cancer.  

PubMed

Cathepsin D is a protease involved in the metastasis and angiogenesis of mammary carcinomas. This review analyzes the significance of the tumor protease cathepsin D in mammary carcinomas as a tumor marker. We present a systematic overview based on a selective Medline search. Cathepsin D is expressed in mammary carcinomas and exhibits higher expression in invasive ductal carcinomas compared with lobular carcinomas. Nodal positive carcinomas showed reduced cathepsin D expression compared to lymph node metastases, and increased expression has been observed in hormone-receptor negative tumors. Thus, the expression of cathepsin varies between the two histological types. Increased cathepsin-D expression in acinar affection has also been described. The lack of an association of cathepsin D with known prognostic factors such as CA15-3, ERalpha and ERbeta does not prevent it from being using as a tumor marker. Cathepsin has already been used along with other genes as a prognostic parameter for carcinoma patients in gene arrays. PMID:24265119

Dian, Darius; Heublein, Sabine; Wiest, Irmi; Barthell, Lisa; Friese, Klaus; Jeschke, Udo

2014-04-01

373

Statistical significance of the gallium anomaly  

SciTech Connect

We calculate the statistical significance of the anomalous deficit of electron neutrinos measured in the radioactive source experiments of the GALLEX and SAGE solar neutrino detectors, taking into account the uncertainty of the detection cross section. We found that the statistical significance of the anomaly is {approx}3.0{sigma}. A fit of the data in terms of neutrino oscillations favors at {approx}2.7{sigma} short-baseline electron neutrino disappearance with respect to the null hypothesis of no oscillations.

Giunti, Carlo; Laveder, Marco [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica 'G. Galilei', Universita di Padova, and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

2011-06-15

374

Operational Significant Event Imagery: A History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New satellite images of "significant environmental events" are posted frequently at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)'s Operational Significant Event Imagery (OSEI) Website. Remotely-sensed data include "high-resolution, detailed imagery" of dust storms, fires, floods, icebergs, oceanic events, severe weather, snow cover, storm systems, tropical cyclones, volcanoes, and other current events. Users may search the site for the most recent images by date or by topic. A Daily Report section provides brief descriptions of the latest images.

375

[Preliminary identification of clinically significant Clostridium species].  

PubMed

Preliminary identification of clinically significant Clostridium spp. is based on evaluating their microscopic and macroscopic morphology, Gram staining (Gram stain-positive structure of the bacterial wall), positive production of lecithinase, lipase and proteolytic activity on egg yolk agar, and simple chemical tests. If this preliminary identification is not sufficient, biochemical identification is performed, along with 16S-rRNA sequencing of the bacterial genome. The article comments on options of preliminary identification of clinically significant Clostridium spp. PMID:20640984

Balejová, Magda

2010-06-01

376

Statistical Significance of the Gallium Anomaly  

E-print Network

We calculate the statistical significance of the anomalous deficit of electron neutrinos measured in the radioactive source experiments of the GALLEX and SAGE solar neutrino detectors taking into account the uncertainty of the detection cross section. We found that the statistical significance of the anomaly is about 3.0 sigma. A fit of the data in terms of neutrino oscillations favors at about 2.7 sigma short-baseline electron neutrino disappearance with respect to the null hypothesis of no oscillations.

Carlo Giunti; Marco Laveder

2011-03-28

377

Alendronate soluble solution: a higher adherence rate in the treatment of osteoporosis  

PubMed Central

Summary Introduction Since low adherence to a long-term therapy results in a poor clinical outcome and significantly increases healthcare costs, adherence to the treatment of chronic disorders is an issue of great interest. This is particularly true of the treatment of osteoporosis (OP). Purpose of study Adherence to the osteoporosis therapy in patients treated with bisphosphonates in tablet form has been evaluated in comparison with the adherence of those taking alendronate in soluble solution. Methods and materials Here we present a retrospective study of 245 patients treated with alendronate, risedronate and ibandronate tablets and a prospective study of 118 patients treated with soluble alendronate. In both studies, patients have been observed for a period of 12 months. Results The analysis of patients’ persistence with the treatment plan, assessed at three, six and 12 months, revealed a significantly higher adherence (p < 0.005) in the cohort of patients treated with soluble alendronate (92.37% at 12 months) compared with those who followed the course of treatment with tablets (65.4 %, 12 months). Conclusions The investigation showed higher adherence to the oral therapy with soluble alendronate, demonstrating that a formulation obtained by this method can contribute to a higher level of persistence with the treatment of a disease such as osteoporosis, which requires a long-term therapeutic plan. PMID:25285141

Coaccioli, Stefano; Celi, Giorgio; Crapa, Mariano Edoardo; Masia, Francesco; Brandi, Maria Luisa

2014-01-01

378

Female hippocampal estrogens have a significant correlation with cyclic fluctuation of hippocampal spines  

PubMed Central

Synaptic plasticity of the female hippocampus may cyclically fluctuate across the estrous cycle. The spine density fluctuation had been explained by fluctuation of plasma estradiol (E2) and progesterone (PROG), with the assumption that these steroids penetrate into the hippocampus. Recently, however, we demonstrated that male hippocampal levels of sex steroids are much higher than those in plasma, suggesting a weak contribution of plasma steroids to the spine density. By combination of mass-spectrometric analysis with HPLC-purification and picolinoyl-derivatization of hippocampal sex steroids, we determined the accurate concentration of E2 and PROG at four stages of plasma estrous cycle including Proestrus (Pro), Estrus (Est), Diestrus 1 (D1), and Diestrus 2 (D2). Hippocampal levels of E2 and PROG showed cyclic fluctuation with a peak at Pro for E2 and at D1 for PROG, having a positive correlation with the plasma estrous cycle. All these sex steroid levels are much higher in the hippocampus than in plasma. Even after ovariectomy a significant levels of E2 and PROG were observed in the hippocampus. The total spine density showed higher values at Pro and D1, and lower values at Est and D2, having a good correlation with the peak levels of hippocampal E2 or PROG. We also examined fluctuation of the head diameter of spines. Interestingly, mRNA expression level of steroidogenic enzymes (P450arom and 17?-HSD, etc.) and sex-steroid receptors did not significantly change across the estrous cycle. Therefore, the fluctuation of total hippocampal PROG (equal to sum of hippocampus-synthesized PROG and plasma PROG) may be originated from the contribution of cyclic change in plasma PROG, which can induce the fluctuation of total hippocampal E2, since steroid conversion activity of hippocampus might be nearly the same across the estrus cycle. PMID:24151456

Kato, Asami; Hojo, Yasushi; Higo, Shimpei; Komatsuzaki, Yoshimasa; Murakami, Gen; Yoshino, Hinako; Uebayashi, Masanao; Kawato, Suguru

2013-01-01

379

Finding significant climatic frequencies from satellite observations, a case study for Lake Victoria basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Victoria is the second largest freshwater lake in the world by area. A dramatic fall in the water level of the lake between 2002 and 2007 attracted a lot of worldwide attention. A recent study on the Lake Victoria basin using data from GRACE, TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, TRMM and as well as GLDAS data products suggested the possibility of the expansion of Naluabaale Dam in Uganda for the declining water level in the lake. However, Lake Victoria does not receive water from a large catchment area: most of its water comes from rain that falls directly over the huge surface of the lake. For this reason, climatic contributions cannot be ignored in the recent declining. This research aims at analyzing the contribution of rainfall over the lake area between the years 1998 and 2008. Least squares spectral analysis (LSSA) is applied on 400 cycles of TOPEX/Poseidon and 232 cycles of Jason1 altimeter data along with monthly TRMM data from 1998 to 2008 to reveal the specific frequencies. From our results, yearly, half-yearly and seasonal frequencies along with a long term frequency are clearly visible in the Lake Victoria level variations. Key words. Lake Victoria, Least Squares Spectral Analysis, TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason1, TRMM

Forootan, E.; Sharifi, M. A.; van Loon, E. E.

2009-04-01

380

Electrical properties of rocks and their significance for lunar radar observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide variety of terrestrial rocks has been investigated to determine the range of variation of the high-frequency electrical properties. Both solid rocks and powders of various types have been measured at frequencies of 450 MHz and 35 GHz; some measurements have been made at elevated temperatures. Solid materials show wide variations in permittivity and absorption length, but apart from

M. J. Campbell; Juris Ulrichs

1969-01-01

381

Significant results from using earth observation satellites for mineral and energy resource exploration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Launched in June 1978, Seasat operated for only 100 days, but successfully acquired much information over both sea and land. The collection of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery and radar altimetry was particularly important to geologists. Although there are difficulties in processing and distributing these data in a timely manner, initial evaluations indicate that the radar imagery supplements Landsat data by increasing the spectral range and offering a different look angle. The radar altimeter provides accurate profiles over narrow strips of land (1 km wide) and has demonstrated usefulness in measuring icecap surfaces (Greenland, Iceland, and Antarctica). The Salar of Uyuni in southern Bolivia served as a calibration site for the altimeter and has enabled investigators to develop a land-based smoothing algorithm that is believed to increase the accuracy of the system to 10 cm. Data from the altimeter are currently being used to measure subsidence resulting from ground water withdrawal in the Phoenix-Tucson area.

Carter, William D.

1981-01-01

382

Observational astrophysics.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book is the 2nd edition of an English translation published in 1988 (45.003.105) of the French original "Astrophysique: Méthodes physiques de l'observation" published in 1986 (42.003.048). Written specifically for physicists and graduate students in astronomy, this textbook focuses on astronomical observation and on the basic physical principles that astronomers use to conceive, build and exploit their instruments at their ultimate limits in sensitivity or resolution. This second edition has been entirely restructured and almost doubled in size, in order to improve its clarity and to account for the great progress achieved in the last 15 years. It deals with ground-based and space-based astronomy and their respective fields. It presents the new generation of giant ground-based telescopes, with the new methods of optical interferometry and adaptive optics, and also the ambitious concepts behind planned space missions for the next decades. Avoiding particulars, it covers the whole of the electromagnetic spectrum and touches upon the "new astronomies" becoming possible with gravitational waves and neutrinos.

Léna, P.; Lebrun, F.; Mignard, F.

