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1

Bikini Observations and Their Significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

On rare occasions, events of transcendent importance are described in a paper of corresponding significance. The following presentation, prepared by two Past-Presidents of The Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) who were official United States scientific observers of Operation Crossroads, is a contribution of this unusual sort. It is most earnestly commended to the thoughtful attention of the readers of the

H. Pratt; A. Van Dyck

1946-01-01

2

Reported Significant Observation (RSO) studies. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The Reported Significant Observation (RSO) study used in the field of safety is an information-gathering technique where employee-participants describe situations they have personally witnessed involving good and bad practices and safe and unsafe conditions. This information is useful in the risk assessment process because it focuses on hazards and thereby facilitates their elimination. However, RSO cannot be the only component in a risk assessment program. Used by the Air Force in their aviation psychology program and further developed by John C. Flanagan, RSO is more commonly known as the ``Critical Incident Technique.`` However, the words ``Critical`` and ``Incident`` had other connotations in nuclear safety, prompting early users within the Aerojet Nuclear Company to coin the more fitting title of ``Reported Significant Observations.`` The technique spread slowly in the safety field primarily because the majority of users were researchers interested in after-the-fact data, with application to everyday problems and behavioral factors. RSO was formally recognized as a significant hazard reduction tool during the development of the Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) program for the US Atomic Energy Commission. The Department of Energy (DOE) has, in turn, adopted MORT for its system safety program, and this has resulted in RSO being a modern and viable technique for DOE contractor safety programs.

Eicher, R.W.

1992-12-01

3

Editor's Note: Teaching Observation--Aim Higher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Observation is a fundamental process in science. It is a skill that many science curricula emphasize. It seems like such a simple skill, but observation skills are not quite so simply mastered. Like anything else, just watching and observing does little to improve the skill. In order to improve, we must pay explicit attention to how and why we observe in science. In this issue, we explore what it means to observe and how to teach skills that will lead to more thoughtful observations.

Ohana, Chris

2008-02-01

4

Children with Sickle Cell Disease Had Significantly Higher Medical Costs Than Those without SCD  

MedlinePLUS

... had Significantly Higher Medical Costs Than Those Without SCD Medical costs of children with SCD were $9,369 and $13,469 higher than those of children without SCD enrolled in Medicaid and private insurance, respectively. Total ...

5

The Significance of Higher Modes for Evolution of Chaos in Structural Mechanics Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even though chaotic vibrations have been observed in many structural mechanics systems, their analysis has almost always been limited to single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) approximations. A typical example is the magnetoelastic beam studied by Moon and Holmes [1], which is reported to be the first experimental evidence of chaotic vibrations in structural mechanics. However, the authors have not come across any detailed structural analysis of the system. The present paper reports a structural dynamic analysis of the problem through a finite element formulation and the integration of the resulting equations of motion by a variable time stepping Newmark method (trapezoidal rule). The solution scheme has built-in algorithms for equilibrium interaction of the non-linear forces and check of the temporal solution trajectory. It is shown that the direct integration and mode superposition schemes are equally applicable for problems with chaotic response. The authors have the following conclusions: (1) the SODF approximation with a high accuracy integration scheme may not reveal the regime of chaos even coarsely; (2) the manifestation of chaos is significantly influenced by the higher modes; (3) a spatially discrete model which represents the beam accurately could reveal regimes of chaos reasonably well even with second order schemes such as the trapezoidal rule, but it is essential for the model to be fine enough to represent the motion in higher modes accurately; (4) computationally efficient methods such as the mode superposition method, with an adequate number of modes included, could give accurate solutions to vibration problems involving chaos.

Moorthy, R. I. K.; Kakodkar, A.; Srirangarajan, H. R.

1996-12-01

6

Perceived Impact of Peer Observation of Teaching in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores participant perceptions of the impact of a Peer Observation of Teaching scheme offered as part of an accredited Postgraduate Certificate in Teaching for academic staff and faculty members in higher education. The Postgraduate Certificate Program has been designed to support the continuing professional development of academic…

Donnelly, Roisin

2007-01-01

7

Academic entrepreneurship (re)defined: significance and implications for the scholarship of higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past several decades higher education scholars have conducted a significant amount of research aimed at understanding\\u000a the implications of enhanced interactions between the academy and the private marketplace. Accordingly, a voluminous literature\\u000a that includes conceptualizations and discussions of academic entrepreneurship has emerged. This paper used content analysis to examine how researchers have conceptualized entrepreneurship in five leading higher

Matthew M. Mars; Cecilia Rios-Aguilar

2010-01-01

8

The Inception of the Meaning and Significance of Endowment in American Higher Education, 1890-1930  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Endowments of institutions of higher education in the United States have attracted widespread attention in recent decades due to their meteoric rise in value and their precipitous decline during the recent recession. But there has been little research on the beginnings of the significant interest in and importance of…

Kimball, Bruce A.; Johnson, Benjamin Ashby

2012-01-01

9

Significantly higher methadone dose for methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients with chronic pain.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to characterize patients with chronic pain in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Between September and December, 2003, 170 consecutive patients from an MMT clinic participated in a questionnaire survey on pain (duration and severity). Chronic pain was defined as current pain lasting for >or=6 months. The patients' maintenance methadone dosage and urine tests for drug abuse during the month before and of the survey were recorded. Of the 170 patients, 94 (55.3%) experienced chronic pain. They had a significantly higher proportion of chronic illness (74.5%) compared to non-pain patients (44.7%) (Fisher's Exact Test P<0.0005). Twelve (12.8%) of the chronic pain patients scored their pain as mild, 38 (40.4%) as moderate, 22 (23.4%) as severe and 22 (23.4%) as very severe. Pain duration significantly correlated with pain severity (Pearson R=0.3, P>0.0005) and was significantly associated with methadone daily dosage: patients with pain duration of >or=10 years (n=26) were receiving the highest methadone dosage (182.1+/-59.2 mg/day), those with pain duration from 1 to 10 years (n=59) 160.9+/-56.2 mg/day, and those with pain duration of <1 year (n=9) 134.2+/-73.2 mg/day. Patients in the non-pain group (n=76) were receiving 147.1+/-52.8 mg/day of methadone (ANOVA, F=3.1, P=0.03). We conclude that pain duration and severity significantly correlated. Although methadone was not prescribed for the treatment of pain but rather for opiate addiction, the patients in the MMT clinic with prolonged pain were prescribed a significantly higher methadone dosage compared to patients with short pain duration, and non-pain patients. PMID:15661442

Peles, Einat; Schreiber, Shaul; Gordon, Jacob; Adelson, Miriam

2005-02-01

10

Significance of cell "observer" and protein source in nanobiosciences.  

PubMed

It is well understood that when nanoparticles (NPs) enter a biological medium, their surface is coated by various proteins; thus, the interaction of the living systems with the NPs depends on the composition of the protein layer, rather than the surface characteristics of the nanoparticle itself. However, there are several neglected parameters in protein-NP interactions (e.g., the key role of the protein source) that should be addressed. The composition of the protein corona is recognized as having a crucial influence on the delivery of NPs into cells, which is important in therapeutic applications and in nanotoxicology; however, the effect of "cell observer" (cell type) is poorly understood. This study probed the effects of different protein sources (fetal bovine serum [FBS] and human plasma [HP]) on the composition and protein thickness of the hard corona formed at the surface of superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPIONs) with various sizes and surface chemistries. The results show that the hard corona can change quite considerably as one passes from the biophysicochemical properties of nanoparticles and protein sources (e.g., FBS and HP) appropriate to in vitro cell/tissue studies to those appropriate for in vivo studies. These changes in the hard corona have deep implications for in vitro-in vivo extrapolations. In addition, we probed the "cell observer" effect on the uptake and toxicity of SPIONs with the same protein corona composition to highlight the effect of cell type in nanobiosciences. The particles interacted with various cell lines. We find that without consideration of the "cell observer" effect, the cellular targeting/toxicity of NPs is inherently imprecise; thus, a deep understanding of both the protein corona composition and the "cell observer" effect offer a way to predict NP dosage for therapy and for the study of nanotoxins. PMID:23141702

Laurent, Sophie; Burtea, Carmen; Thirifays, Coralie; Rezaee, Farhad; Mahmoudi, Morteza

2013-02-15

11

The significance of observed rotational magnetic hysteresis in lunar samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rotational magnetic hysteresis curves for lunar soils 10084, 12070, and 14259, and rock 14053 have been published. There is no adequate explanation to date for the observed large hysteresis at high fields. Lunar rock magnetism researchers consider fine particle iron to be the primary source of stable magnetic remanence in lunar samples. Iron has cubic anisotropy with added shape anisotropy for extreme particle shapes. The observed high-field hysteresis must have its source in uniaxial or unidirectional anisotropy. This implies the existence of minerals with uniaxial anisotropy or exchange-coupled spin states. Therefore, the source of this observed high-field hysteresis must be identified and understood before serious paleointensity studies are made. It is probable that the exchange-coupled spin states and/or the source of uniaxial anisotropy responsible for the high-field hysteresis might be influenced by the lunar surface diurnal temperature cycling. The possible sources of high-field hysteresis in lunar samples are presented and considered.

Wasilewski, P.

1974-01-01

12

Docosahexaenoic acid content is significantly higher in ghrita prepared by traditional Ayurvedic method  

PubMed Central

Background: Ghee (clarified butter) also known as ghrita, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda. Ghee is mostly prepared by traditional method in Indian households or by direct cream method at industry level. Ayurvedic classics mention that ghrita made from cow milk is superior. However, there is no scientific comparison available on preparation methods and essential fatty acids content of ghrita. Objective: To investigate fatty acid composition of ghrita prepared by traditional/Ayurvedic method and commercial method (direct cream method). Materials and Methods: Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) extracted from ghrita samples were analysed on Gas Chromatography (GC) Shimadzu B using capillary column BPX70 (0.32 mm*60 m, ID of 0.25 mm). The fatty acids in the samples were identified by comparing peaks with the external standard 68A (Nu-Chek-Prep, Inc.USA). Significant differences between the experimental groups were assessed by analysis of variance. Results: Distribution of fatty acids was compared in ghrita samples prepared by traditional method and direct cream method which is commercially used. Saturated fatty acids were predominant in both the groups. Mono unsaturated fatty acids and poly unsaturated fatty acids were in the range of 17-18% and 3-6% respectively. DHA content was significantly higher in ghee prepared by traditional method using curd starter fermentation. Conclusion: The findings suggested that ghrita prepared by traditional ayurvedic methods contains higher amount of DHA; Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which is a major component of retinal and brain tissues and remains important in prevention of various diseases.

Joshi, Kalpana S.

2014-01-01

13

The significance of gamma ray observations for neutrino astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray, gamma ray and neutrino observations are examined to show, in a general way, the relationship between them. Existing gamma ray measurements are summarized and some examples are used to set ranges or limits for neutrino fluxes for specific types of models. The purpose of this is to show the possibilities for separation between models and to aid in the consideration of neutrino detector designs. Attention is given to exceptional and normal galaxies, as well as to compact objects, and diffuse isotropic radiation. It is noted that the close relationship between gamma rays and neutrino production will be useful for future neutrino astronomy.

Fichtel, C. E.

1979-01-01

14

Reoxygenation of asphyxiated newborn piglets: administration of 100% oxygen causes significantly higher apoptosis in cortical neurons, as compared to 21%.  

PubMed

Objective. Evaluation of neuronal changes in an animal experimental model of normocapnic hypoxia- reoxygenation. Materials and Methods. Fifty male piglets were the study subjects; normocapnic hypoxia was induced in 40 piglets and ten were sham-operated (controls). When bradycardia and/or severe hypotension occurred, reoxygenation was initiated. Animals were allocated in 4 groups according to the oxygen concentration, they were resuscitated with 18%, 21%, 40%, and 100% O2. Persisting asystole despite 10 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and return of spontaneous circulation were the endpoints of the experiment. Surviving animals were euthanized and brain cortex samples were collected, hematoxylin and eosin-stained, and examined for apoptotic bodies observing 10 consecutive high power fields. Results. Histological examination of the control group did not show any pathological change. On the contrary, apoptosis of neurons was found in 87.5% of treated animals. When specimens were examined according to the oxygen concentration used for resuscitation, we found marked intergroup variability; a higher percentage of apoptotic neurons was observed in piglets of group 4 (100% oxygen) compared to the others (P = 0.001). Conclusions. This preliminary data shows that normocapnic hypoxia and reoxygenation in Landrace/Large White piglets resulted in significant histological changes in the brain cortex. The degree of pathological changes in cortical neurons was significantly associated with the oxygen concentration used for reoxygenation, with a higher percentage of apoptotic neurons being observed in piglets reoxygenated with 100% compared to 18% O2 and to 21% O2. PMID:24783208

Faa, G; Fanos, V; Fanni, D; Gerosa, C; Faa, A; Fraschini, M; Pais, M E; Di Felice, E; Papalois, A; Varsami, M; Xanthos, T; Iacovidou, N

2014-01-01

15

Reoxygenation of Asphyxiated Newborn Piglets: Administration of 100% Oxygen Causes Significantly Higher Apoptosis in Cortical Neurons, as Compared to 21%  

PubMed Central

Objective. Evaluation of neuronal changes in an animal experimental model of normocapnic hypoxia- reoxygenation. Materials and Methods. Fifty male piglets were the study subjects; normocapnic hypoxia was induced in 40 piglets and ten were sham-operated (controls). When bradycardia and/or severe hypotension occurred, reoxygenation was initiated. Animals were allocated in 4 groups according to the oxygen concentration, they were resuscitated with 18%, 21%, 40%, and 100% O2. Persisting asystole despite 10 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and return of spontaneous circulation were the endpoints of the experiment. Surviving animals were euthanized and brain cortex samples were collected, hematoxylin and eosin-stained, and examined for apoptotic bodies observing 10 consecutive high power fields. Results. Histological examination of the control group did not show any pathological change. On the contrary, apoptosis of neurons was found in 87.5% of treated animals. When specimens were examined according to the oxygen concentration used for resuscitation, we found marked intergroup variability; a higher percentage of apoptotic neurons was observed in piglets of group 4 (100% oxygen) compared to the others (P = 0.001). Conclusions. This preliminary data shows that normocapnic hypoxia and reoxygenation in Landrace/Large White piglets resulted in significant histological changes in the brain cortex. The degree of pathological changes in cortical neurons was significantly associated with the oxygen concentration used for reoxygenation, with a higher percentage of apoptotic neurons being observed in piglets reoxygenated with 100% compared to 18% O2 and to 21% O2.

Faa, G.; Fanos, V.; Fanni, D.; Gerosa, C.; Faa, A.; Fraschini, M.; Pais, M. E.; Di Felice, E.; Papalois, A.; Varsami, M.; Xanthos, T.; Iacovidou, N.

2014-01-01

16

Cisplatin and its analogues induce a significant change in the higher-order structure of long duplex DNA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has recently become clear that a long DNA with a size of more than several tens of kilo base-pairs (kbp) exhibits a large on/off change in conformation between elongated coil and folded compact states. To explore the possible effect of anticancer drugs on the conformation of large DNA, we observed single DNA molecules with regard to changes in their higher-order structure upon the addition of cisplatin and its derivatives, diamminedinitratoplatinum(II) and tetrammineplatinum(II). We found that these cisplatin analogues significantly affected the conformation of individual DNA molecules by inducing a folding transition.

Katsuda, Yousuke; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Sato, Takaji; Saito, Yoshihiro; Chikuma, Masahiko; Suzuki, Mari; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

2009-04-01

17

Higher Education in Balkan Region and its Contribution to the Earth Observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The needs for spatial data as well as techniques of Earth Observation are changing, and new professional areas are developing very rapidly. In addition, scientific work and its connection with the teaching process have influenced the introduction of new cognitions into the higher education programs in general. Considering these facts, in the period shorter than one decade, the higher education institutions in the Balkan region, which have study programs in the fields of spatial data acquisition, analysis and spatial decisions, have made significant changes of the curricula. In our research, we have analyzed the current higher education programs in the Balkan region having focused on curricula related to the Earth Observation. Due to historical reasons, these curricula have its roots in surveying study programs in the most Balkan countries. The competences of classical surveying higher educational programs have been changing and nowadays include the wider area of spatial data acquisition, geoinformatics. In parallel, we present the current Earth Observation activities in the selected countries from the Balkan region. Based on the results of our research in the framework of the European program Observe, which aims to establish a new Balkan Earth Observation (EO) community of multilevel stakeholders that will make use of state of the art technological developments, products and knowhow from the existing European EO community and industry, we estimate the contribution of advanced higher educational programs to the Earth Observation activities in the selected countries.

Lisec, A.; Fras, M. K.

2012-07-01

18

Significantly higher cytokine and chemokine levels in patients with Japanese spotted Fever than in those with tsutsugamushi disease.  

PubMed

Tetracyclines are administered to cure Japanese spotted fever (JSF) and tsutsugamushi disease (TD). It is generally said that the clinical course of JSF is worse than that of TD despite antibiotic treatment. The precise mechanism underlying the more severe clinical course of JSF is not fully understood. We therefore examined whether the differential cytokine profile between these two infectious diseases contributes to the difference in clinical severity. The serum concentrations of various cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-?], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and gamma interferon [IFN-?]) and chemokines (IL-8, interferon-inducible protein 10 [IP-10], monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1], macrophage inflammatory protein 1? [MIP-1?], MIP-1?, and eotaxin) were measured in 32 TD and 21 JSF patients. The results showed that serum levels of TNF-? in the acute phases of TD and JSF were significantly increased, with a higher concentration of TNF-? in patients with JSF (mean, 39.9 pg/ml) than in those with TD (mean, 13.8 pg/ml). Comparatively higher levels of other cytokines and chemokines (IL-6, IFN-?, IL-8, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1?, and MIP-1?) were also observed in the acute phase of JSF. The clinical severity score (3.67 ± 1.71) of JSF patients was higher than that of TD patients (1.47 ± 0.77). Our findings revealed that the cytokine and chemokine levels in the acute phase of JSF were significantly higher than those in the acute phase of TD. The differential cytokine levels may be related to the difference in clinical severity between JSF and TD. PMID:24671792

Tai, Katsunori; Iwasaki, Hiromichi; Ikegaya, Satoshi; Takada, Nobuhiro; Tamaki, Yukiko; Tabara, Kenji; Ueda, Takanori

2014-06-01

19

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF HIGHER MODES FOR EVOLUTION OF CHAOS IN STRUCTURAL MECHANICS SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though chaotic vibrations have been observed in many structural mechanics systems, their analysis has almost always been limited to single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) approximations. A typical example is the magnetoelastic beam studied by Moon and Holmes [1], which is reported to be the first experimental evidence of chaotic vibrations in structural mechanics. However, the authors have not come across any detailed

R. I. K. Moorthy; A. Kakodkar; H. R. Srirangarajan

1996-01-01

20

Serum concentration of alpha-1 antitrypsin is significantly higher in colorectal cancer patients than in healthy controls  

PubMed Central

Background The association between alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency and colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently controversial. The present study compares AAT serum concentrations and gene frequencies between a group of CRC patients and a control group of healthy unrelated people (HUP). Methods 267 CRC subjects (63% males, 72?±?10 years old) were enlisted from a Hospital Clinic setting in Asturias, Spain. The HUP group comprised 327 subjects (67% males, mean age 70?±?7.5 years old) from the same geographical region. Outcome measures were AAT serum concentrations measured by nephelometry, and AAT phenotyping characterization by isoelectric focusing. Results Significantly higher serum concentrations were found among CRC (208?±?60) than in HUP individuals (144?±?20.5) (p?=?0.0001). No differences were found in the phenotypic distribution of the Pi*S and Pi*Z allelic frequencies (p?=?0.639), although the frequency of Pi*Z was higher in CRC (21%) than in HUP subjects (15%). Conclusions The only statistically significant finding in this study was the markedly higher AAT serum concentrations found in CRC subjects compared with HUP controls, irrespective of whether their Pi* phenotype was normal (Pi*MM) or deficient (Pi*MS, Pi*MZ and Pi*SZ). Although there was a trend towards the more deficient Pi* phenotype the more advanced the tumor, the results were inconclusive due to the small sample size. Consequently, more powerful studies are needed to reach firmer conclusions on this matter.

2014-01-01

21

Significantly higher procalcitonin levels could differentiate Gram-negative sepsis from Gram-positive and fungal sepsis.  

PubMed

Procalcitonin (PCT) levels can distinguish between infectious and non-infectious systemic inflammatory response. However, there are some differences between Gram-negative (G-), Gram-positive (G+), and fungal bloodstream infections, particularly in different cytokine profiles, severity and mortality. The aim of current study was to examine whether PCT levels can serve as a distinguishing mark between G+, G-, and fungal sepsis as well. One hundred and sixty-six septic patients with positive blood cultures were examined on C-reactive protein (CRP) and PCT on the same date of blood culture evaluation. The median (interquartile range, IQR) of CRP and PCT in G+, G-, and fungal cohorts and comparison of measured values between groups were made using the Kruskal-Wallis test with subsequent Bonferroni's corrections, with p < 0.05. In 83/166 (50 %) of blood cultures, G+ microbes, 78/166 (47 %) G- rods, and 5/166 (3 %) fungi were detected. PCT concentrations (ng/ml) were significantly higher in G- compared to other cohorts: 8.90 (1.88; 32.60) in G-, 0.73 (0.22; 3.40) in G+, and 0.58 (0.35; 0.73) in fungi (p < 0.00001). CRP concentrations did not differ significantly in groups. Significantly higher PCT levels could differentiate G- sepsis from G+ and fungemia. In contrast to CRP, PCT is a good discriminative biomarker in different bloodstream infections. PMID:22644264

Brodská, Helena; Malí?ková, Karin; Adámková, Václava; Benáková, Hana; Š?astná, Markéta Marková; Zima, Tomáš

2013-08-01

22

DHA Serum Levels Were Significantly Higher in Celiac Disease Patients Compared to Healthy Controls and Were Unrelated to Depression  

PubMed Central

Objectives Celiac disease (CD), a genetically predisposed intolerance for gluten, is associated with an increased risk of major depressive disorder (MDD). We investigated whether dietary intake and serum levels of the essential n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) found in fatty fish play a role in this association. Methods Cross-sectional study in 71 adult CD patients and 31 healthy volunteers, matched on age, gender and level of education, who were not using n-3 PUFA supplements. Dietary intake, as assessed using a 203-item food frequency questionnaire, and serum levels of EPA and DHA were compared in analyses of covariance, adjusting for potential confounders. Serum PUFA were determined using gas chromatography. Results Mean serum DHA was significantly higher in CD patients (1.72 mass%) than controls (1.28 mass%) after multivariable adjustment (mean diff. 0.45 mass%; 95% CI: 0.22–0.68; p?=?0.001). The mean intake of EPA plus DHA did not differ between CD patients and controls after multivariable adjustment (0.15 and 0.22 g/d, respectively; p?=?0.10). There were no significant differences in intake or serum levels of EPA and DHA between any of the CD patient groups (never depressed, current MDD, minor/partially remitted MDD, remitted MDD) and controls. Conclusions Patients on a long term gluten-free diet had similar intakes of EPA plus DHA compared to controls. Contrary to expectations, DHA serum levels were significantly higher in CD patients compared to healthy controls and were unrelated to MDD status.

van Hees, Nathalie J. M.; Giltay, Erik J.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Janssen, Nadine; van der Does, Willem

2014-01-01

23

Observational Signatures for Reissner-Nordstom Black Hole with Significant Charge at the Galactic Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive an analytical expression of a shadow size as a function of a charge in the Reissner - Nordström (RN) metric. Using the derived expression we consider shadows for negative tidal charges and charges corresponding to naked singularities q = Q2/M2 > 1, where Q and M are black hole charge and mass, respectively. An introduction of a negative tidal charge q can describes black hole solutions in theories with extra dimensions, so following the approach we consider an opportunity to extend RN metric to negative Q2, while for the standard RN metric Q2 is always non-negative. We found that for q > 9/8 black hole shadows disappear. Significant tidal charges q = -6.4 are not consistent with observations of a minimal spot size at the Galactic Center observed in mm-band, moreover, these observations demonstrate that in comparison with the Schwarzschild black hole a Reissner - Nordström black hole with a significant charge q ? 1 provides a better fit of recent observational data for the black hole at the Galactic Center.

Zakharov, Alexander F.

2013-12-01

24

Observation of a significant excess of pi0pi0 events in B meson decays.  

PubMed

We present a study of the decay B0-->pi(0)pi(0) based on a sample of 124 x 10(6) BB pairs recorded by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. We observe 46+/-13+/-3 events, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic, corresponding to a significance of 4.2 standard deviations including systematic uncertainties. We measure the branching fraction B(B0-->pi(0)pi(0))=(2.1+/-0.6+/-0.3)x10(-6), averaged over B0 and B(0) decays. PMID:14683107

Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kral, J F; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Morgan, S E; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Barlow, N R; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Mackay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Shen, B C; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Kuznetsova, N; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; Van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Grenier, P; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Biasini, M; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Pioppi, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Won, E; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S-J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Brigljevi?, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Forti, A C; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Weatherall, J H; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Cote-Ahern, D; Hast, C; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P

2003-12-12

25

Observation of a Significant Excess of ?0?0 Events in B Meson Decays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of the decay B0??0?0 based on a sample of 124×106 BBŻ pairs recorded by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. We observe 46±13±3 events, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic, corresponding to a significance of 4.2 standard deviations including systematic uncertainties. We measure the branching fraction B(B0??0?0)=(2.1±0.6±0.3)×10-6, averaged over B0 and BŻ0 decays.

Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Hicheur, A.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Robbe, P.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Palano, A.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Abrams, G. S.; Borgland, A. W.; Breon, A. B.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Cahn, R. N.; Charles, E.; Day, C. T.; Gill, M. S.; Gritsan, A. V.; Groysman, Y.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kadel, R. W.; Kadyk, J.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kral, J. F.; Kukartsev, G.; Leclerc, C.; Levi, M. E.; Lynch, G.; Mir, L. M.; Oddone, P. J.; Orimoto, T. J.; Pripstein, M.; Roe, N. A.; Romosan, A.; Ronan, M. T.; Shelkov, V. G.; Telnov, A. V.; Wenzel, W. A.; Ford, K.; Harrison, T. J.; Hawkes, C. M.; Knowles, D. J.; Morgan, S. E.; Penny, R. C.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Goetzen, K.; Held, T.; Koch, H.; Lewandowski, B.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Schmuecker, H.; Steinke, M.; Barlow, N. R.; Boyd, J. T.; Chevalier, N.; Cottingham, W. N.; Kelly, M. P.; Latham, T. E.; Mackay, C.; Wilson, F. F.; Abe, K.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Thiessen, D.; Kyberd, P.; McKemey, A. K.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Golubev, V. B.; Ivanchenko, V. N.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Yushkov, A. N.; Best, D.; Bruinsma, M.; Chao, M.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Mommsen, R. K.; Roethel, W.; Stoker, D. P.; Buchanan, C.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Shen, B. C.; del Re, D.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hill, E. J.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Paar, H. P.; Rahatlou, Sh.; Sharma, V.; Berryhill, J. W.; Campagnari, C.; Dahmes, B.; Kuznetsova, N.; Levy, S. L.; Long, O.; Lu, A.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Verkerke, W.; Beck, T. W.; Beringer, J.; Eisner, A. M.; Heusch, C. A.; Lockman, W. S.; Schalk, T.; Schmitz, R. E.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Turri, M.; Walkowiak, W.; Williams, D. C.; Wilson, M. G.; Albert, J.; Chen, E.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dvoretskii, A.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Porter, F. C.; Ryd, A.; Samuel, A.; Yang, S.; Jayatilleke, S.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Abe, T.; Blanc, F.; Bloom, P.; Chen, S.; Clark, P. J.; Ford, W. T.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Rankin, P.; Roy, J.; Smith, J. G.; van Hoek, W. C.; Zhang, L.; Harton, J. L.; Hu, T.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Zhang, J.; Altenburg, D.; Brandt, T.; Brose, J.; Colberg, T.; Dickopp, M.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Hauke, A.; Lacker, H. M.; Maly, E.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Nogowski, R.; Otto, S.; Schubert, J.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Spaan, B.; Wilden, L.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Brochard, F.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Grenier, P.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Vasileiadis, G.; Verderi, M.; Khan, A.; Lavin, D.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Swain, J. E.; Andreotti, M.; Azzolini, V.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Piemontese, L.; Sarti, A.; Treadwell, E.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Biasini, M.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Falciai, D.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Pioppi, M.; Zallo, A.; Buzzo, A.; Capra, R.; Contri, R.; Crosetti, G.; Vetere, M. Lo; Macri, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Bailey, S.; Morii, M.; Won, E.; Bhimji, W.; Bowerman, D. A.; Dauncey, P. D.; Egede, U.; Eschrich, I.; Gaillard, J. R.; Morton, G. W.; Nash, J. A.; Sanders, P.; Taylor, G. P.; Grenier, G. J.; Lee, S.-J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Lamsa, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Yi, J.; Davier, M.; Grosdidier, G.; Höcker, A.; Laplace, S.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Petersen, T. C.; Plaszczynski, S.; Schune, M. H.; Tantot, L.; Wormser, G.; Brigljevi?, V.; Cheng, C. H.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bevan, A. J.; Coleman, J. P.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Kay, M.; Parry, R. J.; Payne, D. J.; Sloane, R. J.; Touramanis, C.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Shorthouse, H. W.; Strother, P.; Vidal, P. B.; Brown, C. L.; Cowan, G.; Flack, R. L.; Flaecher, H. U.; George, S.; Green, M. G.; Kurup, A.; Marker, C. E.; McMahon, T. R.; Ricciardi, S.; Salvatore, F.; Vaitsas, G.; Winter, M. A.; Brown, D.; Davis, C. L.; Allison, J.; Barlow, R. J.; Forti, A. C.; Hart, P. A.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Jackson, F.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lyon, A. J.; Weatherall, J. H.; Williams, J. C.; Farbin, A.; Jawahery, A.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lae, C. K.; Lillard, V.; Roberts, D. A.; Blaylock, G.; Dallapiccola, C.; Flood, K. T.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Kofler, R.; Koptchev, V. B.; Moore, T. B.; Saremi, S.; Staengle, H.; Willocq, S.; Cowan, R.; Sciolla, G.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Mangeol, D. J.; Patel, P. M.; Lazzaro, A.; Palombo, F.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Eschenburg, V.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Reidy, J.

2003-12-01

26

Significance of the Difference Between an Observed Correlation Coefficient and a Hypothetical Value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using the Fisher r-to-z transformation, this page will calculate a value of z that can be applied to assess the significance of the difference between r, the correlation observed within a sample of size n and rho, the correlation hypothesized to exist within the population of bivariate values from which the sample is randomly drawn. If r is greater than rho, the resulting value of z will have a positive sign; if r is smaller than rho, the sign of z will be negative.

Lowry, Richard

2009-01-09

27

Clinical significance of white gastric crypt openings observed via magnifying endoscopy  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-induced gastritis and white gastric mucosal crypt openings (COs) in the gastric corpus. METHODS: A total of 175 consecutive patients (including 69 patients with gastric cancer) were enrolled in this study. We used magnifying endoscopy (ME) to observe the mucosa microsurface of the lesser and greater curvature of the gastric corpus (350 areas in all). We focused on areas with a round pit microstructure (primarily observed in non-atrophied areas) and evaluated the white openings of these gastric pits. We classified the whiteness of the COs as the “white-edged dark spot” type (consisting of a dark spot bordered by white); the “white” type (pure white with no dark spot); and the “dense white pit (DWP)” type (dense white, resembling a snowball). Gastritis was also histologically evaluated according to the updated Sydney System. RESULTS: We detected round COs using ME in 246 of the 350 areas examined. The histological examination showed significantly more mononuclear cells and neutrophil infiltration in the “white” and “DWP” types than the “white-edged dark spot” type (P < 0.001). Furthermore, significantly high-grade inflammation and evidence of active H. pylori-induced gastritis was observed in the “DWP” type (P < 0.001). Significant differences were observed in the whiteness of COs between H. pylori-positive (n = 139) and negative (n = 36) patients (P < 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of the “white” and “DWP” types for predicting H. pylori infection were 78.5% and 81.7%, respectively. Of the patients with gastric cancer, 22.5% (18/80) had “white-edged dark spots”, 51.3% (41/80) had “white” COs, and 26.3% (21/80) had “DWP”-type COs. “DWPs” were frequently observed among patients with undifferentiated gastric cancer [45.7% (16/35)]. CONCLUSION: CO whiteness detected via ME was associated with histological evidence of gastritis and helps to predict the severity of inflammation and H. pylori-induced activity.

Kawamura, Masashi; Sekine, Hitoshi; Abe, Shu; Shibuya, Daisuke; Kato, Katsuaki; Masuda, Takayuki

2013-01-01

28

Accreditation and Its Significance for Programs of Higher Education in Criminology and Criminal Justice: A Review of the Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of minimum standards in higher education through the evolution of accreditation in specialized disciplines, and standard setting in criminology and criminal justice education are examined. The very different experiences with the concept of accreditation encountered in the fields of public administration and law are considered. Law…

Simpson, Antony E.

29

Higher Education in the United Arab Emirates: An Analysis of the Outcomes of Significant Increases in Supply and Competition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the last decade, several countries across the Middle and Far East have established higher education hubs, some of which have grown rapidly by attracting foreign universities to set up international branch campuses. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is by far the largest host of international branch campuses globally, having over 40 providers…

Wilkins, Stephen

2010-01-01

30

Significantly higher occurrence of Cryptosporidium infection in Roma children compared with non-Roma children in Slovakia.  

PubMed

Cryptosporidiosis is considered to be a widespread world zoonosis. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium species was investigated in Roma children in a district of Eastern Slovakia and, at the same time, also in children of non-Roma parents. In total, 103 children (54 boys and 49 girls) between 0 and 14 years of age were involved in this study. Fifty-three were Roma children and 50 children represented a non-Roma control group. Fecal samples were examined: immunologically [enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test to prove antigen in the feces] and by molecular analysis [nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR)]. After the sequencing of the PCR, the products were identified as species of Cryptosporidium muris. Based on the results, the relative risk (RR) of the Cryptosporidium infection occurrence was calculated and we came to the conclusion that the risk of Cryptosporidium infection was almost 12 times higher in the Roma children compared to the non-Roma children. PMID:24619113

Hasajová, A; Valen?áková, A; Mal?eková, B; Danišová, O; Halán, M; Goldová, M; Sak, B; Kv?to?ová, D; Kvá?, M; Halánová, M

2014-08-01

31

Observational constraints of homogeneous higher-dimensional cosmology with modified Chaplygin gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we have considered the flat FRW model of the universe in ( n + 2) dimension filled with dark matter (perfect fluid with negligible pressure) and the modified Chaplygin gas (MCG) type dark energy. We present the Hubble parameter in terms of the observable parameters ? m0, ? x0 and H 0 with the redshift z and other parameters like A, B, C, n and ?. From Stern data set (12 points), we have obtained the bounds of the arbitrary parameters by minimizing the ? 2 test. The best-fit values of the parameters are obtained by 66%, 90% and 99% confidence levels. Now to find the bounds of the parameters and to draw the statistical confidence contour, we first fixed three parameters C, n, ? and then fixed the three parameters A, n, ?. In the first case we find the bounds of ( A, B) and draw the contour between them for 4D ( n = 2), 5D ( n = 3) and 6D ( n = 4). In the second case we fixed three different values of A as 1, 1/3, -1/3 to find the bounds of ( B, C) and draw the contour between them. Here the parameter n determines the higher dimension and we perform a comparative study between three cases: 4D ( n = 2), 5D ( n = 3) and 6D ( n = 4), respectively. Next due to the joint analysis with the BAO observation, we have also obtained the bounds of the parameters ( A, B) by fixing some other parameters ? and A for 4D, 5D and 6D.

Ranjit, Chayan; Chakraborty, Shuvendu; Debnath, Ujjal

2013-05-01

32

Investigation of the mechanism of higher order chromatin fragmentation observed in drug-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

Apoptosis is characterized by the nonrandom cleavage of DNA. After continuous treatment of MOLT-4 human T lymphoblastoid cells with the topoisomerase II inhibitor etoposide (50 microM) and the nongenotoxic agent N-methylformamide (300 mM), apoptosis was confirmed by electron microscopy. Analysis of DNA integrity by conventional gel electrophoresis failed to detect internucleosomal DNA cleavage. Resolution of DNA by field inversion gel electrophoresis showed fragments of 50 kilobases (kb). Etoposide induced the transient appearance of an additional DNA band of > 600 kb, which was temporally coincident with DNA-protein complex formation and was rapidly reversible upon drug removal. This DNA band was not observed after N-methylformamide treatment. In situ DNA end-labeling showed the incorporation of biotinylated dUTP into 50-kb DNA fragments but not etoposide-induced DNA fragments of > 600 kb. DNA end-labelling with terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase was therefore not dependent upon intenucleosomal DNA cleavage, and fragments of approximately 50 kb were characterized by free 3'-OH termini that were not occluded by topoisomerase II protein. Although we considered that topoisomerase II potentially played an active role in the fragmentation of higher order chromatin during apoptosis, the results showed that DNA cleavage by topoisomerase II induced reversible, protein-associated fragments of > 600 kb and not irreversible cleavage to 50-kb fragments. The reversible cleavage of DNA to fragments of > 600 kb appears to be a signal for the engagement of apoptosis and is not an initial step in the sequential unwinding of chromatin. PMID:7746285

Beere, H M; Chresta, C M; Alejo-Herberg, A; Skladanowski, A; Dive, C; Larsen, A K; Hickman, J A

1995-05-01

33

The UNESCO-CEPES Jubilee: An Opportune Event for Some Observations about Higher Education in Romania.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Romania's prime minister evokes the role of UNESCO-CEPES as a forum for discussion of the principal issues of higher education. The pre-1989 activities of the Centre are compared to the post-1989 ones and to the role of the Centre in supporting the general reform of higher education in Central and Eastern Europe. (EV)

Nastase, Adrian

2003-01-01

34

Developing Sustainable Development within the Higher Education Curriculum: Observations on the HEFCE Strategic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores a particular contemporary instance of the implementation of central government policy linking higher education and sustainable development. The Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE)'s strategic plan for 2006-2011 (HEFCE 2006) includes a commitment to establish a baseline assessment of the contribution of the…

Katayama, Junko; Gough, Stephen

2008-01-01

35

Observations and Interpretation of Strain Changes Caused by Volcanic Activity: Significance for Earthscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sacks-Evertson borehole strainmeters installed in a number of tectonically active regions have recorded strain changes due to activity in volcanic systems in Japan, Iceland and California. The eruption of Izu-Oshima, Japan, in 1986 produced observed strain changes at distances up to ~55 km from the volcano. Data for the first stage of the eruption show that, while the ultimate reservoir

A. T. Linde; I. S. Sacks

2002-01-01

36

Volcanic activity before and after large tectonic earthquakes: Observations and statistical significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of volcanic triggering and interaction with the tectonic surroundings has received special attention in recent years, using both direct field observations and historical descriptions of eruptions and earthquake activity. Repeated reports of clustered eruptions and earthquakes may imply that interaction is important in some subregions. However, the subregions likely to suffer such clusters have not been systematically identified,

Silke Eggert; Thomas R. Walter

2009-01-01

37

Teenagers' Significant Experiences in Aesthetic Areas: Some Empirical Observations Regarding the Role of Dramatic Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifteen sixteen-year-old Fenno-Swedish compulsory school pupils' descriptions and evaluations of significant, i.e. more or less "strong", experiences relating to dramatic art (film, theatre) were analysed and compared with reported experiences in other aesthetic areas (music, nature etc.). The drama area was represented in many experiences, but…

Finnas, Leif

2008-01-01

38

The National Emissions Inventory Significantly Overestimates NOx Emissions: Analysis of CMAQ and in situ observations from DISCOVER-AQ  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NOx and CO not only adversely impact human health, but they, along with associated VOCs, are also important precursors for O3 formation. While ambient NOx and CO concentrations have decreased dramatically over the past 10-20 years, O3 has remained a more recalcitrant problem, particularly in the Baltimore/Washington region. Reduction of O3 production requires that emissions inventories, such as the National Emissions Inventory (NEI), accurately capture total emissions of CO and NOx while also correctly apportioning them among different sectors. Previous evaluations of the NEI paint different pictures of its accuracy, with assertions that it overestimates either one or both of CO and NOx from anywhere between 25 percent to a factor of 2. These conflicting claims warrant further investigation. In this study, measurements of NOx and CO taken aboard the NOAA P3B airplane during the 2011 DISCOVER-AQ field campaign were used to determine the NOx/CO emissions ratio at 6 locations in the Washington/Baltimore region. An average molar emissions ratio of 12.8 × 1.2 CO/NOx was found by calculating the change in CO over the change in NOx from vertical concentration profiles in the planetary boundary layer. Ratios showed little variation with location. Observed values were approximately a factor of 1.35 - 1.75 times greater than that predicted by the annual, countywide emissions ratio from the 2008 NEI. When compared to a temporalized, gridded version of the inventory processed by SMOKE, ratio observations were greater than that predicted by inventories by up to a factor of 2. Comparison of the in situ measurements and remotely sensed observations from MOPITT of CO to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model agree within 10-35 percent, with the model higher on average. Measurements of NOy by two separate analytical techniques, on the other hand, show that CMAQ consistently and significantly overestimates NOy concentrations. Combined with the CO observations, this indicates that the NEI overestimates NOx emissions by approximately a factor of 2. Comparison of the temporalized NEI to continuous monitoring of NOx emissions from point sources shows that, on average, agreement between observations and the NEI were within 5 percent. In a region where the NEI estimates on-road emissions can account for 50-75 percent of total NOx, the most likely source of error in the NOx inventory is in the on-road sector. Assumptions about the lifetime and efficacy of catalytic converters in the MOVES model should be investigated as a possible source of this error.

