Sample records for observing system satellites

  1. NOAA satellite observing systems: status and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John Hussey, W.; Schneider, Stanley R.; Gird, Ronald S.; Needham, Bruce H.

    1991-07-01

    NOAA's National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) operates separates series of environmental monitoring satellites in polar and geostationary orbits. Two geostationary spacecraft are normally in opration: one stationed at 75° E longitude (GOES-EAST), and one stationed at 135° W longitude (GOES-WEST). Owing to a combination of premature in-orbit failures and a launch failure there is only one GOES satellite currently operational, GOES-7, which is migrated between 95° and 105° W longitude depending upon season. GOES-7 was launched in February 1987. Its primary observing instrument is a combined imager/sounder, the VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS). The first in the next series of GOES satellite, (GOES I-M), is scheduled for launch in 1992. The major upgrade over the current GOES satellites will be the introduction of simultaneous imaging and sounding capability and improvements in imaging IR and sounding resolution. Because of the long lead times necessary in designing and building new systems, NOAA, in cooperation with NASA, has already begun the planning and study process for the GOES-N series of satellites, which will fly early in the next century. NOAA operates a two polar satellite system with equatorial nodal crossing times of 0730 (descending) and 1345 (ascending). The current operational satellites are NOAA-10 (AM) and NOAA-11 (PM). The next in the series (NOAA-D, which will become NOAA-12 once operational) is scheduled for launch in early summer 1991. The instruments onboard are used to make global measurements of numerous parameters such as atmospheric temperature, water vapor, ozone, sea surface temperature, sea ice, and vegetation. The NOAA K-N series of satellites, scheduled for deployment in the mid 1990's, will provide upgraded imaging and sounding capability. The imager will be enhanced to include a sixth channel for cloud/ice descrimination. A 15 channel advanced microwave sounder will be manifested for atmospheric temperature retrievals, and a seperate 5 channel advanced microwave sounder will be used for atmospheric water vapor retrievals. The polar program will undergo major changes beginning in the late 1990's. The morning polar metsat service will become the responsibility of the Europeans with NOAA providing an operational sensor payload. The afternoon metsat service will be continued by NOAA with a new block of satellites and instruments beginning at NOAA-O. NOAA will also be closely cooperating with NASA in this time frame. A number of the instruments on NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms, scheduled for launch beginning in the late 1990's, have been designated "prototype operational" and may become candidates for eventual flight on NOAA operational spacecraft.

  2. A satellite ocean color observation operator system for eutrophication assessment in coastal waters

    E-print Network

    Fontana, Clément

    A satellite ocean color observation operator system for eutrophication assessment in coastal waters: Satellite ocean color Observation operator Eutrophication Remote sensing Radiative transfer modeling

  3. A view finder control system for an earth observation satellite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willem H. Steyn

    2006-01-01

    A real time TV view finder is used on-board a low earth orbiting (LEO) satellite to manually select targets for imaging from a ground station within the communication footprint of the satellite. The attitude control system on the satellite is used to steer the satellite using commands from the groundstation and a television camera onboard the satellite will then downlink

  4. A view finder control system for an earth observation satellite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Steyn

    2004-01-01

    A real time TV view finder is used on-board a low earth orbiting (LEO) satellite to manually select targets for imaging from a ground station within the communication footprint of the satellite. The attitude control system on the satellite is used to steer the satellite using commands from the groundstation and a television camera onboard the satellite will then downlink

  5. Satellite Observation Systems for Polar Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2012-01-01

    The key observational tools for detecting large scale changes of various parameters in the polar regions have been satellite sensors. The sensors include passive and active satellite systems in the visible, infrared and microwave frequencies. The monitoring started with Tiros and Nimbus research satellites series in the 1970s but during the period, not much data was stored digitally because of limitations and cost of the needed storage systems. Continuous global data came about starting with the launch of ocean color, passive microwave, and thermal infrared sensors on board Nimbus-7 and Synthetic Aperture Radar, Radar Altimeter and Scatterometer on board SeaSat satellite both launched in 1978. The Nimbus-7 lasted longer than expected and provided about 9 years of useful data while SeaSat quit working after 3 months but provided very useful data that became the baseline for follow-up systems with similar capabilities. Over the years, many new sensors were launched, some from Japan Aeronautics and Space Agency (JAXA), some from the European Space Agency (ESA) and more recently, from RuSSia, China, Korea, Canada and India. For polar studies, among the most useful sensors has been the passive microwave sensor which provides day/night and almost all weather observation of the surface. The sensor provide sea surface temperature, precipitation, wind, water vapor and sea ice concentration data that have been very useful in monitoring the climate of the region. More than 30 years of such data are now available, starting with the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on board the Nimbus-7, the Special Scanning Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) on board a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on board the EOS/ Aqua satellite. The techniques that have been developed to derive geophysical parameters from data provided by these and other sensors and associated instrumental and algorithm errors and validation techniques will be discussed. An important issue is the organization and storage of hundreds of terabytes of data collected by even just a few of these satellite sensors. Advances in mass storage and computer technology have made it possible to overcome many of the collection and archival problems and the availability of comprehensive satellite data sets put together by NASA's Earth Observing System project will be discussed.

  6. Rule-based system architecting of Earth observation satellite systems

    E-print Network

    Selva Valero, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    System architecting is concerned with exploring the tradespace of early, high-level, system design decisions with a holistic, value-centric view. In the last few years, several tools and methods have been developed to ...

  7. NASDA's earth observation satellite data archive policy for the earth observation data and information system (EOIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobue, Shin-ichi; Yoshida, Fumiyoshi; Ochiai, Osamu

    1996-01-01

    NASDA's new Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) is scheduled for launch in August, 1996. ADEOS carries 8 sensors to observe earth environmental phenomena and sends their data to NASDA, NASA, and other foreign ground stations around the world. The downlink data bit rate for ADEOS is 126 MB/s and the total volume of data is about 100 GB per day. To archive and manage such a large quantity of data with high reliability and easy accessibility it was necessary to develop a new mass storage system with a catalogue information database using advanced database management technology. The data will be archived and maintained in the Master Data Storage Subsystem (MDSS) which is one subsystem in NASDA's new Earth Observation data and Information System (EOIS). The MDSS is based on a SONY ID1 digital tape robotics system. This paper provides an overview of the EOIS system, with a focus on the Master Data Storage Subsystem and the NASDA Earth Observation Center (EOC) archive policy for earth observation satellite data.

  8. Satellite signatures in SLR observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, G. M.

    1993-01-01

    We examine the evidence for the detection of satellite-dependent signatures in the laser range observations obtained by the UK single-photon Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) System models of the expected observation distributions from Ajisai and Lageos are developed from the published satellite spread functions and from the characteristics of the SLR System and compared with the observations. The effects of varying return strengths are discussed using the models and by experimental observations of Ajisai, during which a range of return levels from single to multiple photons is achieved. The implications of these results for system-dependent center for mass corrections are discussed.

  9. System architecting of a campaign of earth observing satellites

    E-print Network

    Colson, Justin M

    2008-01-01

    Given the current level of concern over anthropogenic climate change, and the ongoing debate worldwide regarding what action should be taken to reduce and reverse future warming, the ability to collect data on Earth system ...

  10. Candidate configuration trade study, Stellar-inertial Measurement Systems (SIMS) for an Earth Observation Satellite (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogletree, G.; Coccoli, J.; Mckern, R.; Smith, M.; White, R.

    1972-01-01

    The results of analytical and simulation studies of the stellar-inertial measurement system (SIMS) for an earth observation satellite are presented. Subsystem design analyses and sensor design trades are reported. Three candidate systems are considered: (1) structure-mounted gyros with structure-mounted star mapper, (2) structure-mounted gyros with gimbaled star tracker, and (3) gimbaled gyros with structure-mounted star mapper. The purpose of the study is to facilitate the decisions pertaining to gimbaled versus structure-mounted gyros and star sensors, and combinations of systems suitable for the EOS satellite.

  11. Evaluating the Cloud Cover Forecast of NCEP Global Forecast System with Satellite Observation

    E-print Network

    Ye, Quanzhi

    2011-01-01

    To assess the quality of daily cloud cover forecast generated by the operational global numeric model, the NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS), we compose a large sample with outputs from GFS model and satellite observations from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) in the period of July 2004 to June 2008, to conduct a quantitative and systematic assessment of the performance of a cloud model that covers a relatively long range of time, basic cloud types, and in a global view. The evaluation has revealed the goodness of the model forecast, which further illustrates our completeness on understanding cloud generation mechanism. To quantity the result, we found a remarkably high correlation between the model forecasts and the satellite observations over the entire globe, with mean forecast error less than 15% in most areas. Considering a forecast within 30% difference to the observation to be a "good" one, we find that the probability for the GFS model to make good forecasts varies between...

  12. Application of OSSEs to Improved Observing System Design and Enhanced Satellite Data Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atlas, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) are an important tool for evaluating the potential impact of proposed new observing systems, as well as for evaluating trade-offs in observing system design, and in developing and assessing improved methodology for assimilating new observations. Extensive OSSEs have been conducted at NASA/ GSFC and NOAA/AOML over the last three decades. These OSSEs determined correctly the quantitative potential for several proposed satellite observing systems to improve weather analysis and prediction prior to their launch, evaluated trade-offs in orbits, coverage and accuracy for space-based wind lidars, and were used in the development of the methodology that led to the first beneficial impacts of satellite surface winds on numerical weather prediction. At the present time, we are expanding the application of OSSE methodology to severe storm, air quality, and ocean studies. In this paper, we summarize early applications of global OSSEs, and new experiments using both global and regional models (with a special emphasis on atmosphere and ocean analysis, numerical weather prediction and hurricane forecasting). These experiments are aimed at determining (1) the relative impact of alternative concepts for space-based lidar winds, (2) the potential impact of new GNSS RO satellites, (3) the potential impact of a geostationary microwave sounder, and (4) the relative impact of alternative concepts for polar and geostationary hyperspectral sounders.

  13. Dynamics of Satellites in Binary Near-Earth Asteroid Systems: A Study Based on Radar Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidu, Shantanu

    In the past 15 years, three previously unrecognized sub-populations of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) have been discovered. About 15% of NEAs are binaries, at least 10% of NEAs are contact binaries, and dozens of asteroid pairs have been identified. Numerous science questions have arisen about the formation and evolution processes of these systems and about the inter-relationships between these groups. Addressing these questions informs us about a wide range of important solar system processes that shape small bodies and planetesimals. Here I have chosen to focus on providing one of the most complete characterizations of a binary system among all known asteroid binaries, and on studying the spin-orbit interactions in this and 8 additional binary systems. One hypothesis that has not been fully explored is the possibility of chaotic rotation of asteroid satellites and the impact that such a state has on the evolution of the binary systems. I examine this problem as well as the possibility of detecting librational motions in synchronous satellites. Because the Arecibo and Goldstone radar systems enable superb characterizations of binaries and NEAs in general, this dissertation makes abundant use of radar data. Radar observations provide images of asteroids at decameter resolution, and these images can be inverted to determine the 3D shapes of the components, which are essential to properly model the system dynamics. Radar data also enable precise determination of the mutual orbit, which is another crucial ingredient. In the first two chapters of the dissertation, I describe the observations and physical characterizations of asteroid 2000~ET70 and binary asteroid 2000 DP107. The characterization of 2000 DP107 includes size, shape, spin, mass, and density of each component, making this binary one of the best-characterized asteroid binary to date. In the last chapter of the dissertation, I describe a computationally efficient fourth-order numerical integrator that I used to investigate the coupled spin and orbital dynamics of the satellites of NEAs. The speed of the integrator enabled multi-year timescale simulations of 9 well-characterized binary near-Earth asteroids. The numerical simulations illuminate a range of rotational regimes for asteroid satellites and the conditions under which the various regimes prevail. One of the rotational regimes is chaotic, and I find that this rotation state can substantially delay the radiative evolution of binary systems.

  14. Ionospheric Simulation System for Satellite Observations and Global Assimilative Modeling Experiments (ISOGAME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pi, Xiaoqing; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Verkhoglyadova, Olga P.; Stephens, Philip; Wilson, Brian D.; Akopian, Vardan; Komjathy, Attila; Lijima, Byron A.

    2013-01-01

    ISOGAME is designed and developed to assess quantitatively the impact of new observation systems on the capability of imaging and modeling the ionosphere. With ISOGAME, one can perform observation system simulation experiments (OSSEs). A typical OSSE using ISOGAME would involve: (1) simulating various ionospheric conditions on global scales; (2) simulating ionospheric measurements made from a constellation of low-Earth-orbiters (LEOs), particularly Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) radio occultation data, and from ground-based global GNSS networks; (3) conducting ionospheric data assimilation experiments with the Global Assimilative Ionospheric Model (GAIM); and (4) analyzing modeling results with visualization tools. ISOGAME can provide quantitative assessment of the accuracy of assimilative modeling with the interested observation system. Other observation systems besides those based on GNSS are also possible to analyze. The system is composed of a suite of software that combines the GAIM, including a 4D first-principles ionospheric model and data assimilation modules, an Internal Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model that has been developed by international ionospheric research communities, observation simulator, visualization software, and orbit design, simulation, and optimization software. The core GAIM model used in ISOGAME is based on the GAIM++ code (written in C++) that includes a new high-fidelity geomagnetic field representation (multi-dipole). New visualization tools and analysis algorithms for the OSSEs are now part of ISOGAME.

  15. Design and observations of satellite laser ranging system for daylight tracking at Shanghai Observatory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fumin Yang; Chikun Xiao; Wanzhen Chen; Zhongping Zhang; Detong Tan; Xiangdong Gong; Juping Chen; Huang Li; Jianhua Zhang

    1999-01-01

    The first satellite laser ranging system for daylight tracking in China was set up at Shanghai Observatory, Chinese Academy\\u000a of Sciences. Both false alarm probability due to strong background noises and detection probability of the laser returns with\\u000a single photon level from satellite in daylight for our system are analysed. The system design and performance characteristics\\u000a of subsystems, adopted techniques

  16. Low-dimensional dynamical system model for observed coherent structures in ocean satellite data

    E-print Network

    Cristobal Lopez; Emilio Hernandez-Garcia

    2000-09-19

    The dynamics of coherent structures present in real-world environmental data is analyzed. The method developed in this Paper combines the power of the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) technique to identify these coherent structures in experimental data sets, and its optimality in providing Galerkin basis for projecting and reducing complex dynamical models. The POD basis used is the one obtained from the experimental data. We apply the procedure to analyze coherent structures in an oceanic setting, the ones arising from instabilities of the Algerian current, in the western Mediterranean Sea. Data are from satellite altimetry providing Sea Surface Height, and the model is a two-layer quasigeostrophic system. A four-dimensional dynamical system is obtained that correctly describe the observed coherent structures (moving eddies). Finally, a bifurcation analysis is performed on the reduced model.

  17. The benefits of combined processing of observations from different Global Navigation Satellite Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, T.; Dilssner, F.; Tegedor, J.; Escobar, D.; Dow, J.; Zandbergen, R.

    2009-04-01

    The Galileo GNSS and the modernisation of the existing GPS and GLONASS systems will offer many exciting opportunities and challenges in the field of geosciences in the next decade. However, in order to obtain any positive effects on our geodetic and geophysical estimates the different GNSS systems will have to be observed by multi-system receivers that track all systems on all available frequencies. Furthermore, these receivers should not introduce any biases between the tracked GNSS observations. In addition to this we need analysis software that can efficiently handle these multi-system and multi-frequency observations in one single estimation process. Over the last two years ESOC has put a significant effort into its Napeos processing software. This software is now capable of combined processing of SLR, DORIS, GPS, GLONASS, and GIOVE data. It is routinely used for a large number of tasks within ESOC, e.g., for IGS, ILRS, and IDS reprocessing for the ITRF2009. During 2008 the IGS GNSS tracking network has been significantly enhanced. It now offers more than 100 multi-GNSS tracking stations with a reasonably good global coverage. In addition the GLONASS system has been enhanced thanks to two triplet launches, on September 25 and December 25, 2008. Consequently, the GLONASS system now consists out of 19 active satellites. This means that a GPS-GLONASS combined solution of the IGS GNSS network has the potential to almost double the number of observations compared to a GPS only solution. In our presentation we will show results from our combined GNSS analysis, both the combination of GPS and GLONASS as well as the combination of GPS and GIOVE. We will address the challenges encountered when simultaneously processing the data of multiple GNSS constellations. The prime focus of our presentation will be on the the benefits of the combined GPS-GLONASS processing compared to the GPS-only processing in our IGS routine analysis.

  18. An Attitude Control System for SumbandilaSAT an Earth Observation Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steyn, W. H.

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes the attitude determination and control system to support the multi-spectral earth observation main payload of the SumbandilaSAT microsatellite. The satellite has only a single main Y- body mounted solar panel and the attitude control system must ensure a nominal sun-pointed attitude under all non-imaging conditions during the sunlit part of the orbit. The control actuators employed are 3- axis magnetic torquer rods and reaction wheels. During initial detumbling and safe mode operations a simple new magnetic control law is used to bring the satellite to a sun-pointed Y-spinning attitude for maximum solar power collection. From this sun-pointed, spinning attitude an intermediate control mode is entered when the Y-reaction wheel is utilised as a momentum wheel, to absorb the body spin rate and to inertially stabilise the angular momentum vector towards the sun direction. During the intermediate mode the magnetic rods are used to maintain the momentum vector size and direction and to do nutation damping. The pitch angle is also controlled using the Y-wheel, to keep the main imager payload as close as possible to an earth-pointed attitude and to thermally stabilise the imager telescope. The final and nominal attitude control mode is entered when a zero biased 3-axis reaction wheel controller is enabled, for: 1) sun tracking for optimal solar power collection, 2) target tracking during viewfinder use or during imaging download communication with a ground station and 3) pushbroom imager scanning with a forward motion compensation capability. During the nominal mode the magnetic rods are used to dump the angular momentum from the reaction wheels during sun tracking periods. A short introduction to the Sumbandila satellite will be given. All the control modes, the attitude sensors and estimators utilised, will be introduced in the paper. Specifically, a unique agile viewfinder control mode to manually select targets for subsequent high resolution image scanning, when a control ground station is available within the communication footprint of the satellite, will be explained more thoroughly.

  19. Composite Life Cycle of Maritime Tropical Mesoscale Convective Systems in Scatterometer and Microwave Satellite Observations

    E-print Network

    Mapes, Brian

    and Microwave Satellite Observations BRIAN MAPES Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences life cycle-- from precursors to initiation to maturity to decay and aftereffects--is especially hard observations. Aircraft cannot be tar- geted to initiation events because these are not well forecast

  20. Seasonal and longitudinal variations of the solar quiet current system during solar minimum determined by CHAMP satellite magnetic field observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedatella, N. M.; Forbes, J. M.; Richmond, A. D.

    2010-12-01

    Vector magnetometer observations from the CHAllenging Mini-satellite Payload (CHAMP) satellite are used to determine the solar quiet (Sq) current system during the recent solar minimum. Observations from 2006-2008 are combined and after removal of a main field model and accounting for field aligned currents, the longitudinal and seasonal variation of the Sq currents are determined. Comparison with Sq currents derived from ground-based magnetometers in the European/African longitude sector reveals similar amplitudes and seasonal variations, indicating that CHAMP observations can reliably determine the Sq current system. The seasonal variation is consistent with prior observations with the largest currents occurring around the equinoxes. Significant longitudinal variations are also observed and they exhibit seasonal variability. During Northern Hemisphere summer the predominant structure is a wave-1 feature. During the remainder of the year, wave-3 and wave-4 longitudinal structures dominate. Variations in tidal winds due to nonmigrating tides may influence the dynamo generated electric fields and currents, leading to the observed Sq current system longitudinal variations. The present study represents the first time that satellite magnetic field observations have been used to determine the Sq current system. Furthermore, the use of satellite observations allows for the first determination of the complete longitudinal variations of the Sq current system.

  1. A Regional CO2 Observing System Simulation Experiment for the ASCENDS Satellite Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Baker, D. F.; Mountain, M.; Henderson, J.; Nehrkorn, T.; Zaccheo, T. S.

    2014-01-01

    Top-down estimates of the spatiotemporal variations in emissions and uptake of CO2 will benefit from the increasing measurement density brought by recent and future additions to the suite of in situ and remote CO2 measurement platforms. In particular, the planned NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) satellite mission will provide greater coverage in cloudy regions, at high latitudes, and at night than passive satellite systems, as well as high precision and accuracy. In a novel approach to quantifying the ability of satellite column measurements to constrain CO2 fluxes, we use a portable library of footprints (surface influence functions) generated by the WRF-STILT Lagrangian transport model in a regional Bayesian synthesis inversion. The regional Lagrangian framework is well suited to make use of ASCENDS observations to constrain fluxes at high resolution, in this case at 1 degree latitude x 1 degree longitude and weekly for North America. We consider random measurement errors only, modeled as a function of mission and instrument design specifications along with realistic atmospheric and surface conditions. We find that the ASCENDS observations could potentially reduce flux uncertainties substantially at biome and finer scales. At the 1 degree x 1 degree, weekly scale, the largest uncertainty reductions, on the order of 50 percent, occur where and when there is good coverage by observations with low measurement errors and the a priori uncertainties are large. Uncertainty reductions are smaller for a 1.57 micron candidate wavelength than for a 2.05 micron wavelength, and are smaller for the higher of the two measurement error levels that we consider (1.0 ppm vs. 0.5 ppm clear-sky error at Railroad Valley, Nevada). Uncertainty reductions at the annual, biome scale range from 40 percent to 75 percent across our four instrument design cases, and from 65 percent to 85 percent for the continent as a whole. Our uncertainty reductions at various scales are substantially smaller than those from a global ASCENDS inversion on a coarser grid, demonstrating how quantitative results can depend on inversion methodology. The a posteriori flux uncertainties we obtain, ranging from 0.01 to 0.06 Pg C yr-1 across the biomes, would meet requirements for improved understanding of long-term carbon sinks suggested by a previous study.