383

Clinical Significance of Amyloid Precursor Protein in Patients with Testicular Germ Cell Tumor  

PubMed Central

Introduction. The biological role of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is not well understood, especially in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the immunoreactivity (IR) and expression of APP in TGCTs and evaluated its clinical relevance. Materials and Methods. We performed an analysis of immunohistochemistry and mRNA expression of APP in 64 testicular specimens and 21 snap-frozen samples obtained from 1985 to 2004. We then evaluated the association between APP expression and clinicopathological status in TGCTs. Results. Positive APP IR was observed in 9.8% (4/41) of seminomatous germ cell tumors (SGCTs) and 39.1% (9/23) of nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NGCTs). NGCTs showed significantly more cases of positive IR (P = 0.00870) and a higher mRNA expression level compared with those of SGCTs (P = 0.0140). Positive APP IR was also significantly associated with ?-fetoprotein (?FP) elevation (P = 0.00870) and venous invasion (P = 0.0414). Conclusion. We observed an elevated APP expression in TGCTs, especially in NGCTs. APP may be associated with a more aggressive cancer in TGCTs. PMID:23662100

Yamada, Yuta; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Satoru; Takayama, Kenichi; Urano, Tomohiko; Murata, Taro; Obinata, Daisuke; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Homma, Yukio; Inoue, Satoshi

2013-01-01

384

Feeding enhances skeletal growth and energetic stores of an Atlantic coral under significantly elevated CO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many corals living under the relatively acidic conditions of naturally high-CO2 reefs are calcifying as fast or faster than their conspecifics on naturally low CO2 reefs. These observations are inconsistent with most experimental work that shows a negative impact of ocean acidification on coral calcification. We investigated the link between coral nutritional (energetic) status and the calcification response to significantly elevated CO2. Juveniles of the Atlantic brooding coral, Favia fragum were reared for three weeks under fully crossed CO2 and feeding conditions: ambient (?ar =1.6+-0.2) and high CO2 (?ar =3.7+-0.3); fed and unfed. In most measured parameters, the effect of feeding is much stronger than the effect of CO2. Nutritionally enhanced (fed) corals, regardless of CO2 condition, have higher concentrations of total lipid and their skeletons are both significantly larger and more developmentally advanced than those of corals relying solely on autotrophy. In measurements of corallite weight, where the impact of CO2 is most apparent, no statistical difference is observed between unfed corals under ambient CO2 conditions and fed corals reared under 1600 ppm CO2. Our results suggest that coral energetic status, which can be enhanced by heterotrophic feeding but depleted by stressors such as bleaching, will play a key role in the coral response to ocean acidification and thus, in the resilience of reef ecosystems under climate change.

Drenkard, L.; Cohen, A. L.; McCorkle, D. C.; dePutron, S.; Zicht, A.

2011-12-01

385

PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NUTRITION STATUS AND GENOTYPE IN GILTS  

E-print Network

- ficant influence of an increase in the energy content of the diet was observed on growth rate and food and specific gravity of the ham ; increasing the dietary energy content resulted in a higher fatness with FI in the protein content of the diet had a significantly unfavou- rable influence on growth rate and food

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

386

Dynamics of type 2 diabetes mellitus laboratory remission after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in patients with body mass index lower than 35 kg/m2 and higher than 35 kg/m2 in a 3-year observation period  

PubMed Central

Introduction Bariatric surgery as treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in morbidly obese patients is becoming common. Although a large number of studies demonstrating high efficacy of bariatric methods in diabetics with body mass index (BMI) < 35 kg/m2 have been published, this promising solution is still not accepted enough even in the era of a diabetes offensive. Aim To analyze the dynamics of T2DM remission in patients with BMI < 35 kg/m2 and > 35 kg/m2 after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Material and methods Data of 30 patients with BMI < 35 kg/m2 and 82 with BMI > 35 kg/m2 who underwent RYGB between 2007 and 2010 were collected from a prospectively designed database. The laboratory resolution of T2DM was determined by fasting plasma glucose (FPG ? 100 mg/dl) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c ? 6%). Results The T2DM regression was observed in 80% of the patients with BMI < 35 kg/m2 and 83% in a group with BMI > 35 kg/m2 1 year after RYGB and about 80% 2 and 3 years after the operation in both groups. Normalization of average HbA1c and FPG was observed in the BMI > 35 kg/m2 group after 3 months, while in the BMI < 35 kg/m2 group it was reached 6 months postoperatively. Changes in main markers of T2DM were parallel with the BMI decrease 3–12 months after RYGB, but early resolution in some patients was observed independently of weight loss. Conclusions The mid-term observation of patients after RYGB revealed the laboratory remission of T2DM. Ultimate evaluation of T2DM markers 3 years after surgery demonstrates high effectiveness of RYGB in managing T2DM in both groups.

Proczko, Monika; Kobiela, Jarek; Stefaniak, Tomasz Jerzy; ?ledzinski, Zbigniew

2014-01-01

387

Higher fine-scale genetic structure in peripheral than in core populations of a long-lived and mixed-mating conifer - eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Fine-scale or spatial genetic structure (SGS) is one of the key genetic characteristics of plant populations. Several evolutionary and ecological processes and population characteristics influence the level of SGS within plant populations. Higher fine-scale genetic structure may be expected in peripheral than core populations of long-lived forest trees, owing to the differences in the magnitude of operating evolutionary and ecological forces such as gene flow, genetic drift, effective population size and founder effects. We addressed this question using eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) as a model species for declining to endangered long-lived tree species with mixed-mating system. Results We determined the SGS in two core and two peripheral populations of eastern white cedar from its Maritime Canadian eastern range using six nuclear microsatellite DNA markers. Significant SGS ranging from 15 m to 75 m distance classes was observed in the four studied populations. An analysis of combined four populations revealed significant positive SGS up to the 45 m distance class. The mean positive significant SGS observed in the peripheral populations was up to six times (up to 90 m) of that observed in the core populations (15 m). Spatial autocorrelation coefficients and correlograms of single and sub-sets of populations were statistically significant. The extent of within-population SGS was significantly negatively correlated with all genetic diversity parameters. Significant heterogeneity of within-population SGS was observed for 0-15 m and 61-90 m between core and peripheral populations. Average Sp, and gene flow distances were higher in peripheral (Sp = 0.023, ?g = 135 m) than in core (Sp = 0.014, ?g = 109 m) populations. However, the mean neighborhood size was higher in the core (Nb = 82) than in the peripheral (Nb = 48) populations. Conclusion Eastern white cedar populations have significant fine-scale genetic structure at short distances. Peripheral populations have several-folds higher within-population fine-scale genetic structure than core populations. Anthropogenic disturbances and population fragmentation presumably have significant effects on fine-scale genetic structure in eastern white cedar. Core populations have higher neighborhood size than peripheral populations, whereas gene flow distances are higher in peripheral than in core populations. The results of our study contribute to the knowledge of poorly-understood spatial genetic structure of core versus peripheral populations in plants. As well, the information is of significance for conservation of genetic resources of eastern white cedar and perhaps of other long-lived forest trees with mixed-mating system. PMID:22480185

2012-01-01

388

Openness, Dynamic Specialization, and the Disaggregated Future of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Openness is a fundamental value underlying significant changes in society and is a prerequisite to changes institutions of higher education need to make in order to remain relevant to the society in which they exist. There are a number of ways institutions can be more open, including programs of open sharing of educational materials. Individual…

Wiley, David; Hilton, John, III

2009-01-01

389

International Demand for American Higher Education: An Extension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the relationship of population and income in Asian countries and Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) members to their demand for American higher education found that both population and income significantly affect demand, but not proportionally. Findings suggest countries meet most change in citizens' demand with…

Mixon, J. Wilson, Jr.; Wan, Weidong

1990-01-01

390

Retention Rate for Inmates in Higher Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes research concerning the retention rate of 720 student inmates who participated in a junior college education in 1979-1982. The significantly higher retention rate (84 percent versus 62 percent for Clinton Community College and 42-54 percent nationally) of the inmate student does not substantiate theories of attrition attributed to…

Dufour, Madeleine M.

1989-01-01

391

Gubernatorial Authority and Influence on Public Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State governors have the potential to impact their states' public higher education systems in a variety of very significant ways. The findings for the 33 governors included in this study suggest a great deal of variation in the extent of their authority and influence. Governors' composite ratings of formal authority and informal influence are…

Christakis, Michael N.

2009-01-01

392

Meditation in Higher Education: Does It Enhance Cognition?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We predicted that students in a sociology course that included contemplative practices (i.e., mindfulness meditation) would show an increase in performance on higher level cognitive abilities (executive functions) over the semester compared to a control group of students. Change in executive functions performance was not significantly different…

Helber, Casey; Zook, Nancy A.; Immergut, Matthew

2012-01-01

393

Higher Education: The Online Teaching and Learning Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Globally, higher education, as well as K-12, utilizes online teaching to ensure that a wide array of learning opportunities are available for students in a highly competitive technological arena. The most significant influence in education in recent years is the increase and recognition of private for-profit adult distance and online education…

Barr, Betty A.; Miller, Sonya F.

2013-01-01

394

Satisfaction with Higher Education: Critical Data for Student Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education is a mainstay in the development and support of the economic, social and cultural development of the global society. Throughout history, academic institutions have sought to respond to the demands of endlessly changing and evolving environmental conditions. However, in the 21st century, a number of significant factors are changing…

Machado, Maria de Lourdes; Brites, Rui; Magalhaes, Antonio; Sa, Maria Jose

2011-01-01

395

Geography and the Changing Landscape of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colleges and universities in the USA and many other countries find themselves in a deepening financial challenge that is significantly influencing operating decisions as well as student access to higher education. These trends are attributed to the weakened finances of governments, competition from non-discretionary public spending, the nature of…

Erickson, Rodney A.

2012-01-01

396

Is Multilingualism Linked to a Higher Tolerance of Ambiguity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the link between multilingualism and the personality trait Tolerance of Ambiguity (TA) among 2158 mono-, bi- and multilinguals. Monolinguals and bilinguals scored significantly lower on TA compared to multilinguals. A high level of global proficiency of various languages was linked to higher TA scores. A stay abroad…

DeWaele, Jean-Marc; Wei, Li

2013-01-01

397

Contribution of Higher-Order Nonlinearity to obliquely electron-acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized auroral zone plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the Viking Satellite observations data in the dayside auroral zone, a theoretical investigation is carried out for contribution of the higher-order nonlinearity to nonlinear obliquely electron-acoustic solitary waves (EASWs) in a magnetized collisionless plasma consisting of a cold electron fluid and non-thermal hot electrons obeying a non-thermal distribution, and stationary ions. A Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation that contains the lowest-order nonlinearity and dispersion is derived from the lowest order of perturbation and a linear inhomogeneous (ZK-type) equation that accounts for the higher-order nonlinearity and dispersion is obtained. A stationary solution for equations resulting from higher-order perturbation theory has been found using the renormalization method. The effects of the external magnetic field and the obliqueness are found to significantly change the higher-order properties (viz. the amplitude, width, electric field and energy) of the EASWs. The effect of higher-order nonlinearity on the amplitude and width of the soliton are also discussed. A comparison with the Viking Satellite observations in the dayside auroral zone are taken into account.