Anderson, D. C.; Dickerson, R. R.; Loughner, C.

2013-12-01

39

Dogs Are More Fun Than Computers: Seven Random Observations about Information Technology in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recipient of an award for leadership in information technology (IT) in higher education discusses some considerations in approaching IT use, including finding balance and avoiding burnout; transformations made possible by technology; problems and frustrations of rapid technological advance; organizational values and IT; and the manner in which…

McCredie, John W.

1999-01-01

40

Promotion of chemical weathering by higher plants: field observations on Hawaiian basalts  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electron microprobe and petrographic microscope were used to study the biota-rock interface beneath higher-plant communities and lichens, as well as unvegetated surfaces, on Hawaiian basalt flows ranging from a few years to several thousand years in age and currently receiving moderate to extremely high annual rainfall. We find dramatic (order of magnitude minimum) acceleration of weathering rates beneath vascular

M. Ford Cochran; Robert A. Berner

1996-01-01

41

Observations of Academic Instruction for Students with Significant Intellectual Disability: Three States, Thirty-Nine Classrooms, One View  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of the validation process for alternate assessments, 39 classroom observations were conducted to gather data about current practices in providing academic instruction to students with significant intellectual disability. Using a standardized protocol, data were gathered using direct instructional observation, an Individualized Education…

Restorff, Diane E.; Abery, Brian H.

2013-01-01

42

Observation of nonlinear generation of higher RF harmonics in hollow-cathode discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two variants of high-power RF oscillators based on hollow-cathode discharge have been studied. The spectra of RF oscillations have been measured for two diameters and various lengths of the cathode cavity. In both variants, the generation of high (second and third) harmonics has been observed, which is apparently due to a nonlinear wave process in the discharge plasma. This phenomenon can be used for carrier frequency doubling in RF generators of this type.

Vyalykh, D. V.; Dubinov, A. E.; Zhdanov, V. S.; L'vov, I. L.; Sadovoi, S. A.; Selemir, V. D.

2013-02-01

43

Middle School Teams Increasing Access to General Education for Students with Significant Disabilities: Issues Encountered and Activities Observed across Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The experiences of three students with significant disabilities and their educational teams were studied during these students' first year of receiving general education services. Interviews were conducted with general educators, special educators, and parents to identify issues encountered during the year. Also, classroom observations were…

Matzen, Katherine; Ryndak, Diane; Nakao, Taketo

2010-01-01

44

Application of soft X-ray microradiography to observation of cystoliths in the leaves of various higher plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soft X-ray microradiography was applied to observation of the cystoliths, calcified bodies of higher plants, in the leaves\\u000a ofMorus bombycis, Humulus scandens, Ficus elastica, F. retusa (Moraceae),Boehmeria platanifolia, Pilea viridissima (Urticaceae) andMomordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae). It was proved that this technique is useful for examination of the shape, size, distribution and number\\u000a of cystoliths in fresh leaves. The microradiographs revealed large

Megumi Okazaki; Hiroaki Setoguchi; Harumi Aoki; Shoichi Suga

1986-01-01

45

PCR reveals significantly higher rates of Trypanosoma cruzi infection than microscopy in the Chagas vector, Triatoma infestans: High rates found in Chuquisaca, Bolivia  

PubMed Central

Background The Andean valleys of Bolivia are the only reported location of sylvatic Triatoma infestans, the main vector of Chagas disease in this country, and the high human prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in this region is hypothesized to result from the ability of vectors to persist in domestic, peri-domestic, and sylvatic environments. Determination of the rate of Trypanosoma infection in its triatomine vectors is an important element in programs directed at reducing human infections. Traditionally, T. cruzi has been detected in insect vectors by direct microscopic examination of extruded feces, or dissection and analysis of the entire bug. Although this technique has proven to be useful, several drawbacks related to its sensitivity especially in the case of small instars and applicability to large numbers of insects and dead specimens have motivated researchers to look for a molecular assay based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as an alternative for parasitic detection of T. cruzi infection in vectors. In the work presented here, we have compared a PCR assay and direct microscopic observation for diagnosis of T. cruzi infection in T. infestans collected in the field from five localities and four habitats in Chuquisaca, Bolivia. The efficacy of the methods was compared across nymphal stages, localities and habitats. Methods We examined 152 nymph and adult T. infestans collected from rural areas in the department of Chuquisaca, Bolivia. For microscopic observation, a few drops of rectal content obtained by abdominal extrusion were diluted with saline solution and compressed between a slide and a cover slip. The presence of motile parasites in 50 microscopic fields was registered using 400× magnification. For the molecular analysis, dissection of the posterior part of the abdomen of each insect followed by DNA extraction and PCR amplification was performed using the TCZ1 (5' – CGA GCT CTT GCC CAC ACG GGT GCT – 3') and TCZ2 (5' – CCT CCA AGC AGC GGA TAG TTC AGG – 3') primers. Amplicons were chromatographed on a 2% agarose gel with a 100 bp size standard, stained with ethidium bromide and viewed with UV fluorescence. For both the microscopy and PCR assays, we calculated sensitivity (number of positives by a method divided by the number of positives by either method) and discrepancy (one method was negative and the other was positive) at the locality, life stage and habitat level. The degree of agreement between PCR and microscopy was determined by calculating Kappa (k) values with 95% confidence intervals. Results We observed a high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in T. infestans (81.16% by PCR and 56.52% by microscopy) and discovered that PCR is significantly more sensitive than microscopic observation. The overall degree of agreement between the two methods was moderate (Kappa = 0.43 ± 0.07). The level of infection is significantly different among communities; however, prevalence was similar among habitats and life stages. Conclusion PCR was significantly more sensitive than microscopy in all habitats, developmental stages and localities in Chuquisaca, Bolivia. Overall we observed a high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in T. infestans in this area of Bolivia; however, microscopy underestimated infection at all levels examined.

Pizarro, Juan Carlos; Lucero, David E; Stevens, Lori

2007-01-01

46

A puzzle form of a non-verbal intelligence test gives significantly higher performance measures in children with severe intellectual disability  

PubMed Central

Background Assessment of 'potential intellectual ability' of children with severe intellectual disability (ID) is limited, as current tests designed for normal children do not maintain their interest. Thus a manual puzzle version of the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) was devised to appeal to the attentional and sensory preferences and language limitations of children with ID. It was hypothesized that performance on the book and manual puzzle forms would not differ for typically developing children but that children with ID would perform better on the puzzle form. Methods The first study assessed the validity of this puzzle form of the RCPM for 76 typically developing children in a test-retest crossover design, with a 3 week interval between tests. A second study tested performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in a sample of 164 children with ID. Results In the first study, no significant difference was found between performance on the puzzle and book forms in typically developing children, irrespective of the order of completion. The second study demonstrated a significantly higher performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in the ID population. Conclusion Similar performance on book and puzzle forms of the RCPM by typically developing children suggests that both forms measure the same construct. These findings suggest that the puzzle form does not require greater cognitive ability but demands sensory-motor attention and limits distraction in children with severe ID. Thus, we suggest the puzzle form of the RCPM is a more reliable measure of the non-verbal mentation of children with severe ID than the book form.

Bello, Katrina D; Goharpey, Nahal; Crewther, Sheila G; Crewther, David P

2008-01-01

47

ON THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE EXCESS NUMBER OF STRONG Mg II ABSORBERS OBSERVED TOWARD GAMMA-RAY BURSTS  

SciTech Connect

The number of strong (equivalent width >1 A) Mg II absorbers observed toward gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has been found to be statistically larger than the number of strong absorbers toward quasi-stellar objects (QSOs). We formalize this 'Mg II problem' and present a detailed explanation of the statistical tools required to assess the significance of the discrepancy. We find that the problem exists at the 4{sigma} level for GRBs with high-resolution spectra. It has been suggested that the discrepancy can be resolved by the combination of a dust obscuration bias toward QSOs, and a strong gravitational lensing bias toward GRBs. We investigate one of the two most probable lensed GRBs that we presented in our previous work (GRB020405) and find that it is not strongly gravitationally lensed, constraining the percentage of lensed GRBs to be <35% (2{sigma}). Dust obscuration of QSOs has been estimated to be a significant effect with dusty Mg II systems removing {approx}20% of absorbed objects from flux-limited QSO samples. We find that if {approx}30% of the strong Mg II systems toward QSOs are missing from the observed samples, then GRBs and QSOs would have comparable numbers of absorbers per unit redshift. Thus, strong gravitational lensing bias is likely to make only a modest contribution to solving the Mg II problem. However, if the dust obscuration bias has been slightly underestimated, the Mg II problem would no longer persist.

Rapoport, Sharon; Onken, Christopher A.; Schmidt, Brian P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra 2611 (Australia)] [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra 2611 (Australia); Wyithe, J. Stuart B. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)] [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Thygesen, Anders O. [Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Koenigstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Koenigstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

2013-03-20

48

Significant geomagnetic differences in both phase and amplitude observed at "conjugate" polar latitudes near the December 1903 Solstice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During Roald Amundsen's exploration of the Northwest Passage (1903-1906) he conducted systematic measurements of diurnal and seasonal variations of the north magnetic dip pole (NMDP) at Gjřahavn (~ 68 N, 95 E). The NMDP variations have been largely interpreted as indicating control by the polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF); the Svalgard-Mansurov (S-M) effect. In Sir Robert Scott's Discovery expedition, geomagnetic observations were made in 1903 from Cape Armitage, Antarctica (~78 S, 168 E). Unwittingly, the measurements of Amundsen and Scott were acquired near conjugate ends of the same magnetic field lines. While their separation in solar local time is ~ 5 hours, they differ in magnetic local time less than 1/2 hour. However, up to this time no direct comparison of the two sets of magnetic observations has ever been made. This presentation contains an analysis of magnetic perturbations observed at both locations for comparison with contemporary and present day monthly-averaged diurnal variations, even if the overlap in data among these expeditions is somewhat limited. The near magnetic conjugacy of Gjřahavn- Cape Armitage locations makes these measurements valuable. Our analysis shows: (1) While similar variations appeared at both ends of the joining magnetic field they manifest significant differences in both phase and amplitude, (2) present day NMDP variations appear consistent with the S-M effect analyses when compared with satellite measurements of solar wind/IMF measurements, (3) differences at the "conjugate" locations cannot be explained in terms of the S-M effect alone. The roles of lobe cell and ionospheric conductance at polar magnetically "conjugate" locations are used to explain the observed phase and amplitude differences.

Egeland, Alv; Deehr, Charles

2014-05-01

49

Observation of Higher-Order Sideband Transitions and First-Order Sideband Rabi Oscillations in a Superconducting Flux Qubit Coupled to a SQUID Plasma Mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results of spectroscopic measurements and time-domain measurements of a superconducting flux qubit. The dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), used for readout of the qubit, and a shunt capacitor formed an LC resonator generating a SQUID plasma mode. Higher-order red and blue sidebands were observed in a simple measurement scheme because the resonant energy of the resonator, 600 MHz, was comparable to the thermal energy. We also observed Rabi oscillations on the carrier transition and the first-order sideband transitions. Because the qubit was coupled to a single arm of the dc SQUID, the qubit-SQUID coupling was significant at zero bias current, where these phenomena were observed. The ratios between the Rabi periods for the carrier transition and the sideband transitions are compared with those estimated from the coupling constant, which was separately determined. The result may be explained by assuming initial excitation of the resonator.

Shimazu, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Masaki; Okamura, Natsuki

2013-07-01

50

Detecting multiple periodicities in observational data with the multifrequency periodogram - I. Analytic assessment of the statistical significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the `multifrequency' periodogram, in which the putative signal is modelled as a sum of two or more sinusoidal harmonics with independent frequencies. It is useful in cases when the data may contain several periodic components, especially when their interaction with each other and with the data sampling patterns might produce misleading results. Although the multifrequency statistic itself was constructed earlier, for example by G. Foster in his CLEANest algorithm, its probabilistic properties (the detection significance levels) are still poorly known and much of what is deemed known is not rigorous. These detection levels are nonetheless important for data analysis. We argue that to prove the simultaneous existence of all n components revealed in a multiperiodic variation, it is mandatory to apply at least 2n - 1 significance tests, among which most involve various multifrequency statistics, and only n tests are single-frequency ones. The main result of this paper is an analytic estimation of the statistical significance of the frequency tuples that the multifrequency periodogram can reveal. Using the theory of extreme values of random fields (the generalized Rice method), we find a useful approximation to the relevant false alarm probability. For the double-frequency periodogram, this approximation is given by the elementary formula (?/16)W2e- zz2, where W denotes the normalized width of the settled frequency range, and z is the observed periodogram maximum. We carried out intensive Monte Carlo simulations to show that the practical quality of this approximation is satisfactory. A similar analytic expression for the general multifrequency periodogram is also given, although with less numerical verification.

Baluev, Roman V.

2013-11-01

51

Ambient noise cross-correlation observations of fundamental and higher-mode Rayleigh wave propagation governed by basement resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

of basement seismic resonance frequencies can elucidate shallow velocity structure, an important factor in earthquake hazard estimation. Ambient noise cross correlation, which is well-suited to studying shallow earth structure, is commonly used to analyze fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves and, increasingly, Love waves. Here we show via multicomponent ambient noise cross correlation that the basement resonance frequency in the Canterbury region of New Zealand can be straightforwardly determined based on the horizontal to vertical amplitude ratio (H/V ratio) of the first higher-mode Rayleigh waves. At periods of 1-3 s, the first higher-mode is evident on the radial-radial cross-correlation functions but almost absent in the vertical-vertical cross-correlation functions, implying longitudinal motion and a high H/V ratio. A one-dimensional regional velocity model incorporating a ~ 1.5 km-thick sedimentary layer fits both the observed H/V ratio and Rayleigh wave group velocity. Similar analysis may enable resonance characteristics of other sedimentary basins to be determined.

Savage, Martha K.; Lin, Fan-Chi; Townend, John

2013-07-01

52

Early pregnancy loss is significantly higher after day 3 single embryo transfer than after day 5 single blastocyst transfer in GnRH antagonist stimulated IVF cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study aimed to investigate whether single day-3 embryo transfer (SET) results in higher early pregnancy loss (EPL) than single blastocyst transfer (SBET). A total of 896 patients underwent 1103 IVF cycles with a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol. In 603 cycles (D3 group) a single embryo on day 3 of the embryo culture was transferred, whereas in the

EG Papanikolaou; M Camus; HM Fatemi; H Tournaye; G Verheyen; Andre Van Steirteghem; Paul Devroey

2006-01-01

53

Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter on higher education returns after a 6-year absence during which time a separate yearbook on higher education law was published. Because not all higher education law cases reported during 1981 could be included, the author summarized only the more significant cases that seemed to best illustrate the legal parameters regarding the…

Young, D. Parker; Gehring, Donald D.

54

Significance of time-reversal symmetry for time-resolved measurements of hydrogenic and other atomic observables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-resolved measurements of atomic observables are analyzed using a Liouville space formulation and a Hermitian unit tensor base. This approach makes it possible to distinguish cleanly the symmetries of a formation and/or excitation process completed by time t=0, a time evolution under experimental control between t=0 and t=t, and a measurement at t=t, even for hydrogenic observables. Each observable is labeled by a time-reversal quantum number, allowing exploration for the first time of the close relationship between time-reversal symmetry and the time evolution of atomic observables. The experimental reconstruction of atomic observables (at t=0) from subsequent time-resolved measurements of the anisotropy and polarization of emitted electric dipole photons is discussed. Hydrogenic observables are stressed and the use of strong fields is included, thus generalizing Fano and Macek's approach.

Gabrielse, Gerald

1980-07-01

55

Low-altitude ISIS 1 observations of auroral radio emissions and their significance to the cyclotron maser instability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-altitude ISIS 1 observations are presented which support the cyclotron maser instability as the generation mechanism of most, but not all, auroral radio emissions. The observations confirm the ability of the mechanism to generate different wave modes and harmonics as the ratio of the plasma frequency to gyrofrequency f(N)/f(H) increases depending on the form of the energetic electron distribution function. The present observations correspond to conditions where f(N)/F(H) is always larger than 0.2 and is typically about 1.0. The observations and instability growth rate calculations indicate that second harmonic radiation in the extraordinary and the Z modes is directly generated at low altitudes. By far the most common signals observed near ISIS 1 perigee, however, are in the fundamental Z and whistler modes. The observations and calculations in the case of the Z mode suggest that the pertinent process involves a maser that does not saturate, i.e., that group velocity effects are important. The whistler mode is the most intense signal observed at low altitudes. Since the cyclotron maser generated whistler mode waves have peak growth rates for downward field-aligned propagation, they should be able to penetrate the ionosphere. This process may provide the explanation of occasional reports, dating back to the International Geophysical Year time period, of ground level detection of radio noise associated with the aurora.

Benson, Robert F.; Wong, H. K.

1987-01-01

56

Lyman-break galaxies at z ~ 5 - I. First significant stellar mass assembly in galaxies that are not simply z ~ 3 LBGs at higher redshift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the ensemble properties of z ~ 5 Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) selected as V-band dropouts to iAB < 26.3 in the Chandra Deep Field-South using their rest-frame UV-to-visible spectral energy distributions. By matching the selection and performing the same analysis that has been used for z ~ 3 samples, we show clear differences in the ensemble properties of two samples of LBGs which are separated by 1Gyr in look-back time. We find that z ~ 5 LBGs are typically much younger (<100Myr) and have lower stellar masses (~109Msolar) than their z ~ 3 counterparts (which are typically ~ few × 1010Msolar and ~320 Myr old). The difference in mass is significant even when considering the presence of an older, underlying population in both samples. Such young and moderately massive systems dominate the luminous z ~ 5 LBG population (>~70 per cent), whereas they comprise <~30 per cent of LBG samples at z ~ 3. This result, which we demonstrate is robust under all reasonable modelling assumptions, shows a clear change in the properties of the luminous LBGs between z ~ 5 and z ~ 3. These young and moderately massive z ~ 5 LBGs appear to be experiencing their first (few) generations of large-scale star formation and are accumulating their first significant stellar mass. Their dominance in luminous LBG samples suggests that z ~ 5 witnesses a period of wide-spread, recent galaxy formation. As such, z ~ 5 LBGs are the likely progenitors of the spheroidal components of present-day massive galaxies. This is supported by their high stellar mass surface densities, and is consistent with their core phase-space densities, as well as the ages of stars in the bulge of our Galaxy and other massive systems. With implied formation redshifts of z ~ 6-7, these luminous z ~ 5 LBGs could have only contributed to the UV photon budget at the end of reionization. However, their high star formation rates per unit area suggest these systems host outflows or winds that enrich the intragalactic and intergalactic media with metals, as has been established for z ~ 3 LBGs. Their estimated young ages are consistent with inefficient metal-mixing on galaxy-wide scales. Therefore these galaxies may contain a significant fraction of Population III stars as proposed for z ~ 3 LBGs by Jiminez & Haimann.

Verma, Aprajita; Lehnert, Matthew D.; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Bremer, Malcolm N.; Douglas, Laura

2007-05-01

57

The Barbarians at the Gate. Playing the Higher Education Game: Observations from the Periphery of the Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education is considered by some to be synonymous with learning gained in an institution named as a university. The credentials gained from learning in such locations allow the holders to enter into the elite, which reproduces social exclusion to the benefit of that elite. In England, policy reform has opened up access to higher education to…

Leahy, Sheila Marie

2012-01-01

58

The Taxonomic Significance of Species That Have Only Been Observed Once: The Genus Gymnodinium (Dinoflagellata) as an Example  

PubMed Central

Taxonomists have been tasked with cataloguing and quantifying the Earth’s biodiversity. Their progress is measured in code-compliant species descriptions that include text, images, type material and molecular sequences. It is from this material that other researchers are to identify individuals of the same species in future observations. It has been estimated that 13% to 22% (depending on taxonomic group) of described species have only ever been observed once. Species that have only been observed at the time and place of their original description are referred to as oncers. Oncers are important to our current understanding of biodiversity. They may be validly described species that are members of a rare biosphere, or they may indicate endemism, or that these species are limited to very constrained niches. Alternatively, they may reflect that taxonomic practices are too poor to allow the organism to be re-identified or that the descriptions are unknown to other researchers. If the latter are true, our current tally of species will not be an accurate indication of what we know. In order to investigate this phenomenon and its potential causes, we examined the microbial eukaryote genus Gymnodinium. This genus contains 268 extant species, 103 (38%) of which have not been observed since their original description. We report traits of the original descriptions and interpret them in respect to the status of the species. We conclude that the majority of oncers were poorly described and their identity is ambiguous. As a result, we argue that the genus Gymnodinium contains only 234 identifiable species. Species that have been observed multiple times tend to have longer descriptions, written in English. The styles of individual authors have a major effect, with a few authors describing a disproportionate number of oncers. The information about the taxonomy of Gymnodinium that is available via the internet is incomplete, and reliance on it will not give access to all necessary knowledge. Six new names are presented – Gymnodinium campbelli for the homonymous name Gymnodinium translucens Campbell 1973, Gymnodinium antarcticum for the homonymous name Gymnodinium frigidum Balech 1965, Gymnodinium manchuriensis for the homonymous name Gymnodinium autumnale Skvortzov 1968, Gymnodinium christenum for the homonymous name Gymnodinium irregulare Christen 1959, Gymnodinium conkufferi for the homonymous name Gymnodinium irregulare Conrad & Kufferath 1954 and Gymnodinium chinensis for the homonymous name Gymnodinium frigidum Skvortzov 1968.

Thessen, Anne E.; Patterson, David J.; Murray, Shauna A.

2012-01-01

59

Prognostic Significance of Cyclin D1 Expression in Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies  

PubMed Central

Objective Cyclin D1 plays a vital role in cancer cell cycle progression and is overexpressed in many human cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the prognostic value of cyclin D1 overexpression in colorectal cancer is conflicting and heterogeneous. We conducted a meta-analysis to more precisely evaluate its prognostic significance. Methods A comprehensive literature search for relevant studies published up to January 2014 was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Science. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was used to estimate the effects. Results 22 studies with 4150 CRC patients were selected to evaluate the association between cyclin D1 and overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and clinicopathological parameters. In a random-effects model, the results showed that cyclin D1 overexpression in CRC was significantly associated with both poor OS (HR?=?0.73, 95% CI: 0.63–0.85, P<0.001) and DFS (HR?=?0.60, 95% CI: 0.44–0.82, P?=?0.001). Additionally, cyclin D1 overexpression was significantly associated with more relative older patients (?60 years) (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.44–0.89, P?=?0.009), T3,4 tumor invasion (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.57–0.85, P<0.001), N positive (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.60–0.95, P?=?0.016) and distant metastasis (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.36–0.99, P?=?0.047) of CRC. Conclusion The meta-analysis results indicated that cyclin D1 is an unfavorable prognostic factor for CRC. Cyclin D1 overexpression might be associated with poor clinical outcome and some clinicopathological factors such as age, T category, N category and distant metastasis in CRC patients.

Li, Yang; Wei, Jun; Xu, Chuanhui; Zhao, Zhongxin; You, Tiangeng

2014-01-01

60

Significant ferrimagnetism observed in Aurivillius Bi4Ti3O12 doped by antiferromagnetic LaFeO3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly crystalline quality c-axis epitaxial nLaFeO3-Bi4Ti3O12 (n=0.5,1.0,1.5) thin films were deposited on SrTiO3 (001) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy characterizations confirm that there are designed even-odd number perovskite-block structures in n=0.5 and 1.5 films while it has even-even number ones in n=1.0 films. The remarkable physical property of n=0.5 and 1.5 samples is the presence of ferrimagnetism even up to room temperature. While it is antiferromagentic property in n=1.0 sample. The observed ferrimagentism is explained qualitatively by considering the crystal structure in nLaFeO3-Bi4Ti3O12.

Wu, Fei-Xiang; Chen, Zhong; Chen, Y. B.; Zhang, Shan-Tao; Zhou, Jian; Zhu, Yong-Yuan; Chen, Yan-Feng

2011-05-01

61

Higher surface ozone concentrations over the Chesapeake Bay than over the adjacent land: Observations and models from the DISCOVER-AQ and CBODAQ campaigns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air quality models, such as the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, indicate decidedly higher ozone near the surface of large interior water bodies, such as the Great Lakes and Chesapeake Bay. In order to test the validity of the model output, we performed surface measurements of ozone (O3) and total reactive nitrogen (NOy) on the 26-m Delaware II NOAA Small Research Vessel experimental (SRVx), deployed in the Chesapeake Bay for 10 daytime cruises in July 2011 as part of NASA's GEO-CAPE CBODAQ oceanographic field campaign in conjunction with NASA's DISCOVER-AQ air quality field campaign. During this 10-day period, the EPA O3 regulatory standard of 75 ppbv averaged over an 8-h period was exceeded four times over water while ground stations in the area only exceeded the standard at most twice. This suggests that on days when the Baltimore/Washington region is in compliance with the EPA standard, air quality over the Chesapeake Bay might exceed the EPA standard. Ozone observations over the bay during the afternoon were consistently 10–20% higher than the closest upwind ground sites during the 10-day campaign; this pattern persisted during good and poor air quality days. A lower boundary layer, reduced cloud cover, slower dry deposition rates, and other lesser mechanisms, contribute to the local maximum of ozone over the Chesapeake Bay. Observations from this campaign were compared to a CMAQ simulation at 1.33 km resolution. The model is able to predict the regional maximum of ozone over the Chesapeake Bay accurately, but NOy concentrations are significantly overestimated. Explanations for the overestimation of NOy in the model simulations are also explored.

Goldberg, Daniel L.; Loughner, Christopher P.; Tzortziou, Maria; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Marufu, Lackson T.; Dickerson, Russell R.

2014-02-01

62

Causal Attribution: Actor-Observer Bias in Academic Achievement among Students at an Institution of Higher Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study explores the attribution styles of in-group and out-group members. Eighty-four (42 female and 42 male) undergraduate students were randomly selected from the Faculty of Education at an institution of higher learning in Zimbabwe. A questionnaire was used to capture the opinions of the participants. The data was analysed using the…

Mudhovozi, P.; Gumani, M.; Maunganidze, L.; Sodi, T.

2010-01-01

63

SIGNIFICANT FOREGROUND UNRELATED NON-ACOUSTIC ANISOTROPY ON THE 1 DEGREE SCALE IN WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE 5-YEAR OBSERVATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The spectral variation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as observed by WMAP was tested using foreground reduced WMAP5 data, by producing subtraction maps at the 1 deg. angular resolution between the two cosmological bands of V and W, for masked sky areas that avoid the Galactic disk. The resulting V - W map revealed a non-acoustic signal over and above the WMAP5 pixel noise, with two main properties. First, it possesses quadrupole power at the approx1 muK level which may be attributed to foreground residuals. Second, it fluctuates also at all values of l> 2, especially on the 1 deg. scale (200 approx< l approx< 300). The behavior is random and symmetrical about zero temperature with an rms approx7 muK, or 10% of the maximum CMB anisotropy, which would require a 'cosmic conspiracy' among the foreground components if it is a consequence of their existence. Both anomalies must be properly diagnosed and corrected if 'precision' cosmology is the claim. The second anomaly is, however, more interesting because it opens the question on whether the CMB anisotropy genuinely represents primordial density seeds.

Jiang Bizhu; Zhang Shuangnan [Physics Department and Center for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Lieu, Richard [Department of Physics, University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Wakker, Bart [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 N. Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2010-01-01

64

Tried and True: Thinking spatially--taking observation, classification, and communication skills to a higher level of reasoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When students classify, they embark on observing and identifying the properties of the object, and then they categorize, sort, group, organize, arrange, or grade objects into smaller and similar clusters or divisions. Therefore, observing and classifying are fundamental skills for comparing and contrasting material objects. In addition, observing and classifying are skill-based stepping stones to helping students to think spatially. The following discussion focuses on three questions: (1) What is spatial thinking? (2) How do spatial-thinking skills apply to everyday problems and situations? and (3) How do spatial-thinking skills integrate into the science curriculum?

Llewellyn, Douglas

2009-02-01

65

Higher maternal prenatal cortisol and younger age predict greater infant reactivity to novelty at 4 months: an observation-based study.  

PubMed

Distress-linked activation of the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis is considered a pathway by which affect regulation impacts the fetal milieu and neurodevelopment. There is little direct evidence for this conceptual model. In 103 women [mean age 27.45 (±5.65) years] at 36-38 weeks gestation, salivary cortisol was measured before/after stress tasks; distress questionnaires were completed. At 18.49 (±1.83) weeks, infants underwent the Harvard Infant Behavioral Reactivity Protocol assessing cry/motor responses to novelty; women reported on infant behavior and postnatal distress. Prenatal cortisol and distress were not significantly correlated (all ps?>?.10). Proportional odds logistic regressions showed that neither prenatal nor postnatal distress was associated with infant responses to the Harvard Protocol yet pre-stress cortisol and maternal age were: The odds of being classified as High Reactive were 1.60 times higher [95% CI: 1.04, 2.46] for each unit of added cortisol and .90 times lower [95% CI: .82, .99] for every additional year in maternal age. No associations were found between cortisol or prenatal distress and mother-rated infant behavior; postnatal distress was positively associated with mother-rated infant negative behavior (p?=?.03). Observer and mother-rated infant behavior were not associated (all ps?>?.05). Based on independent observations of infants in contrast to maternal perceptions, these results lend support to the hypothesis that pregnant women's HPA-axis activity influences infant behavior. The impact of maternal distress was not supported, except in so far as postnatal distress may increase the likelihood of making negative judgments about infant behavior. PMID:22778036

Werner, Elizabeth; Zhao, Yihong; Evans, Lynn; Kinsella, Michael; Kurzius, Laura; Altincatal, Arman; McDonough, Laraine; Monk, Catherine

2013-11-01

66

Phase III trial comparing adjuvant treatment with pegylated interferon Alfa-2b versus observation: prognostic significance of autoantibodies--EORTC 18991  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Conflicting data have been reported concerning the prognostic value of autoimmune antibodies in patients with melanoma treated with adjuvant interferon alfa-2b (IFN). We evaluated the prognostic significance of autoantibodies in the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer 18991 trial, comparing long-term administration of pegylated IFN (PEG-IFN) with observation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Anticardiolipin, antithyroglobulin, and antinuclear antibodies were

M. G. Bouwhuis; S. Suciu; A. Testori; W. H. Kruit; F. Sales; P. Patel; C. J. A. Punt; M. Santinami; A. Spatz; T. L. M. ten Hagen; A. M. M. Eggermont

2010-01-01

67

Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium Resulted in Significantly Higher Tissue Chromium Burden Compared With Trivalent Chromium Following Similar Oral Doses to Male F344/N Rats and Female B6C3F1 Mice  

PubMed Central

In National Toxicology Program 2-year studies, hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] administered in drinking water was clearly carcinogenic in male and female rats and mice, resulting in small intestine epithelial neoplasms in mice at a dose equivalent to or within an order of magnitude of human doses that could result from consumption of chromium-contaminated drinking water, assuming that dose scales by body weight3/4 (body weight raised to the 3/4 power). In contrast, exposure to trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] at much higher concentrations may have been carcinogenic in male rats but was not carcinogenic in mice or female rats. As part of these studies, total chromium was measured in tissues and excreta of additional groups of male rats and female mice. These data were used to infer the uptake and distribution of Cr(VI) because Cr(VI) is reduced to Cr(III) in vivo, and no methods are available to speciate tissue chromium. Comparable external doses resulted in much higher tissue chromium concentrations following exposure to Cr(VI) compared with Cr(III), indicating that a portion of the Cr(VI) escaped gastric reduction and was distributed systemically. Linear or supralinear dose responses of total chromium in tissues were observed following exposure to Cr(VI), indicating that these exposures did not saturate gastric reduction capacity. When Cr(VI) exposure was normalized to ingested dose, chromium concentrations in the liver and glandular stomach were higher in mice, whereas kidney concentrations were higher in rats. In vitro studies demonstrated that Cr(VI), but not Cr(III), is a substrate of the sodium/sulfate cotransporter, providing a partial explanation for the greater absorption of Cr(VI).

Collins, Bradley J.; Stout, Matthew D.; Levine, Keith E.; Kissling, Grace E.; Fennell, Timothy R.; Walden, Ramsey; Abdo, Kamal; Pritchard, John B.; Fernando, Reshan A.; Burka, Leo T.; Hooth, Michelle J.

2010-01-01

68

Significant concentrations of nitryl chloride observed in rural continental Europe associated with the influence of sea salt chloride and anthropogenic emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observations of significant concentrations of nitryl chloride (ClNO2) over the North American continent, far from coastal regions, have highlighted a potentially important source of reactive halogens in the continental lower troposphere. Nitryl chloride, formed nocturnally by the heterogeneous reaction of N2O5 with aqueous-phase chloride, is readily photolysed producing NO2 and chlorine radical. We report measurement of significant quantities of nitryl chloride, up to 800 pptv, during the Particles and Radicals: Diel observations of the impact of urban and biogenic Emissions (PARADE) measurement campaign at a mountaintop field site in Hessen Germany, 350 km from the nearest coastline, using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS). ClNO2 was detected during the majority of nights between the 15th August and 16th September 2011, the largest mixing fractions of ClNO2 being associated with air masses influenced by sea salt and anthropogenic emissions. ClNO2 persisted in measurable quantities until early afternoons on days with foggy conditions and low photolysis frequencies.

Phillips, G. J.; Tang, M. J.; Thieser, J.; Brickwedde, B.; Schuster, G.; Crowley, J. N.

2012-04-01

69

Observations of a rapidly flowing and significantly retreated Jakobshavn Isbrae and the proglacial ice mélange from a ground based radar interferometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jakobshavn Isbrae has experienced several changes in seasonal behavior over the last decade. During the period of floating ice tongue loss and late summer grounded calving from 2000-2010, the calving front experienced a seasonally modulated ~5km advance and retreat as calving ceased during the winter and re-initiated in the spring. During that time the glacier doubled its speed and the terminus retreated ~14 km. The glacier entered a new seasonal pattern in 2010 when it continued to calve throughout the winter and subsequently failed to significantly re-advance. The glacier continues to evolve into 2012; it is now moving at a new maximum speed and the terminus has already reached a new minimum position in mid-summer, far earlier than in previous years. The calving style has changed from full glacier thick icebergs that calve as episodic events at one week to few week intervals to smaller sub-kilometer icebergs that calve more frequently. A two-week field campaign was conducted observing the terminus and proglacial ice mélange during in August 2012. A group of ground based radar interferometers were deployed to monitor changes in speed and surface deformation in response to calving events and tidal cycles, helping to illustrate the new style of calving, which leads to significantly smaller icebergs in the fjord. Observations are compared against GPS instruments deployed along the terminus as well as time-lapse photography and satellite data. The radars not only capture the motion of glacier ice, but are also well suited to document the response of the ice melange to calving events. The effects of atmospheric variability on ground based radar interferometry can be important.

Cassotto, R. K.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Amundson, J. M.; Truffer, M.; de la Pena, S.; Joughin, I. R.

2012-12-01

70

Statistical Significance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article may help the user understand the concept of statistical significance and the meaning of the numbers produced by The Survey System. This article is presented in two parts. The first part simplifies the concept of statistical significance as much as possible; so that non-technical readers can use the concept to help make decisions based on their data. The second part provides more technical readers with a fuller discussion of the exact meaning of statistical significance numbers.

2008-06-30

71

Indian women with higher serum concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 are significantly less likely to be infected with carcinogenic or high-risk (HR) types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs)  

PubMed Central

Background: Studies conducted in the USA have demonstrated that micronutrients such as folate and vitamin B12 play a significant role in modifying the natural history of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs), the causative agent for developing invasive cervical cancer (CC) and its precursor lesions. Objective: The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether these micronutrients have similar effects on HR-HPV infections in Indian women. Methods: The associations between serum concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 and HR-HPV infections were evaluated in 724 women who participated in a CC screening study in the southern state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were measured by using a competitive radio-binding assay. Digene hybrid capture 2 (HC2) assay results were used to categorize women into two groups, positive or negative for HR-HPVs. Unconditional logistic regression models specified a binary indicator of HC2 (positive/negative) as the dependent variable and serum folate concentrations combined with serum vitamin B12 concentrations as the independent predictor of primary interest. Models were fitted, adjusting for age, education, marital status, parity, type of fuel used for cooking and smoking status. Results: Women with higher concentrations of serum folate (>6 ng/mL) and vitamin B12 (>356 pg/mL) were at lower risk of being positive for HR-HPVs compared to those with serum folate ?6 ng/mL and serum vitamin B12 ? 356 pg/mL (odds ratio = 0.26; 95% confidence interval: 0.08–0.89; P = 0.03). Conclusions: These results demonstrated that improving folate and vitamin B12 status in Indian women may have a beneficial impact on the prevention of CC. Micronutrient based interventions for control of HR-HPV infections may represent feasible alternatives to vaccine based approaches to HPV disease prevention, which are currently unaffordable for use in resource limited areas in rural India.

Piyathilake, Chandrika J; Badiga, Suguna; Paul, Proma; Vijayaraghavan, K; Vedantham, Haripriya; Sudula, Mrudula; Sowjanya, Pavani; Ramakrishna, Gayatri; Shah, Keerti V; Partridge, Edward E; Gravitt, Patti E

2010-01-01

72

The Significance of HIV 'Blips' in Resource-Limited Settings: Is It the Same? Analysis of the Treat Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD) and the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Magnitude and frequency of HIV viral load blips in resource-limited settings, has not previously been assessed. This study was undertaken in a cohort from a high income country (Australia) known as AHOD (Australian HIV Observational Database) and another cohort from a mixture of Asian countries of varying national income per capita, TAHOD (TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database). Methods Blips were defined as detectable VL (? 50 copies/mL) preceded and followed by undetectable VL (<50 copies/mL). Virological failure (VF) was defined as two consecutive VL ?50 copies/ml. Cox proportional hazard models of time to first VF after entry, were developed. Results 5040 patients (AHOD n?=?2597 and TAHOD n?=?2521) were included; 910 (18%) of patients experienced blips. 744 (21%) and 166 (11%) of high- and middle/low-income participants, respectively, experienced blips ever. 711 (14%) experienced blips prior to virological failure. 559 (16%) and 152 (10%) of high- and middle/low-income participants, respectively, experienced blips prior to virological failure. VL testing occurred at a median frequency of 175 and 91 days in middle/low- and high-income sites, respectively. Longer time to VF occurred in middle/low income sites, compared with high-income sites (adjusted hazards ratio (AHR) 0.41; p<0.001), adjusted for year of first cART, Hepatitis C co-infection, cART regimen, and prior blips. Prior blips were not a significant predictor of VF in univariate analysis (AHR 0.97, p?=?0.82). Differing magnitudes of blips were not significant in univariate analyses as predictors of virological failure (p?=?0.360 for blip 50–?1000, p?=?0.309 for blip 50–?400 and p?=?0.300 for blip 50–?200). 209 of 866 (24%) patients were switched to an alternate regimen in the setting of a blip. Conclusion Despite a lower proportion of blips occurring in low/middle-income settings, no significant difference was found between settings. Nonetheless, a substantial number of participants were switched to alternative regimens in the setting of blips.

Kanapathipillai, Rupa; McManus, Hamish; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Lim, Poh Lian; Templeton, David J.; Law, Matthew; Woolley, Ian

2014-01-01

73

Higher Education: Schools' Use of the Antitrust Exemption Has Not Significantly Affected College Affordability or Likelihood of Student Enrollment to Date. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-06-963  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1991 the U.S. Department of Justice sued nine colleges and universities, alleging that they had restrained competition by making collective financial aid determinations for students accepted to more than one of these schools. Against the backdrop of this litigation, Congress enacted a temporary exemption from antitrust laws for higher education…

Ashby, Cornelia M.

