Science.gov

Sample records for observing successive generations

  1. The Evolutionary History of Lyman Break Galaxies Between Redshift 4 and 6: Observing Successive Generations of Massive Galaxies in Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Daniel P.; Ellis, Richard S.; Bunker, Andrew; Bundy, Kevin; Targett, Tom; Benson, Andrew; Lacy, Mark

    2009-06-01

    We present new measurements of the evolution in the Lyman break galaxy (LBG) population between z sime 4 and z sime 6. By utilizing the extensive multiwavelength data sets available in the GOODS fields, we identify 2443 B, 506 V, and 137 i'-band dropout galaxies likely to be at z ≈ 4, 5, and 6. For the subset of dropouts for which reliable Spitzer IRAC photometry is feasible (roughly 35% of the sample), we estimate luminosity-weighted ages and stellar masses. With the goal of understanding the duration of typical star formation episodes in galaxies at z gsim 4, we examine the distribution of stellar masses and ages as a function of cosmic time. We find that at a fixed rest-UV luminosity, the average stellar masses and ages of galaxies do not increase significantly between z sime 6 and 4. In order to maintain this near equilibrium in the average properties of high-redshift LBGs, we argue that there must be a steady flux of young, newly luminous objects at each successive redshift. When considered along with the short duty cycles inferred from clustering measurements, these results may suggest that galaxies are undergoing star formation episodes lasting only several hundred million years. In contrast to the unchanging relationship between the average stellar mass and rest-UV luminosity, we find that the number density of massive galaxies increases considerably with time over 4 lsim z lsim 6. Given this rapid increase of UV luminous massive galaxies, we explore the possibility that a significant fraction of massive (1011 M sun) z sime 2-3 distant red galaxies (DRGs) were in part assembled in an LBG phase at earlier times. Integrating the growth in the stellar mass function of actively forming LBGs over 4 lsim z lsim 6 down to z sime 2, we find that z gsim 3 LBGs could have contributed significantly to the quiescent DRG population, indicating that the intense star-forming systems probed by submillimeter observations are not the only route toward the assembly of DRGs

  2. Concluding Observations on Successful Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Mary S.

    2002-01-01

    States that most successful partnerships between community colleges and business and industry have several common elements, and that they also face certain consistent challenges that must be overcome if they are to persist and flourish. Discusses the types of challenges experienced and elements necessary for establishing a successful partnership.…

  3. First Generation Latina Persistence Group Mentoring and Sophomore Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Amy Edith

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to help increase success for first-generation Latina students at Arizona State University by providing a group mentoring support experience during the spring semester of their sophomore year. Thirteen first-generation Latinas in their sophomore year were recruited from the Obama Scholars Program at Arizona State…

  4. Student Success: A Qualitative Analysis of the Engagement of the Successful First-Generation Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Mondy R.

    2011-01-01

    The study captured the essence of the core ideas, prevalent themes or events in the student's time in higher education that helped him or her become engaged in such a way as to prevent departure from the university prematurely. It helps understand successful first-generation students. It examined their resiliency, motivation, self-efficacy,…

  5. Dynamics of Rocky Mountain Lee Waves Observed During Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean-Day, J.; Chan, K. R.; Bowen, S. W.; Bui, T. P.; Gary, B. L.; Chan, K. Roland (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    On two days during SUCCESS, the DC-8 sampled wave clouds which formed downstream of the ridges east of the Rocky Mountains. Wave morphology for both flights is deduced from temperature and 3-dimensional wind measurements from the MMS, isentrope profiles from the MTP, and linear perturbation theory. The waves observed on 960430 are smaller and found to be decaying with altitude, while the waves sampled on 960502 are vertically propagating and consist of larger, multiple wave scales. Wave orientations are consistent with the underlying topography and regions of high ice crystal concentration. Updraft velocities were estimated from the derived wave properties and are consistent with MMS vertical winds.

  6. Tracking neural correlates of successful learning over repeated sequence observations.

    PubMed

    Steinemann, Natalie A; Moisello, Clara; Ghilardi, M Felice; Kelly, Simon P

    2016-08-15

    The neural correlates of memory formation in humans have long been investigated by exposing subjects to diverse material and comparing responses to items later remembered to those forgotten. Tasks requiring memorization of sensory sequences afford unique possibilities for linking neural memorization processes to behavior, because, rather than comparing across different items of varying content, each individual item can be examined across the successive learning states of being initially unknown, newly learned, and eventually, fully known. Sequence learning paradigms have not yet been exploited in this way, however. Here, we analyze the event-related potentials of subjects attempting to memorize sequences of visual locations over several blocks of repeated observation, with respect to pre- and post-block recall tests. Over centro-parietal regions, we observed a rapid P300 component superimposed on a broader positivity, which exhibited distinct modulations across learning states that were replicated in two separate experiments. Consistent with its well-known encoding of surprise, the P300 deflection monotonically decreased over blocks as locations became better learned and hence more expected. In contrast, the broader positivity was especially elevated at the point when a given item was newly learned, i.e., started being successfully recalled. These results implicate the Broad Positivity in endogenously-driven, intentional memory formation, whereas the P300, in processing the current stimulus to the degree that it was previously uncertain, indexes the cumulative knowledge thereby gained. The decreasing surprise/P300 effect significantly predicted learning success both across blocks and across subjects. This presents a new, neural-based means to evaluate learning capabilities independent of verbal reports, which could have considerable value in distinguishing genuine learning disabilities from difficulties to communicate the outcomes of learning, or perceptual

  7. First Generation College Students in STEM: Counter Stories of Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Carol D.

    First-generation community college Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) students have unique challenges in transferring to a four-year college. This is especially true for Latin and African American students who may experience multiple challenges, including discrimination, immigration issues and language issues, and sometimes poor academic preparation in their K-12 education. This project used a grounded theory approach to explore through an equity lens the educational journey of seven Los Medanos College students who have successfully transferred to a four-year institution were interviewed. All of these students that participated in this project were former Mathematics Engineering Science Achievement Program (MESA) students at Los Medanos College. The MESA Program is a learning community that provides academic support for "educationally and economically disadvantaged" students so they can excel in math and science, transfer to four-year institutions as majors in math-based fields, and graduate with baccalaureate degrees in STEM majors. Several intervention strategies are embedded into the program, including: counseling, mentors, a learning center, tutors, financial aid and transfer workshops, and internship and scholarship opportunities. The students were interviewed and asked several questions regarding their high school life, MESA, and community college and transfer experiences. The main theoretical framework utilized to analyze the interviews was Border Lands theory because these students created a safe space that allowed them to straddle their life at home and their life at school. Interviews with these students reveal seven successful, happy, and engaged students. Several themes emerged with respect to the importance of students' finding a major that they love, finding community, and the importance of teachers, family, and engagement in their success. The results of this project also emphasize the importance of hiring passionate teachers

  8. All Eyes on Nepal - A Success Case for Integrated Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, E. L., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    When hazards are known it is not a question of if but when the disaster shock will happen and it is critical that all relevant observational data, tools and technologies be accessible and integrated by experts and volunteers to provide reliable, timely and actionable information. In this talk NASA's coordinated response to the recent Nepal "Gorkha" will be presented as a case study to highlight the opportunities and challenges. Triggered by a global seismic network and the interpretation by operational, research and response agencies, all available assets were quickly mobilized, charters activated to share data, and information gathered to assess impacts. This included assessing available data from optical and radar-based satellites and global positioning systems to baseline pre-event conditions and distinguish immediate and ongoing changes. Models and maps were generated to identify land deformation and damage proxies for communities, resources and infrastructure. Technologies facilitated national and international collaboration among public and private sector institutions to task satellites and optimize integration and processing of data from vital airborne platforms or ingest relevant new data streams. Crowd-sourced data added to the mix and provided a critical source of ground truth that blended with reports from field teams and those in communities. New levels of situational awareness were achieved through integrated data products and the reliance on relationships and new technologies that allowed for volunteers to analyze results in an unprecedented fashion. The results demonstrated how science aided by emerging technologies is changing our implementation of disaster response.

  9. Classification Objects, Ideal Observers & Generative Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olman, Cheryl; Kersten, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    A successful vision system must solve the problem of deriving geometrical information about three-dimensional objects from two-dimensional photometric input. The human visual system solves this problem with remarkable efficiency, and one challenge in vision research is to understand how neural representations of objects are formed and what visual…

  10. Chronic effects of carbamazepine on life-history strategies of Ceriodaphnia dubia in three successive generations.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Kiran; Garcia, Santos N; Huggett, Duane B; DeAngelis, Donald L; La Point, Thomas W

    2013-04-01

    Trace quantities of pharmaceuticals are continuously being discharged into the environment through domestic and industrial wastewater effluents, causing concern among scientists and regulators regarding potential long-term impacts on aquatic ecosystems. These compounds and their metabolites are constantly interacting with organisms at various life-cycle stages and may differentially influence the development of embryonic, larval, juvenile, and adult stages. To understand the possible cumulative effects of exposure to carbamazepine (CBZ), a multigenerational approach was taken in which survival, reproduction, respiration, growth, brood size, and biomass of Ceriodaphnia dubia were assessed at sublethal concentrations over the course of three successive generations. CBZ exposure significantly decreased fecundity at 196.7 μg/L in the F0 and F1 generations over 2 weeks and acclimatized at 264.6 μg/L in the F2 generation. Similarly, a significant decrease of neonate dry weight was observed at the 196.7 μg/L CBZ treatment in the F1 generation, and it acclimatized at 264.6 μg/L treatment level in the F2 generation. Median time to first brood release was significantly delayed at 264.6 μg/L in the F2 generation, indicating slower maturation. Results over three successive generations are not different than what one would obtain by testing simply the F0 generation. Furthermore, the effects measured were observed at concentrations two orders of magnitude higher than are environmentally relevant, and it is unlikely that CBZ poses a substantial risk to the environment regarding the end points measured in this study. However, additional research through laboratory and field multigenerational studies may be required to understand the overall risk of CBZ to other nontarget organisms. PMID:23229195

  11. Mopra remote observing: a story of innovation and success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indermuehle, Balthasar T.; Edwards, Philip G.

    2010-07-01

    The Mopra Radio Telescope is a 22m single-dish radio telescope located near Siding Spring Observatory in New South Wales, Australia. Its receiver systems cover the 3mm, 7mm and 12mm bands for single-dish observing, as well as the 6/3cm and 20/13cm bands used for Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). The remote location of the telescope, a good day's drive from Sydney, made it a good candidate to implement remote observing capabilities which would no longer require observers to travel to the telescope, but bring the telescope to them. In a first step this was implemented in a controlled environment three years ago. It enabled remote observing from a dedicated workstation at the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) control building some 160km away from the observatory. In a second step two years ago, remote observing was extended to allow observing from any location in the world for qualifying observers. There were a number of challenges that needed to be addressed, from telescope safety to internet and data link reliability, computer security, and providing the observers with adequate situation awareness tools. The uptake by observers has been very good with over 40% of the observing in 2009 having been executed remotely. Further, many small and unallocated time slices were able to be productively used as they would not have warranted a trip to the observatory in their own merit but were usable thanks to remote observing. This helped push the productivity of the Mopra telescope in 2009 to the highest figure in its 17 year history.

  12. Elements of a Successful Climate Data Records Generation Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, D. A.

    2005-12-01

    For the past four decades, data flowing from satellite-borne sensors have provided environmental information at spatial scales only dreamed of previously. Remarkable insights have been gained regarding Earth's land, atmosphere, oceans and cryosphere systems. This includes their internal dynamics and kinematics, along with important interrelationships. Additionally, time series of elements within these systems have been scrutinized in attempts to better understand climate variability and to identify critical trends that may signal changes in the climate system. From these studies, has emerged a growing appreciation for the importance of satellite climate data records (CDRs) that possess the accuracy, longevity and stability to facilitate credible climate monitoring. These satellite CDRs provide abundant information to assist those making decisions regarding the fate of our environment. Recently, a National Research Council committee was tasked with assisting the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration as it designs a plan to establish this agency as the chief steward of satellite CDRs. Based on an evaluation of historical lessons learned, community surveys, a workshop, and committee expertise, the committee identified 14 key elements for creating a CDR program based mainly on satellites. They are divided into three general categories that include organizational, generation and sustaining elements, many of which are applicable to any CDR endeavor. This presentation will address the 14 elements and provide examples of candidate satellite CDRs.

  13. Generational forecasting in academic medicine: a unique method of planning for success in the next two decades.

    PubMed

    Howell, Lydia Pleotis; Joad, Jesse P; Callahan, Edward; Servis, Gregg; Bonham, Ann C

    2009-08-01

    Multigenerational teams are essential to the missions of academic health centers (AHCs). Generational forecasting using Strauss and Howe's predictive model, "the generational diagonal," can be useful for anticipating and addressing issues so that each generation is effective. Forecasts are based on the observation that cyclical historical events are experienced by all generations, but the response of each generation differs according to its phase of life and previous defining experiences. This article relates Strauss and Howe's generational forecasts to AHCs. Predicted issues such as work-life balance, indebtedness, and succession planning have existed previously, but they now have different causes or consequences because of the unique experiences and life stages of current generations. Efforts to address these issues at the authors' AHC include a work-life balance workgroup, expanded leave, and intramural grants. PMID:19638760

  14. A Phenomenological Investigation of the Lived Experiences of Successful First Generation Hispanic College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puente, Christina C.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study investigated the lived experiences of five successful first generation Hispanic college students. Participants' interviews were analyzed using Creswell's (2007) six steps for analyzing phenomenological studies. Findings from this study affirm the factors for student success in college regarding…

  15. Self-Determination, Success, and College Readiness of First Generation Students in a Higher Education Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochoa, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe and compare if self-determination factors differed in first and non-first generation college students and success levels. Additionally, comparisons of college readiness levels were measured, and finally a measure of factors that contribute to college success based in first and second semester grade point…

  16. Choosing Success: A Paradigm for Empowering First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macias, Louis V.

    2013-01-01

    Louis V. Macias reminds us that educators' attitudes toward first-generation students have a great impact on their eventual success … or failure. Are you serving the best interests of your students with an inspirational, success-oriented mind-set that considers all of their capabilities?

  17. Family Involvement: Impacts on Postsecondary Educational Success for First-Generation Appalachian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Elizabeth; Simmons, Leigh Ann

    2009-01-01

    First-generation college students face a number of barriers to academic success and completion of their degrees. Using Bronfenbrenner's (1989) ecological theory as a framework, qualitative research was used to examine the experiences of 10 first-generation Appalachian Kentucky university students (mean age = 21 years) and factors they attributed…

  18. First-Generation Student Success: The Role of Faculty Interaction in Service Learning Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Valerie C.; Estrella, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    Do service learning courses offer the opportunity for first-generation students to experience academic and social integration and ultimately, academic success? Our study answered this question by exploring the quality of interaction between first-generation students and faculty that characterizes service learning pedagogy, and by revealing ways in…

  19. The Challenges, Persistence, and Success of White, Working-Class, First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightweis, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This essay addresses persistence and success of an underrepresented group enrolled in college who are white, working-class first-generation students. The discussion examines these college students and the challenges they face. The discussion analyzes why first-generation college students persist while others do not. Additionally, the discussion…

  20. Observed Parenting Practices of First-Generation Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenech Rodriguez, Melanie; Davis, Melissa R.; Rodriguez, Jesus; Bates, Scott C.

    2006-01-01

    This study used an established behavioral observation methodology to examine the parenting practices of first-generation Latino parents of children 4 to 9 years of age. The study had three central aims, to examine: (1) the feasibility of using a behavioral observation methodology with Spanish-speaking immigrant families, (2) the utility of the…

  1. Registering parameters and granules of wave observations: IMAGE RPI success story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, I. A.; Charisi, A.; Fung, S. F.; Benson, R. F.; Reinisch, B. W.

    2015-12-01

    Modern metadata systems strive to help scientists locate data relevant to their research and then retrieve them quickly. Success of this mission depends on the organization and completeness of metadata. Each relevant data resource has to be registered; each content has to be described; each data file has to be accessible. Ultimately, data discoverability is about the practical ability to describe data content and location. Correspondingly, data registration has a "Parameter" level, at which content is specified by listing available observed properties (parameters), and a "Granule" level, at which download links are given to data records (granules). Until recently, both parameter- and granule-level data registrations were accomplished at NASA Virtual System Observatory easily by listing provided parameters and building Granule documents with URLs to the datafile locations, usually those at NASA CDAWeb data warehouse. With the introduction of the Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO), however, the parameter/granule concept faced a scalability challenge. The wave phenomenon content is rich with descriptors of the wave generation, propagation, interaction with propagation media, and observation processes. Additionally, the wave phenomenon content varies from record to record, reflecting changes in the constituent processes, making it necessary to generate granule documents at sub-minute resolution. We will present the first success story of registering 234,178 records of IMAGE Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) plasmagram data and Level 2 derived data products in ESPAS (near-Earth Space Data Infrastructure for e-Science), using the VWO-inspired wave ontology. The granules are arranged in overlapping display and numerical data collections. Display data include (a) auto-prospected plasmagrams of potential interest, (b) interesting plasmagrams annotated by human analysts or software, and (c) spectacular plasmagrams annotated by analysts as publication-quality examples of the RPI science

  2. Successive Generations in a Rat Model Respond Differently to a Constant Obesogenic Environment.

    PubMed

    Tait, Alice H; Raubenheimer, David; Green, Mark P; Cupido, Cinda L; Gluckman, Peter D; Vickers, Mark H

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that if a mother experiences a transitory perturbation to her environment during pregnancy or lactation, there are transgenerational consequences often involving a disordered metabolic phenotype in first generation offspring with recovery across subsequent generations. In contrast, little is known about the nature of the transgenerational response of offspring when a mother experiences a perturbation that is not transitory but instead persists across generations. Our study, using a rat model, subjected the parental generation to a change in environment and concomitant shift from a grain-based to obesogenic diets to generate an adipose phenotype in first generation offspring emulating a common scenario in human urbanisation and migration. We then investigated whether the obese phenotype was stable across generations when maintained in the transitioned environment, and whether dietary macronutrient balance affected the response. We found that second and third generation offspring had a reduced body fat to lean mass ratio and a reduced appetite relative to first generation offspring, irrespective of dietary macronutrient balance. The trajectory of this response is suggestive of a reduction in chronic disease risk across generations. This is one of the first studies, to our knowledge, to investigate the transgenerational response following parental transition to a persistent obesogenic environment, and to demonstrate that successive generations respond differently to this constant environment. PMID:26131906

  3. Successive Generations in a Rat Model Respond Differently to a Constant Obesogenic Environment

    PubMed Central

    Tait, Alice H.; Raubenheimer, David; Green, Mark P.; Cupido, Cinda L.; Gluckman, Peter D.; Vickers, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that if a mother experiences a transitory perturbation to her environment during pregnancy or lactation, there are transgenerational consequences often involving a disordered metabolic phenotype in first generation offspring with recovery across subsequent generations. In contrast, little is known about the nature of the transgenerational response of offspring when a mother experiences a perturbation that is not transitory but instead persists across generations. Our study, using a rat model, subjected the parental generation to a change in environment and concomitant shift from a grain-based to obesogenic diets to generate an adipose phenotype in first generation offspring emulating a common scenario in human urbanisation and migration. We then investigated whether the obese phenotype was stable across generations when maintained in the transitioned environment, and whether dietary macronutrient balance affected the response. We found that second and third generation offspring had a reduced body fat to lean mass ratio and a reduced appetite relative to first generation offspring, irrespective of dietary macronutrient balance. The trajectory of this response is suggestive of a reduction in chronic disease risk across generations. This is one of the first studies, to our knowledge, to investigate the transgenerational response following parental transition to a persistent obesogenic environment, and to demonstrate that successive generations respond differently to this constant environment. PMID:26131906

  4. A NEO population generation and observation simulation software tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Sven; Gelhaus, Johannes; Hahn, Gerhard; Franco, Raffaella

    One of the main targets of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program is to build a wide knowledge base about objects that can potentially harm Earth (Near-Earth Objects, NEOs). An important part of this effort is to create the Small Bodies Data Centre (SBDC) which is going to aggregate measurement data from a fully-integrated NEO observation sensor network. Until this network is developed, artificial NEO measurement data is needed in order to validate SBDC algorithms. Moreover, to establish a functioning NEO observation sensor network, it has to be determined where to place sensors, what technical requirements have to be met in order to be able to detect NEOs and which observation strategies work the best. Because of this, a sensor simulation software was needed. This paper presents a software tool which allows users to create and analyse NEO populations and to simulate and analyse population observations. It is a console program written in Fortran and comes with a Graphical User Interface (GUI) written in Java and C. The tool can be distinguished into the components ``Population Generator'' and ``Observation Simulator''. The Population Generator component is responsible for generating and analysing a NEO population. Users can choose between creating fictitious (random) and synthetic populations. The latter are based on one of two models describing the orbital and size distribution of observed NEOs: The existing socalled ``Bottke Model'' (Bottke et al. 2000, 2002) and the new ``Granvik Model'' (Granvik et al. 2014, in preparation) which has been developed in parallel to the tool. Generated populations can be analysed by defining 2D, 3D and scatter plots using various NEO attributes. As a result, the tool creates the appropiate files for the plotting tool ``gnuplot''. The tool's Observation Simulator component yields the Observation Simulation and Observation Analysis functions. Users can define sensor systems using ground- or space-based locations as well as

  5. Adult Learning, Generativity and "Successful" Aging in Multicultural Perspective: A Hmong American Educational Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hones, Donald F.

    This document examines the themes of adult learning, generativity, and successful aging against the backdrop of the biography of a Hmong refugee who immigrated to the United States in 1988 at the age of 35, began studying English as a second language (ESL), and continues to study ESL in adult education classes while six of his seven children…

  6. Do Community Colleges Promote Postsecondary and Labor Market Success for First-Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaw, Frimpomaa; Partlo, Margaret; Hullender, Tammy; Wagner, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Community colleges are becoming the primary access point for a growing number of underrepresented and underserved students in the higher education system. First-generation college students make up a large proportion of this population, comprising about 45% of community college attendees (Nomi, 2005). Research has explored the transfer success of…

  7. On the reproductive success of early-generation hatchery fish in the wild

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Mark R; Ford, Michael J; Blouin, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Large numbers of hatchery salmon spawn in wild populations each year. Hatchery fish with multiple generations of hatchery ancestry often have heritably lower reproductive success than wild fish and may reduce the fitness of an entire population. Whether this reduced fitness also occurs for hatchery fish created with local- and predominantly wild-origin parents remains controversial. Here, we review recent studies on the reproductive success of such ‘early-generation’ hatchery fish that spawn in the wild. Combining 51 estimates from six studies on four salmon species, we found that (i) early-generation hatchery fish averaged only half the reproductive success of their wild-origin counterparts when spawning in the wild, (ii) the reduction in reproductive success was more severe for males than for females, and (iii) all species showed reduced fitness due to hatchery rearing. We review commonalities among studies that point to possible mechanisms (e.g., environmental versus genetic effects). Furthermore, we illustrate that sample sizes typical of these studies result in low statistical power to detect fitness differences unless the differences are substantial. This review demonstrates that reduced fitness of early-generation hatchery fish may be a general phenomenon. Future research should focus on determining the causes of those fitness reductions and whether they lead to long-term reductions in the fitness of wild populations. PMID:25469167

  8. Palladium nanoparticles synthesized by reducing species generated during a successive acidic/alkaline treatment of sucrose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amornkitbamrung, Lunjakorn; Pienpinijtham, Prompong; Thammacharoen, Chuchaat; Ekgasit, Sanong

    2014-03-01

    Uniform spherical palladium nanoparticles with an average particle size of 4.3 ± 0.5 nm were successfully synthesized by reducing H2PdCl4 with intermediates in situ generated during a successive acidic/alkaline treatment of sucrose. A successive acidic/alkaline treatment plays an important role on converting the non-reducing sucrose into efficient reducing species containing aldehyde functionality. The Benedict's test corroborates the development and vanishing of the in situ generated reducing species upon prolonged degradation. An increase in alkalinity drastically improves the reduction efficiency. ATR FT-IR spectroscopy indicated spontaneous development of carboxylate after the alkaline treatment. Under the employed condition, small organic species with carbonyl groups (aldehyde, acid, and acid salt) were generated through the sucrose degradation before being oxidized to carbonate after an hour of the treatment. Sucrose was completely decomposed into carbonate after a 24-h successive acidic/alkaline treatment. The synthesized palladium nanoparticles express a good catalytic activity in the decolorization process of Congo red by sodium borohydride.

  9. Generation of VLF saucer emissions observed by the Viking satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Loennqvist, H.; Andre, M.; Matson, L.; Bahnsen, A.; Blomberg, L.G.; Erlandson, R.E.

    1993-08-01

    The authors report observations of V shaped saucer emissions by the Viking satellite. This V shaped saucer emission refers to the observational feature of the VLF or ELF emissions which shows a v shaped appearance on a plot of frequency as a function of time. Viking provided not only wave, but electric and magnetic field measurements, as well as charged particle measurements. These measurements show electrons flowing upwards with enegies of up to a few hundred eV in conjunction with the saucer emissions. Other wave structures observed in this same region may originate from the electron flows. The satellite observations also find such events at altitudes from 4000 to 13000km, where the generation region is found to be much more spread out in space.

  10. Nest guarding from observation blinds: strategy for improving Puerto Rican parrot nest success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of 17 yr of nestguarding from observation blinds for increasing reproductive success of the endangered Puerto Rican Parrot (Amazona vittata) is described. As personnel and time allowed, active nests were guarded part-time during the nest site exploration and selection s stage of the breeding cycle, and part-time to full-time when a nest contained eggs or chicks. Biologists identified nine categories of threat to the success of parrot nests. Since 1973, a minimum of 20 nests, which otherwise would have failed, successfully produced fledglings as a direct result of nest guarding and intervention. Nest success averaged 66% with nest guarding compared to an estimated 38% without guarding. Nest guarding from blinds can help maintain a wild population of a critically endangered species while other management techniques are being developed to stimulate population growth.

  11. Observation of AKR generation as a self-oscillating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseenko, Irina; Mogilevsky, Mikhail

    Auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) is a powerful natural electromagnetic radio emission in the frequency range of 30 kHz to ~ 1 MHz which is generated in the near-Earth plasma and propagated from the Earth. AKR is connected with discreet auroras and its sources are situated above the auroral ionosphere, generally, in the evening and night sectors of the magnetosphere at invariant latitudes of ~ 700 , at a height of ~ 2-10 thousand kilometers, and also in the magnetospheric cusp. AKR is generated by energetic electron beams injected from the magnetotail into the auroral zone. Currently, cyclotron maser instability at the local electron gyrofrequency is considered to be a generally recognized mechanism of AKR generation. Such instability appears in the regions with low plasma density called Calvert’s cavity where plasma frequency fpe is lower than electron gyrofrequency fсe. Auroral kilometric radiation is generally observed in the frequency range of 100 - 700 kHz, and AKR spectrum width changes slowly during several dozens of minutes. We present results of the analysis of wide-band AKR structures obtained by the POLRAD experiment on board the INTERBALL-2 satellite. These structures represent a quasiperiodic sequence of splashes which more often observed at the beginning and end of AKR radiation interval. The main properties of such splashes and their possible mechanism of generation are discussed.

  12. Dust Successive Generations in Ar/SiH{sub 4} : Dust Cloud Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Cavarroc, M.; Mikikian, M.; Tessier, Y.; Boufendi, L.

    2008-09-07

    Silane-based plasmas are widely used to deposit nanostructured silicon thin films or to synthesize silicon nanoparticles. Dust particle formation in Ar/SiH{sub 4} plasmas is a continuous phenomenon: as long as silane precursors are provided, new dust generations are formed. Successive generations can be monitored thanks to various electrical (V{sub dc}/3H) and optical (OES, video imaging) diagnostics. Experiments presented in this paper have been performed in a capacitively-coupled radiofrequency discharge, at low pressure (12 Pa) in an Argon/Silane mixture (92:8)

  13. In Situ Observations of PSCs Generated by Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Bui, Paul; Mahoney, M. J.; Gandrud, Bruce; Hipskind, K. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    During SOLVE, the bulk of the in-situ observations of PSCs are of large scale extended structures associated with synoptic scale cooling. The nature of these structures is also determined by layers of high relative NOy that have been stretched into thin layers by advective processes. Some of the in situ observations, however, are clearly correlated with gravity wave signatures. The first goal of this work is to examine these cases and evaluate gravity wave parameters. In particular, we are interested in the intrinsic periods of the waves and their temperature amplitude, which are key ingredients in the nucleation process. Secondly, we will examine some rudimentary properties of the particle size distributions and composition, comparing these with in situ observations of the more extended PSC features. Finally, we will attempt to ascertain the mechanism which generates the gravity waves.

  14. Observation of Electronic Structure Minima in High-Harmonic Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Woerner, Hans Jakob; Villeneuve, D. M.; Niikura, Hiromichi; Bertrand, Julien B.; Corkum, P. B.

    2009-03-13

    We report detailed measurements of the high-harmonic spectra generated from argon atoms. The spectra exhibit a deep minimum that is shown to be independent of the laser intensity, and is thus a clear measure of the electronic structure of the atom. We show that exact field-free continuum wave functions reproduce the minimum, but plane wave and Coulomb wave functions do not. This remarkable observation suggests that electronic structure can be accurately determined in high-harmonic experiments despite the presence of the strong laser field. Our results clarify the relation between high-harmonic generation and photoelectron spectroscopy. The use of exact continuum functions also resolves the ambiguity associated with the choice of the dispersion relation.

  15. Field observed relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning during secondary succession in a tropical lowland rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Wensheng; Zang, Runguo; Ding, Yi

    2014-02-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) is one of the most concerned topics in ecology. However, most of the studies have been conducted in controlled experiments in grasslands, few observational field studies have been carried out in forests. In this paper, we report variations of species diversity, functional diversity and aboveground biomass (AGB) for woody plants (trees and shrubs) along a chronosequence of four successional stages (18-year-old fallow, 30-year-old fallow, 60-year-old fallow, and old-growth forest) in a tropical lowland rainforest recovered after shifting cultivation on Hainan Island, China. Fifty randomly selected sample plots of 20 m × 20 m were investigated in each of the four successional stages. Four functional traits (specific leaf area, wood density, maximum species height and leaf dry matter content) were measured for each woody plants species and the relationships between species/functional diversity and AGB during secondary succession were explored. The results showed that both plant diversity and AGB recovered gradually with the secondary succession. AGB was positively correlated with both species and functional diversity in each stage of succession. Consistent with many controlled experimental results in grasslands, our observational field study confirms that ecosystem functioning is closely related to biodiversity during secondary succession in species rich tropical forests.

  16. UrtheCast Second-Generation Earth Observation Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckett, K.

    2015-04-01

    UrtheCast's Second-Generation state-of-the-art Earth Observation (EO) remote sensing platform will be hosted on the NASA segment of International Space Station (ISS). This platform comprises a high-resolution dual-mode (pushbroom and video) optical camera and a dual-band (X and L) Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR) instrument. These new sensors will complement the firstgeneration medium-resolution pushbroom and high-definition video cameras that were mounted on the Russian segment of the ISS in early 2014. The new cameras are expected to be launched to the ISS in late 2017 via the Space Exploration Technologies Corporation Dragon spacecraft. The Canadarm will then be used to install the remote sensing platform onto a CBM (Common Berthing Mechanism) hatch on Node 3, allowing the sensor electronics to be accessible from the inside of the station, thus limiting their exposure to the space environment and allowing for future capability upgrades. The UrtheCast second-generation system will be able to take full advantage of the strengths that each of the individual sensors offers, such that the data exploitation capabilities of the combined sensors is significantly greater than from either sensor alone. This represents a truly novel platform that will lead to significant advances in many other Earth Observation applications such as environmental monitoring, energy and natural resources management, and humanitarian response, with data availability anticipated to begin after commissioning is completed in early 2018.

  17. Coseismic Damage Generation in Fault Zones by Successive High Strain Rate Loading Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aben, F. M.; Doan, M. L.; Renard, F.; Toussaint, R.; Reuschlé, T.; Gratier, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Damage zones of active faults control both resistance to rupture and transport properties of the fault. Hence, knowing the rock damage's origin is important to constrain its properties. Here we study experimentally the damage generated by a succession of dynamic loadings, a process mimicking the stress history of a rock sample located next to an active fault. A propagating rupture generates high frequency stress perturbations next to its tip. This dynamic loading creates pervasive damage (pulverization), as multiple fractures initiate and grow simultaneously. Previous single loading experiments have shown a strain rate threshold for pulverization. Here, we focus on conditions below this threshold and the dynamic peak stress to constrain: 1) if there is dynamic fracturing at these conditions and 2) if successive loadings (cumulative seismic events) result in pervasive fracturing, effectively reducing the pulverization threshold to milder conditions. Monzonite samples were dynamically loaded (strain rate > 50 s-1) several times below the dynamic peak strength, using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus. Several quasi-static experiments were conducted as well (strain rate < 10-5-s). Samples loaded up to stresses above the quasi-static uniaxial compressive strength (qsUCS) systematically fragmented or pulverized after four successive loadings. We measured several damage proxies (P-wave velocity, porosity), that show a systematic increase in damage with each load. In addition, micro-computed tomography acquisition on several damage samples revealed the growth of a pervasive fracture network between ensuing loadings. Samples loaded dynamically below the qsUCS failed along one fracture after a variable amount of loadings and damage proxies do not show any a systematic trend. Our conclusions is that milder dynamic loading conditions, below the dynamic peak strength, result in pervasive dynamic fracturing. Also, successive loadings effectively lower the pulverization

  18. pyXSIM: Synthetic X-ray observations generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ZuHone, John A., Hallman, Eric. J.

    2016-08-01

    pyXSIM simulates X-ray observations from astrophysical sources. X-rays probe the high-energy universe, from hot galaxy clusters to compact objects such as neutron stars and black holes and many interesting sources in between. pyXSIM generates synthetic X-ray observations of these sources from a wide variety of models, whether from grid-based simulation codes such as FLASH (ascl:1010.082), Enzo (ascl:1010.072), and Athena (ascl:1010.014), to particle-based codes such as Gadget (ascl:0003.001) and AREPO, and even from datasets that have been created “by hand”, such as from NumPy arrays. pyXSIM can also manipulate the synthetic observations it produces in various ways and export the simulated X-ray events to other software packages to simulate the end products of specific X-ray observatories. pyXSIM is an implementation of the PHOX (ascl:1112.004) algorithm and was initially the photon_simulator analysis module in yt (ascl:1011.022); it is dependent on yt.

  19. [Vaginal ultrasonographic observation of uterine contractions in embryo transfer and its relevance to treatment success].

    PubMed

    Aichberger, L; Boldizsar, A; Herczeg, C; Obermair, A; Plöckinger, B; Strohmer, H; Vatanparast, Z; Kemeter, P; Feichtinger, W

    1991-01-01

    441 patients were treated by in-vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer (ET) from January 1989 to May 1990. Transvaginal ultrasound allowed pre-transfer assessment of the uterine architecture and confirmation of successful transfer after the procedure. The length and direction of the cervical and uterine cavity were noted. The real-time image was observed for one minute to see, if uterine contractions occurred. These can be clearly seen as pulsatile movements, which can be distinguished from breathing motions. We also recognised the localisation and the movement of the transferred air bubble. A "double bubble sign" occurs as a result of the two air bubbles being seen in sagittal transvaginal ultrasound. The embryos are sandwiched between the two visible bubbles. As far as the subjective methods used permit a definitive statement, there is no connection between contractions, localisation and movement of the air bubble with the success or failure of the E.T. PMID:2026297

  20. The Goodrich 3rd generation DB-110 system: successful flight test on the F-16 aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Davis; Iyengar, Mrinal; Maver, Larry; Dyer, Gavin; Francis, John

    2007-04-01

    The 3rd Generation Goodrich DB-110 system provides users with a three (3) field-of-view high performance Airborne Reconnaissance capability that incorporates a dual-band day and nighttime imaging sensor, a real time recording and a real time data transmission capability to support long range, medium range, and short range standoff and over-flight mission scenarios, all within a single pod. Goodrich developed their 3rd Generation Airborne Reconnaissance Pod for operation on a range of aircraft types including F-16, F-15, F-18, Euro-fighter and older aircraft such as the F-4, F-111, Mirage and Tornado. This system upgrades the existing, operationally proven, 2nd generation DB-110 design with enhancements in sensor resolution, flight envelope and other performance improvements. Goodrich recently flight tested their 3rd Generation Reconnaissance System on a Block 52 F-16 aircraft with first flight success and excellent results. This paper presents key highlights of the system and presents imaging results from flight test.

  1. Observations of HF backscatter decay rates from HAARP generated FAI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristow, William; Hysell, David

    2016-07-01

    Suitable experiments at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facilities in Gakona, Alaska, create a region of ionospheric Field-Aligned Irregularities (FAI) that produces strong radar backscatter observed by the SuperDARN radar on Kodiak Island, Alaska. Creation of FAI in HF ionospheric modification experiments has been studied by a number of authors who have developed a rich theoretical background. The decay of the irregularities, however, has not been so widely studied yet it has the potential for providing estimates of the parameters of natural irregularity diffusion, which are difficult measure by other means. Hysell, et al. [1996] demonstrated using the decay of radar scatter above the Sura heating facility to estimate irregularity diffusion. A large database of radar backscatter from HAARP generated FAI has been collected over the years. Experiments often cycled the heater power on and off in a way that allowed estimates of the FAI decay rate. The database has been examined to extract decay time estimates and diffusion rates over a range of ionospheric conditions. This presentation will summarize the database and the estimated diffusion rates, and will discuss the potential for targeted experiments for aeronomy measurements. Hysell, D. L., M. C. Kelley, Y. M. Yampolski, V. S. Beley, A. V. Koloskov, P. V. Ponomarenko, and O. F. Tyrnov, HF radar observations of decaying artificial field aligned irregularities, J. Geophys. Res. , 101, 26,981, 1996.

  2. Environmental Stewardship at the Savannah River Site: Generations of Success - 13212

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, Brian B.; Bergren, Christopher L.; Gaughan, Thomas F.; Aylward, Robert S.; Guevara, Karen C.; Whitaker, Wade C.; Hennessey, Brian T.; Mills, Gary L.; Blake, John I.

    2013-07-01

    Approximately sixty years ago, the Savannah River Site (SRS) was built to produce nuclear materials. SRS production operations impacted air, soil, groundwater, ecology, and the local environment. Throughout its history, SRS has addressed these contamination issues directly and has maintained a commitment to environmental stewardship. The Site boasts many environmental firsts. Notably, SRS was the first major Department of Energy (DOE) facility to perform a baseline ecological assessment. This pioneering effort, by Ruth Patrick and the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, was performed during SRS planning and construction in the early 1950's. This unique early generation of work set the stage for subsequent efforts. Since that time, the scientists and engineers at SRS pro-actively identified environmental problems and developed and implemented effective and efficient environmental management and remediation solutions. This second generation, spanning the 1980's through the 2000's, is exemplified by numerous large and small cleanup actions to address metals and radionuclides, solvents and hydrocarbons, facility and area decommissioning, and ecological restoration. Recently, a third generation of environmental management was initiated as part of Enterprise SRS. This initiative to 'Develop and Deploy Next Generation Cleanup Technologies' formalizes and organizes the major technology matching, development, and implementation processes associated with historical SRS cleanup success as a resource to support future environmental management missions throughout DOE. The four elements of the current, third generation, effort relate to: 1) transition from active to passive cleanup, 2) in situ decommissioning of large nuclear facilities, 3) new long term monitoring paradigms, and 4) a major case study related to support for recovery and restoration of the Japanese Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant and surrounding environment. (authors)

  3. Observation of successive TGFs produced by the same thunderstorm systems throughout their lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursi, Alessandro; Marisaldi, Martino; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Dietrich, Stefano; Casella, Daniele; Sanò, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Since their discovery in early 1990s, Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) exhibited a clear correlation with thunderstorm activity. The elusive nature of these events and the strong absorption of gamma-rays in the lowest layers of the atmosphere dramatically limits our observation of this phenomenon: the few missions currently detecting TGFs are probably revealing just the tip of the iceberg of a much wider population. Theoretical models, radar measurements and cross-correlations with radio waves emitted by lightning strokes suggest every storm could, in principle, produce a large number of gamma flashes throughout its entire lifetime: however, observation of more TGFs from the same thunderstorm system, even after several hours, is difficult to perform, because successive passes on the same latitude region by high-inclination orbit satellites are shifted westward by ~25°. In this perspective, the AGILE mission has a privileged role, thanks to its unique quasi equatorial (2.5° inclination) orbit, that allows for the follow-up of the same geographic region on the equator at each orbital passage. In more than 8 years activity, we identify tens of cases of more TGFs coming from the same thunderstorm system, either during the same passage, or in the successive passages. We take advantage of data acquired by meteorological satellites to characterize the meteorological scenario associated to these events.

  4. Navigating New Worlds: A Real-Time Look at How Successful and Non-Successful First-Generation College Students Negotiate Their First Semesters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Erik E.

    2012-01-01

    This study of fifteen first generation American college freshmen documents their initial semester with a focus on factors and dispositions contributing to eventual success or failure. Students were identified prior to campus arrival, allowing for immediate and real-time data collection as they were experiencing the beginning of their college…

  5. The Academic Success of First-Generation African American Male College Students Attending Predominantly White Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewing, Venus

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative, correlational design was utilized in this study to examine the relationship between academic self-efficacy, racial identity, and the academic success of first-generation African American male college students at Predominantly White Institutions of higher education. The study comprised 89 first-generation African American male…

  6. Vandhalla - A Sport Centre and a Successful Example of First-Generation Universal Design.

    PubMed

    Grangaard, Sidse; Ryhl, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    The research project 'Evaluation of Vandhalla' is a study of the perceived quality of the new building as well as the design competition and design process leading to the final design. The evaluation focuses on the mindset of the winning entry, the design process, the design solution and the value of Vandhalla. Vandhalla is a sport centre including an indoor swimming pool at the Danish folk high school, Egmont. Empirically, the evaluation is based on qualitative interviews and walkthroughs on site with the architects, the client, personnel and students. The evaluation shows that Vandhalla is a successful example of an inclusive building in Denmark. The paper points at two factors having an impact on the result: the client as a key driver and the understanding of the users. The general use of knowledge as well as the winning design team's use of knowledge in the work with the design is problematized. It is suggested that Vandhalla should be regarded as a contribution to the first generation of Universal Design (UD) in Denmark. The Evaluation was conducted by the authors at SBi Aalborg University and financed by Realdania. PMID:27534310

  7. Idea Generation in Student Writing: Computational Assessments and Links to Successful Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Muldner, Kasia; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    Idea generation is an important component of most major theories of writing. However, few studies have linked idea generation in writing samples to assessments of writing quality or examined links between linguistic features in a text and idea generation. This study uses human ratings of idea generation, such as "idea fluency, idea…

  8. Effect of Adhesive Application on Sealant Success: A Clinical Study of Fifth and Seventh Generation Adhesive Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Vaibhav; Tangade, Pradeep Shankar; Tirth, Amit; Pal, Sumit Kumar; Lingesha, Chaitra Telgi; Arora, Vikram; Yadav, Vipul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare the effect of fifth and seventh generation bonding agent on sealant success. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four school children aged six to nine years received sealants in four permanent molars in a split mouth design, such that each patient received sealant in the first permanent molar with fifth generation bonding agent in one arch and seventh generation bonding agent in the other arch; contra-lateral molars were sealed with sealant alone. The evaluation was carried out at baseline, three months, six months and 12 months, according to the criteria by Feigal et al, in 2000. Chi- square test was used to analyze data at P<0.05 level of significance. Results: Statistically significant differences were found for sealant retention between fifth generation and sealant group, and fifth generation and seventh generation groups; whereas, no significant difference was found for sealant retention between seventh generation and sealant group at three, six and 12 months. Conclusion: As separate etch and rinse steps are not required for seventh generation bonding agents, and almost similar results were obtained for both sealant and seventh generation groups, it can be concluded that application of sealant along with a seventh generation bonding agent may enhance sealant success and can be used for caries prevention in preventive programs. PMID:27252754

  9. The Observational Consequences of Proton-Generated Waves at Shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, Donald V.

    2000-01-01

    In the largest solar energetic particle (SEP) events, acceleration takes place at shock waves driven out from the Sun by fast coronal mass ejections. Protons streaming away from strong shocks generate Alfven waves that trap particles in the acceleration region, limiting outflowing intensities but increasing the efficiency of acceleration to higher energies. Early in the events, with the shock still near the Sun, intensities at 1 AU are bounded and spectra are flattened at low energies. Elements with different charge-to-mass ratios, Q/A, differentially probe the wave spectra near shocks, producing abundance ratios that vary in space and time. An initial rise in He/H, while Fe/O declines, is a typical symptom of the non-Kolmogorov wave spectra in the largest events. Strong wave generation can cause cross-field scattering near the shock and unusually rapid reduction in anisotropies even far from the shock. At the highest energies, shock spectra steepen to form a "knee." For protons, this spectral knee can vary from approx. 10 MeV to approx. 1 GeV depending on shock conditions for wave growth. In one case, the location of the knee scales approximately as Q/A in the energy/nucleon spectra of other species.

  10. Spacecraft Trajectory Generation by Successive Approximation for Powered Descent and Cyclers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casoliva, Jordi

    Methods for spacecraft trajectory generation must be reliable. Complex nonlinear dynamics and constraints impede straightforward approaches. The approach pursued in this dissertation is to use successive approximation, which entails solving a sequence of problems, each one of which can be solved reliably, leading to the solution of the problem of interest. First, contractive sequential convex programming (CSCP) is developed and then applied to the problem of optimal powered descent landing in the presence of complex constraints, aerodynamic force and nonlinear engine performance. Second, numerical continuation is applied to the generation of cycler (periodic) spacecraft trajectories in the Earth-Moon system, the challenge here being the multiple scales of the three-body dynamics. The first-order necessary conditions for minimum-fuel powered descent are derived and interpreted. Both a point-mass model with throttle and thrust angle control and a rigid-body model with throttle and angular velocity control are considered, with a more complete analysis of the rigid-body case than previously available in the literature. The effects of boundary conditions on the thrust direction and finite bounds on the angular velocities are analyzed for the rigid-body case. Minimum-fuel solutions, obtained numerically, illustrate the optimal strategies. The optimal powered descent landing problem considered in the development of CSCP has a convex cost function, nonlinear dynamics, convex state constraints and nonlinear non-convex control constraints. The non-convexity in the control constraints is handled with the lossless convexification technique which consists of a convex relaxation on the control constraints. The novelty of CSCP is the ability to account for nonlinear dynamics and nonlinear control bounds in the optimal control problem and the use of interior-point methods for second-order cone programs which are guaranteed to find the optimal solution. CSCP solves a convergent

  11. Noaa's Jpss Program: the Next Generation of Operational Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System is NOAA's new operational satellite program and includes the SUOMI National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) as a bridge between NOAA's operational Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite (POES) series, which began in 1978, and the first JPSS operational satellite scheduled for launch in 2017. The NPP was completed as originally planned and launched on October 28, 2011 and carries the following five sensors: - Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) that provides advanced imaging and radiometric capabilities. - Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) that provides improved atmospheric moisture and temperature profiles in clear conditions. - Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) that provides improved atmospheric moisture and temperature profiles in cloudy conditions. - Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) that provides improved vertical and horizontal measurements of the distribution of ozone in the Earth's atmosphere. - Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) sensor that continues precise, calibrated global measurements of the earth's radiation budget JPSS provides critical data for key NOAA product and services, which the Nation depends on. These products and services include: Weather forecasting - data from the CRIS and the ATMS are needed to forecast weather events out to 7 days. Nearly 85% of all data used in weather forecasting are from polar orbiting satellites. Environmental monitoring - data from the VIIRS are used to monitor the environment including the health of coastal ecosystems, drought conditions, hydrology, fire, smoke, dust, snow and ice, and the state of oceans, including sea surface temperature and ocean color. Climate monitoring - data from JPSS instruments, including OMPS, CERES and TSIS will provide continuity to climate data records established using NOAA POES and NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite observations. These data records provide a unified and coherent long

  12. Observed bodies generate object-based spatial codes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Alison; Flynn, Maria; Edmonds, Caroline J; Gardner, Mark R

    2016-09-01

    Contemporary studies of spatial and social cognition frequently use human figures as stimuli. The interpretation of such studies may be complicated by spatial compatibility effects that emerge when researchers employ spatial responses, and participants spontaneously code spatial relationships about an observed body. Yet, the nature of these spatial codes - whether they are location- or object-based, and coded from the perspective of the observer or the figure - has not been determined. Here, we investigated this issue by exploring spatial compatibility effects arising for objects held by a visually presented whole-bodied schematic human figure. In three experiments, participants responded to the colour of the object held in the figure's left or right hand, using left or right key presses. Left-right compatibility effects were found relative to the participant's egocentric perspective, rather than the figure's. These effects occurred even when the figure was rotated by 90° to the left or to the right, and the coloured objects were aligned with the participant's midline. These findings are consistent with spontaneous spatial coding from the participant's perspective and relative to the normal upright orientation of the body. This evidence for object-based spatial coding implies that the domain general cognitive mechanisms that result in spatial compatibility effects may contribute to certain spatial perspective-taking and social cognition phenomena. PMID:27235754

  13. New generation lidar systems for eye safe full time observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, James D.

    1995-01-01

    The traditional lidar over the last thirty years has typically been a big pulse low repetition rate system. Pulse energies are in the 0.1 to 1.0 J range and repetition rates from 0.1 to 10 Hz. While such systems have proven to be good research tools, they have a number of limitations that prevent them from moving beyond lidar research to operational, application oriented instruments. These problems include a lack of eye safety, very low efficiency, poor reliability, lack of ruggedness and high development and operating costs. Recent advances in solid state laser, detectors and data systems have enabled the development of a new generation of lidar technology that meets the need for routine, application oriented instruments. In this paper the new approaches to operational lidar systems will be discussed. Micro pulse lidar (MPL) systems are currently in use, and their technology is highlighted. The basis and current development of continuous wave (CW) lidar and potential of other technical approaches is presented.

  14. Is Education the Pathway to Success? A Comparison of Second Generation Turkish Professionals in Sweden, France, Germany and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crul, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Education is often seen as the most important mobility channel for children of immigrants. To what extent is this true? In this article, we look at successful second generation Turkish professionals in Sweden, France, Germany and The Netherlands. What kind of pathways did they take to become a professional? Based on the large quantitative…

  15. "I Ain't Changing Anything": A Case-Study of Successful Generation 1.5 Immigrant College Students' Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riazantseva, Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case-study was to understand the relationship between success in college and L2 academic writing of three Generation 1.5 Russian-speaking middle-class college students and to describe the factors that could have contributed to the levels of academic literacy that these students developed. The following research questions were…

  16. Pathways to Success in Higher Education: Understanding the Influence of Mentoring Programs on First-Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegrenes, Stefanie Ann

    2013-01-01

    First-generation students, those who are the first in their family to earn a college degree, represent one of the fastest-growing populations of college students in our country today. Unfortunately, this segment of our nation's college-going population also happens to be the least successful, according to national retention and graduation…

  17. Peer-Assisted Learning in Mathematics: An Observational Study of Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Dorothy; Walters, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The Peer-Assisted Learning (PAL) program at the University of Minnesota has drawn from the best practices of Supplemental Instruction, Peer-Led Team Learning, Structured Learning Assistance, the Emerging Scholars Program, and other successful postsecondary peer cooperative learning models to establish guiding principles for structuring learning…

  18. Exploring the Experiences of Successful First-Generation Community College Students in Florida: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patron, Iliana M.

    2012-01-01

    As jobs become more competitive and demanding of specialized training, the presence of first-generation college students will continue to be a growing reality. However, unless the needs of first-generation students are addressed by educational institutions, the motivation experienced by those students to attend college will be short-lived. Even…

  19. Thriving Children, Successful Parents: A Two-Generation Approach to Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmit, Stephanie; Matthews, Hannah; Golden, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    A two-generation approach to public policies brings together worlds that are often separated (focusing only on children or only on parents) to modify or create new policies that focus on the needs of parents and children together. Two-generation policies reflect strong research findings that the well-being of parents is a crucial ingredient in…

  20. Using Data Known at the Time of Admission to Predict First-Generation College Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amico, Mark M.; Dika, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    The authors use data known at the time of initial enrollment to explore the first-year GPAs and second-year retention of first-generation (FGCS) and non-first-generation (non-FGCS) college students. The setting was a diverse, public, urban doctoral institution (approximately 50% FGCS and 30% minority). Multiple linear and logistic regressions run…

  1. A lightweight fault-tolerant middleware for a Subaru Telescope second generation observation control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeschke, Eric; Bon, Bruce; Inagaki, Takeshi; Streeper, Sam

    2008-08-01

    Subaru Telescope is developing a second-generation Observation Control System that specifically addresses some of the deficiencies of the current Subaru OCS. Two areas of concern are complexity and failure handling. The current system has over 1000 dedicated OCS processes spread across a dozen hosts and provides nothing in the way of automated failover. Furthermore, manual failover is so fraught with difficulty that it is rarely attempted. Our Generation 2 OCS is written almost entirely in Python and builds upon a Subaru-developed middleware based on the XML-RPC protocol. This framework offers the following benefits: - has very few dependences outside of standard Python - provides a nearly seamless remote proxy object-oriented interface - provides optional user/password authentication and/or SSL encryption - is extremely simple to use from client applications - is connectionless, and assists transparent failover of communications and services on a cluster of hosts - has reasonable performance for a wide range of needs - allows multiple language bindings - for dynamic languages, requires no interface stub files The "back end" (service side) of the OCS is nearing completion, and has already been used successfully during two separate OCS engineering runs. It is comprised of only a couple dozen processes, and provides automated failover capabilities on a rack of commodity x86 Linux servers. We provide an overview of the middleware design and its failover capabilities. Some data on the performance of communications using the middleware protocol is included.

  2. Moving Beyond Access: College Success for Low-Income, First-Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Jennifer; Tinto, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Given the pressure to remain competitive in the global knowledge economy, it is in the shared national interest to act to increase the number of students who not only enter college, but more importantly, earn their degrees. Changing national demographics requires a refocus of efforts on improving postsecondary access and success among populations…

  3. Student Generated Recommendations for Enhancing Success in Secondary Science and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conboy, Joseph E.; Fonseca, Jesuina M. B.

    2009-01-01

    One frequently overlooked approach to improving academic success is the simple technique of listening to the students. Students are uniquely positioned to understand the nature of school problems, and their perceptions can be useful in forming solutions to problems of academic failure and school leaving. In this study, science-tracked secondary…

  4. Exploring the Experiences of Successful First-Generation College Students at Selected Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Jennifer Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how successful FGCS in community colleges addressed challenges they face in order to complete their degree programs. This study was based upon Titno's (1993) Model of Student Departure and explored what methods and programs were most beneficial in helping FGCS overcome the challenges they faced as they…

  5. Math Power: Next Generation Strategies and Information, for "Success" in the Study of Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Joel

    This book was developed to answer those questions and concerns most often on the minds of students during a mathematics class. It offers them insight from an instructor's viewpoint on how to increase their probability of success in a mathematics course. It is intended to approach the learning of mathematics through both motivating students and…

  6. When Success Is the Only Option: Designing Competency-Based Pathways for Next Generation Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgis, Chris; Patrick, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This exploration into competency-based innovation at the school, district, and state levels suggests that competency-based pathways are a re-engineering of this nation's education system around learning--a re-engineering designed for success in which failure is no longer viable. This discussion draws on interviews and site visits with innovators…

  7. Community College Succession Planning: Preparing the Next Generation of Women for Leadership Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luzebetak, Angela Kaysen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore strategies to enable community colleges to develop and cultivate women for leadership roles through succession planning. According to the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC), the pace of administrative and other key staff retirements exceeds the pace at which these positions are being…

  8. Remote automated multi-generational growth and observation of an animal in low Earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Oczypok, Elizabeth A; Etheridge, Timothy; Freeman, Jacob; Stodieck, Louis; Johnsen, Robert; Baillie, David; Szewczyk, Nathaniel J

    2012-03-01

    The ultimate survival of humanity is dependent upon colonization of other planetary bodies. Key challenges to such habitation are (patho)physiologic changes induced by known, and unknown, factors associated with long-duration and distance space exploration. However, we currently lack biological models for detecting and studying these changes. Here, we use a remote automated culture system to successfully grow an animal in low Earth orbit for six months. Our observations, over 12 generations, demonstrate that the multi-cellular soil worm Caenorhabditis elegans develops from egg to adulthood and produces progeny with identical timings in space as on the Earth. Additionally, these animals display normal rates of movement when fully fed, comparable declines in movement when starved, and appropriate growth arrest upon starvation and recovery upon re-feeding. These observations establish C. elegans as a biological model that can be used to detect changes in animal growth, development, reproduction and behaviour in response to environmental conditions during long-duration spaceflight. This experimental system is ready to be incorporated on future, unmanned interplanetary missions and could be used to study cost-effectively the effects of such missions on these biological processes and the efficacy of new life support systems and radiation shielding technologies. PMID:22130552

  9. Remote automated multi-generational growth and observation of an animal in low Earth orbit

    PubMed Central

    Oczypok, Elizabeth A.; Etheridge, Timothy; Freeman, Jacob; Stodieck, Louis; Johnsen, Robert; Baillie, David; Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate survival of humanity is dependent upon colonization of other planetary bodies. Key challenges to such habitation are (patho)physiologic changes induced by known, and unknown, factors associated with long-duration and distance space exploration. However, we currently lack biological models for detecting and studying these changes. Here, we use a remote automated culture system to successfully grow an animal in low Earth orbit for six months. Our observations, over 12 generations, demonstrate that the multi-cellular soil worm Caenorhabditis elegans develops from egg to adulthood and produces progeny with identical timings in space as on the Earth. Additionally, these animals display normal rates of movement when fully fed, comparable declines in movement when starved, and appropriate growth arrest upon starvation and recovery upon re-feeding. These observations establish C. elegans as a biological model that can be used to detect changes in animal growth, development, reproduction and behaviour in response to environmental conditions during long-duration spaceflight. This experimental system is ready to be incorporated on future, unmanned interplanetary missions and could be used to study cost-effectively the effects of such missions on these biological processes and the efficacy of new life support systems and radiation shielding technologies. PMID:22130552

  10. Beyond the lab: observations on the process by which science successfully informs management and policy decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, S.

    2012-12-01

    Scientific findings inform management decisions and policy products through various ways, these include: synthesis reports, white papers, in-person and web-based seminars (webinars), communication from specialized staff, and seminal peer-reviewed journal articles. Scientists are often told that if they want their science to inform management decisions and policy products that they must: clearly and simply articulate discreet pieces of scientific information and avoid attaching advocacy messages to the science; however, solely relying on these tenants does not ensure that scientific products will infuse the realms of management and policy. The process by which science successfully informs management decisions and policy products rarely begins at the time the results come out of the lab, but rather, before the research is carried out. Having an understanding of the political climate, management needs, agency research agendas, and funding limitations, as well as developing a working relationship with the intended managers and policy makers are key elements to developing the kind of science results and products that often make an impact in the management and policy world. In my presentation I will provide case-studies from California (USA) to highlight the type of coastal, ocean and climate science that has been successful in informing management decisions and policy documents, as well as provide a state-level agency perspective on the process by which this occurs.