  2. The Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) on the Aura Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Joe W.; Froidevaux, Lucien; Harwood, Robert S.; Jarnot, Robert F.; Pickett, Herbert M.; Read, William G.; Siegel, Peter H.; Cofield, Richard E.; Filipiak, Mark J.; Flower, Dennis A.; Holden, James R.; Lau, Gary K.; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Manney, Gloria L; Pumphrey, Hugh C.; Santee, Michelle L.; Wu, Dong L.; Cuddy, David T.; Lay, Richard R.; Loo, Mario S.; Perun, Vincent S.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Stek, Paul C.; Thurstans, Robert P.; Boyles, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    The Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder measures several atmospheric chemical species (OH, HO2, H2O, O3, HCl, ClO, HOCl, BrO, HNO3, N2O, CO, HCN, CH3CN, volcanic SO2), cloud ice, temperature, and geopotential height to improve our understanding of stratospheric ozone chemistry, the interaction of composition and climate, and pollution in the upper troposphere. All measurements are made simultaneously and continuously, during both day and night. The instrument uses heterodyne radiometers that observe thermal emission from the atmospheric limb in broad spectral regions centered near 118, 190, 240, and 640 GHz, and 2.5 THz. It was launched July 15, 2004 on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Aura satellite and started full-up science operations on August 13, 2004. An atmospheric limb scan and radiometric calibration for all bands are performed routinely every 25 s. Vertical profiles are retrieved every 165 km along the suborbital track, covering 82 S to 82 N latitudes on each orbit. Instrument performance to date has been excellent; data have been made publicly available; and initial science results have been obtained.

  3. A statistical comparison of deep convective cloud objects observed by an Earth Observing System satellite and simulated by a cloud-resolving model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zachary A. Eitzen; Kuan-Man Xu

    2005-01-01

    The single scanner footprint (SSF) data product produced by the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite is used to diagnose 68 deep convective cloud objects observed in March 1998. The probability density functions (PDFs) of several observed and retrieved fields from the CERES SSF data product are used

  4. Estimating Zenith Tropospheric Delays from BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Observations

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Aigong; Xu, Zongqiu; Ge, Maorong; Xu, Xinchao; Zhu, Huizhong; Sui, Xin

    2013-01-01

    The GNSS derived Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD) plays today a very critical role in meteorological study and weather forecasts, as ZTDs of thousands of GNSS stations are operationally assimilated into numerical weather prediction models. Recently, the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) was officially announced to provide operational services around China and its neighborhood and it was demonstrated to be very promising for precise navigation and positioning. In this contribution, we concentrate on estimating ZTD using BDS observations to assess its capacity for troposphere remote sensing. A local network which is about 250 km from Beijing and comprised of six stations equipped with GPS- and BDS-capable receivers is utilized. Data from 5 to 8 November 2012 collected on the network is processed in network mode using precise orbits and in Precise Point Positioning mode using precise orbits and clocks. The precise orbits and clocks are generated from a tracking network with most of the stations in China and several stations around the world. The derived ZTDs are compared with that estimated from GPS data using the final products of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The comparison shows that the bias and the standard deviation of the ZTD differences are about 2 mm and 5 mm, respectively, which are very close to the differences of GPS ZTD estimated using different software packages. PMID:23552104

  5. Operational Applications of Satellite Snowcover Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A. (editor); Peterson, R. (editor)

    1980-01-01

    The history of remote sensing of snow cover is reviewed and the following topics are covered: various techniques for interpreting LANDSAT and NOAA satellite data; the status of future systems for continuing snow hydrology applications; the use of snow cover observations in streamflow forecasts by Applications Systems Verification and Transfer participants and selected foreign investigators; and the benefits of using satellite snow cover data in runoff prediction.

  6. Satellite observations of cataclysmic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, K. O.; Cordova, F. A.

    1982-07-01

    The nature of cataclysmic variables (CVs) is discussed and the results of various satellite observations of CVs are assessed. In the early 1970, the dwarf nova EX Hydrae was discovered by Uhuru, and Ariel 5 and HEAO 1 confirmed U Geminorum and SS Cygni as hard X-ray sources. The Einstein satellite in the late 1970s found large numbers of CVs, enabling the study of their energy output in a wide range of spectral bands. The IUE confirmed the thermonuclear nature of classical novae and studied high-velocity winds in dwarf novae. X-ray observations also resulted in the discovery of magnetic variables, whose nature is discussed.

  7. Cyberinfrastructure Initiatives of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. McDonald; J. L. Faundeen; I. Petiteville

    2005-01-01

    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) was established in 1984 in response to a recommendation from the Economic Summit of Industrialized Nations Working Group on Growth, Technology, and Employment's Panel of Experts on Satellite Remote Sensing. CEOS participants are Members, who are national or international governmental organizations who operate civil spaceborne Earth observation satellites, and Associates who are governmental

  8. Geopotential Error Analysis from Satellite Gradiometer and Global Positioning System Observables on Parallel Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, Bob E.; Baker, Gregory A.

    1997-01-01

    The recovery of a high resolution geopotential from satellite gradiometer observations motivates the examination of high performance computational techniques. The primary subject matter addresses specifically the use of satellite gradiometer and GPS observations to form and invert the normal matrix associated with a large degree and order geopotential solution. Memory resident and out-of-core parallel linear algebra techniques along with data parallel batch algorithms form the foundation of the least squares application structure. A secondary topic includes the adoption of object oriented programming techniques to enhance modularity and reusability of code. Applications implementing the parallel and object oriented methods successfully calculate the degree variance for a degree and order 110 geopotential solution on 32 processors of the Cray T3E. The memory resident gradiometer application exhibits an overall application performance of 5.4 Gflops, and the out-of-core linear solver exhibits an overall performance of 2.4 Gflops. The combination solution derived from a sun synchronous gradiometer orbit produce average geoid height variances of 17 millimeters.

  9. A comparison of mapped and measured total ionospheric electron content using global positioning system and beacon satellite observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabor E. Lanyi; Titus Roth

    1988-01-01

    Total ionospheric electron contents (TEC) were measured by global positioning system (GPS) dual-frequency receivers developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The measurements included P-code (precise ranging code) and carrier phase data for six GPS satellites during multiple five-hour observing sessions. A set of these GPS TEC measurements were mapped from the GPS lines of sight to the line of sight

  10. Transit - The first navigational satellite system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Richards

    1979-01-01

    The Transit navigational satellite system, providing fixes of high accuracy for ships, is discussed. The Transit satellite, with an orbit of about 1100 km, uses a radio-Doppler navigation method in which the ship's position is calculated from the observed change in the received frequency of the satellite's radio transmissions. The satellite carries an ultra-stable oscillator to control the transmitter frequency,

  11. Naval EarthMap Observer (NEMO) satellite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas L. Wilson; Curtiss O. Davis

    1999-01-01

    The Office of Naval Research (ONR) and the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) have initiated the Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Technology (HRST) program to demonstrate the utility of a hyperspectral earth-imaging system to support Naval needs for characterization of the littoral regions of the world. One key component of the HRST program is the development of the Naval EarthMap Observer (NEMO) satellite

  12. Satellite system survivability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, F. H.

    Present U.S. military capability relies heavily on Earth satellites to maintain connectivity. The essential nature of these satellite systems has made them tempting targets to nuclear attack in wartime. The author reviews U.S. history in high-altitude nuclear device testing and nuclear effects testing on satellies, events in which he directly participated. Physics of the production of nuclear enhanced high-altitude electron belts are reviewed. The author discusses primary affects of the enhanced environment on satellite components. A glimpse into future satellite hardening reveals measures against developing directed energy weapons.

  13. Civil satellite navigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, Walter F.

    1991-07-01

    The use of satellite navigation for civil purposes is examined critically to compare the merits and costs of existing and practical satellite systems. Accuracy and range considerations are reviewed, and the basic requirements of radionavigation systems are set forth. Specific data are given regarding coverage area, integration with ground-based systems, monitoring and control, and accuracy. Systems reviewed include 'Starfix,' Inmarsat, EVA Vavsat, and Geostar/Locstar/Omnitracs, and extensive illustrations are provided to demonstrate constellation geometries. When in view, two or three geosynchronous satellites can provide acceptable fixing, and 9 satellites can provide global coverage. It is argued that systems such as 'Starfix' are commercially viable with less than 100 users, and Inmarsat is identified as an effective European civil system.

  14. Recent Greenland Ice Mass Loss by Drainage System from Satellite Gravity Observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Luthcke; H. J. Zwally; W. Abdalati; D. D. Rowlands; R. D. Ray; R. S. Nerem; F. G. Lemoine; J. J. McCarthy; D. S. Chinn

    2006-01-01

    Mass changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet resolved by drainage system regions were derived from a local mass concentration analysis of NASA Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE mission) observations. From 2003 to 2005, the ice sheet lost 101 ± 16 gigaton\\/year, with a gain of 54 gigaton\\/year above 2000 meters and a loss

  15. The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System: Capabilities for Atmospheric Remote Sensing for NWP and Climate -- Moving Towards a Global Earth Observation System of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mango, S. A.; Hinnant, F.; Hoffman, C. W.; Smehil, D. L.; Schneider, S. R.; Simione, S.; Needham, B.; Stockton, D.

    2005-12-01

    Over the last decade, the tri-agency Integrated Program Office (IPO), comprised of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Department of Defense (DoD), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), has been managing the development of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). Once operational later this decade, NPOESS will replace NOAA's Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and DoD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) systems. The IPO, through its Acquisition and Operations contractor, Northrop Grumman, will launch NPOESS spacecraft into three orbital planes to provide a single, national system capable of satisfying both civil and national security requirements for space-based, remotely sensed environmental data. With the development of NPOESS, we are evolving the existing "weather" satellites into integrated environmental observing systems by expanding our capabilities to observe, assess, and predict the total Earth system - ocean, atmosphere, land, and the space environment. The NPOESS will enable more accurate short-term weather forecasts and severe storm warnings and improved monitoring of atmospheric phenomena. NPOESS will also provide continuity of critical data for monitoring, understanding, and predicting climate change and assessing the impacts of climate change on seasonal and longer time scales. For these purposes, the NPOESS Integrated Program Office [IPO] is developing a suite of advanced, atmospheric sounding/probing instruments as a major part of the next generation meteorological, environmental and climate operational satellite system in polar, low earth orbit [LEO]. The IPO is developing the CrIS, Cross-track Infrared Sounder, an Ozone Mapping & Profiler Suite [OMPS]and a Visible and Infrared Imager and Radiometer Suite [VIIRS] and NASA is developing an Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder [ATMS]. These four instruments will be key parts of the NPOESS operational satellite system and its precursor, bridging and risk-reduction mission - the NPOESS Preparatory Project [NPP]. The CrIS/ATMS/OMPS (& VIIRS) and, later on NPOESS, a Conical-scanning Microwave Imager and Sounder [CMIS] will represent a USA highly capable, complementary sounding and imaging suite for the next generation. In the same time frame the European community, EUMETSAT, European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellite Systems, will be flying their next generation, operational, polar-orbiting LEO system, METOP. METOP will have a highly capable FTS sounder, IASI [Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer], an Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit [AMSU], a Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment [GOME-2], a GNSS Receiver for Atmospheric Sounding [GRAS]and an Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer [AVHRR]. The NPOESS & METOP sounders and imagers will represent a significant contribution to a polar-orbiting, atmospheric sounding and imaging component of an emerging Global Earth Observation System of Systems [GEOSS] for NWP and Climate. Similarly the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite System [GOES-R] & Meteosat Second Generation [MSG] sounders and imagers will represent an important geostationary component of such a GEOSS.

  16. Flexible Satellite Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip J. Lin; Thomas J. Kostas

    2007-01-01

    In today's unpredictable and dynamic environment, flexibility is an important aspect in system design. Flexibility increases system capability and effectiveness, reduces long term cost, encourages innovation, and protects against uncertainty. It is often at odds with optimization. High cost and harsh environment lead to specialized high performance satellite systems with stringent size, weight, and power constraints. These inflexible systems are

  17. Assessment of errors in Precipitable Water data derived from Global Navigation Satellite System observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hordyniec, Pawel; Bosy, Jaroslaw; Rohm, Witold

    2015-07-01

    Among the new remote sensing techniques, one of the most promising is a GNSS meteorology, which provides continuous remote monitoring of the troposphere water vapor in all weather conditions with high temporal and spatial resolution. The Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS) network and available meteorological instrumentation and models were scrutinized (we based our analysis on ASG-EUPOS network in Poland) as a troposphere water vapor retrieval system. This paper shows rigorous mathematical derivation of Precipitable Water errors based on uncertainties propagation method using all available data source quality measures (meteorological sensors and models precisions, ZTD estimation error, interpolation discrepancies, and ZWD to PW conversion inaccuracies). We analyze both random and systematic errors introduced by indirect measurements and interpolation procedures, hence estimate the PW system integrity capabilities. The results for PW show that the systematic errors can be under half-millimeter level as long as pressure and temperature are measured at the observation site. In other case, i.e. no direct observations, numerical weather model fields (we used in this study Coupled Ocean Atmospheric Mesoscale Prediction System) serves as the most accurate source of data. Investigated empirical pressure and temperature models, such as GPT2, GPT, UNB3m and Berg introduced into WV retrieval system, combined bias and random errors exceeding PW standard level of accuracy (3 mm according to E-GVAP report). We also found that the pressure interpolation procedure is introducing over 0.5 hPa bias and 1 hPa standard deviation into the system (important in Zenith Total Delay reduction) and hence has negative impact on the WV estimation quality.

  18. A regional GSI-based EnKF system for the Rapid Refresh configuration: Tests for Satellite Radiance Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Kefeng; Xue, Ming

    2015-04-01

    A regional ensemble Kalman filter data assimilation (EnKF) system based on the NCEP operational Grid-point Statistical Interpolation (GSI) system has been established for the target Rapid Refresh (RAP) applications. The EnKF system borrows the data processing and observation operators from the GSI system, and pre-calculates observation priors using the GSI. The filter is based on the serial ensemble square-root Kalman filter (EnSRF) and updates both the state vector and observation priors and its distributed memory parallelization is carried out at the state vector level. In this study, the impact of satellite radiance including AMSU, AIRS, MHS and HIRS within the established EnKF-RAP framework was examined. Testing is performed at the ~40 km grid spacing, and its performance is compared to the GSI system which uses three dimensional variation method. The performance is evaluated in terms of short-range (up to 18 hours) forecast errors verified again soundings. The assimilation of AMSU-A data improved the forecast accuracy for all the verified variables especially for the wind components; the assimilation of AIRS data greatly improved the forecast accuracy of relative humidity; when all the radiance data were assimilated, the forecast is the best. The forecast started from EnKF analysis is consistently better than from GSI analysis though the relative improvement is smaller than GSI. In additional, the configurations like bias correction and thinning for radiance assimilation within ENKF-RAP will be presented and discussed.

  19. Satellite communications system 'Tyulpan'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchuyan, R. K.; Tarasov, E. V.; Belousov, A. P.; Balyk, V. M.; Kovtunenko, V. M.; Morozov, V. A.; Andreev, V. A.; v'yunenko, K. A.

    1993-10-01

    A concept of the satellite communication system called 'Tyulpan' (because or its tulip-resembling shape) is considered. This conception envisages the use of six satellites-retranslators installed on high-latitude elliptic orbits. Such a system can provide the communication for mean- and high-latitude region of Europe, Asia, and America. For the communication, super small ground stations of 0.4 m in diameter can be used. In the development of system conception, the already existing technical solutions and possibility of conversion or existing installations of military destination were taken into account. Therefore, the system considered can be realized at the earliest possible date.

  20. Measurements of tropospheric NO2 in Romania using a zenith-sky mobile DOAS system and comparisons with satellite observations.

    PubMed

    Constantin, Daniel-Eduard; Merlaud, Alexis; Van Roozendael, Michel; Voiculescu, Mirela; Fayt, Caroline; Hendrick, François; Pinardi, Gaia; Georgescu, Lucian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a new method for retrieving tropospheric NO2 Vertical Column Density (VCD) from zenith-sky Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements using mobile observations. This method was used during three days in the summer of 2011 in Romania, being to our knowledge the first mobile DOAS measurements peformed in this country. The measurements were carried out over large and different areas using a mobile DOAS system installed in a car. We present here a step-by-step retrieval of tropospheric VCD using complementary observations from ground and space which take into account the stratospheric contribution, which is a step forward compared to other similar studies. The detailed error budget indicates that the typical uncertainty on the retrieved NO2tropospheric VCD is less than 25%. The resulting ground-based data set is compared to satellite measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2). For instance, on 18 July 2011, in an industrial area located at 47.03°N, 22.45°E, GOME-2 observes a tropospheric VCD value of (3.4 ± 1.9) × 1015 molec./cm2, while average mobile measurements in the same area give a value of (3.4 ± 0.7) × 10(15) molec./cm2. On 22 August 2011, around Ploiesti city (44.99°N, 26.1°E), the tropospheric VCD observed by satellites is (3.3 ± 1.9) × 10(15) molec./cm2 (GOME-2) and (3.2 ± 3.2) × 10(15) molec./cm2 (OMI), while average mobile measurements give (3.8 ± 0.8) × 10(15) molec./cm2. Average ground measurements over "clean areas", on 18 July 2011, give (2.5 ± 0.6) × 10(15) molec./cm2 while the satellite observes a value of (1.8 ± 1.3) × 10(15) molec./cm2. PMID:23519349

  1. The Effect of Environmental Conditions on Tropical Deep Convective Systems Observed from the TRMM Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Minnis, Patrick; Chambers, Lin H.; Xu, Kuan-Man; Hu, Yongxiang; Fan, Tai-Fang

    2005-01-01

    This study uses measurements of radiation and cloud properties taken between January and August 1998 by three Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) instruments, the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanner, the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI), and the Visible and InfraRed Scanner (VIRS), to evaluate the variations of tropical deep convective systems (DCS) with sea surface temperature (SST) and precipitation. This study finds that DCS precipitation efficiency increases with SST at a rate of approx. 2%/K. Despite increasing rainfall efficiency, the cloud areal coverage rises with SST at a rate of about 7%/K in the warm tropical seas. There, the boundary layer moisture supply for deep convection and the moisture transported to the upper troposphere for cirrus-anvil cloud formation increase by approx. 6.3%/K and approx. 4.0%/K, respectively. The changes in cloud formation efficiency, along with the increased transport of moisture available for cloud formation, likely contribute to the large rate of increasing DCS areal coverage. Although no direct observations are available, the increase of cloud formation efficiency with rising SST is deduced indirectly from measurements of changes in the ratio of DCS ice water path and boundary layer water vapor amount with SST. Besides the cloud areal coverage, DCS cluster effective sizes also increase with precipitation. Furthermore, other cloud properties, such as cloud total water and ice water paths, increase with SST. These changes in DCS properties will produce a negative radiative feedback for the earth's climate system due to strong reflection of shortwave radiation by the DCS. These results significantly differ from some previous hypothesized dehydration scenarios for warmer climates, and have great potential in testing current cloud-system resolving models and convective parameterizations of general circulation models.

  2. Satellite Observations for Detecting and Tracking Changes in Atmospheric Composition

    EPA Science Inventory

    The international scientific community's Integrated Global Atmosphere Chemistry Observation System report outlined a plan for ground-based, airborne and satellite Measurements, and models to integrate the observations into a 4-dimensional representation of the atmosphere (space a...

  3. Satellite Observations of Auroral Substorms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. P. Pike; J. A. Whalen

    1974-01-01

    Satellite photographs of auroras obtained from a polar-orbiting U.S. Air Force satellite were used to study auroral substorms in the premidnight time sector during and after a geomagnetic storm period. The photographs provide a unique means of seeing in detail the interrelationship between discrete, continuous\\/diffuse, and polar cap auroras during a period of frequent occurrence of substorms. The distributions of

  4. Satellite solar energy systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Flood

    1997-01-01

    Summary form only given. The first space solar array was carried aloft on Vanguard I on March 17, 1958. The array on Vanguard I consisted of six photovoltaic panels mounted on the outer surface of the satellite and produced one watt of power for over six years. Space solar arrays and power systems have grown in size and complexity since

  5. Automatic derivation of earth observation products from satellite data within the Siberian Earth System Science Cluster (SIB-ESS-C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberle, J.; Schmullius, C. C.

    2011-12-01

    The Siberian Earth System Science Cluster (SIB-ESS-C) established at the University of Jena (Germany) is a spatial data infrastructure implementing standards published by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) aimed at providing researchers with focus on Siberia with the technical means for data discovery, data access, data publication and data analysis in work with earth observation data. At the current development stage the SIB-ESS-C system comprises a federated metadata catalogue accessible through the SIB-ESS-C Web Portal or from any OGC-CSW compliant client. The Web Portal also contains a simple map-like visualization component which is currently being extended to a comprehensive visualization and analysis tool. The visualization component enables users to overlay different dataset found during a catalogue search. All data products are accessible as Web Mapping, Web Feature or Web Coverage Services allowing users to directly incorporate the data into their application. New developments aims on automatic registration and processing of raw earth observation data to derive permanently earth observation products. A data registry system within a whole process system including process chains to implement algorithms is currently designed. This will be extended with a system to process these incoming data automatically and permanently, depending on registered algorithms. Algorithms should know which input data is necessary and registered data should know which algorithms could be executed on it. This paper describes current developments as well as future ideas to build up a usefull and userfriendly access to satellite data, algorithms and therefrom derived products with state of the art web technologies and standards of the OGC.