2006-01-01

74

Immuno-epidemiologic Correlates of Pandemic H1N1 Surveillance Observations: Higher Antibody and Lower Cell-Mediated Immune Responses with Advanced Age  

PubMed Central

Background. Pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) surveillance data showed lower attack rates but higher risk of severe outcomes with advanced age. We explored immuno-epidemiologic correlates of surveillance findings including humoral and cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Methods. In an age-based design, ?100 banked/residual sera per 10-year age stratum were assessed by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (MN) assays for preexisting antibody to pH1N1 and recent seasonal H1N1 and H3N2 strains. In a separate birth cohort design defined by childhood influenza A/subtype priming (1919–1929: H1N1; 1945–1949: H1N1; 1958–1960: H2N2; 1969–1970: H3N2; 1978–1989: H3N2/H1N1), whole blood was collected from up to 50 volunteers per birth cohort. The ratio of Th1(IFN-?):Th2(IL-10) cytokine responses was evaluated in vitro. Results. Antibody to seasonal viruses was highest in school-age children. Cross-reactive HI/MN antibody to pH1N1 was low among participants <70 years of age (yoa; 6%/4% ? 40), but seroprevalence increased at 70–79 yoa (27%/6%), increased even more at 80–89 yoa (65%/47%), and was highest at ?90 yoa (88%/76%). CMI to pH1N1 was evident in all 5 birth cohorts but was lower compared with seasonal strains. There was little differentiation by subtype priming, but the Th1:Th2 ratio for all viruses dropped significantly in the 2 oldest cohorts. Conclusions. Preexisting antibody may have protected the very old from pH1N1 infection, while diminished CMI may have contributed to greater severity once infected. In the young, cross-reactive pH1N1 antibody was mostly absent, while more intact CMI may have protected against severe outcomes.

Hottes, Travis S.; McElhaney, Janet E.; Janjua, Naveed Z.; Sabaiduc, Suzana; Chan, Tracy; Gentleman, Beth; Purych, Dale; Gardy, Jennifer; Patrick, David M.; Brunham, Robert C.; De Serres, Gaston; Petric, Martin

2011-01-01

75

Observation of Significant enhancement in the efficiency of a DSSC by InN nanoparticles over TiO 2-nanoparticle films  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the effect of InN deposited over TiO2 nanoparticle (NP) films on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using N3 dye with I-\\/I3- electrolyte. A 10–20% increase in efficiency was observed for InN deposited, N3 sensitized 5–8.5?m thick TiO2 films as compared to similar non-treated films. The deposition of InN was carried out in the temperature range

Tsai-Te Wang; P. Raghunath; Yun-Fang Lu; Yu-Chang Liu; Chwei-Huawn Chiou; M. C. Lin

2011-01-01

76

Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Themes in 1989 higher education case law reflect the difficulty in reducing the federal deficit, increased service demands on state budgets, and an economic condition of marginal growth. The interpretation of constitutional rights in relationships between the institution and students, employees, and communities continues to be heavily litigated.…

Hendrickson, Robert M.; Finnegan, Dorothy E.

77

Higher anthraxolites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent years have been marked by progress in studying the structure of natural X-ray amorphous substances, anthraxolites included, by scanning electron and atomic power microscopy. Integration of the available data on molecular and supramolecular structure of higher anthraxolites from Karelia, Novaya Zemlya, and the Urals allowed elaboration of new classification criteria for solid bitumen, namely, degree of structure perfection and micromineral composition. This approach will help to eliminate disadvantages of traditional investigation of solid bitumen.

Filippov, M. M.; Cherevko, N. K.; Golubev, E. A.

2007-12-01

78

Ritonavir and efavirenz significantly alter the metabolism of erlotinib--an observation in primary cultures of human hepatocytes that is relevant to HIV patients with cancer.  

PubMed

Erlotinib is approved for the treatment of non-small cell lung and pancreatic cancers, and is metabolized by CYP3A4. Inducers and inhibitors of CYP3A enzymes such as ritonavir and efavirenz, respectively, may be used as part of the highly active antiretroviral therapy drugs to treat patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). When HIV patients with a malignancy need treatment with erlotinib, there is a potential of as-yet-undefined drug-drug interaction. We evaluated these interactions using human hepatocytes benchmarked against the interaction of erlotinib with ketoconazole and rifampin, the archetype cytochrome P450 inhibitor and inducer, respectively. Hepatocytes were treated with vehicle [0.1% dimethylsulfoxide, ritonavir (10 ?M)], ketoconazole (10 ?M), efavirenz (10 ?M), or rifampin (10 ?M) for 4 days. On day 5, erlotinib (5 ?M) was incubated with the above agents for another 24-48 hours. Concentrations of erlotinib and O-desmethyl erlotinib were quantitated in collected samples (combined lysate and medium) using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The half-life (t(˝)) of erlotinib increased from 10.6 ± 2.6 to 153 ± 80 and 23.9 ± 4.8 hours, respectively, upon treatment with ritonavir and ketoconazole. The apparent intrinsic clearance (C(Lint, app)) of erlotinib was lowered 16-fold by ritonavir and 1.9-fold by ketoconazole. Efavirenz and rifampin decreased t1/2 of erlotinib from 10.3 ± 1.1 to 5.0 ± 1.5 and 3.4 ± 0.2 hours, respectively. Efavirenz and rifampin increased the C(Lint, app) of erlotinib by 2.2- and 2-fold, respectively. Our results suggest that to achieve desired drug exposure, the clinically used dose (150 mg daily) of erlotinib may have to be significantly reduced (25 mg every other day) or increased (300 mg daily), respectively, when ritonavir or efavirenz is coadministered. PMID:23913028

Pillai, Venkateswaran C; Venkataramanan, Raman; Parise, Robert A; Christner, Susan M; Gramignoli, Roberto; Strom, Stephen C; Rudek, Michelle A; Beumer, Jan H

2013-10-01

79

Renal dysfunction in STEMI-patients undergoing primary angioplasty: higher prevalence but equal prognostic impact in female patients; an observational cohort study from the Belgian STEMI registry  

PubMed Central

Background Mortality in female patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary angioplasty (pPCI) is higher than in men. We examined gender differences in the prevalence and prognostic performance of renal dysfunction at admission in this setting. Methods A multicenter retrospective sub-analysis of the Belgian STEMI-registry identified 1,638 patients (20.6% women, 79.4% men) treated with pPCI in 8 tertiary care hospitals (January 2007-February 2011). The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Main outcome measure was in-hospital mortality. Results More women than men suffered from renal dysfunction at admission (42.3% vs. 25.3%, p?higher (10.7 and 15.3 vs. 2.3 and 2.4%, p?higher in-hospital mortality in both men and women.

2013-01-01

80

Higher charmonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper gives results for the spectrum, all allowed E1 radiative partial widths (and some important M1 widths) and all open-charm strong decay amplitudes of all 40 c cmacr states expected up to the mass of the 4S multiplet, just above 4.4 GeV. The spectrum and radiative widths are evaluated using two models, the relativized Godfrey-Isgur model and a nonrelativistic potential model. The electromagnetic transitions are evaluated using Coulomb plus linear plus smeared hyperfine wave functions, both in a nonrelativistic potential model and in the Godfrey-Isgur model. The open-flavor strong decay amplitudes are determined assuming harmonic oscillator wave functions and the P30 decay model. This work is intended to motivate future experimental studies of higher-mass charmonia, and may be useful for the analysis of high-statistics data sets to be accumulated by the BES, CLEO, and GSI facilities.

Barnes, T.; Godfrey, S.; Swanson, E. S.

2005-09-01

81

Pathological Significance of Mitochondrial Glycation  

PubMed Central

Glycation, the nonenzymatic glycosylation of biomolecules, is commonly observed in diabetes and ageing. Reactive dicarbonyl species such as methylglyoxal and glyoxal are thought to be major physiological precursors of glycation. Because these dicarbonyls tend to be formed intracellularly, the levels of advanced glycation end products on cellular proteins are higher than on extracellular ones. The formation of glycation adducts within cells can have severe functional consequences such as inhibition of protein activity and promotion of DNA mutations. Although several lines of evidence suggest that there are specific mitochondrial targets of glycation, and mitochondrial dysfunction itself has been implicated in disease and ageing, it is unclear if glycation of biomolecules specifically within mitochondria induces dysfunction and contributes to disease pathology. We discuss here the possibility that mitochondrial glycation contributes to disease, focussing on diabetes, ageing, cancer, and neurodegeneration, and highlight the current limitations in our understanding of the pathological significance of mitochondrial glycation.

Pun, Pamela Boon Li; Murphy, Michael P.

2012-01-01

82

Inside Higher Ed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The wide, wide, wide world of higher education has found a new chronicler in the form of the Inside Higher Ed website. The group was founded in 2004 by three higher education journalism and recruitment executives who felt that "the time was right for new models of providing information and career services for professionals in academe." First-time visitors should consider signing up to receive the electronic updates, or just browsing through some of the latest news stories. Also, each news story has a place where visitors can chime in with their own opinions, if they so desire. The site also has a good job posting area, so persons looking to make a career move (or secure a first-time position) will want to look at this area of the site closely. Finally, the "Views" section contains some first-hand observations about such topics as blogs, the importance of jobs in far-flung places, and Saul Bellow.

83

Monocular amblyopia and higher order aberrations.  

PubMed

This study compared the corneal and total higher order aberrations between the fellow eyes in monocular amblyopia. Nineteen amblyopic subjects (8 refractive and 11 strabismic) (mean age 30 ± 11 years) were recruited. A range of biometric and optical measurements were collected from the amblyopic and non-amblyopic eye including; axial length, corneal topography and total higher order aberrations. For a sub-group of eleven non-presbyopic subjects (6 refractive and 5 strabismic amblyopes, mean age 29 ± 10 years) total higher order aberrations were also measured during accommodation (2.5D stimuli). Amblyopic eyes were significantly shorter and more hyperopic compared to non-amblyopic eyes and the interocular difference in axial length correlated with both the magnitude of anisometropia and amblyopia (both p<0.01). Significant differences in higher order aberrations were observed between fellow eyes, which varied with the type of amblyopia. Refractive amblyopes displayed higher levels of 4th order corneal aberrations C(4,0)(spherical aberration), C(4,2)(secondary astigmatism 90°) and C(4,-2)(secondary astigmatism along 45°) in the amblyopic eye compared to the non-amblyopic eye. Strabismic amblyopes exhibited significantly higher levels of C(3,3)(trefoil) in the amblyopic eye for both corneal and total higher order aberrations. During accommodation, the amblyopic eye displayed a significantly greater lag of accommodation compared to the non-amblyopic eye, while the changes in higher order aberrations were similar in magnitude between fellow eyes. Asymmetric visual experience during development appears to be associated with asymmetries in higher order aberrations, in some cases proportional to the magnitude of anisometropia and dependent upon the amblyogenic factor. PMID:22766479

Vincent, Stephen J; Collins, Michael J; Read, Scott A; Carney, Leo G

2012-08-01

84

Peripheral blood stem cell mobilization in multiple myeloma patients treat in the novel therapy-era with plerixafor and G-CSF has superior efficacy but significantly higher costs compared to mobilization with low-dose cyclophosphamide and G-CSF.  

PubMed

Studies comparing the efficacy and cost of peripheral blood stem and progenitor cells mobilization with low-dose cyclophosphamide (LD-CY) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) against plerixafor and G-CSF, in multiple myeloma (MM) patients treated in the novel therapy-era are not available. Herein, we report mobilization outcomes of 107 patients who underwent transplantation within 1-year of starting induction chemotherapy with novel agents. Patients undergoing mobilization with LD-CY (1.5 gm/m(2)) and G-CSF (n?=?74) were compared against patients receiving plerixafor and G-CSF (n?=?33). Compared to plerixafor, LD-CY was associated with a significantly lower median peak peripheral blood CD34+ cell count (68/µL vs. 36/µL, P?=?0.048), and lower CD34+ cell yield on day 1 of collection (6.9?×?10(6)/kg vs. 2.4?×?10(6)/kg, P?=?0.001). Six patients (8.1%) in the LD-CY group experienced mobilization failure, compared to none in the plerixafor group. The total CD34+ cell yield was significantly higher in the plerixafor group (median 11.6?×?10(6)/kg vs. 7?×?10(6)/kg; P-value?=?0.001). Mobilization with LD-CY was associated with increased (albeit statistically non-significant) episodes of febrile neutropenia (5.4% vs. 0%; P?=?0.24), higher use of intravenous antibiotics (6.7% vs. 3%; P?=?0.45), and need for hospitalizations (9.4% vs. 3%; P?=?0.24). The average total cost of mobilization in the plerixafor group was significantly higher compared to the LD-CY group ($28,980 vs. $19,626.5 P-value?significantly higher mobilization costs compared to LD-CY mobilization. Our data caution against the use of LD-CY in MM patients for mobilization, especially after induction with lenalidomide-containing regimens. PMID:23765597

Chaudhary, Lubna; Awan, Farrukh; Cumpston, Aaron; Leadmon, Sonia; Watkins, Kathy; Tse, William; Craig, Michael; Hamadani, Mehdi

2013-10-01

85

Tort Litigation in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies the significant trends and notable decisions in tort litigation regarding higher education in 1999. Cases for this year show that litigation remains common in higher education, and that many cases challenged the traditional norms of education law. An unmistakable trend is the increasing tendency to see student and university…

Lake, Peter F.

2000-01-01

86

History of Higher Education, 1994.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annual compilation presents four papers which focus on significant developments in higher education in nineteenth-century Europe and the United States. An introduction to the volume by Roger L. Geiger notes commonalities across the four papers and major trends in historical research on institutions of higher education. The first paper, by…

History of Higher Education, 1994

1994-01-01

87

Earthquake Induced Site Effect in the Algiers-Boumerdes Region: Relation Between Spectral Ratios Higher Peaks and Observed Damage During the May 21st M w 6.8 Boumerdes Earthquake (Algeria)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Algiers-Boumerdes regions were hit by an M w 6.8 destructive earthquake on May 21, 2003. The accelerometric and seismometric networks successfully recorded the main shock and many aftershocks at some locations where the damage was most extensive. A microtremor measurement was performed in the same locations; some of them are localized on the Mitidja basin. In this paper, we propose to analyze earthquake-induced site effect derived from horizontal to vertical spectral ratio from ambient noise (noise horizontal to vertical—NHV), or from very weak, weak, moderate and strong ( peak ground acceleration—PGA >10 % g) seismic motions (EHV), and transfer function evaluation from soil velocity profile data at four sites. H/V spectral ratios are computed by using both Fourier and response spectra. Compared to the transfer function, the obtained results show that in the case of soft soils, NHV as well as EHV give a good estimation of the soil's fundamental frequency, whereas the NHV underestimate the H/V amplitude and the EHV amplitude increase with the seismic motion intensity. In the case of firm soils, whereas the NHV gives flat curves synonymous for a rock site or a bump, the EHV is more appropriate as seen by identifying clear peaks with non negligible amplitude. In the case of soft sites as well as in the case of firm sites, strong peaks at frequencies higher than the fundamental one are found from EHV curves. Those peaks would not be found when looking at NHV ratios alone, are evidenced by the computed transfer function as well as by an analytical formulation, and are in agreement with the observed distribution of damage during the M w 6.8 2003 Boumerdes earthquake. Finally, the same analysis is performed by using response spectra rather than Fourier spectra and leads to the same conclusions. Moreover, the calculation of the response spectra is more easily compared with the smoothing operation of the Fourier spectra.

Laouami, Nasser; Slimani, Abdennasser

2013-11-01

88

Adaptive Significance of Floral Movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Darwin observed the reconfiguration of pollinia in orchards and referred to it as a function to reduce self-pollination, diverse floral movements have been investigated and various hypotheses have been proposed to explain their adaptive significance. However, adaptive significance of floral movement in some species has yet to be fully explained. Increasing evidence suggests that some floral movements, which have

Cheng-Jiang Ruan

2011-01-01

89

Significance of Trends in Exoplanetary Atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cowan and Agol (2011) and we (Harrington et al. 2007, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013) have noted that at higher equilibrium temperatures, observed exoplanet fluxes are substantially higher than even the elevated equilibrium temperature predicts. With a substantial increase in the number of atmospheric flux measurements from observatories like Spitzer, and now even from the ground, we can test the statistical significance of this trend. We can also cast the data on a variety of axes to search further for the physics behind both the jump in flux above about 2000 K and the wide scatter in fluxes at all temperatures. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G.

Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M.; Blumenthal, S. D.; Loredo, T. J.; the UCF Exoplanets Group

2014-01-01

90

Higher Education Exchange, 2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Higher Education Exchange" is part of a movement to strengthen higher education's democratic mission and foster a more democratic culture throughout American society. Working in this tradition, the "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic…

Brown, David W., Ed; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

2005-01-01

91

Higher Education Exchange, 2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

2010-01-01

92

Higher Education in Switzerland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structure of higher education in Switzerland is outlined and the roles of the universities, higher technical schools, and social schools are described. Also addressed are: research and higher education, the labor market, student characteristics, and the future outlook for Swiss higher education. (BH)

Crausaz, Roselyne

1979-01-01

93

Higher Education Exchange, 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

2008-01-01

94

Higher Education Exchange, 2004  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Higher Education Exchange is part of a movement to strengthen higher education's democratic mission and foster a more democratic culture throughout American society. Working in this tradition, the Higher Education Exchange publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic…

Brown, David W., Ed; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

2004-01-01

95

Higher Education Exchange, 2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

2012-01-01

96

Higher Education Exchange, 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

2011-01-01

97

The Higher Education Enterprise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education not only contributes to the development of the human resources and intellectual betterment of the nation but is also a major economic enterprise. This research brief reviews and highlights data on the size and growth of higher education and illustrates how higher education institutions are preparing the future labor force. It…

Ottinger, Cecilia A.

1991-01-01

98

Higher Education Exchange, 2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" discuss the concept of growing public scholars; each contribution incorporates a student component. Articles include: (1) "Foreword"…

Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

2007-01-01

99

Clinical significance of translocation.  

PubMed Central

The gastrointestinal tract, besides being the organ responsible for nutrient absorption, is also a metabolic and immunological system, functioning as an effective barrier against endotoxin and bacteria in the intestinal lumen. The passage of viable bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract through the epithelial mucosa is called bacterial translocation. Equally important may be the passage of bacterial endotoxin through the mucosal barrier. This article reviews the evidence that translocation of both endotoxin and bacteria is of clinical significance. It summarises recent published works indicating that translocation of endotoxin in minute amounts is a physiological important phenomenon to boost the reticuloendothelial system (RES), especially the Kupffer cells, in the liver. Breakdown of both the mucosal barrier and the RES capacity results in systemic endotoxaemia. Systemic endotoxaemia results in organ dysfunction, impairs the mucosal barrier, the clotting system, the immune system, and depresses Kupffer cell function. If natural defence mechanisms such as lipopolysaccharide binding protein, high density lipoprotein, in combination with the RES, do not respond properly, dysfunction of the gut barrier results in bacterial translocation. Extensive work on bacterial translocation has been performed in animal models and occurs notably in haemorrhagic shock, thermal injury, protein malnutrition, endotoxaemia, trauma, and intestinal obstruction. It is difficult to extrapolate these results to humans and its clinical significance is not clear. The available data show that the resultant infection remains important in the development of sepsis, especially in the critically ill patient. Uncontrolled infection is, however, neither necessary nor sufficient to account for the development of multiple organ failure. A more plausible sequelae is that bacterial translocation is a later phenomenon of multiple organ failure, and not its initiator. It is hypothesized that multiple organ failure is more probably triggered by the combination of tissue damage and systemic endotoxaemia. Endotoxaemia, as seen in trauma patients especially during the first 24 hours, in combination with tissue elicits a systemic inflammation, called Schwartzmann reaction. Interferon gamma, a T cell produced cytokine, is thought to play a pivotal part in the pathogenesis of this reaction. This reaction might occur only if the endotoxin induced cytokines like tumour necrosis factor and interleukin 1, act on target cells prepared by interferon gamma. After exposure to interferon gamma target cells become more sensitive to stimuli like endotoxin, thus boosting the inflammatory cycle. Clearly, following this line of reasoning, minor tissue damage or retroperitoneal haematoma combined with systemic endotoxaemia could elicit this reaction. The clinically observed failure of multiple organ systems might thus be explained by the interaction of tissue necrosis and high concentrations of endotoxin because of translocation. Future therapeutic strategies could therefore focus more on binding endotoxin in the gut before the triggering event, for example before major surgery. Such a strategy could be combined with the start of early enteral feeding, which has been shown in animal studies to have a beneficial effect on intestinal mucosal barrier function and in traumatized patients to reduce the incidence of septic complications.

Van Leeuwen, P A; Boermeester, M A; Houdijk, A P; Ferwerda, C C; Cuesta, M A; Meyer, S; Wesdorp, R I

1994-01-01

100

The low energy component of the anti-neutrino spectrum observed in the recent Kamland exper- iment has significant contribution from the radioactive decay of 238U and 232Th in the earth. By  

Microsoft Academic Search

KamLAND observes geo anti-neutrinos in the (positron signal) energy range 0.9MeV < E < 2.5MeV . Thorium decay neutrinos have a maximum E value of 1.5MeV whereas Uranium neutrinos contribute in the entire ob- served energy range of the geo signal. The geo neutrinos undergo an energy independent suppression as their av- erage distance from the detector ? 103km is

Subhendra Mohanty

101

Surprise! Higher Dividends = Higher Earnings Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate whether dividend policy, as observed in the payout ratio of the U.S. equity market portfolio, forecasts future aggregate earnings growth. The historical evidence strongly suggests that expected future earnings growth is fastest when current payout ratios are high and slowest when payout ratios are low. This relationship is not subsumed by other factors, such as simple mean reversion

Robert D. Arnott; Clifford S. Asness

2003-01-01

102

Reclaiming Our Soul: Democracy and Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores how, as higher education faces new financial realities together with escalating demands for more accountability, a call to reclaim the soul of higher education and with it, the soul of democracy, will require significant institutional and personal transformations. (EV)

Chickering, Arthur W.

2003-01-01

103

The significance of research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When promoting the value of their research or procuring funding, researchers often need to explain the significance of their work to the community -- something that can be just as tricky as the research itself.

2014-02-01

104

Automation of interferometric observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Infrared Spatial Interferometer (ISI) is a heterodyne interferometer that operates in the 9-12 micron atmospheric window. It is located at Mount Wilson and consists of two 1.65-m Pfund-type telescopes. Presently baselines range up to 35 m. Lately the performance of the ISI was improved significantly, providing higher quality interferometric data. The improvements include all-reflective front-end optics, larger bandwidth and higher quantum efficiency heterodyne detectors, a fringe calibration system, a CCD autoguiding system, and a more advanced computer control system. The newly developed control software allows the observations to be largely automated.

Bester, M.; Degiacomi, C. G.; Danchi, W. C.; Greenhill, L. J.; Townes, C. H.

105

Transitions in higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers ideas towards a solution of some of the problems that arise due to the extension of higher education to an ever wider range of students: especially student drop?out. It suggests that, as far as is practical, the design and delivery of higher education should be based upon the major changes or transitions which the students undergo. After

Trevor Hussey; Patrick Smith

2010-01-01

106

Reinventing Continuing Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Re-inventing continuing higher education is about finding ways to be a more central player in a region's civic, cultural, and economic life as well as in the education of individuals for work and citizenship. Continuing higher education will require data gathering, analytical tools, convening authority, interpretive skills, new models of delivery,…

Walshok, Mary Lindenstein

2012-01-01

107

Higher Education Program Descriptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A compilation of descriptions of graduate programs in the field of higher education is presented as prepared by the ASHE Committee on Curriculum, Instruction and Learning. The report is based on a survey of the 92 directors of masters and doctoral programs in higher education in the United States and Canada. For each of 65 respondents, one-page…

Nelson, Glenn M., Comp.; Crosson, Patricia H., Comp.

108

Gender and Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

2011-01-01

109

Quality in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains 21 new and classic papers and readings on quality philosophies and concepts, first, as they have been applied in business and industry but primarily as they relate to and can be applied in higher education. The introduction is titled "The Quality Approach in Higher Education: Context and Concepts for Change" by Brent D. Ruben.…

Ruben, Brent D., Ed.

110

Chicanos in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This "special theme" journal issue focuses on higher education of Chicanos and Latinos. The journal includes the following articles: (1) "Dilemmas of Chicano and Latino Professors in U.S. Universities" (Hisauro Garza); (2) "Analysis of Tenure Among Hispanic Higher Education Faculty" (Richard R. Verdugo); (3) "Experiences of Multiple Marginality: A…

Flores, Juan M., Ed.

1992-01-01

111

Minorities in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents 19 papers on efforts to increase the participation of members of minority groups in higher education. The papers are: (1) "Demographic Trends and the Challenges to American Higher Education" (Manuel Justiz); (2) "Three Realities: Minority Life in the United States--The Struggle for Economic Equity (adapted by Don M. Blandin);…

Justiz, Manuel J., Ed.; And Others

112

Significance of Grandparents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research focuses on the significance of grandparenthood to a sample of young adult grandchildren as detailed from their responses to a series of Likert-type, range of choice, and yes-no items in five distinct areas of inquiry. Results show that grandchildren do not see grandparents as old-fashioned. (Author)

Robertson, Joan F.

1976-01-01

113

Statistical Applets: Statistical Significance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by authors Duckworth, McCabe, Moore and Sclove for W.H. Freeman of Co., this applet is designed to help students visualize the rejection region of a statistical test by allowing them to set null and alternate hypotheses, population parameters, sample statistics, and significance level. It accompanies "ĂÂĂÂPractice of Business Statistics," but can be used without this text. Even though brief, this is a nice interactive resource for an introductory statistics course.

Duckworth, William; Mccabe, George; Moore, David; Sclove, Stanley

2009-03-05

114

Coincidence to significance.  

PubMed

This article will describe the author's entrepreneurial experiences related to challenges of initiating, negotiating and completing a health promotion project for a Fortune 500 company. The events described begin with her casual meeting of a director of the health promotion section of an international food company and wncludes with the author's final development of a significant employee injury prevention program. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate professional challenges an occupational therapist may encounter to successfully complete a corporate project. PMID:23931009

Herring, C

1989-01-01

115

Marketing Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the 4 basic areas in which institutional marketing can be put to use in higher educational institutions: educational services offered, pricing (tuition), promotion to prospective students, and distribution (extension courses and courses that go to the student). (PG)

O'Brian, Edward J.

1973-01-01

116

Higher Education in Switzerland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores higher education in Switzerland and characterizes its relationship to vocational training, the labor market, other educational establishments, and research. Characteristics of students and teachers are also discussed. Journal availability: see SO 507 243. (Author/DB)

Crausaz, Roselyne

1979-01-01

117

Forecasting Higher Education's Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers predictions on trends in higher education to accommodate changing needs, lower budgets, and increased enrollment. They involve campus construction, security, administration, technology, interior design, athletics, and transportation. (EV)

Boyken, Don; Buck, Tina S.; Kollie, Ellen; Przyborowski, Danielle; Rondinelli, Joseph A.; Hunter, Jeff; Hanna, Jeff

2003-01-01

118

Racism: Undermining Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses racial incidents on college campuses. Claims it is imperative that the higher education community address the problem of racism by going on the offensive and incorporating race relations as a major concern into all future planning efforts. (ABL)

Terrell, Melvin C.

1988-01-01

119

Perspectives on Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of Human Resources and Higher Education: Staff Report of the Commission on Human Resources and Advanced Education (New York; Basic, 1970) by John K. Folger, Helen S. Astin, and Alan E. Bayer. (DB)

Mayhew, Lewis B.

1971-01-01

120

Higher-alcohols biorefinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of a biorefinery for higher-alcohol production is to integrate ethanol and methanol formation via fermentation\\u000a and biomass gasification, respectively, with, conversion of these simple alcohol intermediates into higher alcohols via the\\u000a Guerbet reaction. 1-Butanol results from the selfcondensation of ethanol in this multistep reaction occurring on a single\\u000a catalytic bed. Combining methanol with ethanol gives a mixture of

Edwin S. Olson; Ramesh K. Sharma; Ted R. Aulich

2004-01-01

121

ASCA Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This recently expired grant has supported the work of the PI, his students, and his collaborators on a variety of ASCA projects over the past four years. Annual reports have summarized much of the work accomplished; here we provide a brief review of the work resulting from this effort, and a summary of the personnel who have benefited from the grant's support. Starburst Galaxies with Extreme X-ray Luminosities This project began as a careful examination of the claims of Boller et al. (1992) that there were dozens of "normal" galaxies in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey that had X-ray luminosities in excess of 1042 erg sec, higher than that seen in the hundreds of non-AGN galaxies observed with Einstein. If true, this suggested that X-ray emission associated with star formation activity might have a significant contribution to make to the still unexplained cosmic X-ray background (XRB). Since some of our earlier work with the Einstein Observatory Deep Surveys had suggested a similar possibility and several sets of authors over the years had modelled the starburst XRB contribution, these claims were worth pursuing. Our work expanded the examination beyond the RASS to include earlier claims of high-luminosity galaxies powered by starburst emission (selected in this case on the basis of the far-IR luminosities). The result of extensive followup observations under several programs using ROSAT, ASCA, and ground-based facilities was to show that nearly all of these objects in fact have hidden AGN at their cores, and that their luminosities are not in any way extraordinary.

Helfand, David J.

1998-01-01

122

Supersymmetric higher spin theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revisit the higher spin extensions of the anti de Sitter algebra in four dimensions that incorporate internal symmetries and admit representations that contain fermions, classified long ago by Konstein and Vasiliev. We construct the dS4, Euclidean and Kleinian version of these algebras, as well as the corresponding fully nonlinear Vasiliev type higher spin theories, in which the reality conditions we impose on the master fields play a crucial role. The N=2 supersymmetric higher spin theory in dS4, on which we elaborate further, is included in this class of models. A subset of the Konstein-Vasiliev algebras are the minimal higher spin extensions of the AdS4 superalgebra osp(4|N ) with N=1, 2, 4 mod 4, whose R-symmetry can be realized using fermionic oscillators. We tensor these algebras with appropriate internal symmetry algebras, namely u(n) for N= 2 mod 4 and so(n) or usp(n) for N=1,4 mod 4. We show that the N= 3 mod 4 higher spin algebras are isomorphic to those with N = 4 mod 4. We describe the fully nonlinear higher spin theories based on these algebras, including the coupling between the adjoint and twisted-adjoint master fields. We elaborate further on the N = 6 model in AdS4, and provide two equivalent descriptions one of which exhibits manifestly its relation to the N = 8 model. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Higher spin theories and holography’.

Sezgin, Ergin; Sundell, Per

2013-05-01

123

Higher Education Research Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1973, the Higher Education Research Institute (HERI) is located within UCLA's Graduate School of Education & Information Studies. Researchers at the HERI are interested in examining leadership development, institutional transformation, faculty performance, and educational equity. First-time visitors should check out the "Surveys" area first, as it contains information about some of their very well-known longitudinal surveys, such as the Freshmen Year Survey and the College Senior Survey. Most visitors with a general interest in higher education trends will want to look through the "Publications" section, as it contains reports on spirituality in higher education, the gender gap in colleges, and the impact of single-gender high schools on students' transition to college.

124

The significance of gamma ray observations for neutrino astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Celestial gamma-rays and neutrinos are formed in some of the same astrophysical interactions, but have important different properties. Measurements of these radiations were used to study the presence and dynamic effects of energetic charged cosmic ray particles, element synthesis and particle acceleration. In addition, since gamma-rays in the energy range from several MeV to at least 10 to the 12th power eV and neutrinos both have very low interaction cross sections, they have a very high penetrating power and reach the earth from almost any part of the galaxy or universe. Therefore, they retain the detailed imprint of spectral, directional and temporal features imposed at their birth, even if they were born in regions opaque to visible light and X-rays.

Fichtel, C. E.

1978-01-01

125

The Significance of gamma Ray Observations for Neutrino Astronomy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Celestial gamma-rays and neutrinos are formed in some of the same astrophysical interactions, but have important different properties. Measurements of these radiations were used to study the presence and dynamic effects of energetic charged cosmic ray par...

C. E. Fichtel

1978-01-01

126

Higher Education Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of 10 articles and stories highlights ongoing experiments in colleges and universities which address the relationship of higher education institutions and citizenship responsibility. Following a foreword by Deborah White, articles are: "The Civic Roots of Academic Social Science Scholarship in American" (R. Claire Snyder), which…

Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

127

Higher Education Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight papers, arising from a June 1998 seminar on the professions and public life, examine issues related to the practice of public scholarship and the new connections that institutions of higher education are forging with the public. Following a foreword by Deborah Witte, the papers are: (1) "The Academy and Public Life: Healing the Rift" (Scott…

Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

128

Higher Education Exchange, 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annual collection focuses on the obligation of higher education to democracy. Scholars from a variety if disciplines explore this question and related issues, such as the civic mission of the university, what it means to be an "engaged" university, and how a university can itself by a "good citizen." Following a foreword by Deborah Witte, the…

Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

129

Barriers to Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report includes the papers presented at the Colluquium and the responses to these papers. The papers dealt primarily with the most critical and urgent problems involved in equalizing opportunity for the minority/poverty groups in the United States and include: "Educational Opportunity and the Organization of Higher Education," by Warren W.…

College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY.

130

HIGHER DEGREE HYPERBOLIC FORMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define higher degree hyperbolic forms, analogous to the quadratic hyperbolic forms. We prove the following descent result. Let f be a form of degree d ? 3 over a field F of characteristic 0, and let K|f be a field extension. Then if f is equivalent over K to a hyperbolic form, f must already be equivalent to it

Arnold Keet

1993-01-01

131

Higher Education Exchange 1995.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine articles discuss the relationship between the higher education community and the public. The articles are: (1) "On a Certain Blindness in Teaching" by Michael S. Roth, who stresses the necessity of political citizenship education for a healthy democracy; (2) "Monocultural Perspectives and Campus Diversity" by Jane Fried, who explores the…

Brown, David W., Ed.

132

Higher Education and Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article includes reports of meetings held in Dublin, Bonn, and Strasbourg of member State representatives of the Council of Europe. The first meeting discussed problem areas relating to the access to higher education, in particular the implications of the increasing admission restrictions and the diversification of postsecondary education.…

Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

133

Contracting and Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The potential gains in efficiency of three types of contracts in college administration are contrasted. Contract types include explicit contracts in the budgeting process between the state and higher education institutions; institutional contracting for inputs; and interinstitutional contracting. The tradeoff between production cost savings and…

Ferris, James M.

1991-01-01

134

Valuing Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The question of the value of higher education is today set in the context of an unprecedented banking and financial crisis. In this context of fundamental change and financial realignment, it is important that we as members of the university remake our case for why the university deserves to be considered alongside all those other worthy causes…

Pillay, Gerald J.

2009-01-01

135

Entrepreneurship and Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stimulating innovative and growth-oriented entrepreneurship is a key economic and societal challenge to which universities and colleges have much to contribute. This book examines the role that higher education institutions are currently playing through teaching entrepreneurship and transferring knowledge and innovation to enterprises and…

Potter, Jonathan, Ed.

2008-01-01

136

Higher Education: Whose Investment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues in the financing of higher education are discussed, including concern about rapidly increasing student debt, the decline in state student financial aid, rising student costs, college presidents' assessment of the damage in various areas of college operations caused by these changes, and predicted legislative response. Issues are considered…

Harney, John O.

1996-01-01

137

Higher Education's Strange Paradox.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The university which has had the temerity to change the world has not had the nerve to change itself to live in that world. The result is that the university's grading system, curriculum, teaching methods, and philosophies are in conflict with the world beyond the campus gates, and higher education does not meet the intellectual and social needs…

Howe, Harold, II

138

Benchmarking for Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chapters in this collection explore the concept of benchmarking as it is being used and developed in higher education (HE). Case studies and reviews show how universities in the United Kingdom are using benchmarking to aid in self-regulation and self-improvement. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction to Benchmarking" (Norman Jackson and Helen…

Jackson, Norman, Ed.; Lund, Helen, Ed.

139

Women in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The high level of college admission of women in Japan is analyzed relative to changes in social and educational values, continuing evidence of gender tracking, persistent doubts regarding "appropriateness" of higher education for women, employment opportunities and related national legislation, and values held by Japanese women themselves about…

Amano, Masako

1997-01-01

140

Tevatron higher energy testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cryogenic system upgrade was installed in 1993 to lower the temperature of the Tevatron in order to achieve higher operating energies. Centrifugal cold helium vapor compressors were used to lower the temperature of the two-phase circuit of the Tevatron. A cold compressor (CC) is used at each of the twenty-four satellite refrigerators, allowing each satellite to be individually tuned

Jay Theilacker

1995-01-01

141

Shell Higher Olefins Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows how olefin isomerization and the exotic olefin metathesis reaction can be harnessed in industrial processes. Indicates that the Shell Higher Olefins Process makes use of organometallic catalysts to manufacture alpha-olefins and internal carbon-11 through carbon-14 alkenes in a flexible fashion that can be adjusted to market needs. (JN)

Lutz, E. F.

1986-01-01

142

Early diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination associated with higher female mortality and no difference in male mortality in a cohort of low birthweight children: an observational study within a randomised trial  

PubMed Central

Background Studies from low-income countries have suggested that diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine provided after Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination may have a negative effect on female survival. The authors examined the effect of DTP in a cohort of low birthweight (LBW) infants. Methods 2320 LBW newborns were visited at 2, 6 and 12 months of age to assess nutritional and vaccination status. The authors examined survival until the 6-month visit for children who were DTP vaccinated and DTP unvaccinated at the 2-month visit. Results Two-thirds of the children had received DTP at 2 months and 50 deaths occurred between the 2-month and 6-month visits. DTP vaccinated children had a better anthropometric status for all indices than DTP unvaccinated children. Small mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) was the strongest predictor of mortality. The death rate ratio (DRR) for DTP vaccinated versus DTP unvaccinated children differed significantly for girls (DRR 2.45; 95% CI 0.93 to 6.45) and boys (DRR 0.53; 95% CI 0.23 to 1.20) (p=0.018, homogeneity test). Adjusting for MUAC, the overall effect for DTP vaccinated children was 2.62 (95% CI 1.34 to 5.09); DRR was 5.68 (95% CI 1.83 to 17.7) for girls and 1.29 (95% CI 0.56 to 2.97) for boys (p=0.023, homogeneity test). While anthropometric indices were a strong predictor of mortality among boys, there was little or no association for girls. Conclusion Surprisingly, even though the children with the best nutritional status were vaccinated early, early DTP vaccination was associated with increased mortality for girls.

Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Roth, Adam; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Lisse, Ida Maria; Diness, Birgitte Rode; Lausch, Karen Rokkedal; Lund, Najaaraq; Rasmussen, Julie; Biering-S?rensen, Sofie; Whittle, Hilton; Benn, Christine Stabell

2012-01-01

143

Significant Radionuclides Determination  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

Jo A. Ziegler

2001-07-31

144

Determining safe limits for significant task parameters during manual lifting.  

PubMed

This experimental study investigated the effect of lifting task parameters (i.e., lifting weight, frequency, coupling, asymmetric angle, and vertical, horizontal, and travel distances) for various dynamic human lifting activities on the ground reaction forces of workers. Ten male workers loaded containers from different levels asymmetrically during experimental trials. The experimental design evolved using Taguchi's Fractional Factorial Experiments. Three factors (lifting weight, frequency, and vertical distance) were observed to be significant. The results showed that vertical reaction forces increase when workers lift weight from floor to shoulder height frequently. It was also observed that instantaneous loading rate increases with more weight, vertical distance, and frequency; a significant extra loading rate is required to change the lower level of load, frequency, and vertical distance to higher levels. Safe limits for significant factors were determined to result in optimal performance of the manual lifting task. PMID:24702682

Singh, Ravindra Pratrap; Batish, Ajay; Singh, Tejinder Pal

2014-04-01

145

Higher order Josephson effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gaussian linking of superconducting loops containing Josephson junctions with enclosed magnetic fields gives rise to interference shifts in the phase that modulates the current carried through the loop, proportional to the magnitude of the enclosed flux. We generalize these results to higher order linking of a superconducting loop with several magnetic solenoids, and show that there may be interference shifts proportional to the product of two or more fluxes.

Buniy, Roman V.; Kephart, Thomas W.