  11. First-Generation, Low-Income Students: Strategies for Success at Lyndon State College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Donna; Moore, Carol A.; Whittaker, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Lyndon State College is a small, four-year public college in the rural Northeast Kingdom of Vermont. In an effort to improve its first-year retention rate, two years ago the authors began to analyze which students return to Lyndon for their second year of college. They found that more than 60% of the students were first-generation college students…

  12. Shaping a Healthier Generation: Successful State Strategies to Prevent Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulheron, Joyal; Vonasek, Kara

    2009-01-01

    Studies show that childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. Today, more than 23 million American children--or nearly one in every three--are overweight or obese. If childhood obesity is left unaddressed, a generation of individuals could face health, social, and economic challenges that promise to stress government…

  13. Successful Hybrid Approach to Visual and Video Observations of the 1999 Leonid Storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Crawford, Chris; Butow, Steve; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A new hybrid technique of visual and video meteor observations is described. The method proved particularly effective for airborne observations of meteor shower activity. Results from the 1999 Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign are presented, and the profile shape of the 1999 Leonid storm is discussed in relation to meteor shower models. We find that the storm is best described with a Lorentz profile. Application to past meteor outbursts shows that the cui,rent multi-trailet model of a dust trail is slightly shifted and we crossed deeper into the 1899 epoch trallet than expected.

  14. Can We Identify a Successful Teacher Better, Faster, and Cheaper? Evidence for Innovating Teacher Observation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gargani, John; Strong, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Teacher observations have become a national education phenomenon, mandated by federal policies and promoted by philanthropists. They are crucial components of teacher evaluation systems that often have high stakes for teachers and school systems, but have sparked little innovation. Recent calls to make teacher evaluations better, faster, and…

  15. Friends' Responses to Children's Disclosure of an Achievement-Related Success: An Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altermatt, Ellen Rydell; Ivers, Ivy E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined social support processes in the context of positive events. The conversations of fourth-grade through sixth-grade focal children and their friends (N = 116) were observed after focal children outperformed their friend on an achievement-related task. Changes in focal children's performance-related positive affect from…

  16. Observing Preschoolers' Social-Emotional Behavior: Structure, Foundations, and Prediction of Early School Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Thayer, Sara K.; Mincic, Melissa S.; Sirotkin, Yana S.; Zinsser, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Social-emotional behavior of 352 3- and 4-year-olds attending private childcare and Head Start programs was observed using the Minnesota Preschool Affect Checklist, Revised (MPAC-R). Goals of the investigation included (a) using MPAC-R data to extract a shortened version, MPAC-R/S, comparing structure, internal consistency, test-retest…

  17. Observational constraints on atmospheric radiaitve feedbacks: absolute accuracy and next-generation observing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykema, J. A.; Hanssen, L. M.; Mekhontsev, S.; Anderson, J.

    2012-12-01

    The central role of atmospheric radiative feedbacks to understanding and projecting climate change calls for a robust observational system. Recent studies have shown the value of space-based measurements for putting quantitative constraints on a range of radiative feedback processes through a fingerprinting method applied to long-term observational records. More recent work has suggested the value of demonstrably accurate measurements to disentangle model error from observational uncertainties within reanalysis systems, potentially yielding improved representations of feedback processes within just a few years. Both of these methods rely on space-based measurements that can be objectively tested for accuracy on-orbit. A new class of mission has been proposed that incorporates the same type of empirical tests for accuracy as used in the laboratory into a space-based sensor. One example of such a mission is the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO), a new mission suggested by the 2006 National Research Council Decadal Survey. CLARREO includes three sensor types: thermal infrared, microwave, and reflected shortwave. This paper presents a laboratory demonstration of prototype systems for testing the on-orbit accuracy of a thermal infrared sensor for CLARREO. These systems utilize infrared lasers to provide monochromatic light sources to quantitatively determine the optical properties of materials. These infrared optical properties are major determinants of the on-orbit radiometric performance of a thermal infrared sensor. For this reason, reliable quantitative information (including uncertainty) that tracks any changes in relevant infrared materials over the mission lifetime is essential to objective assessment of instrument accuracy. The practicality of mid-infrared lasers for these applications is due to the availability and continued evolution of compact, high-efficiency Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs). These lasers can provide over 100 m

  18. Successes and Challenges in Linking Observations and Modeling of Marine and Terrestrial Cryospheric Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzfeld, U. C.; Hunke, E. C.; Trantow, T.; Greve, R.; McDonald, B.; Wallin, B.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding of the state of the cryosphere and its relationship to other components of the Earth system requires both models of geophysical processes and observations of geophysical properties and processes, however linking observations and models is far from trivial. This paper looks at examples from sea ice and land ice model-observation linkages to examine some approaches, challenges and solutions. In a sea-ice example, ice deformation is analyzed as a key process that indicates fundamental changes in the Arctic sea ice cover. Simulation results from the Los Alamos Sea-Ice Model CICE, which is also the sea-ice component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), are compared to parameters indicative of deformation as derived from mathematical analysis of remote sensing data. Data include altimeter, micro-ASAR and image data from manned and unmanned aircraft campaigns (NASA OIB and Characterization of Arctic Sea Ice Experiment, CASIE). The key problem to linking data and model results is the derivation of matching parameters on both the model and observation side.For terrestrial glaciology, we include an example of a surge process in a glacier system and and example of a dynamic ice sheet model for Greenland. To investigate the surge of the Bering Bagley Glacier System, we use numerical forward modeling experiments and, on the data analysis side, a connectionist approach to analyze crevasse provinces. In the Greenland ice sheet example, we look at the influence of ice surface and bed topography, as derived from remote sensing data, on on results from a dynamic ice sheet model.

  19. Aptitude of Lymnaea palustris and L. stagnalis to Fasciola hepatica larval development through the infection of several successive generations of 4-mm-high snails.

    PubMed

    Vignoles, P; Rondelaud, D; Dreyfuss, G

    2016-06-01

    Bimiracidial infections of Lymnaea palustris and Lymnaea stagnalis (shell height at exposure, 4 mm) with Fasciola hepatica were carried out during six successive snail generations to determine if prevalence and intensity of snail infection increased over time through descendants issuing from eggs laid by parents already exposed to this digenean. Controls were constituted by a French population of Galba truncatula (a single generation) infected according to the same protocol. In a first experiment performed with the F1 to F5 generations of L. palustris, the prevalence and intensity of F. hepatica infection in snails progressively increased. Immature rediae and a few cercariae-containing rediae of the digenean were observed in L. stagnalis from the F3 generation, but no free cercaria was noted in the bodies of this lymnaeid from the F4 to F6 generations. In another experiment carried out with the F6 generation of L. palustris, the prevalence of F. hepatica infection and the number of shed cercariae were significantly lower in L. palustris than in G. truncatula. This mode of snail infection suggests an explanation for cases of human fasciolosis occurring in central France after the collection of wild watercress from beds where L. palustris was the sole lymnaeid. PMID:26944418

  20. Patient- and operator-related factors associated with successful Glidescope intubations: a prospective observational study in 742 patients.

    PubMed

    Siu, L W L; Mathieson, E; Naik, V N; Chandra, D; Joo, H S

    2010-01-01

    The Glidescope Video Laryngoscope (Glidescope, Verathon Medical, Bothell, WA, U.S.A.) is a relatively new intubating device. It has been proposed to be useful for securing both routine airways and those where direct laryngoscopy may be difficult. In this prospective observational study, data for 742 intubations using the Glidescope were collected to investigate whether four factors are associated with successful tracheal intubation at first attempt using the Glidescope: previous Glidescope experience, previous direct laryngoscopy experience, level of anaesthesia training and clinical airway assessment. The likelihood of successful tracheal intubation at first attempt using the Glidescope increased with increasing previous Glidescope experience. Similarly, success was more likely in airways that were assessed as normal compared with those where direct laryngoscopies were either predicted or known to be difficult. Subgroup analysis indicated 83% first attempt success by 'experienced' Glidescope users in patients with documented difficult direct laryngoscopies. This supports its use as an adjunct device for management of airways where direct laryngoscopies prove difficult. With regard to the level of anaesthesia training, only medical students were more likely to fail with the Glidescope. Success was not associated with previous experience in direct laryngoscopy. The lack of association with direct laryngoscopy experience and level of anaesthesia training (beyond student level) suggests that expertise with traditional airway tools is not necessary to become proficient with the Glidescope. PMID:20191780

  1. Observations of an extreme storm in interplanetary space caused by successive coronal mass ejections.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying D; Luhmann, Janet G; Kajdič, Primož; Kilpua, Emilia K J; Lugaz, Noé; Nitta, Nariaki V; Möstl, Christian; Lavraud, Benoit; Bale, Stuart D; Farrugia, Charles J; Galvin, Antoinette B

    2014-01-01

    Space weather refers to dynamic conditions on the Sun and in the space environment of the Earth, which are often driven by solar eruptions and their subsequent interplanetary disturbances. It has been unclear how an extreme space weather storm forms and how severe it can be. Here we report and investigate an extreme event with multi-point remote-sensing and in situ observations. The formation of the extreme storm showed striking novel features. We suggest that the in-transit interaction between two closely launched coronal mass ejections resulted in the extreme enhancement of the ejecta magnetic field observed near 1 AU at STEREO A. The fast transit to STEREO A (in only 18.6 h), or the unusually weak deceleration of the event, was caused by the preconditioning of the upstream solar wind by an earlier solar eruption. These results provide a new view crucial to solar physics and space weather as to how an extreme space weather event can arise from a combination of solar eruptions. PMID:24642508

  2. Wide-area littoral discreet observation: success at the tactical edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Susan; Hughes, William; Ladas, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    In June 2011, the United States Army Research Laboratory (ARL) participated in Empire Challenge 2011 (EC-11). EC-11 was United States Joint Forces Command's (USJFCOM) annual live, joint and coalition intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) interoperability demonstration under the sponsorship of the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence (USD/I). EC-11 consisted of a series of ISR interoperability events, using a combination of modeling & simulation, laboratory and live-fly events. Wide-area Littoral Discreet Observation (WALDO) was ARL's maritime/littoral capability. WALDO met a USD(I) directive that EC-11 have a maritime component and WALDO was the primary player in the maritime scenario conducted at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. The WALDO effort demonstrated the utility of a networked layered sensor array deployed in a maritime littoral environment, focusing on maritime surveillance targeting counter-drug, counter-piracy and suspect activity in a littoral or riverine environment. In addition to an embedded analytical capability, the sensor array and control infrastructure consisted of the Oriole acoustic sensor, iScout unattended ground sensor (UGS), OmniSense UGS, the Compact Radar and the Universal Distributed Management System (UDMS), which included the Proxy Skyraider, an optionally manned aircraft mounting both wide and narrow FOV EO/IR imaging sensors. The capability seeded a littoral area with riverine and unattended sensors in order to demonstrate the utility of a Wide Area Sensor (WAS) capability in a littoral environment focused on maritime surveillance activities. The sensors provided a cue for WAS placement/orbit. A narrow field of view sensor would be used to focus on more discreet activities within the WAS footprint. Additionally, the capability experimented with novel WAS orbits to determine if there are more optimal orbits for WAS collection in a littoral environment. The demonstration objectives for WALDO at EC-11 were

  3. Stress for invasion success? Temperature stress of preceding generations modifies the response to insecticide stress in an invasive pest insect.

    PubMed

    Piiroinen, Saija; Lyytinen, Anne; Lindström, Leena

    2013-02-01

    Adaptation to stressful environments is one important factor influencing species invasion success. Tolerance to one stress may be complicated by exposure to other stressors experienced by the preceding generations. We studied whether parental temperature stress affects tolerance to insecticide in the invasive Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Field-collected pyrethroid-resistant beetles were reared under either stressful (17°C) or favourable (23°C) insecticide-free environments for three generations. Then, larvae were exposed to pyrethroid insecticides in common garden conditions (23°C). Beetles were in general tolerant to stress. The parental temperature stress alone affected beetles positively (increased adult weight) but it impaired their tolerance to insecticide exposure. In contrast, offspring from the favourable temperature regime showed compensatory weight gain in response to insecticide exposure. Our study emphasizes the potential of cross-generational effects modifying species stress tolerance. When resistant pest populations invade benign environments, a re-application of insecticides may enhance their performance via hormetic effects. In turn, opposite effects may arise if parental generations have been exposed to temperature stress. Thus, the outcome of management practices of invasive pest species is difficult to predict unless we also incorporate knowledge of the evolutionary and recent (preceding generations) stress history of the given populations into pest management. PMID:23467574

  4. Stress for invasion success? Temperature stress of preceding generations modifies the response to insecticide stress in an invasive pest insect

    PubMed Central

    Piiroinen, Saija; Lyytinen, Anne; Lindström, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation to stressful environments is one important factor influencing species invasion success. Tolerance to one stress may be complicated by exposure to other stressors experienced by the preceding generations. We studied whether parental temperature stress affects tolerance to insecticide in the invasive Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Field-collected pyrethroid-resistant beetles were reared under either stressful (17°C) or favourable (23°C) insecticide-free environments for three generations. Then, larvae were exposed to pyrethroid insecticides in common garden conditions (23°C). Beetles were in general tolerant to stress. The parental temperature stress alone affected beetles positively (increased adult weight) but it impaired their tolerance to insecticide exposure. In contrast, offspring from the favourable temperature regime showed compensatory weight gain in response to insecticide exposure. Our study emphasizes the potential of cross-generational effects modifying species stress tolerance. When resistant pest populations invade benign environments, a re-application of insecticides may enhance their performance via hormetic effects. In turn, opposite effects may arise if parental generations have been exposed to temperature stress. Thus, the outcome of management practices of invasive pest species is difficult to predict unless we also incorporate knowledge of the evolutionary and recent (preceding generations) stress history of the given populations into pest management. PMID:23467574

  5. Adaptation of Lymnaea fuscus and Radix balthica to Fasciola hepatica through the experimental infection of several successive snail generations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High prevalence of Fasciola hepatica infection (>70%) was noted during several outbreaks before the 2000s in several French farms where Galba truncatula is lacking. Other lymnaeids such as Lymnaea fuscus, L. glabra and/or Radix balthica are living in meadows around these farms but only juvenile snails can sustain complete larval development of F. hepatica while older snails were resistant. The low prevalence of infection (<20%) and limited cercarial production (<50 cercariae per infected snail) noted with these juveniles could not explain the high values noted in these cattle herds. As paramphistomosis due to Calicophoron daubneyi was not still noted in these farms, the existence of another mode of infection was hypothesized. Experimental infection of several successive generations of L. glabra, originating from eggs laid by their parents already infected with this parasite resulted in a progressive increase in prevalence of snail infection and the number of shed cercariae. The aim of this paper was to determine if this mode of snail infection was specific to L. glabra, or it might occur in other lymnaeid species such as L. fuscus and R. balthica. Methods Five successive generations of L. fuscus and R. balthica were subjected to individual bimiracidial infections in the laboratory. Resulting rediae and cercariae in the first four generations were counted after snail dissection at day 50 p.e. (20°C), while the dynamics of cercarial shedding was followed in the F5 generation. Results In the first experiment, prevalence and intensity of F. hepatica infection in snails progressively increased from the F1 (R. balthica) or F2 (L. fuscus) generation. In the second experiment, the prevalence of F. hepatica infection and the number of shed cercariae were significantly lower in L. fuscus and R. balthica (without significant differences between both lymnaeids) than in G. truncatula. Conclusion The F. hepatica infection of several successive snail generations

  6. Successive incorporation of force-generating units in the bacterial rotary motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, Steven M.; Berg, Howard C.

    1984-05-01

    Mot mutants of Escherichia coli are paralysed: their flagella appear to be intact but do not rotate1 . The motA and motB gene products are found in the cytoplasmic membrane2; they do not co-purify with flagellar basal bodies isolated in neutral detergents1. Silverman et al. found that mot mutants could be `resurrected' through protein synthesis directed by λ transducing phages carrying the wild-type genes2. Here, we have studied this activation at the level of a single flagellar motor. Cells of a motB strain carrying plasmids in which transcription of the wild-type motB gene was controlled by the lac promoter were tethered to a glass surface by a single flagellum. These cells began to spin within several minutes after the addition of a lac inducer, and their rotational speed changed in a series of equally spaced steps. As many as 7 steps were seen in individual cells and, from the final speeds attained, as many as 16 steps could be inferred. These experiments show that each flagellar motor contains several independent force-generating units comprised, at least in part, of motB protein.

  7. Are deep-ocean-generated surface-wave microseisms observed on land?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromirski, Peter D.; Stephen, Ralph A.; Gerstoft, Peter

    2013-07-01

    studies attribute land double-frequency (DF) microseism observations to deep water generation. Here we show that near-coastal generation is generally the dominant source region. This determination is based on observations at land and ocean seismic stations, buoys, gravity-wave hindcasts, and on beamforming results from continental seismic arrays. Interactions between opposing ocean wave components generate a pressure excitation pulse at twice the ocean wave frequency that excites pseudo-Rayleigh (pRg) wave DF microseisms. pRg generated in shallow coastal waters have most of their energy in the solid Earth ("elastic" pRg) and are observed by land-based and seafloor seismometers as DF microseisms. pRg generated in the deep ocean have most of their energy in the ocean ("acoustic" pRg) and are continuously observed on the ocean bottom, but acoustic pRg does not efficiently transition onto continents. High-amplitude DF signals over the [0.2, 0.3] Hz band observed on the deep seafloor are uncorrelated with continental observations and are not clearly detectable at individual continental stations or by land seismic-array beamforming. Below 0.2 Hz, modeling and some observations suggest that some deep water-generated elastic pRg energy can reach continental stations, providing that losses from scattering and transition across the continental-shelf boundary to the shore are not substantial. However, most observations indicate that generally little deep-ocean-generated DF microseism energy reaches continental stations. Effectively, DF land observations are dominated by near-coastal wave activity.

  8. Extreme-Wind Observation Capability for a Next Generation Satellite Wind Scatterometer Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffelen, Ad; van Zadelhoff, Gerd Jan; Belmonte, Maria; Chang, Paul; Vachon, Paris; Lin, Chung-Chi; Accadia, Christophe

    2013-04-01

    The ocean surface vector wind information, derived from satellite-based wind scatterometer observations, is one of the essential inputs for operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) services. The local wind speed and direction are retrieved from accurate measurements of the ocean surface backscatter, performed from at least three largely-spaced satellite positions during an over-flight. As a result, each of the wind resolution cells is characterised by a set of radar backscatter coefficients which are associated with their respective observation angles in azimuth and elevation with respect to the cell. The azimuth anisotropy of the backscatter coefficient with respect to the wind direction and its magnitude as a function of the wind speed, as captured in a so-called geophysical model function (GMF), are exploited in order to retrieve a unique vector wind. The current generation of scatterometer instruments operate at C-band with a single vertical polarisation (i.e. VV), or at Ku-band with VV for the first beam and HH for the second beam. The co-polarised radar backscatter, i.e., VV and to a lesser extend HH, saturate above a wind speed of about 25 to 30 m/s, which imposes a serious limitation on the capability of the existing observation systems. Such a limitation leads, e.g., to misestimation of extreme winds, errors in storm predictions and limitations in weather prediction warnings. Recently, observations of storm events along the North American coasts by Radarsat-2 and comparisons with in-situ buoy data revealed a high sensitivity of C-band cross-polarised backscatter signal intensity (i.e. VH or HV) with high wind speeds. This prompted the ocean vector wind community to further explore the limit of the cross-polar response. Establishing a new GMF requires accurate in-situ information of the vector wind field together with collocated scatterometer observation data, but these are extremely rare at extreme winds. A more successful collocation approach

  9. Analysis of Pre-Analytic Factors Affecting the Success of Clinical Next-Generation Sequencing of Solid Organ Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Goswami, Rashmi S.; Singh, Rajesh R.; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita

    2015-01-01

    Application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology to routine clinical practice has enabled characterization of personalized cancer genomes to identify patients likely to have a response to targeted therapy. The proper selection of tumor sample for downstream NGS based mutational analysis is critical to generate accurate results and to guide therapeutic intervention. However, multiple pre-analytic factors come into play in determining the success of NGS testing. In this review, we discuss pre-analytic requirements for AmpliSeq PCR-based sequencing using Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) (Life Technologies), a NGS sequencing platform that is often used by clinical laboratories for sequencing solid tumors because of its low input DNA requirement from formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue. The success of NGS mutational analysis is affected not only by the input DNA quantity but also by several other factors, including the specimen type, the DNA quality, and the tumor cellularity. Here, we review tissue requirements for solid tumor NGS based mutational analysis, including procedure types, tissue types, tumor volume and fraction, decalcification, and treatment effects. PMID:26343728

  10. A gridded multisite weather generator and synchronization to observed weather data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilks, Daniel S.

    2009-10-01

    Procedures are described for constructing a daily multisite weather generator at a collection of arbitrary (e.g., gridded) locations and for synchronizing the gridded generator to observed weather series at a set of reference stations. The gridded generator is constructed by interpolating conventional single-station weather generator parameters using locally weighted regressions and producing coherent simulations of daily weather from them using spatial correlation functions. When implemented, the synchronization algorithm results in simulated spatial weather fields at the grid points that are consistent with daily weather observations at nearby locations for particular years. The synchronization is achieved by exploiting the latent multivariate Gaussian structure of the spatially distributed weather generator and making use of well-known statistical results that define conditional multivariate Gaussian distributions given known values for a subset of variables from the larger joint distribution. The primary focus is on precipitation, but the nonprecipitation variables in the weather generator are also amenable to gridding and to synchronization with nearby observed weather series. The motivating idea is to allow calibration of spatially distributed hydrological models consistent with the climate of the spatial weather generator, potentially allowing more realistic hydrological simulation, but the procedure may also be useful for interpolation of missing daily weather data.

  11. A theory of electron cyclotron waves generated along auroral field lines observed by ground facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. S.; Yoon, Peter H.; Freund, H. P.

    1989-01-01

    A generation mechanism for radio waves in the frequency range 150 - 700 kHz observed by ground facilities is suggested in terms of an electromagnetic electron cyclotron instability driven by auroral electrons. The excited waves can propagate downward along the ambient magnetic field lines and are thus observable with ground facilities. The trapped auroral electrons are supposed to play an important role in the generation process, because they give rise to a thermal anisotropy which consequently leads to the instability. The present work is a natural extension of the theory proposed earlier by Wu et al. (1983) which was discussed in a different context but may be used to explain the observed waves originated at low altitudes. This paper presents a possible wave generation mechanism valid in the entire auroral field-line region of interest.

  12. Generation Mechanism of Earth Potential Difference Signal during Seismic Wave Propagation and its Observation Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, Kan; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Takayama, Masakazu; Takeuchi, Nobunao

    We have observed the co-seismic electromagnetic phenomena such as earth potential difference (EPD) variation in many observation sites of both Miyagi and Akita Prefectures. So far, in any earthquakes we observed clear signals of the EPD variation. However, the amplitude of observed EPD signals are very different at each site. To explain this difference, firstly we assumed the EPD generation mechanism to be the streaming potential. Secondarily, the underground circumstance is modeled as the composer of groundwater table, capillary tubes and fine tubes. The model how EPD variation signals appear is postulated to explain the observed data. The relative position of the ground water table against the buried electrodes is examined to explain the observed data. The groundwater table may be very sensitive to the appearance of the EPD variation. If electrodes were buried a few meters below the ground surface, we could observe the EPD signals in the case of shallow groundwater table.

  13. The design of an observational study of hypertension management, adherence and pressure control in Blood Pressure Success Zone Program participants

    PubMed Central

    Payne, K A; Caro, J J; Daley, W L; Khan, Z M; Ishak, K J; Stark, K; Purkayastha, D; Flack, J; Velázquez, E; Nesbitt, S; Morisky, D; Califf, R

    2008-01-01

    Aims The Blood Pressure Success Zone (BPSZ) Program, a nationwide initiative, provides education in addition to a complimentary trial of one of three antihypertensive medications. The BPSZ Longitudinal Observational Study of Success (BPSZ-BLISS) aims to evaluate blood pressure (BP) control, adherence, persistence and patient satisfaction in a representative subset of BPSZ Program participants. The BPSZ-BLISS study design is described here. Methods A total of 20,000 physicians were invited to participate in the study. Using a call centre supported Interactive Voice Response System (IVRS), physicians report BP and other data at enrolment and every usual care visit up to 12 ± 2 months; subjects self-report BPs, persistence, adherence and treatment satisfaction at 3, 6 and 12 months post-BPSZ Program enrolment. In addition to BPSZ Program enrolment medications, physicians prescribe antihypertensive medications and schedule visits as per usual care. The General Electric Healthcare database will be used as an external reference. Results After 18 months, over 700 IRB approved physicians consented and enrolled 10,067 eligible subjects (48% male; mean age 56 years; 27% newly diagnosed); 97% of physicians and 78% of subjects successfully entered IVRS enrolment data. Automated IVRS validations have maintained data quality (< 5% error on key variables). Enrolment was closed 30 April 2007; study completion is scheduled for June 2008. Conclusions The evaluation of large-scale health education programmes requires innovative methodologies and data management and quality control processes. The BPSZ-BLISS design can provide insights into the conceptualisation and planning of similar studies. PMID:18647193

  14. Observer performance with computer-generated images of /sup 201/Tl-Cl myocardial perfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wiener, S.N.; Flynn, M.J.; Edelstein, J.

    1980-07-01

    The effect of simple image processing on the interpretation of /sup 201/Tl-Cl myocardial perfusion images was evaluated by ROC analysis. Polaroid images of the cathode ray tube of an Anger camera and computer-processed transparent images recorded in color and shades of gray were examined by multiple observers. A total of 198 observer responses was accumulated for each of five image formats. The observer responses were compared with results established by coronary angiography. Better observer performance was obtained for all computer-generated images except in the region of low false positive values. The response for color-scale formats were, in general, superior to those from the gray-scale formats. No significant improvement in observer performance resulted from the use of background subtraction with a rescaling of the 16-level gray scale to the residual information. When nine-point smoothing was applied to the color-scale display format, there was a poorer observer response.

  15. Observations of ionospheric ELF and VLF wave generation by excitation of the thermal cubic nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Moore, R C; Fujimaru, S; Kotovsky, D A; Gołkowski, M

    2013-12-01

    Extremely-low-frequency (ELF, 3-3000 Hz) and very-low-frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) waves generated by the excitation of the thermal cubic nonlinearity are observed for the first time at the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program high-frequency transmitter in Gakona, Alaska. The observed ELF and VLF field amplitudes are the strongest generated by any high frequency (HF, 3-30 MHz) heating facility using this mechanism to date. This manner of ELF and VLF generation is independent of naturally forming currents, such as the auroral electrojet current system. Time-of-arrival analysis applied to experimental observations shows that the thermal cubic ELF and VLF source region is located within the collisional D-region ionosphere. Observations are compared with the predictions of a theoretical HF heating model using perturbation theory. For the experiments performed, two X-mode HF waves were transmitted at frequencies ω1 and ω2, with |ω2-2ω1| being in the ELF and VLF frequency range. In contrast with previous work, we determine that the ELF and VLF source is dominantly produced by the interaction between collision frequency oscillations at frequency ω2-ω1 and the polarization current density associated with the lower frequency HF wave at frequency ω1. This specific interaction has been neglected in past cubic thermal nonlinearity work, and it plays a major role in the generation of ELF and VLF waves. PMID:24476285

  16. In Situ Observation of Successive Crystallizations and Metastable Intermediates in the Formation of Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Hamish H-M; Wu, Yue; Henke, Sebastian; Cheetham, Anthony K; O'Hare, Dermot; Walton, Richard I

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the driving forces controlling crystallization is essential for the efficient synthesis and design of new materials, particularly metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), where mild solvothermal synthesis often allows access to various phases from the same reagents. Using high-energy in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, we monitor the crystallization of lithium tartrate MOFs, observing the successive crystallization and dissolution of three competing phases in one reaction. By determining rate constants and activation energies, we fully quantify the reaction energy landscape, gaining important predictive power for the choice of reaction conditions. Different reaction rates are explained by the structural relationships between the products and the reactants; larger changes in conformation result in higher activation energies. The methods we demonstrate can easily be applied to other materials, opening the door to a greater understanding of crystallization in general. PMID:26836335

  17. Making Sure They Make It! Best Practices for Ensuring the Academic Success of First-Generation College Students. CIC/Walmart College Success Awards Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Kerry J.

    2013-01-01

    A baccalaureate degree is essential to success in the contemporary United States. The degree offers improved economic security and the development of capabilities such as critical thinking, effective communication, quantitative reasoning, creativity, problem solving, personal and social responsibility, and social and cultural capital. Failure to…

  18. Gamma-ray burst observations with new generation imaging atmospheric Cerenkov Telescopes in the FERMI era

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, S.; Campana, S.; Galante, N.; Gaug, M.; Longo, F.; Scapin, V.

    2009-04-08

    After the launch and successful beginning of operations of the FERMI satellite, the topics related to high-energy observations of gamma-ray bursts have obtained a considerable attention by the scientific community. Undoubtedly, the diagnostic power of high-energy observations in constraining the emission processes and the physical conditions of gamma-ray burst is relevant. We briefly discuss how gamma-ray burst observations with ground-based imaging array Cerenkov telescopes, in the GeV-TeV range, can compete and cooperate with FERMI observations, in the MeV-GeV range, to allow researchers to obtain a more detailed and complete picture of the prompt and afterglow phases of gamma-ray bursts.

  19. Time Structure of Observed, GCM-Simulated, Downscaled, and Stochastically Generated Daily Temperature Series.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huth, Radan; Kyselý, Jan; Dubrovský, Martin

    2001-10-01

    The time structure of simulated daily maximum and minimum temperature series, produced by several different methods, is compared with observations at six stations in central Europe. The methods are statistical downscaling, stochastic weather generator, and general circulation models (GCMs). Outputs from control runs of two GCMs are examined: ECHAM3 and CCCM2. Four time series are constructed by statistical downscaling using multiple linear regression of 500-hPa heights and 1000-/500-hPa thickness: (i) from observations with variance reproduced by the inflation technique, (ii) from observations with variance reproduced by adding a white noise process, and (iii) from the two GCMs. Two runs of the weather generator were performed, one considering and one neglecting the annual cycle of lag-0 and lag-1 correlations among daily weather characteristics. Standard deviation and skewness of day-to-day temperature changes and lag-1 autocorrelations are examined. For heat and cold waves, the occurrence frequency, mean duration, peak temperature, and mean position within the year are studied.Possible causes of discrepancies between the simulated and observed time series are discussed and identified. They are shown to stem, among others, from (i) the absence of physics in downscaled and stochastically generated series, (ii) inadequacies of treatment of physical processes in GCMs, (iii) assumptions of linearity in downscaling equations, and (iv) properties of the underlying statistical model of the weather generator. In downscaling, variance inflation is preferable to the white noise addition in most aspects as the latter results in highly overestimated day-to-day variability. The inclusion of the annual cycle of correlations into the weather generator does not lead to an overall improvement of the temperature series produced. None of the methods appears to be able to reproduce all the characteristics of time structure correctly.

  20. Gravity Waves Generated by Convection: A New Idealized Model Tool and Direct Validation with Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, M. Joan; Stephan, Claudia

    2015-04-01

    In climate models, gravity waves remain too poorly resolved to be directly modelled. Instead, simplified parameterizations are used to include gravity wave effects on model winds. A few climate models link some of the parameterized waves to convective sources, providing a mechanism for feedback between changes in convection and gravity wave-driven changes in circulation in the tropics and above high-latitude storms. These convective wave parameterizations are based on limited case studies with cloud-resolving models, but they are poorly constrained by observational validation, and tuning parameters have large uncertainties. Our new work distills results from complex, full-physics cloud-resolving model studies to essential variables for gravity wave generation. We use the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model to study relationships between precipitation, latent heating/cooling and other cloud properties to the spectrum of gravity wave momentum flux above midlatitude storm systems. Results show the gravity wave spectrum is surprisingly insensitive to the representation of microphysics in WRF. This is good news for use of these models for gravity wave parameterization development since microphysical properties are a key uncertainty. We further use the full-physics cloud-resolving model as a tool to directly link observed precipitation variability to gravity wave generation. We show that waves in an idealized model forced with radar-observed precipitation can quantitatively reproduce instantaneous satellite-observed features of the gravity wave field above storms, which is a powerful validation of our understanding of waves generated by convection. The idealized model directly links observations of surface precipitation to observed waves in the stratosphere, and the simplicity of the model permits deep/large-area domains for studies of wave-mean flow interactions. This unique validated model tool permits quantitative studies of gravity wave driving of regional

  1. Kilometric radio waves generated along auroral field lines observed by ground facilities - A theoretical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziebell, L. F.; Wu, C. S.; Yoon, Peter H.

    1991-01-01

    A theory of generation of radio waves observed by ground-based facilities in the frequency range 150-700 kHz is discussed. This work is a continuation of an earlier discussion (Wu et al., 1989) in which it was proposed that the trapped electrons along the auroral field lines can lead to a cyclotron instability which amplifies the whistler waves observed at ground level. The objective of the present study is to investigate the propagation effect on the wave amplification and to examine whether the proposed mechanism is indeed viable.

  2. Observer success rates for identification of 3D surface reconstructed facial images and implications for patient privacy and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Joseph J.; Siddiqui, Khan M.; Fort, Leslie; Moffitt, Ryan; Juluru, Krishna; Kim, Woojin; Safdar, Nabile; Siegel, Eliot L.

    2007-03-01

    3D and multi-planar reconstruction of CT images have become indispensable in the routine practice of diagnostic imaging. These tools cannot only enhance our ability to diagnose diseases, but can also assist in therapeutic planning as well. The technology utilized to create these can also render surface reconstructions, which may have the undesired potential of providing sufficient detail to allow recognition of facial features and consequently patient identity, leading to violation of patient privacy rights as described in the HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) legislation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether 3D reconstructed images of a patient's facial features can indeed be used to reliably or confidently identify that specific patient. Surface reconstructed images of the study participants were created used as candidates for matching with digital photographs of participants. Data analysis was performed to determine the ability of observers to successfully match 3D surface reconstructed images of the face with facial photographs. The amount of time required to perform the match was recorded as well. We also plan to investigate the ability of digital masks or physical drapes to conceal patient identity. The recently expressed concerns over the inability to truly "anonymize" CT (and MRI) studies of the head/face/brain are yet to be tested in a prospective study. We believe that it is important to establish whether these reconstructed images are a "threat" to patient privacy/security and if so, whether minimal interventions from a clinical perspective can substantially reduce this possibility.

  3. The Ginger-shaped Asteroid 4179 Toutatis: New Observations from a Successful Flyby of Chang'e-2

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiangchuan; Ji, Jianghui; Ye, Peijian; Wang, Xiaolei; Yan, Jun; Meng, Linzhi; Wang, Su; Li, Chunlai; Li, Yuan; Qiao, Dong; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Yuhui; Zhang, Tingxin; Liu, Peng; Jiang, Yun; Rao, Wei; Li, Sheng; Huang, Changning; Ip, Wing-Huen; Hu, Shoucun; Zhu, Menghua; Yu, Liangliang; Zou, Yongliao; Tang, Xianglong; Li, Jianyang; Zhao, Haibin; Huang, Hao; Jiang, Xiaojun; Bai, Jinming

    2013-01-01

    On 13 December 2012, Chang'e-2 conducted a successful flyby of the near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis at a closest distance of 770 ± 120 meters from the asteroid's surface. The highest-resolution image, with a resolution of better than 3 meters, reveals new discoveries on the asteroid, e.g., a giant basin at the big end, a sharply perpendicular silhouette near the neck region, and direct evidence of boulders and regolith, which suggests that Toutatis may bear a rubble-pile structure. Toutatis' maximum physical length and width are (4.75 × 1.95 km) ±10%, respectively, and the direction of the +z axis is estimated to be (250 ± 5°, 63 ± 5°) with respect to the J2000 ecliptic coordinate system. The bifurcated configuration is indicative of a contact binary origin for Toutatis, which is composed of two lobes (head and body). Chang'e-2 observations have significantly improved our understanding of the characteristics, formation, and evolution of asteroids in general. PMID:24336501

  4. The Ginger-shaped Asteroid 4179 Toutatis: New Observations from a Successful Flyby of Chang'e-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiangchuan; Ji, Jianghui; Ye, Peijian; Wang, Xiaolei; Yan, Jun; Meng, Linzhi; Wang, Su; Li, Chunlai; Li, Yuan; Qiao, Dong; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Yuhui; Zhang, Tingxin; Liu, Peng; Jiang, Yun; Rao, Wei; Li, Sheng; Huang, Changning; Ip, Wing-Huen; Hu, Shoucun; Zhu, Menghua; Yu, Liangliang; Zou, Yongliao; Tang, Xianglong; Li, Jianyang; Zhao, Haibin; Huang, Hao; Jiang, Xiaojun; Bai, Jinming

    2013-12-01

    On 13 December 2012, Chang'e-2 conducted a successful flyby of the near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis at a closest distance of 770 +/- 120 meters from the asteroid's surface. The highest-resolution image, with a resolution of better than 3 meters, reveals new discoveries on the asteroid, e.g., a giant basin at the big end, a sharply perpendicular silhouette near the neck region, and direct evidence of boulders and regolith, which suggests that Toutatis may bear a rubble-pile structure. Toutatis' maximum physical length and width are (4.75 × 1.95 km) +/-10%, respectively, and the direction of the +z axis is estimated to be (250 +/- 5°, 63 +/- 5°) with respect to the J2000 ecliptic coordinate system. The bifurcated configuration is indicative of a contact binary origin for Toutatis, which is composed of two lobes (head and body). Chang'e-2 observations have significantly improved our understanding of the characteristics, formation, and evolution of asteroids in general.

  5. The ginger-shaped asteroid 4179 Toutatis: new observations from a successful flyby of Chang'e-2.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiangchuan; Ji, Jianghui; Ye, Peijian; Wang, Xiaolei; Yan, Jun; Meng, Linzhi; Wang, Su; Li, Chunlai; Li, Yuan; Qiao, Dong; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Yuhui; Zhang, Tingxin; Liu, Peng; Jiang, Yun; Rao, Wei; Li, Sheng; Huang, Changning; Ip, Wing-Huen; Hu, Shoucun; Zhu, Menghua; Yu, Liangliang; Zou, Yongliao; Tang, Xianglong; Li, Jianyang; Zhao, Haibin; Huang, Hao; Jiang, Xiaojun; Bai, Jinming

    2013-01-01

    On 13 December 2012, Chang'e-2 conducted a successful flyby of the near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis at a closest distance of 770 ± 120 meters from the asteroid's surface. The highest-resolution image, with a resolution of better than 3 meters, reveals new discoveries on the asteroid, e.g., a giant basin at the big end, a sharply perpendicular silhouette near the neck region, and direct evidence of boulders and regolith, which suggests that Toutatis may bear a rubble-pile structure. Toutatis' maximum physical length and width are (4.75 × 1.95 km) ±10%, respectively, and the direction of the +z axis is estimated to be (250 ± 5°, 63 ± 5°) with respect to the J2000 ecliptic coordinate system. The bifurcated configuration is indicative of a contact binary origin for Toutatis, which is composed of two lobes (head and body). Chang'e-2 observations have significantly improved our understanding of the characteristics, formation, and evolution of asteroids in general. PMID:24336501

  6. Magnetic signals generated by ocean flow in Swarm satellite data: prediction and observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einspigel, David; Velimsky, Jakub; Martinec, Zdenek; Sachl, Libor

    2015-04-01

    Motion of sea water in the Earth's main magnetic field generates the secondary induced field which can be decomposed into its poloidal and toroidal components. While the toroidal component is not directly observable outside the oceans, the poloidal magnetic field have been already validated by CHAMP satellite magnetic observations, land-based magnetic measurements and sea surface magnetic field measurements, despite the poloidal field being rather weak, reaching an intensity of up to a few nT. New possibilities of observations of the ocean-induced magnetic field came with the launching of ESA's Swarm mission satellites which have provided a valuable amount of high-precision and high-resolution measurements of the Earth's magnetic field. For a detection of weak ocean-induced signals and their interpretation, numerical modelling is crucial. We present results of modelling of the secondary magnetic field generated by ocean flow. Two ocean flow models are incorporated: 1) DEBOT, a barotropic model of ocean tide flow and 2) LSOMG, a baroclinic model of global ocean circulation. The secondary magnetic field is modelled by two different approaches: 1) a single-layer approximation model and 2) a three-dimensional time-domain electromagnetic induction model. A preliminary comparison of predicted signals and observed signals extracted from Swarm satellite data will be shown. The future aim is to assimilate magnetic data provided by Swarm mission into the models.

  7. Observations and Numerical Modeling of Eddy Generation in the Mediterranean Undercurrent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, N.; Ambar, I.; Kaese, R.

    2001-12-01

    In the frame of the European Union MAST III project CANIGO (Canary Islands Gibraltar Azores Observations), RAFOS floats were deployed in the Mediterranean undercurrent off south Portugal during the period from September 1997 to September 1998. An analysis of this Lagrangian approach complemented with results obtained with XBT probes and current meter data from the same project shows some of the major aspects of the flow associated with the undercurrent as well as the eddy activity related with it. Floats that stayed in the undercurrent featured a downstream deceleration and a steering by bottom topography. Three meddy formations at Cape St. Vincent could be isolated from the float data as well as the generation of dipolar structures in the Portimao Canyon, a feature not previously directly observed. The dynamical coupling of meddies and cyclones was observed for a considerable period of time. High-resolution modeling of the Mediterranean Outflow using a sigma-coordinate primitive equations ocean model (SCRUM) incorporating realistic topography and stratification reveals the adjustment of the salty plume while descending along the continental slope of the Gulf of Cadiz channeled by the topography. The model reproduces the generation of eddies in the two observed sites (cape and canyon) and the splitting of the outflow water into well-defined cores.

  8. Second Harmonic Generation and Polarization Microscope Observations of Quantum Relaxor Lithium Doped Potasium Tantalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Hiroko; Uesu, Yoshiaki

    2008-04-01

    Polar state in a quantum relaxor K(1-x)LixTaO3 (KLT) is investigated using second harmonic generation (SHG) and polarization microscopes. Temperature dependences of SHG image and interference color image related to birefringence are observed on three different processes (zero field heating after zero field cooling, field heating after zero field cooling, and field heating after field cooling processes). A remarkable history dependence in the T-E space which is one of the characteristic behaviors of relaxor is observed in SHG and polarization microscope observations. Ferroelectric phase transition occurs below the transition temperature Tp with tiny domain structures which is beyond the optical microscope diffraction limit. Under an electric field, these micro domain structures change to macroscopic structures. Based on these experiments, we propose a polar state model of KLT below Tp.

  9. Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Development and Global Competitiveness of US Space Transportation Industry: Critical Success Factors Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enyinda, Chris I.

    2002-01-01

    In response to the unrelenting call in both public and private sectors fora to reduce the high cost associated with space transportation, many innovative partially or fully RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicles) designs (X-34-37) were initiated. This call is directed at all levels of space missions including scientific, military, and commercial and all aspects of the missions such as nonrecurring development, manufacture, launch, and operations. According to Wertz, tbr over thirty years, the cost of space access has remained exceedingly high. The consensus in the popular press is that to decrease the current astronomical cost of access to space, more safer, reliable, and economically viable second generation RLVs (SGRLV) must be developed. Countries such as Brazil, India, Japan, and Israel are now gearing up to enter the global launch market with their own commercial space launch vehicles. NASA and the US space launch industry cannot afford to lag behind. Developing SGRLVs will immeasurably improve the US's space transportation capabilities by helping the US to regain the global commercial space markets while supporting the transportation capabilities of NASA's space missions, Developing the SGRLVs will provide affordable commercial space transportation that will assure the competitiveness of the US commercial space transportation industry in the 21st century. Commercial space launch systems are having difficulty obtaining financing because of the high cost and risk involved. Access to key financial markets is necessary for commercial space ventures. However, public sector programs in the form of tax incentives and credits, as well as loan guarantees are not yet available. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate discussion and assess the critical success factors germane for RLVs development and US global competitiveness.

  10. Successful use of levosimendan as a primary inotrope in pediatric cardiac surgery: An observational study in 110 patients

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Reena Khantwal; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Aggarwal, Mridul; Pandey, Rakesh; Dinand, Veronique; Joshi, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Context: Levosimendan is a new generation inotrope with calcium sensitizing properties and proven benefits in adults. Aims: This study investigates the use of levosimendan as a first line inotrope in congenital heart surgery. Settings and Design: Prospective, observational study in a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: One hundred and ten patients undergoing congenital cardiac surgery received levosimendan at a loading dose of 12 mcg/kg during rewarming on cardiopulmonary bypass followed by continuous infusion of 0.1 mcg/kg/min for 48 h. Hemodynamic parameters were recorded at the time of admission to Intensive Care Unit, and at 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h thereafter. Statistical Analysis: Categorical variables were compared using Chi-square test. Non-normally distributed quantitative variables were compared between groups using Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: At discharge from operating room (OR), 36 (32.7%) patients required levosimendan alone to maintain optimum cardiac output, 59 (53.6%) patients required the addition of low-dose adrenaline (<0.1 mcg/kg/min) and 15 (13.6%) patients required either increment in adrenaline to high-dose (≥0.1 mcg/kg/min) or starting another inotrope/vasoactive agent. Overall, there were five mortalities. Hypotension leading to discontinuation of levosimendan was not found in any patient. Arrhythmias were observed in three patients. Fifty-four patients were extubated in the OR. Conclusions: Levosimendan-based inotropic regime offers optimized cardiac output with a well-controlled heart rate and a low incidence of arrhythmias in patients undergoing all categories of congenital heart surgeries. PMID:27011685

  11. Real-time observation of interfering crystal electrons in high-harmonic generation.

    PubMed

    Hohenleutner, M; Langer, F; Schubert, O; Knorr, M; Huttner, U; Koch, S W; Kira, M; Huber, R

    2015-07-30

    Acceleration and collision of particles has been a key strategy for exploring the texture of matter. Strong light waves can control and recollide electronic wavepackets, generating high-harmonic radiation that encodes the structure and dynamics of atoms and molecules and lays the foundations of attosecond science. The recent discovery of high-harmonic generation in bulk solids combines the idea of ultrafast acceleration with complex condensed matter systems, and provides hope for compact solid-state attosecond sources and electronics at optical frequencies. Yet the underlying quantum motion has not so far been observable in real time. Here we study high-harmonic generation in a bulk solid directly in the time domain, and reveal a new kind of strong-field excitation in the crystal. Unlike established atomic sources, our solid emits high-harmonic radiation as a sequence of subcycle bursts that coincide temporally with the field crests of one polarity of the driving terahertz waveform. We show that these features are characteristic of a non-perturbative quantum interference process that involves electrons from multiple valence bands. These results identify key mechanisms for future solid-state attosecond sources and next-generation light-wave electronics. The new quantum interference process justifies the hope for all-optical band-structure reconstruction and lays the foundation for possible quantum logic operations at optical clock rates. PMID:26223624

  12. Real-time observation of interfering crystal electrons in high-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohenleutner, M.; Langer, F.; Schubert, O.; Knorr, M.; Huttner, U.; Koch, S. W.; Kira, M.; Huber, R.

    2015-07-01

    Acceleration and collision of particles has been a key strategy for exploring the texture of matter. Strong light waves can control and recollide electronic wavepackets, generating high-harmonic radiation that encodes the structure and dynamics of atoms and molecules and lays the foundations of attosecond science. The recent discovery of high-harmonic generation in bulk solids combines the idea of ultrafast acceleration with complex condensed matter systems, and provides hope for compact solid-state attosecond sources and electronics at optical frequencies. Yet the underlying quantum motion has not so far been observable in real time. Here we study high-harmonic generation in a bulk solid directly in the time domain, and reveal a new kind of strong-field excitation in the crystal. Unlike established atomic sources, our solid emits high-harmonic radiation as a sequence of subcycle bursts that coincide temporally with the field crests of one polarity of the driving terahertz waveform. We show that these features are characteristic of a non-perturbative quantum interference process that involves electrons from multiple valence bands. These results identify key mechanisms for future solid-state attosecond sources and next-generation light-wave electronics. The new quantum interference process justifies the hope for all-optical band-structure reconstruction and lays the foundation for possible quantum logic operations at optical clock rates.

  13. ASTER and Ground Observations of Vegetation Primary Succession and Habitat Development near Retreating Glaciers in Alaska and Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Leonard, G. J.; Furfaro, R.

    2011-12-01

    Like active volcanoes, glaciers are among the most dynamic components of the Earth's solid surface. All of the main surface processes active in these areas have an ability to suddenly remake or "resurface" the landscape, effectively wiping the land clean of vegetation and habitats, and creating new land surface and aqueous niches for life to colonize and develop anew. This biological and geomorphological resurfacing may remove the soil or replace it with inorganic debris layers. The topographical, hydrological, and particle size-frequency characteristics of resurfaced deglaciated landscapes typically create a high density of distinctive, juxtaposed niches where differing plant communities may become established over time. The result is commonly a high floral and faunal diversity and fecundity of life habitats. The new diverse landscape continues to evolve rapidly as ice-cored moraines thaw, lakes drain or fill in with sediment, as fluvial dissection erodes moraine ridges, as deltaic sedimentation shifts, and other processes (coupled with primary succession) take place in rapid sequence. In addition, climate dynamics which may have caused the glaciers to retreat may continue. We will briefly explore two distinctive glacial environments-(1) the maritime Copper River corridor through the Chugach Mountains (Alaska), Allen Glacier, and the river's delta; and (2) Nepal's alpine Khumbu valley and Imja Glacier. We will provide an example showing how ASTER multispectral and stereo-derived elevation data, with some basic field-based constraints and observations, can be used to make automatic maps of certain habitats, including that of the Tibetan snowcock. We will examine geomorphic and climatic domains where plant communities are becoming established in the decades after glacier retreat and how these link to the snowcock habitat and range. Snowcock species have previously been considered to have evolved in close association with glacial and tectonic history of South and

  14. Electrostatic Swelling and Conformational Variation Observed in High-Generation Polyelectrolyte Dendrimers

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Paul D; Chen, Wei-Ren; Herwig, Kenneth W; Hong, Kunlun; Liu, Yun; Porcar, L.; Shew, Chwen-Yang; Smith, Gregory Scott; Chen, Hsin-Lung; Chen, Chun-Yu; Li, Xin; Liu, Emily

    2010-01-01

    A coordinated study combining small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements was conducted to investigate the structural characteristics of aqueous (D2O) generation 7 and 8 (G7 & G8) PAMAM dendrimer solutions as a function of molecular protonation at room temperature. The change in intra-molecular conformation was clearly exhibited in the data analysis by separating the variation in the inter-molecular correlation. Our results unambiguously demonstrate an increased molecular size and evolved intra-molecular density profile upon increasing the molecular protonation. This is contrary to the existing understanding that in higher generation polyelectrolyte dendrimers, steric crowding stiffens the local motion of dendrimer segments exploring additional available intra-dendrimer volume and therefore inhibits the electrostatic swelling. Our observation is relevant to elucidation of the general microscopic picture of polyelectrolyte dendrimer structure, as well as the development of dendrimer-based packages with based on the stimuli-responsive principle.

  15. Observed 3D Structure, Generation, and Dissipation of Oceanic Mesoscale Eddies in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Tian, Jiwei; Qiu, Bo; Zhao, Wei; Chang, Ping; Wu, Dexing; Wan, Xiuquan

    2016-04-01

    Oceanic mesoscale eddies with horizontal scales of 50–300 km are the most energetic form of flows in the ocean. They are the oceanic analogues of atmospheric storms and are effective transporters of heat, nutrients, dissolved carbon, and other biochemical materials in the ocean. Although oceanic eddies have been ubiquitously observed in the world oceans since 1960s, our understanding of their three-dimensional (3D) structure, generation, and dissipation remains fragmentary due to lack of systematic full water-depth measurements. To bridge this knowledge gap, we designed and conducted a multi-months field campaign, called the South China Sea Mesoscale Eddy Experiment (S-MEE), in the northern South China Sea in 2013/2014. The S-MEE for the first time captured full-depth 3D structures of an anticyclonic and cyclonic eddy pair, which are characterized by a distinct vertical tilt of their axes. By observing the eddy evolution at an upstream versus downstream location and conducting an eddy energy budget analysis, the authors further proposed that generation of submesoscale motions most likely constitutes the dominant dissipation mechanism for the observed eddies.

  16. Observed 3D Structure, Generation, and Dissipation of Oceanic Mesoscale Eddies in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Tian, Jiwei; Qiu, Bo; Zhao, Wei; Chang, Ping; Wu, Dexing; Wan, Xiuquan

    2016-01-01

    Oceanic mesoscale eddies with horizontal scales of 50-300 km are the most energetic form of flows in the ocean. They are the oceanic analogues of atmospheric storms and are effective transporters of heat, nutrients, dissolved carbon, and other biochemical materials in the ocean. Although oceanic eddies have been ubiquitously observed in the world oceans since 1960s, our understanding of their three-dimensional (3D) structure, generation, and dissipation remains fragmentary due to lack of systematic full water-depth measurements. To bridge this knowledge gap, we designed and conducted a multi-months field campaign, called the South China Sea Mesoscale Eddy Experiment (S-MEE), in the northern South China Sea in 2013/2014. The S-MEE for the first time captured full-depth 3D structures of an anticyclonic and cyclonic eddy pair, which are characterized by a distinct vertical tilt of their axes. By observing the eddy evolution at an upstream versus downstream location and conducting an eddy energy budget analysis, the authors further proposed that generation of submesoscale motions most likely constitutes the dominant dissipation mechanism for the observed eddies. PMID:27074710

  17. Observed 3D Structure, Generation, and Dissipation of Oceanic Mesoscale Eddies in the South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Tian, Jiwei; Qiu, Bo; Zhao, Wei; Chang, Ping; Wu, Dexing; Wan, Xiuquan

    2016-01-01

    Oceanic mesoscale eddies with horizontal scales of 50–300 km are the most energetic form of flows in the ocean. They are the oceanic analogues of atmospheric storms and are effective transporters of heat, nutrients, dissolved carbon, and other biochemical materials in the ocean. Although oceanic eddies have been ubiquitously observed in the world oceans since 1960s, our understanding of their three-dimensional (3D) structure, generation, and dissipation remains fragmentary due to lack of systematic full water-depth measurements. To bridge this knowledge gap, we designed and conducted a multi-months field campaign, called the South China Sea Mesoscale Eddy Experiment (S-MEE), in the northern South China Sea in 2013/2014. The S-MEE for the first time captured full-depth 3D structures of an anticyclonic and cyclonic eddy pair, which are characterized by a distinct vertical tilt of their axes. By observing the eddy evolution at an upstream versus downstream location and conducting an eddy energy budget analysis, the authors further proposed that generation of submesoscale motions most likely constitutes the dominant dissipation mechanism for the observed eddies. PMID:27074710

  18. Sound measurements and observations of the MOD-OA wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, K. P.; Hubbard, H. H.

    1982-01-01

    Sound measurements are reported for a wind velocity of about 5 m/s and a power output of about 70 kW. Both broadband and narrowband data were obtained for a range of distances and azimuth angles from the machine. Both discrete frequency and broadband components were identified. Loading harmonics at multiples of the blade passage frequency and electrical generator harmonics at multiples of the shaft speed dominated the spectrum below 100 Hz. The 10,000 Hz peak is believed to be of mechanical origin in the nacelle and the other arises from blade aerodynamic sources. Aural detection distances of about 525 m upwind and 850 downwind were observed.

  19. Ultrastructural features of collagen in thyroid carcinoma tissue observed by polarization second harmonic generation microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tokarz, Danielle; Cisek, Richard; Golaraei, Ahmad; Asa, Sylvia L.; Barzda, Virginijus; Wilson, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in collagen ultrastructure between malignant and normal human thyroid tissue were investigated ex vivo using polarization second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. The second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility tensor component ratio and the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) of the SHG signal were measured. The ratio values are related to the collagen ultrastructure, while DOLP indicates the relative amount of coherent signal and incoherent scattering of SHG. Increase in ratio values and decrease in DOLP were observed for tumor tissue compared to normal thyroid, indicating higher ultrastructural disorder in tumor collagen. PMID:26417516

  20. Ultrafast strain gauge: Observation of THz radiation coherently generated by acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, M; Reed, E; Kim, K; Glownia, J; Howard, W M; Piner, E; Roberts, J

    2008-08-14

    The study of nanoscale, terahertz frequency (THz) acoustic waves has great potential for elucidating material and chemical interactions as well as nanostructure characterization. Here we report the first observation of terahertz radiation coherently generated by an acoustic wave. Such emission is directly related to the time-dependence of the stress as the acoustic wave crosses an interface between materials of differing piezoelectric response. This phenomenon enables a new class of strain wave metrology that is fundamentally distinct from optical approaches, providing passive remote sensing of the dynamics of acoustic waves with ultrafast time resolution. The new mechanism presented here enables nanostructure measurements not possible using existing optical or x-ray approaches.

  1. Alternation of generations - unravelling the underlying molecular mechanism of a 165-year-old botanical observation.

    PubMed

    Horst, N A; Reski, R

    2016-07-01

    Characteristically, land plants exhibit a life cycle with an 'alternation of generations' and thus alternate between a haploid gametophyte and a diploid sporophyte. At meiosis and fertilisation the transitions between these two ontogenies take place in distinct single stem cells. The evolutionary invention of an embryo, and thus an upright multicellular sporophyte, in the ancestor of land plants formed the basis for the evolution of increasingly complex plant morphologies shaping Earth's ecosystems. Recent research employing the moss Physcomitrella patens revealed the homeotic gene BELL1 as a master regulator of the gametophyte-to-sporophyte transition. Here, we discuss these findings in the context of classical botanical observations. PMID:27094475

  2. The "automatic mode switch" function in successive generations of minute ventilation sensing dual chamber rate responsive pacemakers.

    PubMed

    Provenier, F; Jordaens, L; Verstraeten, T; Clement, D L

    1994-11-01

    Automatic mode switch (AMS) from DDDR to VVIR pacing is a new algorithm, in response to paroxysmal atrial tachyarrhythmias. With the 5603 Programmer, the AMS in the Meta DDDR 1250 and 1250H (Telectronics Pacings Systems, Inc.) operates when VA is shorter than the adaptable PVARP. With the 9600 Programmer, an atrial protection interval can be defined after the PVARP. The latest generation, Meta DDDR 1254, initiates AMS when 5 or 11 heart cycles are > 150, 175, or 200 beats/min. From 1990 to 1993, 61 patients, mean age 61 years, received a Meta DDDR: in 24 a 1250, in 12 a 1250H and in the remaining 25 a 1254 model. Indication for pacing was heart block in 39, sick sinus syndrome in 15, the combination in 6, and hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy in 1. Paroxysmal atrial tachyarrhythmias were present in 43. All patients had routine pacemaker surveillance, including 52 Holter recordings. In 32 patients, periods of atrial tachyarrhythmias were observed, with proper AMS to VVIR, except during short periods of 2:1 block for atrial flutter in 4. In two others, undersensing of the atrial arrhythmia disturbed correct AMS. With the 1250 and 1250H model, AMS was observed on several occasions during sinus rate accelerations in ten patients. This was never seen with the 1254 devices. Final programmation was VVIR in 2 (chronic atrial fibrillation), AAI in 1 (fracture of the ventricular lead), VDDR in 1 (atrial pacing during atrial fibrillation), DDD in 5, and DDDR in 53, 48 of whom had AMS programmed on.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7845791

  3. First-Generation, Low-Income College Students during the First Semester in Higher Education: Challenges and Successes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chhen Stewart, Lee May

    2012-01-01

    Typically, studies first-generation, low-income students have focused on the financial aid and academic preparedness to enter college and persist. These researchers have found little data about first-generation, low-income students once they enter higher education. One question largely unexplored has been why some first-generation, low-income…

  4. Runoff-generated debris flows: Observations and modeling of surge initiation, magnitude, and frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kean, Jason W.; McCoy, Scott W.; Tucker, Gregory E.; Staley, Dennis M.; Coe, Jeffrey A.