Abdelwahed, H. G.

2012-10-01

398

Hispanics and Higher Education: Multicultural Myopia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hispanic Americans are underrepresented in higher education and in business faculty. Their career development is often hindered by discrimination and they are often channeled into two-year colleges where attrition is higher. (SK)

Erlach, David

2000-01-01

399

oregonstate.edu/recsports "redefining higher education"  

E-print Network

i oregonstate.edu/recsports "redefining higher education" ADVENTURE LEADERSHIP INSTITUTE(ALI) TM Climbing Centers Equipment Rental Bike/Ski Shop Adventure Club "redefining higher education" ADVENTURE OSU LLGs & ALI Outcomes Leadership through Adventure Certificate Tracks Additional Programs & Services

Escher, Christine

400

Higher Education Providers HEIDI -Online Information Database  

E-print Network

Higher Education Providers HEIDI - Online Information Database HEIDI Equality Representative Bodies Education Providers Media Industry & Commerce Researchers Public RecordReviews Sector Bodies Equality Challenge Unit Quality Assurance Agency Universities & Colleges Employers Association Higher Education

Glasgow, University of

401

The Market Model and Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper deals with the increasing tendency of government to finance higher education through students, a trend having important policy implications for higher education. This trend and numerous related governmental decisions have been based almost exclusively upon economic rationale. (Author)

Leslie, Larry L.; Johnson, Gary P.

1974-01-01

402

Birthmarks of medical significance in the neonate.  

PubMed

Birthmarks are commonplace and most pose no significant detriment to health. It is usual for some 'birthmarks' to manifest within the first weeks to months of life and are not necessarily seen at birth. This is attributed in large part to the maturation of neonatal skin and the deepening of skin color over time. With time, increased pigment production in the skin by melanocytes eventually highlight the differences between normal and abnormal hypopigmented and hyperpigmented anomalies of the skin. Birthmarks can be seen as an isolated skin condition or serve as an important diagnostic aid for other more significant disorders. This review details four of the most common birthmarks regularly encountered in the neonatal period by perinatologists, obstetricians and pediatricians. This review emphasizes their medical significance and highlights any associated underlying systemic disease or genetic syndrome. PMID:23419758

Benjamin, Latanya T

2013-02-01

403

Renegotiating the Historical Narrative: The Case of American Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conversation begins with two observations: first, the professional organizations--conferences and journals--need to play more self-conscious, activist roles in shaping scholarly canons. Second, whatever canon now presides over American higher educational history is an extremely tolerant one. So much of current scholarship seems to arise out…

Mattingly, Paul H.

2004-01-01

404

Leadership Styles of Effective Female Administrators in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increase number of females in leadership positions provides new opportunities to observe them as leaders. The purpose of this research was to study leadership and to identify the contextual, societal and cultural factors that determined and influenced the styles of leadership of female executives in higher education. The study profiled the…

Hough, Mayra Alayon

2010-01-01

405

Academic Management and Administration System Reform in Higher Education Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reforms in colleges and universities should promote the humanistic character of higher education--rather than simply serve for pure economic production--but also observe the sacred mission of transmitting and creating culture and knowledge, with these two possessing momentous differences. These then demand rationality in academic management to…

Xianming, Xiang

2006-01-01

406

Clinical significance of serum tenascin-C levels in breast cancer.  

PubMed

Tenascin-C (TNC) is a key molecule in tissue remodeling, and high levels are observed in many diseases, including heart failure, thrombosis, atherosclerosis, and cancer. High TNC expression by immunohistochemical analysis has been shown in invasive and metastasizing tissues from a variety of cancers, including colon, lung, brain, and breast. This study was conducted to investigate the serum level of TNC in breast cancer patients and its relationship with tumor progression and known prognostic parameters. Ninety-six breast cancer patients were enrolled into the study. Serum samples were obtained on first admission before adjuvant and metastatic treatments were given and at follow-up. Serum TNC levels were determined by the solid-phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Median age of diagnosis was 48 years old (range, 29-80). Thirty-seven (39 %) patients had metastatic breast cancer. The mean TNC levels were found to be significantly higher in patients with breast cancer (344.1 ± 42.4 pg/mL) compared to those in healthy controls (137.2 ± 26.8 pg/mL) (p = 0.005). Serum TNC level in grade 3 tumors was found to be significantly higher than in grades 1-2 tumors (p = 0.04). No correlation was detected between serum TNC levels and other prognostic parameters analyzed, including presence of metastasis, lymph node involvement, and tumor size. Serum TNC level had no significantly adverse effect on survival in univariate and multivariate analyses (p = 0.65 and p = 0.85, respectively). In conclusion, although serum TNC levels are elevated, it has no predictive or prognostic roles on survival in breast cancer patients. PMID:24696262

Tastekin, D; Tas, F; Karabulut, S; Duranyildiz, D; Serilmez, M; Guveli, M; Vatansever, S

2014-07-01

407

Discipline and Methodology in Higher Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education research is a multidisciplinary field, engaging researchers from across the academy who make use of a wide range of methodological approaches. This article examines the relation between discipline and methodology in higher education research, analysing a database of 567 articles published in 15 leading higher education journals…

Tight, Malcolm

2013-01-01

408

Hispanics in Higher Education: On the Move!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Association of Hispanics in Higher Education (AAHHE) is a new national organization "dedicated to improving the quality of higher education." The AAHHE believes higher education institutions can, and should, do a better job of "meeting the needs of a changing US demography." AAHHE's roots lie in the Hispanic Caucus of the now-defunct…

Kennen, Estela Marin

2005-01-01

409

Higher-order closures and cloud parameterizations  

E-print Network

Higher-order closures and cloud parameterizations Jean-Christophe Golaz National Research Council Sciences University of Wisconsin --- Milwaukee #12;Outline · What is higher-order closure? · Historical we prognose cloud fraction? · Sample results · Conclusions #12;What is higher-order closure

410

Higher Education and Civic Engagement: Comparative Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher Education and Civic Engagement provides an original and challenging contribution to contemporary debates on the civic purpose of higher education. It explores teaching and learning, research, and service in a range of international contexts. This book is essential reading for higher education leaders, faculty, administrators, and members of…

McIlrath, Lorraine, Ed.; Lyons, Ann, Ed.; Munck, Ronaldo, Ed.

2012-01-01

411

Higher Education Reform: Getting the Incentives Right  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a joint effort by the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB) and the Center for Higher Education Policy Studies. It analyses a number of `best practices¿ where the design of financial incentives working on the system level of higher education is concerned. In Chapter 1, an overview of some of the characteristics of the Dutch higher

Erik Canton; Richard Venniker; Ben Jongbloed; Jos Koelman; Meer van der Peter; Hans Vossensteyn

2001-01-01

412

Illinois Directory of Higher Education, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory of higher education in Illinois includes information on the Illinois Board of Higher Education, state public colleges and universities, independent institutions, and other state agencies and educational organizations. The section on the Illinois Board of Higher Education lists board members and staff, and includes an organization…

Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

413

Women in Further and Higher Education Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the issue of sexual discrimination within British higher education and argues that further and higher educational services as a whole are discriminatory environments for women. The report's first section involves interviews with six women who had achieved notable success in the field of further and higher education management.…

Spencer, Anne; And Others

1987-01-01

414

Higher Education: A Time for Triage?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher education faces unprecedented challenges. The confluence of changing economic and demographic tends; new patterns of federal and state spending; more explicit expectations by students and their families for affordable, accessible education; and heightened scrutiny by those who claim a legitimate interest in higher education is inescapably altering the environment in which this system operates. Higher education will never again

J. J. Lagowski

1995-01-01

415

New Directions in Professional Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection contains a series of analytical case studies of developing practices that respond to the challenges to higher education in the United Kingdom at the start of the new millennium. Chapters addressing important themes in developing professional higher education are: (1) "Lifelong Learning and Professional Higher Education" (David…

Bourner, Tom, Ed.; Katz, Tim, Ed.; Watson, David, Ed.

416

Higher Education Research Institutes in Chinese Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Initially emerged in 1978, higher education research institutes (HERIs) in Mainland China have experienced rapid expansion and have become a major force in higher education reform in the last three decades. The development of these research institutes is closely related to the substantive growth of the higher education system itself as well as…

Wang, Qi; Liu, Nian Cai

2014-01-01

417

Reconfiguring the Higher Education Value Chain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forces of demand and supply are changing the dynamics of the higher education market. Transformation of institutions of higher learning into competitive enterprise is underway. Higher education institutions are seemingly under intense pressure to create value and focus their efforts and scarce funds on activities that drive up value for their…

Pathak, Virendra; Pathak, Kavita

2010-01-01

418

Character Development Practices in Higher Education Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Character Development continues to be the all too unintentional elephant in the room of Higher Education. This project looked at what character development practices are being accomplished and who in higher education is making it happen. No longer satisfied with leaving the task to elementary and secondary education, higher education has begun to…

Wesley, Vernon L.

2010-01-01

419

Manpower Aspects of Higher Education in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from various published sources, this report reviews the growth of higher education in India over the last 30 years, analyzes employers' needs for higher education graduates since 1950, and suggests guidelines for involving educational planning with manpower planning. The author describes the growth of Indian higher education in the…

Khan, Qamar Uddin

420

Resources and Higher Education. SRHE Monograph 51.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Resource allocation for higher education in England is addressed in 11 papers from a l982 Leverhulme seminar of the Society for Research into Higher Education. Major seminar questions include the following: whether higher education institutions should become less dependent upon public funds; the extent to which funds should flow through grants to…

Morris, Alfred, Ed.; Sizer, John, Ed.