2010-06-01

146

Higher Education Research Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at the graduate school of Education and Information at the University of California, Los Angeles, the Higher Education Research Institute "serves as an interdisciplinary center for research, evaluation, information, policy studies, and research training in postsecondary education." It is also the home of the Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP), a national longitudinal study of the American higher education system. Established in 1966 at the American Council on Education, the CIRP is "the nation's largest and oldest empirical study of higher education, involving data on some 1,700 institutions and over 10 million students." Visitors to the site can access extensive press releases and data summaries of the latest CIRP's of incoming freshmen as well as data from surveys targeting entering students, other classes of college students, and faculty members. The CIRP Archives section offers an extensive annotated bibliography of related conference papers, journal articles, books, dissertations, and reports. The Website also provides information to educators and administrators on ordering more targeted data drawn from specific schools and/or specific comparative profiles.

147

On Bisimulation Theory in Linear Higher-Order pi-Calculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher-order process calculi are an important branch of process model for its significance in both theory and practice. In\\u000a this paper, we establish new results on bisimulation theory in linear higher-order ?-calculus. By exploiting the properties of linear higher-order processes, we work out two simpler variants than local bisimulation,\\u000a which is an intuitive observational equivalence. We prove that they both

Xian Xu

2009-01-01

148

The Higher Dimensional Gravastars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new model of gravastar is obtained in D-dimensional Einstein gravity. This class of solutions includes the gravastar as an alternative to D-dimensional versions of the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole. The configuration of this new gravastar consists of three different regions with different equations of state: [I] Interior: 0 ? r < r 1, ? = - p; [II] Shell: r 1 ? r < r 2, ? = p; [III] Exterior: r 2 < r, ? = p = 0. The outer region of this gravastar corresponds to a higher dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole.

Rahaman, F.; Chakraborty, S.; Ray, Saibal; Usmani, A. A.; Islam, S.

2014-06-01

149

Higher order Bezier circles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rational Bezier and B-spline representations of circles have been heavily publicized. However, all the literature assumes the rational Bezier segments in the homogeneous space are both planar and (equivalent to) quadratic. This creates the illusion that circles can only be achieved by planar and quadratic curves. Circles that are formed by higher order rational Bezier curves which are nonplanar in the homogeneous space are shown. The problem of whether it is possible to represent a complete circle with one Bezier curve is investigated. In addition, some other interesting properties of cubic Bezier arcs are discussed.

Chou, Jin

1993-01-01

150

Higher than Everest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tired of exploring planet Earth? Have you ever imagined what it would be like to explore the Moon? Ever wonder about the topography of Mars? In this unique guidebook all of your extraterrestrial wanderlust can be fulfilled as Paul Hodge takes you on a virtual tour of the most spectacular sites in the Solar System. Hodge includes the latest information about the Solar System into his vivid descriptions of imaginary, challenging expeditions. Imagine: -- Descending into a fabulous canyon on Mars, one that dwarfs the Earth's Grand Canyon; -- Trekking up Venus' precipitous and scorching Mt. Maxwell; -- Journeying through the snows of Saturn's rings and the incredibly high, icy cliff of Miranda, the moon closest to Uranus. A compelling, extensively illustrated introduction to such otherworldly environments, Higher than Everest makes you believe that someday these adventures may actually take place. Paul Hodge is Professor of Astronomy at the University of Washington, Seattle, and Editor-in-Chief of the Astronomical Journal. Higher than Everest is based on a popular undergraduate course on the planets that he has taught for many years. Hodge's research has spanned from interplanetary dust to the extragalactic distance scale and currently includes star-formation and galactic evolution, using the Hubble Space Telescope to investigate nearby galaxies. He has written several books, most recently Meteorite Craters and Impact Structures of the Earth (Cambridge 1994).

Hodge, Paul

2001-08-01

151

Methane conversion to higher hydrocarbons in a corona discharge over metal oxide catalysts with OH groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gas discharge promoted oxidative conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons over various metal oxide and zeolite catalysts was investigated over a wide range of temperatures (373–973 K). The most significant gas discharge effects were observed over catalysts containing polar OH groups. Significant methane conversions and C2 yields were achieved at temperatures sufficiently low that no intrinsic catalytic activity for

Changjun Liu; Abdulathim Marafee; Richard Mallinson; Lance Lobban

1997-01-01

152

Teaching at higher levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undergraduate physics programmes for the 21st century were under discussion at a recent event held in Arlington, USA, open to two or three members of the physics faculties of universities from across the whole country. The conference was organized by the American Association of Physics Teachers with co-sponsorship from the American Institute of Physics, the American Physical Society and Project Kaleidoscope. Among the various aims were to learn about physics departments that have successfully revitalized their undergraduate physics programmes with innovative introductory physics courses and multi-track majors programmes. Engineers and life scientists were to be asked directly how physics programmes can better serve their students, and business leaders would be speaking on how physics departments can help to prepare their students for the diverse careers that they will eventually follow. It was planned to highlight ways that departments could fulfil their responsibilities towards trainee teachers, to identify the resources needed for revitalizing a department's programme, and to develop guidelines and recommendations for a funding programme to support collaborative efforts among physics departments for carrying out the enhancements required. More details about the conference can be found on the AAPT website (see http://www.aapt.org/programs/rupc.html). Meanwhile the UK's Higher Education Funding Council has proposed a two-pronged approach to the promotion of high quality teaching and learning, as well as widening participation in higher education from 1999-2000. A total of ÂŁ60m should be available to support these initiatives by the year 2001-2002. As part of this scheme the Council will invite bids from institutions to support individual academics in enhancing learning and teaching, as well as in recognition of individual excellence. As with research grants, such awards would enable staff to pursue activities such as the development of teaching materials, textbooks and technology applications, the improvement of delivery methods and work on curriculum and assessment practice. In addition, around half of the funding total will be set aside to widen participation for all students who can benefit from higher education, with assistance to ensure that those students succeed.

1998-11-01

153

Spirituality in Higher Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There has always been a great interest in the spiritual beliefs of young people, and in the past few decades, an increasing interest in the beliefs of those young people in colleges and universities around the United States. One group that is intently interested in this topic is the Higher Education Research Institute (HERI) at the University of California at Los Angeles. The Institute's primary agenda includes generating empirically based insights on "the trends, patterns, and principles of spiritual growth during the college years" and disseminating its research findings to various stakeholders. The pilot survey (which was first administered in 2003) is available for the Web-browsing public's consideration here, along with a newsletter and some preliminary findings based on data from the surveys.

154

Higher-Level Features in Speaker Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher-level features based on linguistic or long-range information have attracted significant attention in automatic speaker recognition. This article briefly summarizes approaches to using higher-level features for text-independent speaker verification over the last decade. To clarify how each approach uses higher-level information, features are described in terms of their type, tempo- ral span, and reliance on automatic speech recognition for both

Elizabeth Shriberg

2007-01-01

155

State Boards Responsible for Higher Education, 1970.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State agencies and organizations are playing an increasingly significant role in American higher education. With rising educational costs, increasingly complex programs, and burgeoning enrollments have come a movement toward State governing and coordinating boards designed to provide lay leadership in the advancement of public higher education. In…

Zwingle, J. L.; Rogers, Mabel E.

156

How External Misfortunes Shaped Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essay makes an attempt to trace the influences that external political and socioeconomic factors like World Wars I, II and Great Depression had on higher education in the U.S. Higher education - autonomous and self - contained system - proved to be one of the center points of main societal developments, at the same time being significantly

Orkodashvili, Mariam

2008-01-01

157

Student Retention: Crisis in Nursing Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducted nationwide study of higher education student retention programs for baccalaureate-degree nursing programs in U.S. Findings from 263 National League for Nursing accredited programs revealed that respondent institutions with retention programs at college level had statistically significant higher retention rate (70.77%) than those colleges…

Catalano, Joseph T.; Eddy, John P.

1993-01-01

158

Higher plant cellulose synthases  

PubMed Central

Cellulose, an aggregate of unbranched polymers of ?-1,4-linked glucose residues, is the major component of wood and thus paper, and is synthesized by plants, most algae, some bacteria and fungi, and even some animals. The genes that synthesize cellulose in higher plants differ greatly from the well-characterized genes found in Acetobacter and Agrobacterium sp. More correctly designated as 'cellulose synthase catalytic subunits', plant cellulose synthase (CesA) proteins are integral membrane proteins, approximately 1,000 amino acids in length. The sequences for more than 20 full-length CesA genes are available, and they show high similarity to one another across the entire length of the encoded protein, except for two small regions of variability. There are a number of highly conserved residues, including several motifs shown to be necessary for processive glycosyltransferase activity. No crystal structure is known for cellulose synthase proteins, and the exact enzymatic mechanism is unknown. There are a number of mutations in cellulose synthase genes in the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. Some of these mutants show altered morphology due to the lack of a properly developed primary or secondary cell wall. Others show resistance to well-characterized cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors.

Richmond, Todd

2000-01-01

159

Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

2013-09-17

160

Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

2013-10-02

161

Generalized structure of higher order nonclassicality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A generalized notion of higher order nonclassicality (in terms of higher order moments) is introduced. Under this generalized framework of higher order nonclassicality, conditions of higher order squeezing and higher order subpoissonian photon statistics are derived. A simpler form of the Hong-Mandel higher order squeezing criterion is derived under this framework by using an operator ordering theorem introduced by us in [A. Pathak, J. Phys. A 33 (2000) 5607]. It is also generalized for multi-photon Bose operators of Brandt and Greenberg. Similarly, condition for higher order subpoissonian photon statistics is derived by normal ordering of higher powers of number operator. Further, with the help of simple density matrices, it is shown that the higher order antibunching (HOA) and higher order subpoissonian photon statistics (HOSPS) are not the manifestation of the same phenomenon and consequently it is incorrect to use the condition of HOA as a test of HOSPS. It is also shown that the HOA and HOSPS may exist even in absence of the corresponding lower order phenomenon. Binomial state, nonlinear first order excited squeezed state (NLESS) and nonlinear vacuum squeezed state (NLVSS) are used as examples of quantum state and it is shown that these states may show higher order nonclassical characteristics. It is observed that the Binomial state which is always antibunched, is not always higher order squeezed and NLVSS which shows higher order squeezing does not show HOSPS and HOA. The opposite is observed in NLESS and consequently it is established that the HOSPS and HOS are two independent signatures of higher order nonclassicality.

Verma, Amit; Pathak, Anirban

2010-02-01

162

Tevatron higher energy testing  

SciTech Connect

A cryogenic system upgrade was installed in 1993 to lower the temperature of the Tevatron in order to achieve higher operating energies. Centrifugal cold helium vapor compressors were used to lower the temperature of the two-phase circuit of the Tevatron. A cold compressor (CC) is used at each of the twenty-four satellite refrigerators, allowing each satellite to be individually tuned to the temperature necessary for the magnets. Initial testing took place in December, 1993 and January, 1994. During that time, they uniformly tuned the Tevatron for 11 psia (3.93 K) cold compressor operation. fifteen quenches were achieved. All of them were ramp-to-quench from either a 900 GeV ramp or the QBS test ramp. Approximately ten of the quenches appeared to be training quenches. The ultimate ramp-to-quench energy achieved was 998 GeV. The second major testing sequence took place in July, 1995, just prior to a two month shutdown. Again, the entire Tevatron was tuned for a uniform cold compressor temperature of 11 psia (3.93 K). Two changes were made compared to the 1993/94 testing. First, the helium flow in the magnets was kept constant when pumping down from the nominal 19 psia to 11 psia. During previous testing, the magnet JT valves were kept locked, resulting in considerably higher flows at 11 psia operation. Second, instead of ramp-to-quench testing, ramping at a lower energy was started and the flattop energy was increased 5 GeV after three successful ramps. These two changes resulted in a lower peak quench energy of 990 GeV. An attempt was made to uniformly tune the cold compressor temperatures down to 8.5 psia to investigate the increase in quench energy. A failure in a turbine at CHL cold box II put an end to the test prior to powering the Tevatron. Uniform operation at 8.5 psia (3.69 K) is not possible steady state due to capacity limits of CHL cold box II. During this test, they were slowly consuming liquid from storage in order to make up the difference. Previous testing in A sector showed that some magnet strings perform better at 11 psia operation than others perform at 8 psia. Individually tuning the temperature at each of the twenty-four satellites allows us to conserve CHL capacity for magnet strings that exhibit the poorest quench performance. As a result, the goal of the recent testing in October, 1995, was to determine the quench energy of the Tevatron while individually tuning the operating temperature of each satellite system until a lower temperature limit was reached in the quench limiting house.

Theilacker, Jay; /Fermilab

1995-10-01

163

Formative Assessment in Higher Education: Its Significance for Employability, and Steps towards Its Enhancement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that formative assessment can exert a powerful effect on student learning, yet the complexity of formative assessment is not well understood and some curricular structures and practices do not fully exploit its potential. This article outlines the background to the political promotion of employability and shows that institutional…

Yorke, Mantz

2005-01-01

164

Significantly higher frequency of Helicobacter suis in patients with idiopathic parkinsonism than in control patients  

PubMed Central

Background There is increased proportional mortality from Parkinson's disease amongst livestock farmers. The hypokinesia of Parkinson's disease has been linked to Helicobacter pylori. H. suis is the most common zoonotic helicobacter in man. Aim To compare the frequency of H. suis, relative to H. pylori, in gastric biopsies of patients with idiopathic parkinsonism (IP) and controls from gastroenterology services. Methods DNA extracts, archived at a Helicobacter Reference Laboratory, from IP patient and gastroenterology service biopsies were examined anonymously for H. suis, using species-specific RT-PCR. Results Relative risk of having H. suis in 60 IP patients compared with 256 controls was 10 times greater than that of having H. pylori. In patients with IP and controls, respectively, frequencies of H. suis were 27 (exact binomial 95% C.I. 15, 38) and 2 (0, 3)%, and of H. pylori, 28 (17, 40) and 16 (12, 21)%. Excess of H. suis in IP held when only the antral or corporal biopsy was considered. Of 16 IP patients with H. suis, 11 were from 19 with proven H. pylori eradication, 3 from 17 pre-H. pylori eradication, 2 from 24 H. pylori culture/PCR-negative. Frequency was different between groups (P = 0.001), greatest where H. pylori had been eradicated. Even without known exposure to anti-H. pylori therapy, H. suis was more frequent in IP patients (5/41) than in controls (1/155) (P = 0.002). Partial multilocus sequence typing confirmed that strains from IP patients (6) and control (1) differed from RT-PCR standard strain. Conclusions Greater frequency of H. suis in idiopathic parkinsonism appears exaggerated following H. pylori eradication. Multilocus sequence testing comparison with porcine strains may clarify whether transmission is from pigs/porcine products or of human-adapted, H. suis-like, bacteria.

Blaecher, C; Smet, A; Flahou, B; Pasmans, F; Ducatelle, R; Taylor, D; Weller, C; Bjarnason, I; Charlett, A; Lawson, A J; Dobbs, R J; Dobbs, S M; Haesebrouck, F

2013-01-01

165

Significance of higher-order chromatin architecture for neuronal function and dysfunction.  

PubMed

Recent studies in neurons indicate that the large-scale chromatin architectural framework, including chromosome territories or lamina-associated chromatin, undergoes dynamic changes that represent an emergent level of regulation of neuronal gene-expression. This phenomenon has been implicated in neuronal differentiation, long-term potentiation, seizures, and disorders of neural plasticity such as Rett syndrome and epilepsy. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Neuroepigenetic Disorders'. PMID:24456745

Wilczynski, Grzegorz M

2014-05-01

166

[Clinical significance of general movements].  

PubMed

Human fetuses and young infants have a repertoire of distinct patterns of spontaneous movements. A set of these movement patterns are known as general movements (GMs), which were defined by Prechtl as gross movements involving the whole body, and lasting from a few seconds to several minutes, or longer. GMs are characterized by the variable sequence of arm, leg, neck and trunk movements which begin gradually, wax and wane in intensity, force and speed, and end gradually. Extension and flexion movements of the arms and legs are mostly complex and variable because of superimposed rotations and frequent, slight changes in direction, which make the movements fluent and elegant. Initially GMs are complex, and then differentiate into single movements. GMs show no change during the fetal period, but change in early infancy into writhing, fidgety, oscillating, saccadic and swipes & swaps. Hadders-Algra indicated that on EMG, burst duration of phasic activity shortens, burst amplitude attenuates and tonic background decreases with development. In contrast to normal GMs that are smaller and monotonous in trajectory, abnormal GMs include poor repertoire of GMs, cramped-synchronized GMs, chaotic GMs, absent fidgety, and abnormal fidgety, that are periodic and monotonous, showing no developmental change. For example, a normal twin showed elliptic or round trajectory of GMs that became smaller with age, whereas the other with periventricular leukomalacia and cerebral palsy had periodic and rectilinear trajectory showing no developmental change. GMs, especially fidgety, correlate with neurological prognosis of infants. Einspieler reported that GMs' sensitivity and specificity for neurological prognosis of high risk infants are 96% and 95%, respectively. Clinical significance of GMs 1. includes non-invasive, secure and easy observation, 2. high coincidence between trained observers, 3. high reliability 78-98%, mean 90% and, 4. correlation of abnormal GMs with the presence and degree of brain damage. PMID:11905008

Tsubokura, Hifumi

2002-03-01

167

Distributed video coding with progressive significance map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A distributed video coding (DVC) system based on wavelet transform and set partition coding (SPC) is presented in this paper. Conventionally the significance map (sig-map) of SPC is not conducive to Slepian-Wolf (SW) coding, because of the difficulty of generating a side information sig-map and the sensitivity to decoding errors. The proposed DVC system utilizes a higher structured significance map, named progressive significance map (prog-sig-map), which structures the significance information into two parts: a high-level summation significance map (sum-sig-map) and a low-level complementary significance map (comp-sig-map). This prog-sig-map alleviates the above difficulties and thus makes part of the prog-sig-map (specifically, the fixed-length-coded comp-sig-map) suitable for SW coding. Simulation results are provided showing the improved rate-distortion performance of the DVC system even with a simple system configuration.

Hu, Yang; Pearlman, William A.

2012-02-01

168

Higher Education and Social Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An agenda for future higher education research is proposed which incorporates four interconnected elements: changing social contexts; their implications for higher education; mechanisms of interaction between higher education and society; higher education's impact on society. The role of comparative research in investigating these topics is…

Brennan, John

2008-01-01

169

Report on Higher Education Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing the rapid development of telecommunications and networking technologies and their growing importance to higher education and New Jersey's overall economic competitiveness, New Jersey's Plan for Higher Education called for the Commission on Higher Education and the Presidents' Council to appoint a Higher Education Technology Task Force…

New Jersey State Commission on Higher Education.

170

Transforming Higher Education: Implications for State Higher Education Finance Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how information technology is transforming higher education (asynchronous learning, distance education, customized program structure, customized delivery, outcome-based programs, collaboration, and competition) and discusses implications for state higher education finance policy (competition, student costs, collaboration, and…

Matthews, Dewayne

1998-01-01

171

Significance of atrophic ovaries in livestock production in northern Nigeria.  

PubMed

In a study of 3000 cattle of different breeds and origin (Bos indicus and Bos taurus) in Northern Nigeria, an overall 22.7 per cent incidence of anoestrus associated with organic genital abnormalities was observed. Of this 19.3 per cent was due to ovarian atrophy. This was observed mostly during the pre-dry and dry seasons, periods of poor and inadequate feed. The average incidence of atrophic ovaries in the exotic breeds (Bos taurus) was 17.1 per cent, while an incidence of 20.4 per cent was observed in the indigenous (Bos indicus) cattle; there was no significant difference between the two groups. A relatively higher incidence of functional anoestrus (27.5 per cent) which showed no seasonal pattern and no significant difference between the breeds was observed. Inadequate nutrition was the major cause of the ovarian atrophy and subsequent anoestrus. Other clinical genital abnormalities included hypoplastic ovaries (1.9 per cent), follicular cysts (4.5 per cent), pyometra (4.5 per cent) and freemartinism (0.3 per cent). The influence of anoestrus (50 per cent total incidence) on the economic aspect of livestock production in Northern Nigeria is discussed. PMID:7196640

Kumi-Diaka, J; Ogwu, D; Osori, D I

1981-03-28

172

Multiorder neurons for evolutionary higher-order clustering and growth.  

PubMed

This letter proposes to use multiorder neurons for clustering irregularly shaped data arrangements. Multiorder neurons are an evolutionary extension of the use of higher-order neurons in clustering. Higher-order neurons parametrically model complex neuron shapes by replacing the classic synaptic weight by higher-order tensors. The multiorder neuron goes one step further and eliminates two problems associated with higher-order neurons. First, it uses evolutionary algorithms to select the best neuron order for a given problem. Second, it obtains more information about the underlying data distribution by identifying the correct order for a given cluster of patterns. Empirically we observed that when the correlation of clusters found with ground truth information is used in measuring clustering accuracy, the proposed evolutionary multiorder neurons method can be shown to outperform other related clustering methods. The simulation results from the Iris, Wine, and Glass data sets show significant improvement when compared to the results obtained using self-organizing maps and higher-order neurons. The letter also proposes an intuitive model by which multiorder neurons can be grown, thereby determining the number of clusters in data. PMID:17970658

Ramanathan, Kiruthika; Guan, Sheng-Uei

2007-12-01

173

The biological significance of ?-oxidation of fatty acids  

PubMed Central

The author focuses on the biological significance of ?-oxidation of fatty acids. Early studies revealed that there is a subsidiary pathway for ?-oxidation of fatty acids when ?-oxidation is blocked. Many studies demonstrated that the ?-oxidation serves to provide succinyl-CoA for the citric acid cycle and for gluconeogenesis under conditions of starvation and diabetes. Acylglucosylceramides which are composed of linoleic acid, long chain ?-hydroxy fatty acids, eicosasphingenine (or trihydroxyeicosasphingenine) and glucose, are responsible for normal epidermal permeability function in the skin. It is observed that ?- and (?-1)-oxidation of fatty acids are related to energy metabolism in some laboratory animals such as musk shrews and Mongolian gerbils. Studies confirmed that ?- and (?-1)-oxidation of fatty acids play crucial roles in the production of insect pheromones of honeybees and in the formation of biopolyesters of higher plants. In addition, the biological significance of ?-oxidation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes is described.

MIURA, Yoshiro

2013-01-01

174

History of Higher Education, 1992.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annual compilation offers six articles on the history of higher education. In the first article, "The Historical Matrix of American Higher Education," Roger L. Geiger provides an overview of the history of American higher education. Following it, E. D. Duryea, Jurgen Herbst, and W. Bruce Leslie comment on his hypothesis which identifies eight…

History of Higher Education, 1992

1992-01-01

175

Higher Education: Assessment and Accountability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the model used by the Oregon State System for Higher Education to assess the impact of higher education on the growth and change in students as a result of participation in higher education. The model prescribes assessments of general knowledge and abilities, learning environment, major field knowledge, degree completion,…

Oregon State System of Higher Education, Eugene.

176

Higher Education and Public Good  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Policy debate about whether to maintain public subsidies for higher education has stimulated reconsideration of the public mission of higher education institutions, especially those that provide student places conferring private benefits. If the work of higher education institutions is defined simply as the aggregation of private interests, this…

Marginson, Simon

2011-01-01

177

Commitment to Higher Vocational Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a history of the College of Higher Vocational Studies (CHVS) since it was established in 1991 and provides commentary on developments in higher vocational education in Hong Kong during a period of unprecedented change and development in the provision of the Higher Diploma. "Principal's Diary" (Bradford Imrie) describes the…

Imrie, Brad; And Others

178

Equity in Spanish higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most outstanding event in the recent evolution of higher education in developed countries has been the continuously increasing proportion of students entering higher education and, therefore, its extension to more and more inclusive groups. It seems reasonable to assume that the expansion of higher education must have facilitated access of less privileged social classes, but it is important to

Jose´-Gine´s Mora

1997-01-01

179

Postmodernism in Higher Educational Administration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Postmodernism has many inferences that can be applied to the theory and practice of higher educational administration. Today, in higher education administrators are continuously focused on strategies that will ensure the future of minority educational institutions. As a result postmodernism is an important factor in the future of higher

Demaris, Michalyn C.; Kritsonis, William Allan

2007-01-01

180

Significance of Lead Residues in Mallard Tissues  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tissues of adult, lead-dosed mallards that either died or were sacrificed were analyzed for lead. Lead levels in brains, tibiae, and breast muscle of ducks that died and in tibiae of ducks that were sacrificed increased significantly from dosage until death. Lead in the heart, lung, and blood from sacrificed ducks decreased significantly from dosage until death. Lead concentrations in tissues from ducks in the two groups were not significantly different except for the liver, kidney, and lung. Average lead levels in the livers and kidneys of ducks that died were significantly higher than those in ducks that were sacrificed. The mean concentration of lead in the lungs of the ducks sacrificed was significantly higher than the mean level in the lungs of ducks that died. Measurements of the lead concentrations in this study, when compared with lead levels reported in the literature for avian and non-avian species, showed that arbitrary diagnostic levels indicating lead poisoning could be set. In mallard ducks, lead levels exceeding 3 ppm in the brain, 6 to 20 ppm in the kidney or liver, or 10 ppm in clotted blood from the heart indicated acute exposure to lead.

Longcore, J.R.;Locke, L.N.;Bagley, G.E.;Andrews, R.

1974-01-01

181

Karyological observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Root tips prepared for metaphase chromosome analysis from seedlings germinated under microgravity on the Space Shuttle (oats and mung bean) or which were exposed to space flight as very young seedlings (sunflower) have been examined. Experimental constraints did not permit pre-fixation in space with a cytostatic agent but arrest was achieved in the first division cycle on Earth after recovery. The number of cells in division was significantly depressed in all three species. Several chromosomal abnormalities were encountered in flight material. Bridge formation was seen in sunflower, as was aneuploidy. Breakage and fracture of chromosomes was prevalent in oats. No aberrant features could be detected in the chromosomes of mung bean. These results, although preliminary, should serve to alert investigators of the need to assess carefully as many aspects of cell division in higher plants exposed to space flight conditions as possible.

Krikorian, A. D.; O'Connor, S. A.

1984-01-01

182

Karyological observations.  

PubMed

Root tips prepared for metaphase chromosome analysis from seedlings germinated under microgravity on the Space Shuttle (oats and mung bean) or which were exposed to space flight as very young seedlings (sunflower) have been examined. Experimental constraints did not permit pre-fixation in space with a cytostatic agent but arrest was achieved in the first division cycle on Earth after recovery. The number of cells in division was significantly depressed in all three species. Several chromosomal abnormalities were encountered in flight material. Bridge formation was seen in sunflower, as was aneuploidy. Breakage and fracture of chromosomes was prevalent in oats. No aberrant features could be detected in the chromosomes of mung bean. These results, although preliminary, should serve to alert investigators of the need to assess carefully as many aspects of cell division in higher plants exposed to space flight conditions as possible. PMID:11538823

Krikorian, A D; O'Connor, S A

1984-11-01

183

The Political Dynamics of Higher Education Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a framework informed by spatial models of politics to explain the dynamics of political competition in higher education policy and, in particular, the observed instability in the relationship between political variables and policy outcomes. To this end, I explore competing hypotheses for the relationship between government…

Dar, Luciana

2012-01-01

184

The significance of disciplinary differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is evident that disciplines have their distinctive cultural characteristics, this consideration tends to be largely overlooked in research into, as well as policy-making within, higher education. The paper aims to draw attention to some of the resulting inadequacies in analysis and to explore their consequences. After offering an overview of the various disciplinary cultures, it examines different facets

Tony Becher

1994-01-01

185

P Values and Statistical Significance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, created by author Will G. Hopkins, defines what a p-value is, why .05 is significant, and when to use it. It also covers related topics such as one-tailed/two-tailed tests and hypothesis testing. Overall, this is a wonderful resource for students wanting to learn more about statistics, and more specially, significant testing.

Hopkins, Will G.

2008-12-16

186

The Applet Collection: Significant Figures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet is a game designed to provide practice in significant figures for beginners. Users view a number and must determine the number of significant figures. Scores are automatically tallied, with short explanations given for incorrect responses. This item is part of a larger collection of physics applets.

Bauer, Wolfgang

2009-08-10

187

Guelph Physics Tutorials: Significant Digits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website offers a tutorial on significant digits. The tutorial includes an introduction to significant digits, example problems, and a series of self-paced questions. This is part of series of tutorials on physics and mathematics used in physics classes.

2008-09-03

188

Higher Education in Switzerland. Monographs on Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The federal system of higher education in Switzerland is described. Consideration is given to: the links between the second and third cycle education that facilitate access to higher education; the system of examinations and diplomas; research; university libraries; nontraditional education; and working conditions for faculty. After summarizing…

Garke, Esther

189

Asian American Giving to US Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asian Americans have had significant impacts on and within mainstream US society, and their great efforts and gifts in the name of charitable causes are no exception. This study aims to examine perceptions within American university development offices about Asian American giving to US higher education. The article begins with a literature review…

Tsunoda, Kozue

2010-01-01

190

Staff Development Needs in Pakistan Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Staff development is very significant for the achievement of overall goals of higher education in Pakistan. The success of innovations depends largely upon the skills of instructors; but in Pakistan, the people with a simple masters degree (without any pedagogical training) are inducted as teaching staff at the university level, so it is time to…

Ullah, Muhammad Hameed; Khan, Muhammad Naeem Ullah; Murtaza, Ali; Ud Din, Muhammad Naseer

2011-01-01

191

Diversity and Convergence in Australian Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses two recent Australian studies of diversity in higher education institutions, both financed by the Commonwealth Department of Education, Training, and Youth Affairs. Study results suggest significant diversity among universities in a number of areas, most of them closely associated with the history of the system. At the same time, state…

Marginson, Simon

1999-01-01

192

Improving Measurement of Productivity in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education is a linchpin of the American economy and society: Teaching and research at colleges and universities contribute significantly to the nation's economic activity, both directly and through their impact on future growth; federal and state governments support teaching and research with billions of taxpayers' dollars; and individuals,…

Sullivan, Teresa A., Ed.; Mackie, Christopher, Ed.; Massy, William F., Ed.; Sinha, Esha, Ed.

2012-01-01

193

A higher order electron wave propagation method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A finite-difference propagation scheme for simulating electron currents through arbitrary quantum structures is presented in this paper. It is shown that due to the strong interaction of external fields and electrons, the trajectories predicted using higher order propagation operators are a significant improvement over that of lower order schemes, especially in cases where the longitudinal electron momentum is not accurately

Andrew M. Sarangan; Wei-Ping Huang

1995-01-01

194

Peer Effects in Higher Education. Discussion Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper, prepared as a chapter for a forthcoming book, describes the potential significance of student peer effects for the economic structure and behavior of higher education. The existence of student peer effects would motivate much of the restricted supply, student queuing, and selectivity, and institutional competition via merit and honors…

Winston, Gordon C.; Zimmerman, David J.

195

Mark Edwards: Mission Impossible in Higher Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case chronicles some of the problems a corporate executive encountered on his transition from the private sector to the deanship of the College of Business in a university of higher education. His deanship, which resulted from the recent reorganization at State University, gave him significant responsibility for undergraduate and graduate…

Santora, Joseph C.; Sarros, James C.

2008-01-01

196

Personal Broadcasting: Applications in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Personal Broadcasting, which includes podcasting, vodcasting, phonecasting, Webcasting, blogging, and wikis, is one of the emerging technologies that will have a significant effect on education within the next five years. This article describes the techniques used in personal broadcasting, describes how they are being used in higher education,…

Wolf, Patricia D.

2007-01-01

197

The significance of normal angle vessels.  

PubMed

One hundred patients (200 eyes) were examined over a one-year period for the presence of normal anterior chamber angle vessels. Normal vessels were observed in the angle in 21% of eyes examined. The types, location, and number of normal vessels are documented. The significance of these vessels in two eyes with anterior chamber angle fixated lenses is discussed. PMID:4022560

Shihab, Z M; Lee, P F

1985-06-01

198

Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

Simonia, I.

2011-06-01

199

SIGNIFICANT NATURAL HERITAGE AREAS (NC)  

EPA Science Inventory

The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, developed the Significant Natural Heritage Areas digital data to determine the a...

200

The Inclining Significance of Race  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The significance of race is increasing, especially for middle class blacks who, because of school desegregation, affirmative action, and other integration programs are coming into direct contact with whites for the first time for extended interaction. (Author/AM)

Willie, Charles V.

1978-01-01

201

Numerical modeling of higher order magnetic moments in UXO discrimination  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The surface magnetic anomaly observed in unexploded ordnance (UXO) clearance is mainly dipolar, and consequently, the dipole is the only magnetic moment regularly recovered in UXO discrimination. The dipole moment contains information about the intensity of magnetization but lacks information about the shape of the target. In contrast, higher order moments, such as quadrupole and octupole, encode asymmetry properties of the magnetization distribution within the buried targets. In order to improve our understanding of magnetization distribution within UXO and non-UXO objects and to show its potential utility in UXO clearance, we present a numerical modeling study of UXO and related metallic objects. The tool for the modeling is a nonlinear integral equation describing magnetization within isolated compact objects of high susceptibility. A solution for magnetization distribution then allows us to compute the magnetic multipole moments of the object, analyze their relationships, and provide a depiction of the anomaly produced by different moments within the object. Our modeling results show the presence of significant higher order moments for more asymmetric objects, and the fields of these higher order moments are well above the noise level of magnetic gradient data. The contribution from higher order moments may provide a practical tool for improved UXO discrimination. ?? 2008 IEEE.

Sanchez, V.; Yaoguo, L.; Nabighian, M. N.; Wright, D. L.

2008-01-01

202

Tort Litigation in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of case law relating to tort litigation in 1998 does not reveal any watershed cases that change the legal landscape for institutions of higher education, but it does show that institutions of higher education continue to face a myriad of tort claims of a diverse nature from diverse and expanding constituencies. (SLD)

von Gerichten, Edward

1999-01-01

203

Canuck-Do Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how, like Australia, Canadian higher education has experienced large-scale cuts in government funding, the deregulation of tuition and general cost shifting to students, inability to accommodate increased student demand, faculty "brain drain" and shortages, and an erosion of public policy toward viewing higher education as a business.…

Rosenfeld, Mark

2003-01-01

204

Gender Inequality and Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews a diverse literature on gender and higher education. Gender inequality is more pronounced in some aspects of the educational systems than in others. The analysis distinguishes 1) access to higher education; 2) college experiences; and 3) postcollegiate outcomes. Women fare relatively well in the area of access, less well in terms of the college experience, and are

Jerry A. Jacobs

1996-01-01

205

Queering Transformation in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transformation in higher education has tended to focus on race and sex, at the expense of other forms of discrimination. This article addresses the silencing of "queer" issues in higher education. Using queer theory as a framework, and drawing on current literature, popular media reports, two personal critical incidents and a project…

Msibi, Thabo

2013-01-01

206

Feminist Research in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay provides an overview of feminist methodology and its potential to enhance the study of higher education. Foregrounding the multiple purposes and research relationships developed through feminist research, the essay urges higher education scholars to engage feminist theories, epistemologies, and methods to inform policy, research, and…

Ropers-Huilman, Rebecca; Winters, Kelly T.

2011-01-01

207

Does Higher Education Need Deschooling?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an attempt to overcome the contemporary obsession with "learning" and proposes that current practices in higher education are aligned too closely with the educational theories and practices developed within pre-university compulsory education. The author takes the position that higher education is substantially different from…

Butson, Russell

2011-01-01

208

The Higher Education Research Archipelago  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ever since he stumbled into doing higher education research as a young academic in the 1980s, the author has been trying to understand it as a "field" of study. His career, as a former business lecturer, then an academic developer and now an associate professor for higher education working in an Education Faculty has given him opportunities to see…

Macfarlane, Bruce

2012-01-01

209

The Opening of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a 1974 report presented to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Martin Trow laid out a framework for understanding large-scale, worldwide changes in higher education. Trow's essay also pointed to the problems that "arise out of the transition from one phase to another in a broad pattern of development of higher

Matkin, Gary W.

2012-01-01

210

Econometric Studies of Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The econometrics of higher education emerged from the development of human capital theory and efforts to estimate rates of return to education in the 1960s and 1970s. This paper surveys the various strands of the literature on the econometrics of higher education that have developed during the last 40 years and indicates how a collection of papers…

Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

211

Philanthropic Support for Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines trends in voluntary support for higher education between 1980 and 1994 based on analysis of the Council for Aid to Education's annual survey on voluntary support of education. It reviews how philanthropic support for higher education compared with support for other charities and how this level of support changed over time. It…

Horton, Nancy I.

1995-01-01

212

History of American Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"History of American Higher Education" documents the fascinating evolution of American colleges and universities, touching on the historical events that shaped them, from the colonial era through the early twenty-first century. Throughout history, higher education has played an important role in the transmission of cultural identity from one…

McCarthy, Margaret Cain

2011-01-01

213

Learning Entrepreneurship in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: There is a constant need to produce more entrepreneurial graduates from higher education institutions. This paper aims to present and discuss several successful cases of entrepreneurial learning environments in order to suggest some important aspects that higher education institutions should consider. Design/methodology/approach: The…

Taatila, Vesa P.

2010-01-01

214

The Marketing of Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formal college and university marketing programs are challenging to develop and implement because of the complexity of the marketing mix, the perceived inappropriateness of a traditional marketing officer, the number of diverse groups with input, the uniqueness of higher education institutions, and the difficulty in identifying higher education…

Brooker, George; Noble, Michael

1985-01-01

215

Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan

2012-01-01

216

Fact Book on Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) Fact Book on Higher Education" is one of the nation's most comprehensive collections of comparative data on higher education. For decades, state leaders, policy-makers, researchers and journalists have used the "Fact Book" to find useful data quickly--and to learn more about long-term trends and…

Marks, Joseph L.; Diaz, Alicia A.

2009-01-01

217

THE ECONOMICS OF HIGHER EDUCATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS PUBLICATION CONTAINS PAPERS PRESENTED AT A COLLOQUIUM HELD BY THE COLLEGE SCHOLARSHIP SERVICE IN 1965. THE PAPERS DEAL BROADLY WITH THE QUESTION OF THE MOST EFFECTIVE METHODS OF FINANCING HIGHER EDUCATION, AND WITH THE ROLE AND PROBLEMS OF THE EDUCATIONAL CONSUMER. THE PAPERS DEAL WITH--(1) THE ECONOMICS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, (2) PRICING…

CARTTER, ALLAN M.; AND OTHERS

218

Fostering Innovation in Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important roles of institutions of higher education is to serve as well springs of innovation and creativity. But if we expect institutions to play this important role in society and the economy, then mechanisms are needed to evaluate the extent to which they are achieving this purpose. Indeed, at the recent Barcelona Conference on Higher Education,

Peter Haddawy; Barbara Igel

219

Policy change in higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following developments in the 1980s, the 1990s seem to promise for many governments and societies an increasing concern about the role and relevance of their respective higher education systems. This concern seems to be brought about by several factors such as financial stringency, increased demand, effective articulation between higher and other education sectors, labour market priorities, aging populations, changes in

V. Lynn Meek; Leo C. J. Goedegebuure; Osmo Kivinen; Risto Rinne

1991-01-01

220

Learning entrepreneurship in higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – There is a constant need to produce more entrepreneurial graduates from higher education institutions. This paper aims to present and discuss several successful cases of entrepreneurial learning environments in order to suggest some important aspects that higher education institutions should consider. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper presents a literature review and four previously published case studies. These are used

Vesa P. Taatila

2010-01-01

221

The Economics of Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Foreseeing problems with existing patterns of financing higher education and of college attendance, the College Scholarship Service held a colloquium in 1966 to deal broadly with the most effective methods of supporting higher education and with the role and problems of the educational consumer. An important trend--the marked and seemingly…

College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY.

222

Leading Change in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers the situation in the UK higher education system and investigates specifically the leadership practice in a cluster of UK institutions as they changed their status. The research goes further to advocate a form of contextualized leadership that is relevant to higher institutions under change. (Contains 1 figure.)

McRoy, Ian; Gibbs, Paul

2009-01-01

223

The Overselling of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is not enough substance behind a degree to warrant the ubiquitous belief that a stint in higher education is a "sine qua non" for success in America. While college diplomas may translate into higher-paying jobs for some, high school signifies little in the way of education these days, so jaded employers' estimates of the real value of…

Leef, George C.

2006-01-01

224

Higher Education: Open for Business  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book addresses a problem in higher learning, which is newly recognized in the academic spotlight: the overcommercialization of higher education. The book asks that you, the reader, think about the following: Did you go to a Coke or Pepsi school? Do your children attend a Nike or Adidas school? Is the college in your town a Dell or Gateway…

Gilde, Christian, Ed.