    2013-12-01

    during intense rainstorms plays a major role in generating debris flows in many alpine areas and burned steeplands. Yet compared to debris flow initiation from shallow landslides, the mechanics by which runoff generates a debris flow are less understood. To better understand debris flow initiation by surface water runoff, we monitored flow stage and rainfall associated with debris flows in the headwaters of two small catchments: a bedrock-dominated alpine basin in central Colorado (0.06 km2) and a recently burned area in southern California (0.01 km2). We also obtained video footage of debris flow initiation and flow dynamics from three cameras at the Colorado site. Stage observations at both sites display distinct patterns in debris flow surge characteristics relative to rainfall intensity (I). We observe small, quasiperiodic surges at low I; large, quasiperiodic surges at intermediate I; and a single large surge followed by small-amplitude fluctuations about a more steady high flow at high I. Video observations of surge formation lead us to the hypothesis that these flow patterns are controlled by upstream variations in channel slope, in which low-gradient sections act as "sediment capacitors," temporarily storing incoming bed load transported by water flow and periodically releasing the accumulated sediment as a debris flow surge. To explore this hypothesis, we develop a simple one-dimensional morphodynamic model of a sediment capacitor that consists of a system of coupled equations for water flow, bed load transport, slope stability, and mass flow. This model reproduces the essential patterns in surge magnitude and frequency with rainfall intensity observed at the two field sites and provides a new framework for predicting the runoff threshold for debris flow initiation in a burned or alpine setting.

  5. Runoff-generated debris flows: observations and modeling of surge initiation, magnitude, and frequency

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kean, Jason W.; McCoy, Scott W.; Tucker, Gregory E.; Staley, Dennis M.; Coe, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Runoff during intense rainstorms plays a major role in generating debris flows in many alpine areas and burned steeplands. Yet compared to debris flow initiation from shallow landslides, the mechanics by which runoff generates a debris flow are less understood. To better understand debris flow initiation by surface water runoff, we monitored flow stage and rainfall associated with debris flows in the headwaters of two small catchments: a bedrock-dominated alpine basin in central Colorado (0.06 km2) and a recently burned area in southern California (0.01 km2). We also obtained video footage of debris flow initiation and flow dynamics from three cameras at the Colorado site. Stage observations at both sites display distinct patterns in debris flow surge characteristics relative to rainfall intensity (I). We observe small, quasiperiodic surges at low I; large, quasiperiodic surges at intermediate I; and a single large surge followed by small-amplitude fluctuations about a more steady high flow at high I. Video observations of surge formation lead us to the hypothesis that these flow patterns are controlled by upstream variations in channel slope, in which low-gradient sections act as “sediment capacitors,” temporarily storing incoming bed load transported by water flow and periodically releasing the accumulated sediment as a debris flow surge. To explore this hypothesis, we develop a simple one-dimensional morphodynamic model of a sediment capacitor that consists of a system of coupled equations for water flow, bed load transport, slope stability, and mass flow. This model reproduces the essential patterns in surge magnitude and frequency with rainfall intensity observed at the two field sites and provides a new framework for predicting the runoff threshold for debris flow initiation in a burned or alpine setting.

  6. Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) Development in the Context of Other Future Geostationary Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmetz, J.; Stuhlmann, R.; Grandell, J.; Tjemkes, S.; Calbet, X.; Koenig, M.; Rota, S.

    2012-12-01

    Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) will provide continuity to the European Meteosat observations which are currently performed with Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). MSG takes images in 12 channels with a repeat rate of 15 minutes for the full disk. The future MTG satellites will expand the capabilities far beyond those of MSG with an enhanced imager (FCI) which has 16 channels and a 10 minutes repeat cycle for taking images of the earth's full disk. Especially the novel instruments on MTG a) Lightning Imager (LI), hyperspectral InfraRed Sounder (IRS) and the Ultraviolet-Visible-Near infrared spectrometer (UVN) will provide unprecedented observations. The four instruments will fly on two types of satellites, the imaging satellites (MTG-I) carrying the FCI and LI, and the sounding satellites (MTG-S) carrying the IRS and UVN. The UVN instrument is provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European GMES (Global Monitoring and Environmental Security) programme. The first launch of an imaging satellite is foreseen for 2017. In total the MTG series will serve us with four MTG-I and two MTG-S satellites for about two decades. MTG has been defined to meet the requirements of the user community, i.e. mainly users in Europe. However an interesting perspective is to see the development of the European MTG satellite system in the context of the evolution of the global space-based meteorological satellite system, notably those from geostationary orbit. Satellite agencies in the US, Japan, China and Europe will fly advanced imagers comparable to the FCI on MTG. Therefore there is also scope for a common evolution of the applications of the observations which is being addressed inter alia by CGMS (Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites). Various agencies will also realise lightning observations from space. Other instruments on MTG (IRS and UVN) can be seen as pioneering realisations in a geostationary orbit of measurements known from polar orbits. This step into

  7. Software for generating liability distributions for pedigrees conditional on their observed disease states and covariates.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Desmond D; Sham, Pak C; Knight, Jo; Wickham, Harvey; Landau, Sabine

    2010-02-01

    For many multifactorial diseases, aetiology is poorly understood. A major research aim is the identification of disease predictors (environmental, biological, and genetic markers). In order to achieve this, a two-stage approach is proposed. The initial or synthesis stage combines observed pedigree data with previous genetic epidemiological research findings, to produce estimates of pedigree members' disease risk and predictions of their disease liability. A further analysis stage uses the latter as inputs to look for associations with potential disease markers. The incorporation of previous research findings into an analysis should lead to power gains. It also allows separate predictions for environmental and genetic liabilities to be generated. This should increase power for detecting disease predictors that are environmental or genetic in nature. Finally, the approach brings pragmatic benefits in terms of data reduction and synthesis, improving comprehensibility, and facilitating the use of existing statistical genetics tools. In this article we present a statistical model and Gibbs sampling approach to generate liability predictions for multifactorial disease for the synthesis stage. We have implemented the approach in a software program. We apply this program to a specimen disease pedigree, and discuss the results produced, comparing its results with those generated under a more naïve model. We also detail simulation studies that validate the software's operation. PMID:19771574

  8. Observation of magnetic field generation via the Weibel instability in interpenetrating plasma flows

    SciTech Connect

    Huntington, C. M.; Fiuza, F.; Ross, J. S.; Zylstra, A. B.; Drake, R. P.; Froula, D. H.; Gregori, G.; Kugland, N. L.; Kuranz, C. C.; Levy, M. C.; Li, C. K.; Meinecke, J.; Morita, T.; Petrasso, R.; Plechaty, C.; Remington, B. A.; Ryutov, D. D.; Sakawa, Y.; Spitkovsky, A.; Takabe, H.; Park, H.-S.

    2015-01-19

    Collisionless shocks can be produced as a result of strong magnetic fields in a plasma flow, and therefore are common in many astrophysical systems. The Weibel instability is one candidate mechanism for the generation of su fficiently strong fields to create a collisionless shock. Despite their crucial role in astrophysical systems, observation of the magnetic fields produced by Weibel instabilities in experiments has been challenging. Using a proton probe to directly image electromagnetic fields, we present evidence of Weibel-generated magnetic fields that grow in opposing, initially unmagnetized plasma flows from laser-driven laboratory experiments. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations reveal that the instability effi ciently extracts energy from the plasma flows, and that the self-generated magnetic energy reaches a few percent of the total energy in the system. Furthermore, this result demonstrates an experimental platform suitable for the investigation of a wide range of astrophysical phenomena, including collisionless shock formation in supernova remnants, large-scale magnetic field amplification, and the radiation signature from gamma-ray bursts.

  9. On the Generation of Multiple Atmospheric Pressure Waves Observed During Violent Volcanic Eruptions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medici, E. F.; Waite, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    One or more atmospheric pressure waves followed by a supersonic jet may be generated during the over pressurized vapor-solid-liquid mixture ejection of a violent volcanic eruption. The source of these multiple atmospheric pressure waves could have different origins. Among the physical mechanisms that could explain these behaviors are pulsating eruptions, the dynamics of shock waves, coupled pressure wave-supersonic jet interaction, or a combination of all these factors. In order to elucidate the causes of these complex fluid flow dynamics, a series of analog volcanic eruption experiments using an atmospheric shock tube were performed. During the testing, single and multiple pressure waves and the subsequent supersonic jet were generated. The controlled laboratory conditions enable studies of the most relevant variables potentially responsible for the formation of the multiple pressure waves. The tests were performed using dry, compressed nitrogen at standard room temperature that was free of particles. Yet, under this idealization of a real volcanic eruption, multiple pressure waves were observed on the high-speed video imaging and recorded on the pressure transducer. The amount of energy being released on each test was varied to achieve different discharge dynamics and the formation of single and multiple pressure waves. The preliminary experimental observations indicate a coupled pressure wave-jet interaction as source of multiple pressure waves.

  10. Performance Evaluation of New-Generation Pulse Oximeters in the NICU: Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Nizami, Shermeen; Greenwood, Kim; Barrowman, Nick; Harrold, JoAnn

    2015-09-01

    This crossover observational study compares the data characteristics and performance of new-generation Nellcor OXIMAX and Masimo SET SmartPod pulse oximeter technologies. The study was conducted independent of either original equipment manufacturer (OEM) across eleven preterm infants in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The SmartPods were integrated with Dräger Infinity Delta monitors. The Delta monitor measured the heart rate (HR) using an independent electrocardiogram sensor, and the two SmartPods collected arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and pulse rate (PR). All patient data were non-Gaussian. Nellcor PR showed a higher correlation with the HR as compared to Masimo PR. The statistically significant difference found in their median values (1% for SpO2, 1 bpm for PR) was deemed clinically insignificant. SpO2 alarms generated by both SmartPods were observed and categorized for performance evaluation. Results for sensitivity, positive predictive value, accuracy and false alarm rates were Nellcor (80.3, 50, 44.5, 50%) and Masimo (72.2, 48.2, 40.6, 51.8%) respectively. These metrics were not statistically significantly different between the two pulse oximeters. Despite claims by OEMs, both pulse oximeters exhibited high false alarm rates, with no statistically or clinically significant difference in performance. These findings have a direct impact on alarm fatigue in the NICU. Performance evaluation studies can also impact medical device purchase decisions made by hospital administrators. PMID:26577369

  11. Observation Platforms and Data Streams of the Arctic Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE-Arctic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinzman, L. D.; Wullschleger, S. D.; Graham, D. E.; Hubbard, S. S.; Norby, R. J.; Rogers, A.; Torn, M. S.; Wilson, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the Arctic Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE-Arctic) is to deliver a process-rich ecosystem model, extending from bedrock to the top of the vegetative canopy, in which the evolution of Arctic ecosystems in a changing climate can be modeled at the scale of a high resolution Earth System Model grid cell. Increasing our confidence in climate projections for high-latitude regions of the world requires a coordinated set of observation platforms that target improved process understanding and model representation of important ecosystem-climate feedbacks. The Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE Arctic) seeks to address this challenge by quantifying the physical, chemical, and biological behavior of terrestrial ecosystems in Alaska. Initial research has focused upon the highly dynamic landscapes of the North Slope (Barrow, Alaska) where thaw lakes, drained thaw lake basins, and ice-rich polygonal ground offer distinct land units for investigation and modeling. This vision includes mechanistic studies in the field and in the laboratory; modeling of critical and interrelated water, nitrogen, carbon, and energy dynamics; and characterization of important interactions from molecular to landscape scales that drive feedbacks to the climate system. To complete these investigations, an integrated program of field monitoring has been initiated. These include observations of meteorological, hydrological, ecological and geophysical processes. These data streams are intended to supplement and extend existing polar data sets to advance our understanding of the Arctic environment and its response to a rapidly changing climate.

  12. Microwave Polarized Signatures Generated within Cloud Systems: SSM/I Observations Interpreted with Radiative Transfer Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prigent, Catherine; Pardo, Juan R.; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Rossow, Willaim B.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Special Sensor Microwave /Imager (SSM/I) observations in cloud systems are studied over the tropics. Over optically thick cloud systems, presence of polarized signatures at 37 and 85 GHz is evidenced and analyzed with the help of cloud top temperature and optical thickness extracted from visible and IR satellite observations. Scattering signatures at 85 GHz (TbV(85) less than or = 250 K) are associated with polarization differences greater than or = 6 K, approx. 50%, of the time over ocean and approx. 40% over land. In addition. over thick clouds the polarization difference at 37 GHz is rarely negligible. The polarization differences at 37 and 85 GHz do not stem from the surface but are generated in regions of relatively homogeneous clouds having high liquid water content. To interpret the observations, a radiative transfer model that includes the scattering by non-spherical particles is developed. based on the T-matrix approach and using the doubling and adding method. In addition to handling randomly and perfectly oriented particles, this model can also simulate the effect of partial orientation of the hydrometeors. Microwave brightness temperatures are simulated at SSM/I frequencies and are compared with the observations. Polarization differences of approx. 2 K can be simulated at 37 GHz over a rain layer, even using spherical drops. The polarization difference is larger for oriented non-spherical particles. The 85 GHz simulations are very sensitive to the ice phase of the cloud. Simulations with spherical particles or with randomly oriented non-spherical ice particles cannot replicate the observed polarization differences. However, with partially oriented non-spherical particles, the observed polarized signatures at 85 GHz are explained, and the sensitivity of the scattering characteristics to the particle size, asphericity, and orientation is analyzed. Implications on rain and ice retrievals are discussed.

  13. A review of tropical cyclone-generated storm surges: Global data sources, observations, and impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Needham, Hal F.; Keim, Barry D.; Sathiaraj, David

    2015-06-01

    Tropical cyclone-generated storm surges are among the world's most deadly and destructive natural hazards. This paper provides the first comprehensive global review of tropical storm surge data sources, observations, and impacts while archiving data in SURGEDAT, a global database. Available literature has provided data for more than 700 surge events since 1880, the majority of which are found in the western North Atlantic (WNA), followed by Australia/Oceania, the western North Pacific (WNP), and the northern Indian Ocean (NIO). The Bay of Bengal (BOB) in the NIO consistently observes the world's highest surges, as this subbasin averages five surges ≥5 m per decade and has observed credible storm tide levels reaching 13.7 m. The WNP observes the highest rate of low-magnitude surges, as the coast of China averages 54 surges ≥1 m per decade, and rates are likely higher in the Philippines. The U.S. Gulf Coast observes the second highest frequency of both high-magnitude (≥5 m) and low-magnitude (≥1 m) surges. The BOB observes the most catastrophic surge impacts, as 59% of global tropical cyclones that have killed at least 5000 people occurred in this basin. The six deadliest cyclones in this region have each killed at least 140,000 people, and two events have killed 300,000. Storm surge impacts transportation, agriculture, and energy sectors in the WNA. Oceania experiences long-term impacts, including contamination of fresh water and loss of food supplies, although the highest surges in this region are lower than most other basins.

  14. Theoretical and observational aspects of convection generated internal atmospheric gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thokuluwa, Ramkumar

    2012-07-01

    Even though atmospheric gravity waves generated from convection contributes significantly to the middle atmospheric circulation and momentum balances, yet they have to be fully parameterized in general circulation models. The major constraint comes because of inadequacies in the exact measurement of four dimensional (including time) latent heating of the atmosphere occurring through condensation of water vapor. Satellite like TRMM measures the latent heating of the atmosphere but it is sparse in nature (both spatial and time) because of the continual shift in the azimuths of orbital plane of the satellite about the earth. Doppler weather radar is a good alternative in this sense but the poor signal to noise ratio of echoes with distance from the center of the radar and other simpler assumptions employed in deriving the latent heating, through using empirical relationship between the radar echoes and rain drop size distribution, rain rate and other precipitation characteristics, makes the estimation of latent heating of the atmospheric highly ambiguous. In such cases, it is essential to make comparative studies between theoretically estimated and observationally made convection generated gravity waves in the process of parameterizing the gravity waves. Here we report the theoretically estimated spectral characteristics of convection generated gravity waves and their comparison with observations made using Doppler weather radar (DWR) and MST radar (VHF, 53 MHz), which are located in the eastern coast of Southern India adjacent to the Bay of Bengal where tropical cyclones are forming. The determined latent heating of the atmosphere, using the DWR measurements, will be compared to that determined by the TRMM and other satellites. This determined heating will be utilized as inputs for the thermodynamics equations of high frequency gravity waves, the propagating nature of which can be determined using the MST radar at NARL, Gadanki. As this radar can give wind

  15. Comparison of Retention Factors between First-Generation and Second- and Third-Generation College Students and Development of the Likelihood of Success Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gerri Brown

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the retention factors between first-generation college students and second- and third-generation college students in the postsecondary educational setting. This study examined the differences in the preselected retention factors: faculty-student interaction, college mentor, academic support, residential…

  16. HEXITEC: A Next Generation Hard X-ray Detector for Solar Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Daniel; Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert; Inglis, Andrew R.; Gregory, Kyle; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Gaskin, Jessica; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Seller, Paul; Wilson, Matthew; Veale, Matthew C.; Panessa, Marco

    2016-05-01

    There is an increasing demand in solar physics for high resolution X-ray spectroscopic imaging. Such observations would present ground-breaking opportunities to study the poorly understood high energy processes in the solar corona such as solar flares, coronal heating, etc. However, such observations require a new breed of solid-state detectors sensititve to high energy X-rays with fine independent pixels to subsample the point spread function (PSF) of the X-ray optics. They must also be capable of handling very high count rates as photon fluxes from solar flares often cause pileup in current detectors. The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) has recently developed a new Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) detector system, dubbed HEXITEC (High Energy X-ray Imaging Technology). It is an 80x80 array of 250 micron independent pixels sensitive in the 4--80 keV band and capable of a high full frame readout rate of 10 kHz. HEXITEC provides the smallest independently read out pixels currently available, and are well matched to the few arcsecond PSF produced by the current and next generation hard X-ray focusing optics. NASA's Goddard and Marshall Space Flight Centers are collaborating with RAL to develop these detectors for use on future space-borne hard X-ray focusing telescopes. In this poster we show the latest results on HEXITEC's imaging capability, high read out rate, and energy sensitivity and reveal it to be ideal for such future instruments. The potential observations obtained by combining HEXITEC with the next generation of X-ray focusing optics could to revolutionize our understanding of high energy processes in the solar corona.

  17. Effects of depleted uranium on the reproductive success and F1 generation survival of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Bourrachot, Stéphanie; Brion, François; Pereira, Sandrine; Floriani, Magali; Camilleri, Virginie; Cavalié, Isabelle; Palluel, Olivier; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2014-09-01

    Despite the well-characterized occurrence of uranium (U) in the aquatic environment, very little is known about the chronic exposure of fish to low levels of U and its potential effect on reproduction. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the effects of environmental concentrations of depleted U on the reproductive output of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and on survival and development of the F1 embryo-larvae following parental exposure to U. For that purpose, sexually mature male and female zebrafish were exposed to 20 and 250 μg/L of U for 14 days and allowed to reproduce in clean water during a further 14-day period. At all sampling times, whole-body vitellogenin concentrations and gonad histology were analyzed to investigate the effects of U exposure on these reproductive endpoints. In addition, accumulation of U in the gonads and its genotoxic effect on male and female gonad cells were quantified. The results showed that U strongly affected the capability of fish to reproduce and to generate viable individuals as evidenced by the inhibition of egg production and the increased rate of mortality of the F1 embryos. Interestingly, U exposure resulted in decreased circulating concentrations of vitellogenin in females. Increased concentrations of U were observed in gonads and eggs, which were most likely responsible for the genotoxic effects seen in fish gonads and in embryos exposed maternally to U. Altogether, these findings highlight the negative effect of environmentally relevant concentrations of U which alter the reproductive capability of fish and impair the genetic integrity of F1 embryos raising further concern regarding its effect at the population level. PMID:24846854

  18. Assessing the GOANNA Visual Field Algorithm Using Artificial Scotoma Generation on Human Observers

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Luke X.; Turpin, Andrew; McKendrick, Allison M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To validate the performance of a new perimetric algorithm (Gradient-Oriented Automated Natural Neighbor Approach; GOANNA) in humans using a novel combination of computer simulation and human testing, which we call Artificial Scotoma Generation (ASG). Methods Fifteen healthy observers were recruited. Baseline conventional automated perimetry was performed on the Octopus 900. Visual field sensitivity was measured using two different procedures: GOANNA and Zippy Estimation by Sequential Testing (ZEST). Four different scotoma types were induced in each observer by implementing a novel technique that inserts a step between the algorithm and the perimeter, which in turn alters presentation levels to simulate scotomata in human observers. Accuracy, precision, and unique number of locations tested were measured, with the maximum difference between a location and its neighbors (Max_d) used to stratify results. Results GOANNA sampled significantly more locations than ZEST (paired t-test, P < 0.001), while maintaining comparable test times. Difference plots showed that GOANNA displayed greater accuracy than ZEST when Max_d was in the 10 to 30 dB range (with the exception of Max_d = 20 dB; Wilcoxon, P < 0.001). Similarly, GOANNA demonstrated greater precision than ZEST when Max_d was in the 20 to 30 dB range (Wilcoxon, P < 0.001). Conclusions We have introduced a novel method for assessing accuracy of perimetric algorithms in human observers. Results observed in the current study agreed with the results seen in earlier simulation studies, and thus provide support for performing larger scale clinical trials with GOANNA in the future. Translational Relevance The GOANNA perimetric testing algorithm offers a new paradigm for visual field testing where locations for testing are chosen that target scotoma borders. Further, the ASG methodology used in this paper to assess GOANNA shows promise as a hybrid between computer simulation and patient testing, which may allow more

  19. College 411: Get the Scoop. A Small Group Plan to Promote College Success for First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Land, Christy W.; Ziomek-Daigle, Jolie

    2013-01-01

    First generation college students have more difficulty preparing for and succeeding in post-secondary institutions. Informed by the literature review and relevant research the school counselor presents a small group design for high school students in their junior year. This small group plan for first generation college students addresses issues of…

  20. Spectroscopic observation of jet-cooled 2,5-dichlorobenzyl radical generated by corona discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Eun Hye; Yoon, Young Wook; Lee, Sang Kuk

    2014-07-01

    Vibronically excited but jet-cooled 2,5-dichlorobenzyl radical was generated from 2,5-dichlorotoluene precursor in a large excess of helium carrier gas, from which the visible vibronic emission spectrum was recorded. From an analysis of the spectrum observed, it was found that the origin band shows larger shift to red than those expected from mono-substitutions, which has been discussed in terms of orientation of substituents. Also, the electronic energy of the D1 → D0 transition and vibrational mode frequencies at the ground electronic state of the 2,5-dichlorobenzyl radical were determined in comparison with the known vibrational data of precursor and ab initio calculations.

  1. Observation of Synchrotron Radiation from Electrons Accelerated in a Petawatt-Laser-Generated Plasma Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Kneip, S.; Nagel, S. R.; Bellei, C.; Dangor, A. E.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Nilson, P. M.; Willingale, L.; Najmudin, Z.; Bourgeois, N.; Marques, J. R.; Gopal, A.; Heathcote, R.; Maksimchuk, A.; Reed, S.; Phuoc, K. Ta; Rousse, A.; Tzoufras, M.; Tsung, F. S.; Mori, W. B.; Krushelnick, K.

    2008-03-14

    The dynamics of plasma electrons in the focus of a petawatt laser beam are studied via measurements of their x-ray synchrotron radiation. With increasing laser intensity, a forward directed beam of x rays extending to 50 keV is observed. The measured x rays are well described in the synchrotron asymptotic limit of electrons oscillating in a plasma channel. The critical energy of the measured synchrotron spectrum is found to scale as the Maxwellian temperature of the simultaneously measured electron spectra. At low laser intensity transverse oscillations are negligible as the electrons are predominantly accelerated axially by the laser generated wakefield. At high laser intensity, electrons are directly accelerated by the laser and enter a highly radiative regime with up to 5% of their energy converted into x rays.

  2. Generation and evolution of impact-induced vapor clouds: Spectroscopic observations and hydrodynamic calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugita, Seiji

    1999-11-01

    Generation of vapor is a natural consequence of hypervelocity collisions between major planets and small bodies in the Solar System. Resulting impact vapor clouds may induce a variety of processes on the surface of a planet. One of the key factors in impact-induced vaporization is energy partitioning. Conventional wisdom teaches that the energy partitioned during an impact is predicted completely by the Rankine-Hugoniot equations and equations of states. Consequently, extensive efforts have been made both to develop mathematical/numerical methods to solve these equations accurately and to determine material-dependent constants using 1- dimensional impact experiments (i.e., flyer-plate experiments). Recent laboratory experiments, however, revealed that 3- dimensional hypervelocity impacts show intriguing processes that highly sophisticated hydrocodes do not readily account for, such as enhanced vaporization at low impact angles (measured from the horizontal) and impactor survival. Radar mapping of Venus by the Magellan spacecraft also revealed that craters on Venus have features consistent with processes observed in laboratory experiments. In particular, morphological observations indicate that run-out flows around Venus craters may be contributed largely by condensates from the downrange component of impact vapor clouds observed in laboratory experiments. Based on these new findings, the work presented in this thesis attempts to understand energy partitioning mechanisms during both generation and subsequent evolution of impact vapor clouds. To achieve this goal, I took two approaches. First, I looked at run-out flows around impact craters on Venus to extract information on impact-induced vapor clouds at planetary scales. In order to decipher this geologic record, I carried out numerical calculations of the interactions between an atmosphere and vapor clouds induced by oblique impacts. The second approach is to go back to a laboratory to understand the basic physics

  3. Variability of internally generated turbulence in an estuary, from 100 days of continuous observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orton, Philip M.; Visbeck, Martin

    2009-01-01

    We present detailed observations of internally generated turbulence in a sheared, stratified natural flow, as well as an analysis of the external factors leading to its generation and temporal variability. Multi-month time series of vertical profiles of velocity, acoustic backscatter (0.5 Hz), and turbulence parameters were collected with two moored acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) in the Hudson River estuary, and estuary-long transects of water density were collected 30 times. ADCP backscatter is used for visualization of coherent turbulent structures and evaluation of surface wave biases to the turbulence measurements. Benefits of the continuous long-term turbulence record include our capturing: (1) the seasonality of turbulence due to changing riverflow, (2) hysteresis in stratification and turbulence over the fortnightly cycle of tidal range, and (3) intermittent events such as breaking internal waves. Internal mixing layers (IMLs) are defined as turbulent regions above the logarithmic velocity layer, and the bottom boundary layer (BBL) is defined as the continuously turbulent range of heights above the bed. A cross-correlation analysis reveals how IML and BBL turbulence vary with stratification and external forcing from tidal range, river flow, and winds. Turbulence in both layers is maximal at spring tide and minimal when most stratified, with one exception—IML turbulence at a site with changing channel depth and width is maximal at times of maximum stratification and freshwater input.

  4. Generation and Scattering of Radiation Observed by Voyager in the Outer Heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, Steven R.; Cairns, Iver H.

    2003-01-01

    Excellent progress was made under this grant on the generation and scattering of the 2-3 kHz radio emissions observed by the Voyager spacecraft in the outer heliosphere. These are the most powerful radio emissions produced in our solar system, surpassing even those of Jupiter and the Sun. The widely-held hypothesis pursued is that the radiation is generated near the electron plasma frequency f(sub p) or near 2f(sub p) as a shock wave traverses the heliosheath regions and/or heliopause predicted in the interaction region between the solar wind and the local interstellar medium. (Note that f (sup 2) (sub p) is proportional to the plasma density.) The traveling shock wave is plausibly associated with a global merged interaction region (GMIR). Accordingly, this so-called GMIR model is strongly analogous to the common interpretation of type II solar radio bursts and to radio emissions associated with Earth's bow shock, with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and Earth's magnetosphere playing the role of a GMIR, respectively. Accordingly, Dr Cairns work on type II bursts, Earth's foreshock, and stochastic growth theory (not described in detail) strongly aided and complemented the research progress on the 2-3 kHz emissions described.

  5. Retrospective analysis showing the water method increased adenoma detection rate - a hypothesis generating observation.

    PubMed

    Leung, Joseph W; Do, Lynne D; Siao-Salera, Rodelei M; Ngo, Catherine; Parikh, Dhavan A; Mann, Surinder K; Leung, Felix W

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A water method developed to attenuate discomfort during colonoscopy enhanced cecal intubation in unsedated patients. Serendipitously a numerically increased adenoma detection rate (ADR) was noted. OBJECTIVE: To explore databases of sedated patients examined by the air and water methods to identify hypothesis-generating findings. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: VA endoscopy center. PATIENTS: creening colonoscopy. INTERVENTIONS: From 1/2000-6/2006 the air method was used - judicious air insufflation to permit visualization of the lumen to aid colonoscope insertion and water spray for washing mucosal surfaces. From 6/2006-11/2009 the water method was adopted - warm water infusion in lieu of air insufflation and suction removal of residual air to aid colonoscope insertion. During colonoscope withdrawal adequate air was insufflated to distend the colonic lumen for inspection, biopsy and polypectomy in a similar fashion in both periods. Main outcome measurements: ADR. RESULTS: The air (n=683) vs. water (n=495) method comparisons revealed significant differences in overall ADR 26.8% (183 of 683) vs. 34.9% (173 of 495) and ADR of adenomas >9 mm, 7.2% vs. 13.7%, respectively (both P<0.05, Fisher's exact test). LIMITATIONS: Non-randomized data susceptible to bias by unmeasured parameters unrelated to the methods. CONCLUSION: Confirmation of the serendipitous observation of an impact of the water method on ADR provides impetus to call for randomized controlled trials to test hypotheses related to the water method as an approach to improving adenoma detection. Because of recent concerns over missed lesions during colonoscopy, the provocative hypothesis-generating observations warrant presentation. PMID:21686105

  6. Generation and effects of EMIC waves observed by the Van Allen Probes on 18 March 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Saikin, A.; Gamayunov, K. V.; Spence, H. E.; Larsen, B.; Geoffrey, R.; Smith, C. W.; Torbert, R. B.; Kurth, W. S.; Kletzing, C.

    2015-12-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves play a crucial role in particle dynamics in the Earth's magnetosphere. The free energy for EMIC wave generation is usually provided by the temperature anisotropy of the energetic ring current ions. EMIC waves can in turn cause particle energization and losses through resonant wave-particle interactions. Using measurements from the Van Allen Probes, we perform a case study of EMIC waves and associated plasma conditions observed on 18 March 2013. From 0204 to 0211 UT, the Van Allen Probe-B detected He+-band EMIC wave activity in the post-midnight sector (MLT=4.6-4.9) at very low L-shells (L=2.6-2.9). The event occurred right outside the inward-pushed plasmapause in the early recovery phase of an intense geomagnetic storm - min. Dst = -132 nT at 2100 UT on 17 March 2013. During this event, the fluxes of energetic (> 1 keV), anisotropic O+ dominate both the H+ and He+ fluxes in this energy range. Meanwhile, O+ fluxes at low energies (< 0.1 keV) are low compared to H+ and He+ fluxes in the same energy range. The fluxes of <0.1 keV He+ are clearly enhanced during the wave event, indicating a signature of wave heating. To further confirm the association of the observed plasma features with the EMIC waves, we calculate the electron minimum resonant energy (Emin) and pitch angle diffusion coefficient (Dαα) of the EMIC wave packets by using nominal ion composition, derived total ion density from the frequencies of upper hybrid resonance, and measured ambient and wave magnetic field. EMIC wave growth rates are also calculated to evaluate the role of loss-cone distributed ring current ions in the EMIC wave generation.

  7. Satellite observations of lightning-generated NOx in volcanic eruption clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carn, Simon; Krotkov, Nickolay; Pickering, Ken; Allen, Dale; Bucsela, Eric

    2016-04-01

    The generation of NO2 by lightning flashes is known to be an important source of NOx in the free troposphere, particularly in the tropics, with implications for ozone production. Although UV-visible satellite observations of lightning-generated NOx (LNOx) in thunderstorms have been previously reported, here we present the first satellite observations of LNOx generated by lightning in explosive volcanic eruption clouds (vLNOx) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard NASA's Aura satellite. To date we have identified vLNOx in operational OMI NO2 measurements (OMNO2) during the high-latitude eruptions of Okmok (Aleutian Is; July 2008), Kasatochi (Aleutian Is; August 2008), Redoubt (Alaska; March 2009) and Grimsvötn (Iceland; May 2011), although analysis of OMNO2 data for other eruptions is underway. We use World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) observations to verify the occurrence and location of lightning flashes in the volcanic eruption clouds. All the vLNOx anomalies are associated with strong UV Aerosol Index (UVAI) signals due to volcanic ash. Preliminary analysis shows that the maximum vLNOx column detected by OMI decreases linearly with time since eruption, and suggests that the vLNOx signal is transient and can be detected up to ~5-6 hours after an eruption. Detection of vLNOx is hence only possible for eruptions occurring a few hours before the daytime OMI overpass. Based on the number of lightning flashes detected by WWLLN in each eruption cloud, we also estimate the vLNOx production efficiency (moles vLNOx per flash). Preliminary estimates for the 2008 Kasatochi eruption suggest that this is significantly higher than the production efficiency in thunderstorms, but may be biased high due to the low detection efficiency of WWLLN (<10-50% of flashes detected over most regions). The measured vLNOx columns also require adjustment using an algorithm designed to retrieve LNOx from OMI, which takes the total OMI slant column NO2 and removes the

  8. Identifying the Strengths, Needs, and Barriers to Student Success for First Generation, Low-Income, First Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Linda A.

    2013-01-01

    This participatory action research needs assessment was to empower the students in a large urban research university to explore and to identify the strengths of the program, to identify the needs, and to identify the barriers to student success during their first year of college. Using qualitative methods of Group Level Interviews (GLA) and…

  9. Sharing Human-Generated Observations by Integrating HMI and the Semantic Sensor Web

    PubMed Central

    Sigüenza, Álvaro; Díaz-Pardo, David; Bernat, Jesús; Vancea, Vasile; Blanco, José Luis; Conejero, David; Gómez, Luis Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Current “Internet of Things” concepts point to a future where connected objects gather meaningful information about their environment and share it with other objects and people. In particular, objects embedding Human Machine Interaction (HMI), such as mobile devices and, increasingly, connected vehicles, home appliances, urban interactive infrastructures, etc., may not only be conceived as sources of sensor information, but, through interaction with their users, they can also produce highly valuable context-aware human-generated observations. We believe that the great promise offered by combining and sharing all of the different sources of information available can be realized through the integration of HMI and Semantic Sensor Web technologies. This paper presents a technological framework that harmonizes two of the most influential HMI and Sensor Web initiatives: the W3C's Multimodal Architecture and Interfaces (MMI) and the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) with its semantic extension, respectively. Although the proposed framework is general enough to be applied in a variety of connected objects integrating HMI, a particular development is presented for a connected car scenario where drivers' observations about the traffic or their environment are shared across the Semantic Sensor Web. For implementation and evaluation purposes an on-board OSGi (Open Services Gateway Initiative) architecture was built, integrating several available HMI, Sensor Web and Semantic Web technologies. A technical performance test and a conceptual validation of the scenario with potential users are reported, with results suggesting the approach is sound. PMID:22778643

  10. Sharing human-generated observations by integrating HMI and the Semantic Sensor Web.

    PubMed

    Sigüenza, Alvaro; Díaz-Pardo, David; Bernat, Jesús; Vancea, Vasile; Blanco, José Luis; Conejero, David; Gómez, Luis Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Current "Internet of Things" concepts point to a future where connected objects gather meaningful information about their environment and share it with other objects and people. In particular, objects embedding Human Machine Interaction (HMI), such as mobile devices and, increasingly, connected vehicles, home appliances, urban interactive infrastructures, etc., may not only be conceived as sources of sensor information, but, through interaction with their users, they can also produce highly valuable context-aware human-generated observations. We believe that the great promise offered by combining and sharing all of the different sources of information available can be realized through the integration of HMI and Semantic Sensor Web technologies. This paper presents a technological framework that harmonizes two of the most influential HMI and Sensor Web initiatives: the W3C's Multimodal Architecture and Interfaces (MMI) and the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) with its semantic extension, respectively. Although the proposed framework is general enough to be applied in a variety of connected objects integrating HMI, a particular development is presented for a connected car scenario where drivers' observations about the traffic or their environment are shared across the Semantic Sensor Web. For implementation and evaluation purposes an on-board OSGi (Open Services Gateway Initiative) architecture was built, integrating several available HMI, Sensor Web and Semantic Web technologies. A technical performance test and a conceptual validation of the scenario with potential users are reported, with results suggesting the approach is sound. PMID:22778643

  11. Computational and experimental observations of welds in third-generation nickel-based superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naffakh-Moosavy, Homam

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the present study is to introduce the weld quantitative solidification paths in the newly designed third-generation superalloys. The research has been conducted using both computational and experimental approaches. The model used the Scheil solidification relations to correlate the partitioning elements with their effects on the solidification paths. Accordingly, the k values were calculated for all the participating elements in the superalloy welds. The results of model demonstrated that these were very close to unity for austenite former elements, i.e. Ni, Co, Cr and Fe, while the other elements such as Ti, Nb and Mo displayed a significant tendency for segregation. The mathematical equations were calculated for weld solidification paths of superalloys. In all the welds, a remarkable segregation behaviour was observed, especially for Nb and Ti. The solidification path equations predicted type and amount of secondary phases. The solidification paths were compared with eutectic reactions ?, and ?, on the basis of the Ni-Ti-C and Ni-Nb-C ternary phase diagrams. Both the experimental measurements and microstructural observations of eutectics exhibited an appropriate accordance with the solidification paths obtained by model calculations.

  12. Experimental observation of fundamental and harmonic self pulse generation of single high-order Stokes in Brillouin Erbium fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaorui; Yang, Yanfu; Liu, Meng; Yao, Yong

    2016-07-01

    Fundamental and harmonic self-pulse generation was experimentally observed on both first order and higher order Stokes components. The generated pulses with the same order harmonic repetition rate are obtained on multiple Stokes components simultaneously. The pulse generation on first order Stokes component can be attributed to periodic pump depletion in Brillouin gain medium. The pulse generation of high order Stokes component can be considered as pulse oscillation pumped by the former order Stokes. With high Erbium pump power, by setting the proper attenuation between Brillouin medium and Faraday rotation mirror, the harmonic pulse generations up to fifth order have been achieved.

  13. Field observations of slush ice generated during freeze-up in arctic coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimnitz, E.; Kempema, E.W.

    1987-01-01

    In some years, large volumes of slush ice charged with sediment are generated from frazil crystals in the shallow Beaufort Sea during strong storms at the time of freeze-up. Such events terminate the navigation season, and because of accompanying hostile conditions, little is known about the processes acting. The water-saturated slush ice, which may reach a thickness of 4 m, exists for only a few days before freezing from the surface downward arrests further wave motion or pancake ice forms. Movements of small vessels and divers in the slush ice occurs only in phase with passing waves, producing compression and rarefaction, and internal pressure pulses. Where in contact with the seafloor, the agitated slush ice moves cobble-size material, generates large sediment ripples, and may possibly produce a flat rampart observed on the arctic shoreface in some years. Processes charging the slush ice with as much as 1000 m3 km-2 of sediment remain uncertain, but our field observations rule out previously proposed filtration from turbid waters as a likely mechanism. Sedimentary particles apparently are only trapped in the interstices of the slush ice rather than being held by adhesion, since wave-related internal pressure oscillations result in downward particle movement and cleansing of the slush ice. This loss of sediment explains the typical downward increase in sediment concentration in that part of the fast-ice canopy composed largely of frazil ice. The congealing slush ice in coastal water does not become fast ice until grounded ridges are formed in the stamukhi zone, one to two months after freeze-up begins. During this period of new-ice mobility, long-range sediment transport occurs. The sediment load held by the fast-ice canopy in the area between the Colville and Sagavanirktok River deltas in the winter of 1978-1979 was 16 times larger than the yearly river input to the same area. This sediment most likely was rafted from Canada, more than 400 km to the east, during

  14. First-Generation Social and Ethnic Minority Students in Christian Universities: Student Recommendations for Successful Support of Diverse Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecklund, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This article, the second in a two-part series, provides an overview of the literature regarding first-generation college students (FGCS), which has been largely based on studies of students in public universities. The author shares outcomes from structured dialogues with FGCS attending Christian universities. The students described how their…

  15. Relationship between Academic Resilience and College Success: Cross-National Experiences of Low-Income/First-Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbindyo, Margaret N.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the relationship between academic resilience (defined as the ability to effectively deal with setbacks, stress, or pressure in an academic setting) and the experiences of US students served by TRIO intervention programs (federally funded programs) that serve low-income/first-generation students. Based on a sample of 106,…

  16. The Effect of Delayed Enrollment, Regional Wealth, and First-Generation Status on Community College Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Sunita Etwaroo

    2014-01-01

    For many students, the path to earning a postsecondary educational degree is often met with personal and social obstacles, but first-generation students are less likely to even enroll in postsecondary education and they have a higher probability for attrition when compared to their counterparts. The purpose of this study was to examine the…

  17. Parenting styles in a cultural context: observations of "protective parenting" in first-generation Latinos.

    PubMed

    Domenech Rodríguez, Melanie M; Donovick, Melissa R; Crowley, Susan L

    2009-06-01

    Current literature presents four primary parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful. These styles provide an important shortcut for a constellation of parenting behaviors that have been characterized as consisting of warmth, demandingness, and autonomy granting. Empirically, only warmth and demandingness are typically measured. Research reporting on parenting styles in Latino samples has been equivocal leading to questions about conceptualization and measurement of parenting styles in this ethnic/cultural group. This lack of consensus may result from the chasm between concepts (e.g., authoritarian parenting) and observable parenting behaviors (e.g., warmth) in this ethnic group. The present research aimed to examine parenting styles and dimensions in a sample of Latino parents using the two usual dimensions (warmth, demandingness) and adding autonomy granting. Traditional parenting styles categories were examined, as well as additional categorizations that resulted from adding autonomy granting. Fifty first-generation Latino parents and their child (aged 4-9) participated. Parent-child interactions were coded with the Parenting Style Observation Rating Scale (P-SOS). In this sample, the four traditional parenting categories did not capture Latino families well. The combination of characteristics resulted in eight possible parenting styles. Our data showed the majority (61%) of Latino parents as "protective parents." Further, while mothers and fathers were similar in their parenting styles, expectations were different for male and female children. The additional dimensions and implications are discussed. The importance of considering the cultural context in understanding parenting in Latino families is emphasized, along with directions for future research. PMID:19579905

  18. Numerical simulation of convectively generated gravity waves in West Africa and comparisons with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, P.; Blanc, E.

    2012-04-01

    Convective clouds in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone) are a major source of nonstationary gravity waves, that propagate to the stratosphere and result in upward displacements at low levels, which induces new convection. Simulations of wind fields are performed by the mesoscale meteorological model WRF (Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting) over a period of 2 days during active thunderstorm days. Simulations are carried out in a domain covering the ITCZ in West Africa using 2 nested grids with horizontal grid spacing of 27 and 9 km respectively. Simulations are driven by ECMWF winds (defined by 91 levels from surface to 80 km), using 100 levels from surface to 50 Pa and a sponge layer above 45 km. The waves characteristics are compared to observations at the CTBT (Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty) infrasound station in Ivory Coast. The aim of this study is to further understand the mechanisms of wave generation by deep convection and propagation to the stratosphere. In a second part, we also study the effects of gravity waves on the dynamics of the tropical atmosphere and perform sensitivity simulations to the top height of the model.

  19. Three-Centimeter Doppler Radar Observations of Wingtip-Generated Wake Vortices in Clear Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Robert E.; Mudukutore, Ashok; Wissel, Vicki L. H.; Myers, Theodore

    1997-01-01

    This report documents a high risk, high pay-off experiment with the objective of detecting, for the first time, the presence of aircraft wake vortices in clear air using X-band Doppler radar. Field experiments were conducted in January 1995 at the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) to demonstrate the capability of the 9.33 GHz (I=3 cm) radar, which was assembled using an existing nine-meter parabolic antenna reflector at VVTT and the receiver/transmitter from the NASA Airborne Windshear Radar-Program. A C-130-aircraft, equipped with wingtip smoke generators, created visually marked wake vortices, which were recorded by video cameras. A C-band radar also observed the wake vortices during detection attempts with the X-band radar. Rawinsonde data was used to calculate vertical soundings of wake vortex decay time, cross aircraft bearing wind speed, and water vapor mixing ratio for aircraft passes over the radar measurement range. This experiment was a pathfinder in predicting, in real time, the location and persistence of C-130 vortices, and in setting the flight path of the aircraft to optimize X-band radar measurement of the wake vortex core in real time. This experiment was conducted in support of the NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS).

  20. Deep Structure and Earthquake Generating Properties in the Yamasaki Fault Zone Estimated from Dense Seismic Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishigami, K.; Shibutani, T.; Katao, H.; Yamaguchi, S.; Mamada, Y.

    2010-12-01

    We have been estimating crustal heterogeneous structure and earthquake generating properties in and around the Yamasaki fault zone, which is a left-lateral strike-slip active fault with a total length of about 80 km in southwest Japan. We deployed dense seismic observation network, composed of 32 stations with average spacing of 5-10 km around the Yamasaki fault zone. We estimate detailed fault structure such as fault dip and shape, segmentation, and possible location of asperities and rupture initiation point, as well as generating properties of earthquakes in the fault zone, through analyses of accurate hypocenter distribution, focal mechanism, 3-D velocity tomography, coda wave inversion, and other waveform analyses. We also deployed a linear seismic array across the fault, composed of 20 stations with about 20 m spacing, in order to delineate the fault-zone structure in more detail using the seismic waves trapped inside the low velocity zone. We also estimate detailed resistivity structure at shallow depth of the fault zone by AMT (audio-frequency magnetotelluric) and MT surveys. In the scattering analysis of coda waves, we used 2,391 wave traces from 121 earthquakes that occurred in 2002, 2003, 2008 and 2009, recorded at 60 stations, including dense temporary and routine stations. We estimated 3-D distribution of relative scattering coefficients along the Yamasaki fault zone. Microseismicity is high and scattering coefficient is relatively larger in the upper crust along the entire fault zone. The distribution of strong scatterers suggests that the Ohara and Hijima faults, which are the segments in the northwestern part of the Yamasaki fault zone, have almost vertical fault plane from surface to a depth of about 15 km. We used seismic network data operated by Universities, NIED, AIST, and JMA. This study has been carried out as a part of the project "Study on evaluation of earthquake source faults based on surveys of inland active faults" by Japan Nuclear

  1. Successful differentiation to T cells, but unsuccessful B-cell generation, from B-cell-derived induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wada, Haruka; Kojo, Satoshi; Kusama, Chie; Okamoto, Naoki; Sato, Yorino; Ishizuka, Bunpei; Seino, Ken-ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Forced expression of certain transcription factors in somatic cells results in generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, which differentiate into various cell types. We investigated T-cell and B-cell lineage differentiation from iPS cells in vitro. To evaluate the impact of iPS cell source, murine splenic B-cell-derived iPS (B-iPS) cells were generated after retroviral transduction of four transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc). B-iPS cells were identical to embryonic stem (ES) cells and mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF)-derived iPS cells in morphology, ES cell marker expression as well as teratoma and chimera mouse formation. Both B-iPS and MEF-derived iPS cells differentiated into lymphocytes in OP9 co-culture systems. Both efficiently differentiated into T-cell lineage that produced IFN-γ on T-cell receptor stimulation. However, iPS cells including B-iPS cells were relatively resistant to B-cell lineage differentiation. One of the reasons of the failure of B-cell lineage differentiation seemed due to a defect of Pax5 expression in the differentiated cells. Therefore, current in vitro differentiation systems using iPS cells are sufficient for inducing T-cell but not B-cell lineage. PMID:21135032

  2. Simultaneous observations of mesospheric gravity waves and sprites generated by a midwestern thunderstorm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentman, D. D.; Wescott, E. M.; Picard, R. H.; Winick, J. R.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Dewan, E. M.; Moudry, D. R.; Sa~O Sabbas, F. T.; Heavner, M. J.; Morrill, J.

    2003-03-01

    The present report investigates using simultaneous observations of coincident gravity waves and sprites to establish an upper limit on sprite-associated thermal energy deposition in the mesosphere. The University of Alaska operated a variety of optical imagers and photometers at two ground sites in support of the NASA Sprites99 balloon campaign. One site was atop a US Forest Service lookout tower on Bear Mt. in the Black Hills, in western South Dakota. On the night of 18 August 1999 we obtained from this site simultaneous images of sprites and OH airglow modulated by gravity waves emanating from a very active sprite producing thunderstorm over Nebraska, to the Southeast of Bear Mt. Using 25s exposures with a bare CCD camera equipped with a red filter, we were able to coincidentally record both short duration (<10ms) but bright (>3MR) N2 1PG red emissions from sprites and much weaker (~1kR), but persistent, OH Meinel nightglow emissions. A time lapse movie created from images revealed short period, complete /360° concentric wave structures emanating radially outward from a central excitation region directly above the storm. During the initial stages of the storm outwardly expanding waves possessed a period of τ~10min and wavelength λ~50km. Over a 1h interval the waves gradually changed to longer period τ~11min and shorter wavelength λ~40km. Over the full 2h observation time, about two dozen bright sprites generated by the underlying thunderstorm were recorded near the center of the outwardly radiating gravity wave pattern. No distinctive OH brightness signatures uniquely associated with the sprites were detected at the level of 2% of the ambient background brightness, establishing an associated upper limit of approximately ΔT<~0.5K for a neutral temperature perturbation over the volume of the sprites. The corresponding total thermal energy deposited by the sprite is bounded by these measurements to be less than ~1GJ. This value is well above the total energy

  3. Observations of midlatitude ionospheric instabilities generating meter-scale waves at the magnetic equator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makela, J. J.; Kelley, M. C.; Tsunoda, R. T.

    2009-01-01

    We present data from a spectacular low-latitude ionospheric event obtained using two ionospheric imaging systems located on the Haleakala Volcano on Maui, Hawaii (geographic: 20.7°N, 203.8°E geomagnetic: 21.0°N, 271.9°E), and a 50-MHz coherent scatter radar located on Christmas Island (geographic: 2.0°N, 202.6°E geomagnetic: 3.1°N, 273.6°E). During the event, structure is seen to develop in the imaging data, extending out of the northern edge of the imaging systems' fields of view. Using data from dual-frequency Global Positioning System receivers located throughout Hawaii, the structures are seen to evolve against an enhanced background of total electron content caused by an ongoing geomagnetic storm suggesting that the pertinent features in the event are electron density enhancements, rather than depletions that typify structure in the postsunset data from these instruments. Early in the evening, 3-m backscatter, as measured by the radar on Christmas Island, occurs at the magnetic equator on magnetic field lines that are connected to the edges on both sides of this enhanced structure seen in the images. We discuss how multiple irregularity processes must be responsible for this unusual facet of the radar data, as individual processes can only explain the development of irregularities on electron density gradients in one direction. We conclude that one of the processes responsible for the irregularities must occur in the local, off-equator ionosphere. The larger-scale electric fields associated with these irregularities map to the magnetic equator where they generate the instabilities observed by the radar.

  4. Why Is a Titan-generated Nitrogen Torus Not Observed In Saturn's Magnetosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Howard T.; Johnson, R. E.; Rymer, A. M.; Mitchell, D. G.; Coates, A.; Lewis, G.; Young, D. T.

    2012-10-01

    Prior to Cassini's arrival at Saturn, Titan-generated nitrogen ions were thought to dominate heavy plasma in Saturn's magnetosphere. Therefore, the presence of a Titan nitrogen torus was anticipated. However, it is now known water-group ions dominate Saturn's heavy ion magnetospheric plasma. While nitrogen ions have been detected beyond the orbit of Rhea, these ions appear to be primarily originating from the Enceladus plumes with little nitrogen plasma detected in the magnetosphere near Titan's orbit. In fact, pick-up oxygen ions from Enceladus are much more abundant than nitrogen in Titan’s orbit. These results appear inconsistent with the expectation that Titan's dense relatively unprotected atmosphere should provide a significant source of heavy particles to Saturn's magnetosphere. This inconsistency suggests that the plasma environment at Titan's orbit is much more complex than originally anticipated. In this talk, we expand on our previous research that categorizes the plasma environments near Titan to include all locations along Titan's orbit. Using these categories, we develop characteristic plasma spectra of each type of environment, update ionization lifetimes for each region and apply these results in a 3D Monte Carlo model to more accurately examine the fate of nitrogen and methane escaping Titan's atmosphere to support the possible presence of a Titan torus despite the lack of observations. We also present preliminary Cassini data analysis that is focused on regions where such a torus could be detected. This work is supported by the NASA Cassini Data Analysis Program and NASA JPL contract 1243218 for Cassini MIMI and CAPS investigation.

  5. Successful Long-Term Fixation and Progression of Osteolysis Associated with First-Generation Cementless Acetabular Components Retrieved Post Mortem

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Robert M.; Hall, Deborah J.; Della Valle, Craig; Wimmer, Markus A.; Jacobs, Joshua J.; Galante, Jorge O.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Primary cementless acetabular reconstruction has shown durable long-term fixation. Late failures secondary to aseptic loosening are rare but may occur in patients with previously well-fixed components. In the present study, the histopathological characteristics of postmortem specimens were correlated with wear damage and radiographic data in an attempt to better understand the long-term events in the periacetabular tissue around well-functioning devices. Methods: Seventeen primary cementless Harris-Galante I acetabular components with adjacent tissues were harvested after a mean of eleven years (range, four to twenty-five years) from patients whose implants were well functioning at the time of death. Undecalcified and paraffin sections were used to quantify the extent of bone and soft tissues within the porous coating and at the interface between the coating and the surrounding bone. Wear particles were identified with use of polarized light microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. Bearing-surface volumetric wear and backside wear damage of the polyethylene liner were assessed. Results: All of the components were fixed by bone ingrowth (mean extent, 33% ± 21%). Particle-induced granulomas were present in the porous coating and along the interface and progressed through screw holes, ballooning into the retroacetabular bone in the longer-term specimens. Particles of femoral and acetabular origin were identified in the granulomas. Bearing-surface volumetric wear (mean, 41.6 mm3/year) increased with duration and correlated with increasing extent of granuloma in the porous coating and the increasing size of pelvic granulomas. Radiolucencies on radiographs correlated with the extent of bone and fibrous tissue ingrowth. Of the six pelvic granulomas that were identified histologically, only one was apparent on routine radiographs. Conclusions: Acetabular fixation by bone ingrowth can be successful into the third decade after implantation. Osteolysis

  6. Generation mechanism of the slowly drifting narrowband structure in the type IV solar radio bursts observed by AMATERAS

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, Y.; Nishimura, Y.; Kumamoto, A.; Ono, T.; Iwai, K.; Misawa, H.; Tsuchiya, F.

    2014-05-20

    We investigate the type IV burst event observed by AMATERAS on 2011 June 7, and reveal that the main component of the burst was emitted from the plasmoid eruption identified in the EUV images of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/AIA. We show that a slowly drifting narrowband structure (SDNS) appeared in the burst's spectra. Using statistical analysis, we reveal that the SDNS appeared for a duration of tens to hundreds of milliseconds and had a typical bandwidth of 3 MHz. To explain the mechanism generating the SDNS, we propose wave-wave coupling between Langmuir waves and whistler-mode chorus emissions generated in a post-flare loop, which were inferred from the similarities in the plasma environments of a post-flare loop and the equatorial region of Earth's inner magnetosphere. We assume that a chorus element with a rising tone is generated at the top of a post-flare loop. Using the magnetic field and plasma density models, we quantitatively estimate the expected duration of radio emissions generated from coupling between Langmuir waves and chorus emissions during their propagation in the post-flare loop, and we find that the observed duration and bandwidth properties of the SDNS are consistently explained by the proposed generation mechanism. While observations in the terrestrial magnetosphere show that the chorus emissions are a group of large-amplitude wave elements generated naturally and intermittently, the mechanism proposed in the present study can explain both the intermittency and the frequency drift in the observed spectra.

  7. Automated Verification of Code Generated from Models: Comparing Specifications with Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlich, R.; Sigg, D.; Gerlich, R.

    2008-08-01

    The interest for automatic code generation from models is increasing. A specification is expressed as model and verification and validation is performed in the application domain. Once the model is formally correct and complete, code can be generated automatically. The general belief is that this code should be correct as well. However, this might be not true: Many parameters impact the generation of code and its correctness: it depends on conditions changing from application to application, the properties of the code depend on the environment where it is executed. From the principles of ISVV (Independent Software Verification and Validation) it even must be doubted that the automatically generated code is correct. Therefore an additional activity is required proving the correctness of the whole chain from modelling level down to execution on the target platform. Certification of a code generator is the state-of-the-art approach dealing with such risks,. Scade [1] was the first code generator certified according to DO178B. The certification costs are a significant disadvantage of this certification approach. All codes needs to be analysed manually, and this procedure has to be repeated for recertification after each maintenance step. But certification does not guarantee at all that the generated code does comply with the model. Certification is based on compliance of the code of the code generator with given standards. Such compliance never can guarantee correctness of the whole chain through transformation down to the environment for execution, though the belief is that certification implies well-formed code at a reduced fault rate. The approach presented here goes a direction different from manual certification.. It is guided by the idea of automated proof: each time code is generated from a model the properties of the code when being executed in its environment are compared with the properties specified in the model. This allows to conclude on the correctness of

  8. New observations and models of circumstellar CO line emission of AGB stars in the Herschel SUCCESS programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilovich, T.; Teyssier, D.; Justtanont, K.; Olofsson, H.; Cerrigone, L.; Bujarrabal, V.; Alcolea, J.; Cernicharo, J.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; García-Lario, P.; Marston, A.

    2015-09-01

    Context. Asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are in one of the latest evolutionary stages of low to intermediate-mass stars. Their vigorous mass loss has a significant effect on the stellar evolution, and is a significant source of heavy elements and dust grains for the interstellar medium. The mass-loss rate can be well traced by carbon monoxide (CO) line emission. Aims: We present new Herschel/HIFI and IRAM 30 m telescope CO line data for a sample of 53 galactic AGB stars. The lines cover a fairly large range of excitation energy from the J = 1 → 0 line to the J = 9 → 8 line, and even the J = 14 → 13 line in a few cases. We perform radiative transfer modelling for 38 of these sources to estimate their mass-loss rates. Methods: We used a radiative transfer code based on the Monte Carlo method to model the CO line emission. We assume spherically symmetric circumstellar envelopes that are formed by a constant mass-loss rate through a smoothly accelerating wind. Results: We find models that are consistent across a broad range of CO lines for most of the stars in our sample, i.e., a large number of the circumstellar envelopes can be described with a constant mass-loss rate. We also find that an accelerating wind is required to fit, in particular, the higher-J lines and that a velocity law will have a significant effect on the model line intensities. The results cover a wide range of mass-loss rates (~10-8 to 2 × 10-5 M⊙ yr-1) and gas expansion velocities (2 to 21.5 km s-1) , and include M-, S-, and C-type AGB stars. Our results generally agree with those of earlier studies, although we tend to find slightly lower mass-loss rates by about 40%, on average. We also present "bonus" lines detected during our CO observations. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m Telescope. IRAM is

  9. Seizures induced by desloratadine, a second-generation antihistamine: clinical observations.

    PubMed

    Cerminara, Caterina; El-Malhany, Nadia; Roberto, Denis; Lo Castro, Adriana; Curatolo, Paolo

    2013-08-01

    Some clinical experiences indicate that H1-antihistamines, especially first-generation H1-antagonists, occasionally provoke convulsions in healthy children as well as epileptic patients. Desloratadine is a frequently used second-generation antihistamine considered to be effective and safe for the treatment of allergic diseases. We describe four children who experienced epilepsy associated with the nonsedating H(1)-antagonist desloratadine and discuss the neurophysiologic role of the central histaminergic system in seizure susceptibility. In conclusion, we recommend caution in treating epileptic patients with the histamine H(1)-antagonists, including second- and third-generation drugs that are frequently referred because they are considered to be nonsedating antihistamines. PMID:23456992

  10. Observation by HF radar of the Phillips resonance mechanism for generation of wind waves

    SciTech Connect

    Trizna, D.B.; Bogle, R.W.; Moore, J.C.; Howe, C.M.