421

The Demand for Higher Education in Greece  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the reasons for enrolment demand in higher education in Greece through data collected from 400 students enrolled in the final year of post-secondary education in the Athens area. Results showed that Greek students choose to follow higher studies for a number of reasons but mainly because higher education offers high-level…

Saiti, Anna; Prokopiadou, Georgia

2008-01-01

422

Colleges and the Governance of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The governance of higher education in colleges and college sectors that offer other types of education and training is distinctive in four main respects. First, governance structures are frequently separate and different for higher education and for other segments of tertiary education. Second, the size and scope of the higher-level education…

Parry, Gareth

2013-01-01

423

Student volunteering in English higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volunteering in English higher education has come under political scrutiny recently, with strong cross?party support for schemes to promote undergraduate volunteering in particular. Recent targeted initiatives and proposals have sought to strengthen both the role of volunteering in higher education and synergies between higher education and voluntary sectors. There is, therefore, an emerging consensus among both politicians and academics that

Clare Holdsworth; Jocey Quinn

2010-01-01

424

Higher Education Active Community Fund: Proposals. Consultation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document outlines proposals for a Higher Education Active Community Fund (HEACF) in England to enhance the key role played by higher education institutions in the community. The initiative follows from the objectives of the Higher Education Reach-Out to Business and the Community Fund and proposals from the British Department of the…

Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

425

Branding Canadian Higher Education. CBIE Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The branding of national higher education systems is a global trend that has become increasingly common over the last decade. One of the main motives driving this trend is the view that branding a national higher education system will increase that country's market share of international students. This is evident as national higher education…

Kizilbash, Zainab

2011-01-01

426

OU Engineering Media Lab: Significant Digits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item is an interactive demonstration of the topic of significant digits. It computes the error that can be introduced by rounding during a calculation. Users input numbers and operations and select the number of significant digits for rounding the inputs. The result of the calculation is computed using the actual and rounded inputs, along with the percent difference between two. Users may select from addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division for the operations. This item is part of a collection of instructional materials for introductory engineering courses on six topics: Statics, Dynamics, Fluids, Thermodynamics, Calculus, and Multimedia. See related items on this page for a link to the complete collection.

Gramoll, Kurt

2009-08-12

427

Reducing Undue Conservatism in "Higher Frequency" Structural Design Loads in Aerospace Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study is intended to investigate the frequency dependency of significant strain due to vibratory loads in aerospace vehicle components. The notion that "higher frequency" dynamic loads applied as static loads is inherently conservative is perceived as widely accepted. This effort is focused on demonstrating that principle and attempting to evolve methods to capitalize on it to mitigate undue conservatism. It has been suggested that observations of higher frequency modes that resulted in very low corresponding strain did so due to those modes not being significant. Two avionics boxes, one with its first significant mode at 341 Hz and the other at 857 Hz, were attached to a flat panel installed on a curved orthogrid panel which was driven acoustically in tests performed at NASA/MSFC. Strain and acceleration were measured at select locations on each of the boxes. When possible, strain gage rosettes and accelerometers were installed on either side of a given structural member so that measured strain and acceleration data would directly correspond to one another. Ultimately, a frequency above which vibratory loads can be disregarded for purposes of static structural analyses and sizing of typical robust aerospace components is sought.

Knight, J. Brent

2012-01-01

428

Proline suppresses Rubisco activity in higher plants.  

PubMed

Seedlings of Brassica juncea, Sesbania sesban, and Oryza sativa exposed to salt stress accumulated proline to levels as high as 4- to 20-fold over those of controls. Because chloroplasts are the major site for synthesis of stress induced proline accumulation, in vitro studies were conducted to see how the over-accumulation of this solute influences the activity of the major chloroplastic enzyme Ribulose 1,5-bis-phosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) purified from the above plant species. Surprisingly, proline (believed to be a compatible solute) suppressed the activity of Rubisco significantly even when present at a concentration as low as 100 mM. The extent of this inhibition in Rubisco activity increased with an increase in the concentration of proline. Irrespective of the plant species from which Rubisco was purified, its activity declined by about 50% in the presence of 1 M proline. Rubisco from all three plant species was sensitive to NaCl and proline accelerated salt induced suppression in its activity. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report wherein a negative effect of proline (which is believed to protect enzymes under stress) has been clearly demonstrated. This perturbing effect of proline on Rubisco from higher plant species belonging to three distinct families cautions targeting of gene(s)/gene products for over-production of proline into chloroplasts. PMID:9826546

Sivakumar, P; Sharmila, P; Saradhi, P P

1998-11-18

429

Aeroelastic simulation of higher harmonic control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the development of an aeroelastic analysis of a helicopter rotor and its application to the simulation of helicopter vibration reduction through higher harmonic control (HHC). An improved finite-state, time-domain model of unsteady aerodynamics is developed to capture high frequency aerodynamic effects. An improved trim procedure is implemented which accounts for flap, lead-lag, and torsional deformations of the blade. The effect of unsteady aerodynamics is studied and it is found that its impact on blade aeroelastic stability and low frequency response is small, but it has a significant influence on rotor hub vibrations. Several different HHC algorithms are implemented on a hingeless rotor and their effectiveness in reducing hub vibratory shears is compared. All the controllers are found to be quite effective, but very differing HHC inputs are required depending on the aerodynamic model used. Effects of HHC on rotor stability and power requirements are found to be quite small. Simulations of roughly equivalent articulated and hingeless rotors are carried out, and it is found that hingeless rotors can require considerably larger HHC inputs to reduce vibratory shears. This implies that the practical implementation of HHC on hingeless rotors might be considerably more difficult than on articulated rotors.

Robinson, Lawson H.; Friedmann, Peretz P.

1994-01-01

430

Seat Belt Sign and Its Significance  

PubMed Central

Safety belts are the most important safety system in motor vehicles and when worn intend to prevent serious injuries. However, in unusual circumstances (high velocity motor vehicle collisions) these safety measures (seat belts) can be the source and cause of serious injuries. The seat belt syndrome was first described as early by Garrett and Braunste in but the term “seat belt sign” was discussed by Doersch and Dozier. Medical personnel's involved in emergency care of trauma patients should be aware of seat belt sign and there should a higher index of suspicion to rule out underlying organ injuries. PMID:24479100

Agrawal, Amit; Inamadar, Praveenkumar Ishwarappa; Subrahmanyam, Bhattara Vishweswar

2013-01-01

431

Is barium trapping in rectoceles significant?  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This study was designed to determine whether rectocele size and contrast retention are significant. METHODS: Evacuation proctography and simultaneous intrarectal pressure measurements from a small, noncompliant balloon catheter were performed in three matched groups of 11 constipated female patients with rectoceles, rectoceles and contrast trapping of >10 percent, and no rectocele. Computerized image analysis was used to measure rectocele

Steve Halligan; Clive I. Bartram

1995-01-01

432

Middle Graders' Explanations of Historical Significance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates middle graders' understanding of significance in United States history through open-ended interviews with 48 students in grades 5-8. Students were presented with a set of captioned historical pictures and asked to choose the one important enough to include on a timeline of the last five hundred years, and to explain their…

Barton, Keith C.; Levstik, Linda S.

433

In Search of Significance (Statistical and Otherwise).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggest that the call for more pointed graduate education and more affirmative journal policies on replication-extension made by R. Hubbard and P. Ryan is useful, although inadequate and probably pointless. Statistical significance testing appears to be here to stay despite the charge that it is of "marginal scientific value." (SLD)

Mick, David Glen

2000-01-01

434

Scope and Significance of Eating Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the increasing prevalence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in many industrialized societies, and their association with significant morbidity and mortality. Discusses the genetic risks for the development of anorexia nervosa, and treatment strategies. Of these, pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, particularly those incorporating…

Mitchell, James E.; Eckert, Elke D.

1987-01-01

435

Significant Structure Theory Applied to Electrolyte Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significant structure theory has been successfully applied to an aqueous NaCl solution. Liquid water is assumed to have a domain structure and the ions are hydrated by water molecules. The partition function is composed of the partition function for the water and that for the salt, and the excess free energy term from the Debye-Huckel theory is also added.

Jong Myung Lee; Mu Shik Jhon; Henry Eyring

1979-01-01

436

Defining ‘Evolutionarily Significant Units’ for conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

w riting in the first issue of TREE, Ryder' brought the term 'Evolution- arily Significant Unit' (ESU) to the atten- tion of a broad audience of ecologists and evolutionary biologists. The ESU concept was developed to provide a rational basis for prioritizing taxa for conservation effort (e.g. captive breeding), given that resources are limited and that existing taxonomy may not

Craig Moritz

1994-01-01

437

Determining the Statistical Significance of Relative Weights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relative weight analysis is a procedure for estimating the relative importance of correlated predictors in a regression equation. Because the sampling distribution of relative weights is unknown, researchers using relative weight analysis are unable to make judgments regarding the statistical significance of the relative weights. J. W. Johnson…

Tonidandel, Scott; LeBreton, James M.; Johnson, Jeff W.

2009-01-01

438

The Philosophical Significance of Universal Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout its long history, the project of a science of grammar has always been an inherently philosophical one, in which the study of grammar was taken to have special epistemological significance. I ask why 20th and 21st century inquiry into Universal Grammar (UG) has largely lost this dimension, a fact that I argue is partially responsible for…

Hinzen, Wolfram

2012-01-01

439

Social significance of community structure: Statistical view  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Community structure analysis is a powerful tool for social networks that can simplify their topological and functional analysis considerably. However, since community detection methods have random factors and real social networks obtained from complex systems always contain error edges, evaluating the significance of a partitioned community structure is an urgent and important question. In this paper, integrating the specific characteristics of real society, we present a framework to analyze the significance of a social community. The dynamics of social interactions are modeled by identifying social leaders and corresponding hierarchical structures. Instead of a direct comparison with the average outcome of a random model, we compute the similarity of a given node with the leader by the number of common neighbors. To determine the membership vector, an efficient community detection algorithm is proposed based on the position of the nodes and their corresponding leaders. Then, using a log-likelihood score, the tightness of the community can be derived. Based on the distribution of community tightness, we establish a connection between p -value theory and network analysis, and then we obtain a significance measure of statistical form . Finally, the framework is applied to both benchmark networks and real social networks. Experimental results show that our work can be used in many fields, such as determining the optimal number of communities, analyzing the social significance of a given community, comparing the performance among various algorithms, etc.

Li, Hui-Jia; Daniels, Jasmine J.

2015-01-01

440

Teaching Significant Figures Using Age Conversions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some useful approaches to assist students with the uncertainty of measurement and the necessity of significant figures through age conversion exercise and activity are presented. It showed that while two people might be born on the same date, they are not born at the same instant once, it considers the birth time to an appropriate number of…

Crute, Thomas D.

2005-01-01

441

Significant Figures: A Collection of Articles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two responses to a prior report on significant figures and a discussion on outlining conventions for the accuracy of answers are included in this document. A clarification of the supposed error in the original report is noted at the beginning. (MP)

Winterridge, D. J., Ed.

1980-01-01

442

Teaching Significant Figures Using Age Conversions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this classroom activity the instructor provides increasingly precise values of the age in years of a famous person to have students calculate the age in days. An accurate age is readily determined using Julian dates. The activity provides a student-friendly, equipment-free entry to a discussion of estimated measurements, significant figures, exact numbers, rounding, and conversion factors.

Thomas D. Crute

2005-01-01

443

Correcting a Significance Test for Clustering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A common mistake in analysis of cluster randomized trials is to ignore the effect of clustering and analyze the data as if each treatment group were a simple random sample. This typically leads to an overstatement of the precision of results and anticonservative conclusions about precision and statistical significance of treatment effects. This…

Hedges, Larry V.