2007-01-01

225

Innovation Processes in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Innovation processes in the Swedish Higher Education System are described and related to a general theory of innovation. Using the theories of Kurt Lewin, characteristics of higher education as a social system and factors which determine the nature of the forces towards a certain type of change are defined. (JMF)

Berg, Barbro; Ostergren, Bertil

1979-01-01

226

Minority Access to Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Asian Americans are entitled to equal access to all institutions of higher education. Ensuring greater access and participation by minorities in higher education is one of the most practical ways of moving America closer to the ideal of equal opportunity, which is the actualization of the American dream.…

Jackson, Nathaniel

2012-01-01

227

Institutional Change and Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Institutional change includes the supplanting of the old model of production with a new one, the elimination of old markets and the emergence of new ones. As higher education around the world shifts from national markets to an integrated transnational market, and possibly toward a virtual market, Christian higher education, like other market…

Loomis, Steven; Rodriguez, Jacob

2009-01-01

228

Strategic Planning for Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The framework necessary for achieving a strategic planning posture in higher education is outlined. The most important benefit of strategic planning for higher education decision makers is that it forces them to undertake a more market-oriented and systematic approach to long- range planning. (Author/MLW)

Kotler, Philip; Murphy, Patrick E.

1981-01-01

229

Higher Education in the Netherlands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are two sectors of higher education in the Netherlands: the universities covered by the University Education Act and the vocationally-oriented colleges covered by the Further Education Act. Following a summary of the main elements of secondary education, higher or tertiary education is defined. Thirteen universities and non-university…

de Moor, R. A.

230

Higher Education: A Closer Look  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the United States moves toward expanding programs for pre-kindergarten children, leaders in higher education are asking themselves some how-to questions about implementation. This article summarizes nine facts about higher education. One of these facts is the growing demand for teachers qualified with a bachelor's degree in Early Care and…

Morgan, Gwen

2009-01-01

231

Higher-order ionosphere modeling for CODE's next reprocessing activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CODE (the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe) is a joint venture between the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB, Bern, Switzerland), the Federal Office of Topography (swisstopo, Wabern, Switzerland), the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG, Frankfurt am Main, Germany), and the Institut für Astronomische und Phsyikalische Geodäsie of the Technische Universität München (IAPG/TUM, Munich, Germany). It acts as one of the global analysis centers of the International GNSS Service (IGS) and participates in the first IGS reprocessing campaign, a full reanalysis of GPS data collected since 1994. For a future reanalyis of the IGS data it is planned to consider not only first-order but also higher-order ionosphere terms in the space geodetic observations. There are several works (e.g. Fritsche et al. 2005), which showed a significant and systematic influence of these effects on the analysis results. The development version of the Bernese Software used at CODE is expanded by the ability to assign additional (scaling) parameters to each considered higher-order ionosphere term. By this, each correction term can be switched on and off on normal-equation level and, moreover, the significance of each correction term may be verified on observation level for different ionosphere conditions.

Lutz, S.; Schaer, S.; Meindl, M.; Dach, R.; Steigenberger, P.

2009-12-01

232

Statistical Significance vs. Practical Significance: An Exploration through Health Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between statistical and practical significance, including strengths and criticisms of both methods, as well as provide information surrounding the application of various effect sizes and confidence intervals within health education research. Provided are recommendations, explanations and…

Rosen, Brittany L.; DeMaria, Andrea L.

2012-01-01

233

Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures  

PubMed Central

A major goal in translational cancer research is to identify biological signatures driving cancer progression and metastasis. A common technique applied in genomics research is to cluster patients using gene expression data from a candidate prognostic gene set, and if the resulting clusters show statistically significant outcome stratification, to associate the gene set with prognosis, suggesting its biological and clinical importance. Recent work has questioned the validity of this approach by showing in several breast cancer data sets that “random” gene sets tend to cluster patients into prognostically variable subgroups. This work suggests that new rigorous statistical methods are needed to identify biologically informative prognostic gene sets. To address this problem, we developed Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures (SAPS) which integrates standard prognostic tests with a new prognostic significance test based on stratifying patients into prognostic subtypes with random gene sets. SAPS ensures that a significant gene set is not only able to stratify patients into prognostically variable groups, but is also enriched for genes showing strong univariate associations with patient prognosis, and performs significantly better than random gene sets. We use SAPS to perform a large meta-analysis (the largest completed to date) of prognostic pathways in breast and ovarian cancer and their molecular subtypes. Our analyses show that only a small subset of the gene sets found statistically significant using standard measures achieve significance by SAPS. We identify new prognostic signatures in breast and ovarian cancer and their corresponding molecular subtypes, and we show that prognostic signatures in ER negative breast cancer are more similar to prognostic signatures in ovarian cancer than to prognostic signatures in ER positive breast cancer. SAPS is a powerful new method for deriving robust prognostic biological signatures from clinically annotated genomic datasets.

Beck, Andrew H.; Knoblauch, Nicholas W.; Hefti, Marco M.; Kaplan, Jennifer; Schnitt, Stuart J.; Culhane, Aedin C.; Schroeder, Markus S.; Risch, Thomas; Quackenbush, John; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin

2013-01-01

234

Perceived responsibility: structure and significance.  

PubMed

Given the postulated significance of inflated responsibility in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), there is a need for clarification of the concept itself and a means for measuring such responsibility. Two psychometric studies were conducted in order to develop a reliable self-report scale. In the first study 291 students completed the specially constructed Responsibility Appraisal Questionnaire (RAQ). Four factors emerged: responsibility for harm, responsibility in social contexts, a positive outlook towards responsibility, and thought-action fusion (TAF). In the second study, 234 students completed a revised RAQ. Four comparable factors emerged, and the TAF subscale correlated significantly with measures of obsessionality, guilt, and depression. The correlations between TAF and obsessionality and guilt remained significant even after BDI scores were controlled. It is concluded that the broad concept of inflated responsibility needs to be qualified; the connection between inflated responsibility and OCD appears to be situation-specific and idiosyncratic. There is more inflated responsibility than there is OCD. The measured concept of inflated responsibility is multifactorial (harm, social, positive, and TAF), not unitary. The TAF factor appears to be particularly significant in OCD. PMID:7677715

Rachman, S; Thordarson, D S; Shafran, R; Woody, S R

1995-09-01

235

Public Health Significance of Neuroticism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The personality trait of neuroticism refers to relatively stable tendencies to respond with negative emotions to threat, frustration, or loss. Individuals in the population vary markedly on this trait, ranging from frequent and intense emotional reactions to minor challenges to little emotional reaction even in the face of significant

Lahey, Benjamin B.

2009-01-01

236

Significance Test or Effect Size?  

Microsoft Academic Search

I describe and question the argument that in psychological research, the significance test should be replaced (or, at least, supplemented) by a more informative index (viz., effect size or statistical power) in the case of theory-corroboration experimentation because it has been made on the basis of some debatable assumptions about the rationale of scientific investigation. The rationale of theory-corroboration experimentation

Siu L. Chow

1988-01-01

237

Higher Order Languages for Robots,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This state of the art review of higher order languages for robots provides a background of robot programming approaches. Strengths and weaknesses of various approaches are presented. The second section of the report discusses specific languages. Manipulat...

J. R. Blaha J. P. Lamoureux K. E. McKee

1986-01-01

238

Differentiation of Higher Education Institutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historical and political influences in the trend toward diversification in French universities are traced. Related issues discussed include institutional versus governmental preferences, institutional functions (curriculum, vocational training, research), and implications for the quality and democratization of higher education. (MSE)

Cazenave, P.; Lapointe, S.

1983-01-01

239

Comparative Research on Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the need for and use of comparative research in higher education. The current status of comparative research done by independent scholars and international organizations, as well as problems in research methodologies, are examined. (AM)

Goldschmidt, Dietrich

1982-01-01

240

Europe's Diluted Higher Education Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the success of European reforms in institutions of higher education in terms of their goals, their integration with existing systems, the response of groups affected by the reforms, and the political and socioeconomic factors precipitating the reforms. (AM)

Cerych, Ladislav

1981-01-01

241

Higher Education and Research Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The lecture outlines the links between research and higher education. To do so, it looks at existing situations of different countries in each area, points out differences, and encourages collaboration across frontiers.

P. Swinnerton-Dyer

1991-01-01

242

Evaluation of the significance of inverse oxidation for HTGR graphites  

SciTech Connect

The inverse oxidation refers to a higher mass loss inside the graphite than the outside. In 1980, Wichner et al reported this phenomenon (referred to as inside/out corrosion) observed in some H451 graphites, and offered an explanation that a catalyst (almost certainly Fe) is activated by the progressively increasing reducing conditions found in the graphite interior. Recently, Morgan and Thomas (1982) investigated this phenomenon is PGX graphites, and agreed on the existing mechanism to explain this pheomenon. They also called for attention to the possibility that this phenomenon may occur under HTGR (High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor) operating conditions. The purpose of this paper is to confirm the above mentioned explanation for this phenomenon and to evaluate the significance of this effect for HTGR graphites under realistic reactor conditions.

Lee, B.S.; Heiser, J. III; Sastre, C.

1983-01-01

243

Conformally invariant higher order higher spin operators on the sphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study conformally invariant differential operators on functions valued in Spin(n)-representations with halfintegral highest weights (higher spin representations) on the sphere. We show that for most of these representations there is a unique such operator of arbitrary odd order, and construct new examples for the highest weight (52,12,...12), using the spectrum generating method by Branson, Řrsted and Ólafsson [6]. These operators are higher spin analogs of the conformally invariant powers of Dirac operator first constructed by Liu and Ryan [21].

Šmíd, Dalibor

2012-11-01

244

Dynamics of Multiple Stars: Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of hierarchical multiple stars is observed mostly by a combination of various techniques that lead to the determination of orbits. It is found that the empirical limit of dynamical stability matches the theoretical limit for circular outer orbits but is more restrictive for eccentric orbits. The relative orientation of orbits in triple stars shows some weak correlation, likely explained by their origin as decay products of small clusters. The combination of dynamics and tides leads to the formation of close binaries within higher-order multiples. Examples of such systems (Algol, Capella, 41 Dra) show that even distant tertiary components can significantly modify stellar evolution.

Tokovinin, A.

245

Chicanas and Higher Education: Three Decades of Literature and Thought  

Microsoft Academic Search

The severe under representation of Chicanas in higher education reveals the need to chronicle the evolution of the field of Chicanas and higher education. This article highlights key studies and significant events related to the field of Chicanas and higher education for three decades, beginning with the 1970s and ending with the 1990s. The author synthesizes the schools of thought

Gloria Holguín Cuádraz

2005-01-01

246

Costs and Difficulties on the Way to a Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A higher education continues to be a significant value to young people; this is manifested clearly in the growth of the numbers enrolled in higher educational institutions of Russia. This article examines "the process by which young people achieve their goal"--obtaining a higher education--as a set of stages linked to specific kinds of costs. The…

Mogil'chak, E. L.

2012-01-01

247

Inclusion in Higher Education: Issues in University-School Partnership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The significant under-representation of people from low socio-economic backgrounds in higher education in Australia has been placed squarely at the front of the Australian Federal Government's higher education agenda. The barriers for students from low socio-economic backgrounds to access higher education are broad and multi-causal. The…

Armstrong, D.; Cairnduff, A.

2012-01-01

248

Higher Education in Bulgaria. Monographs on Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like other volumes in this series, this monograph follows a pattern that makes comparisons across systems easier. The history of the Bulgarian higher education system is given, focusing on the period after 1989. The legal basis for education in Bulgaria is analyzed, as is the evolving system of governance. The participation of Bulgarian education…

Georgieva, Patricia

249

Assessing Teachers' Pedagogical Knowledge in the Context of Teaching Higher-order Thinking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reports the development and application of two instruments for assessing science teachers’ pedagogical knowledge in the context of teaching higher-order thinking: a Likert-type research instrument, and an instrument that analyzes classroom observations. The rationale for developing these instruments and their main categories is described. One hundred and fifty Israeli science teachers replied to the Likert-type questionnaire. Results show that biology teachers gained a significantly higher score than either physics or chemistry teachers, that junior high school teachers scored significantly higher than high school teachers, and that a significant negative correlation was found between final scores and teaching experience. Participants in the classroom observation study were 14 teachers who attended a one-year professional development course for teaching higher-order thinking. The instrument was sensitive in detecting progress in teachers’ pedagogical knowledge in several categories, such as: Frequency of tasks that required higher-order thinking; The variety of thinking strategies that teachers addressed during their lessons; Engagement of students in metacognitive thinking; and Using the “language of thinking” in class. The implications of the findings for research and practice are described.

Zohar, Anat; Schwartzer, Noa

2005-10-01

250

Multiwavelength Observations of AB Doradus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed the bright, magnetically active multiple star AB Doradus in a multiwavelength campaign centring around two large facility allocations in November 2006 and January, 2007. Our observations have covered at least three large flares. These flares were observed to produce significant hardening of the X-ray spectra during their very initial stages. We monitored flare-related effects using the Suzaku X-ray satellite and the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at 3.6 and 6 cm. Observations at 11 and 21 cm were also included, but they were compromised by interference. Optical monitoring was also provided by broadband B and V photometry and some high-dispersion spectrograms. From this multiwavelength coverage we find that the observed flare effects can be mainly associated with a large active region near longitude zero. The second major X-ray and microwave flare of Jan 8, 2007 was observed with a favourable geometry that allowed its initial high-energy impulsive phase to be observed in the higher frequency range of Suzaku's XIS detectors. The fractional circular polarisation (Stokes V/I) was measured in the uv data for the complete runs, for 25 min integrations and, at 4.80 GHz, for 5 min integrations, using the radio data of Nov 21 2006 and Jan 08 2007. Most of the full data sets showed V/I fractions from AB Dor B that were significant at greater than the 3? level. In several of the 5 min integrations at 4.80 and 8.64 GHz this fraction reached a significance level between 3 and 9?. Lack of angular resolution prevented identification of these high V/I values with one or other of the two low-mass red-dwarf components of AB Dor B.

Slee, O. B.; Erkan, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Budding, E.

2014-04-01

251

Exact significance test for Markov order  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an exact significance test of the null hypothesis that a Markov chain is nth order. The procedure utilizes surrogate data to yield an exact test statistic distribution valid for any sample size. Surrogate data are generated using a novel algorithm that guarantees, per shot, a uniform sampling from the set of sequences that exactly match the nth order properties of the observed data. Using the test, the Markov order of Tel Aviv rainfall data is examined.

Pethel, S. D.; Hahs, D. W.

2014-02-01

252

The Demand for Higher Education in Turkey and Open Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Failure to meet considerably high demand for higher education in Turkey has always been one of the most significant concerns of Turkish Higher Education System for many years. In this respect, Anadolu University Open Education Faculty has played a significant role in the attempts to overcome this problem in Turkey for the last three decades. In…

Cekerol, Kamil

2012-01-01

253

Holographic holes in higher dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend the holographic construction of [1] from AdS3 to higher dimensions. In particular, we show that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of codimension-two surfaces in the bulk with planar symmetry can be evaluated in terms of the `differential entropy' in the boundary theory. The differential entropy is a certain quantity constructed from the entanglement entropies associated with a family of regions covering a Cauchy surface in the boundary geometry. We demonstrate that a similar construction based on causal holographic information fails in higher dimensions, as it typically yields divergent results. We also show that our construction extends to holographic backgrounds other than AdS spacetime and can accommodate Lovelock theories of higher curvature gravity.

Myers, Robert C.; Rao, Junjie; Sugishita, Sotaro

2014-06-01

254

Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1993 after a government white paper called for more coherence in the reporting and collection of higher education statistics in the United Kingdom, the Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) is "the central source for higher education statistics." Not surprisingly, the site features a detailed area devoted to publications and data sets available from the HESA, some of which are available for no cost on the Web site, and others which may be ordered on CD-ROM. There are also a number of data sets available at no charge that may be viewed and printed, or downloaded for free. The data sets are mostly from 1994 to 2002, and include statistics on students (such as ethnicity, subject of study, and institution level), staff, and institutional incomes and expenditures. The site is rounded out with a collection of related links that lead to related government bodies and funding councils.

255

Optical limiting with higher fullerenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical limiting has been investigated for higher fullerenes and compared with C60. The transmission through an aperture placed after solutions of C76, C78, and C84 in tetrahydronaphthalene was measured using Q-switched laser pulses with a wavelength of 532 nm and a pulse width of 8 ns FWHM. Unlike C60, the transmission for these higher fullerene solutions decreased linearly with increasing optical pulse energy. We attribute the linearized optical limiting response to self-defocusing of the optical beam and the absence of excited-state absorption. The ground state absorption spectra for the higher fullerenes suggest their use for optical limiting in the near infrared, and the C84-tetrahydronaphthalene solution was found to be an optical limiter at 1.064 ?m.

Kost, A. R.; Jensen, J. E.; Loufty, R. O.; Wither, J. C.

2005-03-01

256

"How to Strike the Right Balance between Quality Assurance and Quality Control in the Perceptions of Individual Lecturers": A Comparison of UK and Dutch Higher Education Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the way lecturers observe, feel restrained by and cope with quality management systems that have been implemented in the higher education systems of the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. As two sides of the same coin, quality enhancement and quality control are of increased significance in European Higher Education…

Teelken, Christine; Lomas, Laurie

2009-01-01

257

Significances of Multimedia Technologies Training  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of multimedia technologies in education has enabled teachers to simulate final outcomes and assist s-tudents in applying knowledge learned from textbooks, thereby compensating for the deficiency of traditional teach- ing methods. It is important to examine how effective these technologies are in practical use. This study developed online learning-teaching resource platforms using Flash multimedia, providing interactive and integrated features in an easy-to-use user interface, in order to discuss Computer-Aided Drawing (CAD). The study utilized a teaching experiment with a non-equivalent pretest-posttest control group design to test and discuss students’ professional cognition, operating skill cognition, and level of learning satisfaction during the learning process. No significant differences emerged between the groups in regards to professional cognition or operation skills cognition. However, a significant difference in learning satisfaction was noted, indicating that the coursework with multimedia Flash produced greater satisfaction than with traditional learning methods. Results are explained in detail and recommendations for further research provided.

Zhang, Fulei

258

Complex higher order derivative theories  

SciTech Connect

In this work is considered a complex scalar field theory with higher order derivative terms and interactions. A procedure is developed to quantize consistently this system avoiding the presence of negative norm states. In order to achieve this goal the original real scalar high order field theory is extended to a complex space attaching a complex total derivative to the theory. Next, by imposing reality conditions the complex theory is mapped to a pair of interacting real scalar field theories without the presence of higher derivative terms.

Margalli, Carlos A.; Vergara, J. David [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, Mexico 04510 DF (Mexico)

2012-08-24

259

On Channel State Inference and Prediction Using Observable Variables in 802.11b Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance of cross-layer protocols that recommend the relay of corrupted packets to higher layers can be improved significantly by accurately inferring\\/predicting the bit error rate (BER) in the packets. In practice, higher layers observe the bits only after some hard decision. Hence physical layer link-quality indications, such as the signal strength of each individual bit, are not observable at higher

Shirish S. Karande; Syed Ali Khayam; Yongju Cho; Kiran Misra; Hayder Radha; Jaegon Kim; Jin-woo Hong

2007-01-01

260

Crew observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The observations by the astronauts on the Apollo 16 flight are reported. Topics discussed include: lunar orbit and landing, surface experiment deployment, lunar traverse geology, EVA-1, EVA-2, EVA-3, orbital observations, and general observations.

Young, J. W.; Mattingly, T. K.; Duke, C. M.

1972-01-01

261

Tectonic significance of Alpine eclogites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of P-T peaks and paths of eo- and meso-Alpine eclogite fades rocks occurring along the axial part of the Alpine chain shows that rocks re-equilibrated under high- and low- T (group-B and -C eclogites), are, respectively, hosted within a lower and an upper tectonic level of the Penninic nappe system. If P-T estimates for eclogites are considered peak conditions the two crustal portions, otherwise undistinguishable, were sutured during the collision of the European and Adriatic continental plates, which corresponds to the latest tectonic mechanism of eclogitization. Before collision, formation and preservation of eclogitic rocks up to shallow levels was assisted by subduction of the cold oceanic crust. The two lithospheric processes of oceanic subduction and continental collision, though separated in time, contribute to continuous generation of eclogites under thermal conditions that evolve from higher to lower P-T ratios from the end of ocean consumption. Exhumation trajectories are characterized by low- or high thermal regimes in the same structural domain in different parts of the chain (Western and Eastern Austroalpine), in the same part of the chain (Penninic and ophiolites in Western, Central and Eastern Alps), or even within the same nappe (Dora-Maira, Gran Paradiso and Adula). Late orogenic collapse or slab breakoff processes may have caused late heating at very low pressure (0.3 GPa) during exhumation in some units of the Pennine nappes and ophiolites Mechanisms of nappe emplacement are demonstrably multiphase and inferences on palaeogeographic derivation of eclogitic units can be drawn from interpretation of P-T trajectories.

Spalla, Maria Iole; Lardeaux, Jean Marc; Piaz, Giorgio vittorio Dal; Gosso, Guido; Messiga, Bruno

1996-05-01

262

Yawning and its physiological significance  

PubMed Central

Although yawning is a commonly witnessed human behavior, yet it has not been taught in much detail in medical schools because, until the date, no particular physiological significance has been associated with it. It is characterized by opening up of mouth which is accompanied by a long inspiration, with a brief interruption of ventilation and followed by a short expiration. Since time immemorial, yawning has been associated with drowsiness and boredom. However, this age old belief is all set to change as the results of some newer studies have pointed out that yawning might be a way by which our body is trying to accomplish some more meaningful goals. In this review, we have tried to put together some of the important functions that have been proposed by a few authors, with the hope that this article will stimulate the interest of newer researchers in this hitherto unexplored field.

Gupta, Sharat; Mittal, Shallu

2013-01-01

263

The energetic significance of cooking.  

PubMed

While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance. PMID:19732938

Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

2009-10-01

264

Internal Audit in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book describes a range of examples of internal audit in higher education as part of a process of the exchange of good practice. The book recognizes well-established links with audit theory from other contexts and makes use of theoretical perspectives explored in the financial sector. The chapters are: (1) "Quality Audit Issues" (Sally Brown…

Holmes, Alison, Ed.; Brown, Sally, Ed.

265

History of Higher Education, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The four papers in this annual volume on the history of higher education cover some of the changes that evolved over the years in various U.S. institutions. The first paper is: "The Harvard Tutors: The Beginning of an Academic Profession, 1690-1825" (John D. Burton), which discusses the shift from Harvard's original tutorship model to its modern…

Geiger, Robert L., Ed.

1996-01-01

266

History of Higher Education, 1995.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annual compilation presents four papers on different aspects of the history of higher education in Europe and the United States. The first paper is "The Rights of Man and the Rites of Youth: Fraternity and Riot at Eighteenth Century Harvard" by Leon Jackson. This paper argues that the lines of division in the student body at…

Geiger, Robert L., Ed.

1995-01-01

267

Wanted: Successful Higher Education Managers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an expert roundtable's list of desirable qualities for higher education managers: strong leadership, ability to teach others, ability to develop a cadre of people who can carry out the mission, partnering well with outsiders, managing well, adaptability, being a change agent, understanding the competition, and having an entrepreneurial…

Terrana, Maryann; Grills, Caroline

2001-01-01

268

Art in American Higher Institutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume of 11 articles contains a comprehensive statement about the visual arts as they are encountered in post-secondary education. The articles are: (1) "Art and the Liberal Arts: A Trivial, Artificial, Irrelevant Antagonism" by Albert Bush-Brown; (2) "The Arts in Higher Education: A Question of Priorities" by Lawrence Dennis; (3) "Access to…

Feldman, Edmund Burke, Ed.

269

Cleanliness & Learning in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1992 APPA published a seminal work titled "Custodial Staffing Guidelines for Educational Facilities." The work was based on a concept that was in the embryonic stage in 1986 and then grew in momentum through 1988 when the APPA Board of Directors commissioned a task force to address custodial staffing issues at institutions of higher education.…

Campbell, Jeffrey L.; Bigger, Alan S.

2008-01-01

270

Higher Schläfli Formulas and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical Schläfli formula relates the variations of the dihedral angles of a smooth family of polyhedra in a space-form to the variation of the enclosed volume. We give higher analogues of this formula: for each p, we prove a simple formula relating the variation of the volumes of the codimension p faces to the variation of the 'curvature' –

Jean-Marc Schlenker; Rabah Souam

2003-01-01

271

Digital Resilience in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education institutions face a number of opportunities and challenges as the result of the digital revolution. The institutions perform a number of scholarship functions which can be affected by new technologies, and the desire is to retain these functions where appropriate, whilst the form they take may change. Much of the reaction to…

Weller, Martin; Anderson, Terry

2013-01-01

272

Social Justice and Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Massification of higher education has not been able to solve societal issues in the UK to the extent originally envisaged. Whilst universities have achieved increased student numbers and widened participation from various societal groups, those coming from socially disadvantaged groups can still often have a very different experience of university…

Craven, Anne

2012-01-01

273

A Balanced Higher Education System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores what is meant by "a balanced higher education system". It argues that the Clarkian "triangle of coordination" (Clark, 1983) and the more recent model of Martinez and Richardson (2003) should be replaced by one that distinguishes between "self" and "collective" interests in both the academy and the wider society. Such a scheme…

Brown, Roger

2011-01-01

274

Supercomplexity in Higher Education Kinesiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article employs Barnett's (2004) specifications of the aspects that describe the times of "supercomplexity." This term characterizes the challenges universities are facing regarding the expanding and competing forces that are affecting higher education, particularly in the West. Outside forces related to globalization, digital technologies,…

Block, Betty A.; Estes, Steve

2011-01-01

275

Best Practices in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the best practices for distance learning programs in higher education. Highlights include the planning stage, including institutional mission, business planning and financial issues, needs assessment, collaboration with other schools and businesses, and technology feasibility; and the implementation stages, including faculty support,…

Hezel, Richard T.; Nanjiani, Nader

1997-01-01

276

Two decades of higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coordinating editor provides a commentary by way of introduction to a complete list of all articles presented in Higher Education since its foundation in 1972. Information is supplied on the increases in frequency of publication and on the special issues which have appeared. The list of articles, by author, is supplemented by an index by geographical area, another by

Alec M. Ross

1992-01-01

277

Free-Access Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to describe the degree of accessibility of all higher education institutions in the country and to estimate the proportion of various populations living within commuting distance of those colleges judged easily accessible or free-access institutions. The main idea was to put together an analysis of educational…

Willingham, Warren W.

278

OSHA: Implications for Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented in this document are several articles concerning recommendations about the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHA) and its implications for higher education. It is time for an educated look at facilities and programs and the beginning of plans which, in the long run, will bring colleges and universities into compliance with…

National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

279

Gender Equity in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 bans discrimination in schools receiving federal financial assistance with regard to both academics and athletics. The law has helped ensure that women have access to both academic and athletic opportunities at most higher education institutions in the United States, dramatically increasing the range…

Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2006

2006-01-01

280

What's Ahead for Higher Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forces that will greatly affect higher education in the 1980s are described, and trends during the 1970s are briefly reviewed, with an emphasis on educational finance. During the 1970s, the number of students increased by 24.3 percent, total educational and general revenues more than doubled, the state's proportion of these revenues rose by 5.2…

Pickens, William H.

281

American Higher Education in Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American higher education is in transition and if there ever was a "golden age" for faculty, it probably is behind us. The best historical data on the composition of faculty is collected annually by the American Mathematical Society. Between 1967 and 2009, the share of full-time faculty with PhDs remained constant at about 90 percent at doctoral…

Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

2011-01-01

282

Collective Bargaining in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers are presented from a seminar on collective bargaining in higher education sponsored by the Center for Educational Management Studies of the University of Hawaii. The seminar was designed to address the similarities and differences among various countries and to draw on the experiences of Canada and Europe as they may relate to collective…

Soberman, Daniel A.; And Others

283

History of Higher Education, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annual publication presents six articles on historical aspects of higher education. The first article is "The Urban Catholic University in the Early Twentieth Century: A Social Profile of DePaul, 1898-1940" by John L. Rury. It traces student characteristics during this period from primarily the sons (and later daughters) of European…

Geiger, Roger L., Ed.

1997-01-01

284

Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews developments in 2000 in the law of disability discrimination as it relates to higher education, which falls into five categories: (1) definition of a qualified individual; (2) accommodations, access, undue burden, and fundamental alteration of programs; (3) intentional discrimination, harassment, and retaliation; (4) Eleventh Amendment…

Weber, Mark C.

2002-01-01

285

Gender Issues within Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook functions as a crown on the European Students' Union's work on gender equality over the past two years. Since the establishment of the Gender Equality Committee, a lot of work has been done to improve gender equality in higher education generally, and in student unions more particularly. This handbook gathers the experiences and…

European Students' Union (NJ1), 2008

2008-01-01

286

Higher Education: A Critical Business.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current concepts of critical thinking need to be reconstrued into the much broader concept of "critical being" and applied to higher education. Under this construct, critical persons (students) become more than just critical thinkers; they engage critically with the world and with themselves; they not only reflect critically on knowledge, but also…

Barnett, Ronald

287

THE ECONOMICS OF HIGHER EDUCATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS ARTICLE DISCUSSES THE TRENDS AND THE RISING PROBLEMS IN THE FINANCING OF HIGHER EDUCATION. SPECIFIC TOPICS DISCUSSED INCLUDE--THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXPENDITURES ON EDUCATION AND NATIONAL INCOME, THE DETERMINANTS OF EXPENDITURES ON EDUCATION, THE TREND IN DIRECT SUBSIDIES VERSUS SCHOLARSHIPS, THE FINANCIAL PRESSURES ON PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS…

HARRIS, SEYMOUR E.

288

Some Higher-Dimensional Spacetimes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1985, I and Ishihara considered an extension of de Sitter and Nariai's solutions of R/sub mu nu / = lambda g/sub mu nu / in a higher dimensional spacetime. This is a sequel to the above paper in the case where the 6-dimensional space-time consists of 4...

H. Nariai

1986-01-01

289

Gerontology Instruction in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gerontology instruction at the college and university level is analyzed in light of various developments, major issues confronting the field, and specific needs of faculty and administrators. Chapters discuss: growth of interest in aging and gerontology; growing awareness of the aging in higher education; the literature of gerontology education;…

Peterson, David A.; Bolton, Christopher R.

290

Catholic Higher Education as Mission  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article uses the work of Anthony J. Gittins to reframe our understanding of Catholic higher education as mission. The broad adoption of this framework would require a common intellectual foundation, the possibility of which is dismissed by many. An accessible ontology is implied, however, in the existential analysis and theology of Karl…

Lowery, Daniel

2012-01-01

291

Student Loans for Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student loans are a rapidly growing $85 billion a year industry fueled by the substantial higher economic returns associated with a college education, increased demand from students and their parents, and grant and scholarship funds that have not kept pace with rising school tuition and fees. This report describes federally subsidized and…

Simons, Charlene Wear

2008-01-01

292

Epistemological Development in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has been carried out on students' epistemological development in higher education for at least 50 years. Researchers on both sides of the Atlantic have converged on accounts that describe students' epistemological development in terms of a sequence or hierarchy of qualitatively distinct stages or positions. The rich qualitative data…

Richardson, John T. E.

2013-01-01

293

Academic Rewards in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A colloquium series in higher education at the University of Minnesota in the fall and winter of 1977-1978 examined the influence of academic reward systems on faculty behavior and academic productivity. These essays are the collective results of their findings and recommendations. Essays include: "Perspectives from Psychology: Financial…

Lewis, Darrel R., Ed.; Becker, William E., Jr., Ed.

294

Electronic Assessment in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment is an important cornerstone of education. A world trend in staying abreast of the latest developments in the field of information and communication technology (ICT) has led to an increased demand for electronic assessment in education circles. The critical need and responsibility for higher education to stay on par with the latest…

Brink, Roelien; Lautenbach, Geoffrey

2011-01-01

295

Benefit Plans in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifth in a series and the latest of several studies on employee benefits in higher education, this book constitutes a full-scale revision of the earlier "Benefit Plans in American Colleges" (1969). The principal benefit plans provided by U.S. colleges and universities are described, analyzed, and evaluated. Included are retirement (including…

King, Francis P.; Cook, Thomas J.

296

Higher Education Profiles & Trends 2013  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The statute [T.C.A. Section 49-7-202(c)(7)] requires the Tennessee Higher Education Commission to prepare a biennial report for the governor and the general assembly, "commenting upon major developments, trends, new policies, budgets and financial considerations which in the judgment of the commission will be useful to the governor and to the…

Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2013

2013-01-01

297

Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure highlights some of the performance indicators used by Connecticut's public higher education institution to demonstrate accountability. This paper reports on the results of these goals: (1) Student Learning; (2) Learning in K-12; (3) Access and Affordability; (4) Economic Development; (5) Societal Needs; and (6) Resource Efficiency.…

Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

2008-01-01

298

Gender Matters in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much of the research in higher education has treated student bodies as homogeneous groups with a consequent neglect of any consideration of gender differences. To test the validity of such research a questionnaire was administered to 255 psychology students. The results showed some important differences in responses between the genders. In…

Harrop, Alex; Tattersall, Andy; Goody, Adam

2007-01-01

299

Test for the Statistical Significance of Differences Between ROC Curves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A test for the statistical significance of observed differences between two measured Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves has been designed and evaluated. The set of observer response data for each ROC curve is assumed to be independent and to a...

C. E. Metz H. B. Kronman

1979-01-01

300

Higher-order dielectrophoresis of nonspherical particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Higher-order terms of dielectrophoretic (DEP) force are commonly ignored by invoking the simplifying dipole approximation. Concurrently, the trend towards micro- and nano-electrode structures in DEP design is bringing about an increasing number of instances where the approximation is expected to lose reliability. The case is severe for nonspherical particles (the shape of many biological particles) due to the shape-dependent nature of dielectric polarization. However, there is a lack of analytical means to determine multipole moments of nonspherical particles, numerical calculations of the same are regarded as unreliable, and there is a prevalence for higher-order force considerations to be ignored. As a result, the dipole approximation is used and/or nonspherical particles are approximated as spheres. This work proves the inefficacy of current qualitative criteria for the reliability of the dipole approximation and presents a quantitative substitute, with verified accuracy, that enables precise determination of the extent to which the dipole approximation would be reliable, and if found unreliable, corrects the approximation by adding second- and third-order terms of the DEP force. The effects of field nonuniformity, electrode design, and particle shape and aspect ratio on the significance of higher-order DEP forces is quantitatively analyzed. The results show that higher-order DEP forces are indeed of substantially increased significance for nonspherical particles; in the cases examined in this work, multipolar terms are seen to constitute more than 40% of the total force on ellipsoidal and cylindrical particles. It is further shown that approximating nonspherical particles as spheres of similar dimensions is subject to substantial error. Last, the substantial importance of the electrode design in influencing higher-order forces is shown.

Nili, Hossein; Green, Nicolas G.

2014-06-01

301

EDITORIAL: Deeper, broader, higher, better?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Honorary Editor The standard of educational achievement in England and Wales is frequently criticized, and it seems to be an axiom of government that schools and teachers need to be shaken up, kept on a tight rein, copiously inspected, shamed and blamed as required: in general, subjected to the good old approach of: ' Find out what Johnny is doing and tell him to stop.' About the only exception to this somewhat severe attitude is at A-level, where the standard is simply golden. Often, comparisons are made between the performance of, say, English children and that of their coevals in other countries, with different customs, systems, aims and languages. But there has been a recent comparison of standards at A-level with a non-A-level system of pre-university education, in an English-speaking country that both sends students to English universities and accepts theirs into its own, and is, indeed, represented in the UK government at well above the level expected from its ethnical weighting in the population. This semi-foreign country is Scotland. The conclusions of the study are interesting. Scotland has had its own educational system, with `traditional breadth', and managed to escape much of the centralized authoritarianism that we have been through south of the border. It is interesting to note that, while for the past dozen years or so the trend in A-level Physics entries has been downwards, there has been an increase in the take-up of Scottish `Highers'. Highers is a one-year course. Is its popularity due to its being easier than A-level? Scottish students keen enough to do more can move on to the Certificate of Sixth Year Studies, and will shortly be able to upgrade a Higher Level into an Advanced Higher Level. A comparability study [ Comparability Study of Scottish Qualifications and GCE Advanced Levels: Report on Physics January 1998 (free from SQA)] was carried out by the Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) with the aim (amongst others) of helping universities make a fair comparison between grades attained in A-Levels and Highers, CSYS and Advanced Highers. It was a fairly limited exercise, but a careful one, carried out by examiners and teachers rather than statisticians. They compared syllabuses, questions and candidates' answers. I quote: '... the two years of study for A-level perhaps means that there is a secure, consolidated grasp of the basics; more than the Higher candidate after one year. But there is no evidence of this from candidates' scripts.' Comparing syllabuses, the report noted a greater mathematical demand in Scotland: 'The rigour or depth of treatment is generally lower in the Syllabus Y [an A-level syllabus.] than in CSYS or Advanced Higher because many topics have a qualitative treatment rather than the mathematical treatment of CSYS and AH.' Adding a certain sting to its tail, the report concludes: `Many of the CSYS candidates will have achieved excellent grades at Higher... in four or five subjects before proceeding to CSYS. Scottish candidates tend to have qualifications in a broader range of subjects.' Perhaps this is why they get to be in charge everywhere.

Dobson, Ken

1998-07-01

302

Clinical significance of Blastocystis hominis.  

PubMed Central

A total of 19,252 stool specimens from 12,136 patients were examined by direct microscopy and the ethyl acetate-Formalin concentration method during the last 2 years. All liquid specimens and those in which parasite identification was difficult or equivocal were also examined in trichrome-stained preparations. A total of 3,070 intestinal parasites were seen in 2,889 patients. Blastocystis hominis was found in fecal material from 647 patients (17.5%). A total of 132 cases (25.6%) were observed to be in association with other enteric pathogens. B. hominis in large numbers was present as the only parasite or with other commensals in 515 specimens from patients (79.6%). Of these patients, 239 (46.4%) had symptoms, the most common being abdominal pain (87.9%), constipation (32.2%), diarrhea (23.4%), alternating diarrhea and constipation (14.5%), vomiting (12.5%), and fatigue (10.5%). Forty-three (18%) of the patients were treated with metronidazole (0.5 to 1.0 g/day) because of recurrent symptoms and the presence of large numbers of B. hominis cells in repeated stool specimens. After 7 to 10 days of treatment, all patients became asymptomatic with negative stools on follow-up examinations for B. hominis.

Qadri, S M; al-Okaili, G A; al-Dayel, F

1989-01-01

303

Macrocerebellum: significance and pathogenic considerations.  

PubMed

Macrocerebellum is a rare finding characterized by an abnormally large cerebellum. Only few patients with a syndromal or isolated macrocerebellum have been reported so far. This article aims to categorize the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, quantitate the macrocerebellum by volumetric analysis, characterize the neurological and dysmorphic features and cognitive outcome, and report the results of genetic analyses in children with macrocerebellum. All MR images were qualitatively evaluated for infratentorial and supratentorial abnormalities. Volumetric analysis was performed. Data about neurological and dysmorphic features, outcome, and genetic analysis were collected from clinical histories and follow-up examinations. Five patients were included. Volumetric analysis in three patients confirmed large cerebellar size compared to age-matched controls. MR evaluation showed that thickening of the cortical gray matter of the cerebellar hemispheres is responsible for the macrocerebellum. Additional infratentorial and supratentorial abnormalities were present in all patients. Muscular hypotonia, as well as impaired motor and cognitive development, was found in all patients, with ocular movement disorders in three of five patients. The five patients differed significantly in terms of dysmorphic features and involvement of extracerebral organs. Submicroscopic chromosomal aberrations were found in two patients. Macrocerebellum is caused by thickening of the cortical gray matter of the cerebellar hemispheres, suggesting that cerebellar granule cells may be involved in its development. Patients with macrocerebellum show highly heterogeneous neuroimaging, clinical, and genetic findings, suggesting that macrocerebellum is not a nosological entity, but instead represents the structural manifestation of a deeper, more basic biological disturbance common to heterogeneous disorders. PMID:22528964

Poretti, Andrea; Mall, Volker; Smitka, Martin; Grunt, Sebastian; Risen, Sarah; Toelle, Sandra P; Benson, Jane E; Yoshida, Shoko; Jung, Nikolai H; Tinschert, Sigrid; Neuhann, Teresa M; Rauch, Anita; Steinlin, Maja; Meoded, Avner; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Boltshauser, Eugen

2012-12-01

304

Aspergillus bronchitis without significant immunocompromise.  