  6. Emissions of crustal material in air quality forecast systems: Use of satellite observations

    E-print Network

    Menut, Laurent

    time the impact of the April 2010 Eyjafjallajokull ash plume on air quality, Atmospheric Environment Chemistry-transport model Gas and particles concentrations Use of model outputs: Analysis Direct: model vs measurements Indirect: from model to observations Forecast: Short term: air quality, accidental releases Long

  7. Generic satellite monitoring expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, Loretta A.

    1994-12-01

    Air Force Satellite Operations is undergoing major changes. Operators no longer receive detailed satellite training, instead they are taught basic fundamentals of satellite operations and expected to control multiple multimillion dollar satellites. The need is clear. An efficient and economical automated system is necessary to assist the satellite operator in the daily tasks of maintaining these DOD priority resources. Satellite intelligent controllers have been under R&D since the early 1980's to meet this need. These systems, however, have focused on the control of one constellation of satellites. In a military striving for efficiency and lower costs, developing a unique intelligent controller for each satellite constellation is unaffordable. This research provided support for the concept of a generic satellite intelligent controller, through the development of a prototype expert system. This capability would allow a generic rule-base to operate and maintain multiple satellite systems. The initial prototype detected anomalies on one subsystem of two different satellites. After the third satellite prototype was created, a third satellite was analyzed to show support for the viability of the satellite prototype. More research is necessary, but this thesis has created support for the concept of generic satellite controller and has laid the foundation for future extensions.

  8. Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 5: Operational applications of satellite snow-cover observations, northwest United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillard, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    The study objective was to develop or modify methods in an operational framework that would allow incorporation of satellite derived snow cover observations for prediction of snowmelt derived runoff. Data were reviewed and verified for five basins in the Pacific Northwest. The data were analyzed for up to a 6-year period ending July 1978, and in all cases cover a low, average, and high snow cover/runoff year. Cloud cover is a major problem in these springtime runoff analyses and have hampered data collection for periods of up to 52 days. Tree cover and terrain are sufficiently dense and rugged to have caused problems. The interpretation of snowlines from satellite data was compared with conventional ground truth data and tested in operational streamflow forecasting models. When the satellite snow-covered area (SCA) data are incorporated in the SSARR (Streamflow Synthesis and Reservoir Regulation) model, there is a definite but minor improvement.

  9. Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 4: Operational applications of satellite snow cover observations. Colorado Field Test Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, B. A.; Leaf, C. F.; Danielson, J. A.; Moravec, G. F.

    1981-01-01

    The study was conducted on six watersheds ranging in size from 277 km to 3460 km in the Rio Grande and Arkansas River basins of southwestern Colorado. Six years of satellite data in the period 1973-78 were analyzed and snowcover maps prepared for all available image dates. Seven snowmapping techniques were explored; the photointerpretative method was selected as the most accurate. Three schemes to forecast snowmelt runoff employing satellite snowcover observations were investigated. They included a conceptual hydrologic model, a statistical model, and a graphical method. A reduction of 10% in the current average forecast error is estimated when snowcover data in snowmelt runoff forecasting is shown to be extremely promising. Inability to obtain repetitive coverage due to the 18 day cycle of LANDSAT, the occurrence of cloud cover and slow image delivery are obstacles to the immediate implementation of satellite derived snowcover in operational streamflow forecasting programs.

  10. Satellite Navigation Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Leske, Cavin.

    2002-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) has been in operation for several years, and its use is continually rising. GPS is the main satellite navigation system developed by the United States. There are countless applications of this technology, and numerous international efforts are currently underway.The Topcon Positioning Systems company provides an excellent introduction to GPS technology in its online book (1). The first couple chapters describe the evolution of GPS and its fundamentals, and the remaining material focuses on some specific issues. A more advanced tutorial is given through the IBM Web site (2). A brief, free registration is required to view it, and some familiarity with Java is recommended. The European Space Agency provides this page about satellite navigation (3), which describes, among other things, Galileo. This is not the astronomer; Galileo is Europe's version of GPS, scheduled for completion in 2008. Another system, developed by Russia, is detailed on the Space and Technology Web site (4). The short summary describes the 20-year history of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS), as well as upgrades that are in progress. Differential GPS, a service that is more accurate than standard GPS in areas with poor coverage, is operated by the US Coast Guard Navigation Center (5). Some information about the status of nationwide DGPS expansion is given. Several research and development projects, technology highlights, and GPS implementations are covered on the UNAVCO home page (6). The facility primarily fosters work to expand the applications of satellite navigation. With the wave of kidnapping cases reported across the country, a novel use of GPS is being marketed to keep track of children (7). These portable devices can be worn on the wrist, like a watch, so parents can always know where their kids are. Another news story describes the use of GPS in mining operations (8). The technology allows operators of huge three-story dump trucks to detect obstacles and maneuver the vehicle with only limited visibility.

  11. Laser satellite power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Walbridge, E.W.

    1980-01-01

    A laser satellite power system (SPS) converts solar power captured by earth-orbiting satellites into electrical power on the earth's surface, the satellite-to-ground transmission of power being effected by laser beam. The laser SPS may be an alternative to the microwave SPS. Microwaves easily penetrate clouds while laser radiation does not. Although there is this major disadvantage to a laser SPS, that system has four important advantages over the microwave alternative: (1) land requirements are much less, (2) radiation levels are low outside the laser ground stations, (3) laser beam sidelobes are not expected to interfere with electromagnetic systems, and (4) the laser system lends itself to small-scale demonstration. After describing lasers and how they work, the report discusses the five lasers that are candidates for application in a laser SPS: electric discharge lasers, direct and indirect solar pumped lasers, free electron lasers, and closed-cycle chemical lasers. The Lockheed laser SPS is examined in some detail. To determine whether a laser SPS will be worthy of future deployment, its capabilities need to be better understood and its attractiveness relative to other electric power options better assessed. First priority should be given to potential program stoppers, e.g., beam attenuation by clouds. If investigation shows these potential program stoppers to be resolvable, further research should investigate lasers that are particularly promising for SPS application.

  12. Expert systems for satellite stationkeeping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekaru, M. M.; Wright, M. A.

    The feasibility of implementing artificial intelligence on satellites is evaluated, with the aim of using an onboard expert system to perform effective stationkeeping functions without assistance from the ground. The Defense Satellite Communication System (DSCS III) is used as an example. The cost for implementing a satellite stationkeeping expert system is analyzed. A ground-based expert system could reduce the current number of support personnel for the stationkeeping task. Results of analyzing a possible flight system are quite promising. An expert system for satellite stationkeeping seems feasible, appears cost-effective, and offers increased satellite endurance through autonomous operations.

  13. Techniques for computing regional radiant emittances of the earth-atmosphere system from observations by wide-angle satellite radiometers, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pina, J. F.; House, F. B.

    1975-01-01

    Radiometers on earth orbiting satellites measure the exchange of radiant energy between the earth-atmosphere (E-A) system and space at observation points in space external to the E-A system. Observations by wideangle, spherical and flat radiometers are analyzed and interpreted with regard to the general problem of the earth energy budget (EEB) and to the problem of determining the energy budget of regions smaller than the field of view (FOV) of these radiometers.

  14. Monitoring Changes in Water Resources Systems Using High Resolution Satellite Observations: Application to Lake Urmia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norouzi, H.; AghaKouchak, A.; Madani, K.; Mirchi, A.; Farahmand, A.; Conway, C.

    2013-12-01

    Lake Urmia with its unique ecosystem in northwestern Iran is the second largest saltwater lake in the world. It is home of more than 300 species of birds, reptiles, and mammals with high salinity level of more than 300 g/l. In recent years, a significant water retreat has occurred in this lake. In this study, we tried to monitor the desiccation of the lake over more than four decades using remote sensing observations. Multi-spectral high-resolution LandSat images of the Lake Urmia region from 1972 to 2012 were acquired to derive the lake area. The composite maps of the lake were created, and a Bayesian Maximum Likelihood classification technique was used to classify land and water in the composite maps. The time series of the lake area reveals that it has shrunk by more than 40% in the past ten years. Moreover, water budget related components such as precipitation, soil moisture, and drought indices from remote sensing of the lake basin were utilized to investigate if droughts or climate change are the primary driving forces behind this phenomenon. These analyses show that the retreat of the lake is not related to droughts or global climate change as it has survived several drought events before year 2000. Similar analyses conducted on Lake Van located about 400 km west of Lake Urmia with very similar climate pattern revealed no significant areal change despite the lake's exposure to similar drought events. These results raise serious concern about the destructive role of unbridled development coupled with supply-oriented water management scheme driven by a classic upstream-downstream competition for water in the Lake Urmia region. There is an urgent need to investigate sustainable restoration initiatives for Lake Urmia in order to prevent an environmental disaster comparable to catastrophic death of Aral Sea.

  15. Scheduling of VLBI satellite observations for an improved ITRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellerschmied, Andreas; Böhm, Johannes; Neidhardt, Alexander; Haas, Rüdiger; Kodet, Jan; Plank, Lucia

    2015-04-01

    Observations of Earth orbiting satellites with the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique provide a variety of new possibilities and promote the integration of different geodetic techniques, which is one of the main purposes of GGOS, the Global Geodetic Observing System of the IAG. Promising applications can be found e.g. in the field of inter-technique frame ties, having the potential to improve future realizations of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Although several test observations to GNSS satellites have been carried out in recent years, this approach is still far away from being applied operationally. Difficulties already start at the observation planning level, with the standard VLBI scheduling software not being prepared to include satellites as observation targets in the required control files. The newly developed satellite scheduling module of the Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) for the planning of satellite observations with VLBI antennas offers a solution to this. It allows the user to prepare schedules for selected satellites, which are simultaneously visible from a chosen station network. The generated schedule files in the current VEX format provide the possibility to carry out actual satellite observations with standard geodetic antennas, e.g. of the IVS network. The antennas can be controlled directly with the issued schedule files by commanding sequences of discrete celestial positions, without the requirement of modifications in the antenna control intended for satellite tracking. In January 2014 several successful test observations to GLONASS satellites were carried out on the baseline Onsala-Wettzell based on schedules generated with VieVS. Correlations of the recorded data showed that the observations - and therefore the scheduling with VieVS - were successful. The next step is to update the new software for the possibility to combine observations to satellites and to quasars in one schedule. The development of convenient scheduling software in the form of the new VieVS module is important to promote further research and development in this specific field.

  16. Satellite Observations of Forest Fires

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sterner, Ray.

    1996-01-01

    The Ocean Remote Sensing Group of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory has made available a series of maps of some of the fifteen major wildfires that were burning Wednesday across 264,794 acres in six Western states--Oregon, California, Idaho, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado. The images are not intended as a working fire detection resource, but are offered as interesting observations. Background information is provided, and the subject matter of each image is briefly described. The files are in GIF format and range in size from 200 to 500K. The publicly available data used is from the NOAA polar orbiter AVHRR sensor, which scans the earth beneath six times per second. Links are provided to the Wildland Fire Assessment System of the USDA and Go West forest fire reports, which offers a list of links for each state with major fires.

  17. Magnetopause structure from satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnerup, B. U. O.

    1979-01-01

    Observations on magnetopause structure are reported. Major topics covered include: classical reconnection, transport mechanisms, magnetospheric boundary layers, tearing modes, and Jupiter's magnetopause.

  18. Lightning-Generated Whistler Waves Observed by Probes On The Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System Satellite at Low Latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzworth, R. H.; McCarthy, M. P.; Pfaff, R. F.; Jacobson, A. R.; Willcockson, W. L.; Rowland, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    Direct evidence is presented for a causal relationship between lightning and strong electric field transients inside equatorial ionospheric density depletions. In fact, these whistler mode plasma waves may be the dominant electric field signal within such depletions. Optical lightning data from the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite and global lightning location information from the World Wide Lightning Location Network are presented as independent verification that these electric field transients are caused by lightning. The electric field instrument on C/NOFS routinely measures lightning ]related electric field wave packets or sferics, associated with simultaneous measurements of optical flashes at all altitudes encountered by the satellite (401.867 km). Lightning ]generated whistler waves have abundant access to the topside ionosphere, even close to the magnetic equator.

  19. Measuring Snowfall From Satellite Microwave Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G.

    2014-12-01

    Snowfall is one of the important components in the global hydrological cycle. However, snowfall retrieval from satellite observations is very difficult (compared to rainfall retrieval) because of several reasons including weak radiative signal, surface contamination, cloud liquid water masking, etc. Several satellite sensors currently in operation are potentially capable of detecting and estimating snowfall, for example, cloud radar onboard CloudSat and high frequency microwave radiometers (SSMIS, MHS, GMI) on NOAA, MetOP, S-NPP, DMSP and GPM satellites. In this paper, we report our research results on how to best use these sensors to extract snowfall information. Specifically, we (1) studied the global snowfall frequency and rate distributions based on multiple years of CloudSat observations; (2) investigated the optimal channel selection for snowfall retrieval using collocated satellite SSMIS (19-183 GHz) and ground radar (NMQ) data; (3) developed a retrieval algorithm in which radar data (CloudSat and/or NMQ) are used as truth to train high-frequency passive microwave data and use high-frequency passive microwave data to broaden spatial and temporal coverage. Finally, retrievals based on observations from several satellites are compared with each other and compared with surface observations.

  20. Satellite observations of mesospheric ozone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Robert Marsh

    1999-01-01

    A method is presented by which measurements of O2 Atmospheric band volume emission rate and temperature can be used to infer ozone mixing ratios in the mesosphere. The retrieval relies on the fact that a significant portion of the dayglow originates from ozone photolysis. This method is used to derive ozone concentrations from observations made by the High Resolution Doppler

  1. New observations of Saturn's coorbital satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Philip D.; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Matthews, Keith; Yoder, Charles F.

    1992-12-01

    The strong planetary methane and hydrogen absorption at 2.0-2.4 microns are exploited in the present observations of the Saturnian coorbital satellites Janus and Epimetheus as they passed over the north pole of Saturn at superior conjunction. These observations confirm the orbital model results of Yoder at al. (1989), especially in the question as to the low density of both satellites; in addition, a much stronger solution is furnished which is essentially independent of 1966 data for Epimethius. The low density results are interpreted as indicative that the objects are composed of relatively pure water ice, but with porosities of the order of 30 percent.

  2. New observations of Saturn's coorbital satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Philip D.; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Matthews, Keith; Yoder, Charles F.

    1992-01-01

    The strong planetary methane and hydrogen absorption at 2.0-2.4 microns are exploited in the present observations of the Saturnian coorbital satellites Janus and Epimetheus as they passed over the north pole of Saturn at superior conjunction. These observations confirm the orbital model results of Yoder at al. (1989), especially in the question as to the low density of both satellites; in addition, a much stronger solution is furnished which is essentially independent of 1966 data for Epimethius. The low density results are interpreted as indicative that the objects are composed of relatively pure water ice, but with porosities of the order of 30 percent.

  3. Arctic Warming Signals from Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2005-01-01

    Global warming signals are expected to be amplified in the Arctic primarily because of ice-albedo feedback associated with the high reflectivity of ice and snow that blankets much of the region. The Arctic had been a poorly explored territory basically because of its general inaccessibility on account of extremely harsh weather conditions and the dominant presence of thick perennial ice in the region. The advent of satellite remote sensing systems since the 1960s, however, enabled the acquisition of synoptic data that depict in good spatial detail the temporal changes of many Arctic surface parameters. Among the surface parameters that have been studied using space based systems are surface temperature, sea ice concentration, snow cover, surface albedo and phytoplankton concentration. Associated atmospheric parameters, such as cloud cover, temperature profile, ozone concentration, and aerosol have also been derived. Recent observational and phenomenological studies have indeed revealed progressively changing conditions in the Arctic during the last few decades (e g , Walsh et al. 1996; Serreze et al 2000; Comiso and Parkinson 2004). The changes included declines in the extent and area of surfaces covered by sea ice and snow, increases in melt area over the Greenland ice sheets, thawing of the permafrost, warming in the troposphere, and retreat of the glaciers. These observations are consistent with the observed global warming that has been associated with the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (Karl and Trenberth 2003) and confirmed by modeling studies (Holland and Bitz, 2003). The Arctic system, however, is still not well understood complicated by a largely fluctuating wind circulation and atmospheric conditions (Proshutinsky and Johnson 1997) and controlled by what is now known as the Arctic Oscillation (AO) which provides a measure of the strength of atmospheric activities in the region (Thompson and Wallace 1998). Meanwhile, the observed Arctic conditions since the 1970s have been shown to exhibit a linear behavior that directly contradicts what has been expected from the A0 (Overland, 2005). The decade of the 1990s has been regarded as the warmest decade in the last century and current data indicates that the 2000s may be even a warmer decade than the 1990s further supporting the linear variability. In this paper, we use satellite data to gain insights into the warming Arctic and how the abnormally warm conditions during the last few years are reflected in the region.

  4. Satellite systems for maritime navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, Valerii Anatol'evich; Sorochinskii, Valentin Alekseevich; Iakshevich, Evgenii Viktorovich

    The principles underlying the design of Doppler satellite navigation systems are examined, and the characteristics of existing and proposed satellite systems for maritime navigation are described. Particular attention is given to the COSPAS-SARSAT system, GPS/Navstar, and the Navsat, Granas, and Geostar projects. The features of shipboard navigation instruments are examined.

  5. Naval EarthMap Observer (NEMO) satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.; Davis, Curtiss O.

    1999-10-01

    The Office of Naval Research (ONR) and the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) have initiated the Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Technology (HRST) program to demonstrate the utility of a hyperspectral earth-imaging system to support Naval needs for characterization of the littoral regions of the world. One key component of the HRST program is the development of the Naval EarthMap Observer (NEMO) satellite system to provide a large hyperspectral data base. NEMO will carry the Coastal Ocean Imaging Spectrometer (COIS) which will provide images of littoral regions with 210 spectral channels over a bandpass of 0.4 to 2.5 micrometer. Since ocean environments have reflectances typically less than 5%, this system requires a very high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). COIS will sample over a 30 km swath width with a 60 m Ground Sample Distance (GSD) with the ability to go to a 30 m GSD by utilizing the systems attitude control system to 'nod' (i.e., use ground motion compensation to slow down the ground track of the field of view). Also included in the payload is a co-registered 5 m Panchromatic Imager (PIC) to provide simultaneous high spatial resolution imagery. A sun-synchronous, 97.81 degree inclination, circular orbit of 605 km allows continuous repeat coverage of the whole earth. One unique aspect of NEMO is an on-board processing system, a feature extraction and data compression software package developed by NRL called the Optical Real-Time Spectral Identification System (ORASIS). ORASIS employs a parallel, adaptive hyperspectral method for real time scene characterization, data reduction, background suppression, and target recognition. The use of ORASIS is essential for management of the massive amounts of data expected from the NEMO HSI system, and for developing Naval products under HRST. The combined HSI and panchromatic images will provide critical phenomenology to aid in the operation of Naval systems in the littoral environment. The imagery can also satisfy a number of commercial and science community requirements for moderate spatial and high spectral resolution remote sensing data over land and water. Specific areas of interest for the Navy include bathymetry, water clarity, bottom type, atmospheric visibility, bioluminescence potential, beach characterization, underwater hazards, total column atmospheric water vapor, and detection and mapping of subvisible cirrus. These data support requirements for Joint Strike and Joint Littoral warfare, particularly for environmental characterization of the littoral ocean. Demonstrations of direct downlinking of near real-time data to the warfighter are also being formulated. The NEMO satellite is planned to launch in 2000 followed by an operational period of 3 to 5 years.

  6. Land mobile satellite demonstration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooch, Guy M.; Nicholas, David C.

    1988-01-01

    A land mobile satellite demonstration system is described. It ulilizes the INMARSAT MARECS B2 satellite at 26 degrees W. The system provides data transmission using a poll-response protocol with error detection and retransmission at 200 b/s rate. For most tests a 1.8 inch monopole antenna was used, along with a satellite EIRP normally used for four voice channels. A brief summary of the results are given and the overall system consisting of three elements in addition to the satellite (the mobile unit, the base station, and the office terminal and map display) is described. Throughput statistics from one trip are summarized.

  7. Applications of Satellite Observations to Aerosol Analyses and Forecasting using the NAAPS Model and the DataFed Distributed Data System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husar, R. B.; Hoijarvi, K.; Westphal, D. L.; Scheffe, R.; Keating, T.; Frank, N.; Poirot, R.; DuBois, D. W.; Bleiweiss, M. P.; Eberhard, W. L.; Menon, R.; Sethi, V.; Deshpande, A.

    2012-12-01

    Near-real-time (NRT) aerosol characterization, forecasting and decision support is now possible through the availability of (1) surface-based monitoring of regional PM concentrations, (2) global-scale columnar aerosol observations through satellites; (3) an aerosol model (NAAPS) that is capable of assimilating NRT satellite observations; and (4) an emerging cyber infrastructure for processing and distribution of data and model results (DataFed) for a wide range of users. This report describes the evolving NRT aerosol analysis and forecasting system and its applications at Federal and State and other AQ Agencies and groups. Through use cases and persistent real-world applications in the US and abroad, the report will show how satellite observations along with surface data and models are combined to aid decision support for AQ management, science and informing the public. NAAPS is the U.S. Navy's global aerosol and visibility forecast model that generates operational six-day global-scale forecasts for sulfate, dust, sea salt, and smoke aerosol. Through NAVDAS-AOD, NAAPS operationally assimilates filtered and corrected MODIS MOD04 aerosol optical depths and uses satellite-derived FLAMBÉ smoke emissions. Washington University's federated data system, DataFed, consist of a (1) data server which mediates the access to AQ datasets from distributed providers (NASA, NOAA, EPA, etc.,); (2) an AQ Data Catalog for finding and accessing data; and (3) a set of application programs/tools for browsing, exploring, comparing, aggregating, fusing data, evaluating models and delivering outputs through interactive visualization. NAAPS and DataFed are components of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). Satellite data support the detection of long-range transported wind-blown dust and biomass smoke aerosols on hemispheric scales. The AQ management and analyst communities use the satellite/model data through DataFed and other channels as evidence for Exceptional Events (EE) as defined by EPA; i.e., Sahara dust impact on Texas and Florida, local dusts events in the Southwestern U.S. and Canadian smoke events over the Northeastern U.S. Recent applications include the impact analysis of a major Saudi Arabian dust event on Mumbai, India air quality. The NAAPS model and the DataFed tools can visualize the dynamic AQ events as they are manifested through the different sensors. Satellite-derived aerosol observations assimilated into NAAPS provide estimates of daily emission rates for dust and biomass fire sources. Tuning and reconciliation of the observations, emissions and models constitutes a key and novel contribution yielding a convergence toward the true five-dimensional (X, Y, Z, T, Composition) characterization of the atmospheric aerosol data space. This observation-emission-model reconciliation effort is aided by model evaluation tools and supports the international HTAP program. The report will also discuss some of the challenges facing multi-disciplinary, multi-agency, multi-national applications of integrated observation-modeling system of systems that impede the incorporation of satellite observations into AQ management decision support systems.