2007-01-01

444

Original article Adaptative significance of amylase  

E-print Network

Original article Adaptative significance of amylase polymorphism in Drosophila. III. Geographic patterns in Drosophila subobscura tissue-specific expression of amylase in adult midgut M Andjelkovi controlled variation in tissue-specific expression of a-amylase enzyme. Polymorphism for amylase tissue

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

445

Adaptive significance of amylase polymorphism in Drosophila.  

E-print Network

Note Adaptive significance of amylase polymorphism in Drosophila. Analysis of the association variability at the level of the specific activity of a-amylases and their tissue-specific expression- sults indicate a homogeneous distribution of the phenotypes with a different numbers of a-amylase

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

446

Phytochemical and nutritional significance of cactus pear  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses cactus pear fruit with special emphasis on its functional components. Besides their nutritional importance, their significance in plant physiology is also described. Opuntia sp. is characterized by high levels of amino acids, especially proline and taurine. The latter was recently re-evaluated in nutritional science as a conditional amino acid and was hitherto virtually unknown in plant tissues.

Florian C. Stintzing; Andreas Schieber; R. Carle

2001-01-01

447

Locating dynamic loads which significantly influence damping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposes a techniques for locating loads where dynamics have a significant influence on the damping of power system inter-area oscillations. A feedback interpretation of load dynamics underlies this technique. It is shown that eigenvalue sensitivity and residues can be used to provide the desired information. This approach is applicable for the analysis of large systems. Use of these

I. A. Hiskens; J. V. Milanovic

1997-01-01

448

Multisensor Fire Observations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From space, we can understand fires in ways that are impossible from the ground. New Earth-observing satellites capture the significant impact of fires on our planet. In this animation of fires around the globe in 2002, each red dot marks a new fire. Dots change color to yellow after a few days and to black when fires burn out. From brush fires in Africa to forest fires in North America, satellites are locating every significant fire on Earth to within one kilometer. In the summer and fall burning seasons, particularly destructive fires occurred in Colorado, Arizona, and Oregon.

Starr, Cindy; Mitchell, Horace; Jones, Randall; Kekesi, Alex; Newcombe, Marte; Perkins, Lori

2003-11-03

449

Statistical significance of climate sensitivity predictors obtained by data mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several recent efforts to estimate Earth's equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) focus on identifying quantities in the current climate which are skillful predictors of ECS yet can be constrained by observations. This study automates the search for observable predictors using data from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. The primary focus of this paper is assessing statistical significance of the resulting predictive relationships. Failure to account for dependence between models, variables, locations, and seasons is shown to yield misleading results. A new technique for testing the field significance of data-mined correlations which avoids these problems is presented. Using this new approach, all 41,741 relationships we tested were found to be explainable by chance. This leads us to conclude that data mining is best used to identify potential relationships which are then validated or discarded using physically based hypothesis testing.

Caldwell, Peter M.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Zelinka, Mark D.; Klein, Stephen A.; Santer, Benjamin D.; Sanderson, Benjamin M.

2014-03-01

450

Clinical Significance of Soluble CD26 in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma  

PubMed Central

There is no established single diagnostic marker for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). CD26 is a 110 kDa, multifunctional, membrane-bound glycoprotein that has dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) enzyme activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of soluble CD26 (sCD26) in patients with MPM. The study included 80 MPM patients, 79 subjects with past asbestos exposure (SPE), and 134 patients with other benign pleural diseases (OPD) that were included as a control group. sCD26 levels and DPPIV activity in serum and/or pleural fluid were determined using an ELISA kit. Serum sCD26 levels and DPPIV enzyme activity in patients with MPM were significantly decreased compared with those in the SPE group (P?=?0.000). The level of serum sCD26 was significantly decreased in patients with advanced stages of MPM compared with those with earlier stages (P?=?0.047). The median OS of patients with MPM who had higher DPPIV enzyme activity was significantly longer than that of those with lower DPPIV enzyme activity (P?=?0.032). The sCD26 levels in the pleural fluid of MPM patients with an epithelioid subtype were significantly increased compared with the OPD cohort (P?=?0.012). Moreover, DPPIV enzyme activity in the pleural fluid of patients with MPM with an epithelioid subtype were significantly increased compared with those in the OPD cohort (P?=?0.009). Patients with MPM who had lower specific DPPIV activity, determined as DPPIV/sCD26, showed significantly prolonged survival compared with those with higher specific DPPIV activity (P?=?0.028). Serum sCD26 and DPPIV enzyme activity appear to be useful biomarkers for differentiating patients with MPM from SPE. The sCD26 levels or DPPIV enzyme activity in pleural fluid appear to be biomarkers in patients with an epithelioid subtype of MPM. DPPIV activity in serum or pleural fluid appears to be predictive for the prognosis of patients with MPM. PMID:25526639

Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Ohnuma, Kei; Aoe, Keisuke; Hosono, Osamu; Yamada, Taketo; Kishimoto, Takumi; Morimoto, Chikao

2014-01-01

451

Significance testing as perverse probabilistic reasoning  

PubMed Central

Truth claims in the medical literature rely heavily on statistical significance testing. Unfortunately, most physicians misunderstand the underlying probabilistic logic of significance tests and consequently often misinterpret their results. This near-universal misunderstanding is highlighted by means of a simple quiz which we administered to 246 physicians at two major academic hospitals, on which the proportion of incorrect responses exceeded 90%. A solid understanding of the fundamental concepts of probability theory is becoming essential to the rational interpretation of medical information. This essay provides a technically sound review of these concepts that is accessible to a medical audience. We also briefly review the debate in the cognitive sciences regarding physicians' aptitude for probabilistic inference. PMID:21356064

2011-01-01

452

A 110-year perspective of significant tornadoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tornado documentation project began in 1980 as an effort to resolve differences between the two independently designed tornado data bases used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). One was established for the NRC at the University of Chicago (UC) by T. T. Fujita for the years 1916-1985. In addition, the NRC assisted the National Severe Storms Forecast Center (NSSFC) in adding F scale ratings to the existing NSSFC data base in Kansas City, from 1950 to the present. The final task of this effort (hereinafter called the project) was to locate and list all significant tornadoes from 1880 through 1989. Significant is defined here as all tornadoes doing confirmable F-2 or greater damage or causing a death.

Grazulis, Thomas P.

453

Significant Structure Theory Applied to Phase Separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significant structure theory of liquids has been applied to the partially miscible system of the O3-O2 mixture, which exhibits partial miscibility in the temperature range from -195.5 degrees C to -179.9 degrees C. The thermodynamic condition for phase separation is given by the following inequality: (partial 2Gmixture\\/partial Xi{

Suck-Hyun Lee; Mu Shik Jhon; Henry Eyring

1977-01-01

454

Clinical significance of intracranial developmental venous anomalies  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—Venous angiomas, or developmental venous anomalies (DVAs), represent the most often occurring cerebral vascular malformation. The clinical significance of a DVA is, however, at present unclear.?METHODS—A retrospective analysis was carried out on two series of consecutive cranial MRIs performed between January 1990 and August 1996 in a university department of neuroradiology and in a large radiological private practice. The medical records of all patients in whom a DVA was diagnosed were screened to identify the specific complaint which necessitated the imaging procedure.?RESULTS—A total of 67 patients with DVA could be identified. In 12 patients an associated cavernoma was found. The main reason for performing the MRI was the evaluation of seizures or of headaches. In all patients with DVA in whom an intracerebral haemorrhage was diagnosed an associated cavernoma was present at the site of the haemorrhage. None of the 67 patients showed an association between the complaints that led to the MRI and the location of the DVA.?CONCLUSIONS—DVAs do not seem to be associated with a specific clinical presentation. In a significant percentage of cases, however, coexisting cavernomas are found which have a defined bleeding potential and should be treated independently of the DVA. This study supports the hypothesis that DVAs are a congenital abnormality of venous drainage without clinical significance.?? PMID:10407000

Topper, R.; Jurgens, E.; Reul, J.; Thron, A.

1999-01-01

455

[Air rescue : Current significance and practical issues].  

PubMed

Germany has a nationwide and powerful helicopter emergency medical services system (HEMS), which executes primary rescue missions and interhospital transfer of intensive care patients. In recent years the range of HEMS missions has become modified due to demographic changes and structural changes in the healthcare system. Furthermore, the number of HEMS missions is steadily increasing. If reasonably used air rescue contributes to desired reductions in overall preclinical time. Moreover, it facilitates prompt transport of patients to a hospital suitable for definitive medical care and treatment can be initiated earlier which is a particular advantage for severely injured and critically ill patients. Because of complex challenges during air rescue missions the qualifications of the HEMS personnel have to be considerably higher in comparison with ground based emergency medical services. PMID:25430664

Schellhaaß, A; Popp, E

2014-12-01

456

Significance of biotechnological processes in food production  

E-print Network

Knowledge Based BioEconomy [KBBE] is based mainly on taking advantages of modern, innovative technologies, including genetic engineering and biotechnology. Genetically modified products and technologies used for their production [particularly in the case of agro-food industry] raise a lot of emotions among the public. Majority of people is not oriented that: • the competitiveness of the agri-food industry is the result of low-cost feed, • Polish (as well as UE) nutritional self-sufficiency is not higher than 50%. In this situation public opinion is a political and economical factor. Legislation friendly for innovation is a major enhancer for scientific and technical progress. The answer for the question “Are we ready for GMO? ” is critically important and will be discussed in this lecture. L12.2

Legislation A. D; Tomasz Twardowski; Ra Ma?yska; W?odzimierz Bednarski; Waldemar Rymowicz

457

Is the Lamb shift chemically significant?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The contribution of the Lamb shift to the atomization energies of some prototype molecules, BF3, AlF3, and GaF3, is estimated by a perturbation procedure. It is found to be in the range of 3-5% of the one-electron scalar relativistic contribution to the atomization energy. The maximum absolute value is 0.2 kcal/mol for GaF3. These sample calculations indicate that the Lamb shift is probably small enough to be neglected for energetics of molecules containing light atoms if the target accuracy is 1 kcal/mol, but for higher accuracy calculations and for molecules containing heavy elements it must be considered.