PubMed

Aspergillus bronchitis is poorly understood and described. We extracted clinical data from more than 400 referred patients with persistent chest symptoms who did not fulfill criteria for allergic, chronic, or invasive aspergillosis. Symptomatic patients with a positive culture or real-time PCR for Aspergillus spp. were reviewed. Seventeen patients fulfilled the selected criteria. Fourteen were women, with a mean age of 57 years (range 39-76). Sixteen of the patients had productive cough, eight had voluminous tenacious sputum, and seven had recurrent chest infections. Eight patients had Medical Research Council dyspnea scores of 4-5; 12 had bronchiectasis; and 13 patients grew A. fumigatus, 3 A. niger, and 1 A. terreus. Twelve of the 17 patients (71%) had elevated Aspergillus IgG (47-137 mg/L, mean 89.2) and 5 (29%) had elevated Aspergillus precipitins. Six of 12 (50%) had a major response to antifungal therapy and five of 12 (42%) patients relapsed, requiring long-term therapy. Aspergillus bronchitis is a discrete clinical entity in patients with structural lung disease but who are not significantly immunocompromised. It is distinct from asymptomatic fungal colonization and other forms of aspergillosis, and may respond to antifungal therapy. PMID:23231717

Chrdle, Ales; Mustakim, Sahlawati; Bright-Thomas, Rowland J; Baxter, Caroline G; Felton, Timothy; Denning, David W

2012-12-01

305

Astrobiological significance of chemolithoautotrophic acidophiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithautotrophic bacteria) there has been a dilemma in microbiology about life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modern biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithoheterotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant roel on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

2004-02-01

306

Futures for Higher Education: Analysing Trends. Higher Education: Meeting the Challenges of the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education in the United Kingdom is undergoing a period of significant change. This is being driven by a number of factors: political, cultural, economic, and technological. The trends are global in their scope, and far reaching in their impact. They affect every aspect of university provision, the environment in which universities operate,…

Universities UK, 2012

2012-01-01

307

Higher Learning, Greater Good: The Private and Social Benefits of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A college education has long been acknowledged as essential for both personal success and economic growth. But the measurable value of its nonmonetary benefits has until now been poorly understood. Walter W. McMahon, a leading education economist, carefully describes these benefits and suggests that higher education accrues significant social and…

McMahon, Walter W.

2009-01-01

308

Topologically massive higher spin gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We look at the generalisation of topologically massive gravity (TMG) to higher spins, specifically spin-3. We find a special "chiral" point for the spin-three, analogous to the spin-two example, which actually coincides with the usual spin-two chiral point. But in contrast to usual TMG, there is the presence of a non-trivial trace and its logarithmic partner at the chiral point. The trace modes carry energy opposite in sign to the traceless modes. The logarithmic partner of the traceless mode carries negative energy indicating an instability at the chiral point. We make several comments on the asymptotic symmetry and its possible deformations at this chiral point and speculate on the higher spin generalisation of LCFT2 dual to the spin-3 massive gravity at the chiral point.

Bagchi, Arjun; Lal, Shailesh; Saha, Arunabha; Sahoo, Bindusar

2011-10-01

309

Diverse: Issues in Higher Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The online publication "Diverse: Issues in Higher Education" is a cornucopia of material related to diversity issues in higher education, including hiring practices, increasing the number of underrepresented faculty members on campus, and so on. The homepage includes an excellent jobs database where visitors can learn about new jobs, and employers can post their currently available positions. The "Special Reports" area is quite a find as well, and here visitors can watch interviews and learn about the work of notable educators like Norman Francis, the president of Xavier University in New Orleans. The "Multimedia" area contains slideshows, videos, and audio interviews titled "The Ultimate Insider-Outsider" and "Saving Lives in the Academy and Operating Room". The site is rounded out by their "Opinion" area which includes blogs entries on the stressful lives of college students, sexual violence on college campuses, and much more.

310

Connecting curves in higher dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Connecting curves have been shown to organize the rotational structure of strange attractors in three-dimensional dynamical systems. We extend the description of connecting curves and their properties to higher dimensions within a special class of differential dynamical systems. The general properties of connecting curves are derived and selection rules stated. Examples are presented to illustrate these properties for dynamical systems of dimension n = 3, 4, 5.

Byrne, Greg; Gilmore, Robert; Cebral, Juan

2014-05-01

311

The Economics of Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter synthesises what economists have learned about a number of key topics related to the provision of higher education\\u000a and its roles in promoting economic development and well-being. The shift towards a global economy, as well as other economic\\u000a changes brought about by technological and institutional development, have raised new concerns about the importance of post-secondary\\u000a education in the

Jose-Gines Mora; Luis E. Vila

312

PLASTID TRANSFORMATION IN HIGHER PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Plastids of higher plants are semi-autonomous organelles with a small, highly polyploid genome,and their own,transcription-translation machinery. This re- view provides an overview,of the technology,for the genetic modification of the plastid genome including: vectors, marker genes and gene design, the use of gene knock- outs and over-expression to probe plastid function and the application of site-specific recombinases,for excision of

Pal Maliga

2004-01-01

313

Higher order antibunching in intermediate states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the introduction of binomial state as an intermediate state, different intermediate states have been proposed. Different nonclassical effects have also been reported in these intermediate states. But till now higher order antibunching is predicted in only one type of intermediate state, which is known as shadowed negative binomial state. Recently we have shown that the higher order antibunching is not a rare phenomenon [P. Gupta, P. Pandey, A. Pathak, J. Phys. B 39 (2006) 1137]. To establish our earlier claim further, here we have shown that the higher order antibunching can be seen in different intermediate states, such as binomial state, reciprocal binomial state, hypergeometric state, generalized binomial state, negative binomial state and photon added coherent state. We have studied the possibility of observing the higher order subpoissonian photon statistics in different limits of intermediate states. The effects of different control parameters on the depth of non classicality have also been studied in this connection and it has been shown that the depth of nonclassicality can be tuned by controlling various physical parameters.

Verma, Amit; Sharma, Navneet K.; Pathak, Anirban

2008-08-01

314

Adaptive significance of root grafting in trees  

SciTech Connect

Root grafting has long been observed in forest trees but the adaptive significance of this trait has not been fully explained. Various authors have proposed that root grafting between trees contributes to mechanical support by linking adjacent root systems. Keeley proposes that this trait would be of greatest advantage in swamps where soils provide poor mechanical support. He provides as evidence a greenhouse study of Nyssa sylvatica Marsh in which seedlings of swamp provenance formed between-individual root grafts more frequently than upland provenance seedlings. In agreement with this within-species study, Keeley observed that arid zone species rarely exhibit grafts. Keeley also demonstrated that vines graft less commonly than trees, and herbs never do. Since the need for mechanical support coincides with this trend, these data seem to support his model. In this paper, the authors explore the mechanisms and ecological significance of root grafting, leading to predictions of root grafting incidence. Some observations support and some contradict the mechanical support hypothesis.

Loehle, C.; Jones, R.

1988-12-31

315

Optically significant particle sizes in seawater.  

PubMed

Small particles (<10???m) are often considered to play the dominant role in controlling scattering and absorption due to their relatively large numbers, which are typically found in the ocean. Here we present an approach for quantifying the size range of particles that contribute significantly to bulk inherent optical properties. We present a numerical assessment of the variability in optically significant particle sizes for simplistic populations that conform to the assumptions of homogeneous, spherical particles, and power-law size distributions. We use numerical predictions from Mie theory to suggest minimum and maximum particle sizes required for accurate predictions and observations of ocean optics for different particle size distributions (PSDs). When considering observed ranges of PSDs, our predictions suggest the need for measurements of optical properties and particles to capture information from particle sizes between diameters of 0.05-2000 ?m in order to properly constrain relationships between particles and their associated optical properties. Natural particle populations in the ocean may present more complex PSDs that could be analyzed using the method presented here to establish optically significant size classes. PMID:24663303

Davies, Emlyn J; McKee, David; Bowers, David; Graham, George W; Nimmo-Smith, W Alex M

2014-02-20

316

The Chronicle of Higher Education: Faculty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chronicle of Higher Education does a fine job of reporting on all things related to higher education. This corner of the site is dedicated to faculty at post-secondary institutions. While some of the content is behind a pay-wall, there's still a significant amount of free material available. One good place to start here is with "Find out What Professors Are Making." This interactive database contains recent data from a national survey conducted by the American Association of University Professors. Moving along, the site also contains More Faculty News, which leads to recent stories on curriculum changes, business education, research, publishing, and teaching. The Latest News area is a gem as well, as stories here are updated several times a day.

317

Generalized Higher Degree Total Variation (HDTV) Regularization.  

PubMed

We introduce a family of novel image regularization penalties called generalized higher degree total variation (HDTV). These penalties further extend our previously introduced HDTV penalties, which generalize the popular total variation (TV) penalty to incorporate higher degree image derivatives. We show that many of the proposed second degree extensions of TV are special cases or are closely approximated by a generalized HDTV penalty. Additionally, we propose a novel fast alternating minimization algorithm for solving image recovery problems with HDTV and generalized HDTV regularization. The new algorithm enjoys a tenfold speed up compared with the iteratively reweighted majorize minimize algorithm proposed in a previous paper. Numerical experiments on 3D magnetic resonance images and 3D microscopy images show that HDTV and generalized HDTV improve the image quality significantly compared with TV. PMID:24710832

Hu, Yue; Ongie, Greg; Ramani, Sathish; Jacob, Mathews

2014-06-01

318

Diagnostic significance of indium-111 granulocyte scintigraphy in febrile patients  

SciTech Connect

Sixty-eight patients with fever of unknown origin, 32 patients with postoperative fever, and 26 patients with therapy-resistant fever after bacteremia were investigated with (/sup 111/In) granulocyte scintigraphy for the detection of abscesses. The results showed that the value of (/sup 111/In)granulocyte scintigraphy in the detection of infectious foci vary in these three types of febrile conditions. The overall sensitivity and specificity were 86.5% and 87.8%, respectively. We observed, however, a relatively low predictive value of a positive result in the fever of unknown origin group (73.1%), and also a low predictive value of a negative result in the bacteremia group (66.7%). The C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in patients with a true-positive scintigram were significantly (p less than 0.001) higher than in patients with a true-negative scintigram. There was also a significant positive correlation (p less than 0.01) between the serum CRP concentration and the intensity of the granulocyte accumulations. There was no correlation between the peripheral leukocyte count or the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and the intensity of the granulocyte uptake. Therefore CRP, but not the leukocyte count or ESR, appears useful for selecting the patients who benefit most from granulocyte scintigraphy.

Syrjaelae, M.T.Va.; Valtonen, V.; Liewendahl, K.; Myllylae, G.

1987-02-01

319

Black Holes in Higher Dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In four space-time dimensions black holes of Einstein-Maxwell theory satisfy a number of theorems. In more than four space-time dimensions, however, some of the properties of black holes can change. In particular, uniqueness of black holes no longer holds. In five and more dimensions black rings arise. Thus in a certain region of the phase diagram there are three black objects with the same global charges present. Here we discuss properties of higher-dimensional vacuum and charged black holes, which possess a spherical horizon topology, and of vacuum and charged black rings, which have a ringlike horizon topology.

Kunz, Jutta

2014-06-01

320

Observational learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inconsistencies in the use of terms such as “modelling,” “copying,” “imitation,” and “observational learning” impede progress in studies of natural, behavioural, and cultural selection. Recent evidence suggests distinctions between the effects of observation on: (a) emission of previously acquired repertoires, (b) acquisition of new repertoires, (c) acquisition of conditioned reinforcers, and (d) acquisition of observational learning as a new repertoire.

R. Douglas Greer; Grant Gautreaux

2006-01-01

321

Scholarship and diversity in higher education.  

PubMed

Colleges and universities which are less diverse in their communities are often characterized by values, behavior patterns, and linguistic traits impinging on the institutions' milieu. These traits differ in significant ways from those within the dominant society for which the institution is established. The diverse students, and faculty alike, find these policies to be quasi-exclusive and limited to the geographical and demo- graphical environments in which the institutions are located. This paper examines some of these traits that affect the experience in higher education for both students and faculty from minority groups. PMID:23614174

Akombo, David O

2013-01-01

322

Higher harmonic rotor blade pitch control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests of a model 'Reverse Velocity Rotor' system at high advance ratios and with twice-per-revolution cyclic pitch control were made under joint Navy-NASA sponsorship in the NASA, Ames 12 ft. pressure tunnel. The results showed significant gains in rotor performance at all advance ratios by using twice-per-revolution control. Detailed design studies have been made of alternative methods of providing higher harmonic motion including four types of mechanical systems and an electro-hydraulic system. The relative advantages and disadvantages are evaluated on the basis of stiffness, weight, volume, reliability and maintainability.

Ewans, J. R.

1976-01-01

323

The relationship between nursing and higher education.  

PubMed

The paper explores the relationship between nursing and higher education with particular reference to the development of nursing degree programmes in the United Kingdom. The literature reveals that the contribution of nurse graduates to the profession has been examined to a limited extent: however, this has predominantly taken the form of follow-up studies, the majority of which were conducted in the 1980s. No empirically based work could be found which explores graduates' practice of nursing, the absence of which is significant in view of the more recent change in the conventional training programme, Project 2000, and the introduction of a number of 3-year nursing degree courses. PMID:8258609

Fitzpatrick, J M; While, A E; Roberts, J D

1993-09-01

324

Callose synthesis in higher plants  

PubMed Central

Callose is a polysaccharide in the form of ?-1,3-glucan with some ?-1,6-branches and it exists in the cell walls of a wide variety of higher plants. Callose plays important roles during a variety of processes in plant development and/or in response to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses. It is now generally believed that callose is produced by callose synthases and that it is degraded by ?-1,3-glucanases. Despite the importance of callose in plants, we have only recently begun to elucidate the molecular mechanism of its synthesis. Molecular and genetic studies in Arabidopsis have identified a set of genes that are involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of callose. In this mini-review, we highlight recent progress in understanding callose biosynthesis and degradation and discuss the future challenges of unraveling the mechanism(s) by which callose synthase operate.

Chen, Xiong-Yan

2009-01-01

325

Biomarker Discovery Using Statistically Significant Gene Sets  

PubMed Central

Abstract Analysis of large gene expression data sets in the presence and absence of a phenotype can lead to the selection of a group of genes serving as biomarkers jointly predicting the phenotype. Among gene selection methods, filter methods derived from ranked individual genes have been widely used in existing products for diagnosis and prognosis. Univariate filter approaches selecting genes individually, although computationally efficient, often ignore gene interactions inherent in the biological data. On the other hand, multivariate approaches selecting gene subsets are known to have a higher risk of selecting spurious gene subsets due to the overfitting of the vast number of gene subsets evaluated. Here we propose a framework of statistical significance tests for multivariate feature selection that can reduce the risk of selecting spurious gene subsets. Using three existing data sets, we show that our proposed approach is an essential step to identify such a gene set that is generated by a significant interaction of its members, even improving classification performance when compared to established approaches. This technique can be applied for the discovery of robust biomarkers for medical diagnosis.

Kim, Hoon; Watkinson, John

2011-01-01

326

Biomarker discovery using statistically significant gene sets.  

PubMed

Analysis of large gene expression data sets in the presence and absence of a phenotype can lead to the selection of a group of genes serving as biomarkers jointly predicting the phenotype. Among gene selection methods, filter methods derived from ranked individual genes have been widely used in existing products for diagnosis and prognosis. Univariate filter approaches selecting genes individually, although computationally efficient, often ignore gene interactions inherent in the biological data. On the other hand, multivariate approaches selecting gene subsets are known to have a higher risk of selecting spurious gene subsets due to the overfitting of the vast number of gene subsets evaluated. Here we propose a framework of statistical significance tests for multivariate feature selection that can reduce the risk of selecting spurious gene subsets. Using three existing data sets, we show that our proposed approach is an essential step to identify such a gene set that is generated by a significant interaction of its members, even improving classification performance when compared to established approaches. This technique can be applied for the discovery of robust biomarkers for medical diagnosis. PMID:21457009

Kim, Hoon; Watkinson, John; Anastassiou, Dimitris

2011-10-01

327

General relativistic plasma in higher dimensional spacetime  

SciTech Connect

The well known (3+1) decomposition of Thorne and Macdonald is invoked to write down the Einstein-Maxwell equations generalized to (d+1) dimensions and also to formulate the plasma equations in a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker-like spacetime in higher dimensions. Assuming an equation of state for the background metric we find solutions also as dispersion relations in different regimes of the universe in a unified manner, both for magnetized and for unmagnetized cold plasma. We find that for a free photon in an expanding background we get maximum redshift in 4D spacetime, while for a particular dimension this occurs in the pre-recombination era. Further wave propagation in magnetized plasma is possible for a restricted frequency range only, depending on the number of dimensions. It is worth pointing out that, unlike the case for the special relativistic result, this allowed range evolves with time. Interestingly the dielectric constant of the plasma media remains constant, not sharing the expansion of the background, which generalizes a similar 4D result of Holcomb and Tajima for a radiation background to the case of higher dimensions with cosmic matter obeying an equation of state. Further, like for the flat space static case, we observe the phenomenon of Faraday rotation in the higher dimensional case also.

Panigrahi, D; Chatterjee, S, E-mail: dibyendupanigrahi@yahoo.co.in, E-mail: chat_sujit1@yahoo.com [Relativity and Cosmology Research Centre, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)] [Relativity and Cosmology Research Centre, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)

2008-08-15

328

General relativistic plasma in higher dimensional spacetime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The well known (3+1) decomposition of Thorne and Macdonald is invoked to write down the Einstein-Maxwell equations generalized to (d+1) dimensions and also to formulate the plasma equations in a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker-like spacetime in higher dimensions. Assuming an equation of state for the background metric we find solutions also as dispersion relations in different regimes of the universe in a unified manner, both for magnetized and for unmagnetized cold plasma. We find that for a free photon in an expanding background we get maximum redshift in 4D spacetime, while for a particular dimension this occurs in the pre-recombination era. Further wave propagation in magnetized plasma is possible for a restricted frequency range only, depending on the number of dimensions. It is worth pointing out that, unlike the case for the special relativistic result, this allowed range evolves with time. Interestingly the dielectric constant of the plasma media remains constant, not sharing the expansion of the background, which generalizes a similar 4D result of Holcomb and Tajima for a radiation background to the case of higher dimensions with cosmic matter obeying an equation of state. Further, like for the flat space static case, we observe the phenomenon of Faraday rotation in the higher dimensional case also.

Panigrahi, D.; Chatterjee, S.

2008-08-01

329

High expression of heat shock protein 90 alpha and its significance in human acute leukemia cells.  

PubMed

This study investigated the expression of heat shock protein 90 alpha (Hsp90?) in acute leukemia cells. The expression of Hsp90? was investigated in leukemia cell lines and human bone marrow mononuclear cells derived from acute leukemia patients and from healthy individuals using polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared with cells from healthy individuals, the expression of Hsp90? in the untreated patients was higher. Similarly high levels were observed in remission patients. Significantly higher expression levels were observed in all the tested cell lines, and in cells from refractory and relapsed patients. No obvious relationship was observed between the occurrence of graft versus host disease and the expression of Hsp90?. The untreated patients showing higher expression levels of Hsp90? had lower complete remission rates. During remission of untreated patients, the expression of Hsp90? decreased and reached the lowest level after transplantation, but the expression increased again before relapse. Hsp90? was highly expressed in leukemia cells. The expression level of Hsp90? was associated with leukemia prognosis. However, no obvious relationship was observed between the occurrence of graft versus host disease and the expression of Hsp90?. PMID:24680776

Tian, Wen-Liang; He, Fei; Fu, Xue; Lin, Jun-Tang; Tang, Ping; Huang, Yu-Min; Guo, Rong; Sun, Ling

2014-06-01

330

The Hierarchical Face: Higher Rankings Lead to Less Cooperative Looks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 3 studies, we tested the hypothesis that the higher ranked an individual's group is, the less cooperative the facial expression of that person is judged to be. Study 1 established this effect among business school deans, with observers rating individuals from higher ranked schools as appearing less cooperative, despite lacking prior knowledge…

Chen, Patricia; Myers, Christopher G.; Kopelman, Shirli; Garcia, Stephen M.

2012-01-01

331

Higher-Twist Dynamics in Large Transverse Momentum Hadron Production  

SciTech Connect

A scaling law analysis of the world data on inclusive large-p{sub {perpendicular}} hadron production in hadronic collisions is carried out. A significant deviation from leading-twist perturbative QCD predictions at next-to-leading order is reported. The observed discrepancy is largest at high values of x{sub {perpendicular}} = 2p{sub {perpendicular}}/{radical}s. In contrast, the production of prompt photons and jets exhibits the scaling behavior which is close to the conformal limit, in agreement with the leading-twist expectation. These results bring evidence for a non-negligible contribution of higher-twist processes in large-p{sub {perpendicular}} hadron production in hadronic collisions, where the hadron is produced directly in the hard subprocess rather than by gluon or quark jet fragmentation. Predictions for scaling exponents at RHIC and LHC are given, and it is suggested to trigger the isolated large-p{sub {perpendicular}} hadron production to enhance higher-twist processes.

Arleo, Francois; /Annecy, LAPTH; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; Hwang, Dae Sung; /Sejong U.; Sickles, Anne M.; /Brookhaven

2009-12-17

332

New lecturers' accounts of reading higher education research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In reviewing what lecturers found valuable for their professional development, it has been argued that ‘professional reading’ of both higher education research and literature in their disciplines is a major theme for individual enhancement. Despite the increased interest in the writing practices of students and staff in higher education, however, the continued ‘invisibility of reading’ leaves an area of significant

Saranne Weller

2011-01-01

333

Greening academia: Developing sustainable waste management at Higher Education Institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are often the size of small municipalities. Worldwide, the higher education (HE) sector has expanded phenomenally; for example, since the 1960s, the United Kingdom (UK) HE system has expanded sixfold to >2.4million students. As a consequence, the overall production of waste at HEIs throughout the world is very large and presents significant challenges as the associated

N. Zhang; I. D. Williams; S. Kemp; N. F. Smith

2011-01-01

334

Studies of higher alcohol formation by yeasts through gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The methods of gas chromatography have made possible significant advances in understanding the pathways of formation of higher alcohols during alcoholic fermentation. The higher alcohols in wines of fermented media were quantitatively concentrated by close fractional distillation coupled with drying and extraction with diethyl ether. Gas-liquid chromatography was employed for determining the percentage of the individual alcohol components as

J. F. Guymon

1964-01-01

335

Higher order turbulence closure models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical models are developed and numerical studies conducted on various types of flows including both elliptic and parabolic. The purpose of this study is to find better higher order closure models for the computations of complex flows. This report summarizes three new achievements: (1) completion of the Reynolds-stress closure by developing a new pressure-strain correlation; (2) development of a parabolic code to compute jets and wakes; and, (3) application to a flow through a 180 deg turnaround duct by adopting a boundary fitted coordinate system. In the above mentioned models near-wall models are developed for pressure-strain correlation and third-moment, and incorporated into the transport equations. This addition improved the results considerably and is recommended for future computations. A new parabolic code to solve shear flows without coordinate tranformations is developed and incorporated in this study. This code uses the structure of the finite volume method to solve the governing equations implicitly. The code was validated with the experimental results available in the literature.

Amano, Ryoichi S.; Chai, John C.; Chen, Jau-Der

1988-01-01

336

Habitat Observations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners discover the wonders of the habitat surrounding them. After reading "The Empty Lot," a picture book by Dale Fife, learners observe and record in writing what happens in the natural environment around them. Spending time outdoors observing nature can help learners better understand and appreciate the world in which we live.

Aquariums, Association O.

2009-01-01

337

Concluding Observations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the newly competitive realm of higher education, strategic planning offers a systematic method for defining colleges and universities in order to enhance their strengths and market positions and to shape their futures. The focal elements of strategic planning and benefits and limits of strategic planning are discussed. (MLW)

Steeples, Douglas W.

1988-01-01

338

Psychoanalytic observation.  

PubMed

The recent focus on empathy as the essential activity in psychoanalytic data gathering has underemphasized the complexity of psychoanalytic observation and has failed to identify what truly makes it unique among modes of psychological investigation. It is a process that includes introspection and empathy. However, it also includes the analyst's observation of the patient's behavior, and particularly verbal behavior, in a way that is not necessarily empathic. The psychoanalytic use of introspection and behavioral observation together, as they are modified by the analysand's free association and the analyst's evenly hovering attention, provides a unique method of data gathering. The transient, mutually related regressions of analyst and analysand which partly constitute the analyzing instrument modify the field of observation available to both, providing better access to derivatives of the analysand's unconscious mental functioning. This more complex concept of psychoanalytic observation, as opposed to that in which empathy is predominant, has important implications for psychoanalytic training, clinical work, and theory. PMID:2193975

Spencer, J H; Balter, L

1990-01-01

339

Spectroscopic Observations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a series of three activities about light and spectra. First, learners will construct their own spectroscope, observe common light sources, record the observed spectra, and compare their findings. Next, learners will use their spectroscopes to observe the spectra from different gas tubes and compare each observed spectrum to known spectra. Finally, they will observe a solar spectrum created by a prism, view a solar spectrum on paper, and attempt to determine the elements present in the Sun. This activity requires spectroscope posters and gratings available from the Stanford Solar Center (http://solar-center.stanford.edu/posters/), fluorescent and incandescent light sources, and emission lamps and power sources. This activity is from the Stanford Solar Center's All About the Sun: Sun and Stars activity guide for Grades 5-8 and can also accompany the Stanford Solar Center's Build Your Own Spectroscope activity.

340

Challenges Facing Higher Education at the Millennium. American Council on Education/Oryx Press Series on Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of 17 essays focuses on the major changes that higher education needs to make so that it can effectively pursue teaching and research and significantly contribute public service in a rapidly changing world. The essays include: (1) "Survey of the Main Challenges Facing Higher Education at the Millennium" (Luc E. Weber); (2) "Meeting…

Hirsch, Werner Z., Ed.; Weber, Luc E., Ed.

341

THE HUBBLE HIGHER-z SUPERNOVA SEARCH: SUPERNOVAE TO z ? 1.6 AND CONSTRAINTS ON TYPE Ia PROGENITOR MODELS a a BASED ON OBSERVATIONS WITH THE NASA\\/ESA HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE, OBTAINED AT THE SPACE TELESCOPE SCIENCE INSTITUTE, WHICH IS OPERATED BY AURA, INC., UNDER NASA CONTRACT NAS 5-26555  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results from the Hubble Higher-z Supernova Search, the first space-based open field survey for supernovae (SNe). In cooperation with the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey, we have used the Hubble Space Telescope with the Advanced Camera for Surveys to cover ? 300 square arcmin in the area of the Chandra Deep Field South and the Hubble Deep Field

Louis-Gregory Strolger; Adam G. Riess; Tomas Dahlen; Mario Livio; Nino Panagia; Peter Challis; John L. Tonry; Alexei V. Filippenko; Ryan Chornock; Henry Ferguson; Anton Koekemoer; Bahram Mobasher; Mark Dickinson; Mauro Giavalisco; Stefano Casertano; Richard Hook; Stephane Blondin; Bruno Leibundgut; Mario Nonino; Piero Rosati; Hyron Spinrad; Charles C. Steidel; Daniel Stern; Peter M. Garnavich; Thomas Matheson; Norman Grogin; Ann Hornschemeier; Claudia Kretchmer; Victoria G. Laidler; Kyoungsoo Lee; Ray Lucas; Duilia de Mello; Leonidas A. Moustakas; Swara Ravindranath; Marin Richardson; Edward Taylor

342

Constraining the only significant AGN QPO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black hole binaries show high frequency QPOs. These are not well understood but their short timescales imply they must be produced close to the event horizon. Our recent discovery of the first significant AGN QPO gives a unique opportunity to study these in much more detail than is possible in BHB from the `slowed down' AGN QPO lightcurve. A single re-observation of the QPO would show that this is indeed a characteristic feature of this super-Eddington source, but the QPO is transient, not present in a followup snapshot. We propose 7 snapshots of 50ks each (the maximum possible in this AO and the minimum required for a 3 sigma detection) to re-detect the QPO and study its properties.

Middleton, Matthew

2009-10-01

343

Significance of placental pathology in transplacental haemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Placentae were examined from 120 women whose pregnancy and delivery was normal, from 264 women whose pregnancy or delivery was complicated, and from 98 women who were Rh-negative without antibodies and 35 women Rh-negative with antibodies. The presence of Kline's haemorrhages, intervillous thrombi, infarcts, and retroplacental haemorrhages was positively correlated with the presence of foetal cells in the maternal circulation. When there were no maternal antibodies transplacental haemorrhages occurred occasionally in the absence of such placental lesions but more frequently when these lesions were present. Moreover, the greater the number of lesions in a placenta the greater the size of the transplacental haemorrhage. In Rh-negative women with antibodies the observed incidence of transplacental haemorrhage was significantly less despite an appreciable increase in placental lesions. Images

Devi, Banti; Jennison, R. F.; Langley, F. A.

1968-01-01

344

Development of temporary subtropical wetlands induces higher gas production.  

PubMed

Temporary wetlands are short-term alternative ecosystems formed by flooding for irrigation of areas used for rice farming. The goal of this study is to describe the development cycle of rice fields as temporary wetlands in southern Brazil, evaluating how this process affect the gas production (CH4 and CO2) in soil with difference % carbon and organic matter content. Two areas adjacent to Lake Mangueira in southern Brazil were used during a rice-farming cycle. One area had soil containing 1.1% carbon and 2.4% organic matter, and the second area had soil with 2.4% carbon and 4.4% organic matter. The mean rates of gas production were 0.04 ± 0.02 mg CH4 m(-2) d(-1) and 1.18 ± 0.30 mg CO2 m(-2) d(-1) in the soil area with the lower carbon content, and 0.02 ± 0.03 mg CH4 m(-2) d(-1) and 1.38 ± 0.41 mg CO2 m(-2) d(-1) in the soil area with higher carbon content. Our results showed that mean rates of CO2 production were higher than those of CH4 in both areas. No statistically significant difference was observed for production of CH4 considering different periods and sites. For carbon dioxide (CO2), however, a Two-Way ANOVA showed statistically significant difference (p = 0.05) considering sampling time, but no difference between areas. The results obtained suggest that the carbon and organic matter contents in the soil of irrigated rice cultivation areas may have been used in different ways by soil microorganisms, leading to variations in CH4 and CO2 production. PMID:23508352

Canterle, Eliete B; da Motta Marques, David; Rodrigues, Lúcia R

2013-01-01

345

Observing Objects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on materials and their composition includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Science, Houghton M.

346

Special Observations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The wind or temperature profiler is a new special observation device designed to supplement traditional atmospheric measurement and provide more accurate middle-range forecasts, including aviation and space applications. Radar is most useful in the short,...

D. Beran

1988-01-01

347

Plasmaspheric plumes: CRRES observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CRRES plasma wave receiver density data were used to study the distribution and properties of dense plasmaspheric-like plasma observed outside the plasmapause. Our study indicates that outer plasmaspheric structure, often called plasmaspheric plumes, blobs, or detached plasma regions exist at all local times under all levels of geomagnetic activity. Of the 549 CRRES orbits that had at least one clearly defined plasmapause, 201 (or 36.6%) had plasmaspheric-like density structures at higher L shells than the plasmapause. Most of the occurrence of plasmaspheric-like plasma observed by CRRES was in the noon-to-dusk sector and was observed following moderate geomagnetic activity.

Howard, J.; Moldwin, M. B.; Sanny, J.; Rassoul, H. K.; Anderson, R. R.

2003-12-01

348

Alternative Energy for Higher Education  

SciTech Connect

This project provides educational opportunities creating both a teaching facility and center for public outreach. The facility is the largest solar array in Nebraska. It was designed to allow students to experience a variety of technologies and provide the public with opportunities for exposure to the implementation of an alternative energy installation designed for an urban setting. The project integrates products from 5 panel manufacturers (including monocrystalline, polycrystalline and thin film technologies) mounted on both fixed and tracking structures. The facility uses both micro and high power inverters. The majority of the system was constructed to serve as an outdoor classroom where panels can be monitored, tested, removed and replaced by students. As an educational facility it primarily serves students in the Creighton University and Metropolitan Community College, but it also provides broader educational opportunities. The project includes a real-time â??dashboardâ?ť and a historical database of the output of individual inverters and the corresponding meteorological data for researcher and student use. This allows the evaluation of both panel types and the feasibility of installation types in a region of the country subject to significant temperature, wind and precipitation variation.

Michael Cherney, PhD

2012-02-22

349

Disorders of higher visual processing.  

PubMed

A significant proportion of human cortex is involved in visual processing. Cerebral regions beyond striate cortex show specialization for specific stimulus properties: damage to these regions leads to syndromes that also reflect this specialization. These syndromes can be grouped into two broad categories. In the ventral group, there is damage to medial occipitotemporal structures that participate in object identification and recognition. This can result in a variety of syndromes, including achromatopsia, general visual object agnosia, or more selective object recognition deficits such as prosopagnosia, alexia, and certain forms of topographagnosia, such as landmark agnosia. In the second, dorsal group, there is damage to lateral occipitoparietal structures that participate in visuospatial processing and localization. Patients with such damage may have akinetopsia (impaired motion processing), various components of Bálint syndrome, or astereopsis. Finally, it is also possible to find patients in whom residual visual processing is evident despite damage to the geniculostriate pathway; this blindsight may reflect residual function of either subcortical structures, such as the superior colliculus, or alternate afferent routes to surviving extrastriate cortex. PMID:21601069

Barton, Jason J S

2011-01-01

350

Mycoplasma genitalium: prevalence, clinical significance, and transmission  

PubMed Central

Methods: M genitalium and C trachomatis were detected by polymerase chain reaction from urethral and endocervical swab specimens in a cross sectional study among 445 female and 501 male STD clinic attendees. Partners of 26 female and 26 male M genitalium positive index patients were examined. Results: The prevalence of C trachomatis and M genitalium was 4% and 6.3%, respectively, among the women and 5.4% and 6%, respectively, among the men. Dual infections were uncommon. M genitalium was strongly associated with urethritis in both men and women and with cervicitis in women. Among M genitalium infected men, symptomatic urethritis was more common than asymptomatic urethritis. M genitalium and C trachomatis were not associated with symptoms of urethritis or cervicitis in women. Of 26 male partners of M genitalium positive female index patients, 38% were positive, and 77% of the negative partners had symptoms of urethritis. The concordance rate for 22 female partners of male index patients was 45%. For both men and women the M genitalium prevalence was significantly higher in partners of M genitalium positive index patients than in M genitalium negative index patients with urethritis and/or cervicitis. Conclusions: M genitalium is associated with urethritis in both men and women and with cervicitis in women. A high concordance rate was found among sexual partners of M genitalium infected patients, indicating that the infection is sexually transmitted.

Anagrius, C; Lore, B; Jensen, J

2005-01-01

351

Significance of leukocytosis after cardiac device implantation.  

PubMed

Infection remains a feared complication after cardiac device implantation. Whether early postprocedural leukocytosis, a recognized marker of infection, is an indicator of impending infection is unclear and was the focus of this study. A retrospective chart review of consecutive patients who underwent implantable cardioverter defibrillator or pacemaker implantation was performed. The association between change in white blood cell (WBC) count and development of infection after device implantation was assessed. Infection was defined as pocket or lead infection or as bacteremia or sepsis <60 days after implantation. Pre- and postprocedural WBC counts were obtained within 48 hours of the procedure. Significant leukocytosis was defined as a ?50% increase in WBC count; 1,245 device implantations met inclusion criteria. Device-related infections occurred in 8 cases (0.6%). A modest 17.6 ± 30.2% increase in WBC count was observed for the entire cohort. Cases resulting in infection demonstrated minimal change in WBC count (mean +5.5 ± 26.5%). No infections occurred in patients with ?50% increases in WBC count or postprocedural WBC counts >15,000/?l. Subjects with significant leukocytosis were younger (mean age 61.9 ± 16.5 vs 65.6 ± 15.1 years, p <0.01), had longer procedure times (mean 198 ± 97 vs 170 ± 77 minutes, p <0.001), and received biventricular implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (25% vs 13.9%, p <0.001). In conclusion, after device implantation, a ?50% increase in WBC count occurred in about 10% to 15% of patients. Age, race, type of device, and procedure time influenced the development of significant leukocytosis. Elevation in WBC count after cardiac device implantation was not associated with an increased risk for early infection. PMID:23523060

Tompkins, Christine; Cheng, Alan; Brinker, Jeffrey A; Marine, Joseph E; Nazarian, Saman; Spragg, David D; Sinha, Sunil; Halperin, Henry; Tomaselli, Gordon F; Berger, Ronald D; Calkins, Hugh; Henrikson, Charles A

2013-06-01

352

Tobacco Taxes: Large Disparities in Rates for Smoking Products Trigger Significant Market Shifts to Avoid Higher Taxes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2009, CHIPRA increased and equalized federal excise tax rates for cigarettes, roll-your-own tobacco, and small cigars. Though CHIPRA also increased federal excise tax rates for pipe tobacco and large cigars, it raised the pipe tobacco tax to a rate sig...

2012-01-01

353

INVESTIGATION TOWARD OBTAINING SIGNIFICANTLY HIGHER MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF AS-WELDED JOINTS IN HIGH-STRENGTH, HEAT TREATABLE ALUMINUM ALLOYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welding techniques, filler metal-parent metal selection, and moderate ; temperature post-weld thermal treatments are described which were employed to ; achieve tensile strengths up to 72,000 pounds per square inch (psi) in welded ; heat treatable aluminum alloy sheet. The aluminum-zinc-magnesium-copper (Al - ; Zn - Mg -Cu) alloys 7075 and 7178 welded Al-Mg or Al-Mg-Zn filler metals gave ;

1961-01-01

354

Neglected Values in Higher Education: Needed Reorganization in Curricular and Extra-Curricular Activities to Provide Significant Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intellectualism and impersonalism are seen as making many academic activities miseducative. It is advocated that academics organize curricular and extracurricular activities to direct students toward an understanding of themselves and the world in which they live. [This issue commemorates JHE's 50th year. Reprints of notable articles (HE 511…

Armentrout, W. D.

1979-01-01

355

Effect of free fall on higher plants.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of exposure to the free-fall state on the orientation, morphogenesis, physiology, and radiation response of higher plants is briefly summarized. It is proposed that the duration of the space-flight experiments has been to brief to permit meaningful effects of free fall on general biochemistry, growth, and development to appear. However, two types of significant effect did occur. The first is on differential growth - i.e., tropism and epinasty - resulting from the absence of a normal geostimulus. For these phenomena it is suggested that ground-based experiments with the clinostat would suffice to mimic the effect of the free-fall state. The second is an apparent interaction between the radiation response and some flight condition, yielding an enhanced microspore abortion, a disturbed spindle function, and a stunting of stamen hairs. It is suggested that this apparent interaction may be derived from a shift in the rhythm of the cell cycle, induced by the free fall.

Gordon, S. A.

1973-01-01

356

Prognostic significance of metallothionein expression in renal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Metallothionein (MT) protein expression deficiency has been implicated in carcinogenesis while MT over expression in tumors is indicative of tumor resistance to anti-cancer treatment. The purpose of the study was to examine the expression of MT expression in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and to correlate MT positivity, the pattern and extent of MT expression with tumor histologic cell type and nuclear grade, pathologic stage and patients' survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The immunohistochemical expression of MT was determined in 43 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded RCC specimens, using a mouse monoclonal antibody that reacts with both human MT-I and MT-II. Correlation was sought between immunohistochemical (MT positivity, intensity and extension of staining) and clinico-pathological data (histological cell type, tumor nuclear grade, pathologic stage and patients' survival). RESULTS: Positive MT staining was present in 21 cases (49%), being mild/moderate and intense in 8 and 13 cases, respectively. The pattern was cytoplasmic in 7 cases and was both cytoplasmic and nuclear in 14 cases. MT expression in a percentage of up to 25% of tumor cells (negative MT staining included) was observed in 31 cases, in a percentage 25-50% of tumor cells in 7 cases, and in a percentage of 50-75% of tumor cells in 5 cases. There was no significant correlation of MT intensity of staining to histological type, stage and patients' survival, while it was inversely correlated to higher tumor nuclear grade. MT extent of staining did not correlate with histological type, nuclear grade, and pathologic stage while a statistically significant association was found with patients' survival. CONCLUSIONS: The inverse correlation between MT staining intensity and tumor nuclear grade in RCC suggests a role of MT in tumor differentiation process. Since extent of MT expression is inversely correlated with survival it may be possibly used as a clinical prognostic parameter. PMID:15655072

Mitropoulos, Dionisios; Kyroudi-Voulgari, Aspasia; Theocharis, Stamatis; Serafetinides, Efraim; Moraitis, Epaminondas; Zervas, Anastasios; Kittas, Christos

2005-01-17

357

Pesticides in the atmosphere in Minnesota: Partitioning, deposition, and significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmosphere is recognized as an important pathway by which pesticides are transported and deposited in the areas far from their sources. The observations of pesticides in rain, air, and surface runoff in Minnesota (1993-1996) contribute to understand the significance of the atmospheric deposition. The vapor/particle partitioning of pesticides in the urban area of Minnesota elucidated a strong dependency on the subcooled liquid vapor pressure, but not the same as predicted by Junge's model. The air concentrations before and after a single 24-hour rain event indicated that rain scavenging is efficient for removing water-soluble herbicides. Concentrations of many herbicides in 43 sequential rain samples followed the same pattern: much higher concentration at the beginning of the rain than that in the rest of rain event. The most frequently detected pesticides were alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, and acetochlor. Concentration and fluxes of most pesticides in rain depicted a distinct seasonal pattern. The presence of agriculture pesticides in urban rain demonstrates that pesticides are being transported regionally through the atmosphere. The relatively consistent year-to-year flux of pesticides in Minneapolis indicates the regional background of pesticides in rain. The intensive row-crop agricultural area showed a significantly greater annual flux than the other four sampling sites that were in areas of either urbanization or less intensive agriculture. A multi-year paired study of pesticides in rain and storm runoff in three watersheds in Minnesota was conducted to compare the mass loadings from two pathways to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Seven other larger watersheds were selected from previous research to perform the same assessment. The mass contributed from the rain was 40 to 200 times greater than the riverine load in the urban watershed and equal to five times greater in the two agricultural watersheds in Minnesota. The magnitude of mass in rain is similar, if is not greater than, to that in runoff, over many orders of magnitude differences in the sizes of watersheds.