  8. Satellite Power System (SPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edler, H. G.

    1978-01-01

    Potential organizational options for a solar power satellite system (SPS) were investigated. Selection and evaluation criteria were determined to include timeliness, reliability, and adequacy to contribute meaningfully to the U.S. supply; political feasibility (both national and international); and cost effectiveness (including environmental and other external costs). Based on these criteria, four organizational alternatives appeared to offer reasonable promise as potential options for SPS. A large number of key issues emerged as being factors which would influence the final selection process. Among these issues were a variety having to do with international law, international institutions, environmental controls, economics, operational flexibility, congressional policies, commercial-vs-governmental ownership, national dedication, and national and operational stategic issues.

  9. Daily imaging scheduling of an Earth observation satellite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-cheng Lin; Da-yin Liao; Chung-yang Liu; Yong-yao Lee

    2005-01-01

    This work presents the development of a daily imaging scheduling system for a low-orbit, Earth observation satellite. The daily imaging scheduling problem of satellite considers various imaging requests with different reward opportunities, changeover efforts between two consecutive imaging tasks, cloud-coverage effects, and the availability of the spacecraft resource. It belongs to a class of single-machine scheduling problems with salient features

  10. Observation of Plasma Satellite Lines in Laser Produced Plasmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Riley; O. Willi

    1995-01-01

    The observation of satellite features to He-like emission lines from an aluminum plasma, generated with a short-pulse KrF laser system, is reported. There are interpreted as plasmon-induced satellites of the type described by Lee [J. Phys. B 12, 1165 (1979)]. The plasma density inferred from line broadening is shown to be consistent with the electron density inferred from the frequency

  11. Global canopy interception from satellite observations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new methodology for retrieving rainfall interception rates from multi satellite observations is presented. The approach makes use of the daily productof the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) as driving data and applies Gash’s analytical model to derive interception rates at global sc...

  12. Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 2: Operational applications of satellite snow-cover observations and data-collection systems in the Arizona test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, H. H.

    1981-01-01

    Ground surveys and aerial observations were used to monitor rapidly changing moisture conditions in the Salt-Verde watershed. Repetitive satellite snow cover observations greatly reduce the necessity for routine aerial snow reconnaissance flights over the mountains. High resolution, multispectral imagery provided by LANDSAT satellite series enabled rapid and accurate mapping of snow-cover distributions for small- to medium-sized subwatersheds; however, the imagery provided only one observation every 9 days of about a third of the watershed. Low resolution imagery acquired by the ITOSa dn SMS/GOES meteorological satellite series provides the daily synoptic observation necessary to monitor the rapid changes in snow-covered area in the entire watershed. Short term runoff volumes can be predicted from daily sequential snow cover observations.

  13. Seasonal streamflow estimation employing satellite snowcover observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.; Salomonson, V. V.; Foster, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Low resolution meteorological satellite and high resolution earth resources satellite data have been used to map snow covered area over the upper Indus River and the Wind River Mountains of Wyoming, respectively. For the Indus River early spring snow covered area was extracted and related to April through June stream flow from 1967-1971 using a regression equation. Prediction of the April-June 1972 stream flow from the satellite data was within three percent of the actual total. Composited results from two years of data over seven Wind River Mountain watersheds indicated that LANDSAT-1 snow cover observations, separated on the basis of watershed elevation, could also be related to runoff in significant regression equations.

  14. A Comparison of Ground and Satellite Observations of Cloud Cover

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony J. Schreiner; David A. Unger; W. Paul Menzel; Gary P. Ellrod; Kathy I. Strabala; Jackson L. Pellet

    1993-01-01

    A processing scheme that determines cloud height and amount based on radiances from the Visible Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) using a CO2 absorption technique has been installed on the National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service VAS Data Utilization Center computer system in Washington, D.C. The processed data will complement the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS). ASOS

  15. Communications satellite systems capacity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browne, L.; Hines, T.; Tunstall, B.

    1982-01-01

    Analog and digital modulation techniques are compared with regard to efficient use of the geostationary orbit by communications satellites. Included is the definition of the baseline systems (both space and ground segments), determination of interference susceptibility, calculation of orbit spacing, and evaluation of relative costs. It is assumed that voice or TV is communicated at 14/11 GHz using either FM or QPSK modulation. Both the Fixed-Satellite Service and the Broadcasting-Satellite Service are considered. For most of the cases examined the digital approach requires a satellite spacing less than or equal to that required by the analog approach.

  16. Global Warming: Evidence from Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R.; Yoo, J.-M.; Dalu, G.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Observations made in Channel 2 (53.74 GHz) of the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer, flown onboard sequential, sun-synchronous, polar-orbiting NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) operational satellites, indicate that the mean temperature of the atmosphere over the globe increased during the period 1980 to 1999. In this study, we have minimized systematic errors in the time series introduced by satellite orbital drift in an objective manner. This is done with the help of the onboard warm-blackbody temperature, which is used in the calibration of the MSU radiometer. The corrected MSU Channel 2 observations of the NOAA satellite series reveal that the vertically-weighted global-mean temperature of the atmosphere, with a peak weight near the mid troposphere, warmed at the rate of 0.13 +/- 0.05 K/decade during 1980 to 1999. The global warming deduced from conventional meteorological data that have been corrected for urbanization effects agrees reasonably with this satellite-deduced result.

  17. Global Warming: Evidence from Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.

    2001-01-01

    Observations made in Channel 2 (53.74 GHz) of the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer, flown on-board sequential, sun-synchronous, polar orbiting NOAA operational satellites, indicate that the mean temperature of the atmosphere over the globe increased during the period 1980 to 1999. In this study we have minimized systematic errors in the time series introduced by the satellite orbital drift in an objective manner. This is done with the help the onboard warm black body temperature, which is used in the calibration of the MSU radiometer. The corrected MSU Channel 2 observations of the NOAA satellite series reveal that the vertically weighted global mean temperature of the atmosphere, with a peak weight near the mid-troposphere, warmed at the rate of 0.13 K per decade (with an uncertainty of 0.05 K per decade) during 1980 to 1999. The global warming deduced from conventional meteorological data that have been corrected for urbanization effects agrees reasonably with this satellite deuced result.

  18. Weather and climate. [review of satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, D.

    1981-01-01

    Highlights of recent progress and the directions of future advances in the application of space observations to weather and climate are reviewed. In mesometeorology and severe storms, satellite stereography of cloud topography and temperature profiling from GOES-VAS promise dramatic developments in both nowcasting and prediction. In global weather, the initial results from the year long Global Weather Experiment conclusively demonstrate the enhanced forecast skill emanating from the use of satellite data, especially cloud track winds and temperature profiles. In climate, empirical studies and numerical experiments point to the feasibility of useful climate predictions on monthly and seasonal time scales. They also indicate the kinds of surface boundary conditions to which climate is sensitive and which need to be observed from space.

  19. Satellite observation of atmospheric nuclear gamma radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Letaw; G. H. Share; R. L. Kinzer; R. Silberberg; E. L. Chupp; D. J. Forrest; E. Rieger

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a satellite observation of the spectrum of gamma radiation from the Earth's atmosphere in the energy interval from 300 keV to 8.5 MeV. The data were accumulated by the gamma ray spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission over 3 1\\/2 years, from 1980 to 1983. The excellent statistical accuracy of the data allows 20 atmospheric line features

  20. SSETO-Small Satellite for Exoplanetary Transit Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathies, Johannes; Mauceri, Steffen; Pfeiffer, Lukas; Vietze, Marco; Roeser, Hans-Peter; Boehringer, Felix; Lengowski, Michael

    2014-11-01

    SSETO is the result of a phase-A study in context of the small satellite program of the University of Stuttgart that demonstrates the capability of a university institute to build a small satellite with a budget of 5 million Euro. The satellite will be capable of observing exoplanets in a Neptune-Earth scale and obtaining data of interstellar dust. Due to a system failure of NASA?s Kepler mission, there is currently (October 2013) a lack of satellites searching for exoplanets. This paper details the design of subsystems and payload, as well as the required test tasks in accordance with the mission profile at a conceptional level. The costs for standard spacecraft testing and integration tasks are included, but not those of launch, ground support, operations and engineer working hours.

  1. Satellite earth observations for energy resource development and environmental management

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, F.B. (Geosat Committee, Norman, OK (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Global change and growing needs for energy and other resources and their impact on the environment will be major international issues for the 1990s. Advanced international satellite earth observation systems during the 1990s will include systems for Japan (JERS, ADEOS), France (SPOT), Canada (Radarsat), Europe (ERS), India (IRS), and the U.S. (Landsat, NOAA, and N-POP). NASA's proposed advanced Earth Observing System (EOS/N-POP) will provide extensive satellite earth observations for resource development and global change studies for better environmental management. These satellites will produce tremendous volumes of digital electro-optical, microwave, and radar data creating a massive database for basic scientific and applied research for geology, agriculture, oceanography, meteorology, and environmental sciences. Database management and data access are major NASA and international issues under current review. Use of earth observations in energy and mineral resource exploration and development has become established during the last 20 years and will continue to expand with new information derived from these new satellite systems. US government environment global change research is being coordinated by the new interagency Committee on Earth Sciences (C.E.S.). The Geosat Committee, supported by resource industries who contribute to man's environmental impact and have a major stake in the C.E.S. research plan, is working with the C.E.S. to establish industry-government-academia linkages for research in the broad global resource and environmental studies from space.

  2. Correcting photolysis rates on the basis of satellite observed clouds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arastoo Pour-Biazar; Richard T. McNider; Shawn J. Roselle; Ron Suggs; Gary Jedlovec; Daewon W. Byun; Soontae Kim; C. J. Lin; Thomas C. Ho; Stephanie Haines; Bright Dornblaser; Robert Cameron

    2007-01-01

    Clouds can significantly affect photochemical activities in the boundary layer by altering radiation intensity, and therefore their correct specification in the air quality models is of outmost importance. In this study we introduce a technique for using the satellite observed clouds to correct photolysis rates in photochemical models. This technique was implemented in EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system

  3. Satellite observations of transionospheric pulse pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, D.N.; Munson, C.P.; Devenport, J.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-04-15

    The BLACKBEARD payload aboard the ALEXIS satellite has been making broadband observations in the VHF band of the radio spectrum. Since November of 1993 several hundred unusual signals have been recorded. The peculiar nature of these bursts of radio noise is that they have a duration of approximately 10 {mu}sec, are typically 20 to 40 dB brighter than the average background, and occur in pairs separated by approximately 50 {mu}sec. The authors have dubbed these emissions TransIonospheric Pulse Pairs, or TIPP events. They do not know what the source of these emissions is, but the dispersion of these signals is consistent with an origin at or near the earth`s surface. The satellite field of view and time of day when TIPP events are generally detected are consistent with regions of thunderstorm activity such as south-central Africa or Indonesia. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Meteorological Satellites (METSAT) and Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) instruments that are being designed and manufactured for the Meteorological Satellites Project (METSAT) and the Earth Observing System (EOS) integrated programs. The FMEA analyzes the design of the METSAT and EOS instruments as they currently exist. This FMEA is intended to identify METSAT and EOS failure modes and their effect on spacecraft-instrument and instrument-component interfaces. The prime objective of this FMEA is to identify potential catastrophic and critical failures so that susceptibility to the failures and their effects can be eliminated from the METSAT/EOS instruments.

  5. NEOWISE: Observations of the Irregular Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn

    E-print Network

    Grav, Tommy; Mainzer, Amy K; Masiero, Joe R; Nugent, Carrie R; Cutri, Roc M; Sonnet, Sarah; Kramer, Emily

    2015-01-01

    We present thermal model fits for 11 Jovian and 3 Saturnian irregular satellites based on measurements from the WISE/NEOWISE dataset. Our fits confirm spacecraft-measured diameters for the objects with in situ observations (Himalia and Phoebe) and provide diameters and albedo for 12 previously unmeasured objects, 10 Jovian and 2 Saturnian irregular satellites. The best-fit thermal model beaming parameters are comparable to what is observed for other small bodies in the outer Solar System, while the visible, W1, and W2 albedos trace the taxonomic classifications previously established in the literature. Reflectance properties for the irregular satellites measured are similar to the Jovian Trojan and Hilda Populations, implying common origins.

  6. Evolution of the Loop Current System During the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Event as Observed With Drifters and Satellites

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Evolution of the Loop Current System During the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Event as Observed reestablishing a direct LC pathway from the region of the oil spill to the Florida Straits. The mean geostrophic role in advecting the oil from the spill site. On the northern side, shelf currents are generally

  7. Active damping control systems for satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietsch, C. R.; Baier, H.

    1994-09-01

    The potential of Active Damping Control Systems (ADCS) is demonstrated for several satellite applications where active control of satellite disturbances is required. Test results of damping large satellite appendages like solar arrays will be presented.

  8. Observe animated satellite images of water vapor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    TERC. Center for Earth and Space Science Education

    2003-01-01

    This animation shows Earth science students how jet streams drive the movement of water vapor in the atmosphere. The introduction explains how the infrared images were taken from a satellite positioned about 8 kilometers above the Earth's surface. Students are instructed to observe how the jet streams (indicated by dark areas) are juxtaposed against areas of dense water vapor (indicated by light areas). Movie controls allow students to repeat, pause, or step through the animation, which can give students more time to analyze the images. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  9. Satellite observations of current and waves in space plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potemra, T. A.; Zanetti, L. J.; Erlandson, R. E.; Bythrow, P. F.; Engebretson, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    Plasma processes occurring in the magnetosphere are examined in the light of recent observations of currents and waves with satellite-born magnetic experiments. In particular, results from the Viking and AMPTE/CCE satellites indicate that geomagnetic field lines that guide stationary Birkland currents can also support resonant Alfven waves. The relationship of these waves to the current systems and their source in the magnetosphere is still under investigation. It is emphasized that Birkland currents and Alfven waves are fundamental to an understanding of the earth's plasma environment.

  10. Autonomous onboard systems for satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzenbeisser, Rolf; Samlowski, Wolfgang

    The current status of satellite autonomy technology is surveyed, and the applicability of AI techniques to onboard systems is explored. The autonomy requirements of polar orbiting satellites and planetary missions are outlined; current attitude-control, battery-monitoring, macro-command, safe-state, and ground-contact-restoration algorithms are briefly characterized; the potential value of expert systems/AI for expanded autonomy in crisis management (fault detection, diagnosis, localization, and correction), resources management, and mission management is indicated; and the implications for the design of satellite systems are considered. It is pointed out that a number of fundamental problems in software (where so-called expert-system shells or LISP machines are of very limited usefulness) and hardware remain to be solved.

  11. Seasonal and longitudinal variations of the solar quiet (Sq) current system during solar minimum determined by CHAMP satellite magnetic field observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedatella, N. M.; Forbes, J. M.; Richmond, A. D.

    2011-04-01

    Vector magnetometer observations from the Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) satellite are used to determine the solar quiet (Sq) current system during the recent solar minimum. Observations from 2006 to 2008 are combined, and after removal of a main field model and accounting for field-aligned currents, the longitudinal and seasonal variation of the Sq currents are determined through the method of spherical harmonic analysis. Comparison with Sq currents derived from ground-based magnetometers in the African/European longitude sector reveals similar amplitudes and seasonal variations, indicating that the CHAMP observations can reliably determine the Sq current system. The seasonal variation is consistent with prior observations during solar minimum conditions and in the Northern Hemisphere exhibits a primarily annual variation with peak currents during local summer. The seasonal variation in the Southern Hemisphere is characterized by a semiannual variation with the maxima occurring around the equinoxes. Significant longitudinal variations are also observed, and they display a seasonal variability. During Northern Hemisphere summer, the predominant feature at local noon is a wave number 1 variation in longitude. During the remainder of the year, a wave 3 longitudinal structure is observed at this local time. The longitudinal variations are considered to be due to a combination of the orientation and strength of the geomagnetic field as well as the tidal winds in the lower thermosphere. Variations in tidal winds due to nonmigrating tides may influence the dynamo-generated electric fields and currents, resulting in the observed longitudinal variations of the Sq current function.

  12. Evaluation of the model representation of the evolution of convective systems using satellite observations of outgoing longwave radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, K. J.; Hogan, R. J.; Allan, R. P.; Lister, G. M. S.; Holloway, C. E.

    2010-10-01

    We introduce a technique for assessing the diurnal development of convective storm systems based on outgoing longwave radiation fields. Using the size distribution of the storms measured from a series of images, we generate an array in the length scale-time domain based on the standard score statistic. It demonstrates succinctly the size evolution of storms as well as the dissipation kinematics. It also provides evidence related to the temperature evolution of the cloud tops. We apply this approach to a test case comparing observations made by the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget instrument to output from the Met Office Unified Model run at two resolutions. The 12 km resolution model produces peak convective activity on all length scales significantly earlier in the day than shown by the observations and no evidence for storms growing in size. The 4 km resolution model shows realistic timing and growth evolution, although the dissipation mechanism still differs from the observed data.

  13. Decadal Record of Satellite Carbon Monoxide Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worden, Helen; Deeter, Merritt; Frankenberg, Christian; George, Maya; Nichitiu, Florian; Worden, John; Aben, Ilse; Bowman, Kevin; Clerbaux, Cathy; Coheur, Pierre-Francois; de Laat, Jos; Warner, Juying; Drummond, James; Edwards, David; Gille, John; Hurtmans, Daniel; Ming, Luo; Martinez-Alonso, Sara; Massie, Steven; Pfister, Gabriele

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) distributions are controlled by anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning, chemical production, transport and oxidation by reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH). Quantifying trends in CO is therefore important for understanding changes related to all of these contributions. Here we present a comprehensive record of satellite observations from 2000 through 2011 of total column CO using the available measurements from nadir-viewing thermal infrared instruments: MOPITT, AIRS, TES and IASI. We examine trends for CO in the Northern and Southern hemispheres along with regional trends for E. China, E. USA, Europe and India. Measurement and sampling methods for each of the instruments are discussed, and we show diagnostics for systematic errors in MOPITT trends. We find that all the satellite observations are consistent with a modest decreasing trend around -1%/year in total column CO over the Northern hemisphere for this time period. Decreasing trends in total CO column are observed for the United States, Europe and E. China with more than 2? significance. For India, the trend is also decreasing, but smaller in magnitude and less significant. Decreasing trends in surface CO have also been observed from measurements in the U.S. and Europe. Although less information is available for surface CO in China, there is a decreasing trend reported for Beijing. Some of the interannual variability in the observations can be explained by global fire emissions, and there may be some evidence of the global financial crisis in late 2008 to early 2009. But the overall decrease needs further study to understand the implications for changes in anthropogenic emissions.

  14. Meteorological Satellites (METSAT) and Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Stress Analysis Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffner, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Stress analysis of the primary structure of the Meteorological Satellites Project (METSAT) Advanced Microwave Sounding Units-A, A1 Module using static loads is presented. The structural margins of safety and natural frequency predictions for the METSAT design are reported.

  15. THERMAL CONTROL AND THERMAL SENSORS OF OBSERVATION SATELLITE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Nazari; H. Emami

    In this study, we performed an extensive research to identify how and with what kind of facilities the observation satellites implement their thermal control. It helps observation satellite mission designers to have a good sight and overall vision about thermal control components and thermal control approaches that commonly used in this type of satellite. Also in design of thermal control

  16. Advances in Satellite Observations of Earth's Radiation Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.; Rose, F. G.; Rutan, D. A.

    2013-05-01

    The first observation of Earth's radiation budget from satellite dates back to the beginning of the satellite era in late 1950s, when the first satellite images of the planet were recorded. With each passing decade since then, the science community has made advances in instrument technology that has led to a wealth of new information about the sunlight reaching Earth, Earth's albedo, and the emission of thermal radiation to space. Until recently, however, most of the observational breakthroughs were limited to Earth's top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation budget. The recent arrival of instruments flown under the Earth Observing System (EOS) and the A-Train constellation of satellites has dramatically changed this situation, providing new opportunities to synergistically combine an array of diverse passive and active satellite instruments to more accurately determine Earth's surface radiation budget. The new data have led to renewed discussions about our basic understanding of Earth's water and energy cycles. The goal of this presentation is to discuss how the new satellite instrument capabilities are being used by the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy (CERES) science team to provide improved observations of the TOA, surface and within-atmosphere radiation budgets and the role clouds play in modulating the energy flows. We focus on the CERES TOA and surface Energy Balanced and Filled (EBAF) product, which combines information from CERES, MODIS, CALIPSO, Cloudsat, AIRS, and geostationary observations all integrated in a consistent manner, and demonstrate how synergistic use of these datasets leads to improved radiative fluxes when compared with surface radiation measurements from the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN), NOAA SURFRAD, and ARM. We find that EBAF-SFC reduces the bias in surface SW downward flux by a factor of 2 compared to other satellite-based surface radiation budget datasets, show marked reductions in surface downward longwave radiation biases over polar regions, and provide consistent interannual variations in surface radiation compared to ground measurements. We use a new approach to explore how cloud radiative effects at the TOA, surface and within the atmosphere respond to variations in large large-scale atmospheric circulation strength using reanalysis data and CERES EBAF-TOA and EBAF-SFC. Results show remarkably robust relationships between observed variations in the strength of the large-scale Hadley circulation and cloud radiative effects in both ascending and descending branches, providing confidence that continued monitoring of the climate system with climate-quality observations will provide critical constraints on the cloud radiative response to future changes in large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns.