Dyall, Kenneth G.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Schwenke, David W.; Pyykko, Pekka; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

458

SLS-1 flight experiments preliminary significant results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) is the first of a series of dedicated life sciences Spacelab missions designed to investigate the mechanisms involved in the physiological adaptation to weightlessness and the subsequent readaptation to 1 gravity (1 G). Hypotheses generated from the physiological effects observed during earlier missions led to the formulation of several integrated experiments to determine the underlying mechanisms responsible for the observed phenomena. The 18 experiments selected for flight on SLS-1 investigated the cardiovascular, cardiopulmonary, regulatory physiology, musculoskeletal, and neuroscience disciplines in both human and rodent subjects. The SLS-1 preliminary results gave insight to the mechanisms involved in the adaptation to the microgravity environment and readaptation when returning to Earth. The experimental results will be used to promote health and safety for future long duration space flights and, as in the past, will be applied to many biomedical problems encountered here on Earth.

1992-01-01

459

Clinical significance of growth differentiation factor 11 in colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) subfamily, plays a role in regulation of development and differentiation. Although some members of BMP subfamily have been reported to correlate with cancer, the significance of GDF11 has not been studied in a clinical oncology setting. The current study explored the clinicopathological significance of GDF11 expression in colorectal cancer. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR in colorectal cancer specimens obtained from 130 patients showed that GDF11 mRNA expression in cancer tissue was significantly higher than in normal tissue (p=0.001). Tumors were classified as high GDF11 expression (n=65) or low GDF11 expression (n=65). Patients whose tumors had high GDF11 expression showed a high frequency of lymph node metastasis (p=0.049) and had more cancer-related deaths (p=0.040). Furthermore, the patients with high GDF11 expression had significantly poorer overall survival than those with low expression (p=0.0334). Although multivariate analysis showed that GDF11 was not an independent prognostic factor, these findings suggest that GDF11 may be a novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in patients with colorectal cancer. PMID:17912435

Yokoe, Takeshi; Ohmachi, Takahiro; Inoue, Hiroshi; Mimori, Koshi; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Kusunoki, Masato; Mori, Masaki

2007-11-01

460

Timescales for detecting a significant acceleration in sea level rise.  

PubMed

There is observational evidence that global sea level is rising and there is concern that the rate of rise will increase, significantly threatening coastal communities. However, considerable debate remains as to whether the rate of sea level rise is currently increasing and, if so, by how much. Here we provide new insights into sea level accelerations by applying the main methods that have been used previously to search for accelerations in historical data, to identify the timings (with uncertainties) at which accelerations might first be recognized in a statistically significant manner (if not apparent already) in sea level records that we have artificially extended to 2100. We find that the most important approach to earliest possible detection of a significant sea level acceleration lies in improved understanding (and subsequent removal) of interannual to multidecadal variability in sea level records. PMID:24728012

Haigh, Ivan D; Wahl, Thomas; Rohling, Eelco J; Price, René M; Pattiaratchi, Charitha B; Calafat, Francisco M; Dangendorf, Sönke

2014-01-01

461

Timescales for detecting a significant acceleration in sea level rise  

PubMed Central

There is observational evidence that global sea level is rising and there is concern that the rate of rise will increase, significantly threatening coastal communities. However, considerable debate remains as to whether the rate of sea level rise is currently increasing and, if so, by how much. Here we provide new insights into sea level accelerations by applying the main methods that have been used previously to search for accelerations in historical data, to identify the timings (with uncertainties) at which accelerations might first be recognized in a statistically significant manner (if not apparent already) in sea level records that we have artificially extended to 2100. We find that the most important approach to earliest possible detection of a significant sea level acceleration lies in improved understanding (and subsequent removal) of interannual to multidecadal variability in sea level records. PMID:24728012

Haigh, Ivan D.; Wahl, Thomas; Rohling, Eelco J.; Price, René M.; Pattiaratchi, Charitha B.; Calafat, Francisco M.; Dangendorf, Sönke

2014-01-01

462

Reinterpreting Higher Education Quality in Response to Policies of Mass Education: The Australian Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the relationship between mass education, higher education quality and policy development in Australia in the period 2008-2014, during which access to higher education was significantly increased. Over this time, which included a change of national government, the discursive relationship between mass higher education and…

Pitman, Tim

2014-01-01

463

EFFECT OF LIGNIN CONTENT AND EXTRACTIVES ON THE HIGHER HEATING VALUE OF WOOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a study of the charring rate of wood, I determined the higher heating values (gross heat of combustion) and the chemical composition of samples from four hardwoods and four softwoods. The higher heating value of wood was correlated with lignin and extractive contents. There was a highly significant linear correlation between the higher heating value of the

Robert H. White

1987-01-01

464

Gender Issues in Parental Involvement in Student Choices of Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores gender, social class and ethnic issues in parental involvement in students' choices of higher education. It draws upon interviews with students and their parents, who were a small group of an Economic and Social Research Council-funded study of students' higher education choice processes in the UK. Gender was highly significant in several respects, illustrating changes in higher

MIRIAM E. DAVID; STEPHEN J. BALL; JACKIE DAVIES; DIANE REAY

2003-01-01

465

Raingauge significance evaluation based on mean hyetographs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates how raingauge measurements affect estimations of areal hyetographs. The Thiessen polygon and block Kriging\\u000a methods are used to calculate hourly mean hyetographs of rainfall events. Twelve rainfall events with complete recordings\\u000a from all observation sites were used in this study. For the power semivariogram, a dimensionless semivariogram is a tool for\\u000a obtaining hourly semivariograms resulting from standardized

Shin-jen Cheng

2011-01-01

466

Significant results from the HCMM program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major objectives of the HCMM program for applications in geology, agriculture, water studies, and the effects of climate on metropolitan areas are summarized. Results obtained by Principal Investigators in each of these disciplines are presented, discussed, and supported with figures and tables. In order to compare the types of observations and applications that can be derived from HCMM data with some remote sensing standard or framework for each discipline, the principal results already achieved with the LANDSAT system are included.

1982-01-01

467

Blood F2-isoprostanes are significantly associated with abnormalities of lipid status in rats with steatosis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in hepatic steatosis and the underlying implications in pathological mechanisms of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: F2-isoprostanes (iPF2?-III) in blood and liver samples from steatotic (n = 9) and control (n = 7) rats were measured as in vivo marker of lipid peroxidation by a mass spectrometric approach. The lipid profile and endogenous antioxidant status (SOD and CAT) in the rats were also analyzed. RESULTS: Significantly higher levels of iPF2?-III (mean 3.47 vs 2.40 pmol/mg tissue, P = 0.004) and lower activities of SOD (mean 1.26 U vs 1.40 U, P < 0.001) and CAT (mean 1026.36 U/mg vs 1149.68 U/mg protein, without significance) were observed in the livers of steatotic rats. Plasma total iPF2?-III was significantly correlated with the abnormalities of blood lipids as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in the rats with simple steatosis, whereas no similar tendencies were observed in the control rats. CONCLUSION: Enhancement of hepatic oxidative imbalance occurring at the steatotic stage of NAFLD suggests a possibility that manifestation of the local oxidative damage precedes that of systemic oxidative imbalance. Predominant metabolic features of the increased lipid peroxidation further suggest a close association of the oxidative imbalance and the dyslipidemia with functional deterioration of the steatotic liver. The findings need to be further evaluated, especially in human studies. PMID:18698683

Zhu, Man-Jie; Sun, Li-Juan; Liu, Yue-Qin; Feng, Yan-Ling; Tong, Hai-Tao; Hu, Ying-He; Zhao, Zheng

2008-01-01

468

Penguins significantly increased phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution in maritime Antarctic soils  

PubMed Central

Most studies on phosphorus cycle in the natural environment focused on phosphates, with limited data available for the reduced phosphine (PH3). In this paper, matrix-bound phosphine (MBP), gaseous phosphine fluxes and phosphorus fractions in the soils were investigated from a penguin colony, a seal colony and the adjacent animal-lacking tundra and background sites. The MBP levels (mean 200.3?ng kg?1) in penguin colony soils were much higher than those in seal colony soils, animal-lacking tundra soils and the background soils. Field PH3 flux observation and laboratory incubation experiments confirmed that penguin colony soils produced much higher PH3 emissions than seal colony soils and animal-lacking tundra soils. Overall high MBP levels and PH3 emissions were modulated by soil biogeochemical processes associated with penguin activities: sufficient supply of the nutrients phosphorus, nitrogen, and organic carbon from penguin guano, high soil bacterial abundance and phosphatase activity. It was proposed that organic or inorganic phosphorus compounds from penguin guano or seal excreta could be reduced to PH3 in the Antarctic soils through the bacterial activity. Our results indicated that penguin activity significantly increased soil phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution, thus played an important role in phosphorus cycle in terrestrial ecosystems of maritime Antarctica. PMID:25394572

Zhu, Renbin; Wang, Qing; Ding, Wei; Wang, Can; Hou, Lijun; Ma, Dawei

2014-01-01

469

Penguins significantly increased phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution in maritime Antarctic soils.  

PubMed

Most studies on phosphorus cycle in the natural environment focused on phosphates, with limited data available for the reduced phosphine (PH3). In this paper, matrix-bound phosphine (MBP), gaseous phosphine fluxes and phosphorus fractions in the soils were investigated from a penguin colony, a seal colony and the adjacent animal-lacking tundra and background sites. The MBP levels (mean 200.3?ng kg(-1)) in penguin colony soils were much higher than those in seal colony soils, animal-lacking tundra soils and the background soils. Field PH3 flux observation and laboratory incubation experiments confirmed that penguin colony soils produced much higher PH3 emissions than seal colony soils and animal-lacking tundra soils. Overall high MBP levels and PH3 emissions were modulated by soil biogeochemical processes associated with penguin activities: sufficient supply of the nutrients phosphorus, nitrogen, and organic carbon from penguin guano, high soil bacterial abundance and phosphatase activity. It was proposed that organic or inorganic phosphorus compounds from penguin guano or seal excreta could be reduced to PH3 in the Antarctic soils through the bacterial activity. Our results indicated that penguin activity significantly increased soil phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution, thus played an important role in phosphorus cycle in terrestrial ecosystems of maritime Antarctica. PMID:25394572

Zhu, Renbin; Wang, Qing; Ding, Wei; Wang, Can; Hou, Lijun; Ma, Dawei

2014-01-01

470

Clinically significant drug interactions with atypical antipsychotics.  