    1980-09-20

    Measurements are reported of directional ocean wave spectra made over 80/sup 0/ of viewing angle by an HF radar, operating in the surface wave mode in an area 22.5 km north of San Clemente Island, California. Ten azimuths from 280/sup 0/ to 360/sup 0/ true bearing were simultaneously measured for 10 wave frequencies ranging from 0.14 Hz (75 m waves) to 0.35 Hz (13 m waves). A Waverider buoy was used to measure omnidirectional energy in the region, and first-order radar Bragg lines were used to determine the spreading of wave energy with angle. Data are presented in which a bimodal spectrum was present: an attenuated spectrum with wave components to 0.10 Hz from a storm at sea at 270/sup 0/ bearing; plus a transient local wind spectrum, stronger in amplitude at the higher frequencies, with wave cutoff near 0.14 Hz, and running from 315/sup 0/ bearing. Just after the onset of local winds, the westerly spectrum fitted a cosine squared spread at the lowest measured frequencies. With the development of local wind, which blew at a 12--14 kn (6--7 m s/sup -1/) speed for a period of 12 hours, the wave spectrum spread about the wind direction as cosine thirty-second at the lowest frequencies measured, 0.14 Hz, and cosine sixty-fourth at the highest frequencies measured, 0.35 Hz. For 0.28 Hz waves the Phillips resonance mechanism for wave generation is proposed to explain the twin peaks in amplitude observed, equally spaced either side of the wind direction. These were dominant for the earliest measurement period and still were major contributions for later measurement periods. This mechanism was found to contribute also at the higher wave frequencies, as predicted by theory. Coherence times are derived from the angular widths of the Phillips resonances based on predictions of Stewart and Manton and are found to agree quite well with theory.

  11. Variance Analysis of Wind and Natural Gas Generation under Different Market Structures: Some Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, B.; Jenkin, T.; Lipowicz, D.; Arent, D. J.; Cooke, R.

    2012-01-01

    Does large scale penetration of renewable generation such as wind and solar power pose economic and operational burdens on the electricity system? A number of studies have pointed to the potential benefits of renewable generation as a hedge against the volatility and potential escalation of fossil fuel prices. Research also suggests that the lack of correlation of renewable energy costs with fossil fuel prices means that adding large amounts of wind or solar generation may also reduce the volatility of system-wide electricity costs. Such variance reduction of system costs may be of significant value to consumers due to risk aversion. The analysis in this report recognizes that the potential value of risk mitigation associated with wind generation and natural gas generation may depend on whether one considers the consumer's perspective or the investor's perspective and whether the market is regulated or deregulated. We analyze the risk and return trade-offs for wind and natural gas generation for deregulated markets based on hourly prices and load over a 10-year period using historical data in the PJM Interconnection (PJM) from 1999 to 2008. Similar analysis is then simulated and evaluated for regulated markets under certain assumptions.

  12. A successive-steady-state approach to integrated surface-subsurface modelling for runoff generation on the field scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appels, W. M.; Bogaart, P. W.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.

    2012-04-01

    runoff generation. In the saturated zone only horizontal flow occurs. Radial flow towards the ditches is accounted for via a ditch entry resistance. With this model it is possible to efficiently analyse, with adequate accuracy, the relations between the various compartments. In this presentation we describe the model structure, and present applications to both instructive hypothetical cases and real-work field-scale applications. Issues regarding upscaling of towards catchment and regional scales are discussed.

  13. Experimental observation of the generation of cutoff solitons in a discrete LC nonlinear electrical line.

    PubMed

    Koon, K Tse Ve; Marquié, P; Dinda, P Tchofo

    2014-11-01

    We address the problem of supratransmission of waves in a discrete nonlinear system, driven at one end by a periodic excitation at a frequency lying above the phonon band edge. In an experimental electrical transmission line made of 200 inductance-capacitance LC cells, we establish the existence of a voltage threshold for a supratransmission enabling the generation and propagation of cut-off solitons within the line. The decisive role of modulational instability in the onset and development of the process of generation of cut-off solitons is clearly highlighted. The phenomenon of dissipation is identified as being particularly harmful for the soliton generation, but we show that its impact can be managed by a proper choice of the amplitude of the voltage excitation of the system. PMID:25493852

  14. Experimental observation of the generation of cutoff solitons in a discrete L C nonlinear electrical line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koon, K. Tse Ve; Marquié, P.; Dinda, P. Tchofo

    2014-11-01

    We address the problem of supratransmission of waves in a discrete nonlinear system, driven at one end by a periodic excitation at a frequency lying above the phonon band edge. In an experimental electrical transmission line made of 200 inductance-capacitance LC cells, we establish the existence of a voltage threshold for a supratransmission enabling the generation and propagation of cut-off solitons within the line. The decisive role of modulational instability in the onset and development of the process of generation of cut-off solitons is clearly highlighted. The phenomenon of dissipation is identified as being particularly harmful for the soliton generation, but we show that its impact can be managed by a proper choice of the amplitude of the voltage excitation of the system.

  15. Experimental observation of acoustic emissions generated by a pulsed proton beam from a hospital-based clinical cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Kevin C.; Solberg, Timothy D.; Avery, Stephen; Vander Stappen, François; Janssens, Guillaume; Prieels, Damien; Bawiec, Christopher R.; Lewin, Peter A.; Sehgal, Chandra M.

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To measure the acoustic signal generated by a pulsed proton spill from a hospital-based clinical cyclotron. Methods: An electronic function generator modulated the IBA C230 isochronous cyclotron to create a pulsed proton beam. The acoustic emissions generated by the proton beam were measured in water using a hydrophone. The acoustic measurements were repeated with increasing proton current and increasing distance between detector and beam. Results: The cyclotron generated proton spills with rise times of 18 μs and a maximum measured instantaneous proton current of 790 nA. Acoustic emissions generated by the proton energy deposition were measured to be on the order of mPa. The origin of the acoustic wave was identified as the proton beam based on the correlation between acoustic emission arrival time and distance between the hydrophone and proton beam. The acoustic frequency spectrum peaked at 10 kHz, and the acoustic pressure amplitude increased monotonically with increasing proton current. Conclusions: The authors report the first observation of acoustic emissions generated by a proton beam from a hospital-based clinical cyclotron. When modulated by an electronic function generator, the cyclotron is capable of creating proton spills with fast rise times (18 μs) and high instantaneous currents (790 nA). Measurements of the proton-generated acoustic emissions in a clinical setting may provide a method for in vivo proton range verification and patient monitoring.

  16. What climate changes could be observed by two generations of Poles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwed, M.

    2010-09-01

    For many years, numerous scientific papers in different disciplines have been published on different aspects of the global warming. The issue of climate change and its impacts has become certainly a "fashionable" research area. In Poland, for example, the issue was tackled by one of the greatest hydro-climatological research projects, namely: "Extreme meteorological and hydrological events in Poland (the evaluation of forecasting events and their effects on human environment)". However, for several years, and certainly since 2007, when Al Gore, former U.S. vice-president, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) won the Nobel Peace Prize, this topic has started to be increasingly more frequently raised by the Polish media. The average Polish citizen increasingly more often learns from the press, radio and television about the global warming. There are also those skeptical of the climate change who loudly express their opinions in the media. Can the average Pole not get lost in the thicket of information? Can they refer to their own memory or the memory of their parents or grandparents on issues of climate change? How is the typical summer or winter perceived the previous generations? Is it possible to observe such changes without reference to extreme events? This article is to try to answer the question whether the average Pole could see climate change, most simply understood as changes in the thermal conditions and precipitations. If yes, then what seasons or months see the biggest changes. Which parts of the country witness the biggest changes? The starting point of the analysis are the 58-years time series of real monthly temperature and precipitation in the period of 1951-2008 for 20 stations across Poland. However, they will not be analyzed in more detail. In order to smooth the data sequences and thus to reject the short-term fluctuations, the long-term moving averages in different sequences (individual months, seasons and years) will be

  17. Recombinant TSH Stimulated Remnant Ablation Therapy in Thyroid Cancer: The Success Rate Depends on the Definition of Ablation Success—An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N. A.; Sluiter, Wim J.; Muller Kobold, Anneke C.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Plukker, John T. M.; Bisschop, Peter H.; de Klerk, John M.; Al Younis, Imad; Lips, Paul; Smit, Jan W.; Brouwers, Adrienne H.; Links, Thera P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) are treated with (near)-total thyroidectomy followed by remnant ablation. Optimal radioiodine-131 (131I) uptake is achieved by withholding thyroid hormone (THW), pretreatment with recombinant human Thyrotropin Stimulating Hormone (rhTSH) is an alternative. Six randomized trials have been published comparing THW and rhTSH, however comparison is difficult because an uniform definition of ablation success is lacking. Using a strict definition, we performed an observational study aiming to determine the efficacy of rhTSH as preparation for remnant ablation. Patients and Methods Adult DTC patients with, tumor stage T1b to T3, Nx, N0 and N1, M0 were included in a prospective multicenter observational study with a fully sequential design, using a stopping rule. All patients received remnant ablation with 131I using rhTSH. Ablation success was defined as no visible uptake in the original thyroid bed on a rhTSH stimulated 150 MBq 131I whole body scan (WBS) 9 months after remnant ablation, or no visible uptake in the original thyroid bed on a post therapeutic WBS when a second high dose was necessary. Results After interim analysis of the first 8 patients, the failure rate was estimated to be 69% (90% confidence interval (CI) 20-86%) and the inclusion of new patients had to be stopped. Final analysis resulted in an ablation success in 11 out of 17 patients (65%, 95% CI 38-86%). Conclusion According to this study, the efficacy of rhTSH in the preparation of 131I ablation therapy is inferior, when using a strict definition of ablation success. The current lack of agreement as to the definition of successful remnant ablation, makes comparison between different ablation strategies difficult. Our results point to the need for an international consensus on the definition of ablation success, not only in routine patient’s care but also for scientific reasons. Trial Registration Dutch Trial Registration NTR2395 PMID

  18. Measurements and observations of noise from a 4.2 megawatt (WTS-4) wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, K. P.; Hubbard, H. H.

    1983-01-01

    Noise measurements and calculations are being made for large wind turbine generators to develop a data base for use in designing and siting such systems for community acceptance. As part of this program, measurements were made on the WTS-4 wind turbine generator during its acceptance runs. This paper presents the results of these exploratory measurements for power output conditions in the range 1.0 to 4.2 MW. Data include noise levels, spectra, radiation patterns, effects of distance, and the associated perception thresholds for use in the further development of acceptance criteria for this type of machine.

  19. Observation of the second-harmonic generation from relativistically quivering electrons in exciting laser wakefield.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Eiji; Mori, Michiaki; Yugami, Noboru; Nishida, Yasushi; Kondo, Kiminori

    2002-01-01

    The second-harmonic emission generated by the spatially asymmetric quivering electrons caused by the ponderomotive force was studied. The intensity of the second harmonic was proportional to the focused intensity of the pump pulse with the power of 1.8. This intensity dependence can be explained by the relativistic effect of the quivering electrons. PMID:11800785

  20. Observation of internal wave polarity conversion generated by a rising tide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lan; Wang, Caixia; Grimshaw, Roger

    2015-05-01

    The observations reported here are based on time series of in situ observation data in Laoshan Bay off the Qingdao coast. A chain of thermistors (T-chain) at a fixed location recorded a sequence of elevation internal waves followed by depression internal waves passing by over an elapsed time of about 1 h. This observed polarity conversion at a fixed location is caused by the vertical stratification variation mainly induced by the rising tide, which is believed to be the first reported observation of this kind. The process of an elevation internal wave train converting to a depression wave train is simulated using the variable-coefficient extended Korteweg-de Vries (veKdV) equation, which also provides a further comparison between theory and the reported observations.

  1. Observation of the self-generated toroidal magnetic field in rotamak

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, Yuri; Zhong Fangchuan; Huang Tiansen

    2005-08-15

    An experimental study of the self-generated toroidal magnetic field in rotamak field-reversed configuration plasmas is performed in the case of high input power (200 kW), long-duration (40 ms) discharges. In one round of experiments, the polarity of the toroidal field in the poloidal cross section is different not only from one hemisphere to another but also in radial direction. In another round of experiments, the toroidal field is seen to reverse its sign in the course of a shot. The data for the field are fitted with the vector spherical harmonic functions. The poloidally swirling currents associated with the self-generated toroidal field are shown to contribute to the formation of the two-peak structure of the toroidal plasma current.

  2. Evaluating the effects of lightning-generated whistlers observed by the DEMETER spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahlava, Jan; Nemec, Frantisek; Pincon, Jean-Louis; Santolik, Ondrej; Kolmasova, Ivana; Parrot, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Although lightning-generated whistlers have been studied for nearly a century, there are still questions to be answered. It is clear that, at least in a certain frequency range, these waves significantly contribute to the overall wave intensity in the inner magnetosphere. They also influence distribution functions of energetic particles in the van Allen radiation belts. Due to the on board implemented neural network for automated whistler detection, the data set obtained by the low-altitude DEMETER spacecraft allows us to relate measured electromagnetic wave data and energetic particle flux with the number and dispersion of whistlers detected during a certain time interval. We distinguish the cases with high and low whistler occurrence and we use this information to determine the overall effect of lightning-generated whistlers.

  3. Experimental observation of multistability and dynamic attractors in silicon central pattern generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Le; Nogaret, Alain

    2015-11-01

    We report on the multistability of chaotic networks of silicon neurons and demonstrate how spatiotemporal sequences of voltage oscillations are selected with timed current stimuli. A three neuron central pattern generator was built by interconnecting Hodgkin-Huxley neurons with mutually inhibitory links mimicking gap junctions. By systematically varying the timing of current stimuli applied to individual neurons, we generate the phase lag maps of neuronal oscillators and study their dependence on the network connectivity. We identify up to six attractors consisting of triphasic sequences of unevenly spaced pulses propagating clockwise and anticlockwise. While confirming theoretical predictions, our experiments reveal more complex oscillatory patterns shaped by the ratio of the pulse width to the oscillation period. Our work contributes to validating the command neuron hypothesis.

  4. Generations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession. PMID:16623137

  5. Optical observations of meteors generating infrasound-I: Acoustic signal identification and phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silber, Elizabeth A.; Brown, Peter G.

    2014-11-01

    We analyse infrasound signals from 71 bright meteors/fireballs simultaneously detected by video to investigate the phenomenology and characteristics of meteor-generated near-field infrasound (<300 km) and shock production. A taxonomy for meteor generated infrasound signal classification has been developed using the time-pressure signal of the infrasound arrivals. Based on the location along the meteor trail where the infrasound signal originates, we find most signals are associated with cylindrical shocks, with about a quarter of events evidencing spherical shocks associated with fragmentation episodes and optical flares. The video data indicate that all events with ray launch angles >117° from the trajectory heading are most likely generated by a spherical shock, while infrasound produced by the meteors with ray launch angles ≤117° can be attributed to both a cylindrical line source and a spherical shock. We find that meteors preferentially produce infrasound toward the end of their trails with a smaller number showing a preference for mid-trail production. Meteors producing multiple infrasound arrivals show a strong infrasound source height skewness to the end of trails and are much more likely to be associated with optical flares. We find that about 1% of all our optically-recorded meteors have associated detected infrasound and estimate that regional meteor infrasound events should occur on the order of once per week and dominate in numbers over infrasound associated with more energetic (but rarer) bolides. While a significant fraction of our meteors generating infrasound (~1/4 of single arrivals) are produced by fragmentation events, we find no instances where acoustic radiation is detectable more than about 60° beyond the ballistic regime at our meteoroid sizes (grams to tens of kilograms) emphasizing the strong anisotropy in acoustic radiation for meteors which are dominated by cylindrical line source geometry, even in the presence of fragmentation.

  6. Navigating the transition to college: First-generation undergraduates negotiate identities and search for success in STEM and non-STEM fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mussey, Season Shelly

    2009-12-01

    Historically, racial and ethnic minority students from low income backgrounds have faced unequal access to colleges and universities. Recently, both K-12 and higher education institutions, specifically the University of California, in response to Proposition 209, have made efforts to increase access and opportunities for all students. Similarly, female minority students are underrepresented in selected science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) majors and careers. Using a qualitative research design, this study investigates how first generation, low income, underrepresented minority students who graduated from an innovative college preparatory high school enact coping strategies that they were explicitly taught to achieve success within the context of university science and math courses. The presence of a unique, college-prep high school on the campus of UC San Diego, which accepts exclusively low-income students through a randomized lottery system, creates an unusual opportunity to study the transition from high school to college for this population, a cohort of underrepresented students who were taught similar academic coping strategies for success in college. This study aims to understand how students develop their college-going, academic identities within the context of their colleges and universities. Furthermore, this study intends to understand the phenomenon of "transition to college" as a lived experience of first-generation, low income, minority students, who all share a similar college preparatory, high school background. The main research questions are: (1) How do underrepresented students experience the transition from a college preparatory high school to college? (2) How are students developing their college-going, academic identities in the context of their educational institutions? and (3) What factors support or constrain student participation and success in college science courses? Twenty-eight students participated in this study. Based on

  7. Observations of the generation of eastward equatorial electric fields near dawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, M. C.; Rodrigues, F. S.; Pfaff, R. F.; Klenzing, J.

    2014-09-01

    We report and discuss interesting observations of the variability of electric fields and ionospheric densities near sunrise in the equatorial ionosphere made by instruments onboard the Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite over six consecutive orbits. Electric field measurements were made by the Vector Electric Field Instrument (VEFI), and ionospheric plasma densities were measured by Planar Langmuir Probe (PLP). The data were obtained on 17 June 2008, a period of solar minimum conditions. Deep depletions in the equatorial plasma density were observed just before sunrise on three orbits, for which one of these depletions was accompanied by a very large eastward electric field associated with the density depletion, as previously described by de La Beaujardière et al. (2009), Su et al. (2009) and Burke et al. (2009). The origin of this large eastward field (positive upward/meridional drift), which occurred when that component of the field is usually small and westward, is thought to be due to a large-scale Rayleigh-Taylor process. On three subsequent orbits, however, a distinctly different, second type of relationship between the electric field and plasma density near dawn was observed. Enhancements of the eastward electric field were also detected, one of them peaking around 3 mV m-1, but they were found to the east (later local time) of pre-dawn density perturbations. These observations represent sunrise enhancements of vertical drifts accompanied by eastward drifts such as those observed by the San Marco satellite (Aggson et al., 1995). Like the San Marco measurements, the enhancements occurred during winter solstice and low solar flux conditions in the Pacific longitude sector. While the evening equatorial ionosphere is believed to present the most dramatic examples of variability, our observations exemplify that the dawn sector can be highly variable as well.

  8. Observations on the DE 1 spacecraft of ELF/VLF waves generated by an ionospheric heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, H. G.; Inan, U. S.; Rietveld, M. T.

    1990-01-01

    DE 1 satellite radio observations were conducted in the 1525-5925 Hz range during a pass over an ionospheric heating facility; the waves were detected during a 2-min period, and the measurements indicated pulse-stretching by a few hundred msec, in conjunction with spectral broadening of about 10 Hz. The observed signal delays and pulse distortion are not consistent with expectations assuming propagation in a smooth magnetosphere between the assumed 'polar electrojet antenna' in the ionospheric D/E region and the 11,000-km altitude of the satellite. Scattering by density irregularities is judged the likely sources of the spectral broadening and delays.

  9. Challenges to Lake Superior's Condition, Assessment, and Management: A Few Observations Across a Generation of Change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Selected comparisons of water quality and biological properties in lakewide samplings of 1970s and 2005/2006 provide a simple illustration of significant changes within Lake Superior in the last three decades. Observations of warmed surface layers, increased nitrate and increase...

  10. Observing and predicting the spatial-temporal pattern of runoff generation processes from the watershed to the regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, M.

    2012-12-01

    Runoff generation processes are the key to understand and predict watershed dynamics and behaviour under current as well as under changing conditions. A variety of approaches have been developed to observe these processes at the plot scale (e.g. infiltration and sprinkling experiments), the hillslope scale (soil moisture and piezometer networks and trenching) and the watershed scale (hydrograph separation with stable isotopes and natural tracers). However, predicting the four major runoff generation mechanisms (infiltration excess, saturation excess, subsurface flow and deep percolation) without detailed observation in ungauged watershed is still a challenge, but a prerequisite to track water flow pathways and to make adequate prediction for hydrological extremes. Methods have been developed to map dominant runoff generation processes in the field and with digital maps, however, these methods are often static and do not consider the temporal dynamics of runoff generation processes frequently observed with the various experimental approaches. The recently developed parsimonious rainfall-runoff model DROGen can bridge the gap between across spatial scales in ungauged watersheds since parameters are not calibrated. The model incorporates high-resolution GIS data (1m resolution DEM, land-use, impervious surfaces), hydro-geological and pedological data as well as information about the effect of macropores and preferential flow pathways on runoff generation processes with a comprehensive knowledge base from various field observations and experiments. The model was applied to over 6500 meso-scale watershed in the State of Baden-Württemberg in Germany and 15 gauged watersheds were selected for detailed model evaluation. The evaluation was done with field-mapping of runoff generation processes for direct comparison with the simulated pattern of runoff processes for different types of precipitation (high intensity and short duration / low intensity and long duration) and

  11. First Observational Support for Overlapping Reionized Bubbles Generated by a Galaxy Overdensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, M.; Dayal, P.; Pentericci, L.; Fontana, A.; Hutter, A.; Brammer, G.; Merlin, E.; Grazian, A.; Pilo, S.; Amorin, R.; Cristiani, S.; Dickinson, M.; Ferrara, A.; Gallerani, S.; Giallongo, E.; Giavalisco, M.; Guaita, L.; Koekemoer, A.; Maiolino, R.; Paris, D.; Santini, P.; Vallini, L.; Vanzella, E.; Wagg, J.

    2016-02-01

    We present an analysis of deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) multi-band imaging of the BDF field specifically designed to identify faint companions around two of the few Lyα emitting galaxies spectroscopically confirmed at z ˜ 7. Although separated by only 4.4 proper Mpc these galaxies cannot generate H ii regions large enough to explain the visibility of their Lyα lines, thus requiring a population of fainter ionizing sources in their vicinity. We use deep HST and VLT-Hawk-I data to select z ˜ 7 Lyman break galaxies around the emitters. We select six new robust z ˜ 7 LBGs at Y ˜ 26.5-27.5 whose average spectral energy distribution is consistent with the objects being at the redshift of the close-by Lyα emitters. The resulting number density of z ˜ 7 LBGs in the BDF field is a factor of approximately three to four higher than expected in random pointings of the same size. We compare these findings with cosmological hydrodynamic plus radiative transfer simulations of a universe with a half neutral IGM: we find that indeed Lyα emitter pairs are only found in completely ionized regions characterized by significant LBG overdensities. Our findings match the theoretical prediction that the first ionization fronts are generated within significant galaxy overdensities and support a scenario where faint, “normal” star-forming galaxies are responsible for reionization.

  12. Observation of Charge Generation and Transfer during CVD Growth of Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiangtao; Liu, Peng; Xia, Bingyu; Wei, Haoming; Wei, Yang; Wu, Yang; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Lina; Wang, Jiaping; Li, Qunqing; Fan, Shoushan; Jiang, Kaili

    2016-07-13

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) is believed to be the most promising material for next generation IC industries with the prerequisite of chirality specific growth. For various approaches to controlling the chiral indices of CNTs, the key is to deepen the understanding of the catalytic growth mechanism in chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Here we show our discovery that the as-grown CNTs are all negatively charged after Fe-catalyzed CVD process. The extra electrons come from the charge generation and transfer during the growth of CNTs, which indicates that an electrochemical process happens in the surface reaction step. We then designed an in situ measurement equipment, verifying that the CVD growth of CNTs can be regarded as a primary battery system. Furthermore, we found that the variation of the Fermi level in Fe catalysts have a significant impact on the chirality of CNTs when different external electric fields are applied. These findings not only provide a new perspective on the growth of CNTs but also open up new possibilities for controlling the growth of CNTs by electrochemical methods. PMID:27254079

  13. Simulation for the design of next-generation global Earth observing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seablom, Michael S.; Talabac, Stephen J.; Higgins, Glenn J.; Womack, Brice T.

    2007-09-01

    Under a recently-funded NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) award we are now designing, and will eventually implement, a sensor web architecture that couples future Earth observing systems with atmospheric, chemical, and oceanographic models and data assimilation systems. The end product will be a "sensor web simulator" (SWS), based upon the proposed architecture, that would objectively quantify the scientific return of a fully functional modeldriven meteorological sensor web. Our proposed work is based upon two previously-funded ESTO studies that have yielded a sensor web-based 2025 weather observing system architecture, and a preliminary SWS software architecture that had been funded by NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concept (RASC) and other technology awards. Sensor Web observing systems have the potential to significantly improve our ability to monitor, understand, and predict the evolution of rapidly evolving, transient, or variable meteorological features and events. A revolutionary architectural characteristic that could substantially reduce meteorological forecast uncertainty is the use of targeted observations guided by advanced analytical techniques (e.g., prediction of ensemble variance). Simulation is essential: investing in the design and implementation of such a complex observing system would be very costly and almost certainly involve significant risk. A SWS would provide information systems engineers and Earth scientists with the ability to define and model candidate designs, and to quantitatively measure predictive forecast skill improvements. The SWS will serve as a necessary trade studies tool to: evaluate the impact of selecting different types and quantities of remote sensing and in situ sensors; characterize alternative platform vantage points and measurement modes; and to explore potential rules of interaction between sensors and weather forecast/data assimilation components to reduce model error growth and forecast

  14. Generation and Loss of New Inner Belts Associated with Solar Energetic Particle Events: A Perspective from Multiple-Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Larsen, B. A.; Friedel, R. H.

    2012-12-01

    It is puzzling to observe that some Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events can generate new proton belts in the inner-belt region but not others. One hypothesis is that the new proton belt is the consequence the double-action from a SEP followed by an interplanetary shock: The former loads a seed population of protons at low L-shells and electric field impulses caused by the latter quickly transport those protons even closer to the Earth and adiabatically accelerate them to very high energies. Regarding the loss, it is often observed that the new proton belt suddenly disappear during a moderate geomagnetic storm, and the popular explanation is due to strengthened scattering from the build-up of the ring current. Here we plan to test the above two theories from multiple-point observations from LEO and HEO satellites, which provide particle measurements, in addition to the OMNI upstream solar wind data and geosynchronous observations. Comparing to HEO, LEO measurements from the NOAA POES fleet and SAMPEX provide particle distributions with a high time-resolution and wide energy coverage. Particle and field data from Polar and THEMIS are also to be used in this study. In accordance with the belt-generation hypothesis, we expect for the generation of a new electron inner-belt along with the new proton belt but with a different energy spectrum due to different sources and acceleration processes. As for the loss process, we will look into in-situ magnetic field measurements to compare with global magnetic field models so as to confirm effects of stretching field lines. By adding electron measurements to the analysis, we expect to help differentiate adiabatic effects from others. Through both case and statistical studies, this work will provide a more thorough test on existing hypothesis and possibly new insights on the generation and loss of SEP-caused proton belts by combing various types of observations from multiple space missions.

  15. Multi-generational effects of polybrominated diphenylethers exposure: embryonic exposure of male American kestrels (Falco sparverius) to DE-71 alters reproductive success and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Marteinson, Sarah C; Bird, David M; Shutt, J Laird; Letcher, Robert J; Ritchie, Ian J; Fernie, Kim J

    2010-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) are additive flame-retardants that are environmentally persistent and bioaccumulative compounds of particular concern to species at high trophic levels, including predatory birds. The developmental effects of in ovo exposure to male birds at environmentally relevant levels of the PBDE technical mixture, DE-71, on reproductive success and behaviors using captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were determined. Males were exposed in ovo by direct maternal transfer to DE-71 and unintentionally to low concentrations of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) at three mean +/- standard error DE-71 concentrations of 288.60 +/- 33.35 ng/g wet weight (low-exposure), 1130.59 +/- 95.34 ng/g wet weight (high-exposure), or background levels of 3.01 +/- 0.46 ng/g wet weight (control). One year following exposure, males were paired with unexposed females. Reproductive success was lower in the high exposure pairs: 43% failed to lay eggs while all other pairs laid complete clutches; they also laid smaller clutches and produced smaller eggs with reduced fertility, parameters that were negatively correlated with paternal in ovo concentrations of all PBDEs, as well as individual congeners and HBCD. Throughout courtship, there were fewer copulations by all in ovo exposed males, fewer mate-calls made by high-exposure males, and decreasing trends in pair-bonding and nest-box behaviors across treatments that continued during brood rearing. The reductions in clutch size and fertility were associated with the reduced frequencies of male courtship behaviors, and were associated with increasing concentrations of the PBDE congeners BDE-47, -99, -100, -53, -138, and HBCD. The results of the present study confirm effects noted in the F(0) generation and demonstrate that exposure to DE-71 affects multiple generations of this predatory avian species at environmentally relevant levels of exposure. PMID:20821627

  16. Convectively Generated Meso-Scale Gravity Waves in ER-2 Observations During CRYSTAL-FACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Alexander, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    The MMS and MTP data from ER-2 observations during the CRYSTAL-FACE campaign are analyzed to retrieve meso-scale gravity wave information at the aircraft flight level. For a given flight segment, the S-transform is used to locate small-scale (10-25 km) gravity wave events. The Stokes method and the MTP method are then used to determine the horizontal propagation directions, and the vertical scales of the wave events, respectively. Other wave parameters, such as horizontal scales, group velocities, can also be derived. From the estimated propagation directions, group velocities, and the ground-based radar reflectivity observations, some wave events are traced back to convectively active regions, suggesting convection as the source of the waves.

  17. SEQ-POINTER: Next generation, planetary spacecraft remote sensing science observation design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Jeffrey S.

    1994-01-01

    Since Mariner, NASA-JPL planetary missions have been supported by ground software to plan and design remote sensing science observations. The software used by the science and sequence designers to plan and design observations has evolved with mission and technological advances. The original program, PEGASIS (Mariners 4, 6, and 7), was re-engineered as POGASIS (Mariner 9, Viking, and Mariner 10), and again later as POINTER (Voyager and Galileo). Each of these programs were developed under technological, political, and fiscal constraints which limited their adaptability to other missions and spacecraft designs. Implementation of a multi-mission tool, SEQ POINTER, under the auspices of the JPL Multimission Operations Systems Office (MOSO) is in progress. This version has been designed to address the limitations experienced on previous versions as they were being adapted to a new mission and spacecraft. The tool has been modularly designed with subroutine interface structures to support interchangeable celestial body and spacecraft definition models. The computational and graphics modules have also been designed to interface with data collected from previous spacecraft, or on-going observations, which describe the surface of each target body. These enhancements make SEQ POINTER a candidate for low-cost mission usage, when a remote sensing science observation design capability is required. The current and planned capabilities of the tool will be discussed. The presentation will also include a 5-10 minute video presentation demonstrating the capabilities of a proto-Cassini Project version that was adapted to test the tool. The work described in this abstract was performed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  18. Monitoring ocean heat content from the current generation of global ocean observing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Schuckmann, K.; Sallée, J.-B.; Chambers, D.; Le Traon, P.-Y.; Cabanes, C.; Gaillard, F.; Speich, S.; Hamon, M.

    2013-06-01

    Variations in the world's ocean heat storage and its associated volume changes are a key factor to gauge global warming and to assess the Earth's energy budget. It is also directly link to sea level change, which has a direct impact on coastal populations. Understanding and monitoring heat and sea level change is therefore one of the major legacies of current global ocean observing systems. In this study, we present an inter-comparison of the three of these global ocean observing systems: the ocean temperature/salinity network Argo, the gravimeter GRACE and the satellite altimeters. Their consistency is investigated at global and regional scale during the period 2005-2010 of overlapping time window of re-qualified data. These three datasets allow closing the recent global ocean sea level budget within uncertainties. However, sampling inconsistencies need to be corrected for an accurate budget at global scale. The Argo network allows estimating global ocean heat content and global sea level and reveals a positive change of 0.5 ± 0.1W m-2 and 0.5 ± 0.1 mm yr-1 over the last 8 yr (2005-2012). Regional inter-comparison of the global observing systems highlights the importance of specific ocean basins for the global estimates. Specifically, the Indonesian Archipelago appears as a key region for the global ocean variability. Both the large regional variability and the uncertainties in the current observing systems, prevent us to shed light, from the global sea level perspective, on the climatically important deep ocean changes. This emphasises, once more, the importance of continuing sustained effort in measuring the deep ocean from ship platforms and by setting up a much needed automated deep-Argo network.

  19. Observation of Wakefield Generation in Left-Handed Band of Metamaterial-Loaded Waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Antipov, S.; Spentzouris, L.; Liu, W.; Gai, W.; Power, J. G.

    2009-01-22

    We report on a design of a TM-mode based metamaterial-loaded waveguide. Network analyzer measurements demonstrated a left-handed propagation region for the TM11 mode at around 10 GHz. A beamline experiment was performed with the metamaterial-loaded waveguide. In this experiment, a 6 MeV electron beam passes through the waveguide and generates a wakefield, via the Cherenkov radiation mechanism. We detected a signal in the left-handed frequency band at 10 GHz. This is an indirect demonstration of reverse Cherenkov radiation as discussed in several papers. Cherenkov radiation in artificially constructed materials (metamaterials, MTM) can provide unusual, engineered features that can be advantageous for particle detector design.

  20. Observation of self-generated flows in tokamak plasmas with lower-hybrid-driven current.

    PubMed

    Ince-Cushman, A; Rice, J E; Reinke, M; Greenwald, M; Wallace, G; Parker, R; Fiore, C; Hughes, J W; Bonoli, P; Shiraiwa, S; Hubbard, A; Wolfe, S; Hutchinson, I H; Marmar, E; Bitter, M; Wilson, J; Hill, K

    2009-01-23

    In Alcator C-Mod discharges lower hybrid waves have been shown to induce a countercurrent change in toroidal rotation of up to 60 km/s in the central region of the plasma (r/a approximately <0.4). This modification of the toroidal rotation profile develops on a time scale comparable to the current redistribution time (approximately 100 ms) but longer than the energy and momentum confinement times (approximately 20 ms). A comparison of the co- and countercurrent injected waves indicates that current drive (as opposed to heating) is responsible for the rotation profile modifications. Furthermore, the changes in central rotation velocity induced by lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) are well correlated with changes in normalized internal inductance. The application of LHCD has been shown to generate sheared rotation profiles and a negative increment in the radial electric field profile consistent with a fast electron pinch. PMID:19257362

  1. Observation of Self-Generated Flows in Tokamak Plasmas with Lower-Hybrid-Driven Current

    SciTech Connect

    Ince-Cushman, A.; Rice, J. E.; Reinke, M.; Greenwald, M.; Wallace, G.; Parker, R.; Fiore, C.; Hughes, J. W.; Bonoli, P.; Shiraiwa, S.; Hubbard, A.; Wolfe, S.; Hutchinson, I. H.; Marmar, E.; Bitter, M.; Wilson, J.; Hill, K.

    2009-01-23

    In Alcator C-Mod discharges lower hybrid waves have been shown to induce a countercurrent change in toroidal rotation of up to 60 km/s in the central region of the plasma (r/a{approx}<0.4). This modification of the toroidal rotation profile develops on a time scale comparable to the current redistribution time ({approx}100 ms) but longer than the energy and momentum confinement times ({approx}20 ms). A comparison of the co- and countercurrent injected waves indicates that current drive (as opposed to heating) is responsible for the rotation profile modifications. Furthermore, the changes in central rotation velocity induced by lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) are well correlated with changes in normalized internal inductance. The application of LHCD has been shown to generate sheared rotation profiles and a negative increment in the radial electric field profile consistent with a fast electron pinch.

  2. Upstream-generated Pc3 ULF wave signatures observed near the Earth's cusp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeoman, T. K.; Wright, D. M.; Engebretson, M. J.; Lessard, M. R.; Pilipenko, V. A.; Kim, H.

    2012-03-01

    Pc3 pulsations (frequency ˜20-100 mHz) which originate in the ion foreshock upstream of the Earth's bow shock due to the interaction between reflected ions and the solar wind are frequently observed in ground-based pulsation magnetometer data. Previous studies have noted increased Pc3 wave power in the vicinity of the dayside cusp and inferred that the upstream waves gained entry via the cusp, although more recent studies have revealed a more complex picture. Here, we examine Pc3 wave power near local noon observed by search coil magnetometers at three closely-spaced stations on Svalbard, during times when an extended interval of HF radar backscatter indicative of the cusp is detected by the Hankasalmi SuperDARN radar. The location of the equatorward edge of the HF radar cusp may then be directly compared with the Pc3 wave power measured at three latitudes as the cusp migrates across the stations on a statistical basis. These observations are more consistent with wave entry to the magnetosphere along closed field lines equatorward of the cusp via the ionospheric transistor mechanism of Engebretson et al. (1991a), or weakly coupled fast and Alfvén wave modes, which then map to the low-latitude boundary layer or outer magnetosphere, rather than with wave entry into the magnetosphere via the cusp proper or exterior cusp.

  3. Frontal Generation of Waves: A Geostrophic Adjustment Interpretation of The Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumen, W.; Lundquist, J. K.

    Data were collected during the stable boundary layer observational field program, the Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study 1999 (CASES-99), carried out in southeastern Kansas USA during the month of October 1999 These data reveal that on at least two different occasions, 16 and 22 October, the passage of surface cold fronts were associated with the initiation of gravity-inertia waves. The periods of these waves ranged from about 4 minutes for gravity waves, relatively unaffected by the Earth's rotation, to about 20 hours for inertial oscillations, characterized by the Coriolis frequency f. Boundary layer radar wind profilers at locations surrounding the main observational site provided wind data through the boundary layer and above. A 60 m tower at the main site contained high frequency temperature, wind, humidity and pressure sensors distributed at various levels along the vertical. These data were used to identify the frontal passages and the wave characteristics. The wind profiler data were used to identify the inertial oscillations. These data indicate that as time progresses, following the frontal passages, the postfrontal energy levels return to pre- frontal levels, and inertial oscillations represent the dominant frequency observed. A linear model is developed and solved to provide evidence that a geostrophic adjust- ment process occurs during the postfrontal period of each frontal passage. the solution obtained shows that the higher frequency waves disperse their energy rapidly leaving the lower frequency inertial oscillation, which is characterized by a zero group ve- locity, at the site of its initiation. The observations reveal that the adjustment to this state occurs within a time span of about 8 hours for each frontal event. This time span is consistent with the model solution using parameter values that are based on ob- servational data. The present model also provides a means to estimate how much of the initial energy is distributed to wave

  4. Observation of Supercontinuum Generation and Darkening Effect in Bro-Silicate Glass under 800 nm Femtosecond Irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdolahpour, D.; Jamshidi-Ghaleh, K.

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, we report the experimental observations of supercontinuum generation and darkening effect in bro-silicate glasses under 200 femtosecond pulses at wavelength of 800 nm. The spectrum of supercontinuum emission from the sample is recorded in the UV wavelength range. The length of filamentation or white light and darkening are investigated at different incident laser pulse energies. The begging position of the generated white light and darkening moves inside glass bulk with decreasing of incident pulse energy. The pulse energy threshold for supercontinuum generation and the laser-induced darkening in this material has been measured. By controlling of the laser-induced darkening in borosilicate glasses prepares a promising technique for designing optical devices.

  5. Dynamic Characteristics of X-pinch Experiments Conducted in a Small Capacitive Generator:Refractive Optical Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepúlveda, Adolfo; Pavez, Cristian; Pedreros, José; Avaria, Gonzalo; San Martín, Patricio; Soto, Leopoldo

    2016-05-01

    Among the dense plasmas configurations of interest for applications as a portable intense source of X-rays, the X-pinches are the most attractive by their brightness, source size, short duration and space localization, being particularly reproducible when they are conducted with fast pulsed power generators. In recent time, several characteristics of the dynamics and emission have been reproduced in compact generators (typically capacitive generators) of low current rise-rate (less than 0.5 kA/ns). In this work, a preliminary characterization of the dynamic of X-pinch plasma conducted in a small capacitive generator is reported. In order to obtain the plasma dynamics and quantitative information of the plasma density, the dark field Schlieren technique and interferometry were implemented. The experiments were carried out on the multipurpose generator (1.2 μF, 345 J, 47.5 nH, T/4=375 ns and Z = 0.2 Ω in short circuit) capable to produce currents up to 122 kA with 500 ns quarter period, when a charging voltage of 24 kV and metallic X-pinches are used as load. The electrical behavior of the discharge and the X-ray emission are monitored with a Rogowski coil and filtered PIN diodes respectively. For the refractive optical diagnostics a 532 nm frequency- doubled Nd-YAG laser was used. As from a single Schlieren record per shot, a sequence with the time evolution of the plasma is constructed. From the images, a similar dynamic of X- pinches conducted in fast generators of high current is observed, where structures such as coronal plasma, plasma flares and plasma jets are identified. The plasma dynamics observed from a VUV gated pinhole image system is compared with registered dynamic with refractive optical techniques.

  6. Barometric and magnetic observations of vertical acoustic resonance and resultant generation of field-aligned current associated with earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyemori, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Odagi, Yoko; Sano, Yasuharu; Takeda, Masahiko; Nose, Masahito; Utsugi, Mitsuru; Rosales, Domingo; Choque, Edwin; Ishitsuka, Jose; Yamanaka, Sadato; Nakanishi, Kunihito; Matsumura, Mitsuru; Shinagawa, Hiroyuki

    2013-08-01

    Three rare occasions are introduced, where the excitation of vertical acoustic resonance between the ground and the ionosphere, and the resultant generation of a field-aligned current, just after earthquakes are observationally confirmed. In the case of two inland earthquakes, barometric observations very close to the epicenters (i.e., only 30 km apart) were available, and they showed a sharp spectral peak which appeared within one hour after the origin time and lasted a few hours. The observed periods of the spectral peaks around 260 seconds are close to the period of the theoretically-expected fundamental mode of the resonance. On the other hand, magnetic observations on the ground showed a dominant period at 220-230 seconds which corresponds to the first overtone among theoretically-expected major resonance peaks. In the third case, i.e., during the 2010 Chile earthquake, a long-period magnetic oscillation in the east-west direction, which has two major resonance periods at 265 and 190-195 seconds, was observed on the night-side magnetic dip equator in Peru, where the distance is more than 2600 km from the epicenter, under a very quiet geomagnetic condition. The oscillation was interpreted as the effect of field-aligned current generated through a dynamo process in the ionosphere over the epicenter caused by the resonance.

  7. Observations of E region irregularities generated at auroral latitudes by a high-power radio wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djuth, F. T.; Jost, R. J.; Noble, S. T.; Gordon, W. E.; Stubbe, P.

    1985-01-01

    The initial results of a series of observations made with the high-power HF heating facility near Tromso, Norway are reported. During these experiments, attention was focused on the production of artificial geomagnetic field-aligned irregularities (AFAIs) in the auroral E region by HF waves. A mobile 46.9-MHz radar was used to diagnose the formation of AFAIs having spatial scales of 3.2 across geomagnetic field lines. The dynamic characteristics of the AFAIs are discussed within the context of current theoretical work dealing with the natural production of AFAIs in the ionosphere.

  8. Controlling balance during quiet standing: proportional and derivative controller generates preceding motor command to body sway position observed in experiments.

    PubMed

    Masani, Kei; Vette, Albert H; Popovic, Milos R

    2006-02-01

    To compensate for significant time delays in the control of human bipedal stance, it was suggested that a feed-forward control mechanism is needed to generate a preceding motor command to the body sway position observed in quiet standing. In this article, we present evidence that a feedback proportional-derivative (PD) controller can effectively generate a desired preceding motor command. We also discuss the following characteristics of the proposed PD controller: (1) the level of robustness of the controller with respect to neurological time delays and (2) how well the controller replicates the system's dynamics observed in experiments with able bodied subjects, i.e. how well the controller generates the observed preceding motor command. Human quiet stance was simulated using an inverted pendulum model regulated by a PD controller. The simulations were used to calculate the center of mass (COM) position and velocity data, and the motor command (ankle joint torque) data as a function of time. These data and the data obtained in the experiments were compared using cross-correlation functions (CCFs). The results presented herein imply that a PD feedback controller is capable of ensuring balance during human bipedal quiet stance, even if the neurological time delays are considerable. The proposed feedback controller can generate the preceding motor command that was observed in the experiments. Therefore, we conclude that a feed-forward mechanism is not necessary to compensate for the long closed-loop time delay in human bipedal stance as suggested in recent literature, and that the PD controller is a good approximation of the control strategy applied by able bodied subjects during quiet stance. PMID:16399512

  9. Observation of a spark channel generated in water with shock wave assistance in plate-to-plate electrode configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelmashuk, V.

    2014-01-01

    When a high voltage pulse with an amplitude of 30 kV is applied to a pair of disk electrodes at a time when a shock wave is passing between them, an electrical spark is generated. The dynamic changes in the spark morphology are studied here using a high-speed framing camera. The primary result of this work is the provision of experimental evidence of plasma instability that was observed in the channel of the electric spark.

  10. Electromagnetically generated extracorporeal shockwaves for fragmentation of extra-and intrahepatic bile duct stones: indications, success and problems during a 15 months clinical experience.

    PubMed Central

    Staritz, M; Rambow, A; Grosse, A; Hurst, A; Floth, A; Mildenberger, P; Goebel, M; Junginger, T; Hohenfellner, R; Thelen, M

    1990-01-01

    Electromagnetically generated extracorporeal shock waves (without waterbath) were applied after intravenous premedication with 10-15 mg diazepam and 100 mg tramadol in the treatment of 33 patients (aged 32 to 91 years) with multiple intrahepatic stones (n = 4) or huge common bile duct stones (n = 29, 18-30 mm in diameter), which could not be removed by conventional endoscopy. Stone disintegration was achieved in 70% of common bile duct stones and in all intrahepatic concrements after 800-7500 discharges, which were applied during one (n = 21), two (n = 6) or three sessions (n = 6). Apart from mild fleabite-like petechiae at the side of shock wave transmission no other side effects were observed for a total of 51 procedures. We believe electromagnetically generated shock waves are safe, easy to apply, and relatively effective in the therapy of common bile duct and intrahepatic stones. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2311983

  11. Stochastic generation of flood events to extend observed hydrological series by combining a copula model with hydrometeorological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Requena, Ana; Flores, Isabel; Mediero, Luis; Garrote, Luis

    2013-04-01

    A multivariate flood frequency analysis is required for designing some structures like dams. Multivariate copula models are usually used to obtain joint return periods of the flood variables. There exist several families of copulas and a selection procedure is required to find the copula that best fits the observations. Moreover, observed hydrological series are usually short and the fit of the right tail of the copula remains highly uncertain. In this work, a procedure to extend short observed series is proposed by the use of both hydrometeorological modelling and a copula model to generate synthetic hydrographs. The procedure takes synthetic rainstorms events generated by the RainSim software as input. The RIBS rainfall-runoff model is used to simulate the hydrological processes in the basin. The procedure was tested in the Santillana reservoir in Spain, were both RainSim and RIBS models were calibrated prior to this study. A sensitivity analysis was conducted in order to find the minimum synthetic length that makes the copula selection process robust enough. As computational time of hydrometeorological modelling is not negligible, the extended record from modelling results could be re-extended by the fitted copula, reducing the computation time. This final extended hydrological series can be used to improve flood risk assessment studies. Key words: Stochastic generation, copulas, rainfall-runoff modelling Session: HS7.15 - Hydroclimatic stochastics Convener: S. Grimaldi Co-Conveners: A. A. Carsteanu, D. Koutsoyiannis, X. L. Wang and S. M. Papalexiou

  12. Observation of tendon repair in animal model using second-harmonic-generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hase, Eiji; Minamikawa, Takeo; Sato, Katsuya; Takahashi, Mitsuhiko; Yasui, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    Tendon rupture is a trauma difficult to recover the condition before injury. In previous researches, tensile test and staining method have been widely used to elucidate the mechanism of the repair process from the viewpoints of the mechanical property and the histological findings. However, since both methods are destructive and invasive, it is difficult to obtain both of them for the same sample. If both the mechanical property and the histological findings can be obtained from the same sample, one may obtain new findings regarding mechanisms of tendon repairing process. In this paper, we used second-harmonic-generation (SHG) microscopy, showing high selectivity and good image contrast to collagen molecules as well as high spatial resolution, optical three-dimensional sectioning, deep penetration, and without additional staining. Since SHG light intensity sensitively reflects the structural maturity of collagen molecule and its aggregates, it will be a good indicator for the repairing degree of the ruptured tendon. From comparison of SHG images between the 4-weeks-repaired tendon and the sound tendon in the animal model, we confirmed that SHG light intensity of the repaired tendon was significantly lower than that of the sound tendon, indicating that the collagen structure in the repaired tendon is still immature. Furthermore, we performed both SHG imaging and the tensile test for the same sample, and confirmed a correlation between them. This result shows a potential of SHG light for an indicator of the histological and mechanical recovery of the ruptured tendon.

  13. Experimental observations of transport of picosecond laser generated electrons in a nail-like target

    SciTech Connect

    Pasley, J.; Wei, M.; Shipton, E.; Chen, S.; Ma, T.; Beg, F. N.; Alexander, N.; Stephens, R.; MacPhee, A. G.; Hey, D.; Le Pape, S.; Patel, P.; Mackinnon, A.; Key, M.; Offermann, D.; Link, A.; Chowdhury, E.; Van-Woerkom, L.; Freeman, R. R.

    2007-12-15

    The transport of relativistic electrons, generated by the interaction of a high intensity (2x10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}) laser, has been studied in a nail-like target comprised of a 20 {mu}m diameter solid copper wire, coated with {approx}2 {mu}m of titanium, with an 80 {mu}m diameter hemispherical termination. A {approx}500 fs, {approx}200 J pulse of 1.053 {mu}m laser light produced by the Titan Laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was focused to a {approx}20 {mu}m diameter spot centered on the flat face of the hemisphere. K{sub {alpha}} fluorescence from the Cu and Ti regions was imaged together with extreme ultraviolet (XUV) emission at 68 and 256 eV. Results showed a quasiexponential decline in K{sub {alpha}} emission along the wire over a distance of a few hundred microns from the laser focus, consistent with bulk Ohmic inhibition of the relativistic electron transport. Weaker K{sub {alpha}} and XUV emission on a longer scale length showed limb brightening suggesting a transition to enhanced transport at the surface of the wire.

  14. Saturn's Ionospheric Clock(s): A Concept for Generating and Maintaining Saturn's Observed Magnetospheric Periodicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, D. G.; Brandt, P. C.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.

    2010-12-01

    Saturn’s 10.X hour periodicity, observed throughout the magnetosphere, remains a mystery. It has been observed in many regions, modulating many phenomena. During the Cassini mission most observations have shown a period at about 10.8 hours, expressed in Saturn kilometric radiation from the high latitude auroral zone, in magnetic field components (both equatorial and high latitude) from 3 to 12 Rs, in current sheet encounters in the outer magnetosphere and magnetotail, in energetic neutral atom emission from the equatorial magnetosphere, and in plasma and energetic particles throughout the magnetosphere. More recently, various authors have shown at least two dominant periods expressed (in SKR and in magnetic field components), with slightly different values in the southern and northern hemispheres. The cause of this behavior is still not accounted for. Although loosely associated with Saturn’s rotation, the variability in the period precludes a direct connection with Saturn’s interior (e.g., a magnetic anomaly). Other candidates that have been discussed by others are an ionospheric source (conductivity anomaly), a perturbation in the cold plasma circulation pattern, a magnetospheric cam, asymmetric ring current particle pressure, and/or a natural frequency of the magnetosphere (cavity mode or traveling wave front of some sort). In this paper we present a concept that derives its energy from the subcorotating cold, dense plasma (which exhibits a rotation period on the order of 13 to 14 hours throughout L-shells between ~3 and 20), but is triggered by a process linked with the ionosphere. Key components of the model include significant slippage between the ionosphere and the magnetosphere (with the ionosphere rotating at the expressed period in each hemisphere, only slightly more slowly than the planet interior), subcorotating cold dense plasma with a source in the inner magnetosphere, predominantly radial transport of the cold dense plasma in the rotational

  15. MetNet Mars Mission - New Lander Generation for Martian in situ Surface Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Linkin, V.; Alexashkin, S.; Vázquez, L.

    2012-09-01

    MetNet Lander (MNL), a small semi-hard penetrator design with an innovative Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) with payload mass fraction of approximately 17 % has been developed. The MNL EDLS is based on inflatable structures capable of decelarating the lander from interplanetary transfer velocities down to 50-70 m/s at surface and surface impact deceleration of < 500 g during the period of less than 20 ms. The available payload mass is especially well suited for meteorological and atmospheric observations, but also for other environmental investigations — which both require modest energy, data storage & transmission resources. Due to the small size of a single lander, MNLs are highly suitable for piggy-backing on larger spacecraft. The small size and low cost make MNLs attractive for missions such as surface networks, landings to risky terrains and pathfinders for highvalue landed missions.

  16. Direct observation of magnetization dynamics generated by nanocontact spin-torque vortex oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keatley, P. S.; Sani, S. R.; Hrkac, G.; Mohseni, S. M.; Dürrenfeld, P.; Loughran, T. H. J.; Åkerman, J.; Hicken, R. J.

    2016-08-01

    Time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy has been used to directly image the magnetization dynamics of nanocontact (NC) spin-torque vortex oscillators (STVOs) when phase locked to an injected microwave (rf) current. The Kerr images reveal free-layer magnetization dynamics that extend outside the NC footprint, where they cannot be detected electrically, but which are crucial to phase-lock STVOs that share common magnetic layers. For a single NC, dynamics were observed not only when the STVO frequency was fully locked to that of the rf current, but also for a partially locked state characterized by periodic changes in the core trajectory at the rf frequency. For a pair of NCs, we explore the correlation between the spatial character of injection-locked dynamics and the free-running spectra. Insight gained from these images may improve understanding of the conditions required for mutual phase locking of multiple STVOs, and hence enhanced microwave power emission.

  17. Generating wind fields that honour point observations and physical conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlabing, Dirk; Bárdossy, András

    2015-04-01

    Wind exhibits a strong spatial and temporal variability. In the application of lake modelling, these features are important for simulating water flows and stratification correctly, as mean and variance of wind speed determine the input of momentum into the lake. This makes a mere interpolation of point measurements an unsuitable method for producing model input. Additionally to concrete point measurements, more subtle aspects of wind fields are to be reproduced. It follows from the fact that wind vectors represent moving air that a wind field has to be divergency-free in order to be mass-conservative. Further, a temporal sequence of wind fields has to comply with the Navier-Stokes equation in order to conserve momentum. All these constraints can be met by representing the conditioned wind field as a linear combination of unconditioned, normally distributed random fields that individually possess the same spatial covariance structuref as observed wind fields. The aim of having the same covariance structure in the conditioned wind field is formulated as an optimization problem with respect to the weights used in the linear combination. With the help of Quadratic Programming (QP) and exploiting the convexity of the problem, feasible solutions can easily be found. In this QP problem, observations become linear constraints. Conservation laws can be incorporated by introducing control volumes in a similar fashion as they are used in fluid mechanics. Budgets of flows through these control volumes become integral conditions in the QP problem. The applicability of the approach will be shown using an artificial example and real-world data measured on shore and on a moving boat on Lake Constance.

  18. Observational Studies of Earthquake Preparation and Generation to Mitigate Seismic Risks in Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrheim, R. J.; Ogasawara, H.; Nakatani, M.; Milev, A.; Cichowicz, A.; Kawakata, H.; Yabe, Y.; Murakami, O.; Naoi, M. M.; Moriya, H.; Satoh, T.

    2011-12-01

    We provide a status report on a 5-year project to monitor in-situ fault instability and strong motion in South African gold mines. The project has two main aims: (1) To learn more about earthquake preparation and generation mechanisms by deploying dense arrays of high-sensitivity sensors within rock volumes where mining is likely to induce significant seismic activity. (2) To upgrade the South African national surface seismic network in the mining districts. This knowledge will contribute to efforts to upgrade schemes of seismic hazard assessment and to limit and mitigate the seismic risks in deep mines. As of 31 July 2011, 46 boreholes totalling 1.9 km in length had been drilled at project sites at Ezulwini, Moab-Khotsong and Driefontein gold mines. Several dozen more holes are still to be drilled. Acoustic emission sensors, strain- and tiltmeters, and controlled seismic sources are being installed to monitor the deformation of the rock mass, the accumulation of damage during the preparation phase, and changes in dynamic stress as the rupture front propagates. These data will be integrated with measurements of stope closure, stope strong motion, seismic data recorded by the mine-wide network, and stress modelling. Preliminary results will be reported at AGU meeting. The project is endorsed by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the South African government. It is funded by the JST-JICA program for Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable development (SATREPS, the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), the Council for Geoscience, the University of the Witwatersrand and the Department of Science and Technology. The contributions of Seismogen CC, OHMS Ltd, AnglogoldAshanti Rock Engineering Applied Research Group, First Uranium, the Gold Fields Seismic Department and the Institute of Mine Seismology are gratefully acknowledged.

  19. Observation-based source terms in the third-generation wave model WAVEWATCH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieger, Stefan; Babanin, Alexander V.; Erick Rogers, W.; Young, Ian R.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements collected during the AUSWEX field campaign, at Lake George (Australia), resulted in new insights into the processes of wind wave interaction and whitecapping dissipation, and consequently new parameterizations of the input and dissipation source terms. The new nonlinear wind input term developed accounts for dependence of the growth on wave steepness, airflow separation, and for negative growth rate under adverse winds. The new dissipation terms feature the inherent breaking term, a cumulative dissipation term and a term due to production of turbulence by waves, which is particularly relevant for decaying seas and for swell. The latter is consistent with the observed decay rate of ocean swell. This paper describes these source terms implemented in WAVEWATCH III ®and evaluates the performance against existing source terms in academic duration-limited tests, against buoy measurements for windsea-dominated conditions, under conditions of extreme wind forcing (Hurricane Katrina), and against altimeter data in global hindcasts. Results show agreement by means of growth curves as well as integral and spectral parameters in the simulations and hindcast.

  20. Observing the attosecond dynamics of nuclear wavepackets in molecules by using high harmonic generation in mixed gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanai, Tsuneto; Takahashi, Eiji J.; Nabekawa, Yasuo; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2008-02-01

    We probe the attosecond dynamics of nuclear wavepackets in H2 and D2 molecules by measuring the relative phase of high harmonics generated in each molecule by using a novel method with a mixed gas of H2 and D2. We find that not only the single molecule responses but also the propagation effects of harmonics differ between the two isotopes and we conclude that in order to discuss the dynamics of molecules in the single molecule responses, the propagation effects need to be excluded from the raw harmonic signals. The measured relative phase as well as the intensity ratio are found to be monotonic functions of the harmonic order and are successfully reproduced by applying Feynman's path integral method fully to the dynamics of the nuclei and electrons in the molecules.

  1. DNA alterations and effects on growth and reproduction in Daphnia magna during chronic exposure to gamma radiation over three successive generations.