  17. Advanced satellite communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staples, Edward J.; Lie, Sen

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research program was to develop an innovative advanced satellite receiver/demodulator utilizing surface acoustic wave (SAW) chirp transform processor and coherent BPSK demodulation. The algorithm of this SAW chirp Fourier transformer is of the Convolve - Multiply - Convolve (CMC) type, utilizing off-the-shelf reflective array compressor (RAC) chirp filters. This satellite receiver, if fully developed, was intended to be used as an on-board multichannel communications repeater. The Advanced Communications Receiver consists of four units: (1) CMC processor, (2) single sideband modulator, (3) demodulator, and (4) chirp waveform generator and individual channel processors. The input signal is composed of multiple user transmission frequencies operating independently from remotely located ground terminals. This signal is Fourier transformed by the CMC Processor into a unique time slot for each user frequency. The CMC processor is driven by a waveform generator through a single sideband (SSB) modulator. The output of the coherent demodulator is composed of positive and negative pulses, which are the envelopes of the chirp transform processor output. These pulses correspond to the data symbols. Following the demodulator, a logic circuit reconstructs the pulses into data, which are subsequently differentially decoded to form the transmitted data. The coherent demodulation and detection of BPSK signals derived from a CMC chirp transform processor were experimentally demonstrated and bit error rate (BER) testing was performed. To assess the feasibility of such advanced receiver, the results were compared with the theoretical analysis and plotted for an average BER as a function of signal-to-noise ratio. Another goal of this SBIR program was the development of a commercial product. The commercial product developed was an arbitrary waveform generator. The successful sales have begun with the delivery of the first arbitrary waveform generator.

  18. Civil satellite navigation and location systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, W. F.

    1989-05-01

    The use of satellites for civil navigation and location, including satellites not necessarily launched for that purpose, is reviewed. In particular, attention is given to differences between civil and military satellites; civil use of military systems and the associated commercial considerations and regulatory issues; the use of communication satellites; and radiodetermination satellite service based on geostationary satellites. The discussion also covers integration with ground-based radio-navigation systems; existing radio-navigation satellite systems; and the Starfix, Geostar/Locstar, Starfind, Navsat, and Rexstar systems.

  19. Geostar Radio Determination Satellite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Robert T.

    The Geostar Radio Determination Satellite System is designed to provide accurate position information and ancillary message passing capability for land mobile, marine, and aeronautical users in the United States and eventually worldwide. The Geostar system is a random access spread spectrum system capable of high positioning accuracy. Geostar can support a large population of users operating inexpensive transceivers. This paper examines the Geostar system positioning technique, error sources, anticipated accuracy, and potential applications.

  20. Satellite Observations of the Epic California Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Famiglietti, J. S.; Thomas, B. F.; Reager, J. T., II; Castle, S. L.; David, C. H.; Thomas, A. C.; Andreadis, K.; Argus, D. F.; Behrangi, A.; Farr, T.; Fisher, J. B.; Landerer, F. W.; Lo, M. H.; Molotch, N. P.; Painter, T. H.; Rodell, M.; Schimel, D.; Swenson, S. C.; Watkins, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    As California enters its third year of drought, questions of future water sustainability are inevitable. Snowpack, soil moisture, streamflow, reservoir and groundwater levels are at record lows. Mandatory water restrictions are being implemented, statewide fines for wasting water have been authorized, and billions of dollars and tens of thousands of jobs have been lost. Enhanced monitoring and modeling of the state's dwindling water supplies can help manage what remains while looking forward to a post-drought, sustainable water future. Here we demonstrate the role of satellite observations in comprehensive drought characterization and monitoring. In particular we highlight changing water supply, declining groundwater and reservoir levels, agricultural and urban stress. Potential contributions to water management will be discussed.

  1. Satellite observed ozone variations and solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    London, J.

    1981-01-01

    The degree of association between total and stratospheric ozone and solar ultraviolet irradiance is evaluated based on mean monthly latitudinally averaged ozone observations from the Nimbus-4 BUV data set. The mean monthly 10.7 cm solar flux f(10.7), adjusted for varying earth-sun distance, is used as a convenient index of solar UV variation. Results show no obvious relationship between total ozone and solar ultraviolet irradiance based on analysis of satellite data over a period of seven years, even though such a relationship has been suggested from theoretical considerations. However, the analysis does indicate that there may be a positive response in the upper tropical stratosphere, at a height of about 45-50 km such that there is an increase in the ozone concentration following an increase in solar UV radiation, which is assumed to be indicated by an increase in f(10.7) flux

  2. Ocean observing satellite study: instrument and satellite constellation architecture options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, A. J.; McGuire, J.; Cunningham, J. D.; Pichel, W. G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides: (1) an overview of the set of active and passive instruments identified by the IPO designed to make the ocean measurements including visible and infrared medium and high resolution imagers, radiometers, altimeters, and synthetic aperture radars and (2) the instrument and satellite constellation architecture options studied, and their ability to meet the set of measurement requirements.

  3. Morelos Satellite System for Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Ruiz, M. E.

    1986-03-01

    The telephone, television, and data communication services that the Morelos Satellite System (MSS) provides are discussed. The design and functions of the MSS which consists of two geosynchronous communication satellites that operate in C and Ku frequency bands and are located at 113.5 deg and 116.5 deg W longitude are described. The capabilities of the antenna, communication, attitude control, telemetry, command, reaction control, electrical power, and thermal control subsystems are studied. The components of the earth station are examined. The economic and social benefits possible from the application of the MSS to banking, rural clinics, food distribution services, and the oil and electric industries are analyzed.

  4. Aqua: an Earth-Observing Satellite mission to examine water and other climate variables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire L. Parkinson

    2003-01-01

    Aqua is a major satellite mission of the Earth Observing System (EOS), an international program centered at the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Aqua satellite carries six distinct Earth-observing instruments to measure numerous aspects of Earth's atmosphere, land, oceans, biosphere, and cryosphere, with a concentration on water in the Earth system. Launched on May 4, 2002, the

  5. The Mexican national satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Ruiz, M. E.; Briskman, R. D.

    1983-10-01

    The satellites, tracking, telemetry, command, and monitoring facilities, and the earth station complex for the Mexican national satellite system, Morelos, are described. The spacecraft are intended to provide educational television, rural telephony, data transmission, and business and industrial services. Scheduled for 1985 launch, the satellites will be placed in GEO and use the C and Ku bands with 12 narrow band and six wideband transponders. Spin-stabilized and solar cell powered, the functional mass will be 666 kg, including propellant. The solar panels will provide 940 W of power and 830 W will be available from NiCd batteries during eclipse conditions. The earth station will be located at Iztapalapa, which will have a 12 m antenna, redundant uplink and downlink radios, and command and ranging equipment. Back-up capability will be provided by a station at Tulancingo. Ku band and C band stations are in planning.

  6. Use of Earth Observing Satellites for Operational Hazard Support

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. Wood; L. Lauritson

    2002-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) relies on Earth observing satellite data to carry out its operational mission to monitor, predict, and assess changes in the Earth's atmosphere, land, and oceans. NOAA's National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) uses satellite data to help lessen the impacts of natural and man-made disasters due to tropical cyclones, flash floods,

  7. Advanced hybrid satellite andAdvanced hybrid satellite and terrestrial system architecture forterrestrial system architecture for

    E-print Network

    Gesbert, David

    communications: Satellite links Mobile ad-hoc mesh network Conclusions Future work Main achievements BibliographyAdvanced hybrid satellite andAdvanced hybrid satellite and terrestrial system architecture forterrestrial system architecture for emergency mobile communicationsemergency mobile communications Giuliana

  8. Global Precipitation Analysis Using Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George; Curtis, Scott; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric

    2002-01-01

    Global precipitation analysis covering the last few decades and the impact of the new TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) observations are reviewed in the context of weather and climate applications. All the data sets discussed are the result of mergers of information from multiple satellites and gauges, where available. The focus of the talk is on TRMM-based 3 hr. analyses that use TRMM to calibrate polar-orbit microwave observations from SSM/I (and other satellites) and geosynchronous IR observations and merges the various calibrated observations into a final, 3 hr. resolution map. This TRMM standard product will be available for the entire TRMM period (January 1998-present) at the end of 2002. A real-time version of this merged product is being produced and is available at 0.25 deg latitude-longitude resolution over the latitude range from 50 deg N-50 deg S. Examples will be shown, including its use in monitoring flood conditions and in relating weather-scale patterns to climate-scale patterns. The 3-hourly analysis is placed in the context of two research products of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP/GEWEX) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). The first is the 23 year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis that is used to explore global and regional variations and trends and is compared to the much shorter TRMM tropical data set. The GPCP data set shows no significant global trend in precipitation over the twenty years, unlike the positive trend in global surface temperatures over the past century. Regional trends are also analyzed. A trend pattern that is a combination of both El Nino and La Nina precipitation features is evident in the Goodyear data set. This pattern is related to an increase with time in the number of combined months of El Nino and La Nina during the 23 year period. Monthly anomalies of precipitation are related to ENSO variations with clear signals extending into middle and high latitudes of both hemispheres. Also shown is the GPCP daily, 1 deg latitude-longitude analysis, which is available from January 1997 to the present. Plans to incorporate the TRMM data and 3-hourly analysis into the GPCP products are outlined. The outcome should be an improved global analysis and climatology on monthly scales for the 23 year period and finer time scale analyses for more recent periods, including real-time 3-hourly (or finer) analyses over much of the globe.

  9. The investigation of tethered satellite system dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, E.

    1984-01-01

    Tethered satellite system (TSS) dynamics were studied. The dynamic response of the TSS during the entire stationkeeping phase for the first electrodynamic mission was investigated. An out of plane swing amplitude and the tether's bowing were observed. The dynamics of the slack tether was studied and computer code, SLACK2, was improved both in capabilities and computational speed. Speed hazard related to tether breakage or plasma contactor failure was examined. Preliminary values of the potential difference after the failure and of the drop of the electric field along the tether axis have been computed. The update of the satellite rotational dynamics model is initiated.

  10. Satellite data assimilation in global forecast system in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Swati

    2014-11-01

    Satellite data is very important for model initialization and verification. A large number of satellite observations are currently assimilated into the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) systems at the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF). Apart from Global meteorological observations from GTS, near-real time satellite observations are received at NCMRWF from other operational centres like ISRO, NOAA/NESDIS, EUMETCAST, etc. Recently India has become member of Asia-Pacific Regional ATOVS Retransmission Service (APRARS) for faster access to high resolution global satellite data useful for high resolution regional models. Indian HRPT at Chennai covers the APRARS data gap region over South East Asia. A robust data monitoring system has been implemented at NCMRWF to assess the quantity and quality of the data as well as the satellite sensor strength, before getting assimilated in the models. Validation of new satellite observations, especially from Indian satellites are being carried out against insitu observations and similar space borne platforms. After establishing the quality of the data, Observation System Experiments (OSEs) are being conducted to study their impact in the assimilation and forecast systems. OSEs have been carried out with the Oceansat-2 scatterometer winds and radiance data from Megha-Tropiques SAPHIR sensor. Daily rainfall analysis dataset is being generated by merging satellite estimates and in-situ observations. ASCAT soil wetness measurements from METOP satellite is being assimilated into the global model. Land surface parameters (LuLc and albedo) retrieved from Indian satellites are being explored for its possible usage in the global and regional models. OLR from Indian satellites are used for validating model outputs. This paper reviews the efforts made at NCMRWF in (i) assimilating the data from Indian/International satellites and (ii) generating useful products from the satellite data.

  11. Geostationary meteorological satellite data collection systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DOUGLAS H. MAC CALLUM; MICHAEL J. NESTLEBUSH

    There are three geostationary meteorological satellite data collection systems currently being operated: Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) by the USA; METE0SAT by the European Space Agency (ESA); and Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS) by Japan. Regional or domestic reply frequencies are the same for the METEOSAT and GMS systems while those for the GOES system are different. All three systems have

  12. Satellite communication system integrated into terrestrial ISDN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TORU OTSU; KAZUHIRO NAGAYAMA; AKIRA KUROKAWA; HIROSHI NAKASHIMA; MASAHIRO UMEHIRA

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced satellite communication system named DYANET II. This system uses satellite channels as subscriber lines for ISDN customers as well as trunk circuits for overflow traffic. The system can offer the same ISDN services to satellite customers as those available to terrestrial subscribers in terms of numbering, signaling, and charging systems as well as user-network interfaces.

  13. Earth Observing System/Meteorological Satellite (EOS/METSAT). Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Contamination Control Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, M.

    1998-01-01

    This Contamination Control Plan is submitted in response the Contract Document requirements List (CDRL) 007 under contract NAS5-32314 for the Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A (AMSU-A). In response to the CDRL instructions, this document defines the level of cleanliness and methods/procedures to be followed to achieve adequate cleanliness/contamination control, and defines the required approach to maintain cleanliness/contamination control through shipping, observatory integration, test, and flight. This plan is also applicable to the Meteorological Satellite (METSAT) except where requirements are identified as EOS-specific. This plan is based on two key factors: a. The EOS/METSAT AMSU-A Instruments are not highly contamination sensitive. b. Potential contamination of other EOS Instruments is a key concern as addressed in Section 9/0 of the Performance Assurance Requirements for EOS/METSAT Integrated Programs AMSU-A Instrument (MR) (NASA Specification S-480-79).

  14. Communications Satellite System by Using Moon Orbit Satellite Constellation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang-Uk Lee; Jae-Hoon Kim; Seong-Pal Lee

    2003-01-01

    A communications satellite system placed in three-Lagrange points, L3, L4, and L5, of the restricted three-body problem in Earth-Moon system is proposed in this paper. LEO satellite constellation has been another choice of communications system. The proposed system which is alternatives of limited geostationary orbit resources, has some weak points such as long distance from the Earth, relatively expensive launch

  15. Robust fault diagnosis for a satellite large angle attitude system using an iterative neuron PID (INPID) observer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing Wu; Mehrdad Saif

    2006-01-01

    A fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) scheme using an iterative neuron PID (INPID) observer is explored in this paper. The observer input, which is used to estimate state faults, is computed by utilizing the proportional, integral, and derivative information of the fault estimation error. Two classes of robust adaptive algorithms are adopted to update the parameters of the observer input.

  16. Monitoring Lake and Reservoir Level: Satellite Observations, Modeling and Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricko, M.; Birkett, C. M.; Adler, R. F.; Carton, J.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite measurements of lake and reservoir water levels complement in situ observations by providing stage information for un-gauged basins and by filling data gaps in gauge records. However, different satellite radar altimeter-derived continental water level products may differ significantly owing to choice of satellites and data processing methods. To explore the impacts of these differences, a direct comparison between three different altimeter-based surface water level estimates (USDA/NASA GRLM, LEGOS and ESA-DMU) will be presented and products validated with lake level gauge time series for lakes and reservoirs of a variety of sizes and conditions. The availability of satellite-based rainfall (i.e., TRMM and GPCP) and satellite-based lake/reservoir levels offers exciting opportunities to estimate and monitor the hydrologic properties of the lake systems. Here, a simple water balance model is utilized to relate net freshwater flux on a catchment basin to lake/reservoir level. Focused on tropical lakes and reservoirs it allows a comparison of the flux to altimetric lake level estimates. The combined use of model, satellite-based rainfall, evaporation information and reanalysis products, can be used to output water-level hindcasts and seasonal future forecasts. Such a tool is fundamental for understanding present-day and future variations in lake/reservoir levels and enabling a better understand of climatic variations on inter-annual to inter-decadal time-scales. New model-derived water level estimates of lakes and reservoirs, on regional to global scales, would assist communities with interests in climate studies focusing on extreme events, such as floods and droughts, and be important for water resources management.

  17. Eliminating error in satellite observations of surface elevation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2014-01-01

    From 2003 to 2009, NASA's Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) captured detailed elevation measurements of the Earth's surface. Unfortunately, as with all instruments, ICESat's observations experienced sensor drift throughout its lifetime, a changing bias that introduced error into the satellite's observations. Correcting for such creeping biases is difficult but crucial for maximizing the value of the observational record.

  18. Propagation Effects Handbook for Satellite Systems Design

    E-print Network

    Pulfrey, David L.

    and how they impact satellite communications system design and performance. The First EditionPropagation Effects Handbook for Satellite Systems Design Fifth Edition Section 1 Background Dr for Satellite Systems Design continues the long process of a continuing NASA commitment to provide

  19. A review of mobile satellite communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Kimio

    1990-03-01

    This article describes mobile satellite systems in the planning or development stage such as MSAT, AMSC and Geostar and mobile satellite communication experiments such as PRODAT. Studies on the system such as T-SAT are also reviewed. In addition, Japanese ETS-V and ETS-VI are described. The development of mobile-satellite communication systems is promoted along with those of communication and satellite technologies.

  20. Analysis of UV Satellite and Ground Observed data for Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervone, Guido; Manca, Germana; Johnson, Kathleen

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the 280 to 400 nanometers range has been found to be one of the primary cause for skin cancer. The correlation between UV radiation and skin cancer prevention is of global concern. Satellite observations from Nimbus7 (1978-1993), EarthProbe (1996-2004) and OMI/AURA (2004-present) provide long term UV time-series that can be used to study and compute the risk associated with exposure to harmful radiation. Additionally, several ground installations exist to acquire UV radiation data that can be paired with satellite observations. The current work presents the data mining analysis of UV time series from 1978 to present for the Italian region of Sardinia. Satellite observations are paired with ground measurements to provide historical averages of UV radiation, and daily maps of current exposure. A Geographical Information System (GIS) is used to fuse UV data with ground characteristics. The use of GIS is fundamental to calculate the real value of UV on the ground. It is known that the incidence of solar radiation, and consequently of UV, is modified by topography and surface features. Topography plays a important rule, because it is a major factor that determines the spatial variability of insulation and UV being a part of direct insulation. variation in elevation orientation (slope and aspect), and shadow cast by topographical features, determine the UV insulation in a given area or point.

  1. Introduction satellite observations of atmospheric constitents have

    E-print Network

    Haak, Hein

    and can be oxidised within airborne water droplets, producing sulphuric acid. This acidic pollution can suitable for monitoring anthropogenic pollution aspects. Tropospheric nitrogen dioxide Satellite light from the Earth's atmosphere with a reference spectrum, the column density of nitrogen dioxide

  2. Operational Applications of Satellite Snowcover Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A. (editor)

    1975-01-01

    LANDSAT and NOAA satellites data were used to study snow depth. These snow measurements were used to help forecast runoff and flooding. Many areas of California, Arizona, Colorado, and Wyoming were emphasized.

  3. Evaluating NOx Emissions Using Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, G. J.; Kim, S.; Brioude, J.; McKeen, S. A.; Trainer, M.; Heckel, A.; Hilboll, A.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Gleason, J. F.; Boersma, K. F.; Hsie, E.; Lee, S.; Angevine, W. M.; Granier, C.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric NO2 columns retrieved from satellites can provide a useful top-down assessment of bottom-up NOx emissions inventories. We present three case studies of an approach to evaluate NOx emissions at a sector level by comparing satellite retrievals to regional chemical-transport model calculations of NO2 columns. In the first example, the atmospheric impact of implementing NOx controls at eastern US power plants is demonstrated. In the second study, we use NOx monitors at western US power plants to calibrate our satellite-model comparisons. We then apply our approach to evaluate bottom-up estimates of NOx emissions from western US cities. In the third example, we validate our satellite-model approach using in-situ aircraft measurements and assess NOx emissions from power plants, cities, industrial facilities, and ports in eastern Texas. We conclude with some general insights on the usefulness of this approach and suggestions for future areas of research.

  4. AMOS Observations of NASA's IMAGE Satellite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doyle Hall; John Africano; David Archambeault; Brian Birge; David Witte; Paul Kervin

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) satellite stopped transmitting telemetry to ground stations in December 2005, after functioning for more than 5 years on Earth orbit. Before this loss of telemetry, the IMAGE satellite actively maintained a spin-stabilized attitude with spin axis perpendicular to the orbital plane and a nominal rotation rate of about 0.5 rpm. The spinning action

  5. EUMETSAT Meteorological Satellite conference, Cordoba, 21/9/2010 observation

    E-print Network

    Stoffelen, Ad

    EUMETSAT Meteorological Satellite conference, Cordoba, 21/9/2010 ADM-Aeolus wind observation from Meteorological Satellite conference, Cordoba, 21/9/2010 Need for space winds · Wind determines small and sparse 3D meteorological observations are present; reduce errors over the ocean · Transport

  6. Satellite freeze forecast system: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martsolf, J. D. (principal investigator)

    1983-01-01

    A satellite-based temperature monitoring and prediction system consisting of a computer controlled acquisition, processing, and display system and the ten automated weather stations called by that computer was developed and transferred to the national weather service. This satellite freeze forecasting system (SFFS) acquires satellite data from either one of two sources, surface data from 10 sites, displays the observed data in the form of color-coded thermal maps and in tables of automated weather station temperatures, computes predicted thermal maps when requested and displays such maps either automatically or manually, archives the data acquired, and makes comparisons with historical data. Except for the last function, SFFS handles these tasks in a highly automated fashion if the user so directs. The predicted thermal maps are the result of two models, one a physical energy budget of the soil and atmosphere interface and the other a statistical relationship between the sites at which the physical model predicts temperatures and each of the pixels of the satellite thermal map.

  7. Advanced technologies for future environmental satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittberner, Gerald J.; Crison, Michael J.; Bajpai, Shyam; Diedrich, Benjamin L.