PubMed

Atypical antipsychotics [also known as second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs)] have become a mainstay therapeutic treatment intervention for patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorders and other psychotic conditions. These agents are commonly used with other medications--most notably, antidepressants and antiepileptic drugs. Drug interactions can take place by various pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and pharmaceutical mechanisms. The pharmacokinetic profile of each SGA, especially with phase I and phase II metabolism, can allow for potentially significant drug interactions. Pharmacodynamic interactions arise when agents have comparable receptor site activity, which can lead to additive or competitive effects without alterations in measured plasma drug concentrations. Additionally, the role of drug transporters in drug interactions continues to evolve and may effect both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Pharmaceutical interactions occur when physical incompatibilities take place between agents prior to drug absorption. Approximate therapeutic plasma concentration ranges have been suggested for a number of SGAs. Drug interactions that markedly increase or decrease the concentrations of these agents beyond their ranges can lead to adverse events or diminished clinical efficacy. Most clinically significant drug interactions with SGAs occur via the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system. Many but not all drug interactions with SGAs are identified during drug discovery and pre-clinical development by employing a series of standardized in vitro and in vivo studies with known CYP inducers and inhibitors. Later therapeutic drug monitoring programmes, clinical studies and case reports offer methods to identify additional clinically significant drug interactions. Some commonly co-administered drugs with a significant potential for drug-drug interactions with selected SGAs include some SSRIs. Antiepileptic mood stabilizers such as carbamazepine and valproate, as well as other antiepileptic drugs such as phenobarbital and phenytoin, may decrease plasma SGA concentrations. Some anti-infective agents such as protease inhibitors and fluoroquinolones are of concern as well. Two additional important factors that influence drug interactions with SGAs are dose and time dependence. Smoking is very common among psychiatric patients and can induce CYP1A2 enzymes, thereby lowering expected plasma levels of certain SGAs. It is recommended that ziprasidone and lurasidone are taken with food to promote drug absorption, otherwise their bioavailability can be reduced. Clinicians must be aware of the variety of factors that can increase the likelihood of clinically significant drug interactions with SGAs, and must carefully monitor patients to maximize treatment efficacy while minimizing adverse events. PMID:24170642

Kennedy, William Klugh; Jann, Michael W; Kutscher, Eric C

2013-12-01

471

UPGRADING THE CEBAF INJECTOR WITH A NEW BOOSTER, HIGHER VOLTAGE GUN, AND HIGHER FINAL ENERGY  

SciTech Connect

The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) accelerator at Jefferson Lab will be upgraded from 6 GeV to 12 GeV in the next few years. To meet the requirement of the new machine and to take the opportunity to improve the beam quality, the CEBAF injector will be upgraded with a higher voltage gun, a new booster, and a new accelerating RF module. The CEBAF injector creates and accelerates three beams at different currents simultaneously. The beams are interleaved, each at one third of the RF frequency, traveling through the same beam line. The higher voltage gun will lower the space charge effects. The new booster with optimized beam dynamics will complete the bunching process and provide initial acceleration matched to the new gun voltage. Using our latest SRF design, the new booster has significantly lower x/y coupling effects that should improve our beam setup and operation for the highly sensitive parity experiments scheduled for the CEBAF's future. Finally, the new accelerating RF module will roughly double the injector final energy to match the rest of the 12 GeV accelerator. In this paper we will provide more detail about this upgrade.

Reza Kazimi, Arne Freyberger, Alicia Hofler, Andrew Hutton, Fay Hannon

2012-07-01

472

New astrometric observations of Triton in 2007-2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astrometric positions of the Neptunian satellite Triton with a visual magnitude of 13.5 were obtained during three successive oppositions in 2007, 2008 and 2009. A total of 1095 new observed positions of Triton were collected during 46 nights of observations, involving eight missions and three telescopes. We compared our observations to the best ephemerides of Triton available now. This comparison has shown that our observations present a high level of accuracy as they provide standard deviations of residuals hardly higher than 50 mas and mean residuals lower than 30 mas, corresponding to about only 500 km in the position of the very distant satellite Triton. Moreover, we have compared most of the different planetary ephemerides of Neptune available now as well as two recent orbit models of Triton. These new comparisons have clearly shown the differences between all of these ephemerides which can be significant and that are presented in this work.

Qiao, R. C.; Zhang, H. Y.; Dourneau, G.; Yu, Y.; Yan, D.; Shen, K. X.; Cheng, X.; Xi, X. J.; Hu, X. Y.; Wang, S. H.

2014-06-01

473

Why Are Child Poverty Rates Higher in Britain than in Germany? A Longitudinal Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We analyze why child poverty rates were much higher in Britain than in Western Germany during the 1990s, using a framework focusing on poverty transition rates. Child poverty exit rates were significantly lower, and poverty entry rates significantly higher, in Britain. We decompose these cross-national differences into differences in the…

Jenkins, Stephen P.; Schluter, Christian

2003-01-01

474

South Carolina Commission on Higher Education Update. Volume 2, Issue 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this issue, Dr. Garrison Walters, executive director of the South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, observes that a better job must be done in making others across the country more aware that South Carolina has an outstanding system of higher education. Despite its considerable strengths in higher education, the state has to do…

South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2007

2007-01-01

475

Creating an Integrated Curriculum--The 'Higher' In Higher Education. 1981 Current Issues in Higher Education, No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perspectives on creating an integrated college curriculum are presented in four papers. In "What is 'Higher' About Higher Education?" Harlan Cleveland suggests that colleges and universities should promote a global view and understanding of problems on society and international interdependence and should develop the capacity to analyze and…

American Association for Higher Education, Washington, DC.

476

A calculus for higher spin interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Higher spin theories can be efficiently described in terms of auxiliary Stückelberg or projective space field multiplets. By considering how higher spin models couple to scale, these approaches can be unified in a conformal geometry/tractor calculus framework. We review these methods and apply them to higher spin vertices to obtain a generating function for massless, massive and partially massless three-point interactions.

Joung, Euihun; Taronna, Massimo; Waldron, Andrew

2013-07-01

477

Observed Barium Emission Rates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The barium releases from the CRRES satellite have provided an opportunity for verifying theoretically calculated barium ion and neutral emission rates. Spectra of the five Caribbean releases in the summer of 1991 were taken with a spectrograph on board a U.S. Air Force jet aircraft. Because the line of sight release densities are not known, only relative rates could be obtained. The observed relative rates agree well with the theoretically calculated rates and, together with other observations, confirm the earlier detailed theoretical emission rates. The calculated emission rates can thus with good accuracy be used with photometric observations. It has been postulated that charge exchange between neutral barium and oxygen ions represents a significant source for ionization. If so. it should be associated with emissions at 4957.15 A and 5013.00 A, but these emissions were not detected.

Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.

1993-01-01

478

Locating dynamic loads which significantly influence damping  

SciTech Connect

The paper proposes a techniques for locating loads where dynamics have a significant influence on the damping of power system inter-area oscillations. A feedback interpretation of load dynamics underlies this technique. It is shown that eigenvalue sensitivity and residues can be used to provide the desired information. This approach is applicable for the analysis of large systems. Use of these ideas allows limited resources to be devoted to obtaining good models of important loads, rather than trying to obtain adequate models of many extra loads.

Hiskens, I.A.; Milanovic, J.V. [Univ. of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales (Australia). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering] [Univ. of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales (Australia). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1997-02-01

479

Study of low energy hadronic interaction models based on BESS observed cosmic ray proton and antiproton spectra at medium high altitude  

SciTech Connect

We study low energy hadronic interaction models based on BESS observed cosmic ray proton and antiproton spectra at medium high altitude. Among the three popular low energy interaction models, we find that FLUKA reproduces the results of BESS observations on the secondary proton spectrum reasonably well over the whole observed energy range, the model UrQMD works well at relatively higher energies, whereas the spectrum obtained with GHEISHA differs significantly from the measured spectrum. The simulated antiproton spectrum with FLUKA, however, exhibits significant deviation from the BESS observation whereas UrQMD and GHEISHA reproduce the BESS observations within experimental error.

Bhadra, Arunava; Mukherjee, Arindam [High Energy and Cosmic Ray Research Centre, University of North Bengal, Siliguri, West Bengal, 734013 (India); Ghosh, Sanjay K.; Raha, Sibaji [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, 93/1 A.P.C. Road, Kolkata, 700009 (India); Centre for Astroparticle Physics and Space Science, Bose Institute, Block EN, Sector V, Salt Lake, Kolkata, 700091 (India); Joarder, Partha S. [Centre for Astroparticle Physics and Space Science, Bose Institute, Block EN, Sector V, Salt Lake, Kolkata, 700091 (India)

2009-06-01

480

Magmatic epidote and its petrologic significance  

SciTech Connect

Epidote is a major magmatic mineral in tonalite and granodiorite in a belt coextensive with the Mesozoic accreted terranes between northern California and southeastern Alaska. Textural and chemical evidence indicates that epidote crystallized as a relatively late but magmatic mineral that formed through reaction with hornblende in the presence of a melt phase. The observed relations concur with experimental data on crystallization of epidote from synthetic granodiorite at 8 kbar total pressure. Plutonic rocks bearing magmatic epidote must have formed under moderately high pressures, corresponding to lower crustal depths, under fairly oxidizing conditions. 23 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

Zen, A.; Hammarstrom, J.M.

1984-09-01

481

MAXI observations of GRBs  

E-print Network

Monitor of all-sky image (MAXI) Gas Slit Camera (GSC) detects gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) including the bursts with soft spectra, such as X-ray flashes (XRFs). MAXI/GSC is sensitive to the energy range from 2 to 30 keV. This energy range is lower than other currently operating instruments which is capable of detecting GRBs. Since the beginning of the MAXI operation on August 15, 2009, GSC observed 35 GRBs up to the middle of 2013. One third of them are also observed by other satellites. The rest of them show a trend to have soft spectra and low fluxes. Because of the contribution of those XRFs, the MAXI GRB rate is about three times higher than those expected from the BATSE log N - log P distribution. When we compare it to the observational results of the Wide-field X-ray Monitor on the High Energy Transient Explorer 2, which covers the the same energy range to that of MAXI/GSC, we find a possibility that many of MAXI bursts are XRFs with Epeak lower than 20 keV. We discuss the source of soft GRBs observed only b...

Serino, Motoko; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Ohno, Masanori; Ogawa, Yuji; Nishimura, Yasunori; Fukushima, Kosuke; Higa, Masaya; Ishikawa, Kazuto; Ishikawa, Masaki; Kawamuro, Taiki; Kimura, Masashi; Matsuoka, Masaru; Mihara, Tatehiro; Morii, Mikio; Nakagawa, Yujin E; Nakahira, Satoshi; Nakajima, Motoki; Nakano, Yuki; Negoro, Hitoshi; Onodera, Takuya; Sasaki, Masayuki; Shidatsu, Megumi; Sugimoto, Juri; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Suwa, Fumitoshi; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Tachibana, Yutaro; Takagi, Toshihiro; Toizumi, Takahiro; Tomida, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Yohko; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Ueno, Shiro; Usui, Ryuichi; Yamada, Hisaki; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yamauchi, Makoto; Yoshidome, Koshiro; Yoshii, Taketoshi

2014-01-01

482

Could patients' coughing have communicative significance?  