Ma, Lin

2000-11-01

358

Solar Observations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity involving observations of the Sun. Learners use pinhole cameras, solar telescopes, and/or solar viewing glasses to make solar observations, draw what they see, and identify sunspots, if they are present. Then, learners go online and compare their drawings to images obtained by the SOHO spacecraft. This activity requires the use a sunny outdoor location. This activity also require use of safe methods for observing the Sun, such as pinhole cameras, telescopes with proper solar filters attached, and/or viewing glasses that are designated for safe solar viewing. No one should look at the Sun unless one or more of these methods is used in a proper fashion.

359

New Directions for Higher Education: Challenges, Opportunities, and Outcomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the last few decades, pervasive technology and significant social and economic development have forever changed our society. Social and economic change has made it increasingly difficult for higher education to operate in insular ways; attention to changing demographics, global economies, and new social mores is required (Keller 2008). The potential reach of technology seems limitless and has already changed higher education institutions in "the way we organize ourselves, our policies, our culture, what faculty do, the way we work, and those we serve" (Ikenberry 1999, p. 63). Change in higher education to accommodate broader societal changes requires new ways of thinking about economic issues, accountability, technology, and the teaching-learning process. This chapter makes the challenges currently facing higher education explicit. It outlines the leadership traits and behaviors that are moving higher education into a hybrid version of traditional and distance institutions. Six principles of sound strategic planning for creating a new higher education enterprise are reviewed.

Cleveland-Innes, Marta

360

Higher Serum Levels of Rheumatoid Factor and Anti-Nuclear Antibodies in Helicobacter Pylori-Infected Peptic Ulcer Patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives H. pylori infection has been associated with some autoimmune disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum concentrations of rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies in H. pylori-infected peptic ulcer patients, H. pylori-infected asymptomatic carriers and a healthy control group. Methods A Total of 100 H. pylori-infected peptic ulcer patients, 65 asymptomatic carriers and 30 healthy H. pylori-negative subjects (as a control group) were enrolled into study. Serum samples of participants tested for the levels of rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies by use of ELISA. Results The mean serum levels of rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies in peptic ulcer group was significantly higher in comparison to the control group (p<0.05). Although, the mean serum levels of rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies in the asymptomatic carriers group was higher than those in the control group, the difference was not statistically significant. No significant differences were observed between peptic ulcer patients and asymptomatic carriers groups regarding the mean serum levels of rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies. The mean serum levels of rheumatoid factor in men with peptic ulcer was significantly higher compared to the group of healthy men (p<0.05). Although in female of peptic ulcer patients or asymptomatic carriers groups, the mean serum levels of rheumatoid factor was higher than that in healthy women, but the differences were not statistically significant. Also, no significant differences were observed between men and women with peptic ulcer, asymptomatic carriers control groups based on the serum levels of anti-nuclear antibodies. Conclusion The results showed higher serum levels of rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies in H. pylori-infected patients with peptic ulcer disease which represent the H. pylori-related immune disturbance in these patients. Additional follow-up studies are necessary to clarify the clinical significance of these autoantibodies in patients with H. pylori infection.

Jafarzadeh, Abdollah; Nemati, Maryam; Rezayati, Mohammad Taghi; Nabizadeh, Mansooreh; Ebrahimi, Medhi

2013-01-01

361

Observational Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson on observational studies discusses the nature of such studies, the relationships between various data sets, and regression. Graphs illustrate the relationships, and exercises at the end test the user's comprehension and understanding. It is taken from the online textbook for Western Michigan University online introductory stats course.

Abebe, Asheber; Daniels, John E.; Kapenga, J. A.; Mckean, Joe W.

2008-12-25

362

On Advanced Knowledge and Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advanced knowledge is the basis for higher education, but less research on higher education deals with it. The essay elaborates on the major point in several ways: first, the practice-oriented higher education research tends to ignore advanced knowledge; secondly, higher education shall never turn a blind eye to advanced knowledge due to their…

Chen, Hongjie

2009-01-01

363

Redefining External Stakeholders in Nordic Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Present higher education reforms in the Nordic countries diminish the role and influence of the state on the governance of higher education institutions. While still providing a framework for the management of higher education, in general, the state supervises rather than controls higher education institutions (HEIs). The rhetoric of change…

Musial, Kazimierz

2010-01-01

364

Higher Order Expectations in Asset Pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine formally Keynes' idea that higher order beliefs can drive a wedge between an asset price and its fundamental value based on expected future payoffs. Higher order expectations add an additional term to a standard asset pricing equation. We call this the higher order wedge, which depends on the difference between higher and first order expectations of future payoffs.

Philippe Bacchetta; Eric van Wincoop

2008-01-01

365

National Protocols for Higher Education Approval Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Protocols for Higher Education Approval Processes (the "National Protocols") are a key element of the national quality assurance framework for Australian higher education. They protect the standing of Australian higher education nationally and internationally by assuring students and the community that higher education institutions in…

Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2007

2007-01-01

366

Redefining External Stakeholders in Nordic Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present higher education reforms in the Nordic countries diminish the role and influence of the state on the governance of higher education institutions. While still providing a framework for the management of higher education, in general, the state supervises rather than controls higher education institutions (HEIs). The rhetoric of change stipulates HEIs to respond to environmental needs, and the external

Kazimierz Musia?

2010-01-01

367

Organizing higher education in a knowledge society  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of higher education systems in the Western world has led both to development of overall strategies for the organization of higher education institutions by public authorities, as well as to strategies by higher education institutions aiming to position themselves within emerging higher education systems. This article first asks whether these developments represent converging or path dependent trends before

Ivar Bleiklie

2005-01-01

368

A Strategic Vision for Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Where is the manual on American higher education in the 21st century? In this article, the author argues that there is none and that it is up to the federal government and higher education leaders to provide this strategic vision. She further states that the federal government and higher education leaders must have the vision to see where higher

Spellings, Margaret

2005-01-01

369

Impact significance determination-Back to basics  

SciTech Connect

Impact significance determination is widely recognized as a vital and critical EIA activity. But impact significance related concepts are poorly understood. And the quality of approaches for impact significance determination in EIA practice remains highly variable. This article seeks to help establish a sound and practical conceptual foundation for formulating and evaluating impact significance determination approaches. It addresses the nature (what is impact significance?), the core characteristics (what are the major properties of significance determination?), the rationale (why are impact significance determinations necessary?), the procedural and substantive objectives (what do impact significance determinations seek to achieve?), and the process for making impact significance judgments (how is impact significance determination conducted?). By identifying fundamental attributes and key distinctions associated with impact significance determinations, a basis is provided for designing and evaluating impact significance determination procedures at both the regulatory and applied levels.

Lawrence, David P. [P.O. Station A, Box 3475, Langley, BC, V3A 4R8 (Canada)], E-mail: lawenv@telus.net

2007-11-15

370

Evaluation of the significance of inverse oxidation for HTGR graphites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inverse oxidation refers to a higher mass loss inside the graphite than the outside. In 1980, Wichner et al reported this phenomenon (referred to as inside\\/out corrosion) observed in some H451 graphites, and offered an explanation that a catalyst (almost certainly Fe) is activated by the progressively increasing reducing conditions found in the graphite interior. Recently, Morgan and Thomas

B. S. Lee; J. Heiser; C. Sastre

1983-01-01

371

Higher Education: A Time for Triage?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Higher education faces unprecedented challenges. The confluence of changing economic and demographic tends; new patterns of federal and state spending; more explicit expectations by students and their families for affordable, accessible education; and heightened scrutiny by those who claim a legitimate interest in higher education is inescapably altering the environment in which this system operates. Higher education will never again be as it was before. Further, many believe that tinkering around the margins is no longer an adequate response to the new demands. Fundamental change is deemed necessary to meet the challenge of this melange of pressures. A number of commentators have observed that political and corporate America have responded to their challenges by instituting a fundamental restructuring of those institutions. The medical community is also in the midst of a similar basic restructuring of the health care delivery system in this country. Now its education's turn. People are questioning the historically expressed mission of higher education. They make the claim that we cost too much, spend carelessly, teach poorly, plan myopically, and when questioned, act defensively. Educational administrators, from department chairs up, are confronted with the task of simultaneously reforming and cutting back. They have no choice. They must establish politically sophisticated priority settings and effect a hard-nosed reallocation of resources in a social environment where competing public needs have equivalent--or stronger--emotional pulls. Triage in a medical context involves confronting an emergency in which the demand for attention far outstrips available assistance by establishing a sequence of care in which one key individual orchestrates the application of harsh priorities which have been designed to maximize the number of survivors. In recent years, the decisions that have been made in some centers of higher education bear a striking similarity. The literature is replete with descriptions of budget cuts and the resultant reallocation of monies. For example, as the budget cuts of the last decade accumulated, maintenance was deferred, and the funds saved were used to shore-up key existing parts of the educational process, such as faculty salaries. State budgets are generally smaller now than they were when the cuts were made, which means that preventive maintenance will continue to be deferred and other resources must be found for capital improvements. Triage often operates in an environment that does not permit promising possibilities to develop. For example, the promise of interactive digital technologies on the learning process may never be fully realized in many institutions if the associated capital and operating costs cannot be accommodated within the cost containment measures being adopted. In an effort to offset part of the lost state support, tuition and fees have been increased at public institutions at a rate that far exceeds growth of the cost of living index. All this is occurring in the face of an increasingly diverse student body and the beginning of "Tidal Wave II," as the surge of new students who are the children of the baby boomers has been called. These demands, along with the expectations for an historically, good American education, will have to be met with fewer dollars. Our ability to fund public higher education by the conventional mechanisms has been affected by a variety of tax reform initiatives. Although the details may vary locally, various kinds of initiatives, propositions, and referenda have severely limited the amount of revenue states can raise. Thus, caps on property taxes have transformed support patterns at the city and county levels. Initiatives, many of which have built-in escalators, that fix the percentages of state spending for various programs have created new kinds of budgetary entitlement groups. These mandates conspire to give government, i.e., governors and legislatures, less discretionary control over a dwindling portion of the state budget. Unfortunately, hig

Lagowski, J. J.

1995-10-01

372

The radiation-induced bystander effect: evidence and significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multitude of biological effects observed over the past two decades in various in vivo and in vitro cell culture experiments have indicated that low dose\\/low fluence ionizing radiation has significantly different biological responses than high dose radiation. Exposure of cell populations to very low fluences of particles or incorporated radionuclides results in significant biological effects occurring in both the

Edouard I Azzam; John B Little

2004-01-01

373

Asia Observer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "start page for observers of Asian affairs" complements resources such as Asia Society (described in the January 2, 1998 Scout Report) by providing an omnibus of links to news outlets, government resources, special topics and academic Websites, Asian newspapers, reference texts, human rights organizations, and more. In addition, the Find an Expert section allows users to access two large databases of scholars and researchers in Asian policy and Asian history and culture.

374

Resveratrol commonly displays hormesis: Occurrence and biomedical significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resveratrol induces hormetic dose responses in a wide range of biological models, affecting numerous endpoints of biomedical and therapeutic significance. These responses were reported for numerous human tumor cell lines affecting breast, prostate, colon, lung, uterine and leukemia. In such cases, low concentrations of resveratrol enhanced tumor cell proliferation whereas higher concentrations were inhibitory. Similar resveratrol-induced biphasic dose responses were

Edward J Calabrese; Mark P Mattson; Vittorio Calabrese

2010-01-01

375

FINAL REPORT. DETERMINING SIGNIFICANT ENDPOINTS FOR ECOLOGICAL RISK ANALYSES  

EPA Science Inventory

This research examines the ecological significance of radioactive and heavy metal contamination. Risks to non-human biota at higher levels of biological organization are assessed by using novel biological dosimeters in controlled, manipulative, dose/effects experiments, and by co...

376

Higher Chlamydia trachomatis Prevalence in Ethnic Minorities Does Not Always Reflect Higher Sexual Risk Behaviour  

PubMed Central

Background In affluent countries, the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is often higher in certain ethnic minorities than in the majority population. In the Netherlands, we examined why CT prevalence is higher in Surinamese/Antilleans, the largest minority in the country. Methods Heterosexuals were recruited for a cross-sectional survey from May through August 2010 at the sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic in Amsterdam. Participants completed a questionnaire and were tested for STI. A causal directed acyclic graph was assumed to investigate whether the association between ethnicity and CT could be explained by differences in sexual risk behaviour and socio-economic status. Results Subjects included 1044 with Dutch background and 335 with Surinamese/Antillean background. Median age for the combined population was 25 (IQR 22-30) years, and 55.4% was female. Sexual risk behaviour did not differ significantly between the two groups. CT was diagnosed in 17.9% of Surinamese/Antilleans and in 11.4% of Dutch. Surinamese/Antilleans were significantly more likely to have CT (OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.21-2.38). The association between ethnicity and CT remained statistically significant after adjusting for sexual risk behaviour, age, sex, and ethnic mixing (aOR 1.48; 95% CI 1.00-2.18), but not after adjusting for education and neighbourhood, markers of socio-economic status (aOR 1.08; 95% CI 0.71-1.64). Conclusion The difference in CT prevalence between the minority and majority groups was not explained by differences in sexual risk behaviour. The higher CT prevalence found among Surinamese/Antilleans appeared to reflect their lower educational level and neighbourhood, two markers of lower socio-economic status. We hypothesise that the effect results from lower health-seeking behaviour.

Matser, Amy; Luu, Nancy; Geskus, Ronald; Heijman, Titia; Heiligenberg, Marlies; van Veen, Maaike; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten

2013-01-01

377

The eyespot of the flagellate Tetraselmis cordiformis stein ( Chlorophyceae ): Structural spezialization of the outer chloroplast membrane and its possible significance in phototaxis of green algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The eyespot region of the flagellateTetraselmis cordiformis Stein (Chlorophyceae) was investigated with the freeze-fracture technique. The only fracture faces observed in this region were the two complementary fracture faces (PF and EF) of the outer chloroplast envelope membrane. Intramembranous particle numbers on both fracture faces of this membrane were significantly higher in the eyespot region as compared to regions

M. Melkonian; H. Robenek

1979-01-01

378

The diagnosis and clinical significance of polyautoimmunity.  

PubMed

Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are chronic and heterogeneous conditions that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. The chronic nature of these diseases places a significant burden on the utilization of medical care, direct and indirect economic costs, and quality of life. ADs are observed in genetically susceptible individuals in whom their clinical expression is modified by permissive and protective environments occurring over time. These are complex traits, meaning that their inheritance does not follow a single-gene dominant or single-gene recessive Mendelian law, and thus that they are polygenic. ADs are often diagnosed according to classification criteria, however they share similar subphenotypes including signs and symptoms, non-specific autoantibodies and other immune changes, which are prone to taxonomic problems. Polyautoimmunity is defined as the presence of more than one AD in a single patient. When three or more ADs coexist, this condition is called multiple autoimmune syndrome (MAS), which represents the best example of polyautoimmunity as well as the effect of a single genotype on diverse autoimmune phenotypes. Its study will provide important clues to elucidate the common mechanisms of ADs (i.e., the autoimmune tautology). PMID:24424171

Anaya, Juan-Manuel

2014-01-01

379

Binocular visual performance and summation after correcting higher order aberrations  

PubMed Central

Although the ocular higher order aberrations degrade the retinal image substantially, most studies have investigated their effect on vision only under monocular conditions. Here, we have investigated the impact of binocular higher order aberration correction on visual performance and binocular summation by constructing a binocular adaptive optics (AO) vision simulator. Binocular monochromatic aberration correction using AO improved visual acuity and contrast sensitivity significantly. The improvement however, differed from that achieved under monocular viewing. At high spatial frequency (24 c/deg), the monocular benefit in contrast sensitivity was significantly larger than the benefit achieved binocularly. In addition, binocular summation for higher spatial frequencies was the largest in the presence of subject’s native higher order aberrations and was reduced when these aberrations were corrected. This study thus demonstrates the vast potential of binocular AO vision testing in understanding the impact of ocular optics on habitual binocular vision.

Sabesan, Ramkumar; Zheleznyak, Len; Yoon, Geunyoung

2012-01-01

380

Observations and Hypotheses in Cosmology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The existing observational material of cosmological significance is reviewed. It is found that because of the general acceptance of the Big Bang hypothesis a large number of ad hoc assumptions were made in order to accomodate the observational facts into ...

H. Alfven

1978-01-01

381

Observations and Hypotheses in Cosmology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The existing observational material of cosmological significance is reviewed. It is found that because of the general acceptance of the Big Bang hypothesis a large number of ad hoc assumptions have been made in order to accomodate the observational facts ...

H. Alfven

1978-01-01

382

Radar observables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive account is given of missile design considerations relevant to the prediction, control, and measurement of airframe radar cross sections (RCSs), with a view to the minimization of missile observability. RCS reduction may proceed through airframe shaping to deflect incident radar emissions, as well as through the use of radar-absorbing surface materials and the devision of active radar signal-cancellation methods; some combination of these is often required, due to the deficiencies of any one method. The interaction of all RCS-reduction methods with airframe aerodynamic-design criteria are stressed.

Knott, Eugene F.

383

Higher Plant Cytochrome b5 Polypeptides Modulate Fatty Acid Desaturation  

PubMed Central

Background Synthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the endoplasmic reticulum of plants typically involves the fatty acid desaturases FAD2 and FAD3, which use cytochrome b5 (Cb5) as an electron donor. Higher plants are reported to have multiple isoforms of Cb5, in contrast to a single Cb5 in mammals and yeast. Despite the wealth of information available on the roles of FAD2 and FAD3 in PUFA synthesis, information regarding the contributions of various Cb5 isoforms in desaturase-mediated reactions is limited. Results The present functional characterization of Cb5 polypeptides revealed that all Arabidopsis Cb5 isoforms are not similarly efficient in ?-6 desaturation, as evidenced by significant variation in their product outcomes in yeast-based functional assays. On the other hand, characterization of Cb5 polypeptides of soybean (Glycine max) suggested that similar ?-6 desaturation efficiencies were shared by various isoforms. With regard to ?-3 desaturation, certain Cb5 genes of both Arabidopsis and soybean were shown to facilitate the accumulation of more desaturation products than others when co-expressed with their native FAD3. Additionally, similar trends of differential desaturation product accumulation were also observed with most Cb5 genes of both soybean and Arabidopsis even if co-expressed with non-native FAD3. Conclusions The present study reports the first description of the differential nature of the Cb5 genes of higher plants in fatty acid desaturation and further suggests that ?-3/?-6 desaturation product outcome is determined by the nature of both the Cb5 isoform and the fatty acid desaturases.

Kumar, Rajesh; Tran, Lam-Son Phan; Neelakandan, Anjanasree K.; Nguyen, Henry T.

2012-01-01

384

Formation of higher alcohols from methanol in the presence of metal acetylides  

SciTech Connect

Experiments have shown that methanol can be converted to higher-molecular-weight alcohols in the vapor phase in the presence of a metal acetylide. Isobutyl alcohol is the predominant higher alcohol formed. Significant amounts of ethanol, propanol, butanol, 2-methylbutanol, and 2-methylpentanol are also produced. In addition to higher alcohols, a significant portion of the methanol is converted to CH/sub 4/, CO, and H/sub 2/. The overall product distribution is a function of the metal acetylide employed and the reaction conditions. /sup 13/C labeling studies have conclusively shown that the source of the carbon in the higher alcohols is the methanol, not the metal acetylide. However, studies indicate that the process is not catalytic, presumably due to the fact that under reaction conditions, the metal acetylide is converted to other species which are not catalytically active. Attempts to determine the fate of the acetylide and the catalytic activity of the resultant species are described. A mechanism consistent with experimental observations is presented to explain the high selectivity to isobutyl alcohol and similarities to the heterogeneous isosynthesis catalysts are discussed. 38 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

Fox, J.R.; Pesa, F.A.; Curatolo, B.S.

1984-11-01

385

Creating Higher Titer Lentivirus with Caffeine  

PubMed Central

Abstract The use of lentiviral vectors extends from the laboratory, where they are used for basic studies in virology and as gene transfer vectors gene delivery, to the clinic, where clinical trials using these vectors for gene therapy are currently underway. Lentiviral vectors are useful for gene transfer because they have a large cloning capacity and a broad tropism. Although procedures for lentiviral vector production have been standardized, simple methods to create higher titer virus during production would have extensive and important applications for both research and clinical use. Here we present a simple and inexpensive method to increase the titer by 3- to 8-fold for both integration-competent lentivirus and integration-deficient lentivirus. This is achieved during standard lentiviral production by the addition of caffeine to a final concentration of 2–4?mM. We find that sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor shown previously to increase viral titer, works only ?50% as well as caffeine. We also show that the DNA-PKcs (DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit) inhibitor NU7026 can also increase viral titer, but that the combination of caffeine and NU7026 is not more effective than caffeine alone. We show that the time course of caffeine treatment is important in achieving a higher titer virus, and is most effective when caffeine is present from 17 to 41?hr posttransfection. Last, although caffeine increases lentiviral vector titer, it has the opposite effect on the titer of adeno-associated virus type 2 vector. Together, these results provide a novel, simple, and inexpensive way to significantly increase the titer of lentiviral vectors.

Ellis, Brian L.; Potts, Patrick Ryan

2011-01-01

386

Expression and Clinical Significance of Livin Protein in Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

In this study, the two-step PV method of immunohistochemistry was used to determine livin protein expression in HCC tissues, pericarcinoma tissues, hepatitis/hepatic cirrhosis tissues, and normal hepatic tissues, and livin protein expression was detected in the blood plasma of patients with HCC before and after surgery, subjects with hepatic cirrhosis and hepatitis, and healthy blood donors using ELISA. Livin protein expression was significantly higher in HCC tissues than that in normal hepatic tissues and hepatitis/hepatic cirrhosis tissues, with no significant difference between HCC tissues and pericarcinoma tissues. The HCC patients with positive livin protein expression had a significantly higher survival rate than those with negative livin protein expression. Livin protein expression was significantly higher in the blood plasma of patients with HCC before and after surgery and in patients with hepatic cirrhosis and hepatitis than that in healthy blood donors, whereas livin protein expression in the blood plasma of patients with HCC was not significantly different from that of patients with hepatic cirrhosis and hepatitis. Livin protein expression in HCC tissues did not correlate with that in the blood plasma of the same HCC patients. Livin protein expression may be a potential, effective indicator for assessing prognosis in patients with HCC.

Gao, Ying-tang; Zhang, Qin; Jing, Li; Liu, Tong; Shi, Wen-xia; Zhai, Dao-kuan; Jing, Xiang; Du, Zhi

2013-01-01

387

Higher height, higher ability: judgment confidence as a function of spatial height perception.  

PubMed

Based on grounded cognition theories, the current study showed that judgments about ability were regulated by the subjects' perceptions of their spatial height. In Experiment 1, we found that after seeing the ground from a higher rather than lower floor, people had higher expectations about their performance on a knowledge test and assigned themselves higher rank positions in a peer comparison evaluation. In Experiment 2, we examined the boundary conditions of the spatial height effects and showed that it could still occur even if we employed photos rather than actual building floors to manipulate the perceptions of spatial heights. In addition, Experiment 2 excluded processing style as an explanation for these observations. In Experiment 3, we investigated a potential mechanism for the spatial height effect by manipulating the scale direction in the questionnaire. Consequently, consistent with our representational dependence account, the effect of spatial heights on ability judgments was eliminated when the mental representation of ability was disturbed by a reverse physical representation. These results suggest that people's judgments about their ability are correlated with their spatial perception. PMID:21818299

Sun, Yan; Wang, Fei; Li, Shu

2011-01-01

388

Slow-spreading submarine ridges in the South Atlantic as a significant oceanic iron source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low levels of the micronutrient iron limit primary production and nitrogen fixation in large areas of the global ocean. The location and magnitude of oceanic iron sources remain uncertain, however, owing to a scarcity of data, particularly in the deep ocean. Although deep-sea hydrothermal vents along fast-spreading ridges have been identified as important contributors to the oceanic iron inventory, slow-spreading ridges, which contribute more than half of the submarine ridge-crest environment, are assumed to be less significant and remain relatively unexplored. Here, we present measurements of dissolved iron and manganese concentrations along a full-depth section in the South Atlantic Ocean, running from offshore of Brazil to Namibia. We detect a large dissolved iron- and manganese-rich plume over the slow-spreading southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Using previously collected measurements of helium-3 concentrations--a tracer of hydrothermal activity--we calculate the ratio of dissolved iron to hydrothermal helium in the plume waters and find that it is 80-fold higher than that reported for plume waters emanating from faster-spreading ridges in the southeastern Pacific. Only the application of a higher ratio in global ocean model simulations yields iron fluxes from these slow-spreading submarine ridges that are in line with our observations. We suggest that global iron contributions from hydrothermal vents are significantly higher than previously thought, owing to a greater contribution from slow-spreading regions.

Saito, Mak A.; Noble, Abigail E.; Tagliabue, Alessandro; Goepfert, Tyler J.; Lamborg, Carl H.; Jenkins, William J.

2013-09-01

389

Sudden substrate dilution induces a higher rate of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed Central

On the basis of the present knowledge of Aspergillus niger metabolism during citric acid fermentation, an idea on how to improve the process was formed. Initially, a higher sucrose concentration was used for the germination of spores, which caused a higher intracellular level of the osmoregulator, glycerol, to be present. When citric acid started to be excreted into the medium, the substrate was suddenly diluted. Optimization of this procedure resulted in a nearly tripled volumetric rate (grams per liter per hour) of acid production, while the overall fermentation time was halved compared with the usual batch process. Yet, a characteristic delay was observed at the start of the acid excretion after the dilution. Hypo-osmotic shock caused a prominent elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP levels. Simultaneously, the specific activity of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase increased significantly, probably due to phosphorylation of the protein molecule by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Specific 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase activity was much higher in the treated than in the normally growing mycelium. The metabolic flow through glycolysis was expected to be higher, which should contribute to a higher volumetric rate of acid production.

Legisa, M; Gradisnik-Grapulin, M

1995-01-01

390

Black Choice in the Higher Education Marketplace.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After tracing the history of Blacks in higher education from slavery to the present, the author discusses the relative merits of Black versus White higher education institutions for Black students. (RLV)

Tribble, Israel

1979-01-01

391

Measuring Competencies of Higher Education Graduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter describes a new conceptual model for measuring competencies of higher education graduates. The proposed instrument can become a valuable tool for higher education quality management, policy evaluation, and scientific research. (Contains 1 figure.)

Allen, Jim; Ramaekers, Ger; van der Velden, Rolf

2005-01-01

392

Financing Higher Education in Francophone West Africa,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report concentrated upon the problems of diversifying the sources of finance in higher education, including cost recovery mechanisms. Discussions focus on: (1) an analysis of higher education finance in Francophone West Africa; (2) an examination of t...

A. Ranson

1988-01-01

393

Hispanic Higher Education and HSIs. Fact Sheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents facts about Hispanic higher education. Facts on the following topics are presented: (1) Hispanic demographics; (2) Hispanic academic attainment; (3) Hispanic higher education; and (4) Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs).

Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities, 2012

2012-01-01

394

Characterization of lymph node metastasis and its clinical significance in the surgical treatment of gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to characterize lymph node metastasis and determine its clinical significance in the surgical treatment of gastric cancer. The medical charts of 920 gastric cancer patients who underwent radical surgical resection between March, 2010 and March, 2013, were retrospectively reviewed and statistically analyzed. Lymphatic metastasis was observed in 69.6% of the patients (640/920). The frequency of lymph node metastasis in patients with early-stage gastric cancer was 21.4% (18/84). Lymph node metastasis was observed in all the patients with stage IIIC-IV gastric cancer. The incidence of lymph node metastasis was higher among patients with tumors >7 cm in size. The most frequently affected lymph nodes in patients with proximal, central and distal gastric cancer were station no. 1 (34.2%), no. 3 (33.8%) and no. 6 (34.3%) lymph nodes, respectively. The frequency of lymph node metastasis in patients with Borrmann type IV cancer was significantly higher compared to that in patients with other Borrmann type cancers. Our study further demonstrated that lymphatic metastasis is closely correlated with TNM stage, location, depth of invasion and size of gastric tumors. Therefore, we recommend that a sufficient number of lymph nodes be examined from each patient to determine the extent of lymph node dissection based on Borrmann type, location, size, depth of invasion and histology of the cancer.

ZUO, CHAO-HUI; XIE, HAILONG; LIU, JINGSHI; QIU, XIAO-XIN; LIN, JIN-GUAN; HUA, XIAO; QIN, ANG

2014-01-01

395

Speculations about the Increasingly Indeterminate Future of Higher Education in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comments on seven "propositions" about the future of higher education made by Howard Bowen in 1989, including observations about the capacity to predict change, the value ascribed to higher education by the public, characterization of higher education as a growth industry, need for improvement in higher education's quality, and deterioration of…

Kerr, Clark

1997-01-01

396

Higher Education and Basic Health Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proceedings of the Regional Institute of Higher Education and Development's seminar on higher education's commitment to the basic health needs of society are recorded. The first part of the seminar contains the official opening and several addresses that focus on basic health care in Southeast Asia. Part II, "Contributions of Higher Education…

Nasution, S.; Virasai, Banphot, Eds.

397

Higher Education Accountability Report 2007-08  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is one of several efforts designed to monitor outcomes in Washington's higher education system, and fulfills the biennial requirement that the Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB) inform the higher education and fiscal committees of the legislature of progress toward goals. The portrait that emerges from this review of…

Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2009

2009-01-01

398

Colleges and the Governance of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The governance of higher education in colleges and college sectors that offer other types of education and training is distinctive in four main respects. First, governance structures are frequently separate and different for higher education and for other segments of tertiary education. Second, the size and scope of the higher-level education…

Parry, Gareth

2013-01-01

399

Discipline and Methodology in Higher Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education research is a multidisciplinary field, engaging researchers from across the academy who make use of a wide range of methodological approaches. This article examines the relation between discipline and methodology in higher education research, analysing a database of 567 articles published in 15 leading higher education journals…

Tight, Malcolm

2013-01-01

400

Student Volunteering in English Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volunteering in English higher education has come under political scrutiny recently, with strong cross-party support for schemes to promote undergraduate volunteering in particular. Recent targeted initiatives and proposals have sought to strengthen both the role of volunteering in higher education and synergies between higher education and…

Holdsworth, Clare; Quinn, Jocey

2010-01-01

401

Is higher education ready for knowledge management?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher education institutions are in the knowledge business, since they are involved in knowledge creation and dissemination and learning. Examines the applicability of the concepts of knowledge management to higher education institutions in the United Kingdom. Identifies a number of existing facilities, systems or projects which contribute to knowledge management in higher education, such as libraries, and electronic collections of

Jennifer Rowley

2000-01-01

402

Higher Education: A Time for Triage?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher education faces unprecedented challenges. The confluence of changing economic and demographic tends; new patterns of federal and state spending; more explicit expectations by students and their families for affordable, accessible education; and heightened scrutiny by those who claim a legitimate interest in higher education is inescapably altering the environment in which this system operates. Higher education will never again

J. J. Lagowski

1995-01-01

403

Reconfiguring the Higher Education Value Chain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forces of demand and supply are changing the dynamics of the higher education market. Transformation of institutions of higher learning into competitive enterprise is underway. Higher education institutions are seemingly under intense pressure to create value and focus their efforts and scarce funds on activities that drive up value for their…

Pathak, Virendra; Pathak, Kavita

2010-01-01

404

Guidelines for Planning in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guidelines for planning in higher education (which might have an application in Colombia) are described. Chapter 1 provides an expanded definition of higher education that includes noncollege channels to lifelong education and embraces all viable postsecondary education. Chapter 2 addresses current problems facing higher education, such as lack of…

Anderson, Kenneth E.; Acero, Herman D.

405

OER in Africa's Higher Education Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education in Africa has had diverse histories and trajectories, and has played different roles over time. This article is concerned with the evolution and future of higher education on the continent, and the role that open educational resources (OER) might play therein. It is generally accepted that "the university in Africa and higher

Ngugi, Catherine N.

2011-01-01

406

National Focus on Postmodernism in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The integration of postmodernism in higher education is a widely debated issue. Critics of postmodernism in higher education hold the position that postmodernism breeds an unruliness of knowledge. Academicians in higher education often choose to educate students through means of prescription rather than implementing innovation in classroom…

Williams, Monica G.

2007-01-01

407

Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2008 Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

2008-01-01

408

New Directions in Professional Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection contains a series of analytical case studies of developing practices that respond to the challenges to higher education in the United Kingdom at the start of the new millennium. Chapters addressing important themes in developing professional higher education are: (1) "Lifelong Learning and Professional Higher Education" (David…

Bourner, Tom, Ed.; Katz, Tim, Ed.; Watson, David, Ed.

409

A Philosophy For Minnesota Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Minnesota Higher Education Coordinating Commission has formulated a statement as the guiding philosophy for its deliberations on Minnesota's long-range, comprehensive higher education plans. The Commission's basic position for viewing higher education in Minnesota during the next 10 years involves (1) the development of human resources through…

Minnesota Higher Education Coordinating Commission, St. Paul.

410

Self-directedness, integration and higher cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I discuss connections between self-directedness, integration and higher cognition. I present a model of self-directedness as a basis for approaching higher cognition from a situated cognition perspective. According to this model increases in sensorimotor complexity create pressure for integrative higher order control and learning processes for acquiring information about the context in which action occurs. This generates

Wayne Christensen

2004-01-01

411

The Incentive System in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses the incentive system in German higher education. He states that the underdeveloped incentive and management mechanisms in German higher education result in mistaken allocations in the higher education system in general and in some individual institutions in particular. He believes that the only way to optimize…

Landfried, Klaus

2004-01-01

412

Planning, Designing and Managing Higher Education Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The OECD Programme on Educational Building, together with the Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers (APPA) and the OECD Programme on Institutional Management in Higher Education, organised an international conference on the planning, design and management of facilities for higher education institutions on April 24-27, 2005. The…

Daigneau, William A.; Valenti, Mark S.; Ricciarini, Sylvana; Bender, Stephen O.; Alleyne, Nicole; Di Grappa, Michael; Duart, Josep M.; Lupianez, Francisco; Sanchez, Miguel Angel Ehrenzweig

2005-01-01

413

Higher Education and Civic Engagement: Comparative Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher Education and Civic Engagement provides an original and challenging contribution to contemporary debates on the civic purpose of higher education. It explores teaching and learning, research, and service in a range of international contexts. This book is essential reading for higher education leaders, faculty, administrators, and members of…

McIlrath, Lorraine, Ed.; Lyons, Ann, Ed.; Munck, Ronaldo, Ed.

2012-01-01

414

Hispanics in Higher Education: On the Move!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Association of Hispanics in Higher Education (AAHHE) is a new national organization "dedicated to improving the quality of higher education." The AAHHE believes higher education institutions can, and should, do a better job of "meeting the needs of a changing US demography." AAHHE's roots lie in the Hispanic Caucus of the now-defunct…

Kennen, Estela Marin

2005-01-01

415

Character Development Practices in Higher Education Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Character Development continues to be the all too unintentional elephant in the room of Higher Education. This project looked at what character development practices are being accomplished and who in higher education is making it happen. No longer satisfied with leaving the task to elementary and secondary education, higher education has begun to…

Wesley, Vernon L.

2010-01-01

416

Correlation between Corneal Topographic Indices and Higher-Order Aberrations in Keratoconus  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare corneal higher-order aberrations (HOAs) between normal and keratoconic eyes, and to investigate the association between elevation-based corneal topographic indices and corneal wavefront data in the latter group. Methods In this cross-sectional comparative study, 77 normal right eyes of 77 control subjects and 66 eyes of 36 keratoconic patients were included. In each eye, elevation- based corneal topographic indices including mean keratometry readings, best-fit sphere, maximum elevation, and 3-mm and 5-mm zone irregularity indices were measured using Orbscan II. The Galilei Scheimpflug analyzer was used to measure HOAs of the corneal surface. The independent student t-test was used to compare HOAs between the study groups. Spearman correlation was used to investigate possible associations between Orbscan and Galilei data in the keratoconus group. Results All Zernike coefficients up to the 4th order except for horizontal trefoil, and vertical and horizontal tetrafoil were significantly greater in the keratoconus group than normal eyes (P<0.05). Root mean square (RMS) of HOAs up to the 6th order and total HOAs were significantly higher in the keratoconus group (P<0.05). In the keratoconus group, the strongest association was observed between vertical coma (r=-0.71, P<0.01) and total RMS of HOAs (r=0.94, P<0.01) with irregularity in the 3-mm zone. Spherical and vertical coma aberrations were significantly correlated with mean keratometry (P<0.05 for both comparisons). Conclusion Centrally located corneal HOAs are significantly greater in keratoconic eyes than normal controls. Anterior and inferior displacement of the cornea causes the majority of higher-order aberrations observed in keratoconus.

Feizi, Sepehr; Einollahi, Bahram; Raminkhoo, Alireza; Salehirad, Shahram

2013-01-01

417

Gene copy number variation and its significance in cyanobacterial phylogeny  

PubMed Central

Background In eukaryotes, variation in gene copy numbers is often associated with deleterious effects, but may also have positive effects. For prokaryotes, studies on gene copy number variation are rare. Previous studies have suggested that high numbers of rRNA gene copies can be advantageous in environments with changing resource availability, but further association of gene copies and phenotypic traits are not documented. We used one of the morphologically most diverse prokaryotic phyla to test whether numbers of gene copies are associated with levels of cell differentiation. Results We implemented a search algorithm that identified 44 genes with highly conserved copies across 22 fully sequenced cyanobacterial taxa. For two very basal cyanobacterial species, Gloeobacter violaceus and a thermophilic Synechococcus species, distinct phylogenetic positions previously found were supported by identical protein coding gene copy numbers. Furthermore, we found that increased ribosomal gene copy numbers showed a strong correlation to cyanobacteria capable of terminal cell differentiation. Additionally, we detected extremely low variation of 16S rRNA sequence copies within the cyanobacteria. We compared our results for 16S rRNA to three other eubacterial phyla (Chroroflexi, Spirochaetes and Bacteroidetes). Based on Bayesian phylogenetic inference and the comparisons of genetic distances, we could confirm that cyanobacterial 16S rRNA paralogs and orthologs show significantly stronger conservation than found in other eubacterial phyla. Conclusions A higher number of ribosomal operons could potentially provide an advantage to terminally differentiated cyanobacteria. Furthermore, we suggest that 16S rRNA gene copies in cyanobacteria are homogenized by both concerted evolution and purifying selection. In addition, the small ribosomal subunit in cyanobacteria appears to evolve at extraordinary slow evolutionary rates, an observation that has been made previously for morphological characteristics of cyanobacteria.

2012-01-01

418

[The significance of folate metabolism in complications of pregnant women].  