    2004-09-01

    Environmental satellites today are designed to meet the most requirements possible within the constraints of budget, reliability, availability, robustness, manufacturability, and the state of the art in affordable technology. As we learn more and more about observing and forecasting, requirements continue to be developed and validated for measurements that can benefit from for advances in technology. The goal is to incorporate new technologies into operational systems as quickly as possible. Technologies that exist or are being developed in response to growing requirements can be categorized as "requirements pull" whereas technologies rooted in basic research and engineering exploration fall in to a "technology push" category. NOAA has begun exploration into technologies for future NOAA satellite systems. Unmet requirements exist that drive the need to locate, explore, exploit, assess, and encourage development in several technologies. Areas needing advanced technologies include: atmospheric aerosols; cloud parameters; precipitation; profiles of temperature, moisture, pressure, and wind; atmospheric radiation; trace gas abundance and distribution; land surface; ocean surface; and space weather components such as neutral density and electron density. One of the more interesting ideas in the technology push category is a constellation of satellites at Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) altitudes, here described as circular orbits near 11,000 km altitude. Consider the vision of being able to observe the environment anywhere on the Earth, at anytime, with any repeat look frequency, and being able to communicate these measurements to anyone, anywhere, anytime, in real time. Studies suggest that a constellation of MEO satellites occupying equatorial and polar orbits (inclination = 90 degrees) could, in principle, accomplish this task. Also new on the horizon is solar sail technology. NOAA has been looking at solar sails as providing a propulsive system that could be used to maintain a satellite in a position closer to the Sun than L1. L1 is that point between the Earth and the sun where the gravitational forces of the Earth and the sun are equal. The sail would allow the increased gravitational force from the Sun to be balanced by the propulsive force of the solar sail. This capability could increase the lead-time for measuring and predicting the impact of solar events. Solar sails could also allow a satellite to be positioned over the Earth's polar regions continuously, filling a critical gap in current orbital observations and services. The combination of these technologies will enable the NOAA Satellites and Information Service to meet important requirements currently unmet and help satisfy NOAA strategic goals.

  8. The Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite mission: laser radar science for the NASA Earth Observing System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. E. Schutz; J. Zwally; J. Abshire; Spinhirne

    2000-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is a spaceborne laser designed to 1) measure the altitude between the instrument and Earth's surface and 2) measure the vertical distributions of clouds and aerosols. Measurement of altitude, when combined with precise position knowledge of the instrument in space and precise laser pointing knowledge, enables high accuracy determination of surface profiles with respect

  9. Satellite voice broadcast system study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horstein, M.

    1985-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of providing Voice of America (VOA) broadcasts by satellite relay, rather than via terrestrial relay stations. Satellite voice broadcast systems are described for three different frequency bands: HF (26 MHz), VHF (68 MHz), and L-band (1.5 GHz). The geographical areas of interest at HF and L-band include all major land masses worldwide with the exception of the U.S., Canada, and Australia. Geostationary satellite configurations are considered for both frequency bands. In addition, a system of subsynchronous, circular satellites with an orbit period of 8 hours is developed for the HF band. VHF broadcasts, which are confined to the Soviet Union, are provied by a system of Molniya satellites. Satellites intended for HF or VHF broadcastinbg are extremely large and heavy. Satellite designs presented here are limited in size and weight to the capability of the STS/Centaur launch vehicle combination. Even so, at HF it would take 47 geostationary satellites or 20 satellites in 8-hour orbits to fully satisfy the voice-channel requirements of the broadcast schedule provided by VOA. On the other hand, three Molniya satellites suffice for the geographically restricted schedule at VHF. At L-band, only four geostationary satellites are needed to meet the requirements of the complete broadcast schedule. Moreover, these satellites are comparable in size and weight to current satellites designed for direct broadcast of video program material.

  10. Automated satellite telemetry processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parunakian, David; Kalegaev, Vladimir; Barinova, Vera

    In this paper we describe the design and important implementation details of the new automated system for processing satellite telemetry developedat Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Moscow State University (SINP MSU) . We discuss the most common tasks and pitfall for such systems built around data stream from a single spacecraft or a single instrument, and suggest a solution that allows to quickly develop telemetry processing modules and to integrate them with an existing polling mechanism, support infrastructure and data storage in Oracle or MySQL database systems. We also demonstrate the benefits of this approach using modules for processing three different spacecraft data streams: Coronas-Photon (2009-003A), Tatiana-2 (2009-049D) and Meteor-M no.1 (2009-049A). The data format and protocols used by each of these spacecraft have distinct peculiarities, which nevertheless did not pose a problem for integrating their modules into the main system. Remote access via web interface to Oracle databases and sophisticated visualization tools create a possibility of efficient scientific exploitation of satellite data. Such a system is already deployed at the web portal of the Space Monitoring Data Center (SMDC) of SINP MSU (http://smdc.sinp.msu.ru).

  11. Co-ordination of satellite and data programs: The committee on earth observation satellites' approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Embleton, B. J. J.; Kingwell, J.

    1997-01-01

    Every year, an average of eight new civilian remote sensing satellite missions are launched. Cumulatively, over 250 such missions, each with a cost equivalent in current value to between US 100 million to US 1000 million, have been sponsored by space agencies in perhaps two dozen countries. These missions produce data and information products which are vital for informed decision making all over the world, on matters relating to natural resource exploitation, health and safety, sustainable national development, infrastructure planning, and a host of other applications. By contributing to better scientific understanding of global changes in the atmosphere, land surface, oceans and ice caps, these silently orbiting sentinels in the sky make it possible for governments and industries to make wiser environmental policy decisions and support the economic development needs of humanity. The international Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) is the premier world body for co-ordinating and planning civilian satellite missions for Earth observation. Through its technical working groups and special task teams, it endeavours to: • maximise the international benefits from Earth observation satellites; and • harmonise practice in calibration, validation, data management and information systems for Earth observation. CEOS encompasses not only space agencies (data providers), but also the great international scientific and operational programs which rely on Earth science data from space. The user organisations affiliated with CEOS, together with the mission operators, attempt to reconcile user needs with the complex set of considerations — including national interests, cost, schedule — which affect the undertaking of space missions. Without such an internationally co-ordinated consensual approach, there is a much greater risk of waste through duplication, and of missed opportunity, or through the absence of measurements of some vital physical or biological parameter by space borne sensors. Mechanisms used by CEOS to carry out these tasks are built upon consensus and understanding, as well as on technology transfer between countries. An area of recent heightened endeavour in CEOS has been to determine and address the special needs of developing countries in respect of Earth observation data. In the next several years, a new wave of Earth observation will break, as the private sector, revitalised with decommissioned military technology, brings exciting new capabilities to international remote sensing. With rapidly burgeoning markets in spatial information or geomatics, as well as the continuing thirst of science programs for spatial information, there is a challenge upon the international space community to reassess continually, the most expedient and socially constructive means of making available in a fair and open way, geographically-reference information obtained with space observation systems.

  12. Developing a global aeronautical satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dement, Donald K.

    1988-01-01

    Arinc, an airline industry-owned and operated company in the United States, has taken steps toward establishing a global aeronautical satellite communications system. Plans call for initiation of a thin-route data operation in 1989, upgrading to establish voice communications via shared spot-beam transponders carried on other satellites, and deploying a worldwide network using dedicated satellites by 1994.

  13. The Aerospace Corporation 2009 Communication Satellite Systems

    E-print Network

    Low, Steven H.

    © The Aerospace Corporation 2009 Communication Satellite Systems Trends and Network Aspects Paul://www.aero.org/ Lee Center, Caltech 13 April 2009 #12;22 Communication Satellites · Brief History by Decade · Trends: ­ Communication Satellites, fifth edition, by D. Martin, P. Anderson, L. Bartamian, Aerospace / AIAA Press, 2006

  14. Improving National Air Quality Forecasts with Satellite Aerosol Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saadi, Jassim; Szykman, James; Pierce, R. Bradley; Kittaka, Chieko; Neil, Doreen; Chu, D. Allen; Remer, Lorraine; Gumley, Liam; Prins, Elaine; Weinstock, Lewis; MacDonald, Clinton; Wayland, Richard; Dimmick, Fred; Fishman, Jack

    2005-09-01

    Accurate air quality forecasts can allow for mitigation of the health risks associated with high levels of air pollution. During September 2003, a team of NASA, NOAA, and EPA researchers demonstrated a prototype tool for improving fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air quality forecasts using satellite aerosol observations. Daily forecast products were generated from a near-real-time fusion of multiple input data products, including aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/ Earth Observing System (EOS) instrument on the NASA Terra satellite, PM2.5 concentration from over 300 state/local/national surface monitoring stations, meteorological fields from the NOAA/NCEP Eta Model, and fire locations from the NOAA/National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) product. The products were disseminated via a Web interface to a small group of forecasters representing state and local air management agencies and the EPA. The MODIS data improved forecaster knowledge of synoptic-scale air pollution events, particularly over oceans and in regions devoid of surface monitors. Forecast trajectories initialized in regions of high AOD offered guidance for identifying potential episodes of poor air quality. The capability of this approach was illustrated with a case study showing that aerosol resulting from wildfires in the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada is transported across the continent to influence air quality in the Great Lakes region a few days later. The timing of this demonstration was selected to help improve the accuracy of the EPA's AIRNow (www.epa.gov/airnow/) air quality index next-day PM2.5 forecast, which began on 1 October 2003. Based on the positive response from air quality managers and forecasters, this prototype was expanded and transitioned to an operational provider during the summer of 2004.


  15. Issues in satellite personal communication systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erich Lutz

    1998-01-01

    In the paper various issues in personal satellite communications are addressed. Basic geostationary and non?geostationary\\u000a satellite constellations are considered. The narrowband and wideband characterization of the mobile satellite channel and\\u000a related system implications are discussed. Satellite diversity is presented as a measure to overcome signal shadowing. The\\u000a capacity of TDMA and CDMA multiple access is estimated, taking into account co?channel

  16. Description of the AMSC mobile satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garner, W. B.

    The American Mobile Satellite Corporation will provide a full range of mobile satellite services through a mobile satellite system dedicated to mobile use in the United States. This paper provides a summary of the system architecture with descriptions of each of the major system elements. The elements are the space segment, network control system, mobile earth terminals and feeder-link earth stations. The general transmission plan is also described.

  17. Assessment of Global Annual Atmospheric Energy Balance from Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing; Stackhouse, Paul; Minnis, Patrick; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Hu, Yongxiang; Sun, Wenbo; Fan, Tai-Fang (Alice); Hinkelman, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Global atmospheric energy balance is one of the fundamental processes for the earth's climate system. This study uses currently available satellite data sets of radiative energy at the top of atmosphere (TOA) and surface and latent and sensible heat over oceans for the year 2000 to assess the global annual energy budget. Over land, surface radiation data are used to constrain assimilated results and to force the radiation, turbulent heat, and heat storage into balance due to a lack of observation-based turbulent heat flux estimations. Global annual means of the TOA net radiation obtained from both direct measurements and calculations are close to zero. The net radiative energy fluxes into the surface and the surface latent heat transported into the atmosphere are about 113 and 86 Watts per square meter, respectively. The estimated atmospheric and surface heat imbalances are about -8 9 Watts per square meter, values that are within the uncertainties of surface radiation and sea surface turbulent flux estimates and likely systematic biases in the analyzed observations. The potential significant additional absorption of solar radiation within the atmosphere suggested by previous studies does not appear to be required to balance the energy budget the spurious heat imbalances in the current data are much smaller (about half) than those obtained previously and debated at about a decade ago. Progress in surface radiation and oceanic turbulent heat flux estimations from satellite measurements significantly reduces the bias errors in the observed global energy budgets of the climate system.

  18. Land surface albedo based on GOES geostationary satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, J. L.; Lattanzio, A.; Hankins, B.; Knapp, K.; Privette, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Land surface albedo is the fraction of incoming solar radiation reflected by the land surface, and therefore can be a sensitive indicator of environmental changes. To this end, surface albedo is identified as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV) by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) recently adapted the Geostationary Surface Albedo (GSA; Lattanzio and Govaerts, 2010) algorithm for use with GOES data in support of a global albedo initiative led by the Sustained, Coordinated Processing of Environmental Satellite Data for Climate Monitoring (SCOPE-CM). SCOPE-CM helps coordinate ECV production responding to GCOS, WMO, and CEOS goals. The GSA algorithm was developed jointly by EUMETSAT and Joint Research Centre (JRC) using a method proposed by Pinty et al. (2000) to determine surface albedo using day-time, cloud-free geostationary observations from a single visible band. For the GOES implementation, raw GOES observations are calibrated using International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) coefficients. Surface angular anisotropy is determined through the inversion of the GSA radiative transfer model using multiple geostationary images collected over a day under different illumination conditions. The inversion process requires ancillary total column ozone and water vapor values, which are acquired from the 20th Century Reanalysis V2 data set. The GSA algorithm produces a 10-day composite surface albedo map. This product is initially being developed for the years 2000-2003. Product quality is being assessed through comparisons with MODIS products as well as ground-based measurements. NCDC is producing albedo products from both GOES-E (75°W) and GOES-W (135°W). These are being merged with like products from EUMETSAT based on METEOSAT (0° and 63°E) and from JMA based on the Geostationary Meteorological Satellite System (140°E). In the near future, NOAA's Climate Data Record Program will provide the albedo product over the entire GOES period of record (1978-present).

  19. Antarctic cloud and surface properties: Satellite observations and climate implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berque, Joannes

    2004-12-01

    The radiative effect of clouds in the Antarctic, although small at the top of the atmosphere, is very large within the surface-atmosphere system, and influences a variety of climate processes on a global scale. Because field observations are difficult in the Antarctic interior, satellite observations may be especially valuable in this region; but the remote sensing of clouds and surface properties over the high ice sheets is problematic due to the lack of radiometric contrast between clouds and the snow. A radiative transfer model of the Antarctic snow-atmosphere system is developed, and a new method is proposed for the examination of the problem of cloud properties retrieval from multi-spectral measurements. Key limitations are identified, and a method is developed to overcome them. Using data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency (NOAA) polar orbiters, snow grain size is retrieved over the course of a summer. Significant variability is observed, and it appears related to major precipitation events. A radiative transfer model and a single-column model are used to evaluate the impact of this variability on the Antarctic plateau. The range of observed grain size induces changes of up to 30 Wm-2 on the absorption of shortwave radiation in both models. Cloud properties are then retrieved in summertime imagery of the South Pole. Comparison of model to observations over a wide range of cloud optical depths suggests that this method allows the meaningful interpretation of AVHRR radiances in terms of cloud properties over the Antarctic plateau. The radiative effect of clouds at the top of the atmosphere is evaluated over the South Pole with ground-based lidar observations and data from Clouds and the Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) onboard NASA's Terra satellite. In accord with previous work, results indicate that the shortwave and net effect are one of cooling throughout the year, while the longwave effect is one of cooling in winter and slight warming in summer.

  20. Mapping of satellite Earth observations using moving window block kriging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadi?, J. M.; Qiu, X.; Yadav, V.; Michalak, A. M.

    2014-08-01

    Global gridded maps (a.k.a. Level 3 products) of Earth system properties observed by satellites are central to understanding the spatiotemporal variability of these properties. They also typically serve either as inputs into biogeochemical models, or as independent data for evaluating such models. Spatial binning is a common method for generating contiguous maps, but this approach results in a loss of information, especially when the measurement noise is low relative to the degree of spatiotemporal variability. Such "binned" fields typically also lack a quantitative measure of uncertainty. Geostatistical mapping has previously been shown to make higher spatiotemporal resolution maps possible, and also provides a measure of the uncertainty associated with the gridded products. This study proposes a flexible moving window block kriging method that can be used as a tool for creating high spatiotemporal resolution maps from satellite data. It relies only on the assumption that the observed physical quantity exhibits spatial correlation that can be inferred from the observations. The method has several innovations relative to previously applied methods: (1) it provides flexibility in the spatial resolution of the contiguous maps (2) it is applicable for physical quantities with varying spatiotemporal coverage (i.e., density of measurements) by utilizing a more general and versatile data sampling approach, and (3) it provides rigorous assessments of the uncertainty associated with the gridded products. The method is demonstrated by creating Level 3 products from observations of column-integrated carbon dioxide (XCO2) from the GOSAT satellite, and solar induced fluorescence (SIF) from the GOME-2 instrument.

  1. Sensor design and capabilities for the Russian American Observational Satellites (RAMOS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blake G. Crowther; Vitali Zakharenkov; Gary Jensen; Valery Sinelschikov; Thomas Humpherys; Victor Misnik; Robert Anderson; John J. Atkinson

    2004-01-01

    RAMOS, the Russian American Observational Satellite program, is a cooperative space-based research and development program between the Russian Federation and the United States. The planned system configuration is a constellation of two satellites orbiting in approximately the same plane at an altitude of about 500 km, separated from one another by a variable distance centering on about 500 km. These

  2. Time-Variable Gravity: Using Satellite Laser Ranging as a Tool for Observing Long-Term Changes in the Earth System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Co; Jean-Paul Boy; Benjamin Chao

    Temporal variations in the long-wavelength gravity field have been observed using the satellite-laser-ranging (SLR) technique for the past twenty years. The long-term trends in these estimates have generally been consistent with and attributable to post glacial rebound, in addition to a number of secondary contributors. However, since 1998, the Earth's oblateness parameter J2 reversed its decreasing trend and began increasing.

  3. Automatic satellite tracking system for the NASA Satellite Photometric Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mucklow, Glenn H.

    1980-01-01

    The development of an Automatic TV Tracking System for NASA's mobile 61 cm aperture Satellite Photometric Observatory is described. The analysis techniques used to match the FOV and resolutions to changing seeing conditions are covered in details. Theoretical reasons for such matching of general interest are discussed. It is shown that the energy density in a satellite image is 11 times greater during good seeing conditions than during typical seeing conditions. The Z7987 image tube is shown to be able to detect 16th magnitude objects under ideal seeing conditions using only 8 percent of the light collected by the main telescope. Experimental results show that the SPO equipped with a Z7987 camera can track a satellite at any orbital velocity with less than 0.14 mr accuracy using the DBA Series 606 TV Tracker. The manual system used prior to the installation of the Automatic TV Tracking System could maintain track at 1.1 mr accuracy for comparison.

  4. Index: piggy-back satellite for aurora observation and technology demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, H.; Masumoto, Y.; Mizuno, T.; Miura, A.; Hashimoto, M.; Ogawa, H.; Tachikawa, S.; Oshima, T.; Choki, A.; Fukuda, H.; Hirahara, M.; Okano, S.

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes outline of the piggy-back satellite "INDEX" for demonstration of advanced satellite technologies as well as for observation of fine structure of aurora. Aurora observation will be carried out by three cameras(MAC) with a monochromatic UV filter. Electron and ion spectrum analyzer (ESA/ISA) will measure the particle phenomena together with the aurora imaging. INDEX satellite will be launched in 2002 by Japanese H2-A. The satellite is mainly controlled by the high-speed, fault-tolerant on-board RICS processor (three-voting system of SH-3). The attitude control is a compact system of three-axis stabilization. Although the size of INDEX is small (50Kg class), several newly-developed technologies are applied to the satellite system, including silicon-on-insulator devices, variable emittance radiator, solar-concentrated paddles, lithium-ion battery, and GPS receiver with all-sky antenna-coverage.

  5. Observations of orbital debris and satellites in Slovak Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silha, Jiri; Toth, Juraj

    There are many accidental optically tracked artificial objects during observations at Astronom-ical and Geophysical Observatory FMPI CU, Modra, Slovak Republic (AGO). Those objects are usually orbital debris or satellites. A tool to identify such a type of objects was necessary to create. Our software is called SatEph and is used to identify tracked artificial objects and to compute their orbital elements. SatEph is based on analytic propagation model SGP4 and TLE data. Program is still under development and in the near future it will be a part of software for automated search telescope for small near Earth asteroids at AGO. We present orbital debris observation simulation for the new optical searching system. Unlike other aster-oids searching systems (Catalina Sky Survey, LINEAR, Spacewatch etc.) our system should be capable to detect small asteroids in close vicinity of the Earth (smaller then Lunar distance) with high angular speed. The limiting magnitude of observable objects is about +16 magnitude and the pixel scale is 4,6 arcsec/px. This allows us to detect man made objects as well. We studied how many satellites and orbital debris with known orbital elements are able to track per given observing night. We also studied frequency detection of tracked object during one night. The searching system field of view will be 4.4 x 4.4 square degrees and the system will search more then 2000 square degrees per night. Exposure time for every single CCD shot is set to 30 seconds. We found out, there is possible to track from 250 to 450 objects (mostly with geosynchronous orbits) per one night in dependence on given day of the year. More then 200 objects have at least 3 astrometric positions per one night, which can be useful for orbit determination process. The tracked objects are mostly satellites and rocket bodies, which have different orbits, from low Earth orbit to geosynchronous Earth orbit. Data of orbital debris astrometric positions will be offered for national space agencies and used for our own orbit determination. Those data could be useful for orbital elements updating of catalogue, or non catalogue artificial objects.