    PubMed

    Parisot, Florian; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Plaire, Delphine; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle; Alonzo, Frédéric

    2015-06-01

    This study examined chronic effects of external Cs-137 gamma radiation on Daphnia magna exposed over three successive generations (F0, F1 and F2) to environmentally relevant dose rates (ranging from 0.007 to 35.4 mGy h(-1)). Investigated endpoints included survival, growth, reproduction and DNA alterations quantified using random-amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). Results demonstrated that radiation effects on survival, growth and reproduction increased in severity from generation F0 to generation F2. Mortality after 21 days at 35.4 mGy h(-1) increased from 20% in F0 to 30% in F2. Growth was affected by a slight reduction in maximum length at 35.4 mGy h(-1) in F0 and by reductions of 5 and 13% in growth rate, respectively, at 4.70 and 35.4 mGy h(-1) in F2. Reproduction was affected by a reduction of 19% in 21 day-fecundity at 35.4 mGy h(-1) in F0 and by a delay of 1.9 days in brood release as low as 0.070 mGy h(-1) in F2. In parallel, DNA alterations became significant at decreasing dose rates over the course of F0 (from 4.70 mGy h(-1) at hatching to 0.007 mGy h(-1) after ∼21 days) and from F0 to F2 (0.070 mGy h(-1) at hatching to 0.007 mGy h(-1) after ∼21 days), demonstrating their rapid accumulation in F0 daphnids and their transmission to offspring generations. Transiently more efficient DNA repair leading to some recovery at the organism level was suggested in F1, with no effect on survival, a slight reduction of 12% in 21 day-fecundity at 35.4 mGy h(-1) and DNA alterations significant at highest dose rates only. The study improved our understanding of long term responses to low doses of radiation at the molecular and organismic levels in a non-human species for a better radioprotection of aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25840277

  2. Threshold of wave generation on Titan’s lakes and seas: Effect of viscosity and implications for Cassini observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Newman, Claire; Lunine, Jonathan I.

    2010-06-01

    Motivated by radar and near-infrared data indicating that Titan's polar lakes are extremely smooth, we consider the conditions under which a lake surface will be ruffled by wind to form capillary waves. We evaluate laboratory data on wind generation and derive, without scaling for surface tension effects, a threshold for pure methane/ethane of ˜0.5-1 m/s. However, we compute the physical properties of predicted Titan lake compositions using the National Institute for Standards Technology (NIST) code and note that dissolved amounts of C3 and C4 compounds are likely to make Titan lakes much more viscous than pure ethane or methane, even without allowing for suspended particulates which would increase the viscosity further. Wind tunnel experiments show a strong dependence of capillary wave growth on liquid viscosity, and this effect may explain the apparent absence so far of waves, contrary to prior expectations that generation of gravity waves by wind should be easy on Titan. On the other hand, we note that winds over Titan lakes predicted with the TitanWRF Global Circulation Model indicate radar observations so far have in any case been when winds have been low (˜0.5-0.7 m/s), possibly below the wave generation threshold, while peak winds during summer may reach 1-2 m/s. Thus observations of Titan's northern lakes during the coming years by the Cassini Solstice mission offer the highest probability of observing wind-roughening of lake surfaces, while observations of Ontario Lacus in the south will likely continue to show it to be flat and smooth.

  3. Succession planning.

    PubMed

    Catanzaro, Thomas E

    2006-03-01

    This article provides the reader with an appreciation of the diverse elements that go into a buy-sell, affiliation, or merger situation for veterinary practices. In the changing market place of American veterinary medicine, old paradigms no longer hold comfort. The generational differences are briefly explored herein as well as the new economic realities. A few examples are offered to illustrate just how much variability exists in the current business of veterinary medicine and the subsequent practice transitions needed to enhance value. Functioning models are explored, as well as affiliation and merger options. Practice valuation is discussed in general terms, referencing the cutting-edge factors. The six-point summary provides almost all practices a solid operational base for daily operations and succession planning. PMID:16442447

  4. Observation of strong correlation between quasimonoenergetic electron beam generation by laser wakefield and laser guiding inside a preplasma cavity.

    PubMed

    Hosokai, Tomonao; Kinoshita, Kenichi; Ohkubo, Takeru; Maekawa, Akira; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Zhidkov, Alexei; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Kando, Masaki; Nakajima, Kazuhisa; Bulanov, Sergei V; Tomassini, Paolo; Giulietti, Antonio; Giulietti, Danilo

    2006-03-01

    We use a one-shot measurement technique to study effects of laser prepulses on the electron laser wakefield acceleration driven by relativistically intense laser pulses (lambda=790 nm, 11 TW, 37 fs) in dense helium gas jets. A quasimonoenergetic electron bunch with an energy peak approximately 11.5 MeV[DeltaE/E approximately 10% (FWHM)] and with a narrow-cone angle (0.04pi mm mrad) of ejection is detected at a plasma density of 8 x 10(19) cm(-3). A strong correlation between the generation of monoenergetic electrons and optical guiding of the pulse in a thin channel produced by picosecond laser prepulses is observed. This generation mechanism is well corroborated by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. PMID:16605668

  5. Ling’s Adsorption Theory as a Mechanism of Membrane Potential Generation Observed in Both Living and Nonliving Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tamagawa, Hirohisa; Funatani, Makoto; Ikeda, Kota

    2016-01-01

    The potential between two electrolytic solutions separated by a membrane impermeable to ions was measured and the generation mechanism of potential measured was investigated. From the physiological point of view, a nonzero membrane potential or action potential cannot be observed across the impermeable membrane. However, a nonzero membrane potential including action potential-like potential was clearly observed. Those observations gave rise to a doubt concerning the validity of currently accepted generation mechanism of membrane potential and action potential of cell. As an alternative theory, we found that the long-forgotten Ling’s adsorption theory was the most plausible theory. Ling’s adsorption theory suggests that the membrane potential and action potential of a living cell is due to the adsorption of mobile ions onto the adsorption site of cell, and this theory is applicable even to nonliving (or non-biological) system as well as living system. Through this paper, the authors emphasize that it is necessary to reconsider the validity of current membrane theory and also would like to urge the readers to pay keen attention to the Ling’s adsorption theory which has for long years been forgotten in the history of physiology. PMID:26821050

  6. The Generation of Hot Galactic Halos: Multi-Phase Simulations including Collision-Induced Shock Heating, and Comparisons with Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearn, Nathan C.; Lamb, Susan A.

    2001-09-01

    The presence of hot halos around some colliding and supposed merging galaxies, as detected in X-rays, suggests that galaxy interactions may be responsible for the production of significant amounts of hot-phase interstellar gas in some systems. Possible mechanisms for producing this hot material are large-scale shock heating due to the collision itself, as well as the subsequent supernova explosions and intense stellar winds from the massive stars that are formed in collision-induced starbursts. We are using numerical simulations of galaxy collisions and mergers to explore the possible contribution of these various physical mechanisms. These simulations are compared with observations of real systems. Here we report on results from the application of a new N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation code that has been constructed to allow the representation of multiple phases in the interstellar medium (Hearn et al, in preparation). This simulation code has been used to explore the generation of hot interstellar gas due to the large-scale shock heating that occurs during the collision and merger of two gas-rich disk galaxies. This current study allows us to place limits on the effect of the collision itself (as opposed to the results of subsequent star formation) on the generation of hot halos. We compare our numerical results to the extensive observations of the collisional merging system Arp 220 and, in particular, with our recent Chandra observations of its extended X-ray halo (McDowell et al, in preparation).

  7. Multiple-Station Observation of Frequency Dependence and Polarization Characteristics of ELF/VLF waves generated via Ionospheric Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxworth, A. S.; Golkowski, M.; Cohen, M.; Moore, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Generation of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and Very Low Frequency (VLF) signals through ionospheric modification has been practiced for many years. Heating the lower ionosphere with high power HF waves allows for modulation of natural current systems. Our experiments were carried out at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska, USA. In this experiment, the ionosphere was heated with a vertical amplitude modulating signal and the modulation frequency was changed sequentially within an array of 40 frequencies followed by a frequency ramp. The observed magnetic field amplitude and polarization of the generated ELF/VLF signals were analyzed for multiple sites and as a function of modulation frequency. Our three observation sites: Chistochina, Paxson and Paradise are located within 36km (azimuth 47.7°), 50.2km (azimuth -20°) and 99km (azimuth 80.3°) respectively. We show that the peak amplitudes observed as a function of frequency result from vertical resonance in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide and can be used to diagnose the D-region profile. Polarization analysis showed that out of the three sites Paxson shows the highest circularity in the magnetic field polarization, compared to Chistochina and Paradise which show highly linear polarizations. The experimental results were compared with a theoretical simulation model results and it was clear that in both cases, the modulated Hall current dominates the observed signals at Chistochina and Paradise sites and at Paxson there is an equal contribution from Hall and Pedersen currents. The Chistochina site shows the highest magnetic field amplitudes in both experimental and simulation environments. Depending upon the experimental and simulation observations at the three sites, a radiation pattern for the HAARP ionospheric heater can be mapped

  8. Demand generation and social mobilisation for integrated community case management (iCCM) and child health: Lessons learned from successful programmes in Niger and Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Alyssa B; Martin, Sandrine; Cerveau, Teresa; Wetzler, Erica; Berzal, Rocio

    2014-01-01

    Aim We present the approaches used in and outcomes resulting from integrated community case management (iCCM) programmes in Niger and Mozambique with a strong focus on demand generation and social mobilisation. Methods We use a case study approach to describe the programme and contextual elements of the Niger and Mozambique programmes. Results Awareness and utilisation of iCCM services and key family practices increased following the implementation of the Niger and Mozambique iCCM and child survival programmes, as did care–seeking within 24 hours and care–seeking from appropriate, trained providers in Mozambique. These approaches incorporated interpersonal communication activities and community empowerment/participation for collective change, partnerships and networks among key stakeholder groups within communities, media campaigns and advocacy efforts with local and national leaders. Conclusions iCCM programmes that train and equip community health workers and successfully engage and empower community members to adopt new behaviours, have appropriate expectations and to trust community health workers’ ability to assess and treat illnesses can lead to improved care–seeking and utilisation, and community ownership for iCCM. PMID:25520800

  9. Tandem buildup of complexity of aromatic molecules through multiple successive electrophile generation in one pot, controlled by varying the reaction temperature.

    PubMed

    Sumita, Akinari; Otani, Yuko; Ohwada, Tomohiko

    2016-02-01

    While some sequential electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions, known as tandem/domino/cascade reactions, have been reported for the construction of aromatic single skeletons, one of the most interesting and challenging possibilities remains the one-pot build-up of a complex aromatic molecule from multiple starting components, i.e., ultimately multi-component electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions. In this work, we show how tuning of the leaving group ability of phenolate derivatives from carbamates and esters provides a way to successively generate multiple unmasked electrophiles in a controlled manner in one pot, simply by varying the temperature. Here, we demonstrate the autonomous formation of up to three bonds in one pot and formation of two bonds arising from a three-component electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction. This result provides a proof-of-concept of our strategy applicable for the self-directed construction of complex aromatic structures from multiple simple molecules, which can be a potential avenue to realize multi-component electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions. PMID:26699842

  10. On the observation of a flare-generated shock wave at 9.7 AU by Pioneer 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dryer, M.; Shea, M. A.; Smart, D. F.; Collard, H. R.; Mihalov, J. D.; Wolfe, J. H.; Warwick, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    An apparent solar-flare-generated shock wave detected by Pioneer-10 at 9.7 AU on April 9, 1976 is discussed. The shock wave may be correlated with a radio emission burst from Jupiter not associated with Io (March 30). The fact that solar flares observed on March 20 were at the central meridian with respect to Jupiter and Pioneer-10 and the fact that solar activity was very low before March 20 contribute to the argument that a shock wave had propagated to the region of the spacecraft.

  11. Assimilation of Smos Observations to Generate a Prototype SMAP Level 4 Surface and Root-Zone Soil Moisture Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.; Crow, Wade T.; Koster, Randal D.; Kimball, John

    2012-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP; [1]) mission is being implemented by NASA for launch in October 2014. The primary science objectives of SMAP are to enhance understanding of land surface controls on the water, energy and carbon cycles, and to determine their linkages. Moreover, the high-resolution soil moisture mapping provided by SMAP has practical applications in weather and seasonal climate prediction, agriculture, human health, drought and flood decision support. The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS; [2]) mission was launched by ESA in November 2009 and has since been observing L-band (1.4 GHz) upwelling passive microwaves. In this paper we describe our use of SMOS brightness temperature observations to generate a prototype of the planned SMAP Level 4 Surface and Root-zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) product [5].

  12. Development, Application, and Transition of Aerosol and Trace Gas Products Derived from Next-Generation Satellite Observations to Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, Emily; Naeger, Aaron; Zavodsky, Bradley; McGrath, Kevin; LaFontaine, Frank

    2016-01-01

    NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has a history of successfully transitioning unique observations and research capabilities to the operational weather community to improve short-term forecasts. SPoRTstrives to bridge the gap between research and operations by maintaining interactive partnerships with end users to develop products that match specific forecast challenges, provide training, and assess the products in the operational environment. This presentation focuses on recent product development, application, and transition of aerosol and trace gas products to operations for specific forecasting applications. Recent activities relating to the SPoRT ozone products, aerosol optical depth composite product, sulfur dioxide, and aerosol index products are discussed.

  13. Observations of amplitude saturation in ELF/VLF wave generation by modulated HF heating of the auroral electrojet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. C.; Inan, U. S.; Bell, T. F.

    2006-06-01

    We present detailed observations of the onset of amplitude saturation in ELF/VLF waves generated via modulated HF heating of naturally-forming, large-scale current systems, such as the auroral electrojet. Broadband ELF/VLF measurements at a ground-based receiver located near the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) HF transmitter in Gakona, Alaska, exhibit variations in signal amplitude which are qualitatively consistent with a hard-limiting approximation of the saturation process. A method to approximate the saturation curve as a function of HF power from experimental data is presented, and the results indicate that a ~5-10% reduction in generated ELF signal amplitude is typical at the maximum radiated HF power level (771 kW) for modulation frequencies between 1225 Hz and 3365 Hz. For HF transmissions using sinusoidal amplitude modulation, the saturation dominantly affects the second harmonic of the generated ELF/VLF signal, with amplitudes on average 16% lower than expected at the maximum HF power level.

  14. Seismic observations of long-period ocean waves generated by calving icebergs, Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amundson, J. M.; Truffer, M.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Holland, D. M.; Luethi, M. P.; Motyka, R. J.; Clinton, J. F.; Macayeal, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    Tide gauges and broadband coastal seismometers regularly record low-frequency (0.001-0.01 Hz) ocean waves generated by large calving icebergs at Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland. The waves are observed up to 150 km from the glacier terminus, first arrive at the stations 10-30 minutes after calving initiates, can persist for several hours, and have distinct spectral peaks that vary between stations but not between calving events (suggestive of basin eigenmodes). The unique characteristics of the waves can be used to confidently identify large calving events. Furthermore, the energy of the waves can be used to estimate the size of a calving event and, if used in conjunction with visual imagery, place a maximum bound on the amount of energy lost to the ocean via turbulence and dissipation. Although the ocean wave signal is most easily identifiable in tide gauge data, seismometers have the added benefits of recording (1) very broadband seismic signals, including higher frequency (e.g., 2-5 Hz) seismic signals from calving events (not just their aftermath), (2) ocean waves in ice-choked fjords and bays that are impossible to instrument with tide gauges, and (3) continuous, real time signals over multiple years. We will present examples from Jakobshavn Isbræ to demonstrate how observations of calving-generated ocean waves can be used to gain insights into glaciologically-relevant processes.

  15. CNES developments of key detection technologies to prepare next generation focal planes for high resolution Earth observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materne, A.; Virmontois, C.; Bardoux, A.; Gimenez, T.; Biffi, J. M.; Laubier, D.; Delvit, J. M.

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the activities managed by CNES (French National Space Agency) for the development of focal planes for next generation of optical high resolution Earth observation satellites, in low sun-synchronous orbit. CNES has launched a new programme named OTOS, to increase the level of readiness (TRL) of several key technologies for high resolution Earth observation satellites. The OTOS programme includes several actions in the field of detection and focal planes: a new generation of CCD and CMOS image sensors, updated analog front-end electronics and analog-to-digital converters. The main features that must be achieved on focal planes for high resolution Earth Observation, are: readout speed, signal to noise ratio at low light level, anti-blooming efficiency, geometric stability, MTF and line of sight stability. The next steps targeted are presented in comparison to the in-flight measured performance of the PLEIADES satellites launched in 2011 and 2012. The high resolution panchromatic channel is still based upon Backside illuminated (BSI) CCDs operated in Time Delay Integration (TDI). For the multispectral channel, the main evolution consists in moving to TDI mode and the competition is open with the concurrent development of a CCD solution versus a CMOS solution. New CCDs will be based upon several process blocks under evaluation on the e2v 6 inches BSI wafer manufacturing line. The OTOS strategy for CMOS image sensors investigates on one hand custom TDI solutions within a similar approach to CCDs, and, on the other hand, investigates ways to take advantage of existing performance of off-the-shelf 2D arrays CMOS image sensors. We present the characterization results obtained from test vehicles designed for custom TDI operation on several CIS technologies and results obtained before and after radiation on snapshot 2D arrays from the CMOSIS CMV family.

  16. Addressing the Achilles' Heel in the HIV Care Continuum for the Success of a Test-and-Treat Strategy to Achieve an AIDS-Free Generation

    PubMed Central

    Nachega, Jean B.; Uthman, Olalekan A.; del Rio, Carlos; Mugavero, Michael J.; Rees, Helen; Mills, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models and recent data from ecological, observational, and experimental studies show that antiretroviral therapy (ART) is effective for both treatment and prevention of HIV, validating the treatment as prevention (TasP) approach. Data from a variety of settings, including resource-rich and -limited sites, show that patient attrition occurs at each stage of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment cascade, starting with the percent unaware of their HIV infection in a population and linkage to care after diagnosis, assessment of ART readiness, receipt of ART, and finally long-term virologic suppression. Therefore, in order to implement TasP, we must first define practical and effective linkage to care, acceptability of treatment, and adherence and retention monitoring strategies, as well as the cost-effectiveness of such strategies. Ending this pandemic will require the combination of political will, resources, and novel effective interventions that are not only feasible and cost effective but also likely to be used in combination across successive steps on the HIV treatment cascade. PMID:24926028

  17. Observation of optical second-harmonic generation in porous-silicon-based photonic crystals in the Laue diffraction scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylov, D. A.; Svyakhovskiy, S. E.; Dergacheva, L. V.; Bushuev, V. A.; Mantsyzov, B. I.; Murzina, T. V.

    2016-05-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) in the Laue scheme of the dynamical Bragg diffraction in one-dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) is studied. The experiments are performed for partially annealed porous-silicon PhC containing 250 periods of the structure. Our measurements confirm that the phase-matched optical SHG is observed under the Bragg conditions, which is evidenced by a narrow angular and spectral distribution of the diffracted SHG outgoing the PhC. This is confirmed by both the analytical description of the SHG process performed in the two-wave approximation, and by direct calculations of the PhC dispersion curves for the fundamental and SHG wavelengths by the revised plane wave method. Possible types of phase- and quasi-phase-matching realized in the studied PhC under the Laue diffraction scheme are discussed.

  18. An algorithm to generate input data from meteorological and space shuttle observations to validate a CH4-CO model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, L. K.; Yamanis, J.

    1981-01-01

    Objective procedures to analyze data from meteorological and space shuttle observations to validate a three dimensional model were investigated. The transport and chemistry of carbon monoxide and methane in the troposphere were studied. Four aspects were examined: (1) detailed evaluation of the variational calculus procedure, with the equation of continuity as a strong constraint, for adjustment of global tropospheric wind fields; (2) reduction of the National Meteorological Center (NMC) data tapes for data input to the OSTA-1/MAPS Experiment; (3) interpolation of the NMC Data for input to the CH4-CO model; and (4) temporal and spatial interpolation procedures of the CO measurements from the OSTA-1/MAPS Experiment to generate usable contours of the data.

  19. A Road Map for the Generation of a Near-Infrared Guide Star Catalog for Thirty Meter Telescope Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Smitha; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Sivarani, T.; Simard, Luc; Anupama, G. C.; Gillies, Kim; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Reddy, B. Eswar

    2016-09-01

    The near-infrared instruments in the upcoming Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will be assisted by a multi conjugate Adaptive Optics (AO) system. For the efficient operation of the AO system, during observations, a near-infrared guide star catalog which goes as faint as 22 mag in JVega band is essential and such a catalog does not exist. A methodology, based on stellar atmospheric models, to compute the expected near-infrared magnitudes of stellar sources from their optical magnitudes is developed. The method is applied and validated in JHKs bands for a magnitude range of JVega 16-22 mag. The methodology is also applied and validated using the reference catalog of PAN STARRS. We verified that the properties of the final PAN STARRS optical catalog will satisfy the requirements of TMT IRGSC and will be one of the potential sources for the generation of the final catalog. In a broader context, this methodology is applicable for the generation of a guide star catalog for any existing/upcoming near-infrared telescopes.

  20. A multichannel time-of-flight system for observation of energetic ions of multispecies generated from relativistic laser plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Matsukado, K.; Fujimoto, M.; Takahashi, H.; Kawada, Y.; Ohsuka, S.; Aoshima, S.

    2010-02-15

    A multichannel time-of-flight (TOF) system was constructed to observe the ions generated from relativistic laser plasma, where the ions have polychromatic energies and multiple species. The TOF system is composed of a ten-channel scintillation detector array and an electromagnet that generates a magnetic field of 0-1.24 T. The magnet field enables us to analyze protons, deuterons, and full-stripped carbon ions to 50, 25, and 150 MeV, respectively. The system experimentally identified protons of 0.27-1.6 MeV energy and ions of a half specific charge (deuterons of 0.3-0.8 MeV and full-stripped carbons of 1.8-4.8 MeV). The measured TOF values agree well with the calculated values within the designed accuracy; {+-}2.5 ns for protons and {+-}5 ns for the others (d or C{sup 6+}) on each detector channel. Comparison of ion numbers detected by a track detector (CR-39) and the TOF system enabled us to obtain the number of ions detected on each scintillation counter with less than 16% error.

  1. Generation and use of observational data patterns in the evaluation of data quality for AmeriFlux and FLUXNET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastorello, G.; Agarwal, D.; Poindexter, C.; Papale, D.; Trotta, C.; Ribeca, A.; Canfora, E.; Faybishenko, B.; Gunter, D.; Chu, H.

    2015-12-01

    The fluxes-measuring sites that are part of AmeriFlux are operated and maintained in a fairly independent fashion, both in terms of scientific goals and operational practices. This is also the case for most sites from other networks in FLUXNET. This independence leads to a degree of heterogeneity in the data sets collected at the sites, which is also reflected in data quality levels. The generation of derived data products and data synthesis efforts, two of the main goals of these networks, are directly affected by the heterogeneity in data quality. In a collaborative effort between AmeriFlux and ICOS, a series of quality checks are being conducted for the data sets before any network-level data processing and product generation take place. From these checks, a set of common data issues were identified, and are being cataloged and classified into data quality patterns. These patterns are now being used as a basis for implementing automation for certain data quality checks, speeding up the process of applying the checks and evaluating the data. Currently, most data checks are performed individually in each data set, requiring visual inspection and inputs from a data curator. This manual process makes it difficult to scale the quality checks, creating a bottleneck for the data processing. One goal of the automated checks is to free up time of data curators so they can focus on new or less common issues. As new issues are identified, they can also be cataloged and classified, extending the coverage of existing patterns or potentially generating new patterns, helping both improve existing automated checks and create new ones. This approach is helping make data quality evaluation faster, more systematic, and reproducible. Furthermore, these patterns are also helping with documenting common causes and solutions for data problems. This can help tower teams with diagnosing problems in data collection and processing, and also in correcting historical data sets. In this

  2. Preliminary observations of voluminous ice-rich and water-rich lahars generated during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Pierson, Thomas C.; Major, Jon J.; Scott, William E.

    2012-01-01

    juvenile andesite. We infer that the lahars generated on March 23 were initiated by a rapid succession of vent-clearing explosions that blasted through about 50–100 m of crater-filling glacier ice and snow, producing a voluminous release of meltwater from the Drift glacier. The resulting flood eroded and entrained snow, fragments of glacier and river ice, and liquid water along its flow path. Small-volume pyroclastic flows, possibly associated with destruction of a small dome or minor eruption-column collapses, may have contributed additional meltwater to the lahar. Meltwater generated by subglacial hydrothermal activity and stored beneath the Drift glacier may have been ejected or released rapidly as well. The April 4 lahar was initiated when hot dome-collapse pyroclastic flows entrained and swiftly melted snow and ice, and incorporated additional rock debris from the Drift glacier. The peak discharge of the April 4 lahar was in the range of 60,000–160,000 m3s-1. For comparison, the largest lahar of the 1989–90 eruption had a peak discharge of about 80,000 m3s-1. Lahars generated by the 2009 eruption led to significant channel aggradation in the lower Drift River valley and caused extensive inundation at an oil storage and transfer facility located there. The April 4, 2009, lahar was 6–30 times larger than the largest meteorological floods known or estimated in the Drift River drainage.

  3. Novel Observations From Next-Generation RNA Sequencing of Highly Purified Human Adult and Fetal Islet Cell Subsets.

    PubMed

    Blodgett, David M; Nowosielska, Anetta; Afik, Shaked; Pechhold, Susanne; Cura, Anthony J; Kennedy, Norman J; Kim, Soyoung; Kucukural, Alper; Davis, Roger J; Kent, Sally C; Greiner, Dale L; Garber, Manuel G; Harlan, David M; diIorio, Philip

    2015-09-01

    Understanding distinct gene expression patterns of normal adult and developing fetal human pancreatic α- and β-cells is crucial for developing stem cell therapies, islet regeneration strategies, and therapies designed to increase β-cell function in patients with diabetes (type 1 or 2). Toward that end, we have developed methods to highly purify α-, β-, and δ-cells from human fetal and adult pancreata by intracellular staining for the cell-specific hormone content, sorting the subpopulations by flow cytometry, and, using next-generation RNA sequencing, we report the detailed transcriptomes of fetal and adult α- and β-cells. We observed that human islet composition was not influenced by age, sex, or BMI, and transcripts for inflammatory gene products were noted in fetal β-cells. In addition, within highly purified adult glucagon-expressing α-cells, we observed surprisingly high insulin mRNA expression, but not insulin protein expression. This transcriptome analysis from highly purified islet α- and β-cell subsets from fetal and adult pancreata offers clear implications for strategies that seek to increase insulin expression in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. PMID:25931473

  4. An Algorithm to Generate Deep-Layer Temperatures from Microwave Satellite Observations for the Purpose of Monitoring Climate Change. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Mitchell D.; Fleming, Henry E.

    1994-01-01

    An algorithm for generating deep-layer mean temperatures from satellite-observed microwave observations is presented. Unlike traditional temperature retrieval methods, this algorithm does not require a first guess temperature of the ambient atmosphere. By eliminating the first guess a potentially systematic source of error has been removed. The algorithm is expected to yield long-term records that are suitable for detecting small changes in climate. The atmospheric contribution to the deep-layer mean temperature is given by the averaging kernel. The algorithm computes the coefficients that will best approximate a desired averaging kernel from a linear combination of the satellite radiometer's weighting functions. The coefficients are then applied to the measurements to yield the deep-layer mean temperature. Three constraints were used in deriving the algorithm: (1) the sum of the coefficients must be one, (2) the noise of the product is minimized, and (3) the shape of the approximated averaging kernel is well-behaved. Note that a trade-off between constraints 2 and 3 is unavoidable. The algorithm can also be used to combine measurements from a future sensor (i.e., the 20-channel Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU)) to yield the same averaging kernel as that based on an earlier sensor (i.e., the 4-channel Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU)). This will allow a time series of deep-layer mean temperatures based on MSU measurements to be continued with AMSU measurements. The AMSU is expected to replace the MSU in 1996.

  5. Comparison Between Tsunami Signals Generated by Different Source Models and the Observed Data of the Illapel 2015 Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calisto, Ignacia; Miller, Matthew; Constanzo, Iván

    2016-04-01

    A major interplate earthquake occurred on September 16th, 2015, near Illapel, central Chile. This event generated a tsunami of moderate height, however, one which caused significant near field damage. In this study, we model the tsunami produced by some rapid and preliminary fault models with the potential to be calculated within tens of minutes of the event origin time. We simulate tsunami signals from two different heterogeneous slip models, a homogeneous source based on parameters from the global CMT Project, and furthermore we used plate coupling data from GPS observations to construct a heterogeneous fault based on a priori knowledge of the subduction zone. We compare the simulated signals with the observed tsunami at tide gauges located along the Chilean coast and at offshore DART buoys. For this event, concerning rapid response, the homogeneous source and coupling model represent the tsunami at least as well as the heterogeneous sources. We suggest that the initial heterogeneous fault models could be better constrained with continuous GPS measurements in the rupture area, and additionally DART records directly in front of the rupture area, to improve the tsunami simulation based on quickly calculated models for near coastal areas. Additionally, in terms of tsunami modeling, the source estimated from prior plate coupling information in this case is representative of the event that later occurs; placing further importance on the need to monitor subduction zones with GPS.

  6. Ten years of OMI observations: scientific highlights and impacts on the new generation of UV/VIS satellite instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levelt, Pieternel; Veefkind, Pepijn; Bhartia, Pawan; Joiner, Joanna; Tamminen, Johanna; OMI Science Team

    2014-05-01

    On July 15, 2004 Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) was successfully launched from the Vandenberg military air force basis in California, USA, on NASA's EOS-Aura spacecraft. OMI is the first of a new generation of UV/VIS nadir solar backscatter imaging spectrometers, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with an unprecedented spatial resolution of 13 x 24 km2. OMI measures solar irradiance and Earth radiances in the wavelength range of 270 to 500 nm with a spectral resolution of about 0.5 nm. OMI is designed and built by the Netherlands and Finland and is also a third party mission of ESA. The major step that was made in the OMI instrument compared to its predecessors is the use of 2-dimensional detector arrays (CCDs) in a highly innovative small optical design. These innovations enable the combination of a high spatial resolution and a good spectral resolution with daily global coverage. OMI measures a range of trace gases (O3, NO2, SO2, HCHO, BrO, OClO, H2O), clouds and aerosols. Albeit OMI is already 5 years over its design lifetime, the instrument is still fully operational. The successor of OMI is TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) on the Copernicus Sentinel-5 precursor mission, planned for launch in 2015. OMI's unique capabilities rely in measuring tropospheric trace gases with a small footprint and daily global coverage. The unprecedented spatial resolution of the instrument revealed for the first time tropospheric pollution maps on a daily basis with urban scale resolution leading to improved air quality forecasts. The OMI measurements also improve our understanding of air quality and the interaction between air quality and climate change by combining measurements of air pollutants and aerosols. In recent years the data are also used for obtaining high-resolution global emission maps using inverse modelling or related techniques, challenging the bottom-up inventories based emission maps. In addition to scientific research, OMI also

  7. Generation of global VTEC maps from low latency GNSS observations based on B-spline modelling and Kalman filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogan, Eren; Dettmering, Denise; Limberger, Marco; Schmidt, Michael; Seitz, Florian; Börger, Klaus; Brandert, Sylvia; Görres, Barbara; Kersten, Wilhelm F.; Bothmer, Volker; Hinrichs, Johannes; Venzmer, Malte

    2015-04-01

    In May 2014 DGFI-TUM (the former DGFI) and the German Space Situational Awareness Centre (GSSAC) started to develop an OPerational Tool for Ionospheric Mapping And Prediction (OPTIMAP); since November 2014 the Institute of Astrophysics at the University of Göttingen (IAG) joined the group as the third partner. This project aims on the computation and prediction of maps of the vertical total electron content (VTEC) and the electron density distribution of the ionosphere on a global scale from both various space-geodetic observation techniques such as GNSS and satellite altimetry as well as Sun observations. In this contribution we present first results, i.e. a near-real time processing framework for generating VTEC maps by assimilating GNSS (GPS, GLONASS) based ionospheric data into a two-dimensional global B-spline approach. To be more specific, the spatial variations of VTEC are modelled by trigonometric B-spline functions in longitude and by endpoint-interpolating polynomial B-spline functions in latitude, respectively. Since B-spline functions are compactly supported and highly localizing our approach can handle large data gaps appropriately and, thus, provides a better approximation of data with heterogeneous density and quality compared to the commonly used spherical harmonics. The presented method models temporal variations of VTEC inside a Kalman filter. The unknown parameters of the filter state vector are composed of the B-spline coefficients as well as the satellite and receiver DCBs. To approximate the temporal variation of these state vector components as part of the filter the dynamical model has to be set up. The current implementation of the filter allows to select between a random walk process, a Gauss-Markov process and a dynamic process driven by an empirical ionosphere model, e.g. the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI). For running the model ionospheric input data is acquired from terrestrial GNSS networks through online archive systems

  8. Experimental observations of the spatial structure of wave-like disturbances generated in midlatitude ionosphere by high power radio waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunitsyn, V.; Andreeva, E.; Padokhin, A. M.; Nazarenko, M.; Frolov, V.; Komrakov, G.; Bolotin, I.

    2012-12-01

    We present the results of the experiments carried out in 2009-2012 on the Sura heating facility (Radio Physical Research Institute, N. Novgorod, Russia) on modification of the midlatitude ionosphere by powerful HF radiowaves. The experiments were conducted using O-mode radiowaves at frequencies lower than critical frequency of the ionospheric F2 layer both in daytime and nighttime ionosphere. Various schemes of the radiation of the heating wave were used including square wave modulation of the effective radiated power (ERP) at various frequencies and power stepping. Radio transmissions of the low- (Parus/Tsikada) and high-orbital (GPS/GLONASS) navigational satellites received at the mobile network of receiving sites were used for the remote sensing of the heated area of the ionosphere. The variations in the slant total electron content (TEC), which are proportional to the reduced phase of navigational signals, were studied for the satellite passes for which ionospheric penetration points crossed the disturbed area during HF heating. The variations in TEC caused by HF heating are identified in a number of examples. It is shown that the GNSS TEC spectra contain frequency components corresponding to the modulation periods of the ERP of the heating wave. The manifestations of the heating-induced variations in TEC are most prominent in the area of magnetic zenith of the pumping wave. Different behavior of TEC variations was observed during nighttime and daytime heating experiments. In daytime conditions the pump wave switched ON causes the increase of TEC while in the nighttime it causes a decrease in TEC. This can be explained by the different contribution of the processes responsible for the increase and decrease of TEC in daytime in nighttime conditions. In this work we also present the first time radiotomographic reconstructions of the spatial structure of the wave-like disturbances, generated in the ionosphere by high-power radio waves radiated by the Sura heater

  9. A Generation of Challenge: Pathways to Success for Urban Youth. A Policy Study of the Levitan Youth Policy Network. Policy Issues Monograph 97-03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sum, Andrew; Mangum, Stephen; deJesus, Edward; Walker, Gary; Gruber, David; Pines, Marion; Spring, William

    This report refers to a generation under challenge, meaning the 18-to-24-year-olds who have recently come of age in the United States. A significant part of this generation has fallen victim to a neglected past and may be overwhelmed by its future. The report argues for an integrated and comprehensive service delivery system that can make a…

  10. Estimation of the success rate of anesthetic management for thymectomy in patients with myasthenia gravis treated without muscle relaxants: a retrospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yoshihito; Moriyama, Satoru; Aoki, Satoshi; Yoshizawa, Saya; Tomita, Maiko; Kojima, Taiki; Mori, Yukiko; Takeuchi, Naoko; So, Min-Hye; Yano, Motoki; Sobue, Kazuya

    2015-10-01

    Although maintaining anesthesia for myasthenia gravis (MG) with minimal muscle relaxants (MR) is common, the success rate of anesthetic management for MG without MR is not clear. We therefore retrospectively examined the success rate of anesthetic management for MG without MR among 66 consecutive cases of thymectomy for MG performed at our hospital between January 2004 and April 2010, before approval of using sugammadex. A total of 60 patients (90.9 %) were treated without MR (N group). Among the 60 cases, 17 (28.3 %) patients were not extubated in the operating room due to postoperative respiratory depression or other reasons. Therefore, the success rate of anesthetic management for thymectomy in patients with MG without treating MR was 71.7 % (43/60) [95 % confident interval (CI): 65.9-77.5 %]. The reasons for using MR included coughing at intubation in one case, bucking during surgery in two cases, and MR was considered to be safer by the attending anesthesiologist in three cases. The number of cases of impossible extubation requiring ventilation on that day was three in the N group and none in the R group. Finally, the success rate of anesthetic management for MG without MR was estimated to be 71.1 % (95 % CI: 65.9-77.5 %). PMID:25796520

  11. Observations on the removal of brood inoculated with Tropilaelaps mercedesae (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) and the mite’s reproductive success in Apis mellifera colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study assessed the response of Apis mellifera to brood deliberately infested with Tropilaelaps mercedesae. The reproductive success of T. mercedesae in mite-inoculated and naturally infested brood was also compared. The presence of T. mercedesae inside brood cells significantly affected brood ...

  12. The Observation of SAR, Optical and Altimeter Data to Study the Generation of Internal Wave in Tsushima Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvelyna, Y.; Oshima, M.

    2006-07-01

    This study proposes D iscr eet Mey er wavelet tr ansform and spectr al reflectan ce analysis for internal w ave detection in ERS1/2 and ASTER imag es data over the Tsushima Strait, Jap an, during 1993-2004 period. The wavelet tr ansform of imag e w as successfully der ived the intern al wav e f eature with h igher w avelet coeff icien t than sea surf ace, i.e. between 2-4.59 times, on horizon tal and vertical d etail coefficient at level 2-5, incr eased the detection probability over 80%. The intern al w ave is modeled using Co mbined Korteweg the Vries (combKdV) model. Non linier speed of in ternal wave is calculated about 85 cm-1. Th e altimetry data products from Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1 data are used to predict th e internal wav e gener ation. Th e observation results show th e propagation of in ternal w aves wer e varied between N W-SW at eastern channel and N-SW at western channel of Tsush ima Strait, p arallel to the direction of the geostrophic curren t. A t NE coast off Tsushima Island, the direction is on S/SE dir ection. I t is suggested th at th e internal wav es w ere sourced from south co ast off Tsush ima Island and south coast off the Japan Sea. They w ere possib ly tid ally gen erated and formed due to bathymetr ic change.

  13. Observations of the coupling efficiency of VLF lightning-generated whistlers into the low-latitude plasmasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, A. R.; Holzworth, R. H., II; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Heelis, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    The C/NOFS satellite [de La Beaujardiere, 2004] has provided a vast archive of multi-sensor data on the low-latitude ionosphere/plasmasphere since 2008. As part of the project, the VEFI payload [Pfaff et al., 2010] has recorded the 3-D electric field from DC through 16 kHz with high fidelity. The relative calibrations track between the three E-field antennas with sufficient accuracy and stability to allow retrieval of the wave polarization for a wide range of lightning-generated whistler waves [Jacobson et al., 2014]. The wave polarization in turn allows retrieval of the wavevector (within a sign ambiguity), which in turn allows an inverse-raytrace of the whistler raypath from the satellite to the ionospheric entry point. We will compare the raytrace predictions with ground-truth from the WWLLN global lightning-monitoring system [Lay et al., 2004; Rodger et al., 2005; Rodger et al., 2004]. In addition to providing location and time of lightning strokes, WWLLN provides an estimate of the radiated radio energy in the whistler passband [Hutchins et al., 2012]. Finally, the CINDI payload [Heelis et al., 2009] on C/NOFS provides ion composition at the satellite, permitting the index of refraction to be inferred. We will compare these estimates to the Poynting fluence density observed by VEFI, thereby providing a direct test of the coupling of lightning radio energy into plasmaspheric whistlers.

  14. Is There Such a Thing as Too Much of a Good Thing when It Comes to Education? Reexamining First Generation Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Allegro, Mary Lou; Kerns, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    Data mining and statistical analyses at a less selective institution reveal that the relationships between parents' educational level and some first year success indicators are not linear. Specifically, students who report that either parent or guardian(s) have an educational level beyond a baccalaureate degree or do not report parent education…

  15. Successful Lecturing

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, H Liesel; Longworth, David L; Hewson, Mariana G; Stoller, James K

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In a study conducted over 3 large symposia on intensive review of internal medicine, we previously assessed the features that were most important to course participants in evaluating the quality of a lecture. In this study, we attempt to validate these observations by assessing prospectively the extent to which ratings of specific lecture features would predict the overall evaluation of lectures. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS After each lecture, 143 to 355 course participants rated the overall lecture quality of 69 speakers involved in a large symposium on intensive review of internal medicine. In addition, 7 selected participants and the course directors rated specific lecture features and overall quality for each speaker. The relations among the variables were assessed through Pearson correlation coefficients and cluster analysis. Regression analysis was performed to determine which features would predict the overall lecture quality ratings. The features that most highly correlated with ratings of overall lecture quality were the speaker's abilities to identify key points (r = .797) and be engaging (r = .782), the lecture clarity (r = .754), and the slide comprehensibility (r = .691) and format (r = .660). The three lecture features of engaging the audience, lecture clarity, and using a case-based format were identified through regression as the strongest predictors of overall lecture quality ratings (R2= 0.67, P = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS We have identified core lecture features that positively affect the success of the lecture. We believe our findings are useful for lecturers wanting to improve their effectiveness and for educators who design continuing medical education curricula. PMID:10886470

  16. Successful Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierrehumbert, R.

    2012-12-01

    In an observational science, it is not possible to test hypotheses through controlled laboratory experiments. One can test parts of the system in the lab (as is done routinely with infrared spectroscopy of greenhouse gases), but the collective behavior cannot be tested experimentally because a star or planet cannot be brought into the lab; it must, instead, itself be the lab. In the case of anthropogenic global warming, this is all too literally true, and the experiment would be quite exciting if it weren't for the unsettling fact that we and all our descendents for the forseeable future will have to continue making our home in the lab. There are nonetheless many routes though which the validity of a theory of the collective behavior can be determined. A convincing explanation must not be a"just-so" story, but must make additional predictions that can be verified against observations that were not originally used in formulating the theory. The field of Earth and planetary climate has racked up an impressive number of such predictions. I will also admit as "predictions" statements about things that happened in the past, provided that observations or proxies pinning down the past climate state were not available at the time the prediction was made. The basic prediction that burning of fossil fuels would lead to an increase of atmospheric CO2, and that this would in turn alter the Earth's energy balance so as to cause tropospheric warming, is one of the great successes of climate science. It began in the lineage of Fourier, Tyndall and Arrhenius, and was largely complete with the the radiative-convective modeling work of Manabe in the 1960's -- all well before the expected warming had progressed far enough to be observable. Similarly, long before the increase in atmospheric CO2 could be detected, Bolin formulated a carbon cycle model and used it to predict atmospheric CO2 out to the year 2000; the actual values come in at the high end of his predicted range, for

  17. DisasterHub: A mobile application for enabling crowd generated data fusion in Earth Observation disaster management services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsironis, Vassilis; Herekakis, Themistocles; Tsouni, Alexia; Kontoes, Charalampos Haris

    2016-04-01

    The rapid changes in climate over the last decades, together with the explosion of human population, have shaped the context for a fragile biosphere, prone to natural and manmade disasters that result in massive flows of environmental immigrants and great disturbances of ecosystems. The magnitude of the latest great disasters have shown evidence for high quality Earth Observation (EO) services as it regards disaster risk reduction and emergency support (DRR & EMS). The EO community runs ambitious initiatives in order to generate services with direct impact in the biosphere, and intends to stimulate the wider participation of citizens, enabling the Openness effect through the Open Innovation paradigm. This by its turn results in the tremendous growth of open source software technologies associated with web, social media, mobile and Crowdsourcing. The Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing of National Observatory of Athens has developed, in the framework of the BEYOND Centre of Excellence for EO-based monitoring of Natural Disasters (http://www.beyond-eocenter.eu), a rich ecosystem of Copernicus compliant services addressing diverse hazardous phenomena caused from climate and weather extremes (fires, floods, windstorms, heat waves), atmospheric disturbances (smoke, dust, ozone, UV), and geo-hazards (earthquakes, landslides, volcanoes). Several services are delivered in near-real time to the public and the institutional authorities at national and regional level in southeastern Europe. Specific ones have been recognized worldwide for their innovation and operational aspects (e.g. FIREHUB was awarded the first prize as Best Service Challenge in the Copernicus Masters Competition, 2014). However, a communication gap still exists between the BEYOND ecosystem and those directly concerned by the natural disasters, the citizens and emergency response managers. This disruption of information flow between interested parties is addressed

  18. Quantifying the VNIR Effects of Nanophase Iron Generated through the Space Weathering of Silicates: Reconciling Modeled Data with Laboratory Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legett, C., IV; Glotch, T. D.; Lucey, P. G.

    2015-12-01

    Space weathering is a diverse set of processes that occur on the surfaces of airless bodies due to exposure to the space environment. One of the effects of space weathering is the generation of nanophase iron particles in glassy rims on mineral grains due to sputtering of iron-bearing minerals. These particles have a size-dependent effect on visible and near infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra with smaller diameter particles (< 50 nm) causing both reddening and darkening of the spectra with respect to unweathered material (Britt-Pieters particle behavior), while larger particles (> 300 nm) darken without reddening. Between these two sizes, a gradual shift between these two behaviors occurs. In this work, we present results from the Multiple Sphere T-Matrix (MSTM) scattering model in combination with Hapke theory to explore the particle size and iron content parameter spaces with respect to VNIR (700-1700 nm) spectral slope. Previous work has shown that the MSTM-Hapke hybrid model offers improvements over Mie-Hapke models. Virtual particles are constructed out of an arbitrary number of spheres, and each sphere is assigned a refractive index and extinction coefficient for each wavelength of interest. The model then directly solves Maxwell's Equations at every wave-particle interface to predict the scattering, extinction and absorption efficiencies. These are then put into a simplified Hapke bidirectional reflectance model that yields a predicted reflectance. Preliminary results show an area of maximum slopes for iron particle diameters < 80 nm and iron concentrations of ~1-10wt% in an amorphous silica matrix. Further model runs are planned to better refine the extent of this region. Companion laboratory work using mixtures of powdered aerogel and nanophase iron particles provides a point of comparison to modeling efforts. The effects on reflectance and emissivity values due to particle size in a nearly ideal scatterer (aerogel) are also observed with comparisons to

  19. High variance in reproductive success generates a false signature of a genetic bottleneck in populations of constant size: a simulation study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Demographic bottlenecks can severely reduce the genetic variation of a population or a species. Establishing whether low genetic variation is caused by a bottleneck or a constantly low effective number of individuals is important to understand a species’ ecology and evolution, and it has implications for conservation management. Recent studies have evaluated the power of several statistical methods developed to identify bottlenecks. However, the false positive rate, i.e. the rate with which a bottleneck signal is misidentified in demographically stable populations, has received little attention. We analyse this type of error (type I) in forward computer simulations of stable populations having greater than Poisson variance in reproductive success (i.e., variance in family sizes). The assumption of Poisson variance underlies bottleneck tests, yet it is commonly violated in species with high fecundity. Results With large variance in reproductive success (Vk ≥ 40, corresponding to a ratio between effective and census size smaller than 0.1), tests based on allele frequencies, allelic sizes, and DNA sequence polymorphisms (heterozygosity excess, M-ratio, and Tajima’s D test) tend to show erroneous signals of a bottleneck. Similarly, strong evidence of population decline is erroneously detected when ancestral and current population sizes are estimated with the model based method MSVAR. Conclusions Our results suggest caution when interpreting the results of bottleneck tests in species showing high variance in reproductive success. Particularly in species with high fecundity, computer simulations are recommended to confirm the occurrence of a population bottleneck. PMID:24131797

  20. Capitol Success.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2015-08-01

    This legislative session, medicine resolved to ensure physicians can give their patients the best care possible. The hard work paid off in significant victories that largely build on the Texas Medical Association's 2013 legislative successes. PMID:26263520

  1. Achieving high treatment success for multidrug-resistant TB in Africa: initiation and scale-up of MDR TB care in Ethiopia—an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Meressa, Daniel; Hurtado, Rocío M; Andrews, Jason R; Diro, Ermias; Abato, Kassim; Daniel, Tewodros; Prasad, Paritosh; Prasad, Rebekah; Fekade, Bekele; Tedla, Yared; Yusuf, Hanan; Tadesse, Melaku; Tefera, Dawit; Ashenafi, Abraham; Desta, Girma; Aderaye, Getachew; Olson, Kristian; Thim, Sok; Goldfeld, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    Background In Africa, fewer than half of patients receiving therapy for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) are successfully treated, with poor outcomes reported for HIV-coinfected patients. Methods A standardised second-line drug (SLD) regimen was used in a non-governmental organisation–Ministry of Health (NGO-MOH) collaborative community and hospital-based programme in Ethiopia that included intensive side effect monitoring, adherence strategies and nutritional supplementation. Clinical outcomes for patients with at least 24 months of follow-up were reviewed and predictors of treatment failure or death were evaluated by Cox proportional hazards models. Results From February 2009 to December 2014, 1044 patients were initiated on SLD. 612 patients with confirmed or presumed MDR TB had ≥24 months of follow-up, 551 (90.0%) were confirmed and 61 (10.0%) were suspected MDR TB cases. 603 (98.5%) had prior TB treatment, 133 (21.7%) were HIV coinfected and median body mass index (BMI) was 16.6. Composite treatment success was 78.6% with 396 (64.7%) cured, 85 (13.9%) who completed treatment, 10 (1.6%) who failed, 85 (13.9%) who died and 36 (5.9%) who were lost to follow-up. HIV coinfection (adjusted HR (AHR): 2.60, p<0.001), BMI (AHR 0.88/kg/m2, p=0.006) and cor pulmonale (AHR 3.61, p=0.003) and confirmed MDR TB (AHR 0.50, p=0.026) were predictive of treatment failure or death. Conclusions We report from Ethiopia the highest MDR TB treatment success outcomes so far achieved in Africa, in a setting with severe resource constraints and patients with advanced disease. Intensive treatment of adverse effects, nutritional supplementation, adherence interventions and NGO-MOH collaboration were key strategies contributing to success. We argue these approaches should be routinely incorporated into programmes. PMID:26506854

  2. The UKIRT Success Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Richard

    This is a personal overview of the great success of the UKIRT facility; a tribute to those who designed, built and operated it and helped put UK astronomy at the forefront of world infrared observations. I will illustrate this success with a small selection of science highlights.

  3. Pulseless electrical activity and successful out-of-hospital resuscitation – long-term survival and quality of life: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of patients successfully resuscitated from pre-hospital cardiac arrest with initial pulseless electrical activity (PEA), because the long-term outcome of these patients is unknown. Survival, neurological status one year after cardiac arrest and self-perceived quality of life after five years were assessed. Methods This retrospective study included adult patients resuscitated from PEA between August 2001 and March 2003 in three urban areas in southern Finland. A validated questionnaire was sent to patients while neurological status according to the Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) -classification was assessed based on medical database notes recorded during follow-up evaluations. Results Out of 99 included patients in whom resuscitation was attempted, 41 (41%) were successfully resuscitated and admitted to hospital. Ten (10%) patients were discharged from hospital. Seven were alive after one year and six after five years following cardiac arrest. Five of the seven patients alive one year after resuscitation presented with the same functional level as prior to cardiac arrest. Conclusions Patients with initial PEA have been considered to have poor prognosis, but in our material, half of those who survived to hospital discharge were still alive after 5 years. Their self-assessed quality of life seems to be good with only mild to moderate impairments in activities of daily life. PMID:23110711

  4. Bird Migration Echoes Observed by Polarimetric Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minda, Haruya; Furuzawa, Fumie A.; Satoh, Shinsuke; Nakamura, Kenji

    A C-band polarimetric radar on Okinawa Island successfully observed large-scale bird migrations over the western Pacific Ocean. The birds generated interesting polarimetric signatures. This paper describes the signatures and speculates bird behavior.

  5. PAHs and the Diffuse Interstellar Bands. What have we Learned from the New Generation of Laboratory and Observational Studies?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important and ubiquitous component of carbon-bearing materials in space. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands (UIR bands) and PAH spectral features are now being used as new probes of the ISM. PAHs are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). In the model dealing with the interstellar spectral features, PAHs are present as a mixture of radicals, ions and neutral species. PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge for laboratory astrophysics is to reproduce (in a realistic way) the physical conditions that exist in the emission and/or absorption interstellar zones, An extensive laboratory program has been developed at NASA Ames to characterize the physical and chemical properties of PAHs in astrophysical environments and to describe how they influence the radiation and energy balance in space and the interstellar chemistry. In particular, laboratory experiments provide measurements of the spectral characteristics of interstellar PAH analogs from the ultraviolet and visible range to the infrared range for comparison with astronomical data. This paper will focus on the recent progress made in the laboratory to measure the direct absorption spectra of neutral and ionized PAHs in the gas phase in the near-W and visible range in astrophysically relevant environments. These measurements provide data on PAHs and nanometer-sized particles that can now be directly compared to astronomical observations. The harsh physical conditions of the IS medium - characterized by a low temperature, an absence of collisions and strong V W radiation fields - are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions are formed from the neutral

  6. New-generation data acquisition and control system for continuum radio-astronomic observations with RATAN-600 radio telescope: Development, observations, and measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsybulev, P. G.

    2011-01-01

    A new Data Acquisition and Control System for performing continuum radio-astronomical observations with the RATAN-600 radio telescope is presented. One of the "building blocks" of the system is the Embedded Radiometric Data Acquisition System (ER-DAS) developed at the RATAN-600. It is a measurement facility meant for digitizing and reducing radiometer signals and for transmitting the result of these operations via Ethernet networks. ER-DAS system is shown to have a low self-noise level and to lack 1/ f-type noise. The measurement facility is shown to operate efficiently in radio-astronomical observations. Radiometric measurements of the parameters of high-sensitivity radiometers are illustrated in the case of the measurements of radiometer gain fluctuations.

  7. Experimental observation of increased threshold electric field for runaway generation due to synchrotron radiation losses in the FTU tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-Solis, Jose Ramon; Sanchez, Raul; Esposito, Basilio

    2010-01-01

    The threshold electric field for runaway generation has been investigated during runaway suppression experiments by means of electron-cyclotron-resonance heating in the flattop phase of FTU discharges. Runaway suppression has been experimentally found to occur at electric fields substantially larger than those predicted by the relativistic collisional theory of runaway generation, E{sub R} = n{sub e}e{sup 3}ln{Lambda}/4{pi}{var_epsilon}{sub 0}{sup 2}m{sub e}c{sup 2}. These experimental results are consistent with an increase of the critical electric field due to the electron synchrotron radiation losses. No runaway electrons are found in FTU experiments below the radiation threshold. These results support evidence for a new threshold electric field for runaway generation that accounts for the effect of the synchrotron losses, and which should be considered when making predictions on runaway generation and mitigation in devices such as ITER.

  8. Sensory suppression of brain responses to self-generated sounds is observed with and without the perception of agency.

    PubMed

    Timm, Jana; Schönwiesner, Marc; Schröger, Erich; SanMiguel, Iria

    2016-07-01

    Stimuli caused by our own movements are given special treatment in the brain. Self-generated sounds evoke a smaller brain response than externally generated ones. This attenuated response may reflect a predictive mechanism to differentiate the sensory consequences of one's own actions from other sensory input. It may also relate to the feeling of being the agent of the movement and its effects, but little is known about how sensory suppression of brain responses to self-generated sounds is related to judgments of agency. To address this question, we recorded event-related potentials in response to sounds initiated by button presses. In one condition, participants perceived agency over the production of the sounds, whereas in another condition, participants experience an illusory lack of agency caused by changes in the delay between actions and effects. We compared trials in which the timing of button press and sound was physically identical, but participants' agency judgment differed. Results show reduced amplitudes of the auditory N1 component in response to self-generated sounds irrespective of agency experience, whilst P2 effects correlate with the perception of agency. Our findings suggest that suppression of the auditory N1 component to self-generated sounds does not depend on adaptation to specific action-effect time delays, and does not determine agency judgments, however, the suppression of the P2 component might relate more directly to the experience of agency. PMID:27137101

  9. Project Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, Larry D.

    Project Success consists of after-school, weekend, and summer educational programs geared toward minority and disadvantaged students to increase their numbers seeking postsecondary education from the Meadville, Pennsylvania area. The project is funded primarily through the Edinboro University of Pennsylvania, whose administration is committed to…

  10. The First Observation of Memory Effects in the InfraRed (FT-IR) Measurements: Do Successive Measurements Remember Each Other?

    PubMed Central

    Nigmatullin, Raoul R.; Osokin, Sergey I.; Baleanu, Dumitru; Al-Amri, Sawsan; Azam, Ameer; Memic, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Over the past couple of decades there have been major advances in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Many applications have sprouted from these fields of research. It is essential, given the scale of the materials, to attain accurate, valid and reproducible measurements. Material properties have shown to be a function of their size and composition. Physiochemical properties of the nanomaterials can significantly alter material behavior compared to bulk counterparts. For example, metal oxide nanoparticles have found broad applications ranging from photo-catalysis to antibacterial agents. In our study, we synthesized CuO nanoparticles using well established sol-gel based methods with varying levels of Ni doping. However, upon analysis of measured infrared data, we discovered the presence of quasi-periodic (QP) processes. Such processes have previously been reported to be tightly associated with measurement memory effects. We were able to detect the desired QP process in these measurements from three highly accurate repetitive experiments performed on each Ni (1–7%) doped CuO sample. In other words, successive measurements performed in a rather short period of time remember each other at least inside a group of neighboring measurements. PMID:24722337

  11. Observations of a successive stellar occultation by Charon and graze by Pluto in 2011: Multiwavelength SpeX and MORIS data from the IRTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulbis, A. A. S.; Emery, J. P.; Person, M. J.; Bosh, A. S.; Zuluaga, C. A.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.

    2015-01-01

    Pluto's lower atmosphere has been observed to evolve since the first definitive occultation detection in 1988. Possibilities for explaining the lower atmospheric structure include a steep thermal gradient and/or extinction, the latter of which can be characterized as a dependence between occultation flux and wavelength. On 2011 June 23, a 14.43 UCAC magnitude star (R = 13.64) was occulted by Pluto as observed from multiple sites. Observations made at NASA's 3-m Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i, showed a full occultation of the star by Charon followed by an atmospheric graze by Pluto. Data were taken simultaneously in visible-wavelength images and low-resolution, near-infrared spectra. This dataset is unique in that (i) the double occultation allows astrometric measurements for Pluto and Charon as well as accurate calibration of the Pluto light curve, and (ii) the wavelength-resolved data serve as a test for atmospheric extinction. The graze reached a minimum normalized flux level of roughly 0.35, serving primarily as a probe of Pluto's upper atmosphere (which is typically defined to be above half-light level in occultation light curves). However, the light curve is well fit by atmospheric models with a power-law thermal gradient, a clear upper atmosphere, and haze in the lower atmosphere. We find a negative dependence between flux and wavelength in the deepest part of Pluto's atmosphere probed by the graze and in a spike during emersion. A simple extinction model for spherical, μm-sized tholins matches the observed spectral trends. While the atmospheric fits cannot rule out a clear atmosphere having a steep thermal gradient at the bottom, the flux-wavelength dependence and the feasibility of our particle-scattering fits suggest that Pluto's lower atmosphere contained haze in 2011. These results provide an important link in monitoring Pluto's dynamic atmosphere.

  12. Systematic Motion of Fine-scale Jets and Successive Reconnection in Solar Chromospheric Anemone Jet Observed with the Solar Optical Telescope/Hinode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. A. P.; Isobe, H.; Nishida, K.; Shibata, K.