PubMed

Medical discourse positions patients with coughs and colds negatively, so consulting health services with 'minor' respiratory illness is therefore more accountable than for other medical problems. Patients face dilemmas since they must persuade doctors of the doctorability of their illness without being seen as hypochondriacal, and they risk losing face if doctors decide that there is nothing much wrong. It is known that the placement of non-lexical features of talk such as laughing or crying can have interactional meaning. Using a data set of video-recorded doctor-patient cough and cold consultations, this study explores whether patients' coughing could have communicative significance. The study is a qualitative analysis of 33 consultations drawing on a constructionist, sociolinguistic analytic approach. Coughing is co-ordinated with talk rather than occurring randomly. Coughing helps patients to demonstrate the doctorability of their symptoms and to legitimize their claims for medical attention. Coughing is also associated with resistance to 'no problem' diagnoses, resulting in changes in the trajectory of talk (for example, soliciting more explanation from doctors and/or re-negotiation of doctors' investigation or treatment plans). Coughing is undoubtedly a manifestation of respiratory illness, but also has communicative significance in consultations for coughs and colds. PMID:19736650

Bailey, Julia V

2008-01-01

483

Adiposity significantly modifies genetic risk for dyslipidemia.  

PubMed

Recent genome-wide association studies have identified multiple loci robustly associated with plasma lipids, which also contribute to extreme lipid phenotypes. However, these common genetic variants explain <12% of variation in lipid traits. Adiposity is also an important determinant of plasma lipoproteins, particularly plasma TGs and HDL cholesterol (HDLc) concentrations. Thus, interactions between genes and clinical phenotypes may contribute to this unexplained heritability. We have applied a weighted genetic risk score (GRS) for both plasma TGs and HDLc in two large cohorts at the extremes of BMI. Both BMI and GRS were strongly associated with these lipid traits. A significant interaction between obese/lean status and GRS was noted for each of TG (P(Interaction) = 2.87 × 10(-4)) and HDLc (P(Interaction) = 1.05 × 10(-3)). These interactions were largely driven by SNPs tagging APOA5, glucokinase receptor (GCKR), and LPL for TG, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), GalNAc-transferase (GALNT2), endothelial lipase (LIPG), and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) for HDLc. In contrast, the GRSLDL cholesterol × adiposity interaction was not significant. Sexual dimorphism was evident for the GRSHDL on HDLc in obese (P(Interaction) = 0.016) but not lean subjects. SNP by BMI interactions may provide biological insight into specific genetic associations and missing heritability. PMID:25225679

Cole, Christopher B; Nikpay, Majid; Lau, Paulina; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Davies, Robert W; Wells, George A; Dent, Robert; McPherson, Ruth

2014-11-01

484

Assessment of statistical significance and clinical relevance.  

PubMed

In drug development, it is well accepted that a successful study will demonstrate not only a statistically significant result but also a clinically relevant effect size. Whereas standard hypothesis tests are used to demonstrate the former, it is less clear how the latter should be established. In the first part of this paper, we consider the responder analysis approach and study the performance of locally optimal rank tests when the outcome distribution is a mixture of responder and non-responder distributions. We find that these tests are quite sensitive to their planning assumptions and have therefore not really any advantage over standard tests such as the t-test and the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test, which perform overall well and can be recommended for applications. In the second part, we present a new approach to the assessment of clinical relevance based on the so-called relative effect (or probabilistic index) and derive appropriate sample size formulae for the design of studies aiming at demonstrating both a statistically significant and clinically relevant effect. Referring to recent studies in multiple sclerosis, we discuss potential issues in the application of this approach. PMID:23018516

Kieser, Meinhard; Friede, Tim; Gondan, Matthias

2013-05-10

485

PROGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF PRETREATMENT SERUM CYTOKINES IN CLASSICAL HODGKIN LYMPHOMA  

PubMed Central

Purpose: While the International Prognostic Score (IPS) is the gold standard for risk-stratifying patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), these criteria do not accurately predict outcome. As cytokines are critically involved in driving cHL, we tested whether pretreatment serum cytokine levels could provide additional prognostic information. Experimental Design: Thirty cytokines were measured in pretreatment serum from 140 cHL patients and compared with 50 non-lymphoma controls. Patients were followed for event-free and overall survival, and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the association of individual cytokines and the cytokine profiles with outcome via unadjusted and IPS-adjusted hazard ratios (HR). Results: Twelve cytokines (EGF, FGFb, GCSF, HGF, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-2R, IP-10, MIG, TNFa and VEGF) were significantly (p<0.05) higher in cHL patients than controls; elevated levels of HGF, IL-6, IL-2R, IP-10 and MIG were all associated with poorer event-free survival (EFS). Only IL-2R (p=0.002) and IL-6 (p<0.001) were independently prognostic. Patients with increased IL-6 and IL-2R had a significantly higher risk of early relapse and death, a finding that remained significant even after IPS-based risk stratification. While elevated IL-6 and IL-2R correlated with the IPS, sCD30 and TARC levels, the 2-cytokine model remained independently predictive of prognosis. Conclusions: Elevated pretreatment serum cytokines are associated with increased disease relapse and inferior survival in cHL. Thus, the pretreatment cytokine profile, particularly serum levels of IL-6 and IL-2R, may be used to identify cHL patients at high risk for early disease relapse. PMID:24141626

Marri, Preethi Reddy; Hodge, Lucy S.; Maurer, Matthew J.; Ziesmer, Steven C.; Slager, Susan L.; Habermann, Thomas M.; Link, Brian K.; Cerhan, James R.; Novak, Anne J.; Ansell, Stephen M.

2013-01-01

486

Clinical significance and association of RUNX3 hypermethylation frequency with colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The RUNX family, which is composed of RUNX1, RUNX2, and RUNX3, is a sequence-specific transcription factor family and is closely involved in a variety of cellular processes including development, differentiation, participation in the regulation of p53-dependent DNA damage response and/or tumorigenesis. Emerging evidence indicates that RUNX3 is a candidate tumor suppressor in several types of human tumors including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the correlation of RUNX3 inactivation with CRC remains unclear. In the study reported here, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate the effects of RUNX3 hypermethylation/expression on the incidence of CRC. Methods A detailed search of the literature was made using Medline® and Web of Science for related research publications written in English. The methodological quality of the studies was also evaluated. The data were extracted and assessed by two reviewers independently. Analyses of the pooled data were performed. Odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios were calculated and summarized, respectively. Results A final analysis of 1,427 CRC patients from eleven eligible studies was performed. We observed that RUNX3 hypermethylation was significantly higher in CRC than in normal colorectal mucosa. The pooled OR from six studies comprising 289 CRC and 188 normal colorectal mucosa was OR =0.07 (confidence interval [CI] =0.03–0.18, P<0.00001). Aberrant RUNX3 hypermethylation/expression was significantly higher in advanced CRC than in early staged CRC (OR =0.54, CI =0.41–0.71, P<0.0001). Aberrant RUNX3 hypermethylation/expression was also significantly higher in microsatellite instability (MSI)-positive CRC than in MSI-negative CRC (OR =0.44, CI =0.3–0.66, P<0.0001). In addition, CRC patients with RUNX3 hypermethylation or lacking RUNX3 protein expression had a lower survival rate than those without RUNX3 hypermethylation or those who did not express RUNX3 protein. Conclusion The results of this meta-analysis suggest that RUNX3 hypermethylation is associated with an increased risk of CRC, increased risk of progression of CRC, and a poorer CRC survival rate. RUNX3 hypermethylation, which induces the inactivation of RUNX3 gene, plays an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis, high levels of MSI, as well as CRC progression and development. PMID:25053885

Mu, Wei-Ping; Wang, Jian; Niu, Qiong; Shi, Ning; Lian, Hai-Feng

2014-01-01

487

Significance of CDKN2A gene A148T variant in patients with bladder cancer  

PubMed Central

Objectives The A148T polymorphism of CDKN2A gene is observed in various neoplasms with the incidence rate of 3-35%, however, rather little is known either about the frequency of its occurrence or of its significance in urinary bladder carcinoma. Materials and methods DNA was isolated from blood of 156 patients with urinary bladder carcinoma (130 men). In histopathology, 84 cases were classified as G1, 42 as G2, and 30 as G3. The clinical stage was in 81 cases estimated at Ta and in 75 cases at T1-T4. A148T polymorphism was detected by the MSSCP technique and by sequencing. Results A148T polymorphism was identified in 9/156 urinary bladder carcinoma cases (only in men). The obtained results were compared with the polymorphism incidence for the Polish population, estimated by Debniak et al. The occurrence in the group of the bladder cancer patients turned out higher (5.77%) from that in the control group (2.89%) (G test, table 2×2: NBLADDER CANCER = 156, NCONTROL = 1210, G = 4.298, p <0.05). Conclusion Summing up and taking into account the analysis of clinical parameters and the age of the disease occurrence, the A148T polymorphism of CDKN2A gene was identified in the study group only in men, in whom the disease was diagnosed above the age of 60, while the diagnosed neoplasms were in the majority of cases characterized by higher clinical stages and higher grades of malignancy. This has been the first study that attempted to show a potential association between A148T alterations and an increased risk for bladder cancer development. PMID:24578887

J?drzejczyk, Adam; Kruk, Andrzej; Pietrusi?ski, Micha?; Traczyk, Magdalena; Ro?niecki, Marek; Ka?u?ewski, Bogdan

2011-01-01

488

Nitrogen Addition Significantly Affects Forest Litter Decomposition under High Levels of Ambient Nitrogen Deposition  

PubMed Central

Background Forest litter decomposition is a major component of the global carbon (C) budget, and is greatly affected by the atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition observed globally. However, the effects of N addition on forest litter decomposition, in ecosystems receiving increasingly higher levels of ambient N deposition, are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a two-year field experiment in five forests along the western edge of the Sichuan Basin in China, where atmospheric N deposition was up to 82–114 kg N ha–1 in the study sites. Four levels of N treatments were applied: (1) control (no N added), (2) low-N (50 kg N ha–1 year–1), (3) medium-N (150 kg N ha–1 year–1), and (4) high-N (300 kg N ha–1 year–1), N additions ranging from 40% to 370% of ambient N deposition. The decomposition processes of ten types of forest litters were then studied. Nitrogen additions significantly decreased the decomposition rates of six types of forest litters. N additions decreased forest litter decomposition, and the mass of residual litter was closely correlated to residual lignin during the decomposition process over the study period. The inhibitory effect of N addition on litter decomposition can be primarily explained by the inhibition of lignin decomposition by exogenous inorganic N. The overall decomposition rate of ten investigated substrates exhibited a significant negativ