  6. Assimilation of GOES satellite-based convective initiation and cloud growth observations into the Rapid Refresh and HRRR systems to improve aviation forecast guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecikalski, John; Smith, Tracy; Weygandt, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    Latent heating profiles derived from GOES satellite-based cloud-top cooling rates are being assimilated into a retrospective version of the Rapid Refresh system (RAP) being run at the Global Systems Division. Assimilation of these data may help reduce the time lag for convection initiation (CI) in both the RAP model forecasts and in 3-km High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) model runs that are initialized off of the RAP model grids. These data may also improve both the location and organization of developing convective storm clusters, especially in the nested HRRR runs. These types of improvements are critical for providing better convective storm guidance around busy hub airports and aviation corridor routes, especially in the highly congested Ohio Valley - Northeast - Mid-Atlantic region. Additional work is focusing on assimilating GOES-R CI algorithm cloud-top cooling-based latent heating profiles directly into the HRRR model. Because of the small-scale nature of the convective phenomena depicted in the cloud-top cooling rate data (on the order of 1-4 km scale), direct assimilation of these data in the HRRR may be more effective than assimilation in the RAP. The RAP is an hourly assimilation system developed at NOAA/ESRL and was implemented at NCEP as a NOAA operational model in May 2012. The 3-km HRRR runs hourly out to 15 hours as a nest within the ESRL real-time experimental RAP. The RAP and HRRR both use the WRF ARW model core, and the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) is used within an hourly cycle to assimilate a wide variety of observations (including radar data) to initialize the RAP. Within this modeling framework, the cloud-top cooling rate-based latent heating profiles are applied as prescribed heating during the diabatic forward model integration part of the RAP digital filter initialization (DFI). No digital filtering is applied on the 3-km HRRR grid, but similar forward model integration with prescribed heating is used to assimilate information from radar reflectivity, lightning flash density and the satellite based cloud-top cooling rate data. In the current HRRR configuration, 4 15-min cycles of latent heating are applied during a pre-forecast hour of integration. This is followed by a final application of GSI at 3-km to fit the latest conventional observation data. At the conference, results from a 5-day retrospective period (July 5-10, 2012) will be shown, focusing on assessment of data impact for both the RAP and HRRR, as well as the sensitivity to various assimilation parameters, including assumed heating strength. Emphasis will be given to documenting the forecast impacts for aviation applications in the Eastern U.S.

  7. The global energy budget and satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonder Haar, Thomas H.

    1994-01-01

    During the last 30 years, space observations have provided new information about (a) the energy from our Sun, (b) the radiative exchange between our earth-atmosphere system and space, (c) required poleward energy transports by our atmosphere and oceans, (d) seasonal and interannual variations of (b) and (c), (e) the role of clouds in the global energy budget, and (f) preliminary information about the role of water vapor in the global energy budget. After a review of what we now know about these topics, the paper concludes with a discussion of major unknowns including the vertical variation of cloud forcing, the 'CO2 fingerprint,' the 'missing petawatt' of energy transport, and the role of non-cloud aerosols and surface features in the global budget.

  8. A study of satellite emergency locator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Satellite emergency locator systems were studied. The objective of the study was to determine the feasibility and hardware requirements for satellite systems capable of identifying and locating the position emergency locator transmitters and emergency position indicating radio beacons. Both geosynchronous and near-polar-orbiting satellites were considered. One of the most important aspects of the study was to minimize the cost of the hardware required.

  9. The luminosity function of diverse satellite galaxy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickerson, S.; Stinson, G.; Couchman, H. M. P.; Bailin, J.; Wadsley, J.

    2013-02-01

    The high-resolution, smoothed particle hydrodynamics galaxies of the McMaster Unbiased Galaxy Survey are used to examine the satellite systems of 16 model host galaxies. Each galaxy has a different mass, angular momentum and merger history that yield a rich set of satellite luminosity functions. With new observations of distant satellite systems, we can compare these luminosity functions to satellite systems beyond the Local Group. We find that the luminosity functions of our simulations compare well to observations when the luminosity functions are scaled according to host mass. We use the recently found relationship between dwarf satellites and host mass in distant satellite systems to normalize a theoretical, complete luminosity function for the Milky Way. The luminosity function of satellites, expressed as a function of the host mass, is given by dN/dM_V=3.5M_host^{0.91}× 10^{0.1M_V-10.2}, where mass is given in M?. The mass of a host galaxy can be used to predict the number of dwarf satellites and even when considering spiral and elliptical hosts separately this relation holds.

  10. Time Management System for Satellite Positioning System using Quasi-Zenith Satellites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Takahashi; M. Fujieda; J. Amagai; S. Yokota; K. Kimura; S. Hama; I. Kawano; S. Kogure

    The first Japanese Quasi-Zenith satellite (QZS) will be launched FY 2008. The QZS System (QZSS) is studied as an integrated satellite service system for communications, broadcasting, and positioning for mobile users in throughout specified regions in Japan from a high angle of elevation. The purpose of the satellite positioning system using QZS is to complement and augment the GPS. The

  11. Satellite Observation Highlights of the 2010 Russian Wildfires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Douglass, Anne R.; Duncan, Bryan N.; daSilva, Arlindo; Torres, Omar

    2010-01-01

    From late-July through mid-August 2010, wildfires raged in western Russia. The resulting thick smoke and biomass burning products were transported over the highly populated Moscow city and surrounding regions, seriously impairing visibility and affecting human health. We demonstrate the uniqueness of the 2010 Russian wildfires by using satellite observations from NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms. Over Moscow and the region of major fire activity to the southeast, we calculate unprecedented increases in the MODIS fire count record of 178 %, an order of magnitude increase in the MODIS fire radiative power (308%) and OMI absorbing aerosols (255%), and a 58% increase in AIRS total carbon monoxide (CO). The exceptionally high levels of CO are shown to be of comparable strength to the 2006 El Nino wildfires over Indonesia. Both events record CO values exceeding 30x10(exp 7) molec/ square cm.

  12. Observing tectonic plate motions and deformations from satellite laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christodoulidis, D. C.; Smith, D. E.; Kolenkiewicz, R.; Klosko, S. M.; Torrence, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The scope of geodesy has been greatly affected by the advent of artificial near-earth satellites. The present paper provides a description of the results obtained from the reduction of data collected with the aid of satellite laser ranging. It is pointed out that dynamic reduction of satellite laser ranging (SLR) data provides very precise positions in three dimensions for the laser tracking network. The vertical components of the stations, through the tracking geometry provided by the global network and the accurate knowledge of orbital dynamics, are uniquely related to the center of mass of the earth. Attention is given to the observations, the methodologies for reducing satellite observations to estimate station positions, Lageos-observed tectonic plate motions, an improved temporal resolution of SLR plate motions, and the SLR vertical datum.

  13. The Use of a Parallel Data Processing and Error Analysis System (DPEAS) for the Observational Exploration of Complex Multi-Satellite Non-Gaussian Data Assimilation Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. S.; Fletcher, S. J.; Kidder, S. Q.; Forsythe, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    The CSU/NOAA Data Processing and Error Analysis System (DPEAS) was created to merge, or blend, multiple satellite and model data sets within a single consistent framework. DPEAS is designed to be used at both research and operational facilities to facilitate Research-to-Operations technology transfers. The system supports massive parallelization via grid computing technologies, and hosts data fusion techniques for transference to 24/7 operations in a low cost computational environment. In this work, we highlight the data assimilation and data fusion methodologies of the DPEAS framework that facilitates new and complex multi-satellite non-Gaussian data assimilation algorithm developments. DPEAS is in current operational use at NOAA/NESDIS Office of Satellite and Product Operations (OSPO) and performs multi-product data fusion of global "blended" Total Precipitable Water (bTPW) and blended Rainfall Rate (bRR). In this work we highlight: 1) the current dynamic inter-satellite calibration processing performed within the DPEAS data fusion and error analysis, 2) as well as our DPEAS development plans for future blended products (AMSR-2 and Megha-Tropiques), and 3) layered TPW products using the NASA AIRS data for National Weather Service forecaster use via the NASA SPoRT facility at Huntsville, AL. We also discuss new system additions for cloud verification and prediction activities in collaboration with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), and planned use with the USAF Air Force Weather Agency's (AFWA) global Cloud Depiction and Forecast System (CDFS) facilities. Scientifically, we focus on the data fusion of atmospheric and land surface product information, including global cloud and water vapor data sets, soil moisture data, and specialized land surface products. The data fusion methods include the use of 1DVAR data assimilation for satellite sounding data sets, and numerous real-time statistical analysis methods. Our new development activities to extend the current 1DVAR algorithm to use and test a new non-Gaussian data assimilation method are presented. This research was supported by multiple grants from the NOAA/NESDIS Product System Development and Implementation (PSDI) program, a NASA ROSES grant, and a grant by the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) to the DoD Center for Geosciences / Atmospheric Research (CG/AR) at Colorado State University, as well as a subcontract from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to CSU.

  14. Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 6: Operational applications of satellite snow-cover observations NOAA/NESS support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, S. R.

    1981-01-01

    Geostationary and polar orbiting satellite data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration were used to operationally provide field hydrologists with basin snowcover percentages for inclusion in runoff models. Data reduction is accomplished thru the use of optical rectification devices and electronic color density slicers. Over two thousand satellite-derived snow maps covering 30 different basins in the western United States were provided to users. Plans for improving snowmapping techniques on computer interactive systems and by all-digital analysis are presented. A description of the newest generation of NOAA polar orbiters, TIROS-N, and its potential for snowmapping is reviewed. Snowcover percentages for all basins determined between November 1974 and July 1978 are presented in tabular format.

  15. EHF satellite communication systems for mobile users

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Eaves

    1979-01-01

    The large amounts of spectrum available in the EHF and upper SHF region offer the potential to provide secure satellite communications to large numbers of users. However, the cost-effective realization of this potential requires the development of satellite communication system architectures which will serve small and relatively inexpensive terminals. Conventional transponder systems are inadequate both in the security they provide

  16. Architectural trends in military satellite communications systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Jain

    1990-01-01

    A historical overview of military communications by satellites and a detailed description of current systems are provided. The capabilities of present systems are reviewed in relation to user requirements and threats. It is concluded that use of satellite communications by a large number of small-terminal users (aircraft, ships, submarines, and land mobiles) still requires major technological innovations to meet needs

  17. CEOS Committee on Earth Observations Satellites Consolidated Report, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A concise overview of the committee on Earth Observations Satellites (CEOS) and its Working Groups, covering the history and purpose of the Committee and its accomplishments to date are provided. The report will be updated annually before each Plenary meeting, and as developments in the Working Groups warrant. The committee on Earth Observations Satellites (originally named the International Earth Observations Satellite committee, IEOS) was treated in 1984, in response to a recommendation from the Economic Summit of Industrialized Nations Working Group on Growth, Technology, and Employment's Panel of Experts on Satellite Remote Sensing. This group recognized the multidisciplinary nature of satellite Earth observations, and the value of coordinating across all proposed missions. Thus, CEOS combined the previously existing groups for coordination on Ocean Remote-Sensing Satellites (CORSS) and coordination on Land Remote-Sensing Satellites (CLRSS), and established a broad framework for coordination across all spaceborne Earth observations missions. The first three LEOS Plenary meetings focused on treating and guiding the Working Groups deemed necessary to carry out the objectives of the CEOS members. After the third meeting, it was agreed that a more active orientation was required by the Plenary, and additional issues were brought before the group at the fourth meeting. At the fifth Plenary, international scientific programs and relevant intergovernmental organizations accepted invitations and participated as affiliate members of CEOS. This enabled progress toward integrating satellite data users' requirements into the CEOS process. Data exchange principles for global change research were also adopted. An interim CEOS Plenary meeting was held in April 1992, in preparation for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). Brief encapsulations of the Plenary sessions immediately follow the Terms of Reference that govern the activities of CEOS as a whole; Terms of Reference for the individual Working Groups are included as Appendix A. A complete listing of CEOS members is offered as Appendix B.

  18. Satellite multiple access systems for mobile communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    This paper considers multiple access techniques for a mobile radio system which incorporates a geosynchronous orbiting satellite repeater through which mobile terminals communicate. The communication capacities of FDMA, TDMA and CDMA systems are examined for a 4 MHz bandwidth system to serve up to 10,000 users. An FDMA system with multibeam coverage is analyzed in detail. The system includes an order-wire network for demand-access control and reassignment of satellite channels. Satellite and terminal configurations are developed to a block diagram level and system costs and implementation requirements are discussed.

  19. Design of the American Mobile Satellite System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittiver, Charles

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the American Mobile Satellite Corporation (AMSC) Mobile Satellite System (MSS). A summary of the mobile satellite (MSAT) design and overall performance is provided. The design and components of both the forward link and return link transponders are described in detail. The design and operation of a unique hybrid matrix amplifier that offers flexible power distribution is outlined. The conceptual design and performance of three types of land mobile antennas are described.

  20. Licensing of future mobile satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepkowski, Ronald J.

    1990-01-01

    The regulatory process for licensing mobile satellite systems is complex and can require many years to complete. This process involves frequency allocations, national licensing, and frequency coordination. The regulatory process that resulted in the establishment of the radiodetermination satellite service (RDSS) between 1983 and 1987 is described. In contrast, each of these steps in the licensing of the mobile satellite service (MSS) is taking a significantly longer period of time to complete.

  1. ECC Ozonesonde Calibration and Observations: Satellite Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, Francis J.; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The reliability of the Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) ozonesonde depends on the care exercised in preparing the instrument for use. Although the ECC can be quickly prepared and flown, generally within less then one day if necessary, it is best to prepare the instrument at least one week prior to use, and as our tests have confirmed even 2-3 weeks prior to use may actually be better. There are a number of factors that must be considered when preparing an ECC. These basically are the pump efficiency, volumetric flow rate, temperature of the air entering the pump, and the background current. Also of importance is the concentration of the potassium iodide solution. Tests conducted at Wallops Island (38 N) has enabled us to identify potential problem areas and ways to avoid them. The calibration and pre-flight preparation methods will be discussed. The method of calibrating the ECC also is used at Ascension Island (8 S) and Natal, Brazil (5 S). Comparisons between vertical profiles of the ECC instrument and satellites will be reviewed as well as comparison with ground based instruments, such as, the Dobson Spectrophotometer and hand held Microtops photometers.

  2. Global Positioning System Satellite Selection Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, Frederick A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The satellite selection method as utilized by the spaceborne Global Positioning System receiver provides navigational solutions and is designed for use in low Earth orbit. The satellite selection method is a robust algorithm that can be used a GPS receiver to select appropriate GPS satellites for use in calculating point solutions or attitude solutions. The method is takes into account the difficulty of finding a particular GPS satellite phase code, especially when the search range in greatly increased due to Doppler shifts introduced into the carrier frequency. The method starts with an update of the antenna pointing and spacecraft vectors to determine the antenna backplane direction. Next, the GPS satellites that will potentially be in view of the antenna are ranked on a list, whereby the list is generated based on the estimated attitude and position of each GPS satellite. Satellites blocked by the Earth are not entered on this list. A second list is created, whereby the GPS satellites are ranked according to their desirability for use in attitude determination. GPS satellites are ranked according to their orthogonality to the antenna backplane, and according to geometric dilution of precision considerations. After the lists are created, the channels of the spaceborne GPS receiver are assigned to various GPS satellites for acquisition and lock. Preliminary Doppler frequencies for searching are assigned to the various channels.

  3. Observation of suspended sediments in Mobile Bay, Alabama from satellite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stumpf, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive geologic study of coastal Alabama and Mississippi, the U.S. Geological Survey is investigating coastal sediment transport in Mobile Bay and the adjacent shelf. Satellite imagery from the NOAA AVHRR is being used to provide data on the variability of spatial patterns in the near-surface suspended sediment concentration. This imagery is processed using atmospheric corrections to remove haze and Rayleigh radiance in order to obtain water reflectances; the reflectances are than converted to approximate sediment concentrations using standard relationships between water reflectance and in situ sediment concentrations. A series of images from early 1990 shows rapid changes in sediment concentrations in response to high river flow of the Alabama-Tombigbee river system. During these times, suspended sediment tends to flow out Mobile Bay without mixing into the eastern lobe of the Bay (Bon Secour Bay). The sediment concentration field also appears to be disturbed by the main ship channel. The sediment plume extends more than 60 km offshore after the peak flow event. One wind event in December 1989 was identified as increasing sediment concentration in the Bay. It is not believed that such an event has been previously observed from satellite.

  4. Overview of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite: Observations from 1991 to 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Douglass, Anne R.

    2003-01-01

    The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) was launched in September 1991 by the Space Shuttle Discovery and continues to make relevant atmospheric measurements (as of October 2002). This successful satellite has fostered a better understanding of the middle atmospheric processes, especially those important in the control of ozone. Seven of the original ten instruments aboard the UARS are still functional and six instruments regularly make measurements. The UARS is in a stable observing configuration, in spite of experiencing several anomalies over its lifetime. It is expected that the UARS will overlap the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura satellite (scheduled launch in January 2004) for several months before the end of the UARS mission.

  5. Unusual satellite data: A black hole?. [International Ultraviolet Explorer observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Data obtained by the NASA-launched European Space Agency's International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite suggests the possibility of a massive black hole at the center of some globular clusters (star groups) in our galaxy. Six of these clusters, three of them X-ray sources, were closely examined. Onboard short wavelength UV instrumentation penetrated the background denseness of the clusters 15,000 light years away where radiation, probably from a group of 10 to 20 bright blue stars orbiting the core, was observed. The stars may well be orbiting a massive black hole the size of 1,000 solar systems. The existence of the black hole is uncertain. The dynamics of the stars must be studied first to determine how they rotate in relation to the center of the million-star cluster. This may better indicate what provides the necessary gravitational pull that holds them in orbit.

  6. Applications of expert systems for satellite autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciarlo, A.; Donzelli, P.

    1987-01-01

    Some aspects of the on-board application of expert systems in artificial satellites are discussed. The activities of the study, which include the implementation of two prototypes on a dedicated artificial intelligence machine, are described. The general implications of the experience are then discussed. These concern the interrelationship between the expert system and the architecture of the satellite and the expert system's impact on the mission definition phase of the satellite lifecycle. The main obstacles that need to be overcome before operational use of onboard expert systems can take place are discussed.

  7. Satellite systems for Latin American telecommunication requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizondo, Eduardo L.

    Aspects of satellite telecommunications systems of interest to Latin America are discussed. Presently existing systems are described, including both state-run and international services. Services planned for the region are examined, including Geostar, a service that provides satellite radio determination and message services, a system which will provide a high-capacity digital voice and data service for airlines, and direct broadcast satellites. Applications of these systems in education, rural telephony, data transmission, news services, publishing, emergency communications, and mobile communications are addressed.

  8. PSC Characteristics from Satellite Observations and Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawa, A. W.; Drdla, K.; Bokarius, K.; Fromm, M.; Alfred, J.

    2004-01-01

    POAM solar occultation observations from 1994 to present are studied for the purpose of determining Type I PSC formation characteristics and winter-long evolution. This study examines PSC observations from many years on a common basis to see if characteristics can be identified. The results show that Type Ia PSCs form at the beginning of the winter, within several days of the first drop in temperature below T_NAT, and peak early in the winter. Type Ia PSCs typically out number Ib PSCs over the winter, especially at the beginning of the winter. Type Ia and Ib PSC observations continue throughout the winter. Micro-physical models of PSC formation must match these observed characteristics. Some models predict that temperatures must be more than 5 K below T_NAT for five days before significant freezing can occur. This is not seen in the POAM observations. Differences in PSC characteristics between the first two Arctic winters (1994-1995 and 1995-1996) and later winters also suggest the influence of volcanic perturbations on PSC formation. Type Ia and Ib PSC Characteristics observed by POAM III and SAGE III for the 2002-2003 Arctic winter are compared.

  9. Optical System in Laser Inter-Satellites Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhou Li; Wen Chuanhua; Liu Baoming

    2008-01-01

    We know that Inter-satellites communication is a very important to us. However, real global coverage can only be achieved by satellite systems. Satellites communication is the most important mean of the communication network. The traditional satellites communication and inter-satellites links are built by microwave. Recent years, laser links for inter-satellites communication are becoming more and more important.

  10. A scheduling and diagnostic system for scientific satellite GEOTAIL using expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakatani, I; Hashimoto, M.; Mukai, T.; Obara, T.; Nishigori, N.

    1994-01-01

    The Intelligent Satellite Control Software (ISACS) for the geoMagnetic tail observation satellite named GEOTAIL (launched in July 1992) has been successfully developed. ISACS has made it possible by applying Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology including an expert system to autonomously generate a tracking schedule, which originally used to be conducted manually. Using ISACS, a satellite operator can generate a maximum four day period of stored command stream autonomously and can easily confirm its safety. The ISACS system has another function -- to diagnose satellite troubles and to suggest necessary remedies. The workload of satellite operators has drastically been reduced since ISACS has been introduced into the operations of GEOTAIL.

  11. Observations of Uranus' satellites: Bibliography and literature search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    A literature search has yielded more than 10,000 observations of the satellites of Uranus made from 1787 to 1985. The type (photographic, micrometer) and the number of observations are tabulated in 5 year increments and a complete bibliography is provided.

  12. REPORT ON SATELLITE AND SPACE PROPULSION SYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Partel

    1962-01-01

    Low-thrust propulsion systems that can be used to extend satellite ; orbits, to control or modify satellite orbits, and for lunar and interplanetary ; exploration are surveyed. The most feasible combinations of energy sources ; (chemicals, radioisotopes, solar rays, nuclear fission, and nuclear fusion), ; electric generators (chemical batteries, radioisotope batteries, thermopiles, ; solar batteries, turboelectric generators, and plasma induction),

  13. Solar power satellite system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A synopsis of the study plan for the solar power satellite system is presented. Descriptions of early task progress is reported for the following areas: (1) laser annealing, (2) solid state power amplifiers, (3) rectenna option, (4) construction of an independent electric orbit transfer vehicle, and (5) construction of a 2.5 GW solar power satellite.