    2012-11-01

    The Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board Hinode allows observations with high spatiotemporal resolution and stable image quality. A λ-shaped chromospheric anemone jet was observed in high resolution with SOT/Hinode. We found that several fine-scale jets were launched from one end of the footpoint to the other. These fine-scale jets (~1.5-2.5 Mm) gradually move from one end of the footpoint to the other and finally merge into a single jet. This process occurs recurrently, and as time progresses the jet activity becomes more and more violent. The time evolution of the region below the jet in Ca II H filtergram images taken with SOT shows that various parts (or knots) appear at different positions. These bright knots gradually merge into each other during the maximum phase. The systematic motion of the fine-scale jets is observed when different knots merge into each other. Such morphology would arise due to the emergence of a three-dimensional twisted flux rope in which the axial component (or the guide field) appears in the later stages of the flux rope emergence. The partial appearance of the knots could be due to the azimuthal magnetic field that appears during the early stage of the flux rope emergence. If the guide field is strong and reconnection occurs between the emerging flux rope and an ambient magnetic field, this could explain the typical feature of systematic motion in chromospheric anemone jets.

  13. Real-time observation of coherent acoustic phonons generated by an acoustically mismatched optoacoustic transducer using x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Persson, A. I. H.; Andreasson, B. P.; Enquist, H.; Jurgilaitis, A.; Larsson, J.

    2015-11-14

    The spectrum of laser-generated acoustic phonons in indium antimonide coated with a thin nickel film has been studied using time-resolved x-ray diffraction. Strain pulses that can be considered to be built up from coherent phonons were generated in the nickel film by absorption of short laser pulses. Acoustic reflections at the Ni–InSb interface leads to interference that strongly modifies the resulting phonon spectrum. The study was performed with high momentum transfer resolution together with high time resolution. This was achieved by using a third-generation synchrotron radiation source that provided a high-brightness beam and an ultrafast x-ray streak camera to obtain a temporal resolution of 10 ps. We also carried out simulations, using commercial finite element software packages and on-line dynamic diffraction tools. Using these tools, it is possible to calculate the time-resolved x-ray reflectivity from these complicated strain shapes. The acoustic pulses have a peak strain amplitude close to 1%, and we investigated the possibility to use this device as an x-ray switch. At a bright source optimized for hard x-ray generation, the low reflectivity may be an acceptable trade-off to obtain a pulse duration that is more than an order of magnitude shorter.

  14. A ‘NanoSuit’ surface shield successfully protects organisms in high vacuum: observations on living organisms in an FE-SEM

    PubMed Central

    Takaku, Yasuharu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Ohta, Isao; Tsutsui, Takami; Matsumoto, Haruko; Shimomura, Masatsugu; Hariyama, Takahiko

    2015-01-01

    Although extremely useful for a wide range of investigations, the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) has not allowed researchers to observe living organisms. However, we have recently reported that a simple surface modification consisting of a thin extra layer, termed ‘NanoSuit’, can keep organisms alive in the high vacuum (10−5 to 10−7 Pa) of the SEM. This paper further explores the protective properties of the NanoSuit surface-shield. We found that a NanoSuit formed with the optimum concentration of Tween 20 faithfully preserves the integrity of an organism's surface without interfering with SEM imaging. We also found that electrostatic charging was absent as long as the organisms were alive, even if they had not been coated with electrically conducting materials. This result suggests that living organisms possess their own electrical conductors and/or rely on certain properties of the surface to inhibit charging. The NanoSuit seems to prolong the charge-free condition and increase survival time under vacuum. These findings should encourage the development of more sophisticated observation methods for studying living organisms in an FE-SEM. PMID:25631998

  15. A 'NanoSuit' surface shield successfully protects organisms in high vacuum: observations on living organisms in an FE-SEM.

    PubMed

    Takaku, Yasuharu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Ohta, Isao; Tsutsui, Takami; Matsumoto, Haruko; Shimomura, Masatsugu; Hariyama, Takahiko

    2015-03-01

    Although extremely useful for a wide range of investigations, the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) has not allowed researchers to observe living organisms. However, we have recently reported that a simple surface modification consisting of a thin extra layer, termed 'NanoSuit', can keep organisms alive in the high vacuum (10(-5) to 10(-7) Pa) of the SEM. This paper further explores the protective properties of the NanoSuit surface-shield. We found that a NanoSuit formed with the optimum concentration of Tween 20 faithfully preserves the integrity of an organism's surface without interfering with SEM imaging. We also found that electrostatic charging was absent as long as the organisms were alive, even if they had not been coated with electrically conducting materials. This result suggests that living organisms possess their own electrical conductors and/or rely on certain properties of the surface to inhibit charging. The NanoSuit seems to prolong the charge-free condition and increase survival time under vacuum. These findings should encourage the development of more sophisticated observation methods for studying living organisms in an FE-SEM. PMID:25631998

  16. A Narrow Amide I Vibrational Band Observed by Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy Reveals Highly Ordered Structures of a Biofilm Protein at the Air/Water Interface†

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhuguang; Morales-Acosta, M. Daniela; Li, Shanghao; Liu, Wei; Kanai, Tapan; Liu, Yuting; Chen, Ya-Na; Walker, Frederick J.; Ahn, Charles H.; Leblanc, Roger M.

    2016-01-01

    We characterized BslA, a bacterial biofilm protein, at the air/water interface using vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy and observed one of the sharpest amide I band ever reported. Combining methods of surface pressure measurements, thin film X-ray reflectivity, and atomic force microscopy, we showed extremely ordered BslA at the interface. PMID:26779572

  17. A Study on the Observation of Direct Lightning Current through the Wind Turbine Generator System in the Coast of the Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Yasuhiro; Otsuka, Takahiro; Matsuura, Hideki

    As clean energy that solves energy resources, many wind turbine generator systems have developed up to now, in Japan. The generation capacity of wind power is above 1 million kW, and the construction also continues from now on. The wind turbine generator systems are built in the good place of the wind condition, and those many are built on the coast of the Japan Sea. However, the coast of the Japan Sea is known as a place with much winter lightning, and wind turbine generator systems also often suffer the damage by winter lightning. The authors observed the lightning current that strikes through the wind turbine generator systems directly, in order to establish on the lightning protection of them. The authors acquired dozens of data as a result of observation in Akita Japan for 17 months. Based on these data, some considerations were performed about the performance of winter lightning that struck through the wind turbine generator systems. As the result of consideration, we found some interesting knowledge following sentence. It made clear anew that the tower which is a place of high position from the ground and on the windward has much number of lightning flash and many total flash charges. The lightning stroke current divided the tower pipe and ground leads. About 70% of the observed lightning current flowed to the tower pipe, and about 30% is divided into two grounding leads connected to the leg of tower. All of steep current that is on a wave front flow a tower side, it dose not flow to a grounding leads side. The distributions of lightning parameters between our observation results and past one are in good conformity.

  18. Successful integration efforts in water quality from the integrated Ocean Observing System Regional Associations and the National Water Quality Monitoring Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ragsdale, R.; Vowinkel, E.; Porter, D.; Hamilton, P.; Morrison, R.; Kohut, J.; Connell, B.; Kelsey, H.; Trowbridge, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS??) Regional Associations and Interagency Partners hosted a water quality workshop in January 2010 to discuss issues of nutrient enrichment and dissolved oxygen depletion (hypoxia), harmful algal blooms (HABs), and beach water quality. In 2007, the National Water Quality Monitoring Council piloted demonstration projects as part of the National Water Quality Monitoring Network (Network) for U.S. Coastal Waters and their Tributaries in three IOOS Regional Associations, and these projects are ongoing. Examples of integrated science-based solutions to water quality issues of major concern from the IOOS regions and Network demonstration projects are explored in this article. These examples illustrate instances where management decisions have benefited from decision-support tools that make use of interoperable data. Gaps, challenges, and outcomes are identified, and a proposal is made for future work toward a multiregional water quality project for beach water quality.

  19. Observation of electron behavior in ambipolar polymer-based light-emitting transistor by optical second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohshima, Yuki; Lim, Eunju; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2011-07-01

    By using the optical second harmonic generation (SHG) measurement, we directly visualized the carrier behavior leading to carrier recombination and electroluminescence (EL) in ambipolar polymer-based organic light-emitting transistor (OLET) with an active layer of poly 9,9-di-n-octylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiszole (F8BT). Eliminating photoluminescence generated at 560 nm by a two-photon absorption process, the dynamical carrier motion in the F8BT-OLET was visualized by the electric field induced SHG induced at 420 nm. Diffusion-like electron transport that starts from the drain electrode was directly caught as the transits of the SHG images. Accordingly, EL was obtained at the edge of the source electrode. The electron mobility was estimated from the visualized carrier motion as 9.2×10-4cm2/Vs, which was larger than that obtained from the transfer curve of the OLET.

  20. Rekindling Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, April

    2008-01-01

    What can a family, a school, or even a community do to re-engage students who have fallen by the wayside and thus become part of an unproductive, uninspired, and burden-heavy generation? One option, described in this article, is a Star Academy, comprised of several parts that cohesively function as a whole. To enable this synergy of education and…

  1. On the Preferred Flesh Color of Japanese and Chinese and the Determining Factors —Investigation of the Younger Generation Using Method of Successive Categories and Semantic Differential Method—

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ying; Deng, Pei; Tsuruoka, Hideki; Aoki, Naokazu; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki

    The preferred flesh color was surveyed by the successive five categories method and the SD method in Japan and China to investigate its determining factors. The Chinese most preferred flesh color was more reddish than the Japanese one, while the flesh color accepted by 50% and more of the observers in China was larger in chromaticness and more yellowish than in Japan. In the determining factors for selection of the preferred color extracted by a factor analysis, a big difference between Japanese and Chinese men was observed. The first factor of the former was kind personality, whereas that of the latter was showy appearance.

  2. Waste Generator Instructions: Key to Successful Implementation of the US DOE's 435.1 for Transuranic Waste Packaging Instructions (LA-UR-12-24155) - 13218

    SciTech Connect

    French, David M.; Hayes, Timothy A.; Pope, Howard L.; Enriquez, Alejandro E.; Carson, Peter H.

    2013-07-01

    In times of continuing fiscal constraints, a management and operation tool that is straightforward to implement, works as advertised, and virtually ensures compliant waste packaging should be carefully considered and employed wherever practicable. In the near future, the Department of Energy (DOE) will issue the first major update to DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. This update will contain a requirement for sites that do not have a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste certification program to use two newly developed technical standards: Contact-Handled Defense Transuranic Waste Packaging Instructions and Remote-Handled Defense Transuranic Waste Packaging Instructions. The technical standards are being developed from the DOE O 435.1 Notice, Contact-Handled and Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Packaging, approved August 2011. The packaging instructions will provide detailed information and instruction for packaging almost every conceivable type of transuranic (TRU) waste for disposal at WIPP. While providing specificity, the packaging instructions leave to each site's own discretion the actual mechanics of how those Instructions will be functionally implemented at the floor level. While the Technical Standards are designed to provide precise information for compliant packaging, the density of the information in the packaging instructions necessitates a type of Rosetta Stone that translates the requirements into concise, clear, easy to use and operationally practical recipes that are waste stream and facility specific for use by both first line management and hands-on operations personnel. The Waste Generator Instructions provide the operator with step-by-step instructions that will integrate the sites' various operational requirements (e.g., health and safety limits, radiological limits or dose limits) and result in a WIPP certifiable waste and package that can be transported to and emplaced at WIPP. These little known but widely productive Waste

  3. Observation of Self-Similarity in the Magnetic Fields Generated by the Ablative Nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lan

    2014-10-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability has been extensively studied because of its relevance to ignition target designs in inertial confinement fusion, material strength studies in high energy density physics, and astrophysical systems. This talk presents the first measurements of magnetic field generation by the nonlinear RT instability in laser-accelerated planar foils using ultrafast proton radiography at the OMEGA EP Laser System. Thin plastic foils were irradiated with 4-kJ, 2.5-ns laser pulses at focused laser intensities of ~1014 W /cm2. Target modulations were seeded by laser nonuniformities and amplified during the target-acceleration phase by the RT instability growth. A high-energy proton beam tracked the hydrodynamic evolution of the target and mapped the magnetic field spatial distribution with high spatial and temporal resolution. The experimental data show self-similar behavior in the growing cellular magnetic field structures. The calculated magnetic cell-merging rate is consistent with the value determined by earlier x-ray measurements, linking the cellular magnetic field structures with the RT bubble and spike growth. The results are consistent with two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations, showing MG-level magnetic field generation in the laser-driven foil. The work could benefit the understanding of magnetic-seed-field generation in high energy density plasmas and the flow-driven processes that induce global magnetic structures prior to their turbulent amplification by the dynamo process. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  4. Observation of cone and rod photoreceptors in normal subjects and patients using a new generation adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope

    PubMed Central

    Merino, David; Duncan, Jacque L.; Tiruveedhula, Pavan; Roorda, Austin

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the capability of a new generation adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) to resolve cones and rods in normal subjects, and confirm our findings by comparing cone and rod spacing with published histology measurements. Cone and rod spacing measurements are also performed on AOSLO images from two different diseased eyes, one affected by achromatopsia and the other by acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR). The potential of AOSLO technology in the study of these and other retinal diseases is illustrated. PMID:21833357

  5. Training and Mentoring the Next Generation of Scientists and Engineers to Secure Continuity and Successes of the US DOE's Environmental Remediation Efforts - 13387

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, L.

    2013-07-01

    The DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) oversees one of the largest and most technically challenging cleanup programs in the world. The mission of DOE-EM is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy from five decades of nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. Since 1995, Florida International University's Applied Research Center (FIU-ARC) has supported the DOE-EM mission and provided unique research capabilities to address some of these highly technical and difficult challenges. This partnership has allowed FIU-ARC to create a unique infrastructure that is critical for the training and mentoring of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) students and has exposed many STEM students to 'hands-on' DOE-EM applied research, supervised by the scientists and engineers at ARC. As a result of this successful partnership between DOE and FIU, DOE requested FIU-ARC to create the DOE-FIU Science and Technology Workforce Development Initiative in 2007. This innovative program was established to create a 'pipeline' of minority STEM students trained and mentored to enter DOE's environmental cleanup workforce. The program was designed to help address DOE's future workforce needs by partnering with academic, government and private companies (DOE contractors) to mentor future minority scientists and engineers in the research, development, and deployment of new technologies and processes addressing DOE's environmental cleanup challenges. Since its inception in 2007, the program has trained and mentored 78 FIU STEM minority students. Although, the program has been in existence for only five years, a total of 75 internships have been conducted at DOE National Laboratories, DOE sites, DOE Headquarters and field offices, and DOE contractors. Over 85 DOE Fellows have participated in the Waste Management Symposia since 2008 with a total of 68 student posters and 7 oral presentations given at WM. The DOE Fellows

  6. Analysis of supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear fibers pumped by erbium fiber laser sources: observations and optimizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shum, Ping; Tang, Ming L.; Qian, Yi; Gong, Yan D.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to use numerical simulations and experiments to investigate the SCG in HNLF and optimize the SCG according to the parameters of fiber and pump pulse. Complex temporal and spectral characteristics of supercontinuum generation are investigated in the zero-dispersion wavelength (ZDW) region of highly nonlinear fibers. The simulations are based on an extended nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE), which is valid even in circumstances where the bandwidth of the SCG is of the same order as the central frequency of the input pulse, and includes higher order nonlinearity, dispersion and intrapulse stimulated Raman scattering. We developed a finite difference scheme incorporating modified 4-th order Runge-Kutta algorithm to solve the equation. We discuss the SCG by varying the parameters of input pulse, such as pulse width, peak power, and center wavelength, to explore the dynamics of SCG in normal and anomalous dispersion regions. An optimal approach for supercontinuum generation is proposed and proved by experiments and simulations. The measured and calculated spectra are compared and exhibit good qualitative agreements. Our works provide a useful approach to design a practical SC source by using the conventional HNLF and readily available low power fiber laser sources.

  7. Numerical simulation and observations of very severe cyclone generated surface wave fields in the north Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirisha, P.; Remya, P. G.; Balakrishnan Nair, T. M.; Rao, B. Venkateswara

    2015-12-01

    Accurate wave forecast is most needed during tropical cyclones as it has adverse effects on the entire marine activities. The present work evaluates the performance of a wave forecasting system under very severe cyclonic conditions for the Indian Ocean. The wave model results are validated separately for the deep water and shallow water using in-situ observations. Satellite altimeter observations are also utilized for validation purpose. The results show that the model performance is accurate (SI < 26% and correlation > 0.9) and consistent during very severe cyclones (categories 4 and 5). The power of the cyclone waves which hit in the eastern Indian coastal region is also analysed and it reveals that the coastal region which lies on the right side of the cyclone track receives high amount wave energy throughout the cyclone period. The study also says that the abnormal waves mostly present on the right side of the track.

  8. Direct observation of the topological charge of a terahertz vortex beam generated by a Tsurupica spiral phase plate

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, K.; Suizu, K.; Akiba, T.; Omatsu, T.

    2014-06-30

    A terahertz (THz) spiral phase plate with high transmission (>90% after Fresnel correction) and low dispersion has been developed based on the Tsurupica olefin polymer. Direct observations of the topological charge (both magnitude and sign) of a THz vortex beam are performed by using a THz camera with tilted lens focusing and radial defect introduction. The vortex outputs with a topological charge of ±1 (or ±2) are obtained at a frequency of 2 (or 4) THz.

  9. Lightning-Generated Whistler Waves Observed by Probes On The Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System Satellite at Low Latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzworth, R. H.; McCarthy, M. P.; Pfaff, R. F.; Jacobson, A. R.; Willcockson, W. L.; Rowland, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    Direct evidence is presented for a causal relationship between lightning and strong electric field transients inside equatorial ionospheric density depletions. In fact, these whistler mode plasma waves may be the dominant electric field signal within such depletions. Optical lightning data from the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite and global lightning location information from the World Wide Lightning Location Network are presented as independent verification that these electric field transients are caused by lightning. The electric field instrument on C/NOFS routinely measures lightning ]related electric field wave packets or sferics, associated with simultaneous measurements of optical flashes at all altitudes encountered by the satellite (401.867 km). Lightning ]generated whistler waves have abundant access to the topside ionosphere, even close to the magnetic equator.

  10. Experimental observation of phonon generation and propagation at a Mo S2(0001 ) surface in the friction process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Makoto; Wada, Noriyuki; Miyakawa, Takahiko; Matsukawa, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Masaru; Sasaki, Naruo; Miura, Kouji

    2016-05-01

    We report phonon dispersion curves obtained at a Mo S2(0001 ) surface in the friction process with a load and shear. An atomic force microscope tip used to apply stresses generated lattice strain on an oscillating Mo S2(0001 ) surface, which dissipated via acoustic phonons. The dissipation energy of the phonons strongly depended on the size of the lattice strain. The motion of the acoustic phonons consisted of a longitudinal mode and a transverse mode, but the occurrence of their phonon modes depended on the crystallographic direction, which reflects the atomic arrangement of the Mo S2(0001 ) surface. Thus, we can control the energy dissipation and friction by using the phonon dissipation curves in the friction process with a load and shear.

  11. Multiple polypeptide forms observed in two-dimensional gels of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) polypeptides are generated during the separation procedure.

    PubMed

    Berven, Frode S; Karlsen, Odd A; Murrell, J Colin; Jensen, Harald B

    2003-02-01

    We have examined two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gel maps of polypeptides from the Gram-negative bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) and found the same widespread trains of spots as often reported in 2-DE gels of polypeptides of other Gram-negative bacteria. Some of the trains of polypeptides, both from the outer membrane and soluble protein fraction, were shown to be generated during the separation procedure of 2-DE, and not by covalent post-translational modifications. The trains were found to be regenerated when rerunning individual polypeptide spots. The polypeptides analysed giving this type of trains were all found to be classified as stable polypeptides according to the instability index of Guruprasad et al. (Protein Eng. 1990, 4, 155-161). The phenomenon most likely reflects conformational equilibria of polypeptides arising from the experimental conditions used, and is a clear drawback of the standard 2-DE procedure, making the gel picture unnecessarily complex to analyse. PMID:12601748

  12. Mean and fluctuating basal forces generated by granular flows: Laboratory observations in a large vertically rotating drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, L.; Dietrich, W. E.; Sklar, L. S.

    2014-06-01

    A flowing granular mass generates forces on the boundary that drive near-bed grain dynamics, bed surface erosion, and energy dissipation. Few quantitative analyses exist of the controls on the dynamically fluctuating force caused by granular flows with wide-grain-size distributions and a liquid phase in the pores. To study the mechanisms controlling the boundary forces, we used a 225 cm2 load plate to measure the bed-normal force from a suite of granular flows in a 4 m diameter, 80 cm wide vertically rotating drum. We analyzed the time series of bed forces generated in flows composed of granular material for both narrow (gravel-water) and wide (muddy, sand-gravel-cobble) grain-size distributions. The tail of the force distribution was captured more closely by a generalized Pareto distribution than an exponential distribution, suggesting a way to predict empirically the force distribution. We show that the impulse on the bed, related to kinetic energy transferred to the bed from the granular collisions, is quantified by the standard deviation of the force. The mean bulk force equaled the static weight of the flow, whereas the force fluctuations, represented by the standard deviation and the averaged top 1% of force, were a near-linear function of effective grain diameter and flow velocity, and a ˜0.5 power function of an inertial stress scaling term. The force fluctuations depend on both Savage and Bagnold numbers. The correlations revealed in this study suggest that it may be possible to estimate dynamic forces on the bed from gross properties of the flows.

  13. The Success of Thread-embedding Therapy in Generating Hair Re-growth in Mice Points to Its Possibly Having a Similar Effect in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyun Jong; Lee, Dong-Jin; Kwon, Kang; Seo, Hyung-Sik; Jeong, Han-Sol; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Ha, Ki-Tae; Lee, Chang-Hyun; Jang, Yong-Suk; Lee, Byung-Wook; Kim, Byung Joo; Jung, Myeong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Recently, thread-embedding therapy (TET) has been widely applied in Korean medicine for cosmetic purposes such as reducing skin wrinkles. An inserted thread was reported to have induced continuous stimulation, followed by support for connective tissue regeneration. However, the potential role of TET in hairgrowth has not yet been reported. Methods: We designed this study to evaluate whether TET has a hair-growth-promoting effect. C57 black 6 (C57BL/6) mice were divided into three groups: normal saline-treated, minoxidil-treated, and thread-embedded groups. Normal saline or 5% minoxidil was topically sprayed on the dorsal skin of the mice once a day for 16 days. Medical threads were embedded into the dorsal skin of the mice in a single application. Hair growth activity was evaluated by using dermoscopic and microscopic observations. Sections of the dorsal skin were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Expressions of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7), and fibroblast growth factor-5 (FGF-5) were detected by using immunohistochemical staining. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was adopted to measure the messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of FGF-7 and FGF-5. Results: TET enhanced anagen development in the hair follicles of C57BL/6 mice. The expressions of BrdU and PCNA, both of which imply active cellular proliferation, were increased by using TET. Moreover, TET increased the expression of FGF-7, an anagen-inducing growth factor, while decreasing the expression of FGF-5, an anagen-cessation growth factor, both at the protein and the mRNA levels. Conclusion: TET enhanced hair re-growth in C57BL/6 mice. TET regulated the expressions of anagen-associated growth factors and activated the proliferation of hair follicular cells in depilated skin lesions. Considering its long-lasting effect, TET may be a good alternative therapeutic for the treatment of alopecia

  14. Simultaneous Pc 1 observations by the synchronous satellite ATS-1 and ground stations - Implications concerning IPDP generation mechanisms. [Intervals of Pulsations Diminishing by Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bossen, M.; Mcpherron, R. L.; Russell, C. T.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for an experimental study designed to examine the properties of Pc 1 activity observed simultaneously at ATS 1 and two Canadian ground stations. The Pc 1 activity is found to follow substorm expansion phase onsets and to occur most frequently at dusk. Dynamic spectra waves at both ground stations are that of IPDP (Intervals of Pulsations Diminishing by Period) type Pc 1. A previously proposed mechanism to explain IPDP generation, which required a rapid increase in the equatorial magnetic field to produce IPDP, is inconsistent with the dynamic spectra and magnetic field observations. Either purely azimuthal or a combination of azimuthal and radial inward drift of energetic resonant protons is an equally plausible mechanism to explain IPDP generation.

  15. Experimental observation of constructive superposition of wakefields generated by electron bunches in a dielectric-lined waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchelkunov, S. V.; Marshall, T. C.; Hirshfield, J. L.; Babzien, M. A.; Lapointe, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    We report results from an experiment that demonstrates the successful superposition of wakefields excited by 50 MeV bunches which travel ˜50cm along the axis of a cylindrical waveguide which is lined with alumina. The bunches are prepared by splitting a single laser pulse prior to focusing it onto the cathode of an rf gun into two pulses and inserting an optical delay in the path of one of them. Wakefields from two short (5-6 psec) 0.15-0.35 nC bunches are superimposed and the energy loss of each bunch is measured as the separation between the bunches is varied so as to encompass approximately one wakefield period (˜21cm). A spectrum of ˜40TM0m eigenmodes is excited by the bunch. A substantial retarding wakefield (2.65MV/m·nC for just the first bunch) is developed because of the short bunch length and the narrow vacuum channel diameter (3 mm) through which they move. The energy loss of the second bunch exhibits a narrow peak when the bunch spacing is varied by only 4 mm (13.5 psec). This experiment is compared with a related experiment reported by a group at the Argonne National Laboratory where the bunch spacing was not varied and a much weaker retarding wakefield (˜0.1MV/m·nC for the first bunch) comprising only about 10 eigenmodes was excited by a train of long (˜9mm) bunches.

  16. JAMSTEC Compact Arctic Drifter (J-CAD): A new Generation drifting buoy to observe the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatakeyama, Kiyoshi; Hosono, Masuo; Shimada, Koji; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nishino, Shigeto

    The Arctic Ocean is one of the most sensitive regions to the earth environment changes. Japan Marine Science and Technology Center developed a new drift buoy to observe the Arctic Ocean. The name of the buoy is J-CAD (JAMSTEC Compact Arctic Drifter). From 1991 to 1993, JAMSTEC developed Ice-Ocean Environmental Buoy (IOEB) as a buoy to observe the Arctic Ocean in cooperation with Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The J-CAD is the buoy, which adopted the latest technology based on the knowledge and experience of IOEB development. The J-CAD was designed and developed by JAMSTEC and made by a Canadian Company MetOcean. JAMSTEC did design and development, and a Canadian company Met-Ocean made the J-CAD. It acquires meteorological and oceanographic data of the Arctic Ocean, and transmits the data that it measured via satellite. It dose also store the data inside its memory. An Inductive Modem system, which was developed by Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc. in the United States, was adopted in the underwater transmission system that data on each ocean sensor were collected. An ORBCOMM communication system was adopted for the satellite data transmission. J-CAD-1 was installed at 89°41'N 130°20'W on April 24, 2000, and the observation was started. August 1st was the day when 100 days have passed since the J-CAD-1 was installed on the North Pole. And now, the distance J-CAD-1 has covered exceeds 400 km, and it has transmitted data more than 500 k byte. A part of the data is introduced to the public in the homepage (http://w3.jamstec.go.jp: 8338) of the Arctic research group of JAMSTEC.

  17. In situ observations of wave-supported fluid-mud generation and deposition on an active continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, Richard P.; Ogston, Andrea S.

    2015-11-01

    Wave-supported fluid muds (WSFM) are a type of gravity flow that can rapidly transport sediment across continental margins. They occur when wave-induced bed stress maintains suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC) >10 g L-1, and sediment-induced stratification near the top of the wave boundary layer limits upward diffusion of sediment. Observations from near-bed instrumentation are used to evaluate the conditions under which WSFMs form on the continental shelf offshore of the Waipaoa River, NZ. An event in July 2010 featured >130 h of energetic ocean conditions, and water discharge >1900 m3 s-1. A calibrated acoustic backscatter sensor at the midshelf measured near-bed SSC >50 g L-1, with a strong lutocline occurring >15 cm above the predicted wave-current boundary layer, resulting in ~5 cm deposition. A velocity anomaly occurred during this time, with offshore-directed currents faster at 1 m above bed (mab) than at 3.5 mab. Using these observations, we empirically solve a simple buoyancy-drag force balance to estimate the gravity-driven velocity of the WSFM, which is always <0.03 m s-1. Extending the force balance across a shelf transect suggests that WSFM-carried sediment can reach the shelf edge in 50-240 h. Spatial and temporal patterns of deposition predicted by the gradient of modeled sediment flux correlate well with seabed observations on the Waipaoa shelf reported in Walsh et al. (2014). This study highlights the importance of WSFMs for cross-shelf sediment transport, despite relatively slow gravity-driven velocities and the infrequency with which they occur.

  18. Observation of Charge Inversion of an Ionic Liquid at the Solid Salt-Liquid Interface by Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Peñalber, Chariz Y; Baldelli, Steven

    2012-04-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy of the ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide [BMIM][DCA], in contact with two different solid salt surfaces, BaF2(111) single crystal and solid NaCl{100}, are discussed in this Letter. This investigation describes the nature of an ionic liquid-(solid) salt interface using SFG, contributing a new understanding to the molecular-level interactions involved in salts, which are conceptually similar compounds (of purely ionic character) but of different physical properties (liquid versus solid at room temperature). Results show the presence of [BMIM](+) at the NaCl{100} surface and [DCA](-) at the BaF2(111) surface. [BMIM](+) cations adhere closely via Coulombic interactions to the negatively charged NaCl{100} surface, while [DCA](-) anions subsequently have a strong electrostatic affinity to the positively charged BaF2(111) surface. Ions of the ionic liquid adsorb to the solid salt surface to form a Helmholtz-like electric double layer. PMID:26286408

  19. Observation of Arabian and Saharan Dust in Cyprus with a New Generation of the Smart Raman Lidar Polly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelmann, Ronny; Ansmann, Albert; Bühl, Johannes; Heese, Birgit; Baars, Holger; Althausen, Dietrich; Marinou, Eleni; Amiridis, Vassilis; Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet; Vrekoussis, Mihalis

    2016-06-01

    The atmospheric science community demands for autonomous and quality-assured vertically resolved measurements of aerosol and cloud properties. Aiming this goal, TROPOS developed the fully automated multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar Polly since over 10 years [1, 2]. In cooperation with different partner research institutes the system was improved continuously. Our latest lidar developments include aside the "3+2" measurements also a near-range receiver to measure aerosol extinction and backscatter down to 120 m above the lidar, a water-vapor channel, and measurements of the linear depolarization at two wavelengths. The latest system was built in cooperation with the National Observatory of Athens (NOA). Its first campaign however was performed at the Cyprus Institute of Nicosia from March to April 2015, aiming specifically at the observation of ice nuclei with in-situ and lidar remote sensing techniques in the framework of BACCHUS [3, 4].

  20. Independent saturation of three TrpRS subsites generates a partially assembled state similar to those observed in molecular simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Laowanapiban, Poramaet; Kapustina, Maryna; Vonrhein, Clemens; Delarue, Marc; Koehl, Patrice; Carter Jr., Charles W.

    2009-03-05

    Two new crystal structures of Bacillus stearothermophilus tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) afford evidence that a closed interdomain hinge angle requires a covalent bond between AMP and an occupant of either pyrophosphate or tryptophan subsite. They also are within experimental error of a cluster of structures observed in a nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation showing partial active-site assembly. Further, the highest energy structure in a minimum action pathway computed by using elastic network models for Open and Pretransition state (PreTS) conformations for the fully liganded TrpRS monomer is intermediate between that simulated structure and a partially disassembled structure from a nonequilibrium molecular dynamics trajectory for the unliganded PreTS. These mutual consistencies provide unexpected validation of inferences drawn from molecular simulations.

  1. Bangladesh becomes "success story".

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    The State Minister for Health and Family of Bangladesh, Dr. Mohammed Amanullah, highlighted some of the successes being achieved by his country in lowering fertility and improving the lives of the people since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Some of these successes include practical measures to eliminate violence against women; introduction of a quota for women in public sector employment; and launching of the Health and Population Sector Program to provide a one-stop, full range of essential reproductive health, family planning and child health services through an integrated delivery mechanism. Moreover, the Minister informed the Forum participants that their success is attributable to many factors which include support from the government, from non-governmental organizations, civil society, mass media, religious and other community leaders, intersectoral collaboration, microcredit and income-generation activities. PMID:12295511

  2. Relationships between atmospheric circulation indices and rainfall in Northern Algeria and comparison of observed and RCM-generated rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taibi, S.; Meddi, M.; Mahé, G.; Assani, A.

    2015-09-01

    This work aims, as a first step, to analyze rainfall variability in Northern Algeria, in particular extreme events, during the period from 1940 to 2010. Analysis of annual rainfall shows that stations in the northwest record a significant decrease in rainfall since the 1970s. Frequencies of rainy days for each percentile (5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 95th, and 99th) and each rainfall interval class (1-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-50, and ≥50 mm) do not show a significant change in the evolution of daily rainfall. The Tenes station is the only one to show a significant decrease in the frequency of rainy days up to the 75th percentile and for the 10-20-mm interval class. There is no significant change in the temporal evolution of extreme events in the 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles. The relationships between rainfall variability and general atmospheric circulation indices for interannual and extreme event variability are moderately influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Mediterranean Oscillation. Significant correlations are observed between the Southern Oscillation Index and annual rainfall in the northwestern part of the study area, which is likely linked with the decrease in rainfall in this region. Seasonal rainfall in Northern Algeria is affected by the Mediterranean Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation in the west. The ENSEMBLES regional climate models (RCMs) are assessed using the bias method to test their ability to reproduce rainfall variability at different time scales. The Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques (CNRM), Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI), Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (ETHZ), and Forschungszentrum Geesthacht (GKSS) models yield the least biased results.

  3. Partially Hydrated Electrons at the Air/Water Interface Observed by UV-Excited Time-Resolved Heterodyne-Detected Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Korenobu; Kusaka, Ryoji; Nihonyanagi, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Shoichi; Nagata, Takashi; Tahara, Tahei

    2016-06-22

    Hydrated electrons are the most fundamental anion species, consisting only of electrons and surrounding water molecules. Although hydrated electrons have been extensively studied in the bulk aqueous solutions, even their existence is still controversial at the water surface. Here, we report the observation and characterization of hydrated electrons at the air/water interface using new time-resolved interface-selective nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy. With the generation of electrons at the air/water interface by ultraviolet photoirradiation, we observed the appearance of a strong transient band in the OH stretch region by heterodyne-detected vibrational sum-frequency generation. Through the comparison with the time-resolved spectra at the air/indole solution interface, the transient band was assigned to the vibration of water molecules that solvate electrons at the interface. The analysis of the frequency and decay of the observed transient band indicated that the electrons are only partially hydrated at the water surface, and that they escape into the bulk within 100 ps. PMID:27281547

  4. Observation of the Spatio-Temporal Variability of Snowmelt and Runoff Generation During Rain-on-Snow in a Catchment With Complex Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvelmann, J.; Pohl, S.; Weiler, M.

    2015-12-01

    Rain-on-snow (ROS) is a typical flood type in montane catchments with temperate climates in many parts of the world and their frequency will most likely increase under changing climate conditions. These flood events have been notoriously hard to predict due to their complex nature and the lack of high resolution spatial and temporal data that could be used for model evaluation and detailed investigations of how a ROS event actually develops in a catchment. The presented study will focus on the spatio-temporal variability of the snow cover distribution, snowmelt energy dynamics, and runoff generation during two ROS events in December 2012 by using hourly measurements of 30 standalone snow monitoring stations set-up in a mesoscale montane catchment in the Black Forest region of southwestern Germany. A multiple linear regression analysis using elevation, aspect, and land cover as predictors for the snow water equivalent distribution within the catchment was applied on an hourly basis. The generated snowmelt water, liquid precipitation, as well as the total retention storage of the snow cover were considered in order to estimate the amount of water potentially available for runoff. The study shows in a very high spatial and temporal resolution how the observed ROS floods developed in the catchment. It became evident that the distributed retention capacity of the snow cover is a crucial mechanism during ROS. Due to higher amounts of snow and increased rainfall in the higher parts of the catchment, elevation was the most important terrain feature for runoff generation. South-facing terrain contributed more water to runoff than north-facing slopes, and only slightly more runoff was generated at open compared to forested areas. The results highlight the importance of the combination of snowmelt together with liquid precipitation for the generation of flood runoff during ROS events and the large temporal and spatial variability of the relevant processes.

  5. On the Issue of the {zeta} series convergence and loop corrections in the generation of observable primordial non-Gaussianity in slow-roll inflation. II. The trispectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Yeinzon; Valenzuela-Toledo, Cesar A.

    2010-01-15

    We calculate the trispectrum T{sub {zeta}}of the primordial curvature perturbation {zeta}, generated during a slow-roll inflationary epoch by considering a two-field quadratic model of inflation with canonical kinetic terms. We consider loop contributions as well as tree-level terms, and show that it is possible to attain very high, including observable, values for the level of non-Gaussianity {tau}{sub NL} if T{sub {zeta}}is dominated by the one-loop contribution. Special attention is paid to the claim in J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 02 (2009) 017 that, in the model studied in this paper and for the specific inflationary trajectory we choose, the quantum fluctuations of the fields overwhelm the classical evolution. We argue that such a claim actually does not apply to our model, although more research is needed in order to understand the role of quantum diffusion. We also consider the probability that an observer in an ensemble of realizations of the density field sees a non-Gaussian distribution. In that respect, we show that the probability associated to the chosen inflationary trajectory is non-negligible. Finally, the levels of non-Gaussianity f{sub NL} and {tau}{sub NL} in the bispectrum B{sub {zeta}}and trispectrum T{sub {zeta}}of {zeta}, respectively, are also studied for the case in which {zeta} is not generated during inflation.

  6. Fast and Efficient Fragment-Based Lead Generation by Fully Automated Processing and Analysis of Ligand-Observed NMR Binding Data.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chen; Frommlet, Alexandra; Perez, Manuel; Cobas, Carlos; Blechschmidt, Anke; Dominguez, Santiago; Lingel, Andreas

    2016-04-14

    NMR binding assays are routinely applied in hit finding and validation during early stages of drug discovery, particularly for fragment-based lead generation. To this end, compound libraries are screened by ligand-observed NMR experiments such as STD, T1ρ, and CPMG to identify molecules interacting with a target. The analysis of a high number of complex spectra is performed largely manually and therefore represents a limiting step in hit generation campaigns. Here we report a novel integrated computational procedure that processes and analyzes ligand-observed proton and fluorine NMR binding data in a fully automated fashion. A performance evaluation comparing automated and manual analysis results on (19)F- and (1)H-detected data sets shows that the program delivers robust, high-confidence hit lists in a fraction of the time needed for manual analysis and greatly facilitates visual inspection of the associated NMR spectra. These features enable considerably higher throughput, the assessment of larger libraries, and shorter turn-around times. PMID:26964888

  7. The Role of Large Amplitude Upstream Low-frequency Waves in the Generation of Superthermal Ions at a Quasi-parallel Collisionless Shock: Cluster Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mingyu; Hao, Yufei; Lu, Quanming; Huang, Can; Guo, Fan; Wang, Shui

    2015-07-01

    The superthermal ions at a quasi-parallel collisionless shock are considered to be generated during the reformation of the shock. Recently, hybrid simulations of a quasi-parallel shock have shown that during the reformation of a quasi-parallel shock the large-amplitude upstream low-frequency waves can trap the reflected ions at the shock front when they try to move upstream, and then these reflected ions can be accelerated several times to become superthermal ions. In this paper, with the Cluster observations of a quasi-parallel shock event, the relevance between the large-amplitude upstream low-frequency waves and the superthermal ions (about several keV) have been studied. The observations clearly show that the differential energy flux of superthermal ions in the upstream region is modulated by the upstream low-frequency waves, and the maxima of the differential energy flux are usually located between the peaks of these waves (including the shock front and the peak of the upstream wave just in front of the shock front). These superthermal ions are considered to originate from the reflected ions at the shock front, and the modulation is caused due to the trapping of the reflected ions between the upstream waves or the upstream waves and the shock front when these reflected ions try to travel upstream. It verifies the results from hybrid simulations, where the upstream waves play an important role in the generation of superthermal ions in a quasi-parallel shock.

  8. Possible generation mechanisms for Pc1 pearl structures in the ionosphere based on 6 years of ground observations in Canada, Russia, and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Chae-Woo; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Connors, Martin; Schofield, Ian; Poddelsky, Igor; Shevtsov, Boris

    2016-05-01

    We investigate pearl structures (amplitude modulations) of Pc1 pulsations simultaneously observed at Athabasca (ATH, 54.7°N, 246.7°E, L = 4.3) in Canada, Magadan (MGD, 60.1°N, 150.7°E, L = 2.6) in Russia, and Moshiri (MOS, 44.4°N, 142.3°E, L = 1.5) in Japan. From 6 years of ground observations, from 2008 to 2013, we selected 84 Pc1 events observed simultaneously at the longitudinally separated stations (ATH and MGD) and 370 events observed at the latitudinally separated stations (MGD and MOS), all with high coherence (>0.7) of Pc1 waveforms. We calculated the cross-correlation coefficient (similarity: r) for the Pc1 pearl structures and found that more than half of the events in both pairs had low similarity (r < 0.7), indicating that most Pc1 waves exhibit different pearl structures at different stations. We found that high-similarity Pc1 pearl structures (r > 0.7) at the longitudinally separated stations are concentrated from 6 to 15 UT when both stations are in the nighttime. The similarity of Pc1 pearl structures tends to show a negative correlation with the standard deviation of the polarization angle in both pairs. The observed repetition period of Pc1 pearl structures has a clear positive correlation with the repetition period estimated from Pc1 bandwidth by assuming beating of different frequencies. From these results, we suggest that ionospheric beating effect could be a dominant process for the generation of Pc1 pearl structures. Beating processes in the ionosphere with a spatially distributed ionospheric source can cause the different shapes of Pc1 pearl structures at different observation points during ionospheric duct propagation.

  9. Observing system simulation experiments to evaluate the expected added-value of a new generation IASI satellite instrument for lower tropospheric ozone analyses and forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauphin, Pierre; Sellitto, Pasquale; Dufour, Gaëlle; Coman, Adriana; Forêt, Gilles; Eremenko, Maxim; Cuesta, Juan; Gaubert, Benjamin; Beekmann, Matthias; Peuch, Vincent-Henri; Flaud, Jean-Marie

    2013-04-01

    Tropospheric ozone can adversely impact human health, climate and the ecosystem. Monitoring and legislation are implemented to regulate its concentrations. Air quality (AQ) monitoring from space starts to be regarded as a useful tool to complement with in situ measurements and regional chemical transport models (rCTM) to draw a more comprehensive picture of pollution processes. Important progresses in the field of tropospheric ozone sounding from space have been accomplished during the last decade, especially with thermal infrared (TIR) space-borne instruments. It is now possible to observe tropospheric ozone concentrations from space with a reasonable accuracy. However, limitations remain with the current observation systems in particular to observe ozone in the lowermost troposphere. IASI-NG, that will be part of the EPS-SG (EUMETSAT Polar System-Second Generation) programme, is expected to improve the observation capabilities of AQ in terms of ozone in the lower troposphere. Observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) are powerful tools to quantify the added-value of future missions. An OSSE is composed of different elements: (1) one reference atmosphere, usually given by model simulations (the Nature Run); (2) an optimized observation simulator, providing the pseudo-observations; (3) an independent description of the atmosphere (the Control Run); (4) an assimilation system, providing the Assimilation Run. We conduct relative OSSEs, aimed at comparing the contribution of one possible configuration of IASI-NG (IASI-NG/IRS2) and the present IASI instrument, used as a baseline. The spectral resolution and the radiometric noise in the ozone spectral region, for IASI-NG/IRS2, are twice better than for IASI. IASI-NG/IRS2 pseudo-observations are processed using a comprehensive simulator based on the radiative transfer model KOPRA and the KOPRAFIT inversion module. The Nature Run is given by the CTM MOCAGE model, the Control Run is produced with the CHIMERE CTM, and

  10. A next generation Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO-100) for IR/optical observations of the rise phase of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossan, B.; Park, I. H.; Ahmad, S.; Ahn, K. B.; Barrillon, P.; Brandt, S.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Chen, P.; Choi, H. S.; Choi, Y. J.; Connell, P.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; De La Taille, C.; Eyles, C.; Hermann, I.; Huang, M.-H. A.; Jung, A.; Jeong, S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.-W.; Kim, Y. W.; Lee, J.; Lim, H.; Linder, E. V.; Liu, T.-C.; Lund, N.; Min, K. W.; Na, G. W.; Nam, J. W.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Ripa, J.; Reglero, V.; Rodrigo, J. M.; Smoot, G. F.; Suh, J. E.; Svertilov, S.; Vedenkin, N.; Wang, M.-Z.; Yashin, I.; Zhao, M. H.

    2012-09-01

    The Swift Gamma-ray Burst (GRB) observatory responds to GRB triggers with optical observations in ~ 100 s, butcannot respond faster than ~ 60 s. While some rapid-response ground-based telescopes have responded quickly, thenumber of sub-60 s detections remains small. In 2013 June, the Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory-Pathfinder is expected tobe launched on the Lomonosov spacecraft to investigate early optical GRB emission. Though possessing uniquecapability for optical rapid-response, this pathfinder mission is necessarily limited in sensitivity and event rate; here wediscuss the next generation of rapid-response space observatory instruments. We list science topics motivating ourinstruments, those that require rapid optical-IR GRB response, including: A survey of GRB rise shapes/times,measurements of optical bulk Lorentz factors, investigation of magnetic dominated (vs. non-magnetic) jet models,internal vs. external shock origin of prompt optical emission, the use of GRBs for cosmology, and dust evaporation inthe GRB environment. We also address the impacts of the characteristics of GRB observing on our instrument andobservatory design. We describe our instrument designs and choices for a next generation space observatory as a secondinstrument on a low-earth orbit spacecraft, with a 120 kg instrument mass budget. Restricted to relatively modest mass,power, and launch resources, we find that a coded mask X-ray camera with 1024 cm2 of detector area could rapidlylocate about 64 GRB triggers/year. Responding to the locations from the X-ray camera, a 30 cm aperture telescope witha beam-steering system for rapid (~ 1 s) response and a near-IR camera should detect ~ 29 GRB, given Swift GRBproperties. The additional optical camera would permit the measurement of a broadband optical-IR slope, allowingbetter characterization of the emission, and dynamic measurement of dust extinction at the source, for the first time.

  11. A Physical Method for Generating the Surface Temperature from Passive Microwave Observations by Addressing the Thermal Sampling Depth for Barren Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zhou, J.; Dai, F.

    2015-12-01

    The land surface temperature (LST) is an important parameter in studying the global and regional climate change. Passive microwave (PMW) remote sensing is less influenced by the atmosphere and has a unique advantage in cloudy regions compared to satellite thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing. However, the accuracy of LST estimation of many PMW remote sensing models, especially in barren land, is unsatisfactory due to the neglected discrepancy of thermal sampling depth between PMW and TIR. Here, a physical method for PMW remote sensing is proposed to generate the surface temperature, which has the same physically meaning as the TIR surface temperature, by addressing the thermal sampling depth over barren land surface. The method was applied to the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) data. Validation with the synchronous Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LSTs demonstrates that the method has better performances in estimating LSTs than another two methods that neglect the thermal sampling depth. In Northwest China and a part of Mongolia, the root mean squared errors (RMSEs) the physical method were 3.9 K and 3.7K for daytime and nighttime cases, respectively. In the region of western Namibia, the corresponding RMSEs were 3.8 K and 4.5 K. Further comparison with the in-situ measured LST temperatures at a ground station confirmed the better performance of the proposed method, compared with another two methods. The proposed method will be beneficial for improving the accuracies of the LSTs estimated from PMW observations and integrating the LST products generated from both the TIR and PMW remote sensing.

  12. Ground and CHAMP observations of field-aligned current circuits generated by lower atmospheric disturbances and expectations to the SWARM to clarify their three dimensional structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyemori, Toshihiko; Nakanishi, Kunihito; Aoyama, Tadashi; Lühr, Hermann

    2014-05-01

    Acoustic gravity waves propagated to the ionosphere cause dynamo currents in the ionosphere. They divert along geomagnetic field lines of force to another hemisphere accompanying electric field and then flow in the ionosphere of another hemisphere by the electric field forming closed current circuits. The oscillating current circuits with the period of acoustic waves generate magnetic variations on the ground, and they are observed as long period geomagnetic pulsations. This effect has been detected during big earthquakes, strong typhoons, tornados etc. On a low-altitude satellite orbit, the spatial distribution (i.e., structure) of the current circuits along the satellite orbit should be detected as temporal magnetic oscillations, and the effect is confirmed by a CHAMP data analysis. On the spatial structure, in particular, in the longitudinal direction, it has been difficult to examine by a single satellite or from ground magnetic observations. The SWARM satellites will provide an unique opportunity to clarify the three dimensional structure of the field-aligned current circuits.

  13. Continuous generation and two-dimensional structure of equatorial plasma bubbles observed by high-density GPS receivers in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhari, S. M.; Abdullah, M.; Hasbi, A. M.; Otsuka, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Nishioka, M.; Tsugawa, T.

    2014-12-01

    High-density GPS receivers located in Southeast Asia (SEA) were utilized to study the two-dimensional structure of ionospheric plasma irregularities in the equatorial region. The longitudinal and latitudinal variations of tens of kilometer-scale irregularities associated with equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) were investigated using two-dimensional maps of the rate of total electron content change index (ROTI) from 127 GPS receivers with an average spacing of about 50-100 km. The longitudinal variations of the two-dimensional maps of GPS ROTI measurement on 5 April 2011 revealed that 16 striations of EPBs were generated continuously around the passage of the solar terminator. The separation distance between the subsequent onset locations varied from 100 to 550 km with 10 min intervals. The lifetimes of the EPBs observed by GPS ROTI measurement were between 50 min and over 7 h. The EPBs propagated 440-3000 km toward the east with velocities of 83-162 m s-1. The longitudinal variations of EPBs by GPS ROTI keogram coincided with the depletions of 630 nm emission observed using the airglow imager. Six EPBs were observed by GPS ROTI along the meridian of Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR), while only three EPBs were detected by the EAR. The high-density GPS receivers in SEA have an advantage of providing time continuous descriptions of latitudinal/longitudinal variations of EPBs with both high spatial resolution and broad geographical coverage. The spatial periodicity of the EPBs could be associated with a wavelength of the quasiperiodic structures on the bottomside of the F region which initiate the Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

  14. A statistical approach for rain class evaluation using Meteosat Second Generation-Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricciardelli, E.; Cimini, D.; Di Paola, F.; Romano, F.; Viggiano, M.

    2013-11-01

    Precipitation measurements are essential for short term hydrological and long term climate studies. Operational networks of rain gauges and weather radars provide fairly accurate rain rate measurements, but they leave large areas uncovered. Because of this, satellite remote sensing is a useful tool for the detection and characterization of the raining areas in regions where this information remains missing. This study exploits the Meteosat Second Generation - Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (MSG-SEVIRI) observations to evaluate the rain class at high spatial and temporal resolutions. The Rain Class Evaluation from Infrared and Visible (RainCEIV) observations technique is proposed. The purpose of RainCEIV is to supply continuous monitoring of convective as well as of stratiform rainfall events. It applies a supervised classifier to the spectral and textural features of infrared and visible MSG-SEVIRI images to classify the cloudy pixels as non rainy, light to moderate rain, or heavy to very heavy rain. The technique considers in input also the water vapour channels brightness temperatures differences for the MSG-SEVIRI images acquired 15/30/45 min before the time of interest. The rainfall rates used in the training phase are obtained with the Precipitation Estimation at Microwave frequencies (PEMW), an algorithm for rain rate retrievals based on Atmospheric Microwave Sounder Unit (AMSU)-B observations. The results of RainCEIV have been validated against radar-derived rainfall measurements from the Italian Operational Weather Radar Network for some case studies limited to the Mediterranean area. The dichotomous assessment shows that RainCEIV is able to detect rainy areas with an accuracy of about 91%, a Heidke skill score of 56%, a Bias score of 1.16, and a Probability of Detection of rainy areas of 66%.

  15. Why three generations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibe, Masahiro; Kusenko, Alexander; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2016-07-01

    We discuss an anthropic explanation of why there exist three generations of fermions. If one assumes that the right-handed neutrino sector is responsible for both the matter-antimatter asymmetry and the dark matter, then anthropic selection favors three or more families of fermions. For successful leptogenesis, at least two right-handed neutrinos are needed, while the third right-handed neutrino is invoked to play the role of dark matter. The number of the right-handed neutrinos is tied to the number of generations by the anomaly constraints of the U(1) B - L gauge symmetry. Combining anthropic arguments with observational constraints, we obtain predictions for the X-ray observations, as well as for neutrinoless double-beta decay.

  16. A statistical approach for rain intensity differentiation using Meteosat Second Generation-Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricciardelli, E.; Cimini, D.; Di Paola, F.; Romano, F.; Viggiano, M.

    2014-07-01

    This study exploits the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG)-Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) observations to evaluate the rain class at high spatial and temporal resolutions and, to this aim, proposes the Rain Class Evaluation from Infrared and Visible observation (RainCEIV) technique. RainCEIV is composed of two modules: a cloud classification algorithm which individuates and characterizes the cloudy pixels, and a supervised classifier that delineates the rainy areas according to the three rainfall intensity classes, the non-rainy (rain rate value < 0.5 mm h-1) class, the light-to-moderate rainy class (0.5 mm h-1 ≤ rain rate value < 4 mm h-1), and the heavy-to-very-heavy-rainy class (rain rate value ≥ 4 mm h-1). The second module considers as input the spectral and textural features of the infrared and visible SEVIRI observations for the cloudy pixels detected by the first module. It also takes the temporal differences of the brightness temperatures linked to the SEVIRI water vapour channels as indicative of the atmospheric instability strongly related to the occurrence of rainfall events. The rainfall rates used in the training phase are obtained through the Precipitation Estimation at Microwave frequencies, PEMW (an algorithm for rain rate retrievals based on Atmospheric Microwave Sounder Unit (AMSU)-B observations). RainCEIV's principal aim is that of supplying preliminary qualitative information on the rainy areas within the Mediterranean Basin where there is no radar network coverage. The results of RainCEIV have been validated against radar-derived rainfall measurements from the Italian Operational Weather Radar Network for some case studies limited to the Mediterranean area. The dichotomous assessment related to daytime (nighttime) validation shows that RainCEIV is able to detect rainy/non-rainy areas with an accuracy of about 97% (96%), and when all the rainy classes are considered, it shows a Heidke skill score of 67% (62%), a bias

  17. Low Latitude Gravity Wave Variances in the MLT Derived from Saber Temperature Observation and Compared with Model Simulations of Waves Generated By Deep Tropical Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walterscheid, R. L.; Christensen, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Equatorial regions are the scene of prolific generation of gravity waves by deep tropical convection. Waves generated by deep convection have appreciable energy at frequencies and spatial scales that are able to reach altitudes in the Middle Atmosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) and above where they may attain significant amplitudes. A portion of these waves have scales and amplitudes large enough to be detected by space borne instruments. We have analyzed temperature data from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics Dynamics (TIMED) satellite for sub-tidal scale fluctuations. Filtering was applied both vertically and horizontally to extract wave variances. We have examined the variances at equatorial latitudes for the altitude region between 70 and 120 km and have have characterized them as a function of season, local time intervals, geographical location and altitude. We find large variances in locations of where convection is particularly prolific (e.g., western South Pacific) and at altitudes where wave trapping is known to be favored (e.g., the lower thermospheric duct). The locations of significant variances persist from year to year. Variances of on the order of a few tens of degrees are found. We have also performed simulations of the response to deep tropical convection with the The Aerospace Corporation Dynamical Model (ADM). This model is a time dependent, high-resolution fully compressible dynamical model that has been used to examine the MLT wave response to intense cellular convection in northern Australia. The background thermal structure for the present simulations was obtained from TIMED/SABER data averaged over low latitudes by season and local time. Our simulations give wave amplitudes that agree reasonably well with the observed amplitudes and show layering that is consistent with the observations. We will show the results of our analysis of

  18. Untangling Performance from Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yucesoy, Burcu; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    Fame, popularity and celebrity status, frequently used tokens of success, are often loosely related to, or even divorced from professional performance. This dichotomy is partly rooted in the difficulty to distinguish performance, an individual measure that captures the actions of a performer, from success, a collective measure that captures a community's reactions to these actions. Yet, finding the relationship between the two measures is essential for all areas that aim to objectively reward excellence, from science to business. Here we quantify the relationship between performance and success by focusing on tennis, an individual sport where the two quantities can be independently measured. We show that a predictive model, relying only on a tennis player's performance in tournaments, can accurately predict an athlete's popularity, both during a player's active years and after retirement. Hence the model establishes a direct link between performance and momentary popularity. The agreement between the performance-driven and observed popularity suggests that in most areas of human achievement exceptional visibility may be rooted in detectable performance measures. This research was supported by Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) under agreement FA9550-15-1-0077.

  19. Objective assessment of multimodality optical coherence tomography and second-harmonic generation image quality of ex vivo mouse ovaries using human observers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welge, Weston A.; DeMarco, Andrew T.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Rice, Photini S.; Barton, Jennifer K.; Kupinski, Matthew A.

    2014-03-01

    Ovarian cancer is particularly deadly because it is usually diagnosed after it has begun to spread. Transvaginal sonography (TVS) is the most common imaging screening technique. However, routine use of TVS has not reduced ovarian cancer mortality. The superior resolution of optical imaging techniques may make them attractive alternatives to TVS. We have previously identified features of ovarian cancer using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and secondharmonic generation (SHG) microscopy (with collagen as the targeted fluorophore). OCT provides a gross anatomical image of the ovary while SHG provides a closer look at a particular region. Knowing these anatomical features, we sought to investigate the diagnostic potential of OCT and SHG. We conducted a fully crossed, multi-reader, multi-case study using seven human observers. Each observer classified 44 ex vivo mouse ovaries as normal or abnormal from OCT, SHG, and simultaneous, co-registered OCT and SHG images and provided a confidence rating on a three-point ordinal scale. We determined the average receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, area under the ROC curves (AUC), and other quantitative figures of merit. The results show that OCT has diagnostic potential with an average AUC of 0.91 +/- 0.03. The average AUC for SHG was less promising at 0.71 +/- 0.06. Interestingly, the average AUC for simultaneous, co-registered OCT and SHG was not significantly different from OCT alone. This suggests that collagen may not be a useful fluorophore for ovarian cancer screening. The high performance of OCT warrants further investigation.

  20. Impact of JAK2(V617F) mutation status on treatment response to anagrelide in essential thrombocythemia: an observational, hypothesis-generating study

    PubMed Central

    Cascavilla, Nicola; De Stefano, Valerio; Pane, Fabrizio; Pancrazzi, Alessandro; Iurlo, Alessandra; Gobbi, Marco; Palandri, Francesca; Specchia, Giorgina; Liberati, A Marina; D’Adda, Mariella; Gaidano, Gianluca; Fjerza, Rajmonda; Achenbach, Heinrich; Smith, Jonathan; Wilde, Paul; Vannucchi, Alessandro M

    2015-01-01

    A JAK2(V617F) mutation is found in approximately 55% of patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET), and represents a key World Health Organization diagnostic criterion. This hypothesis-generating study (NCT01352585) explored the impact of JAK2(V617F) mutation status on treatment response to anagrelide in patients with ET who were intolerant/refractory to their current cytoreductive therapy. The primary objective was to compare the proportion of JAK2-positive versus JAK2-negative patients who achieved at least a partial platelet response (≤600×109/L) after anagrelide therapy. Of the 47 patients enrolled, 46 were included in the full analysis set (JAK2-positive, n=22; JAK2-negative, n=24). At 12 months, 35 patients (n=14 and n=21, respectively) had a suitable platelet sample; of these, 74.3% (n=26) achieved at least a partial response. The response rate was higher in JAK2-positive (85.7%, n=12) versus JAK2-negative patients (66.7%, n=14) (odds ratio [OR] 3.00; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.44, 33.97). By using the last observation carried forward approach in the sensitivity analysis, which considered the imbalance in patients with suitable samples between groups, the overall response rate was 71.7% (n=33/46), with 77.3% (n=17/22) of JAK2-positive and 66.7% (n=16/24) of JAK2-negative patients achieving at least a partial response (OR 1.70; 95% CI 0.39, 8.02). There was no significant change in median allele burden over 12 months in the 12 patients who achieved a response. In conclusion, the overall platelet response rate was high in both JAK2-positive and JAK2-negative patients; however, a larger study would be required to confirm the differences observed according to JAK2(V617F) mutation status. PMID:26028965

  1. Generation of temperature anisotropy for alpha particle velocity distributions in solar wind at 0.3 AU: Vlasov simulations and Helios observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, D.; Bourouaine, S.; Valentini, F.; Marsch, E.; Veltri, P.