PubMed

Proper metabolism of folates has a crucial role for body homeostasis. Folate metabolism regulates changing of amino acids (homocysteine and methionine), purine and pyrimidine synthesis and DNA methylation. These whole biochemical processes have significant influence on hematopoietic, cardiovascular and nervous system functions. The disturbances of folate cycle could result in chronic hypertension, coronary artery disease, higher risk of heart infarction, could promote cancers development, and psychic and neurodegenerative diseases. No less important is the connection with complications appearing in pregnant woman (recurrent miscarriages, preeclampsia, fetus hypotrophy intrauterine death, preterm placenta ablation, preterm delivery) and fetus defects (Down syndrome, spina bifida, encephalomeningocele, myelomeningocele). The complex process of folate metabolism requires adequate activity of many enzymes and presence of co-enzymes. A key enzyme in folate metabolism is methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR - methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase), and 677C>T polymorphism of MTHFR gene is connected with lower enzymatic activity In several researches it was indicated that 677C>T MTHFR polymorphism is an independent factor influencing homocysteine concentration in serum, and also folate concentration in serum and red blood cells. Nevertheless, it was also observed the correlation of 677C>T MTHFR polymorphism with Down syndrome, and neural tube defects appearance in fetus. In European populations frequency of mutated 677TT genotype ranges from a few to several percent. Women carriers of 677TT or 677CT MTHFR genotypes are exposed on folate metabolism disturbances and on the consequences of incorrect folate process during pregnancy Nowadays in this group of women folic acid supplementation is widely recommended. In the light of modern knowledge the attention was also focused on the importance of metafolin administration that omitted pathways of folic acid transformation after administration, and in pregnant women certainly is valuable complement of supplementation in this respect. PMID:23819405

Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka

2013-05-01

419

Nickel: a micronutrient essential for higher plants  

SciTech Connect

Nickel was established as an essential micronutrient for the growth of temperate cereal crops. Grain from barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Onda; containing 40 to 80 nanograms of Ni per gram dry weight) grown in solution culture with negligible Ni concentrations (<30 nanograms of Ni per liter) exhibited greatly reduced germination rates (i.e. 50% less than grain from Ni-adequate plants) and seeding vigor of the viable grain was greatly depressed. Grain containing less than 30 nanograms per gram dry weight was inviable. Under Ni-deficient conditions, barley plants fail to produce viable grain because of a disruption of the maternal plants normal grain-filling and maturation processes that occur following formation of the grain embryo. The observations that (a) barley plants fail to complete their life cycle in the absence of Ni and (b) addition of Ni to the growth medium completely alleviates deficiency symptoms in the maternal plants satisfies the essentiality criteria; thus Ni should be considered a micronutrient for cereals. Because Ni is required by legumes, and is now established for cereals, the authors conclude that Ni should be added to the list of micronutrients essential for all higher plant growth.

Brown, P.H.; Welch, R.M.; Cary, E.E.

1987-11-01

420

Aeroelastic simulation of higher harmonic control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the development of an aeroelastic analysis of a helicopter rotor and its application to the simulation of helicopter vibration reduction through higher harmonic control (HHC). An improved finite-state, time-domain model of unsteady aerodynamics is developed to capture high frequency aerodynamic effects. An improved trim procedure is implemented which accounts for flap, lead-lag, and torsional deformations of the blade. The effect of unsteady aerodynamics is studied and it is found that its impact on blade aeroelastic stability and low frequency response is small, but it has a significant influence on rotor hub vibrations. Several different HHC algorithms are implemented on a hingeless rotor and their effectiveness in reducing hub vibratory shears is compared. All the controllers are found to be quite effective, but very differing HHC inputs are required depending on the aerodynamic model used. Effects of HHC on rotor stability and power requirements are found to be quite small. Simulations of roughly equivalent articulated and hingeless rotors are carried out, and it is found that hingeless rotors can require considerably larger HHC inputs to reduce vibratory shears. This implies that the practical implementation of HHC on hingeless rotors might be considerably more difficult than on articulated rotors.

Robinson, Lawson H.; Friedmann, Peretz P.

1994-01-01

421

THE STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE 'DARK FLOW'  

SciTech Connect

We revisit recent claims of a significant detection of a bulk flow of distant galaxy clusters. We do not find a statistically significant detection of a bulk flow. Instead we find that cosmic microwave background correlations between the eight Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe channels used in this analysis decrease the inferred significance of the detection to 0.7sigma.

Keisler, Ryan, E-mail: rkeisler@uchicago.ed [Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States) and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

2009-12-10

422

Detecting Significant Contrasts in Analysis of Variance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A problem in analysis of variance is that after rejection of the overall hypothesis, no contrasts of interest are found to be significant. A procedure for determining the contrast of significance is outlined, and the relationship between the "most significant" contrast and the overall test is shown. (Author/JKS)

Swaminathan, Hariharan; DeFriesse, Frederick

1979-01-01

423

The Role of Higher-Level Cognitive Function in Gait: Executive Dysfunction Contributes to Fall Risk in Alzheimer’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is generally understood as primarily affecting cognition while sparing motor function, at least until the later stages of the disease. Studies reported over the past 10 years, however, have documented a prevalence of falls in AD patients significantly higher than in age-matched normal elders; also persons with AD have been observed to have different walking patterns with

Pamela L. Sheridan; Jeffrey M. Hausdorff

2007-01-01

424

Prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in Asia: a viewpoint from nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.  

PubMed

Exposure to ionizing radiation is a known environmental risk factor for a variety of cancers including hematological malignancies, such as leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and multiple myeloma. Therefore, for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors (surviving victims who were exposed to ionizing radiation emitted from the nuclear weapons), several cancer-screening tests have been provided annually, with government support, to detect the early stage of malignancies. An M-protein screening test has been used to detect multiple myeloma at an early stage among atomic bomb survivors. In the screening process, a number of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), in addition to multiple myeloma, have been identified. In 2009 and 2011, we reported the age- and sex-specific prevalence of MGUS between 1988 and 2004 and the possible role of radiation exposure in the development of MGUS using the screening data of more than 1000 patients with MGUS among approximately 52,000 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The findings included: (1) a significant lower overall prevalence (2.1%) than that observed in Caucasian or African-origin populations; (2) a significantly higher prevalence in men than in women; (3) an age-related increase in the prevalence; (4) a significantly higher prevalence in people exposed to higher radiation doses only among those exposed at age 20 years or younger; and (5) a lower frequency of immunoglobulin M MGUS in Japanese patients than in patients in Western countries. The large study of MGUS among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors has provided important findings for the etiology of MGUS, including a possible role of radiation exposure on the cause of MGUS and an ethnicity-related difference in the characteristics of MGUS. PMID:24461807

Iwanaga, Masako; Tomonaga, Masao

2014-02-01

425

Distribution and potential significance of a gull fecal marker in urban coastal and riverine areas of southern Ontario, Canada.  

PubMed

To better understand the distribution of gull fecal contamination in urban areas of southern Ontario, we used gull-specific PCR and qPCR assays against 1309 water samples collected from 15 urban coastal and riverine locations during 2007. Approximately, 58% of the water samples tested positive for the gull-assay. Locations observed to have higher numbers of gulls and their fecal droppings had a higher frequency of occurrence of the gull marker and a higher gull marker qPCR signal than areas observed to be less impacted by gulls. Lower gull marker occurrence and lower qPCR signals were associated with municipal wastewater (7.4%) and urban stormwater effluents (29.5%). Overall, there were no statistically significant differences in gull marker occurrence at beach sites for pore water, ankle, and chest-depth samples, although signals were generally higher in interstitial beach sand pore water and ankle-depth water than in chest-depth water samples. Overall, the results indicated that gull fecal pollution is widespread in urban coastal and riverine areas in southern Ontario and that it significantly contributes to fecal indicator bacterial loads. PMID:21640368

Lu, Jingrang; Ryu, Hodon; Hill, Stephen; Schoen, Mary; Ashbolt, Nicholas; Edge, Thomas A; Domingo, Jorge Santo

2011-07-01

426

Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of EZH2 expression in upper urinary tract carcinoma.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that overexpression of enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2) is associated with aggressive behavior in various cancers. However, the clinical, pathological, and prognostic associations of EZH2 expression in the upper urinary tract carcinoma have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the significance of EZH2 expression in the upper urinary tract carcinoma by immunohistochemical analysis using a tissue microarray. High EZH2 expression was observed in 94 of 171 (55 %) cases and was significantly associated with several adverse prognostic factors, including sessile architecture, high histological grade, presence of lymphovascular invasion, concomitant carcinoma in situ, higher tumor stage, and higher Ki-67 expression (all P?significantly associated with a shorter metastasis-free survival (log-rank P?=?0.005; multivariate hazard ratio, 1.85; 95 % confidence interval, 0.93-3.71) and cancer-specific survival (log-rank P?=?0.006; multivariate hazard ratio, 3.08; 95 % confidence interval, 1.30-7.32) after nephroureterectomy. Our results suggest that EZH2 may serve as a novel prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target in upper urinary tract carcinoma. PMID:24446035

Hayashi, Akimasa; Morikawa, Teppei; Kawai, Taketo; Kume, Haruki; Ishikawa, Shumpei; Homma, Yukio; Fukayama, Masashi

2014-04-01

427

Observing Teaching. SEDA Paper 79.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication offers practical support to those in British higher education implementing the Observation of Teaching governmental directives. It provides discussion of key issues as well as a range of materials on how to carry out teaching observation including 23 checklists. The materials are grouped in four main areas: general issues, self…

Brown, Sally, Ed.; And Others

428

Observations of surf beat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnitudes of cross-shore velocity and elevation oscillations at surf beat frequencies observed on three ocean beaches are significantly correlated with the significant height of incident wind waves. Measured surf beat run-up spectra are coupled with numerical integrations of the long wave equations to predict the energy spectrum at offshore sensors, and the coherence and phase between offshore sensors and run-up meter. As in previous studies, valleys in the observed surf beat energy spectra at offshore sensors, and jumps in the relative phase between sensors, occur at the nodal frequencies of simple standing wave (either leaky or high mode edge wave) models. The variance observed in the surf beat cross-shore velocity field is between 10 and 100 times larger near the shoreline than in 5 m depth, and decays more rapidly with increasing offshore distance than the variance in the surf beat elevation field. The standing wave model is qualitatively consistent with this structure.

Guza, R. T.; Thornton, Edward B.

1985-03-01

429

Long term higher urinary calcium excretion within the normal physiologic range predicts impaired bone status of the proximal radius in healthy children with higher potential renal acid load.  

PubMed

Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mass have been observed in children with idiopathic hypercalciuria. Whether urinary calcium excretion at the higher end of the normal physiologic range can influence bone health in healthy children independent of dietary intake is unknown. Urinary calcium was quantified in 603 24-h urine samples from 154 healthy children and adolescents who had ?3 urine collections and parallel 3-day weighed dietary records during the 4years preceding proximal forearm bone analyses by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Urinary potential renal acid load (uPRAL) was determined according to urine ionogram by subtracting measured quantitatively important mineral cations from nonbicarbonate anions. Urinary calcium excretion was significantly associated with volumetric (v)BMD (P=0.04), almost significantly with cortical bone mineral content (BMC) (P=0.05), but not with cortical cross-sectional area (CSA) (P=0.09), total CSA (P=0.3), or Strength-Strain Index (P=0.8) in the total population sample. Stratified analyses based on the median split of uPRAL showed that calcium excretion was negatively associated with vBMD (P=0.007), cortical BMC (P=0.001), and cortical CSA (P=0.004) in those children with higher uPRALs, but not in those with low uPRALs (P>0.3). In conclusion, long-term higher calciuria within the physiological range predicts reduced diaphyseal bone mass and bone density particularly in healthy children and adolescents with long-term unfavorable higher dietary acid load, i.e., with lower fruit and vegetable intake. PMID:22342797

Shi, Lijie; Libuda, Lars; Schönau, Eckhard; Frassetto, Lynda; Remer, Thomas

2012-05-01

430

The Future of Higher Education and the Future of Higher Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education research is closely linked to the debates on higher education policy and practice. It provides the information basis for decisions about the future of higher education. As the themes of the public debate on problems and reform needs in higher education change quickly, higher education research has to anticipate future problems and…

Teichler, Ulrich

2003-01-01

431

Higher order harmonic detection for exploring nonlinear interactions with nanoscale resolution  

PubMed Central

Nonlinear dynamics underpin a vast array of physical phenomena ranging from interfacial motion to jamming transitions. In many cases, insight into the nonlinear behavior can be gleaned through exploration of higher order harmonics. Here, a method using band excitation scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to investigate higher order harmonics of the electromechanical response, with nanometer scale spatial resolution is presented. The technique is demonstrated by probing the first three harmonics of strain for a Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 (PZT) ferroelectric capacitor. It is shown that the second order harmonic response is correlated with the first harmonic response, whereas the third harmonic is not. Additionally, measurements of the second harmonic reveal significant deviations from Rayleigh-type models in the form of a much more complicated field dependence than is observed in the spatially averaged data. These results illustrate the versatility of nth order harmonic SPM detection methods in exploring nonlinear phenomena in nanoscale materials.

Vasudevan, R. K.; Okatan, M. Baris; Rajapaksa, I.; Kim, Y.; Marincel, D.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Jesse, S.; Valanoor, N.; Kalinin, S. V.

2013-01-01

432

Observations on an Emergent Specialization: Contemporary French Cultural History”Significance for Scholarship  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historical profession and its attendant scholarship are composed of different specializations and sub-disciplines. Among these, political, economic, and social history are well known. Recently, historical research has encompassed such fields as environmental, gender, and ethnic history to complement such diverse specialties as history of science, history of technology, and history of exploration. In the past twenty years, cultural history

2010-01-01

433

Amplification of the RARA gene in acute myeloid leukemia: significant finding or coincidental observation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oncogene amplification resulting in aberrant expression, although common in solid tumors, is rare in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is mostly associated with amplification of MYC, RUNX1, and MLL genes. Retinoic acid receptor ? (RARA) and other target sequences at 17p11.2 often represent the amplicons expressed in breast cancer, not in AML. We present a unique case of a 59-year-old

Anna D. Asleson; Vickie Morgan; Stephen Smith; Gopalrao V. N. Velagaleti

2010-01-01

434

Finding significant climatic frequencies from satellite observations, a case study for Lake Victoria basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Victoria is the second largest freshwater lake in the world by area. A dramatic fall in the water level of the lake between 2002 and 2007 attracted a lot of worldwide attention. A recent study on the Lake Victoria basin using data from GRACE, TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, TRMM and as well as GLDAS data products suggested the possibility of the expansion of Naluabaale Dam in Uganda for the declining water level in the lake. However, Lake Victoria does not receive water from a large catchment area: most of its water comes from rain that falls directly over the huge surface of the lake. For this reason, climatic contributions cannot be ignored in the recent declining. This research aims at analyzing the contribution of rainfall over the lake area between the years 1998 and 2008. Least squares spectral analysis (LSSA) is applied on 400 cycles of TOPEX/Poseidon and 232 cycles of Jason1 altimeter data along with monthly TRMM data from 1998 to 2008 to reveal the specific frequencies. From our results, yearly, half-yearly and seasonal frequencies along with a long term frequency are clearly visible in the Lake Victoria level variations. Key words. Lake Victoria, Least Squares Spectral Analysis, TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason1, TRMM

Forootan, E.; Sharifi, M. A.; van Loon, E. E.

2009-04-01

435

Amplification of the RARA gene in acute myeloid leukemia: significant finding or coincidental observation?  

PubMed

Oncogene amplification resulting in aberrant expression, although common in solid tumors, is rare in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is mostly associated with amplification of MYC, RUNX1, and MLL genes. Retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA) and other target sequences at 17p11.2 often represent the amplicons expressed in breast cancer, not in AML. We present a unique case of a 59-year-old female with a history of breast cancer, now presenting with pancytopenia and bilateral infiltration with effusion in nodules of the right upper lobe of the lung. She was diagnosed with AML-M5. Chromosome analysis demonstrated a hypodiploid clone with complex numerical/structural abnormalities including 5q deletion, monosomy 7, as well as structurally rearranged chromosome 11 and several marker chromosomes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed amplification of RARA, loss of 7q, monosomy 7, loss of DEK (6p23), and additional copies of NUP214 (9q34) and MLL (11q23). Additional FISH studies showed both ERBB2 and TOP2A genes, which were co-amplified on one of the marker chromosomes. The follow-up bone marrow did not yield any metaphases, but FISH was normal for all probes, including RARA. After a short remission, the patient relapsed and showed clonal evolution. Additional case reports are necessary to assess whether RARA amplification in hematologic malignancies serves as an independent prognostic factor. PMID:20804918

Asleson, Anna D; Morgan, Vickie; Smith, Stephen; Velagaleti, Gopalrao V N

2010-10-01

436

Multiple Comparisons of Observation Means--Are the Means Significantly Different?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several currently popular methods of ascertaining which treatment (population) means are different, via random samples obtained under each treatment, are briefly described and illustrated by evaluating catalyst performance in a chemical reactor.

Fahidy, T. Z.

2009-01-01

437

Human babesiosis in ireland: Further observations and the medical significance of this infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three splenectomized persons in Yugoslavia, California, and Ireland have been reported to be infected by three different Babesia species; two cases were fatal. In a study of the site where the fatal infection was contracted in Ireland, blood samples from 36 persons who had recently been bitten by ticks were inoculated into two splenectomized calves; no response to Babesia divergens

P. C. C. Garnham; Joseph Donnelly; Harry Hoogstraal; C. Cotton Kennedy; Gerald A. Walton

1969-01-01

438

Electrical properties of rocks and their significance for lunar radar observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide variety of terrestrial rocks has been investigated to determine the range of variation of the high-frequency electrical properties. Both solid rocks and powders of various types have been measured at frequencies of 450 MHz and 35 GHz; some measurements have been made at elevated temperatures. Solid materials show wide variations in permittivity and absorption length, but apart from

M. J. Campbell; Juris Ulrichs

1969-01-01

439

The History of Disability Services in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2002, Brinckerhoff, McGuire, and Shaw observed that the field of postsecondary education and disability services had "moved through its adolescence and was embarking on adulthood" (xiii). Indeed, the field had undergone rapid expansion nationwide in the prior 30 years and grew into a full-fledged profession within higher education (Jarrow…

Madaus, Joseph W.

2011-01-01

440

Leadership Styles of Effective Female Administrators in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increase number of females in leadership positions provides new opportunities to observe them as leaders. The purpose of this research was to study leadership and to identify the contextual, societal and cultural factors that determined and influenced the styles of leadership of female executives in higher education. The study profiled the…

Hough, Mayra Alayon

2010-01-01

441

Teaching Strategies and Gender in Higher Education Instrumental Studios  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates instrumental music teaching strategies in higher education settings, in order to identify those employed and their frequency and context of use. An instrument- and gender-balanced sample of 24 lessons from five institutions was analysed using a researcher-designed observational instrument. The results reveal the…

Zhukov, Katie

2012-01-01

442

The Production and Cost Behavior of Higher Education Institutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is an empirical analysis of the "frontier" production and cost relationships between the number of students enrolled and the labor and capital inputs observed over a wide cross-section of four-year higher education institutions in the United States. In the analysis, students are differentiated as to type and as to part-time versus…

Carlson, Daryl E.

443

Current Trends in Austrian Higher Education: The Call for a New Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Follows recent trends in Austrian higher education which have brought about significant reforms. Trends include emphasis on teaching instead of research and easier access to institutions of higher education. Journal availability: see SO 507 243. (Author/DB)

Leitner, Erich

1979-01-01

444

How significant is the 'significant other'? Associations between significant others' health behaviors and attitudes and young adults' health outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Having a significant other has been shown to be protective against physical and psychological health conditions for adults. Less is known about the period of emerging young adulthood and associations between significant others’ weight and weight-related health behaviors (e.g. healthy dietary intake, the frequency of physical activity, weight status). This study examined the association between significant others’ health attitudes and behaviors regarding eating and physical activity and young adults’ weight status, dietary intake, and physical activity. Methods This study uses data from Project EAT-III, a population-based cohort study with emerging young adults from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds (n?=?1212). Logistic regression models examining cross-sectional associations, adjusted for sociodemographics and health behaviors five years earlier, were used to estimate predicted probabilities and calculate prevalence differences. Results Young adult women whose significant others had health promoting attitudes/behaviors were significantly less likely to be overweight/obese and were more likely to eat???5 fruits/vegetables per day and engage in???3.5 hours/week of physical activity, compared to women whose significant others did not have health promoting behaviors/attitudes. Young adult men whose significant other had health promoting behaviors/attitudes were more likely to engage in???3.5 hours/week of physical activity compared to men whose significant others did not have health promoting behaviors/attitudes. Conclusions Findings suggest the protective nature of the significant other with regard to weight-related health behaviors of young adults, particularly for young adult women. Obesity prevention efforts should consider the importance of including the significant other in intervention efforts with young adult women and potentially men.

2012-01-01

445

[The significance of animals in biomedical research].  

PubMed

The mission of medicine is maintenance of health, elimination of suffering and prolongation of life. These aims can be achieved by medicine based on experimental determination, because only then it becomes a real science. The nature of human mind has led the man since the beginning of humanity on the earth to the cognition of his environment and himself. Being intellectually superior than other living creatures, the man got power over them. In his endless efforts to expand knowledge about living organisms, including his own, he started to use animals. The man has used animals for cognitive purposes for ages and is still doing it, however his motivation has changed and is still changing. Cognition of functions of living organisms on the basis of observation solely, without any interference into the living body gave a lot of important information, yet, generally, this method was of little use for the development of science. Only the use of animals could give information about this what was earlier unknown and impossible. The long-lasting evolution of experimental studies of living functions of higher organisms resulted in achieving a perfect level in biomedical studies. Vivisection, as it was understood years ago, has become history. For a chronic experiment, an animal is surgically prepared according to the researcher's intention. The surgery and the postoperative period follow the principles used in human surgery. After the convalesce period, the animal is used for further experiments. On such prepared animals, the investigations in experimental cardiology, neurophysiology, gastroenterology and other medical disciplines are performed. The animal prepared for longlasting experiments do not suffer from pain during both the experiments and intervals between them. Another important achievement in chronic experiments is considerable reduction of the number of animals used in experimental medicine. Undoubtedly, the greatest achievements in medicine in the 19th and 20th centuries were possible due to the use of animals. There is a strong relationship between a rapid progress in experiments on animals and evident progress in clinical medicine. In the second half of the 20th century the man left the globe for the first time and reached another planet. Tis unusual event in the history of humanity was possible due to space medicine based on biomedical experiments with the use of animals. Also, the man's ability to reach the depths of oceans cost the lives of many experimental animals. Despite advances that have already been made, we are still in the early stages of understanding the complex workings of the body. This makes the replacement of animal experiments a slow process. At the same time, our increasing knowledge is opening up whole new areas of medical research which in turn give rise to a need for further animal use. While it may be difficult to envisage total replacement, the proposition of work that can be done without animals is increasing all the time. Many efforts are being made to find alternatives to animal experiments, to increase the usefulness of those that already exist, and to refine animal research methods. But at present days biomedicine, with its experiments on animals, reveals the laws of nature which the clinical and his patient can use to improve the life quality, prolong the life span and eliminate suffering. We all want to lead a healthy and enjoyable life. Most of us want the benefits of modern medical research-benefits that we would not have without the contribution of animal research. Yet, the health and well being of animals is important too. Clearly, those involved in this research have a moral and legal obligation to ensure that laboratory animals are well housed and cared for, any distress is kept to a minimum and that as few animals as possible are used. In the end, the question of whether animals should be used in medicines research is one everyone must answer for themselves, but the decision is more c PMID:10816969

Pawlik, W W

1998-01-01

446

Significance of the imidazoline receptors in toxicology.  

PubMed

Abstract Introduction. The alpha-2 adrenergic (AA-2) receptor agonists and imidazolines are common exposures in the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) National Poison Data System (NPDS). Although the interaction between the AA-2 receptor and imidazoline receptors has been extensively studied, it largely remains unknown to health-care professionals. This review describes these interactions and mechanisms by which agonists affect physiologic responses binding to these receptors. Methods. Papers published in English from 1960 to 2013 were retrieved from PubMed. A total of 323 original articles were identified and 173 were included. Background. The toxicity associated with clonidine (e.g., bradycardia, miosis, and hypotension) is largely assumed to be secondary to the functional overlap of the AA-2 receptors and the mu receptors. However, the effects at the AA-2 receptor could not fully account for these symptoms. Subsequently, clonidine was found to produce its pharmacologic effect in the central nervous system (CNS) by interaction not only with the AA-2 receptor but also on selective imidazoline receptors. Imidazoline receptors. Since their discovery, three distinct classes of imidazoline receptors, also known as imidazoline binding sites or imidazoline/guanidinium receptive sites, have been characterized. Imidazoline-1 (I-1) receptors are involved in the hypotensive activity of clonidine and related compounds supporting the idea that the I-1 receptors are upstream from the AA-2 receptor and work in tandem for its effect on blood pressure. Additionally, stimulation of N-type Calcium-2 channels, G-protein inwardly rectifying potassium channel, adenosine receptors, phosphatidyl-choline-specific phospholipase C, and nicotinic receptors have been implicated to be involved. Previous studies have shown that I-1 receptors may also be involved in other physiologic responses beyond cardiac function. Imidazoline-2 (I-2) receptors interact with monoamine oxidase A and monoamine oxidase B leading to research that has focused on the effect of I-2 receptors and depression and the suggestion of a possible antidepressant action of the imidazolines. I-2 receptor ligands may have substantial antinociceptive activity and work synergistically with opioids in acute pain. Imidazoline-3 (I-3) receptors are located on the pancreatic ?-cells and modulate glucose homeostasis. Imidazoline ligands. Four endogenous compounds have been found to bind and include clonidine-displacing substance, agmatine, harmane, and imidazole acetic acid. Significant interest in developing new agents with higher selectivity and affinity for I-1 receptors has resulted. Toxicology. Alpha-2 adrenoceptor and imidazoline receptor agonists such as clonidine and tetrahydrozoline are common ingestions reported to poison control centers. The most common toxic effects of clonidine are similar to those of the over-the-counter imidazolines and include CNS depression, bradycardia, hypotension, respiratory depression, miosis, hypothermia, and hypertension (early and transient). Based on their structure and subsequent studies, imidazoline receptors seem to be the primary binding site for these chemicals. Case reports typically illustrate rapid onset of action with serious side effects following ingestion of relatively small amounts. These agents have been reportedly used in drug-assisted sexual assaults. Conclusion. Much of the toxicity associated with drugs such as clonidine, guanfacine, and tetrahydrozoline are due to their binding to imidazoline receptors. Knowledge of the imidazoline receptors may lead to new therapeutic agents and inform management of patients with imidazoline overdose. PMID:24666288

Lowry, J A; Brown, J T

2014-06-01

447

Inverse agonism and its therapeutic significance.  

PubMed

A large number of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) show varying degrees of basal or constitutive activity. This constitutive activity is usually minimal in natural receptors but is markedly observed in wild type and mutated (naturally or induced) receptors. According to conventional two-state drug receptor interaction model, binding of a ligand may initiate activity (agonist with varying degrees of positive intrinsic activity) or prevent the effect of an agonist (antagonist with zero intrinsic activity). Inverse agonists bind with the constitutively active receptors, stabilize them, and thus reduce the activity (negative intrinsic activity). Receptors of many classes (?-and ?-adrenergic, histaminergic, GABAergic, serotoninergic, opiate, and angiotensin receptors) have shown basal activity in suitable in vitro models. Several drugs that have been conventionally classified as antagonists (?-blockers, antihistaminics) have shown inverse agonist effects on corresponding constitutively active receptors. Nearly all H(1) and H(2) antihistaminics (antagonists) have been shown to be inverse agonists. Among the ?-blockers, carvedilol and bucindolol demonstrate low level of inverse agonism as compared to propranolol and nadolol. Several antipsychotic drugs (D(2) receptors antagonist), antihypertensive (AT(1) receptor antagonists), antiserotoninergic drugs and opioid antagonists have significant inverse agonistic activity that contributes partly or wholly to their therapeutic value. Inverse agonism may also help explain the underlying mechanism of beneficial effects of carvedilol in congestive failure, naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome in opioid dependence, clozapine in psychosis, and candesartan in cardiac hypertrophy. Understanding inverse agonisms has paved a way for newer drug development. It is now possible to develop agents, which have only desired therapeutic value and are devoid of unwanted adverse effect. Pimavanserin (ACP-103), a highly selective 5-HT(2A) inverse agonist, attenuates psychosis in patients with Parkinson's disease with psychosis and is devoid of extrapyramidal side effects. This dissociation is also evident from the development of anxioselective benzodiazepines devoid of habit-forming potential. Hemopressin is a peptide ligand that acts as an antagonist as well as inverse agonist. This agent acts as an antinociceptive agent in different in vivo models of pain. Treatment of obesity by drugs having inverse agonist activity at CB(1/2) receptors is also underway. An exciting development is evaluation of ?-blockers in chronic bronchial asthma-a condition akin to congestive heart failure where ?-blockade has become the standard mode of therapy. Synthesis and evaluation of selective agents is underway. Therefore, inverse agonism is an important aspect of drug-receptor interaction and has immense untapped therapeutic potential. PMID:22021988

Khilnani, Gurudas; Khilnani, Ajeet Kumar

2011-09-01

448

Inverse agonism and its therapeutic significance  

PubMed Central

A large number of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) show varying degrees of basal or constitutive activity. This constitutive activity is usually minimal in natural receptors but is markedly observed in wild type and mutated (naturally or induced) receptors. According to conventional two-state drug receptor interaction model, binding of a ligand may initiate activity (agonist with varying degrees of positive intrinsic activity) or prevent the effect of an agonist (antagonist with zero intrinsic activity). Inverse agonists bind with the constitutively active receptors, stabilize them, and thus reduce the activity (negative intrinsic activity). Receptors of many classes (?-and ?-adrenergic, histaminergic, GABAergic, serotoninergic, opiate, and angiotensin receptors) have shown basal activity in suitable in vitro models. Several drugs that have been conventionally classified as antagonists (?-blockers, antihistaminics) have shown inverse agonist effects on corresponding constitutively active receptors. Nearly all H1 and H2 antihistaminics (antagonists) have been shown to be inverse agonists. Among the ?-blockers, carvedilol and bucindolol demonstrate low level of inverse agonism as compared to propranolol and nadolol. Several antipsychotic drugs (D2 receptors antagonist), antihypertensive (AT1 receptor antagonists), antiserotoninergic drugs and opioid antagonists have significant inverse agonistic activity that contributes partly or wholly to their therapeutic value. Inverse agonism may also help explain the underlying mechanism of beneficial effects of carvedilol in congestive failure, naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome in opioid dependence, clozapine in psychosis, and candesartan in cardiac hypertrophy. Understanding inverse agonisms has paved a way for newer drug development. It is now possible to develop agents, which have only desired therapeutic value and are devoid of unwanted adverse effect. Pimavanserin (ACP-103), a highly selective 5-HT2A inverse agonist, attenuates psychosis in patients with Parkinson's disease with psychosis and is devoid of extrapyramidal side effects. This dissociation is also evident from the development of anxioselective benzodiazepines devoid of habit-forming potential. Hemopressin is a peptide ligand that acts as an antagonist as well as inverse agonist. This agent acts as an antinociceptive agent in different in vivo models of pain. Treatment of obesity by drugs having inverse agonist activity at CB1/2 receptors is also underway. An exciting development is evaluation of ?-blockers in chronic bronchial asthma—a condition akin to congestive heart failure where ?-blockade has become the standard mode of therapy. Synthesis and evaluation of selective agents is underway. Therefore, inverse agonism is an important aspect of drug–receptor interaction and has immense untapped therapeutic potential.

Khilnani, Gurudas; Khilnani, Ajeet Kumar

2011-01-01

449

Mark EdwardsMission Impossible in Higher Education?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case chronicles some of the problems a corporate executive encountered on his transition from the private sector to the deanship of the College of Business in a university of higher education. His deanship, which resulted from the recent reorganization at State University, gave him significant responsibility for undergraduate and graduate students, programs, and faculty. However, the position failed to

Joseph C. Santora; James C. Sarros

2008-01-01

450

International Demand for American Higher Education: An Extension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the relationship of population and income in Asian countries and Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) members to their demand for American higher education found that both population and income significantly affect demand, but not proportionally. Findings suggest countries meet most change in citizens' demand with…

Mixon, J. Wilson, Jr.; Wan, Weidong

1990-01-01

451

Information as a Regulative Element in Higher Education Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The existence of information asymmetry has ascended to a significant role in higher education systems. The article makes an attempt to conceptualise the interaction of universities with their environment, stakeholders, and the state by paying special attention to the role and substance of information asymmetry. The existence of information…

Kivisto, Jussi; Holtta, Seppo

2008-01-01

452

Systems Thinking: A Missing Component in Higher Educational Planning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses difficulties within higher education management in achieving expected outcomes because of problematic elements in: artificial internal structures, funding formulae, the relative importance of system parameters versus system structure, and the significance of time scales and delays in influencing system behavior. Suggests that university…

Galbraith, Peter L.

1999-01-01

453

The Peer Learning Community in Higher Education: Reflections on Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes research into the operation of peer learning communities on the MSc course in Change Agent Skills and Strategies at the University of Surrey. Argues for acknowledgment of significant qualitative differences in current usage of the term "learning community" in relation to higher education courses. Indicates educational advantages of, and…

Tosey, Paul; Gregory, Josie

1998-01-01

454

Lecturers on Teaching within the "Supercomplexity" of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While a vast literature exists on students and their learning, work on lecturers and their teaching continues to lag some way behind. This paper explores the notion that the complexity of Higher Education (HE) today significantly impacts upon what goes on in the classroom through a two-tiered study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to…

Lea, Susan J.; Callaghan, Lynne

2008-01-01

455

How Universities Work: Understanding Higher Education Organization in Northwest China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores models of educational management used in postsecondary institutions in the five northwestern provinces of the People's Republic of China (Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, and Xinjiang). As higher education in the People's Republic of China expands and undergoes significant changes, a nuanced understanding of the…

Berger, Joseph B.; Hudson, Katherine E.; Ramirez, Gerardo Blanco

2013-01-01

456

Meditation in Higher Education: Does It Enhance Cognition?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We predicted that students in a sociology course that included contemplative practices (i.e., mindfulness meditation) would show an increase in performance on higher level cognitive abilities (executive functions) over the semester compared to a control group of students. Change in executive functions performance was not significantly different…

Helber, Casey; Zook, Nancy A.; Immergut, Matthew

2012-01-01

457

Is Multilingualism Linked to a Higher Tolerance of Ambiguity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the link between multilingualism and the personality trait Tolerance of Ambiguity (TA) among 2158 mono-, bi- and multilinguals. Monolinguals and bilinguals scored significantly lower on TA compared to multilinguals. A high level of global proficiency of various languages was linked to higher TA scores. A stay abroad…

DeWaele, Jean-Marc; Wei, Li

2013-01-01

458

Geography and the Changing Landscape of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colleges and universities in the USA and many other countries find themselves in a deepening financial challenge that is significantly influencing operating decisions as well as student access to higher education. These trends are attributed to the weakened finances of governments, competition from non-discretionary public spending, the nature of…

Erickson, Rodney A.

2012-01-01

459

Reconciling Organisational Culture and External Quality Assurance in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organisational culture and external quality assurance have both been presented as significant drivers of effectiveness, efficiency and excellence in higher education institutions. However, these assumptions have not been critically examined given the philosophical, conceptual and methodological contestations surrounding both constructs. A…

Naidoo, Dhaya

2013-01-01

460

Higher Education: The Online Teaching and Learning Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Globally, higher education, as well as K-12, utilizes online teaching to ensure that a wide array of learning opportunities are available for students in a highly competitive technological arena. The most significant influence in education in recent years is the increase and recognition of private for-profit adult distance and online education…

Barr, Betty A.; Miller, Sonya F.

2013-01-01

461

Student Retention in Higher Education: Some Conceptual and Programmatic Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a review of conceptual perspectives on the salient issues affecting student retention in higher education generally, and minority student retention in particular, over the past few decades. Also summarizes programmatic strategies implemented at institutions as examples of student retention initiatives that have had significant impacts.…

Lang, Marvel

2002-01-01

462

Immigrant Status, Race, and Institutional Choice in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the 1988 National Educational Longitudinal Study, examines postsecondary enrollment decisions of immigrant students. Finds that first- and second-year generation Asians are significantly more likely to enroll in both 2- and 4-year public colleges and universities, whereas second-generation Hispanics and native blacks have a higher

Hagy, Alison P.; Staniec, J. Farley Ordovensky

2002-01-01

463

Invariant Higher-Order Variational Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate higher-order geometric k-splines for template matching on Lie groups. This is motivated by the need to apply diffeomorphic template matching to a series of images, e.g., in longitudinal studies of Computational Anatomy. Our approach formulates Euler-Poincaré theory in higher-order tangent spaces on Lie groups. In particular, we develop the Euler-Poincaré formalism for higher-order variational problems that are invariant under Lie group transformations. The theory is then applied to higher-order template matching and the corresponding curves on the Lie group of transformations are shown to satisfy higher-order Euler-Poincaré equations. The example of SO(3) for template matching on the sphere is presented explicitly. Various cotangent bundle momentum maps emerge naturally that help organize the formulas. We also present Hamiltonian and Hamilton-Ostrogradsky Lie-Poisson formulations of the higher-order Euler-Poincaré theory for applications on the Hamiltonian side.

Gay-Balmaz, François; Holm, Darryl D.; Meier, David M.; Ratiu, Tudor S.; Vialard, François-Xavier

2012-01-01

464

Center for Higher Education Policy Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An increasing number of scholars and persons in the policy world continue to share an abiding interest in the vast world of higher education, and the staff members of the Center for Higher Education Policy Studies (CHEPS) at the University of Twente are no exception. This interdisciplinary research institute, founded in 1984, seeks "to increase our understanding of institutional, national and international issues that bear upon higher education." The site is a fine clearinghouse, both in terms of offering access to work produced by the staff of CHEPS, and as an online resource to find out about upcoming higher education conferences and their consultancy projects. Many of the publications are available in Dutch and English and deal with a host of topics such as higher education consortia in Europe and Southeast Asia and the role of national governments in the evolution of higher education.

465

Impact significance determination-Pushing the boundaries  

SciTech Connect

Impact significance determination practice tends to be highly variable. Too often insufficient consideration is given to good practice insights. Also, impact significance determinations are frequently narrowly defined addressing, for example, only individual, negative impacts, focusing on bio-physical impacts, and not seeking to integrate either the Precautionary Principle or sustainability. This article seeks to extend the boundaries of impact significance determination practice by providing an overview of good general impact significance practices, together with stakeholder roles and potential methods for addressing significance determination challenges. Relevant thresholds, criteria, contextual considerations and support methods are also highlighted. The analysis is then extended to address how impact significance determination practices change for positive as compared with negative impacts, for cumulative as compared with individual impacts, for socio-economic as compared with bio-physical impacts, when the Precautionary Principle is integrated into the process, and when sustainability contributions drive the EIA process and related impact significance determinations. These refinements can assist EIA practitioners in ensuring that the scope and nature of impact significance determinations reflect the broadened scope of emerging EIA requirements and practices. Suggestions are included for further refining and testing of the proposed changes to impact significance determination practice.

Lawrence, David P. [P.O. Station A, Box 3475, Langley, B.C., V3A 4R8 (Canada)], E-mail: lawenv@telus.net

2007-11-15

466

The incidence of significant foodborne pathogens in domestic refrigerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interior surfaces of household refrigerators are at risk of becoming contaminated with foodborne pathogens, increasing the risks of cross-contamination to other food items, including higher risk ready-to-eat foods. This study determined the incidence of a number of significant foodborne pathogens, and the general hygienic status (as estimated by total viable counts (TVCs), and total coliform counts (TCCs)) on the

V. Jackson; I. S. Blair; D. A. McDowell; J. Kennedy; D. J. Bolton

2007-01-01

467

Keyword: International Research on Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Together with overall research on higher education, comparative and international studies of higher education have expanded\\u000a considerably over the past decade in different parts of the world. While truly comparative research is still rather rare,\\u000a it is beginning to yield important theoretical insights into such issues as the institutionalization of higher education,\\u000a governance, access, curricula, and quality assessment. In addition,

Hans N. Weiler

2008-01-01

468

RE-IMAGINING CALIFORNIA HIGHER EDUCATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

2010 marks the 50th anniversary of California’s famed Master Plan for Higher Education, arguably the single most influential effort to plan the future of a system of higher education in the annals of American higher education. This essay builds on the analysis offered in a previous CSHE research paper (“From Chaos to Order and Backâ€) by discussing the major challenges

John Aubrey Douglass

2010-01-01

469

Coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.  

PubMed

Activated coagulation and fibrinolytic system in cancer patients is associated with tumor stroma formation and metastasis in different cancer types. The aim of this study is to explore the correlation of blood