    2014-04-01

    Solar wind "in situ" measurements from the Helios spacecraft in regions of the Heliosphere close to the Sun (˜0.3 AU), at which typical values of the proton plasma beta are observed to be lower than unity, show that the alpha particle distribution functions depart from the equilibrium Maxwellian configuration, displaying significant elongations in the direction perpendicular to the background magnetic field. In the present work, we made use of multi-ion hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell simulations to provide theoretical support and interpretation to the empirical evidences above. Our numerical results show that, at variance with the case of βp≃1 discussed in Perrone et al. (2011), for βp=0.1 the turbulent cascade in the direction parallel to the ambient magnetic field is not efficient in transferring energy toward scales shorter than the proton inertial length. Moreover, our numerical analysis provides new insights for the theoretical interpretation of the empirical evidences obtained from the Helios spacecraft, concerning the generation of temperature anisotropy in the particle velocity distributions.

  2. Fluoridation: strategies for success.

    PubMed

    Isman, R

    1981-07-01

    Of 19 referenda on community water fluoridation held in the first six months of 1980, 17 were defeated. Among the postulated reasons are a growing distrust of government and the health establishment. The public remains largely ignorant of the purpose and benefits of fluoridation. The emotionalism surrounding the issue has made it difficult to generate public support outside of the health professions. Opponents have also learned to fight fluoridation with increasingly sophisticated techniques. Some of the strategies used in recent successful campaigns in Oakland, California, and Portland, Oregon are described; recommendations that can be applied to communities considering fluoridation include careful wording of ballot measures so they are unequivocally clear and simple; timing ballot measures with elections likely to draw the largest voter turnout; broadening the base of political and financial support; using a figurehead if possible; and making maximum use of the media. PMID:7246838

  3. Training the next generation of Space and Earth Science Engineers and Scientists through student design and development of an Earth Observation Nanosatellite, AlbertaSat-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, B. A.; Bottoms, J.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation addresses the design and developmental process of a Nanosatellite by an interdisciplinary team of undergraduate and graduate students at the University of Alberta. The Satellite, AlbertaSat-1, is the University of Alberta's entry in the Canadian Satellite Design Challenge (CDSC); an initiative to entice Canadian students to contribute to space and earth observation technologies and research. The province of Alberta, while home to a few companies, is very limited in its space industry capacity. The University of Alberta reflects this fact, where one of the major unifying foci of the University is oil, the provinces greatest resource. For students at the U of A, this lack of focus on astronautical, aerospace and space/earth observational research limits their education in these industries/disciplines. A fully student operated project such as AlbertaSat-1 provides this integral experience to almost every discipline. The AlbertaSat-1 team is comprised of students from engineering, physics, chemistry, earth and atmospheric science, business, and computer science. While diverse in discipline, the team is also diverse in experience, spanning all levels from 1st year undergraduate to experienced PhD. Many skill sets are required and the diverse group sees that this is covered and all opinions voiced. Through immersion in the project, students learn quickly and efficiently. The necessity for a flawless product ensures that only the highest quality of work is presented. Students participating must research and understand their own subsystem as well as all others. This overall system view provides the best educational tool, as students are able to see the real impacts of their work on other subsystems. As the project is completely student organized, the participants gain not only technical engineering, space and earth observational education, but experience in operations and financial management. The direct exposure to all aspects of the space and earth

  4. The Continuous Generation of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles during the Passage of the Solar Terminator, Observed with a Densely-Clustered Network of GPS Receivers in Southeast Asia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhari, S. M.; Tsunoda, R. T.; Abdullah, M.; Hasbi, A. M.; Otsuka, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Nishioka, M.; Tsugawa, T.

    2014-12-01

    Equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) are three-dimensional structures of depleted plasma density that are often observed in the nighttime equatorial ionosphere. They are initiated near the magnetic dip equator, in the bottomside of the F layer, and develop with time, upward in altitude and poleward in latitude (into both hemispheres), taking the form of longitudinally-narrow, vertically-extended wedges that penetrate deep into the topside of the F layer. Moreover, these structures drift zonally as they evolve in time. Much of what is not yet known about EPBs stems from our inability (1) to capture spatial descriptions of these structures, and (2) to monitor their evolution as a function of time. An objective of this presentation is to report the existence and availability of total electron content (TEC) data from densely-clustered networks of GPS receivers that are capable of providing time-continuous descriptions of EPBs with both high spatial resolution and broad geographical coverage. The networks include the Malaysia Real-Time Kinematics GNSS Network (MyRTKnet), Sumatera GPS Array (SUGAR) network and International GNSS Service (IGS) located in Southeast Asia (SEA). These networks contain 127 GPS receivers with average spacing of about 50 to 100 km. With the ability to resolve space-time ambiguities, we are able to follow the temporal evolution of EPB structures over an extended longitude sector (90 to 120 degrees, East longitude). We will present results from a case study (April 5, 2011) in which 16 EPBs were detected in longitude and tracked in time. We show, for the first time, that the births of 10 out of 16 observed EPBs coincided with the time of passage of the solar terminator across the longitude of birth. The distance between birth locations varied between 100 and 550 km with 10-minute interval. These EPBs were found to persist for 50 minutes to 7 hours, while drifting eastward at a speed of 92 to 150 ms-1. The finding that as many as 16 EPBs can be

  5. Hydrology Domain Cyberinfrastructures: Successes, Challenges, and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsburgh, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Anticipated changes to climate, human population, land use, and urban form will alter the hydrology and availability of water within the water systems on which the world's population relies. Understanding the effects of these changes will be paramount in sustainably managing water resources, as well as maintaining associated capacity to provide ecosystem services (e.g., regulating flooding, maintaining instream flow during dry periods, cycling nutrients, and maintaining water quality). It will require better information characterizing both natural and human mediated hydrologic systems and enhanced ability to generate, manage, store, analyze, and share growing volumes of observational data. Over the past several years, a number of hydrology domain cyberinfrastructures have emerged or are currently under development that are focused on providing integrated access to and analysis of data for cross-domain synthesis studies. These include the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) Hydrologic Information System (HIS), the Critical Zone Observatory Information System (CZOData), HyroShare, the BiG CZ software system, and others. These systems have focused on sharing, integrating, and analyzing hydrologic observations data. This presentation will describe commonalities and differences in the cyberinfrastructure approaches used by these projects and will highlight successes and lessons learned in addressing the challenges of big and complex data. It will also identify new challenges and opportunities for next generation cyberinfrastructure and a next generation of cyber-savvy scientists and engineers as developers and users.

  6. Satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-05-01

    In 1982 and 1983, six scientific satellites were operated successfully. Two of them, JIKIKEN and ISS-b, performed observations of the Earth's plasma environment. HINOTORI, the solar maximum satellite, observed a number of solar flares. HAKUCHO and newly launched TENMA conducted various observations of cosmic X-ray sources. HIMAWARI-2 is a meteorological satellite but its payload includes a solar particle monitor. EXOS-C was successfully launched in February, 1983, and participants in the MAP (Middle Atmosphere Program). Following these missions, the PLANET-A project comprising two missions, MS-T5 and PLANET-A, is under preparation for the participation in the international cooperative exploration of Comet P/Halley. The third X-ray astronomy satellite ASTRO-C is currently scheduled for 1987 launch.

  7. Three-generation Reproduction studies with FWAs.

    PubMed

    Keplinger, M L; Lyman, F L; Calandra, J C

    1975-01-01

    Four fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs), compounds (1), (2), (3) and (4) (see table 1) were investigated for their effects on the reproductive performance of albino rats through 3 successive 2-litter generations at dietary levels of 40, 200, and 1000 ppm. Except for slight and random effects of compound (4) on pup survival, no adverse effects were observed. The random effects with compound (4) were not consistently related to either dose level or cumulative duration of exposure through the 3 generations. PMID:1064543

  8. Attitudes of Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendarvis, Faye

    This document investigates the attitudes of successful individuals, citing the achievement of established goals as the criteria for success. After offering various definitions of success, the paper focuses on the importance of self-esteem to success and considers ways by which the self-esteem of students can be improved. Theories of human behavior…

  9. Measuring research success.

    PubMed

    Halcomb, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Defining successful research can be complex. For novice researchers, success may involve completing research projects and publishing in peer-reviewed journals, but for experienced researchers more complex measures of success come into play. Each researcher's reputation, future grant funding and career prospects depend on the success of each project, and the quality of the researcher's track record. PMID:26997227

  10. Iridium: failures & successes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, CarissaBryce; Beard, Suzette

    2001-03-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the Iridium business venture in terms of the challenges faced, the successes achieved, and the causes of the ultimate failure of the venture — bankruptcy and system de-orbit. The paper will address technical, business, and policy issues. The intent of the paper is to provide a balanced and accurate overview of the Iridium experience, to aid future decision-making by policy makers, the business community, and technical experts. Key topics will include the history of the program, the objectives and decision-making of Motorola, the market research and analysis conducted, partnering strategies and their impact, consumer equipment availability, and technical issues — target performance, performance achieved, technical accomplishments, and expected and unexpected technical challenges. The paper will use as sources trade media and business articles on the Iridium program, technical papers and conference presentations, Wall Street analyst's reports, and, where possible, interviews with participants and close observers.

  11. The Relation of Fear of Failure, Procrastination and Self-Efficacy to Academic Success in College for First and Non First-Generation Students in a Private Non-Selective Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Elizabeth Moores

    2013-01-01

    First-generation students enroll in college expecting to be the first in their families to obtain a bachelor's degree, yet historically; the number of these students who graduate with four-year degrees is much lower than their non first-generation peers (Nunez & Cuccara-Alamin; Choy, 2001; Glenn, 2008). Limited research exists on the…

  12. Leadership Succession and Successful Leadership: The Case of Laura Martinez

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza, Encarnacion, Jr.; Murakami-Ramalho, Elizabeth; Merchant, Betty

    2011-01-01

    This case study follows the work of principal Laura Martinez as moving from leading Stevens Elementary for 9 years, and now opening a new P-8th grade academy in the same south Texas urban, inner-city district. The purpose of this case study was to observe successful leadership and the principal's strategies both in her previous and present school,…

  13. Fertility Clinic Success Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir 2013 ART Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report [PDF - 1MB] Bookmarks and thumbnails are available within ...

  14. Teaching Succession with Forests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronck, David R.

    1982-01-01

    Suggesting advantages of using forests to teach succession, briefly outlines procedures for gathering evidence of succession including numbers, ages, and sizes of trees. Five plot studies conducted by students at the University of Victoria are also described. (DC)

  15. Bifurcation structure of successive torus doubling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekikawa, Munehisa; Inaba, Naohiko; Yoshinaga, Tetsuya; Tsubouchi, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    The authors discuss the “embryology” of successive torus doubling via the bifurcation theory, and assert that the coupled map of a logistic map and a circle map has a structure capable of generating infinite number of torus doublings.

  16. Does Cupping = Success for Olympic Athletes?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160301.html Does 'Cupping' = Success for Olympic Athletes? Telltale red circles ... I have ever seen generated about it." But does cupping actually help? There's an Eastern and a ...

  17. Interstellar PAH in the Laboratory and in Space. What have we Learned from the New Generation of Laboratory and Observational Studies?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important and ubiquitous component of carbon-bearing materials in space. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands (UIR bands) and PAH spectral features are now being used as new probes of the ISM. PAHs are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). In the model dealing with the interstellar spectral features, PAHs are present as a mixture of radicals, ions and neutral species. PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge for laboratory astrophysics is to reproduce (in a realistic way) the physical conditions that exist in the emission and/or absorption interstellar zones. An extensive laboratory program has been developed at NASA Ames to assess the physical and chemical properties of PAHs in such environments and to describe how they influence the radiation and energy balance in space and the interstellar chemistry. In particular, laboratory experiments provide measurements of the spectral characteristics of interstellar PAH analogs from the ultraviolet and visible range to the infrared range for comparison with astronomical data. This paper will focus on the recent progress made in the laboratory to measure the direct absorption spectra of neutral and ionized PAHs in the gas phase in the near-UV and visible range in astrophysically relevant environments. These measurements provide data on PAHs and nanometer-sized particles that can now be directly compared to astronomical observations. The harsh physical conditions of the IS medium - characterized by a low temperature, an absence of collisions and strong VUV radiation fields - are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions are formed from the neutral precursors in

  18. The Extended Family and Children's Educational Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Mads Meier

    2012-01-01

    Research on family background and educational success focuses almost exclusively on two generations: parents and children. This study argues that the extended family contributes significantly to the total effect of family background on educational success. Analyses using the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study show that, net of family factors shared by…

  19. An Examination of Black Male First-Generation College Students' Reports of the Social Supports that Have Buffering Effects on Their School-Related Stress and Help Them Achieve Academic Success in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Anthony C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory, case study of Black male first-generation college students at Carthen College was three-fold. First, it was designed to elicit participants' descriptions of the stress they experienced related to school and being a student. Second, the study aimed to describe and then rate how important that source of support was…

  20. How successful leaders think.

    PubMed

    Martin, Roger

    2007-06-01

    In search of lessons to apply in our own careers, we often try to emulate what effective leaders do. Roger Martin says this focus is misplaced, because moves that work in one context may make little sense in another. A more productive, though more difficult, approach is to look at how such leaders think. After extensive interviews with more than 50 of them, the author discovered that most are integrative thinkers -that is, they can hold in their heads two opposing ideas at once and then come up with a new idea that contains elements of each but is superior to both. Martin argues that this process of consideration and synthesis (rather than superior strategy or faultless execution) is the hallmark of exceptional businesses and the people who run them. To support his point, he examines how integrative thinkers approach the four stages of decision making to craft superior solutions. First, when determining which features of a problem are salient, they go beyond those that are obviously relevant. Second, they consider multidirectional and nonlinear relationships, not just linear ones. Third, they see the whole problem and how the parts fit together. Fourth, they creatively resolve the tensions between opposing ideas and generate new alternatives. According to the author, integrative thinking is an ability everyone can hone. He points to several examples of business leaders who have done so, such as Bob Young, cofounder and former CEO of Red Hat, the dominant distributor of Linux opensource software. Young recognized from the beginning that he didn't have to choose between the two prevailing software business models. Inspired by both, he forged an innovative third way, creating a service offering for corporate customers that placed Red Hat on a path to tremendous success. PMID:17580648

  1. Assessing redox potential of a native tree from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest: a successful evaluation of oxidative stress associated to a new power generation source of an oil refinery.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Marisia Pannia; Pedroso, Andrea Nunes Vaz; Domingos, Marisa

    2016-04-15

    The antioxidant responses in saplings of Tibouchina pulchra (a native tree from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest) exposed around an oil refinery in the city of Cubatão (SE Brazil), varied during the exchange of its power generation source, from boilers fueled with oil to a thermoelectric fueled with natural gas. The redox potential changed in response to an interaction of air pollution and meteorological parameters, indicating that the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance was not reached after the exchange of the power generation system. The gain in environmental quality in the region was not achieved as expected due the technological modernization, at least relative to oxidative stressors. These conclusions were based on results of analyses of enzymatic antioxidants: superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR); non-enzymatic antioxidants: reduced, oxidized and total ascorbic acid (AsA, DHA, totAA) and glutathione (GSH, GSSG, totG), their redox state (AsA/totAA and GSH/totG) and an indicator of lipid peroxidation (MDA). We also applied exploratory multivariate statistics in order to verify if the temporal sequence of changes in the plant redox capacity coincided with changes in the profile of air pollution, climatic conditions or with their interactions and if the environmental benefits that would supposedly be promoted by the mentioned exchange of power generation system were achieved in the region. PMID:26851758

  2. Recent Observations of Clouds and Precipitation by the Airborne Precipitation Radar 2nd Generation in Support of the GPM and ACE Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, Stephen L.; Tanelli, Simone; Im, Eastwood

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we illustrate the unique dataset collected during the Global Precipitation Measurement Cold-season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx, US/Canada Jan/Feb 2012). We will focus on the significance of these observations for the development of algorithms for GPM and ACE, with particular attention to classification and retrievals of frozen and mixed phase hydrometeors.

  3. Student Success. March 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Student Success" is EPI's occasional e-magazine dedicated to the discussion of retaining students in higher education. Over the course of the next issues of "Student Success," the Educational Policy Institute (EPI) will explore three questions about retention on our college campuses. Part I will look at the barriers to student retention, both…

  4. Success in Library School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrill, Rose Mary; Rinehart, Constance

    1979-01-01

    Data on admission characteristics and performance in library school were collected for students entering the A.M.L.S. program at the University of Michigan. Success measures--completion of degree, G.P.A., and amount of time required to complete degree--showed little relation to admission variables in determining success. (Author/MBR)

  5. Student Success Center Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobs For the Future, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Student Success Center Toolkit" is a compilation of materials organized to assist Student Success Center directors as they staff, launch, operate, and sustain Centers. The toolkit features materials created and used by existing Centers, such as staffing and budgeting templates, launch materials, sample meeting agendas, and fundraising…

  6. Blueprint for Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Curtis A.

    1992-01-01

    key to facilities planning and successful bond issues is involving public. Taxpayers are unlikely to support superintendent's plan but will certainly vote for their own plan. Success means ensuring fiscally uncluttered pathway, retaining an architect, and working with demographer. Appointing broad-based community task force of about 30 members,…

  7. Theme: Local Program Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, William G.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Includes "Professional Propagation" (Camp); "Managing Human Resources with Local Program Success (LPS)" (Daley); "Profit Sharing with LPS" (Moses); "Partners for Success" (Mecey- Smith); "Achieving LPS by Collaborating with Partners, Allies and Volunteers" (Oglesby); LPS...Just What Agricultural Education Needs, Another Acronym" (Rist); "The…

  8. Measuring Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Christopher; Bensimon, Estela Mara; Dowd, Alicia C.; Kleiman, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Student success is at the heart of both institutional effectiveness and the community college mission, yet measuring such success at community colleges is problematic. This article highlights three efforts to grapple with this problem--a multistate work group of system- and state-level policymakers to create an improved set of student success…

  9. Swedish Successful Schools Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoog, Jonas; Johansson, Olof; Olofsson, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of a follow-up study of two Swedish schools in which, five years previously, the principals had been successful leaders. Had this success been maintained? Design/methodology/approach: Two schools were revisited to enable the authors to interview principals and teachers as well as…

  10. Focused on Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In January 2011, the California Community Colleges Board of Governors formed a task force to chart a roadmap for system-wide focus on student success. The task force identified best practices and designed evidence-based recommendations to ensure student success is a driving theme in colleges. This comprehensive plan, known as the Student Success…

  11. The Student Success Coach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuhauser, Claudia; Weber, Kendra

    2011-01-01

    An innovative position, a Student Success Coach, was created in response to a newly developed undergraduate-degree program on the recently established University of Minnesota Rochester campus. Student Success Coaches serve as the link between the academic and student affairs sides of the campus. They interact closely with students and faculty to…

  12. Momentum and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunz, William

    2008-01-01

    Success begets success and opportunity begets opportunity. This principle is something that the author sees at work in his own life. One example of opportunities begetting opportunities is the experience he had at the Academy of Science and Technology to practice his programming skills. The Academy served as a great training ground for what would…

  13. Predictors of Postsecondary Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Vanessa; Smerdon, Becky; Sambolt, Megan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this brief is to provide information to state, district, and school personnel seeking support to determine whether their students are on a path to postsecondary success. The College and Career Readiness and Success Center (CCRS Center) has received technical assistance requests from a number of states regarding factors that predict…

  14. Principal Experiences of Succession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Farla Gay

    2015-01-01

    This multiple case study explored the experiences of school principals and the usefulness of Peters' (2011) succession planning model. Ten purposefully selected principals from varying grade levels were interviewed; none reported a formal succession plan, and all had been assistant principals. The study concluded the assistant principal position…

  15. Leadership Succession. Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Andy

    2005-01-01

    One of the most significant events in the life of a school is a change in its leadership. Yet few things in education succeed less than leadership succession. Failure to care for leadership succession is sometimes a result of manipulation or self-centeredness; but more often it is oversight, neglect, or the pressures of crisis management that are…

  16. Getting Set for Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Rita, Emilio

    These career development materials consist of three booklets: the text, success portfolio, and facilitator's guide. Unit 1 in the text tests the students' coping skills. Contracts in the success portfolio for this unit enable the student to determine the sources of stress and ways of coping; describe different procedures for managing time; assess…

  17. EFFICIENCY OF PREPARED BAITS OF LONE OR/AND ADMIXED FOUR BOTANICAL OILS ON THE VIABILITY OF SUCCESSIVE RAISED GENERATIONS OF AGROTIS IPSILON (HUFNAGEL) (INSECTA: LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) AFTER TREATING THE PARENT ONES.

    PubMed

    Mesbah, H A; El-Sayed, Nagda A; El-Kady, Magda B; Tayeb, E H; Mourad, A K; Kordy, A M; Henaidy, Zeinab M

    2014-01-01

    The present study is initiated to determine the toxic and delayed effects of four botanical oils on the greasy cutworm A. ipsilon, aiming to attain an alternative environmentally safe and effective phytochemicals against the insect-pest. Four botanical oils (camphor, red basil, menthol and rose oil) were added at rates of 0.5 and 1.0% (v/w). The tested oils were added alone, and/or admixed at proportional rate of 1:1 in the prepared baits against the exposed 4th instar till the 6th instar larvae of the insect. The study was run under the laboratory higrothermic conditions of 25±2°C and 65±5% R.H. The results showed that the tested baits of camphor, red basil and menthol oils at concentration rates of 0.5 and 1.0% (v/w) adversely affected the inspected parameters of fitness components of the treated individuals of parent (p) generation. They gave more or less fewer numbers of weak unviable adult-moths, which were either sterile or they laid few numbers of infertile eggs and died before the induction of (F1) progeny. That failure could be elucidated by the rapid occurrence of drastic effects on the biological performance of both the influenced sexes of adult-moths along the period of parent's development. Finally it ended by the inhibited induction of (F1) progeny. A delayed effect of the prepared baits of rose oil at 0.5 and 1.0% (v/w), was assessed on the following raised F1, F2, F3 and F4 generations after parent's treatment. The delayed effect was detected as less efficient latent effect on each of these consequently raised generations; characterized by the gradual decrease of the number of alive immatures and adult-moths. The effect was recorded as gradual increase of dead and malformed individuals and adult-moths. In addition to the gradual decrease of deposited and/or hatched eggs up to the 4th generation, which ended by the complete failure of the development. That failure could be also attributed to the cumulated effects of the induced recessive lethal

  18. Observation of Distressed Conspecific as a Model of Emotional Trauma Generates Silent Synapses in the Prefrontal-Amygdala Pathway and Enhances Fear Learning, but Ketamine Abolishes those Effects.

    PubMed

    Ito, Wataru; Erisir, Alev; Morozov, Alexei

    2015-10-01

    Witnessing pain and distress in others can cause psychological trauma and increase odds of developing PTSD in the future, on exposure to another stressful event. However, the underlying synaptic process remains unknown. Here we report that mice exposed to a conspecific receiving electrical footshocks exhibited enhanced passive avoidance (PA) learning when trained 24 h after the exposure. The exposure activated neurons in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) and altered synaptic transmission from dmPFC to BLA. It increased amplitude, slowed decay of NMDA receptor-mediated currents, and generated silent synapses. Administration of sub-anesthetic ketamine immediately after the exposure prevented the enhancement of PA learning and silent synapse formation. These findings suggest that ketamine can prevent pathophysiological consequences of psychological trauma. PMID:25865929

  19. Application of second-harmonic generation microscopy for in-vivo observation of structural change in human dermal collagen fiber caused by aging and/or UV exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, T.; Yonetsu, M.; Tanaka, R.; Fukushima, S.; Yamashita, T.; Ogura, Y.; Hirao, T.; Araki, T.

    2012-03-01

    Second-harmonic-generation (SHG) microscopy is useful to visualize collagen fiber in biological tissues in vivo. In this paper, we applied our SHG microscopy equipped with a Cr:Forsterite laser to visualize human dermal collagen fiber in vivo. The obtained SHG images indicated the structural difference of dermal collagen fiber between different ages, for example, fine collagen fiber is densely distributed in 20's subjects whereas only thick collagen fiber is remained in 60's subjects. These results reflect structural change of collagen fiber caused by natural aging and/or photoaging. The SHG microscopy has a potential to become an in vivo collagen-sensitive microscopy for assessment of skin aging.

  20. SDO/AIA OBSERVATIONS OF SECONDARY WAVES GENERATED BY INTERACTION OF THE 2011 JUNE 7 GLOBAL EUV WAVE WITH SOLAR CORONAL STRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Li Ting; Zhang Jun; Yang Shuhong; Liu Wei E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn

    2012-02-10

    We present Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations of the interaction of a global EUV wave on 2011 June 7 with active regions (ARs), coronal holes (CHs), and coronal bright structures. The primary global wave has a three-dimensional dome shape, with propagation speeds ranging from 430 to 780 km s{sup -1} in different directions. The primary coronal wave runs in front of the expanding loops involved in the coronal mass ejection (CME) and its propagation speeds are approximately constant within 10-20 minutes. Upon arrival at an AR on its path, the primary EUV wave apparently disappears and a secondary wave rapidly reemerges within 75 Mm of the AR boundary at a similar speed. When the EUV wave encounters a coronal bright structure, an additional wave front appears there and propagates in front of it at a velocity nearly a factor of two faster. Reflected waves from a polar CH and a coronal bright structure are observed and propagate fractionally slower than the primary waves. Some of these phenomena can be equally explained by either a wave or a non-wave model alone. However, taken together, these observations provide new evidence for the multitudes of global EUV waves, in which a true MHD fast-mode wave or shock propagates in front of an expanding CME bubble.

  1. Observational Evidence Against Mountain-Wave Generation of Ice Nuclei as a Prerequisite for the Formation of Three Solid Nitric Acid Polar Stratospheric Clouds Observed in the Arctic in Early December 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagan, Kathy L.; Tabazadeh, Azadeh; Drdla, Katja; Hervig, Mark E.; Eckermann, Stephen D.; Browell, Edward V.; Legg, Marion J.; Foschi, Patricia G.

    2004-01-01

    A number of recently published papers suggest that mountain-wave activity in the stratosphere, producing ice particles when temperatures drop below the ice frost point, may be the primary source of large NAT particles. In this paper we use measurements from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instruments on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar-orbiting satellites to map out regions of ice clouds produced by stratospheric mountain-wave activity inside the Arctic vortex. Lidar observations from three DC-8 flights in early December 1999 show the presence of solid nitric acid (Type Ia or NAT) polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). By using back trajectories and superimposing the position maps on the AVHRR cloud imagery products, we show that these observed NAT clouds could not have originated at locations of high-amplitude mountain-wave activity. We also show that mountain-wave PSC climatology data and Mountain Wave Forecast Model 2.0 (MWFM-2) raw hemispheric ray and grid box averaged hemispheric wave temperature amplitude hindcast data from the same time period are in agreement with the AVHRR data. Our results show that ice cloud formation in mountain waves cannot explain how at least three large scale NAT clouds were formed in the stratosphere in early December 1999.

  2. SDO Onboard Ephemeris Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Kevin E.; Liu, Kuo-Chia

    2008-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) spacecraft is a sun-pointing, semi-autonomous satellite that will allow nearly continuous observations of the Sun with a continuous science data downlink. The science requirements for this mission necessitate very strict sun-pointing requirements, as well as continuous ground station connectivity through high gain antennas (HGAs). For SDO s onboard attitude control system to successfully point the satellite at the Sun and the HGAs at the ground stations with the desired accuracy, in addition to the need for accurate sensors it must have good onboard knowledge of the ephemerides of the Sun, the spacecraft, and the ground station. This paper describes the minimum force models necessary for onboard ephemeris generation in support of an attitude control system. The forces that were considered include the Sun s point mass, Moon s point mass, solar radiation pressure (SRP), and the Earth s gravity with varying degree and order of terms of the geopotential.

  3. ESR observation of optically generated solitons in the quasi-one-dimensional iodo-bridged diplatinum complex Pt2(n-pentylCS2)4I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hisaaki; Nishiyama, Hideshi; Kuroda, Shin-Ichi; Yamashita, Takami; Mitsumi, Minoru; Toriumi, Koshiro

    2008-07-01

    Light-induced electron spin resonance (LESR) measurements have been performed on a quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) iodo-bridged diplatinum complex Pt2(n-pentylCS2)4I , where the thermal activation of solitons has been reported in the doubly-degenerate alternate-charge-polarization (ACP) [Pt2+-Pt3+-I--Pt3+-Pt2+] state formed below 210 K. An enhancement of ESR signal has been detected due to the photogeneration of Pt3+ spins below about 30 K, as confirmed through the observed g values of g∥=1.980 and g⊥=2.215 with the external field parallel and perpendicular to the chain axis, respectively. The LESR linewidth is clearly smaller than that of the ESR signal of Curie spins observed under the dark condition, whereas it exhibits uniaxial anisotropy similar to that of the dark ESR due to the anisotropic hyperfine interaction of Pt and iodine nuclear spins. The small LESR linewidth compares well with the motionally-narrowed ESR linewidth of thermally activated solitons at elevated temperatures, indicating that the photogenerated spins are mobile. Furthermore, bimolecular recombination of photogenerated spins has been demonstrated from the excitation power dependence and decay curves of LESR intensity. These LESR features strongly suggest that the mobile spins are photogenerated solitons, which agrees with theoretical predictions.

  4. Goodbye Career, Hello Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komisar, Randy

    2000-01-01

    Success in today's economy means throwing out the old career rules. The "noncareer" career is driven by passion for the work and has the fluidity and flexibility needed in the contemporary workplace. (JOW)

  5. Strategies for Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, J. Jerome

    1990-01-01

    Rather than use their energies to explain their failures, Blacks need to develop strategies for success. Uses examples from the Atlanta Public Schools to illustrate how Blacks can use effective schools research to improve urban, Black education. (FMW)

  6. Forest succession models

    SciTech Connect

    Shugart, H.H. Jr.; West, D.C.

    1980-05-01

    Studies in succession attempt to determine the changes in species composition and other ecosystem attributes expected to occur over periods of time. Mathematical models developed in forestry and ecology to study ecological succession are reviewed. Tree models, gap models and forest models are discussed. Model validation or testing procedures are described. Model applications can involve evaluating large-scale and long-term changes in the ambient levels of pollutants and assessing the effects of climate change on the environment. (RJC)

  7. Real Time In Situ Observations of Equiaxed Dendrite Coherency in Al-Cu Alloys Using High-Brilliance, 3rd Generation Synchrotron Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Andrew G.; Browne, David J.; Mirihanage, Wajira U.; Mathiesen, Ragnvald H.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade synchrotron X-ray sources have fast become the tool of choice for performing in-situ high resolution imaging during alloy solidification. This paper presents the results of an experimental campaign carried out at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, using a Bridgman furnace, to monitor phenomena during solidification of Al-Cu alloys - specifically the onset of equiaxed dendrite coherency. Conventional experimental methods for determining coherency involve measuring the change in viscosity or measuring the change in thermal conductivity across the solidifying melt Conflicts arise when comparing the results of these experimental techniques to find a relationship between cooling rate and coherency fraction. It has been shown that the ratio of average velocity to the average grain diameter has an inversely proportional relationship to coherency fraction. In-situ observation therefore makes it possible to measure these values directly from acquired images sequences and make comparisons with published results.

  8. First observations of the fourth generation synthetic halocarbons HFC-1234yf, HFC-1234ze(E), and HCFC-1233zd(E) in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Martin K; Reimann, Stefan; Hill, Matthias; Brunner, Dominik

    2015-03-01

    Halogenated alkenes are a class of anthropogenic substances, which replace ozone-depleting substances and long-lived greenhouse gases in the foam-blowing, refrigeration, and solvent sectors. We report the first multiyear atmospheric measurements of the hydrofluorocarbons HFC-1234yf (2,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-1-ene, CF3CF═CH2), and HFC-1234ze(E) (E-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-1-ene trans-CF3CH═CHF), and the hydrochlorofluorocarbon HCFC-1233zd(E) (E-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene trans-CF3CH═CHCl) from the high altitude observatory at Jungfraujoch and from urban Dubendorf (Switzerland). When observations started in 2011 HFC-1234yf was undetectable at Jungfraujoch (mole fractions <0.003 ppt, parts-per-trillion, 10(-12)) but since then the percentage of measurements with detectable mole fractions has steadily increased to 4.5% in 2014. By contrast, in 2014 HFC-1234ze(E) was detectable in half of our samples at Jungfraujoch and in all samples at Dubendorf demonstrating the wide use of this compound within the air mass footprints of the stations. Our back trajectory analysis for the Jungfraujoch observations suggests high emission strength of HFC-1234ze(E) in the Belgium/Netherlands region. HCFC-1233zd(E) is present at very low mole fractions (typically <0.03 ppt) at both stations, and features pronounced seasonality and a general absence of pollution events during our 2013-2014 measurements. This is indicative of the presence of significant emissions from source locations outside the footprints of the two stations. Based on a simple one-box model calculation we estimate globally increasing HCFC-1233zd(E) emissions from 0.2 Gg yr(-1) in 2013 to 0.5 Gg yr(-1) for 2014. PMID:25625175

  9. Modeling of fast neutral-beam-generated ion effects on MHD-spectroscopic observations of resistive wall mode stability in DIII-D plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Turco, F. Hanson, J. M.; Navratil, G. A.; Turnbull, A. D.

    2015-02-15

    Experiments conducted at DIII-D investigate the role of drift kinetic damping and fast neutral beam injection (NBI)-ions in the approach to the no-wall β{sub N} limit. Modelling results show that the drift kinetic effects are significant and necessary to reproduce the measured plasma response at the ideal no-wall limit. Fast neutral-beam ions and rotation play important roles and are crucial to quantitatively match the experiment. In this paper, we report on the model validation of a series of plasmas with increasing β{sub N}, where the plasma stability is probed by active magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) spectroscopy. The response of the plasma to an externally applied field is used to probe the stable side of the resistive wall mode and obtain an indication of the proximity of the equilibrium to an instability limit. We describe the comparison between the measured plasma response and that calculated by means of the drift kinetic MARS-K code [Liu et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 112503 (2008)], which includes the toroidal rotation, the electron and ion drift-kinetic resonances, and the presence of fast particles for the modelled plasmas. The inclusion of kinetic effects allows the code to reproduce the experimental results within ∼13% for both the amplitude and phase of the plasma response, which is a significant improvement with respect to the undamped MHD-only model. The presence of fast NBI-generated ions is necessary to obtain the low response at the highest β{sub N} levels (∼90% of the ideal no-wall limit). The toroidal rotation has an impact on the results, and a sensitivity study shows that a large variation in the predicted response is caused by the details of the rotation profiles at high β{sub N}.

  10. The second-generation z (redshift) and early universe spectrometer. I. First-light observation of a highly lensed local-ulirg analog at high-z

    SciTech Connect

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Parshley, Stephen; Nikola, Thomas; Stacey, Gordon J.; Schoenwald, Justin; Riechers, Dominik; Higdon, James L.; Higdon, Sarah J. U.; Verma, Aprajita; Hailey-Dunsheath, Steven; Menten, Karl M.; Güsten, Rolf; Weiß, Axel; Irwin, Kent; Cho, Hsiao M.; Niemack, Michael; Halpern, Mark; Amiri, Mandana; Hasselfield, Matthew; and others

    2014-01-10

    We recently commissioned our new spectrometer, the second-generation z(Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2) on the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescope. ZEUS-2 is a submillimeter grating spectrometer optimized for detecting the faint and broad lines from distant galaxies that are redshifted into the telluric windows from 200 to 850 μm. It uses a focal plane array of transition-edge sensed bolometers, the first use of these arrays for astrophysical spectroscopy. ZEUS-2 promises to be an important tool for studying galaxies in the years to come because of its synergy with Atacama Large Millimeter Array and its capabilities in the short submillimeter windows that are unique in the post-Herschel era. Here, we report on our first detection of the [C II] 158 μm line with ZEUS-2. We detect the line at z ∼ 1.8 from H-ATLAS J091043.1–000322 with a line flux of (6.44 ± 0.42) × 10{sup –18} W m{sup –2}. Combined with its far-IR luminosity and a new Herschel-PACS detection of the [O I] 63 μm line, we model the line emission as coming from a photo-dissociation region with far-ultraviolet radiation field, G ∼ 2 × 10{sup 4} G {sub 0}, gas density, n ∼ 1 × 10{sup 3} cm{sup –3} and size between ∼0.4 and 1 kpc. On the basis of this model, we conclude that H-ATLAS J091043.1–000322 is a high-redshift analog of a local ultra-luminous IR galaxy; i.e., it is likely the site of a compact starburst caused by a major merger. Further identification of these merging systems is important for constraining galaxy formation and evolution models.

  11. Motivating an intergenerational workforce: scenarios for success.

    PubMed

    Wieck, K Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Although much has been written about the challenge of having four generations in the workplace simultaneously, problems of conflict, misunderstanding, and divisiveness continue. This article provides a snapshot of each generation as context. A series of scenarios based on Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs are then presented with insights into how each generation might approach the situation, along with hints for successfully managing toward positive outcomes. The expected outcome is a technique for each generation to look at workplace situations from all perspectives. PMID:18046211

  12. MICA sounding rocket observations of conductivity-gradient-generated auroral ionospheric responses: Small-scale structure with large-scale drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, K. A.; Hampton, D. L.; Zettergren, M.; Bekkeng, T. A.; Conde, M.; Fernandes, P. A.; Horak, P.; Lessard, M.; Miceli, R.; Michell, R.; Moen, J.; Nicolls, M.; Powell, S. P.; Samara, M.

    2015-11-01

    A detailed, in situ study of field-aligned current (FAC) structure in a transient, substorm expansion phase auroral arc is conducted using electric field, magnetometer, and electron density measurements from the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling in the Alfvén Resonator (MICA) sounding rocket, launched from Poker Flat, AK. These data are supplemented with larger-scale, contextual measurements from a heterogeneous collection of ground-based instruments including the Poker Flat incoherent scatter radar and nearby scanning doppler imagers and filtered all-sky cameras. An electrostatic ionospheric modeling case study of this event is also constructed by using available data (neutral winds, electron precipitation, and electric fields) to constrain model initial and boundary conditions. MICA magnetometer data are converted into FAC measurements using a sheet current approximation and show an up-down current pair, with small-scale current density and Poynting flux structures in the downward current channel. Model results are able to roughly recreate only the large-scale features of the field-aligned currents, suggesting that observed small-scale structures may be due to ionospheric feedback processes not encapsulated by the electrostatic model. The model is also used to assess the contributions of various processes to total FAC and suggests that both conductance gradients and neutral dynamos may contribute significantly to FACs in a narrow region where the current transitions from upward to downward. Comparison of Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar versus in situ electric field estimates illustrates the high sensitivity of FAC estimates to measurement resolution.

  13. Heterolytic cleavage of peroxide by a diferrous compound generates metal-based intermediates identical to those observed with reactions utilizing oxygen-atom-donor molecules.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Gerard T; Rybak-Akimova, Elena V; Caradonna, John P

    2008-01-01

    Under cryogenic stopped-flow conditions, addition of 2-methyl-1-phenylprop-2-yl hydroperoxide (MPPH) to the diiron(II) compound, [Fe(2)(H(2)Hbamb)(2)(NMeIm)(2)] (1; NMeIm=N-methylimidazole; H(4)HBamb: 2,3-bis(2-hydroxybenzamido)dimethylbutane) results in heterolytic peroxide O-O bond cleavage, forming a high-valent species, 2. The UV/Vis spectrum of 2 and its kinetic behavior suggest parallel reactivity to that seen in the reaction of 1 with oxygen-atom-donor (OAD) molecules, which has been reported previously. Like the interaction with OAD molecules, the reaction of 1 with MPPH proceeds through a three step process, assigned to oxygen-atom transfer to the iron center to form a high-valent intermediate (2), ligand rearrangement of the metal complex, and, finally, decay to a diferric mu-oxo compound. Careful examination of the order of the reaction with MPPH reveals saturation behavior. This, coupled with the anomalous non-Arrhenius behavior of the first step of the reaction, indicates that there is a preequilibrium peroxide binding step prior to O-O bond cleavage. At higher temperatures, the addition of the base, proton sponge, results in a marked decrease in the rate of O-O bond cleavage to form 2; this is assigned as a peroxide deprotonation effect, indicating that the presence of protons is an important factor in the heterolytic cleavage of peroxide. This phenomenon has been observed in other iron-containing enzymes, the catalytic cycles of which include peroxide O-O bond cleavage. PMID:18680115

  14. Generation of Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Andrew; Haruyama, Naoto; Kulkarni, Ashok B.

    2009-01-01

    This unit describes detailed step-by-step protocols, reagents, and equipment required for successful generation of transgenic mice using pronuclear injection. The experimental methods and practical tips given here will help guide beginners in understanding what is required and what to avoid in these standard protocols for efficiently generating transgenic mice. PMID:19283729

  15. Hospitality services generate revenue.

    PubMed

    Bizouati, S

    1993-01-01

    An increasing number of hospitals are undertaking external revenue-generating activities to supplement their shrinking budgets. Written at the request of Leadership, this article outlines an example of a successful catering service -- a money-generating business that more Canadian hospitals could profitably consider. PMID:10127850

  16. Wetland reclamation by accelerating succession

    SciTech Connect

    Rushton, B.T.

    1988-01-01

    This research analyzed mechanisms and processes for accelerating natural succession in order to restore soils and forests on clay setting areas left from phosphate mining in central Florida. Field measurements of succession on unreclaimed clay ponds showed wet sites dominated by dense stands of small shrubby willows even after 60 years with succession arrested because of a shortage of seeds for later stage trees. For drier sites an orderly procession of pioneer wetland trees colonized when wetland seed sources were within 20 meters. The first woody species were willows, myrtles, and baccharis followed in 5 to 10 years by red maple and elm. Oaks colonized slightly drier elevations. Hackberry, cherry, and sweetgum were also found. Experiments in which 3000 seedlings of 11 species were planted in six clay settling areas demonstrated succession can be accelerated. After the first growing season, results suggest that mixed swamp vegetation typical of floodplains may be the most suitable forested wetland community for settling pond reclamation. Percent survival was best for Carolina ash, American elm, and red maple. Some alluvial floodplain species were intermediate in success with 74% survival for baldcypress, 61% for sweetgum, and 61% for laurel oak. Trees from bayheads had the least survival with 52% for swampbay and 41% for loblolly bay. Poorest survival for all species planted (39%) was swamp tupelo. Floodplain species which required fairly dry conditions had poor survival, i.e., southern magnolia (53%) and cabbage palm (43%). Planted tree seedlings were more cost effective than placing seeds on the ground and covering them with litter. A simulation model with hydrologic regimes and outside seeding was used to summarize the operation of the successional system. Simulation that suggested trends for a longer time period than those observed in the field trials are yet to be confirmed.

  17. Student Success. May 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Student Success" is EPI's occasional e-magazine dedicated to the discussion of retaining students in higher education. This is the second of three parts in the Institutional Strategies Series. The first article in the March issue outlined the barriers to student retention, both from the extant literature and also from interviews and surveys that…

  18. Determinants of project success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, D. C.; Baker, B. N.; Fisher, D.

    1974-01-01

    The interactions of numerous project characteristics, with particular reference to project performance, were studied. Determinants of success are identified along with the accompanying implications for client organization, parent organization, project organization, and future research. Variables are selected which are found to have the greatest impact on project outcome, and the methodology and analytic techniques to be employed in identification of those variables are discussed.

  19. Focus on Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Successful middle schools do not happen by accident--they happen through leadership. Principals promote a shared vision that empowers school staffs to set high standards and continuously improve student achievement. And these middle grade educators also try to help their adolescent students see the connection between their work in school and their…

  20. Predictors of College Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Harold H.

    This study of prediction of college success was designed to use the high school GPA and other variables, both cognitive and non-cognitive. It attempted to locate factors that would predict grades in English, mathematics, and biology, as well as predict the over-all GPA. Seven hundred students were examined. In college English, 49% of the variance…

  1. Many Paths to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mero, Dianne

    2009-01-01

    A close look at the principals who make up the MetLife-NASSP Breakthrough Schools (BTS) Class of 2009 reveals a lot about desirable leadership traits. Each of the five middle level schools and the five high schools has achieved remarkable results while serving large numbers of economically challenged students. Behind each school's successes is a…

  2. ACT and College Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleyaert, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    What is the relationship between ACT scores and success in college? For decades, admissions policies in colleges and universities across the country have required applicants to submit scores from a college entrance exam, most typically the ACT (American College Testing) or SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test). This requirement suggests that high school…

  3. Parent Outreach Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitzberg, Joel; Sparrow, Judith

    2001-01-01

    Presents the Massachusetts Parent Involvement Project (MassPIP) comprising 59 local community coalitions of businesses, service organizations, school personnel, parents, and children. Describes steps coalitions follow in planning events and presents community success stories. The project developed a set of activities that parents can do at home…

  4. Postcards for Student Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budig, Jeanne E.

    Aware of the high correlation between class attendance and academic success, Vincennes University (VU) in Indiana implemented a "blue card" system to improve class attendance. The first week of class, students are asked to sign a blue card verifying their local address and allowing the release of academic information. Instructors begin class by…

  5. Celebrating Successful Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Dan; Case, Pauline

    2008-01-01

    The Machine Tool Program at Cowley College in Arkansas City, Kansas, is preparing students to become future leaders in the machining field, and the school recognizes the importance of sharing and celebrating those stories of success with the public to demonstrate the effectiveness of career and technical education (CTE) programs. Cowley College is…

  6. Pathways to School Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Pittsburgh Office of Child Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, the University of Pittsburgh Office of Child Development began implementing a multi-year school readiness project in several area schools. Evidence from both research and the field point to several key elements that foster school readiness and create pathways to school success for all children. This paper presents components of a…

  7. Characteristics of Successful Entrepreneurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, David C.

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of characteristics of 12 average and 12 superior small business people in three developing nations (India, Malawi, and Ecuador) found proactive qualities such as initiative and assertiveness, achievement orientation, and commitment to others characteristic of successful entrepreneurs. Other expected qualities (self-confidence,…

  8. Strategies for success

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, M.T.

    1993-04-01

    Some 30 companies are developing a majority of the private power facilities worldwide. Attributes such as financial strength, a proven track record, experience in related markets, and a well developed business strategy are keys to success in this complex marketplace. Key executives from four of these companies were interviewed for their perspective in this industry.

  9. Enhancing Drug Court Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschenes, Elizabeth Piper; Ireland, Connie; Kleinpeter, Christine B.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of enhanced drug court services in a large county in Southern California. These enhanced services, including specialty counseling groups, educational/employment resources, and increased Residential Treatment (RT) beds, were designed to increase program retention and successful completion (graduation) of drug court.…

  10. FOCUS: Sustainable Mathematics Successes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mireles, Selina V.; Acee, Taylor W.; Gerber, Lindsey N.

    2014-01-01

    The FOCUS (Fundamentals of Conceptual Understanding and Success) Co-Requisite Model Intervention (FOCUS Intervention) for College Algebra was developed as part of the Developmental Education Demonstration Projects (DEDP) in Texas. The program was designed to use multiple services, courses, and best practices to support student completion of a…

  11. Success in a Hurry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Harold L., Sr.

    2015-01-01

    Although a young program, the North Carolina A&T Honors Program illustrates how quickly and successfully honors can achieve its goals of providing a quality education to its high-achieving students, and how these students can benefit academically and personally from the experiences that honors provides for them. This article provides a brief…

  12. Five Keys to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peddy, Walter J.

    2009-01-01

    The first year as a principal is filled with self-doubt. As one already knows, there is no book or guide that can fully prepare someone for what the principal's position entails. All first-year principals have to learn by doing. In this article, the author discusses five keys to success that will guide and help first-year principals with the…

  13. Ensuring Students' Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oblinger, James L.

    2006-01-01

    James L. Oblinger, Chancellor of North Carolina State University, argues that higher education must continually evolve new methods of teaching and learning to support students' lifelong skills and impending careers. Part of ensuring students' success lies in finding alternative learning models, such as the Student-Centered Activities for Large…

  14. Success Stories Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douthitt, Frieda; And Others

    This packet contains the stories of 20 successful alumni of Ohio's secondary vocational programs and postsecondary technical schools. They have been reproduced as loose-leaf camera-ready art. Suggested uses for these one-page biographies with accompanying photograph include the following: illustrations for use in speeches; reproduction of complete…

  15. The Cult of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senechal, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Success has meant wealth, virtue, excellence, wisdom, personal contentment, or any combination of these, but its definition has flattened over time, particularly in the past few decades. A combination of economic anxiety, aggressive advertising, ubiquitous ratings, and verbal vagueness has led to an emphasis on the external aspects of…

  16. Slump with Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Glass slumping is one of those projects that gives students a feeling of success and accomplishment. Glass slumping looks difficult to produce, and it often leaves others wondering how it is created. Slumping glass can provide dramatic results. Slumping refers to glass that, when heated, softens and conforms to the shape of a mold. Elementary…

  17. Mindfulness and Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness has long been practiced in Eastern spiritual traditions for personal improvement, and educators and educational institutions have recently begun to explore its usefulness in schools. Mindfulness training can be valuable for helping students be more successful learners and more connected members of an educational community. To determine…

  18. Coping with Computing Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslin, Richard D.

    Elements of computing success of Iona College, the challenges it currently faces, and the strategies conceived to cope with future computing needs are discussed. The college has mandated computer literacy for students and offers nine degrees in the computerized information system/management information system areas. Since planning is needed in…

  19. Successful School Composting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahar, Rhea Dawn

    2001-01-01

    School composting programs that have met the challenges inherent in long-term composting have several traits in common: a supportive educational program, schoolwide participation, and a consistent maintenance program. Examines the elements of success, offers examples of incorporating composting into the curriculum, and describes three methods of…

  20. Cultivating Models of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starace, Melissa D.

    2012-01-01

    Community colleges are often viewed as the gateway to higher education as well as institutions that can rapidly prepare students to enter the workforce. Yet, in spite of widespread acclaim for their effectiveness and success, community colleges have done very little to garner volunteer and financial support from their alumni. Admittedly, many…

  1. Secrets to success.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2014-02-01

    A new national study reveals what it takes for physician practices to stay financially viable. Several Texas practices, among those rated as "better performers," share their secrets to success. One of those secrets, a physician says, is "hiring good people and getting out of their way." PMID:24500918

  2. Linear Equations: Equivalence = Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratta, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    The ability to solve linear equations sets students up for success in many areas of mathematics and other disciplines requiring formula manipulations. There are many reasons why solving linear equations is a challenging skill for students to master. One major barrier for students is the inability to interpret the equals sign as anything other than…

  3. Writing for Successful Publication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Kenneth T.

    Arguing that becoming a successful author requires the ability to write simply, clearly, and forcefully, this book provides practical suggestion for clear and forceful professional writing. Chapters include: (1) "Why Write"; (2) "Finding Topics"; (3) "Getting Started"; (4) "About Style"; (5) "Organizing Articles"; (6) "Using Journals, Libraries…

  4. Building Successful Cleaning Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to build a successful cleaning process in order to most effectively maintain school facilities, explaining that the cleaning processes used plays a critical role in productivity. Focuses on: developing a standardized system; making sure that employees have the right tools for the work they perform; training employees; tracking and…

  5. Student Success. September 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Student Success" is EPI's occasional e-magazine dedicated to the discussion of retaining students in higher education. This is the third of three parts in the Institutional Strategies Series. The first article in the March issue outlined the barriers to student retention, both from the extant literature and also from interviews and surveys…

  6. The Road to Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Herman L.; Keys, Ronald L.

    1994-01-01

    Argues that management knowledge is not being successfully transferred through schools of library and information studies management courses. An analytical model of leadership should be implemented in the curriculum to emphasize creativity, risk-taking, innovation, and intuition. The model would include a discussion of these elements and their…

  7. Treatment Success in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Kumar, Ambuj; Soares, Heloisa P.; Hozo, Iztok; Bepler, Gerold; Clarke, Mike; Bennett, Charles L.

    2009-01-01

    Background The evaluation of research output, such as estimation of the proportion of treatment successes, is of ethical, scientific, and public importance but has rarely been evaluated systematically. We assessed how often experimental cancer treatments that undergo testing in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) result in discovery of successful new interventions. Methods We extracted data from all completed (published and unpublished) phase 3 RCTs conducted by the National Cancer Institute cooperative groups since their inception in 1955. Therapeutic successes were determined by (1) assessing the proportion of statistically significant trials favoring new or standard treatments, (2) determining the proportion of the trials in which new treatments were considered superior to standard treatments according to the original researchers, and (3) quantitatively synthesizing data for main clinical outcomes (overall and event-free survival). Results Data from 624 trials (781 randomized comparisons) involving 216 451 patients were analyzed. In all, 30% of trials had statistically significant results, of which new interventions were superior to established treatments in 80% of trials. The original researchers judged that the risk-benefit profile favored new treatments in 41% of comparisons (316 of 766). Hazard ratios for overall and event-free survival, available for 614 comparisons, were 0.95 (99% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-0.98) and 0.90 (99% CI, 0.87- 0.93), respectively, slightly favoring new treatments. Breakthrough interventions were discovered in 15% of trials. Conclusions Approximately 25% to 50% of new cancer treatments that reach the stage of assessment in RCTs will prove successful. The pattern of successes has become more stable over time. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the ethical principle of equipoise defines limits of discoverability in clinical research and ultimately drives therapeutic advances in clinical medicine. PMID:18362256

  8. Succession Planning for Community Colleges: A Study of Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Susan Marie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply best practices for succession planning to community colleges. Succession planning is relevant to management practices in community colleges because there is a surge in retirements in higher education from the "baby boomer" generation. Community colleges need to implement a succession plan to ensure…

  9. Geothermal Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report provides an overview of the renewed market interest in using geothermal for power generation including a concise look at what's driving interest in geothermal power generation, the current status of geothermal power generation, and plans for the future. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of geothermal power generation including its history, the current market environment, and its future prospects; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving renewed interest in geothermal power generation; an analysis of the challenges that are hindering the implementation of geothermal power generation projects; a description of geothermal power generation technologies; a review of the economic drivers of geothermal power generation project success; profiles of the major geothermal power producing countries; and, profiles of the major geothermal power project developers.

  10. Fighting HIV/AIDS: is success possible?

    PubMed Central

    Okware, S.; Opio, A.; Musinguzi, J.; Waibale, P.

    2001-01-01

    The fight against HIV/AIDS poses enormous challenges worldwide, generating fears that success may be too difficult or even impossible to attain. Uganda has demonstrated that an early, consistent and multisectoral control strategy can reduce both the prevalence and the incidence of HIV infection. From only two AIDS cases in 1982, the epidemic in Uganda grew to a cumulative 2 million HIV infections by the end of 2000. The AIDS Control Programme established in 1987 in the Ministry of Health mounted a national response that expanded over time to reach other relevant sectors under the coordinating role of the Uganda AIDS Commission. The national response was to bring in new policies, expanded partnerships, increased institutional capacity for care and research, public health education for behaviour change, strengthened sexually transmitted disease (STD) management, improved blood transfusion services, care and support services for persons with HIV/AIDS, and a surveillance system to monitor the epidemic. After a decade of fighting on these fronts, Uganda became, in October 1996, the first African nation to report declining trends in HIV infection. Further decline in prevalence has since been noted. The Medical Research Council (UK) and the Uganda Virus Research Institute have demonstrated declining HIV incidence rates in the general population in the Kyamulibwa in Masaka Districts. Repeat knowledge, attitudes, behaviour and practice studies have shown positive changes in the priority prevention indicators. The data suggest that a comprehensive national response supported by strong political commitment may be responsible for the observed decline. Other countries in sub-Saharan Africa can achieve similar results by these means. Since success is possible, anything less is unacceptable. PMID:11799443

  11. Small(pox) success?

    PubMed

    Birn, Anne-Emanuelle

    2011-02-01

    The 30th anniversary of the World Health Organization's (WHO) official certification of smallpox eradication was marked by a slew of events hailing the campaign's dramatic tale of technological and organizational triumph against an ancient scourge. Yet commemorations also serve as moments of critical reflection. This article questions the acclaim showered upon smallpox eradication as the single greatest public health success in history. It examines how and why smallpox eradication and WHO's concurrent social justice-oriented primary health care approach (following from the Declaration of Alma-Ata) became competing paradigms. It synthesizes critiques of eradication's shortcomings and debunks some of the myths surrounding the global eradication campaign as a public health priority and necessity, and as a Cold War victory of cooperation. The article concludes with thoughts on integrating technical and social-political aspects of health within the context of welfare states as the means to achieving widespread and enduring global public health success. PMID:21340334

  12. Effect of Successive Observation on Quantum Cellular Automaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inui, Norio; Nakamura, Kazuya; Ide, Yusuke; Konno, Norio

    2007-08-01

    A quantum cellular automaton, which is extended from a classical cellular automaton with Wolfram’s rule 150, is studied. In contrast to the classical cellular automaton, all possible configurations exist in a quantum superposition before measurement. We show that measuring the state of only one qubit significantly aeffects the time evolution in the quantum cellular automaton. In particular, we demonstrate that, occasionally, repeating the measurement enhances the appearance of the configurations found in the classical cellular automaton. The occurrence of this enhancement is primarily determined by the results of the measurement in the early time steps, and it is sustained by a feedback mechanism.

  13. Fostering Successful Intellectual Styles for Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual styles refer to people's preferred ways of processing information and dealing with tasks. Individuals who have a propensity for using a wide range of styles--always including creativity-generating styles--are said to possess successful intellectual styles. The author argues that teachers should and can encourage creativity among…

  14. Giving Ourselves Ourselves: A Story about Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinlay, Neil W.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author uses a personal story to challenge the definition of success--introducing Ann, who comes in last in a swimming competition, but wins after all. He has drawn on his years as a swim coach to generate a series of stories exploring the emotional side of learning and the role of compassion in teaching that too often lie…

  15. A Successful Automated Online Transcript System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnfather, Tony; Rosmanitz, Fred

    1981-01-01

    The academic transcript system at the University of Calgary, a successful application that combines online and batch processing to generate student transcripts, is described. In addition to improved service to students and alumni, the registrar's operating budget has been reduced and productivity has increased. (Author/MLW)

  16. Orientational photorefractive effects observed in poly(vinyl alcohol)/liquid crystal composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Hiroshi; Saito, Isao; Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro

    1998-04-01

    We successfully observed orientational photorefractive gratings generated in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/liquid crystal (LC) composites doped with a fullerene (C60) as a photoconductive sensitizer under an applied dc field. Orientational photorefractivity was demonstrated by observing Raman-Nath diffraction beams with an external dc field. The photorefractive gratings were partially memorized even in the absence of the applied dc field.

  17. Coherence: Key to Next Generation Assessment Success. AACC Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Joan L.

    2010-01-01

    The way forward to better assessment begins with the conception of assessment not as a single test but as a coherent "system" of measures. Coherent systems must be composed of valid measures of learning and be horizontally, developmentally, and vertically aligned to serve classroom, school, and district improvement. Coherent assessment systems are…

  18. Succession and survival in psychotherapy organizations.

    PubMed

    Khaleelee, Olya

    2008-11-01

    This paper examines the world of psychotherapy by applying a systemic and psychodynamic understanding of the family business as a way of understanding the dilemmas and challenges of leadership succession. Oedipal factors are explored as an important theme within the succession process. This exploration is set within the context of what function psychotherapy has performed in society over the last thirty years. The hypothesis is that the first generation of leaders aimed to provide containment for the individual citizen at a time of failed dependency in society. The suggestion is that this gave way to the primary task for the second generation, which has been to focus on the therapist in training. The challenge for the third generation is to develop a meaningful role for psychotherapy today and to ensure survival at a time when other shorter therapies such as CBT are gaining ascendancy over longer term psychoanalytic psychotherapy. PMID:19012582

  19. Successful product realization strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeples, John; Boulton, William R.

    1995-02-01

    Product realization is the process of defining, designing, developing, and delivering products to the market. While the main thrust of this JTEC panel was to conduct a complete investigation of the state of Japanese low-cost electronic packaging technologies, it is very difficult to totally separate the development of technology and products from the product realization process. Japan's electronics firms adhere to a product realization strategy based on a strong customer focus, a consistent commitment to excellence in design, and a cost-effective approach to technology commercialization. The Japanese product-pull strategy has been a successful driver and influencing factor in every aspect of the product development cycle.

  20. Successful product realization strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peeples, John; Boulton, William R.

    1995-01-01

    Product realization is the process of defining, designing, developing, and delivering products to the market. While the main thrust of this JTEC panel was to conduct a complete investigation of the state of Japanese low-cost electronic packaging technologies, it is very difficult to totally separate the development of technology and products from the product realization process. Japan's electronics firms adhere to a product realization strategy based on a strong customer focus, a consistent commitment to excellence in design, and a cost-effective approach to technology commercialization. The Japanese product-pull strategy has been a successful driver and influencing factor in every aspect of the product development cycle.

  1. HIGH VOLTAGE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Schwemin, A.J.

    1959-03-17

    A generator is presented for producing relatively large currents at high voltages. In general, the invention comprises a plurality of capacitors connected in series by a plurality of switches alternately disposed with the capacitors. The circuit is mounted for movement with respect to contact members and switch closure means so that a load device and power supply are connected across successive numbers of capacitors, while the other capacitors are successively charged with the same power supply.

  2. High voltage generator

    DOEpatents

    Schwemin, A. J.

    1959-03-17

    A generator for producing relatively large currents at high voltages is described. In general, the invention comprises a plurality of capacitors connected in series by a plurality of switches alternately disposed with the capacitors. The above-noted circuit is mounted for movement with respect to contact members and switch closure means so that a load device and power supply are connected across successive numbers of capacitors, while the other capacitors are successively charged with the same power supply.

  3. The Success-Breeds-Success Phenomenon and Bibliometric Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tague, Jean

    1981-01-01

    Describes success-breeds-success phenomenon by single and multiple-urn models, and shows that these models lead to a negative binomial distribution for the total number of successes and to a Zipf-Mandelbrot law for the number of sources contributing a specified number of successes. Ten references are cited. (FM)

  4. Successfully reforming orthopaedic outpatients.

    PubMed

    Schoch, Peter A; Adair, Lisa

    2012-05-01

    Since 2005, Barwon Health has successfully reformed its orthopaedic outpatient service to address the following issues: increasing number of referrals, inefficient referral management and triage, long waiting times for non-urgent appointments, high 'Did Not Attend' (DNA) rates and poor utilisation of conservative therapies before referral to surgeon. Numerous strategies have been implemented including: waiting list audits, triage guidelines, physiotherapy-led clinics, a DNA policy, an orthopaedic lead nurse role and a patient-focussed booking system. There has been a 66% reduction in the number of patients waiting for their first appointment; an 87% reduction in the waiting time from referral to first appointment; a 10% reduction in new patient DNAs; and more efficient referral management and communication processes. Patients are now seen in clinically appropriate time frames and offered earlier access to a wider range of conservative treatments. PMID:22624648

  5. Partnering for success.

    PubMed

    Gookin, L B

    1996-01-01

    Almost every health care journal or newsletter I pick up has at least one article about the changes occurring in the health care delivery system. The changes for providers in all settings are enormous as we downsize, rightsize, merge, or simply change to meet the demands of managed care. The bottom line is that hospitals are shrinking and health care is moving into the outpatient and community environment. Those of us who are providers in any of these settings must respond rapidly to the changes, which are having a profound impact on the practice of nursing today that will continue into the future. Are nursing educators prepared to respond as quickly as providers to the environmental changes, and are they prepared to make the necessary curriculum changes to prepare students for their future profession? It seems more critical than ever for providers and educators to partner to successfully meet the current and future demands of the nursing profession. PMID:9157919

  6. Predicting scheduling success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messing, Fredric

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides an analytical formulation to predict scheduling success for a class of problems frequently referred to as activity scheduling. Space Network communications scheduling is an example of activity scheduling. The principal assumption is that the activity start times are randomly distributed over the available time in the time line. The formulation makes it possible to estimate how much of the demand can be scheduled as a function of the demand, number of resources, activity duration, and activity flexibility. The paper includes computed results for a variety of resource and demand conditions. The results demonstrate that even with highly flexible activities, it is difficult to schedule demand greater than 60 percent of resources without the use of optimization and conflict resolution capabilities in the scheduling system.

  7. A metric for success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carver, Gary P.

    1994-05-01

    The federal agencies are working with industry to ease adoption of the metric system. The goal is to help U.S. industry compete more successfully in the global marketplace, increase exports, and create new jobs. The strategy is to use federal procurement, financial assistance, and other business-related activities to encourage voluntary conversion. Based upon the positive experiences of firms and industries that have converted, federal agencies have concluded that metric use will yield long-term benefits that are beyond any one-time costs or inconveniences. It may be time for additional steps to move the Nation out of its dual-system comfort zone and continue to progress toward metrication. This report includes 'Metric Highlights in U.S. History'.

  8. NEWS: Successfully communicating physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-11-01

    Congratulations to winners of the Institute of Physics' Public Awareness of Physics awards. Among this year's recipients is a team from the physics department at the University of York. Professor Jim Matthew with Sarah Thompson, Peter Main and Mat Hill have been performing a dialogue `Is Science Chaotic' for over ten years, performing on over 50 occasions to a wide variety of audiences. The current performance features Sarah as a young experimentalist debating, arguing and joking with an older `sceptic' (Jim Matthew) over the ability of science to make predictions. What makes the presentation so successful and popular? Sarah's view is that `Our audiences like the jokes, the arguing and the demonstrations: it's different and it's amusing.' But there has to be some good science behind the show: `you can tell from the questions that people are disturbed by the range of science affected by chaos', she adds.

  9. Mesoscale Variability in SUCCESS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckermann, Stephen D.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of meteorological, chemical, and microphysical data from the airborne SUCCESS mission is reported. Careful analysis of the complex DC-8 flight pattern of May 2, 1996 reveals 19 linear or nearly linear flight segments within six main geographical areas, which we have analyzed. Significant mountain wave activity is revealed in the data from the MMS and MTP instruments on the DC-8, which resembles previous observations of mountain wave structures near Boulder, CO. Strong mountain-wave-induced upwelling downwind of the Rockies is noted. Turbulence is also noted in regions of the mountain wave consistent with overturning near the tropopause. Zonal winds recorded on the ER-2 are shown to consistent with mountain wave breaking at or near critical levels in the stratosphere, consistent with the strong turbulence reported by the pilot during the ER-2 flight. Those observations have been supported with spectral analyses and modeling studies. "Postcasts" of mountain wave activity on May 2, 1996, using the Naval Research Laboratory Mountain Wave Forecast Model (NRL/MWFM) predicts both strong mountain wave activity near the tropopause (as measured by the DC-8) and strong mountain-wave-induced turbulence in the stratosphere (as encountered by the ER-2). Two-dimensional simulations of fluid flow over topography reveal similar isentropic structures to observations.

  10. A successful integrated project.

    PubMed

    Zheng, P

    1994-10-01

    The experiences of the Juxian County Family Planning Committee of Shandong Province, China, were discussed in terms of the integration of family planning with income generation activities in rural areas. The integrated program was initiated in 1988 with pilot programs established by the Qiaoshan Family Planning Association to develop marketable skills in carpet weaving and grass braiding in Xiazhuang Town and Qiaoshan Township. The program gave priority of admission to women with only children and those who practiced family planning. 1400 women were recruited in these factories. Other income generation programs were developed for silkworm breeding and silk reeling, woolen embroidery, and printing. High ranking officials of the China Family Planning Association commended the work in income generation and family planning in Juxian County. This recognition spurred the second phase of development by the county family planning association: the establishment of village operated factories and mills for native products. By the end of 1991, there were 26 such projects in the county and per capita income to women increased by RMB 678 yuan. In the third stage of 1992, the number of association enterprises increased to 196 with recruitment of over 18,000 reproductive age women. The programs were initiated with collective funds from farmers and villages. The 170 projects in 1992 were developed with an investment of 9.6 million yuan, of which 2.26 million yuan was from individuals (23.5%). Emphasis was placed on self-reliance and recruitment of women with one child, women with 2 daughters and tubal ligations, and family planning motivators. The consequences of the integrated program were weakening traditional customs of marriage and childbearing, improvement in socioeconomic status of women, and effective service delivery of family planning and maternal and child health care services. PMID:12319289

  11. Overcome barriers to career success

    SciTech Connect

    Raudsepp, E.

    1983-04-01

    A test is given to determine if an engineer suffers from one of the three barriers to technical success: fear of success, fear of failure, or perfectionism. As in most such tests, the middle way is best. Successful engineers know that perfection cannot be attained, that they don't have time to worry about failure or success, and that by aiming and perservering in doing things well, success can be achieved.

  12. The controlling effect of temperature in the application of permeation tube (PT) devices in standard gas generation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, the performance of permeation tube (PT) devices for the generation of VOC calibration gas was examined by successively generating BTX gas at five temperatures (30, 50, 70, 80, and 100C) and two flow rates (400 and 800 mL/min). A distinct relationship was observed between temperatures ...

  13. The role of inflammation for a successful implantation.

    PubMed

    Dekel, Nava; Gnainsky, Yulia; Granot, Irit; Racicot, Karen; Mor, Gil

    2014-08-01

    Approximately half of all human embryo implantations result in failed pregnancy. Multiple factors may contribute to this failure, including genetic or metabolic abnormalities of the embryo. However, many of these spontaneous early abortion cases are attributed to poor uterine receptivity. Furthermore, although many fertility disorders have been overcome by a variety of assisted reproductive techniques, implantation remains the rate-limiting step for the success of the in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments. We, as well as others, have demonstrated that endometrial biopsies performed either during the spontaneous, preceding cycle, or during the IVF cycle itself, significantly improve the rate of implantation, clinical pregnancies, and live births. These observations suggest that mechanical injury of the endometrium may enhance uterine receptivity by provoking the immune system to generate an inflammatory reaction. In strong support of this idea, we recently found that dendritic cells (DCs), an important cellular component of the innate immune system, play a critical role in successful implantation in a mouse model. In this review, we discuss the hypothesis that the injury-derived inflammation in the biopsy-treated patients generates a focus for uterine DCs and Mac accumulation that, in turn, enhance the endometrial expression of essential molecules that facilitate the interaction between the embryo and the uterine epithelium. PMID:24809430

  14. Success requires seizing opportunities.

    PubMed

    Melum, M M

    1987-01-01

    The well-trained group of professionals had worked hard at the business they knew well. Their efforts had paid off--they were highly respected for their quality; their business grew; they had a close, trusting relationship with their customers; and they had the satisfaction of running their business as they alone knew to be best. As they looked ahead, they saw the personal security of a bright, safe future, of more of the same success. Then, slowly at first but building steadily to a feverish pace, their business and their lives were uprooted and torn apart in an all-encompassing economic and social earthquake. Now, with a force the professionals could hardly believe, let alone keep track of, the very definition of their business was changing, the trusting relationship with customers began to break down as massive numbers of new and different competitors vied for their business, many new players began to control how they ran their business, and security vanished into a confusion of competition, entrepreneurship, and risk. PMID:10312039

  15. Prerana: a success story.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Prerana-Associate CEDPA, a women- and youth-focused community organization headquartered in New Delhi, has expanded its program activities with recent grants from two leading donors, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation. CEDPA provides important support through grants from The Xerox Foundation, The Turner Foundation, World Bank, and the US Agency for International Development. Founded in 1976, Prerana--whose name means "Inspiration" in Hindi--has grown steadily as knowledge of its comprehensive community-based program has spread. The organization conducts the CEDPA Better Life Options health, education, and vocational skills programs for girls and young women, maternal and child health services, and integrated community-based family planning. A parallel Better Life Options program for boys and young men was recently started. With almost 20 years of experience in the private sector, Prerana provides training and assistance to other private organizations. Prerana's Better Life Options program received international recognition in UNFPA's "The State of World Population 1994." The publication featured an article by a young Indian woman who participated in the program and as a result was able to develop life skills, improve her self-esteem, and, with her husband, decide to delay parenthood. "This success story," said Prerana Executive Director Dr. Uma Agarwal (WIM 29), "is being repeated by many other girls who find support at Prerana." PMID:12288432

  16. Managing Generational Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansoorian, Andrew; Good, Pamela; Samuelson, Dave

    2003-01-01

    School leaders who recognize the differing needs of baby boomers and Generation X can create an organization where all employees are working from their strengths. Successful personnel leaders provide boomers with lots of public recognition and opportunities for input, while letting X-ers know that their ideas will be evaluated on merit, not on…

  17. Raising a "Green Generation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leger-Ferraro, Susan

    2010-01-01

    These days, "going green" is at the forefront of conversation in political, entertainment, and corporate circles. Yet to truly impact change, future generations must carry the torch of transformation. To ensure success, adults need to begin the practices with the fertile minds of young children in early education. Practicing sustainability is not…

  18. Mesoscale Variability in SUCCESS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckermann, Stephen D.; Stewart, Richard W. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of meteorological, chemical and microphysical data from the airborne SUCCESS (SUbsonic aircraft Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study) mission is reported. Careful analysis of the complex DC-8 flight pattern of May 2, 1996 reveals 19 linear flight segments within six main geographical areas, which we have analyzed. Significant mountain wave activity is revealed in the data from the MMS (Meteorology Measurement System) and MTP (Microwave Temperature Profiler) instruments on the DC-8, which resembles previous observations of mountain wave structures near Boulder, Colorado. Strong mountain-wave-induced upwelling downwind of the Rockies is noted. Turbulence is also noted in regions of the mountain wave consistent with overturning near the tropopause. Zonal winds recorded on the ER-2 are shown to be consistent with mountain wave breaking at or near critical levels in the stratosphere, consistent with the strong turbulence reported by the pilot during the ER-2 flight. These observations have been supported with spectral analyses and modeling studies. 'Postcasts' of mountain wave activity on May 2, 1996 using the Naval Research Laboratory Mountain Wave Forecast Model predicts both strong mountain wave activity near the tropopause and strong mountain-wave-induced turbulence in the stratosphere.

  19. Succession and failure.

    PubMed

    Cespedes, Frank V; Galford, Robert M

    2004-06-01

    Norman Windom, the chairman of Tiverton Media, may not know much about the world of popular music, but he does fancy himself a careful planner and a superb judge of managerial talent. That's why he's been grooming COO Sean Kinnane, a Wharton-minted numbers man, to take over an important division, Aleph Records, and one day Tiverton itself. But Derek Solomon, Aleph's 68-year-old CEO and founder, remains a creative force and a father figure to the label's artists. What's more, he's touchy about anything that might slow down Aleph's responses to the market's ever-shifting preferences--or that might call into question his indispensability. Though Sean dutifully participates in Tiverton's broad-based and elaborate executive development plan, he senses that Aleph's future leadership structure is uncertain. As impatient as he is ambitious, he announces that he's leaving Tiverton for more suitable pastures. Several of his associates, also unsure about their fate within Aleph, are following him out the door. In one fell swoop, they've torn Norman's proud succession plan apart. What kind of plan should the board adopt going forward? Commenting on this fictional case study are Francis N. Bonsignore, a senior vice president at Marsh & McLennan; Michelle L. Buck, a clinical associate professor of management and organizations at Northwestern's Kellogg School of Management; Jon Younger, who heads leadership development at National City Corporation, a financial holding company in Cleveland; and Thomas Leppert, the chairman and CEO of the Turner Corporation, a large construction company in Dallas. PMID:15202285

  20. Past behaviour change success.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Discussions of behavior change involve values, cultural norms, power, ideology, manipulation, oppression, and human rights. Coercion and force can induce behavior change. Authority figures all inject their values when one debates what is right and wrong for the individual, community, or nation. We tend to agree on what should be good values in human rights (e.g., liberty, health and speech). Global standards are acceptable for some areas of health (e.g., smallpox, water safety, and drug purity). Yet, setting guidance and control measures that are reasonable accepted by all people, groups, and cultures is more difficult in health matters involving personal choice and liberty. Marketing and advertising professionals are quite familiar with the science of behavior change. It is difficult to measure whether a health promotion campaign is a success. For example, the statistics show that the number of people who smoke and smoking-related illnesses and deaths is falling. This behavior change may be a result of health warnings on cigarette packets and bill boards and the activities of antismoking groups. Yet, many people have died during the 25 years of the antismoking campaign and many more still smoke even though they know the consequences of smoking. In 1991, participants at an African conference on AIDS drafted a belief statement that examines the complexities of behavior change and the great need to understand behavior change to stop the spread of HIV. The statement contends that people have an inherent capacity to change but the power to do so is often denied or not exercised. A supportive response to people living with HIV in the community is an important part of the process helping people begin to change and maintain health promoting behaviors. PMID:12159251

  1. The Next Generation BLAST Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galitzki, Nicholas; Ade, Peter A. R.; Angilè, Francesco E.; Ashton, Peter; Beall, James A.; Becker, Dan; Bradford, Kristi J.; Che, George; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Devlin, Mark J.; Dober, Bradley J.; Fissel, Laura M.; Fukui, Yasuo; Gao, Jiansong; Groppi, Christopher E.; Hillbrand, Seth; Hilton, Gene C.; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent D.; Klein, Jeffrey; van Lanen, Jeff; Li, Dale; Li, Zhi-Yun; Lourie, Nathan P.; Mani, Hamdi; Martin, Peter G.; Mauskopf, Philip; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Novak, Giles; Pappas, David P.; Pascale, Enzo; Pisano, Giampaolo; Santos, Fabio P.; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Stanchfield, Sara; Tucker, Carole; Ullom, Joel N.; Underhill, Matthew; Vissers, Michael R.; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was a suborbital experiment designed to map magnetic fields in order to study their role in star formation processes. BLASTPol made detailed polarization maps of a number of molecular clouds during its successful flights from Antarctica in 2010 and 2012. We present the next-generation BLASTPol instrument (BLAST-TNG) that will build off the success of the previous experiment and continue its role as a unique instrument and a test bed for new technologies. With a 16-fold increase in mapping speed, BLAST-TNG will make larger and deeper maps. Major improvements include a 2.5-m carbon fiber mirror that is 40% wider than the BLASTPol mirror and 3000 polarization sensitive detectors. BLAST-TNG will observe in three bands at 250, 350, and 500 μm. The telescope will serve as a pathfinder project for microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) technology, as applied to feedhorn-coupled submillimeter detector arrays. The liquid helium cooled cryostat will have a 28-day hold time and will utilize a closed-cycle 3He refrigerator to cool the detector arrays to 270 mK. This will enable a detailed mapping of more targets with higher polarization resolution than any other submillimeter experiment to date. BLAST-TNG will also be the first balloon-borne telescope to offer shared risk observing time to the community. This paper outlines the motivation for the project and the instrumental design.

  2. Generational diversity.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Linda W

    2010-01-01

    Generational diversity has proven challenges for nurse leaders, and generational values may influence ideas about work and career planning. This article discusses generational gaps, influencing factors and support, and the various generational groups present in today's workplace as well as the consequences of need addressing these issues. The article ends with a discussion of possible solutions. PMID:20395729

  3. Perceptions of Successful Aging: Intergenerational Voices Value Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Gina Aalgaard; Lazarus, Jennie

    2015-03-01

    This study explored the perceptions of successful aging from intergenerational perspectives. A total of 66 participants were interviewed from three different generations including college students, parents, and grandparents. After qualitative data collection and analyses were used, five conceptual categories emerged from the data that related to perceptions of successful aging. The five concepts include wisdom, health, financial stability, staying active, and well-being. Conceptual categories emerged from the participants of different generations, and some were interconnected across generations. Each category is representative of major thematic patterns. Well-being was the primary concept which emerged because all three generations perceived and explicitly discussed well-being as the most valued aspect of successful aging. Previous successful aging research informed the use of a bio-psycho-social theoretical lens to frame the study findings and discussion. PMID:26195499

  4. Leader Succession in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miskel, Cecil; Cosgrove, Dorothy

    1985-01-01

    This paper constructs an administrator succession model specifying major school process and outcome variables. The succession literature is reviewed using the model's components which include the selection process, organizational structure, school culture, educational programs, successor actions, community, and succession effects. Strategies for…

  5. Student Success in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Often, campus policies and public debate on student success has been too heavily focused on standardization of curriculum and assessment and on an unacceptably flawed graduation rate formula. The report, "Student Success in Higher Education," brings the voice of front-line faculty and staff into student success policymaking to ensure that ideas…

  6. Fastrac Gas Generator Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesman, Tomas E.; Dennis, Jay

    1999-01-01

    A rocket engine gas generator component development test was recently conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center. This gas generator was intended to power a rocket engine turbopump by the combustion of Lox and RP-1. The testing demonstrated design requirements for start sequence, wall compatibility, performance, and stable combustion. During testing the gas generator injector was modified to improve distribution of outer wall coolant and the igniter boss was modified to investigate the use of a pyrotechnic igniter, Expected chamber pressure oscillations at longitudinal acoustic modes were measured for three different chamber lengths tested. High amplitude discrete oscillations occurred in the chamber-alone configurations when chamber acoustic modes coupled with feed-system acoustics modes. For the full gas generator configuration, which included the turbine inlet manifold simulator, high amplitude oscillations occurred only at off-design very low power levels. This testing led to a successful gas generator design for the Fastrac 60,000 lb thrust engine.

  7. Fastrac Gas Generator Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesman, Tomas E.; Dennis, Jay

    2001-01-01

    A rocket engine gas generator component development test was recently conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center. This gas generator is intended to power a rocket engine turbopump by the combustion of Lox and RP-1. The testing demonstrated design requirements for start sequence, wall compatibility, performance, and stable combustion. During testing the gas generator injector was modified to improve distribution of outer wall coolant and the igniter boss was modified to investigate the use of a pyrotechnic igniter. Expected chamber pressure oscillations at longitudinal acoustic mode were measured for three different chamber lengths tested. High amplitude discrete oscillations resulted in the chamber-alone configurations when chamber acoustic modes coupled with feed-system acoustics modes. For the full gas generator configuration, which included a turbine inlet manifold, high amplitude oscillations occurred only at off-design very low power levels. This testing led to a successful gas generator design for the Fastrac 60,000 lb thrust engine.

  8. Career Success and Work Performance: Desirable Goals or Double Binds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korman, Abraham K.

    Successful work performance and its corollary, career success, generate both positive (intended) and negative (unintended) outcomes for individuals. The negative outcomes foster a sense of personal and social alienation, which in turn promote behaviors that have negative implications for work motivation and organizational and leadership processes.…

  9. Successful and Unsuccessful Multicultural Supervisory Behaviors: A Delphi Poll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressel, Jeana L.; Consoli, Andres J.; Kim, Bryan S.K.; Atkinson, Donald R.

    2007-01-01

    Using the Delphi method, university counseling center supervisors with significant experience in multicultural supervision generated and ranked elements of successful and unsuccessful multicultural supervision. Twenty-seven of 35 successful elements and 24 of 33 unsuccessful elements involved cultural considerations. Multicultural supervision was…

  10. Generation Z, Meet Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igel, Charles; Urquhart, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Today's Generation Z teens need to develop teamwork and social learning skills to be successful in the 21st century workplace. Teachers can help students develop these skills and enhance academic achievement by implementing cooperative learning strategies. Three key principles for successful cooperative learning are discussed. (Contains 1 figure.)

  11. Gravity wave generation in the lower stratosphere due to passage of the typhoon 9426 (Orchid) observed by the MU radar at Shigaraki (34.85°N, 136.10°E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaka, S. K.; Takahashi, M.; Shibagaki, Y.; Yamanaka, M. D.; Fukao, S.

    2003-10-01

    Intense gravity wave activities were investigated in the lower stratosphere during the typhoon 9426. Strong vertical winds were observed just a few hours before the arrival of the typhoon-center at the MU radar site. About 30 min to 1 hour after the typhoon-center had passed, a considerable reduction in vertical wind amplitude was detected. Dominant gravity waves showed time period in the range of 7-8 min, 15 min, and 40-60 min in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. In the vicinity of the central region of the typhoon, a gravity wave was observed, which was monochromatic in nature with a vertical wavelength ˜3 km between 1.5 km and 23 km height. In the lower stratosphere, the horizontal wavelength for the prominent period was detected in the range of 10-15 km (for 15 min wave period) and 25-50 km (for 40-60 min wave period). The vertical wavelength of these waves was examined from 2.5 km to 4.0 km. In the horizontal direction, the intrinsic group velocity was estimated between 9 ± 2 and 11 ± 2 m/s. Near the tropopause, the average direction of group velocity was assessed at about 20° ± 3° from the horizontal. The generation of gravity wave like features, in the lower stratosphere, is believed induced by convection, as the low temperature of the clouds indicates a deep penetration over the radar region as seen in the satellite GMS images.

  12. ALPHA, Mass Generation and Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2008-05-01

    The generation of Planck energy 10E19 Gev/Planck time during the observable age of the universe (10E60 Planck times) would generate 10E79 Gev. 10E79 Gev approximates the energy of the baryon number, implying an increase of the baryon number by 10E19/Planck time. What is the source of energy for this mass generation? The ALPHA implicated as negative entropy in [1] must create vacuum energy. Vacuum energy is negative energy. Nature must balance negative energy by generating positive energy (mass), implying ALPHA balances the increasing entropy of the visible universe and generates baryonic mass. Additionally, the successful cloning of the sheep Dolly, and observed molecular blinking dots in biochemistry support the binary BITS of ON and OFF states in [1]. Vindicating Hermite's 1873 mathematical linkage of the base of natural logarithm to transcendentality will implicate natural log based ALPHA in [1] as connected to consciousness. [1] Goradia S: www.arXiv.org/pdf/physics/0210040v3.

  13. Impulsively generated fast coronal pulsations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwin, P. M.; Roberts, B.

    1986-01-01

    Rapid oscillations in the corona are discussed from a theoretical standpoint, developing some previous work on ducted, fast magnetoacoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium. In the theory, impulsively (e.g., flare) generated mhd (magnetohydrodynamic) waves are ducted by regions of low Alfven speed (high density) such as coronal loops. Wave propagation in such ducts is strongly dispersive and closely akin to the behavior of Love waves in seismology, Pekeris waves in oceanography and guided waves in fiber optics. Such flare-generated magnetoacoustic waves possess distinctive temporal signatures consisting of periodic, quasi-periodic and decay phases. The quasi-periodic phase possesses the strongest amplitudes and the shortest time scales. Time scales are typically of the order of a second for inhomogeneities (coronal loop width) of 1000 km and Alfven speeds of 1000/kms, and pulse duration times are of tens of seconds. Quasi-periodic signatures have been observed in radio wavelengths for over a decade and more recently by SMM. It is hoped that the theoretical ideas outlined may be successfully related to these observations and thus aid the interpretation of oscillatory signatures recorded by SMM. Such signatures may also provide a diagnostic of coronal conditions. New aspects of the ducted mhd waves, for example their behavior in smoothly varying as opposed to tube-like inhomogeneities, are currently under investigation. The theory is not restricted to loops but applied equally to open field regions.

  14. Assessment of STR Typing Success Rate in Soft Tissues from Putrefied Bodies Based on a Quantitative Grading System for Putrefaction.

    PubMed

    Courts, Cornelius; Sauer, Eva; Hofmann, Yaiza; Madea, Burkhard; Schyma, Christian

    2015-07-01

    To date, there is no systematic investigation of the association of short tandem repeat (STR) typing success rate in soft tissues with different signs of putrefaction. Herein, putrefaction was rated using a newly developed 19-parameter system in soft tissues from a collective of 68 decaying bodies, and DNA yield was determined in 408 samples. DNA integrity was rated using a self-devised pentaplex PCR generating an "integrity score" (Si). STR typing success rate was then assessed for selected cases. DNA yield and Si differed significantly between tissues with kidney on average exhibiting the highest Si values. Statistical analysis revealed that nine parameters were significantly and positively correlated with Si . The observed values for each of these nine parameters were summed up to generate a putrefaction score (Sp) for each sample. Our results show that STR typing success rate can be predicted based on Sp before expensive multiplex STR profiling is performed. PMID:25808732

  15. Tracing the Origins of Success: Implications for Successful Aging

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Nora M.; Martin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This paper addresses the debate about the use of the term “successful aging” from a humanistic, rather than behavioral, perspective. It attempts to uncover what success, a term frequently associated with aging, is: how can it be defined and when did it first come into use? In this paper, we draw from a number of humanistic perspectives, including the historical and linguistic, in order to explore the evolution of the term “success.” We believe that words and concepts have deep implications for how concepts (such as aging) are culturally and historically perceived. Design and Methods: We take a comparative approach, turning to the etymological roots of this term in British, French, and German literature. According to the earliest entries of the term in the Oxford English Dictionary, events can have good or bad success. Another definition marks success as outcome oriented. Results: Often used in the context of war, religion, and medicine, the neutral, but often negative, use of “success” in literature of the Renaissance demonstrates the tensions that surround the word, and suggests that success is something to be approached carefully. Implications: Ignoring the ambiguous origins of success erases the fact that aging in earlier centuries echoes much of the same ambivalence with which many people discuss it today. Attending to the origins of success can help gerontologists understand the humanistic tradition behind their inquiry into what successful aging means today. PMID:24997595

  16. Chandra Observations of Magnetic White Dwarfs and Their Theoretical Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.; Noble, M.; Porter, J. G.; Winget, D. E.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Observations of cool DA and DB white dwarfs have not yet been successful in detecting coronal X-ray emission but observations of late-type dwarfs and giants show that coronae are common for these stars. To produce coronal X-rays, a star must have dynamo-generated surface magnetic fields and a well-developed convection zone. There is strong observational evidence that the DA star LHS 1038 and the DB star GD 358 have weak and variable surface magnetic fields. Since these fields are likely to be generated by dynamo action and since both stars have well-developed convection zones, theory predicts detectable levels of coronal X-rays from these white dwarfs. However, we present analysis of Chandra observations of both stars showing no detectable X-ray emission. The derived upper limits for the X-ray fluxes provide strong constraints on theories of formation of coronae around magnetic white dwarfs.

  17. Generating a wave from a wall with changing temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, A.; Tsukamoto, M.; Takahashi, S.

    2012-11-01

    Under the purpose to provide a foundation for the numerical approach, the problem of wave generation from a wall with changing temperature is considered to analytically solve the linear Boltzmann-BGK equation with diffuse reflection at a wall by successive approximation. Convergence is verified, and approximate solutions used in its proof are utilized to demonstrate its wave-like features observed in the numerical solution.

  18. Success and Failure in Design

    SciTech Connect

    Petroski, Henry

    2005-12-14

    The evolution of suspension bridges will be used to illustrate the principle that designs based solely on models of success tend over time toward failures. Successful designs, on the other hand, will be shown to derive from a proper anticipation of how they can fail. This paradox of design will be shown to promote cyclic alternations between success and failure within a given genre of designed objects.

  19. Health promotion: challenges revealed in successful practices

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Kênia Lara; de Sena, Roseni Rosângela; Belga, Stephanie Marques Moura Franco; Silva, Paloma Morais; Rodrigues, Andreza Trevenzoli

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine successful practices of health promotion in health, education, culture, welfare and sport, leisure, identifying the elements of success and challenges in the field. METHODS A qualitative study with data obtained from in-depth analysis that included participant observation, interviews with managers, coordinators, professionals and participants from 29 practices reported as successful for promoting health in six municipalities of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, MG, Southeastern Brazil, in 2011. The variables of the study were concept, dimension, dissemination and ease of access, identified in practices guided by content analysis. RESULTS The results indicate a conceptual and methodological uncertainty about health promotion as evidenced by conflicting objects and contradictory purposes. The practices differ in size, coverage and ease of access, determined by inter-sector coordination and political and financial investment. CONCLUSIONS We identified challenges to health promotion focusing on vulnerable populations, limits to financing and intersectoral partnerships. PMID:24789640

  20. Evaluating Student Success Interventions. Principles and Practices of Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rincones-Gomez, Rigoberto J.

    2009-01-01

    Achieving the Dream colleges engage in a process of institutional improvement to increase student success. A central component of this process is engaging internal and external stakeholders to help develop and implement interventions or changes in programs and services that improve student success. To determine whether these interventions do…

  1. STEAM GENERATOR GROUP PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R. A.; Lewis, M

    1985-09-01

    This report is a summary of progress in the Surry Steam Generator Group Project for 1984. Information is presented on the analysis of two baseline eddy current inspections of the generator. Round robin series of tests using standard in-service inspection techniques are described along with some preliminary results. Observations are reported of degradation found on tubing specimens removed from the generator, and on support plates characterized in-situ. Residual stresses measured on a tubing specimen are reported. Two steam generator repair demonstrations are described; one for antivibration bar replacement, and one on tube repair methods. Chemical analyses are shown for sludge samples removed from above the tube sheet.

  2. Perceptions of credibility of sexual abuse victims across generations.

    PubMed

    Klettke, Bianca; Hallford, David; Mellor, David

    2016-01-01

    The success of prosecutions of perpetrators of sexual abuse often depends substantially upon the perceived credibility of the victim witness. However, perceptions of credibility may vary by generation of the observer, and the constitution of juries may therefore lead to bias. In this study we examined whether perceptions of credibility of female victims of sexual abuse varied across generation Y, generation X, "baby boomers", and "builders". One hundred and twenty-eight jury-eligible members of the community from each generation (N=512) responded to ten questions assessing the perceived believability, competence, trustworthiness, demeanour and sexual naiveté of females providing testimony related to alleged sexual abuse. Although consistent between-generation differences were not found for all questions, or all four groups of generational cohorts, in instances where significant differences were found, it was consistently the older generation groups (builders and baby boomers) that attributed less credibility to the victim than the younger generation groups (generation Y and generation X). The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26439120

  3. The Advanced Helical Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Reisman, D B; Javedani, J B; Ellsworth, G F; Kuklo, R M; Goerz, D A; White, A D; Tallerico, L J; Gidding, D A; Murphy, M J; Chase, J B

    2009-10-26

    A high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) generator called the Advanced Helical Generator (AHG) has been designed, built, and successfully tested. The AHG incorporates design principles of voltage and current management to obtain a high current and energy gain. Its design was facilitated by the use of modern modeling tools as well as high precision manufacture. The result was a first-shot success. The AHG delivered 16 Mega-Amperes of current and 11 Mega-Joules of energy to a quasi-static 80 nH inductive load. A current gain of 154 times was obtained with a peak exponential rise time of 20 {micro}s. We will describe in detail the design and testing of the AHG.

  4. Doubling the Opportunity for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Dual enrollment programs are a way for teenagers to get started early on their journey to a successful future, and many appear to be taking advantage of the opportunity. This article describes success stories in dual enrollment programs in Louisiana and Texas. Dual enrollment programs in these states are not only giving students an opportunity to…

  5. Succession Planning for Library Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobel, Karen; Drewry, Josiah

    2015-01-01

    Detailed succession planning helps libraries pass information from one employee to the next. This is crucial in preparing for hiring, turnover, retirements, training of graduate teaching assistants in academic libraries, and other common situations. The authors of this article discuss succession planning for instruction programs in academic…

  6. A WORKABLE DEFINITION OF SUCCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most desirable definition of success from the point of view of environmental stewardship is to treat the entire plume to MCLs. Technically, has proven impossible to attain at many sites. A less desirable definition of success is to contain the source of contamination and tr...

  7. Successful Principalship: The Swedish Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoog, Jonas; Johansson, Olof; Olofsson, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to describe the Swedish compulsory school system and explore a hypothesis about the relationship between structure, culture and leadership as preconditions for successful principalship. Design/methodology/approach: On the basis of earlier research, argues that a principal's success depends on how he or she alters school…

  8. Do Universities Have "Successful" Brands?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapleo, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Branding in universities is a topical issue, but arguably few UK universities have fully developed "successful" brands in the manner of commercial organizations. This qualitative paper explores the opinions of 40 opinion formers on which UK universities have successful brands and the associations these brands have. Current literature on what…

  9. Primary Childhood School Success Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seagraves, Margaret C.

    The purpose of this research study was to build and pilot a psychometric instrument, the Primary Childhood School Success Scale (PCSSS), to identify behaviors needed for children to be successful in first grade. Fifty-two teacher responses were collected. The instrument had a reliability coefficient (Alpha) of 0.95, a mean of 13.26, and a variance…

  10. Does Happiness Promote Career Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehm, Julia K.; Lyubomirsky, Sonja

    2008-01-01

    Past research has demonstrated a relationship between happiness and workplace success. For example, compared with their less happy peers, happy people earn more money, display superior performance, and perform more helpful acts. Researchers have often assumed that an employee is happy and satisfied because he or she is successful. In this article,…

  11. Models of Successful Principal Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurr, David; Drysdale, Lawrie; Mulford, Bill

    2006-01-01

    This article provides an Australian perspective on successful school leadership that focuses on case studies in two states (Tasmania and Victoria). Case studies for each state were developed independently and are reported separately. Two models of successful school leadership are outlined and compared, with the models, showing a remarkable degree…

  12. Principals' Succession and Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Dean; Brayman, Carol

    2004-01-01

    A demographic time bomb is ticking in many school jurisdictions. Up to 70 per cent of present leaders in the private and public sectors will retire within the next five to ten years as the "baby boomers" move on. While succession planning has become a major initiative in the private sector, leadership succession in education tends to hew to old…

  13. Predictors of successful weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The identification of variables in the early stages of treatment that are related to successful weight loss provides practitioners with important information. These factors may be assessed to determine the likelihood of future success. Weight loss at the beginning of treatment, depressive symptomato...

  14. Graduate Student Success in Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschberg, Nancy; Itkin, Stuart

    1978-01-01

    Correlations between standard ability variables such as first year grades and early graduate school success criteria are supported by data from a study of graduate psychology students at the University of Illinois. Certain peer ratings emerged as important predictors of later success. Sex differences were less than anticipated. (Author/EB)

  15. Wind Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    When Enerpro, Inc. president, Frank J. Bourbeau, attempted to file a patent on a system for synchronizing a wind generator to the electric utility grid, he discovered Marshall Space Flight Center's Frank Nola's power factor controller. Bourbeau advanced the technology and received a NASA license and a patent for his Auto Synchronous Controller (ASC). The ASC reduces generator "inrush current," which occurs when large generators are abruptly brought on line. It controls voltage so the generator is smoothly connected to the utility grid when it reaches its synchronous speed, protecting the components from inrush current damage. Generator efficiency is also increased in light winds by applying lower than rated voltage. Wind energy is utilized to drive turbines to generate electricity for utility companies.

  16. They teach it more successfully

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes Ruiz-Gallardo, Jose; Valdés, Arturo; Castaño, Santiago

    2010-05-01

    Science education has been involved in a crisis due to the way in which teachers teach future teachers (McDermott, 1990; Bernal, 2005). During generations, students have been learning sciences as something already done, based on memorizing a number of contents or formulas that always give a correct answer (CUSE, 1997). Thus, Lederman y Abd-El-Khalick (1998) considered that is difficult that future teachers feel Science as something tempting and based on empiricism, if they only learn contents. To learn Science it is required to think, to do and to talk (Pujol, 2003). In this study an experience where students are teachers is shown. 160 students from the Faculty of Education have participated. They had to make, in cooperative groups of four, several activities to eliminate typical Science conceptual mistakes in children (such as minerals and rocks as the same thing, or the proportion of the Earth flattened out at the poles). Some peer groups have to develop activities as kids, question teachers and extract activity strengths and weakness from a kid point of view. A condition of these activities is that they are not mere teacher's demonstrations. Kids have to discover by themselves the conceptual mistake throughout the proposed activity. Afterwards, teacher's groups pass to occupy children's role and vice-versa with new activities from other conceptual mistakes. The experience was tested from two different points of view: a) student's perception of the experience, and b) final exam outcomes. Results show that 95% of the students prefer to be explained by their peers than by the lecturer. As outcomes, 94% of the students that experienced with their peers these activities and explanations, answer successfully the exam questions, while in former experiences where lecturer explain the same concepts, this value decreased up to 64%. These results coincide with other experiences concluding that students have more success than the teacher to make understand concepts to their

  17. Meteosat Third Generation - the future European geostationary meteorological satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bézy, Jean-Loup; Aminou, Donny; Bensi, Paolo; Stuhlman, Rolf; Tjemkes, Stephen; Rodriguez, Antonio

    2005-08-01

    Today, the Meteosat geostationary meteorological satellites play a key role in providing continuous atmospheric observations both for weather forecasting and for monitoring a wide variety of environmental phenomena. Following the successful commissioning of the first satellite in the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) series, Eumetsat and ESA are already actively planning the next European operational geostationary meteorological satellite system in the form of the Meteosat Third Generation (MTG). Being considered for launch in 2015, MTG will revolutionise weather forecasting and environmental monitoring as we now know them, by providing a very significant improvement over the capabilities of the current Meteosats.

  18. Observer's Interface for JWST Observation Specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Link, Miranda; Douglas, Robert; Moriarty, Christopher; Roman, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    In support of the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope, various teams at STScI (the Space Telescope Science Institute) have collaborated on how to re-structure the view of a an observing program within the Astronomer's Proposal Tool (APT) to accommodate for the differences between HST and JWST. For HST APT programs, the structure is visit-dominant, and there is one generic form for entering observing information that spans all instruments with their required fields and options. This can result in sometimes showing irrelevant fields to the user for a given observing goal. Also, the generation of mosaicked observations in HST requires the user to manually calculate the position of each tile within the mosaic, accounting for positional offsets and the roll of the telescope, which is a time consuming process. Now, for JWST programs in APT, the description of the observations has been segregated by instrument and mode into discrete observing templates. Each template's form allows instrument specific choices and displays of relevant information. APT will manually manage the number of visits needed to perform the observation. This is particularly useful for mosaics and dithering with JWST. For example, users will select how they would like a mosaic to be tiled at the observation level, and the visits are automatically created. In this, visits have been re-structured to be purely informational; all editing is done at the observation level. These options and concepts are illustrated to future users via the corresponding poster.

  19. Winning in electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, L.; Jansen, P.; Geyn, G. van

    1996-08-01

    Should you be a buyer or a seller of generation? In general, spot buyers should do very well, while many generation owners will be fortunate to recover their stranded costs. Successful generators will capitalize on superior operating performance and market knowledge. The smartest natural gas strategy in the early 1980`s was to short natural gas. Will this lesson of restructuring be written again of the electricity generation business of the late 1990`s? The authors will examine whether and how winners might emerge in the generation business of the future. The U.S. electric generation market, already marked by intense competition for new capacity and industrial demand, will become even more competitive as it makes the transition from regulated local monopoly to marketbased commodity pricing. At risk is up to $150 billion of shareholder equity and the future viability of half of the country`s investor-owned utilities. The winners in year 2005 will be those who early on developed strategies that simultaneously recovered existing generation investments while restructuring their asset portfolios and repositioning their plants to compete in the new market. Losers will have spent the time mired in indecision, their strategies ultimately forced upon them by regulators or competitors.

  20. Field experiments of success-breeds-success dynamics.

    PubMed

    van de Rijt, Arnout; Kang, Soong Moon; Restivo, Michael; Patil, Akshay

    2014-05-13

    Seemingly similar individuals often experience drastically different success trajectories, with some repeatedly failing and others consistently succeeding. One explanation is preexisting variability along unobserved fitness dimensions that is revealed gradually through differential achievement. Alternatively, positive feedback operating on arbitrary initial advantages may increasingly set apart winners from losers, producing runaway inequality. To identify social feedback in human reward systems, we conducted randomized experiments by intervening in live social environments across the domains of funding, status, endorsement, and reputation. In each system we consistently found that early success bestowed upon arbitrarily selected recipients produced significant improvements in subsequent rates of success compared with the control group of nonrecipients. However, success exhibited decreasing marginal returns, with larger initial advantages failing to produce much further differentiation. These findings suggest a lesser degree of vulnerability of reward systems to incidental or fabricated advantages and a more modest role for cumulative advantage in the explanation of social inequality than previously thought. PMID:24778230

  1. Field experiments of success-breeds-success dynamics

    PubMed Central

    van de Rijt, Arnout; Kang, Soong Moon; Restivo, Michael; Patil, Akshay

    2014-01-01

    Seemingly similar individuals often experience drastically different success trajectories, with some repeatedly failing and others consistently succeeding. One explanation is preexisting variability along unobserved fitness dimensions that is revealed gradually through differential achievement. Alternatively, positive feedback operating on arbitrary initial advantages may increasingly set apart winners from losers, producing runaway inequality. To identify social feedback in human reward systems, we conducted randomized experiments by intervening in live social environments across the domains of funding, status, endorsement, and reputation. In each system we consistently found that early success bestowed upon arbitrarily selected recipients produced significant improvements in subsequent rates of success compared with the control group of nonrecipients. However, success exhibited decreasing marginal returns, with larger initial advantages failing to produce much further differentiation. These findings suggest a lesser degree of vulnerability of reward systems to incidental or fabricated advantages and a more modest role for cumulative advantage in the explanation of social inequality than previously thought. PMID:24778230

  2. Spin hydrodynamic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, R.; Matsuo, M.; Ono, M.; Harii, K.; Chudo, H.; Okayasu, S.; Ieda, J.; Takahashi, S.; Maekawa, S.; Saitoh, E.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic generation is the conversion of fluid kinetic energy into electricity. Such conversion, which has been applied to various types of electric power generation, is driven by the Lorentz force acting on charged particles and thus a magnetic field is necessary. On the other hand, recent studies of spintronics have revealed the similarity between the function of a magnetic field and that of spin-orbit interactions in condensed matter. This suggests the existence of an undiscovered route to realize the conversion of fluid dynamics into electricity without using magnetic fields. Here we show electric voltage generation from fluid dynamics free from magnetic fields; we excited liquid-metal flows in a narrow channel and observed longitudinal voltage generation in the liquid. This voltage has nothing to do with electrification or thermoelectric effects, but turned out to follow a universal scaling rule based on a spin-mediated scenario. The result shows that the observed voltage is caused by spin-current generation from a fluid motion: spin hydrodynamic generation. The observed phenomenon allows us to make mechanical spin-current and electric generators, opening a door to fluid spintronics.

  3. Workforce Challenges and Retention Success Stories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, John T.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document discusses the current and future challenges in building and retaining the required workforce of scientist and engineers for NASA. Specifically, the talk reviews the current situation at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. Several programs at NASA for high school and college students to assist in inspiring the next generation of scientist and engineers are reviewed. The issue of retention of the best of the young scientists and engineers is also reviewed, with a brief review of several young engineers and their success with and for NASA.

  4. Implementation of conditional simulation by successive residuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewbali, Arja; Dimitrakopoulos, Roussos

    2011-02-01

    Conditional simulation of ergodic and stationary Gaussian random fields using successive residuals is a new approach used to overcome the size limitations of the LU decomposition algorithm as well as provide fast updating of existing simulated realizations with new data. This paper discusses two different implementations of this approach. The implementations differ in the use of the new information available; in the first implementation new information is partially used to generate updated realizations; however, in the second implementation, the realizations are updated using all the new information available. The implementations are validated using the Walker Lake data set, and compared through a case study at a stockwork gold deposit.

  5. Characteristics of successful alien plants.

    PubMed

    van Kleunen, M; Dawson, W; Maurel, N

    2015-05-01

    Herbert Baker arguably initiated the search for species characteristics determining alien plant invasion success, with his formulation of the 'ideal weed'. Today, a profusion of studies has tested a myriad of traits for their importance in explaining success of alien plants, but the multiple, not always appropriate, approaches used have led to some confusion and criticism. We argue that a greater understanding of the characteristics explaining alien plant success requires a refined approach that respects the multistage, multiscale nature of the invasion process. We present a schema of questions we can ask regarding the success of alien species, with the answering of one question in the schema being conditional on the answer of preceding questions (thus acknowledging the nested nature of invasion stages). For each question, we identify traits and attributes of species we believe are likely to be most important in explaining species success, and we make predictions as to how we expect successful aliens to differ from natives and from unsuccessful aliens in their characteristics. We organize the findings of empirical studies according to the questions in our schema that they have addressed, to assess the extent to which they support our predictions. We believe that research on plant traits of alien species has already told us a lot about why some alien species become successful after introduction. However, if we ask the right questions at the appropriate scale and use appropriate comparators, research on traits may tell us whether they are really important or not, and if so under which conditions. PMID:25421056

  6. Generative Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagha, Karim Nazari

    2011-01-01

    Generative semantics is (or perhaps was) a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of George Lakoff, John R. Ross, Paul Postal and later McCawley. The approach developed out of transformational generative grammar in the mid 1960s, but stood largely in opposition to work by Noam Chomsky and his students. The nature and genesis of…

  7. Designing and managing successful endangered species recovery programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Tim W.; Crete, Ron; Cada, John

    1989-03-01

    Endangered species recovery is characterized by complexity and uncertainty in both its biological and organizational aspects. To improve performance in the organizational dimension, some models of organizations are briefly introduced with an emphasis on the organization as a system for processing information, i.e., for successfully dealing with the high uncertainty in the task environment. A strong task orientation,which rewards achievement of the primary goal, is suggested as ideal for this task, as is generative rationality, which encourages workers to observe, critique, and generate new ideas. The parallel organization—a flexible, participatory, problem-solving structure set up alongside traditional bureaucracies—is offered as a useful structure for meeting the demands of uncertainties encountered during recovery. Task forces and projects teams can be set up as parallel organizations. Improved managerial functions include coordinating roles to facilitate the flow and use of information; decision making to avoid “groupthink”—the defects, symptoms, and countermeasures are described; and productive, active management of the inevitable conflict. The inability of organizations to solve dilemmas, to examine their own structures and management, and to change themselves for more effective, efficient, and equitable performance is seen as the major obstacle to improved recovery programs. Some recommendations for effecting change in bureaucracies are made along with a call for case studies detailing the organizational dimensions of endangered species recovery programs.

  8. Success Factors Identified by Academically Successful African-American Students of Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooler, Meredith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore why some low-income minority students were academically successful in school using a three-tiered approach to research including individual student interviews, classroom observations, and photographs and follow up interviews on photographs to identify factors contributing to academic…

  9. Rock mass response to strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events and blasting observed at the surface of the excavations in deep level gold mines in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milev, Alexander; Durrheim, Ray; Ogasawara, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    The strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events was studied to characterize the rock mass response and to estimate the site effect on the surface of the underground excavations. A stand-alone instruments, especially designed for recording strong ground motions, were installed underground at a number of deep level gold mines in South Africa. The instruments were recording data at the surface of the stope hangingwalls. A maximum value of 3 m/s was measured. Therefore data were compared to the data recorded in the solid rock by the mine seismic networks to determine the site response. The site response was defined as the ratio of the peak ground velocity measured at the surface of the excavations to the peak ground velocity inferred from the mine seismic data measured in the solid rocks. The site response measured at all mines studied was found to be 9 ± 3 times larger on average. A number of simulated rockbursts were conducted underground in order to estimate the rock mass response when subjected to extreme ground motion and derive the attenuation factors in near field. The rockbursts were simulated by means of large blasts detonated in solid rock close to the sidewall of a tunnel. The numerical models used in the design of the simulated rockbursts were calibrated by small blasts taking place at each experimental site. A dense array of shock type accelerometers was installed along the blasting wall to monitor the attenuation of the strong ground motion as a function of the distance from the source. The attenuation of the ground motion was found to be proportional to the distance from the source following R^-1.1 & R^-1.7 for compact rock and R^-3.1 & R^-3.4 for more fractured rock close to the surface of the tunnel. In addition the ground motion was compared to the quasi-static deformations taking place around the underground excavations. The quasi-static deformations were measured by means of strain, tilt and closure. A good correspondence

  10. Building a Successful Technology Cluster

    EPA Science Inventory

    Silicon Valley is the iconic cluster—a dense regional network of companies, universities, research institutions, and other stakeholders involved in a single industry. Many regions have sought to replicate the success of Silicon Valley, which has produced technological innov...

  11. Success to the Third Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Lottie L.

    2001-01-01

    Tasha Inniss, Sherry Scott Joseph, and Kimberly Weems discuss the challenges and successes of becoming the first African American women to receive doctorates in mathematics from the University of Maryland-College Park. (EV)

  12. Success Teaching Spelling with Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Mariellen

    1983-01-01

    A spelling approach which incorporates music on a cassette with spelling, pronunciation, and definition of specific words was successful in improving junior high learning disabled students' spelling performance, self-esteem, and sequential memories. (CL)

  13. Organizational Climate for Successful Aging.

    PubMed

    Zacher, Hannes; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Research on successful aging at work has neglected contextual resources such as organizational climate, which refers to employees' shared perceptions of their work environment. We introduce the construct of organizational climate for successful aging (OCSA) and examine it as a buffer of the negative relationship between employee age and focus on opportunities (i.e., beliefs about future goals and possibilities at work). Moreover, we expected that focus on opportunities, in turn, positively predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and motivation to continue working after official retirement age. Data came from 649 employees working in 120 companies (M age = 44 years, SD = 13). We controlled for organizational tenure, psychological climate for successful aging (i.e., individuals' perceptions), and psychological and organizational age discrimination climate. Results of multilevel analyses supported our hypotheses. Overall, our findings suggest that OCSA is an important contextual resource for successful aging at work. PMID:27458405

  14. Components of Successful Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Dorothy J.

    1984-01-01

    Identifies practices that ensure institutional success in industrial training, focusing on areas including institutional commitment, the president's role, institutional flexibility, instructor qualifications, needs assessment, five basic elements in program development, contracts, recognition of student achievement, evaluations, ongoing…

  15. Organizational Climate for Successful Aging

    PubMed Central

    Zacher, Hannes; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Research on successful aging at work has neglected contextual resources such as organizational climate, which refers to employees’ shared perceptions of their work environment. We introduce the construct of organizational climate for successful aging (OCSA) and examine it as a buffer of the negative relationship between employee age and focus on opportunities (i.e., beliefs about future goals and possibilities at work). Moreover, we expected that focus on opportunities, in turn, positively predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and motivation to continue working after official retirement age. Data came from 649 employees working in 120 companies (Mage = 44 years, SD = 13). We controlled for organizational tenure, psychological climate for successful aging (i.e., individuals’ perceptions), and psychological and organizational age discrimination climate. Results of multilevel analyses supported our hypotheses. Overall, our findings suggest that OCSA is an important contextual resource for successful aging at work. PMID:27458405

  16. Olive Ridley Sea Turtle Hatching Success as a Function of the Microbial Abundance in Nest Sand at Ostional, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Bézy, Vanessa S.; Valverde, Roldán A.; Plante, Craig J.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that significant embryo mortality is caused by microbes, while high microbial loads are generated by the decomposition of eggs broken by later nesting turtles. This occurs commonly when nesting density is high, especially during mass nesting events (arribadas). However, no previous research has directly quantified microbial abundance and the associated effects on sea turtle hatching success at a nesting beach. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the microbial abundance in olive ridley sea turtle nest sand affects the hatching success at Ostional, Costa Rica. We applied experimental treatments to alter the microbial abundance within the sand into which nests were relocated. We monitored temperature, oxygen, and organic matter content throughout the incubation period and quantified the microbial abundance within the nest sand using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) molecular analysis. The most successful treatment in increasing hatching success was the removal and replacement of nest sand. We found a negative correlation between hatching success and fungal abundance (fungal 18S rRNA gene copies g-1 nest sand). Of secondary importance in determining hatching success was the abundance of bacteria (bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies g-1 g-1 nest sand). Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that high microbial activity is responsible for the lower hatching success observed at Ostional beach. Furthermore, the underlying mechanism appears to be the deprivation of oxygen and exposure to higher temperatures resulting from microbial decomposition in the nest. PMID:25714355

  17. The Seven Habits of Highly Successful Black Junior Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander-Floyd, Nikol G.

    2004-01-01

    How do some Black junior faculty manage to successfully negotiate academic life? The author observed that they tend to have several things in common. This document describes the following commonalities: (1) highly successful Black junior faculty learn the expectations for promotion; (2) they learn how to say "no" early and often and protect their…

  18. Editorial: solar radiophysics — recent results on observations and theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakariakov, Valery M.; Kashapova, Larisa K.; Yan, Yi-Hua

    2014-07-01

    Solar radiophysics is a rapidly developing branch of solar physics and plasma astrophysics. Solar radiophysics has the goal of analyzing observations of radio emissions from the Sun and understanding basic physical processes operating in quiet and active regions of the solar corona. In the near future, the commissioning of a new generation of solar radio observational facilities, which include the Chinese Spectral Radio Heliograph (CSRH) and the upgrade of the Siberian Solar Radio Telescope (SSRT), and the beginning of solar observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), is expected to bring us new breakthrough results of a transformative nature. The Marie-Curie International Research Staff Exchange (MC IRSES) “RadioSun” international network aims to create a solid foundation for the successful exploitation of upcoming solar radio observational facilities, as well as intensive use of the existing observational tools, advanced theoretical modeling of relevant physical processes and observables, and training a new generation of solar radio physicists. The RadioSun network links research teams from China, Czech Republic, Poland, Russia and the UK. This mini-volume presents research papers based on invited reviews and contributed talks at the 1st RadioSun workshop in China. These papers cover a broad range of research topics and include recent observational and theoretical advances in solar radiophysics, MHD seismology of the solar corona, physics of solar flares, generation of radio emission, numerical modeling of MHD and plasma physics processes, charged-particle acceleration and novel instrumentation.

  19. Energy generator

    SciTech Connect

    Krisko, P.

    1989-08-01

    The patent describes a power booster. It comprises: at least one pendulum means suspended at one end to oscillate about the point of suspension; power generating means; mass means connected to one end of the pendulum means; spring means disposed in operative cooperation with the mass means to impart energy into the pendulum means and assist the pendulum means in oscillating about the point of suspension; and energy transfer linkage means between the pendulum means and the power generating means for transferring energy between the pendulum means and the power generating means.

  20. Next generation workforce.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    The health care industry has become a very complex business. CQsts are rising and resources such as funding and human capital are diminishing. Human capital resources are about to reach true crisis proportions. The vital workforce we have counted on is expected to begin thinning as large numbers of Boomers retire. Not only does this deplete the workforce from a pure numbers perspective, but it also affects intellectual capital and institutional memory. Generational trends and characteristics have affected the workforce environment and will continue to do so as another generation continues to enter the workforce. Generation Y, also tagged Nexter, offers core values that can bring positive changes to the health care workforce. Technology continues to change at lightning speed. Embracing new technology and using it to refine the way we do business will help deliver success. Meaningful strategic plans are needed to change the model of business delivery and employee care in our future workforce. PMID:18389847