  14. Power Control Algorithms for Satellite Communication Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ince; D. Brown; J. Midgley

    1976-01-01

    Three different ground terminal transmit power control concepts for a Satcom system are examined. The effectiveness of constant satellite power (CSP) sharing among the carriers and adaptive satellite power (ASP) sharing is compared with constant ground terminal transmit power (CTP). It is shown that ASP offers substantial advantages over CSP in combating environmental degradations and that both can increase link

  15. Propagation Effects Handbook for Satellite Systems Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis J. Ippolito

    This paper describes the latest edition of the NASA Propagation Effects Handbook for Satellite Systems Design and presents a summary of application of the handbook information to satellite link design and performance. NASA, which has supported a large part of the experimental work in radiowave propagation on space communications links, recognized the need for a reference handbook of this type,

  16. HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGING SYSTEMS - OVERVIEW

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Jacobsen

    More and more high and very high resolution optical space sensors are available. Not in any case the systems are well known and the images are distributed over popular distributing channels or are accessible for any user. Several imaging satellites are announced for the near future. Not every announced satellite finally will be launched and some starts are failing. In

  17. Observations of the Galilean Satellites in Support of the New Horizons Flyby

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Spencer

    2006-01-01

    On February 28 2007 the New Horizons NH spacecraft will fly by Jupiter on its way to Pluto, and will conduct an extensive series of observations of the Jupiter system, including the Galilean satellites. We propose HST observations to support and complement the New Horizons observations in four ways: 1 Determine the distribution and variability of Io's plumes in the

  18. Small satellite radiometric measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    A critical need for the US Global Change Research Program is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for the earth's radiation budget. This paper describes a new, compact, relatively light-weight, adaptable radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated measurements and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on small satellites, aircraft, or remotely piloted aircraft (RPAs). An example of the implementation of this radiometer on a small satellite is given. Significant benefits derive from simultaneous measurements of specific narrow (in wavelength) spectral features; such data may be obtained by combining LARI with a compact spectrometer on the same platform. Well-chosen satellite orbits allow one to use data from other satellites (e.g. DMSP) to enhance the data product, or to provide superior coverage of specific locations. 23 refs.

  19. Small satellite radiometric measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    A critical need for the US Global Change Research Program is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for the earth`s radiation budget. This paper describes a new, compact, relatively light-weight, adaptable radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated measurements and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on small satellites, aircraft, or remotely piloted aircraft (RPAs). An example of the implementation of this radiometer on a small satellite is given. Significant benefits derive from simultaneous measurements of specific narrow (in wavelength) spectral features; such data may be obtained by combining LARI with a compact spectrometer on the same platform. Well-chosen satellite orbits allow one to use data from other satellites (e.g. DMSP) to enhance the data product, or to provide superior coverage of specific locations. 23 refs.

  20. NASA Satellite Observations: A Unique Asset for the Study of the Environment and Implications for Public Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes Sue M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation highlights how satellite observation systems are assets for studying the environment in relation to public health. It includes information on current and future satellite observation systems, NASA's public health and safety research, surveillance projects, and NASA's public health partners.

  1. Planning and Scheduling for Fleets of Earth Observing Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Jonsson, Ari; Morris, Robert; Smith, David E.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We address the problem of scheduling observations for a collection of earth observing satellites. This scheduling task is a difficult optimization problem, potentially involving many satellites, hundreds of requests, constraints on when and how to service each request, and resources such as instruments, recording devices, transmitters, and ground stations. High-fidelity models are required to ensure the validity of schedules; at the same time, the size and complexity of the problem makes it unlikely that systematic optimization search methods will be able to solve them in a reasonable time. This paper presents a constraint-based approach to solving the Earth Observing Satellites (EOS) scheduling problem, and proposes a stochastic heuristic search method for solving it.

  2. NASA Launches New Earth Observation Satellite

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    , near infrared, and shortwave infrared portions of the elec- tromagnetic spectrum. OLI's new design has with more and better observations. The spacecraft carries two instruments, the Operational Land Im- ager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS). The measurements will be compatible with data from past

  3. Anti-sway control of tethered satellite systems using attitude control of the main satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefian, Peyman; Salarieh, Hassan

    2015-06-01

    In this study a new method is introduced to suppress libration of a tethered satellite system (TSS). It benefits from coupling between satellites and tether libration dynamics. The control concept uses the main satellite attitude maneuvers to suppress librational motion of the tether, and the main satellite's actuators for attitude control are used as the only actuation in the system. The study considers planar motion of a two body TSS system in a circular orbit and it is assumed that the tether's motion will not change it. Governing dynamic equations of motion are derived using the extended Lagrange method. Controllability of the system around the equilibrium state is studied and a linear LQG controller is designed to regulate libration of the system. Tether tension and satellite attitude are assumed as only measurable outputs of the system. The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is used to estimate states of the system to be used as feedback to the controller. The designed controller and observer are implemented to the nonlinear plant and simulations demonstrate that the controller lead to reduction of the tether libration propoerly. By the way, because the controller is linear, it is applicable only at low amplitudes in the vicinity of equilibrium point. To reach global stability, a nonlinear controller is demanded.

  4. On-board satellite radionavigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudriavtsev, Igor'v.; Mishchenko, Igor'n.; Volynkin, Anatolii I.; Shebshaevich, V. S.; Dubinko, Iu. S.

    Recent developments in the radionavigation equipment of ships are reviewed with particular reference to on-board satellite radionavigation systems. The Navstar navigation network is briefly characterized, and the general principles underlying the design of on-board navigation systems are reviewed. Particular attention is given to the software of on-board satellite navigation systems and their noise immunity characteristics. The accuracy of a navigation session is estimated, and some aspects of navigation equipment testing are discussed.

  5. A new digital land mobile satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Philip

    A description is given of the different digital services planned to be carried over existing and planned mobile satellite systems. These systems are then compared with analog services in terms of bandwidth and power efficiency. This comparison provides the rationale for the establishment of a digital land mobile satellite service (DLMSS) to use frequencies that are currently available but not yet assigned to a domestic mobile satellite system in the United States. The focus here is on the expected advantages of digital transmission techniques in accommodating additional mobile satellite systems in this portion of the spectrum, and how such techniques can fully satisfy voice, data and facsimile mobile communications requirements in a cost effective manner. A description is given of the system architecture of the DMLSS service proposed by the Geostar Messaging Corporation (GMC) and the market potential of DLMSS.

  6. NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITTING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM (NPOESS)

    E-print Network

    NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITTING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM (NPOESS) INTEGRATED PROGRAM) National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Integrated Program Office (IPO and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Services (NESDIS

  7. Multiple satellite observations of pulsation resonance structure in the magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, W. J.; Mcpherron, R. L.; Russell, C. T.

    1977-01-01

    Data from two intervals when pulsation activity was simultaneously observed on both ATS 1 and Ogo 5 satellites are presented. The first example, a Pc 4, indicates that this pulsation is caused by a field line near L = 7 resonating in its second-harmonic mode. This is inferred from both plasma density measurements and polarization characteristics. The wave was not observed at three ground stations in the vicinity of the satellite conjugate points. This indicates that Pc 4 waves are very localized in latitude and that a close array (less than 100 km) is needed to perform effective correlation with satellites. The second event, which is also in the Pc 4 band, can again be inferred to be a field line resonance from the polarization characteristics

  8. Satellite voice broadcast. Volume 2: System study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachtell, E. E.; Bettadapur, S. S.; Coyner, J. V.; Farrell, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    The Technical Volume of the Satellite Broadcast System Study is presented. Designs are synthesized for direct sound broadcast satellite systems for HF-, VHF-, L-, and Ku-bands. Methods are developed and used to predict satellite weight, volume, and RF performance for the various concepts considered. Cost and schedule risk assessments are performed to predict time and cost required to implement selected concepts. Technology assessments and tradeoffs are made to identify critical enabling technologies that require development to bring technical risk to acceptable levels for full scale development.

  9. SOFT project: a new forecasting system based on satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual, Ananda; Orfila, A.; Alvarez, Alberto; Hernandez, E.; Gomis, D.; Barth, Alexander; Tintore, Joaquim

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the SOFT project is to develop a new ocean forecasting system by using a combination of satellite dat, evolutionary programming and numerical ocean models. To achieve this objective two steps are proved: (1) to obtain an accurate ocean forecasting system using genetic algorithms based on satellite data; and (2) to integrate the above new system into existing deterministic numerical models. Evolutionary programming will be employed to build 'intelligent' systems that, learning form the past ocean variability and considering the present ocean state, will be able to infer near future ocean conditions. Validation of the forecast skill will be carried out by comparing the forecasts fields with satellite and in situ observations. Validation with satellite observations will provide the expected errors in the forecasting system. Validation with in situ data will indicate the capabilities of the satellite based forecast information to improve the performance of the numerical ocean models. This later validation will be accomplished considering in situ measurements in a specific oceanographic area at two different periods of time. The first set of observations will be employed to feed the hybrid systems while the second set will be used to validate the hybrid and traditional numerical model results.

  10. Observing convection with satellite, radar, and lightning measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Ulrich; Nisi, Luca; Clementi, Lorenzo; Ventura, Jordi Figueras i.; Gabella, Marco; Hering, Alessandro M.; Sideris, Ioannis; Trefalt, Simona; Germann, Urs

    2015-04-01

    Heavy precipitation, hail, and wind gusts are the fundamental meteorological hazards associated with strong convection and thunderstorms. The thread is particularly severe in mountainous areas, e.g. it is estimated that on average between 50% and 80% of all weather-related damage in Switzerland is caused by strong thunderstorms (Hilker et al., 2010). Intense atmospheric convection is governed by processes that range from the synoptic to the microphysical scale and are considered to be one of the most challenging and difficult weather phenomena to predict. Even though numerical weather prediction models have some skills to predict convection, in general the exact location of the convective initialization and its propagation cannot be forecasted by these models with sufficient precision. Hence, there is a strong interest to improve the short-term forecast by using statistical, object oriented and/or heuristic nowcasting methods. MeteoSwiss has developed several operational nowcasting systems for this purpose such as TRT (Hering, 2008) and COALITION (Nisi, 2014). In this contribution we analyze the typical development of convection using measurements of the Swiss C-band Dual Polarization Doppler weather radar network, the MSG SEVIRI satellite, and the Météorage lighting network. The observations are complemented with the analysis and forecasts of the COSMO model. Special attention is given to the typical evolutionary stages like the pre-convective environment, convective initiation, cloud top glaciation, start, maximum, and end of precipitation and lightning activity. The pre-convective environment is examined using instability indices derived from SEVIRI observations and the COSMO forecasts. During the early development satellite observations are used to observe the rise of the cloud top, the growth of the cloud droplet or crystals, and the glaciation of the cloud top. SEVIRI brightness temperatures, channel differences, and temporal trends as suggested by Mecikalski et al. (2010) are used to identify convectively active regions. Additionally, retrieved physical cloud properties of state-of-the-art cloud remote sensing algorithms such as the cloud top height, multilayer flags, cloud phase, optical depth and effective radius are employed. As soon as larger particles form, radar observations complement the satellite ones. Radar datasets are used in particular to observe the precipitation intensity and type, the vertical extension and structure of the convective cells. In the mature stage convective cells might start to produce lightning. The relation between the different observables and their suitability as predictors for the further convective development are discussed, e.g. strong updrafts in the developing phase are often followed by fast anvil spreading and intense precipitation in the mature phase. Threads and hazards due to heavy precipitation, hail, and wind gusts are estimated. Hering, A. M., Germann, U., Boscacci, M., Sénési, S., 2008: Operational nowcasting of thunderstorms in the Alps during MAP D-PHASE. In Proceedings of 5th European Conference on Radar in Meteorology and Hydrology (ERAD), 30 June - 4 July 2008, Helsinki, Finland. 1-5. Copernicus: Göttingen, Germany. Hilker, N., Badoux, A., Hegg, C., 2010: Unwetterschäden in der Schweiz im Jahre 2009. Wasser Energ. Luft 102: 1-6 (in German). Mecikalski, J. R., Mackenzie, W. M., König, M., Muller, S. 2010: Use of Meteosat Second Generation infrared data in 0-1 hour convective initiation nowcasting. Part 1. Infrared fields. J. Appl. Meteorol. 49: 521-534. Nisi, L., Ambrosetti, P., Clementi, L., 2014: Nowcasting severe convection in the Alpine region: the COALITION approach. QJRMT, 140, 682, 1684-1699, DOI: 10.1002/qj.2249

  11. First satellite observations of lower tropospheric ammonia and methanol

    E-print Network

    a preliminary analysis of TES space-based spectra of ammonia and methanol (methyl alcohol) acquiredFirst satellite observations of lower tropospheric ammonia and methanol Reinhard Beer,1 Mark W) and methanol (CH3OH), well above the normal background levels. This is the first time that these molecules have

  12. Laurentia Glacial Isostatic Adjustment Observed From GRACE and Satellite Altimetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Lee; C. Shum; C. Kuo; M. Schmidt; P. Wu; A. Braun; W. van der Wal; H. Wang

    2007-01-01

    The use of satellite radar altimetry to detect solid Earth deformation signals such as the Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) has been demonstrated by Lee et al. (2007) observing the Laurentia GIA signals using TOPEX (1992-2002) over the Hudson Bay land region. GRACE gravimetry, despite of its short data record (2002-present), confirmed the presence of two Pleistocene ice domes near the

  13. Gravity waves in the thermosphere observed by the AE satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S. H.; Reber, C. A.; Huang, F. T.

    1983-01-01

    Atmospheric Explorer (AE) satellite data were used to investigate the spectra characteristics of wave-like structure observed in the neutral and ionized components of the thermosphere. Power spectral analysis derived by the maximum entropy method indicate the existence of a broad spectrum of scale sizes for the fluctuations ranging from tens to thousands of kilometers.

  14. Globally Gridded Satellite (GridSat) Observations for Climate Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, Kenneth R.; Ansari, Steve; Bain, Caroline L.; Bourassa, Mark A.; Dickinson, Michael J.; Funk, Chris; Helms, Chip N.; Hennon, Christopher C.; Holmes, Christopher D.; Huffman, George J.; Kossin, James P.; Lee, Hai-Tien; Loew, Alexander; Magnusdottir, Gudrun

    2012-01-01

    Geostationary satellites have provided routine, high temporal resolution Earth observations since the 1970s. Despite the long period of record, use of these data in climate studies has been limited for numerous reasons, among them: there is no central archive of geostationary data for all international satellites, full temporal and spatial resolution data are voluminous, and diverse calibration and navigation formats encumber the uniform processing needed for multi-satellite climate studies. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project set the stage for overcoming these issues by archiving a subset of the full resolution geostationary data at approx.10 km resolution at 3 hourly intervals since 1983. Recent efforts at NOAA s National Climatic Data Center to provide convenient access to these data include remapping the data to a standard map projection, recalibrating the data to optimize temporal homogeneity, extending the record of observations back to 1980, and reformatting the data for broad public distribution. The Gridded Satellite (GridSat) dataset includes observations from the visible, infrared window, and infrared water vapor channels. Data are stored in the netCDF format using standards that permit a wide variety of tools and libraries to quickly and easily process the data. A novel data layering approach, together with appropriate satellite and file metadata, allows users to access GridSat data at varying levels of complexity based on their needs. The result is a climate data record already in use by the meteorological community. Examples include reanalysis of tropical cyclones, studies of global precipitation, and detection and tracking of the intertropical convergence zone.

  15. Mature systems for small satellite missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, A. Kim; Barrington-Brown, A. James; Gardner, Stephen J.

    1996-11-01

    Over the past several years Satellites International has developed an integrated suite of satellite sub-systems and small satellite buses. The sub-systems include S-band communications, attitude sensing and control, power conversion and distribution, and on-board data handling. They are inherently modular and readily adaptable to different satellite configurations, a concept known as semi-standardisation. This concept has been adopted by two generic low-cost buses: MicroSIL for satellites in the mass range 40-80kg; and MiniSIL for satellites in the range 100-500kg. Their architecture is based on the semi-standard sub-systems, but easily modified to utilise sub-systems from other manufacturers. They can support all stabilisation methods including spinning, 3-axis control and gravity gradient and are adaptable to a wide variety of missions including Earth resources, scientific, communications and technology demonstration. The Company also manufactures a range of low cost ground support equipment and complete ground stations to complement the space-borne systems.

  16. Astrometric observations of the faint satellites of Jupiter during the 1975 - 1976 opposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, J. D.; Shelus, P. J.; Benedict, G. F.

    1979-01-01

    The series of astrometric observations of the satellites of the trans-martian planets re-established at the McDonald Observatory in 1972 is continued. The positions deduced from photographic observations of the jovian system obtained during the 1975-76 opposition are presented together with the discovery positions of four asteroids found on these plates.

  17. The ionosphere, radio navigation, and global navigation satellite systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Kintner; Brent M. Ledvina

    2005-01-01

    This article is a review of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) for space scientists who are interested in how GNSS signals and observables can be used to understand ionospheric dynamics and, conversely, how ionospheric dynamics affect the operational capabilities of GNSS receivers. The most common form of GNSS is the Global Positioning System (GPS); we will first review its operating

  18. Europe's communications satellite system takes shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-10-01

    Europe's current satellite system and impending additions are discussed, with emphasis on improvements in Europe's communications service. The first transponder for the ECS has been recently delivered from AEG-Telefunken to the French space flight center for the assembly of the AEG solar generator and integration into the satellite body. The communications satellite will be stationed at a height of 36,000 km in the spring of 1982, which should result in 24,500 new telephone connections and two new television channels for the people of Europe.

  19. A glimpse at the GOCE satellite gravity gradient observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, P. N. A. M.

    2011-02-01

    Since 30 September 2009, following the launch and in-orbit testing of the most sophisticated gravity mission ever built, the European Space Agency (ESA) GOCE satellite is in ‘measurement mode’, providing continuous time series of satellite gravity gradient (SGG) observations and GPS satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) observations. The availability of GPS SST observations allows the precise reconstruction of the GOCE position and thus the precise geolocation of the SGG observations. The SGG observations are based on the differences between observations taken by pairs of accelerometers, which need to be corrected first by applying a so-called calibration matrix and second by subtracting rotational terms (centrifugal and angular accelerations).The GOCE mission is designed to provide SGG observations that are most precise in a bandwidth ranging from 0.005 to 0.1 Hz, equivalent to spatial scales along the satellite flight path of about 80-1600 km. Therefore, the SGG observations need to be bandpass filtered. Two months of GOCE SGG observations covering November and December 2009 (first release by ESA) have been processed and analyzed in the spatial domain by comparison with gradients predicted with state-of-the-art gravity field models (EIGEN-5C and ITG-Grace2010s). The ITG-Grace2010s model displays a high level of consistency with the four SGG components that are designed to be observed precisely, except for the cross-track diagonal component at the low frequency end of the measurement bandwidth (close to 0.005 Hz) for which the differences are about a factor 3 higher. For the EIGEN-5C model, a similar consistency is observed, except for geographical areas where this prior model is considered to be less accurate, such as the Himalayan and Andes mountain ranges, the Indonesian Archipelago and Antarctica. The root-mean-square (RMS) of differences between 1 Hz GOCE SGG observations and those predicted by the prior models is below the signal size for frequencies up to at least 0.04 Hz, indicating the high quality of these observations, and also the models, over a large part of the measurement bandwidth.

  20. Simultaneous ground-satellite observations of structured Pc 1 pulsations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Erlandson; K. Mursula; T. Bösinger

    1996-01-01

    Structured Pc 1 pulsations are investigated using simultaneous multipoint ground-satellite observations recorded on September 10, 1986, during Viking orbit 1103. The multipoint Pc 1 observations were acquired using the Viking magnetic field experiment at 13,550 km altitude from L=5.1 to 5.5 and three Finnish ground stations at Rovaniemi, Ivalo, and Kilpisjärvi. These stations are all located within 30 min magnetic

  1. Influence of ground scattering on satellite auroral observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, P. B.; Anger, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    Satellite observations of the optical emission features in the aurora and nighttime airglow are usually contaminated by scattering from clouds and snow. It is shown here that this contamination can easily be removed when the emission layer is viewed against a surface of known albedo. The effect of the earth's curvature, parallax, and varying image angle are found to be significant but can be removed from the observation.

  2. Icy Galilean Satellite UV Observations by New Horizons and HST

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. D. Retherford; J. R. Spencer; G. R. Gladstone; S. A. Stern; J. Saur; D. F. Strobel; D. C. Slater; A. J. Steffl; J. W. Parker; M. Versteeg; M. W. Davis; H. Throop; L. A. Young

    2007-01-01

    The New Horizons (NH) spacecraft observed the icy Galilean satellites with the Alice instrument during the Jupiter flyby in spring of 2007. Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) far-ultraviolet images of Europa and Ganymede complement the Alice UV spectroscopy at this time. Europa and Ganymede OI 130.4 nm and 135.6 nm emissions were detected. Alice observed Ganymede in

  3. A land mobile satellite data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kent, John D. B.

    1990-01-01

    The Telesat Mobile Incorporated (TMI) Mobile Data System (MDS) was developed to apply satellite technology to the transportation industry's requirement for a fleet management system. It will provide two-way messaging and automatic position reporting capabilities between dispatch centers and customers' fleets of trucks. The design was based on the Inmarsat L-Band space segment with system link parameters and margins adjusted to meet the land mobile satellite channel characteristics. The system interfaces with the Teleglobe Des Laurentides earth station at Weir, Quebec. The signaling protocols were derived from the Inmarsat Standard C packet signalling system with unique trucking requirements incorporated where necessary.

  4. Measurement based satellite to outdoor channel modeling for multiple satellite systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Milojevic; Martin Haardt; Albert Heuberger

    2008-01-01

    In this contribution we present the results of a study on satellite to outdoor channel modeling for satellite systems with multiple satellites. Our model for several satellites is based on a first order Markov channel state model for joint processes. The probability density function (PDF) of the signal amplitude within each state is fitted to the Loo distribution. The parameters

  5. REGENERATIVE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS FOR SATELLITES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asbjørn Strand; Helge Weydahl

    Next generation telecommunication satellites will demand increasingly more power. Power levels of 30 kW or more are foreseen for the next 10 years. Battery technology that can sustain 30 kW for eclipse lengths of up to 72 minutes will represent a major impact on the total mass of the satellite, even with new Li-ion battery technologies. Regenerative fuel cell systems

  6. A Smart Sensor Web for Ocean Observation: Integrated Acoustics, Satellite Networking, and Predictive Modeling

    E-print Network

    Arabshahi, Payman

    navigation and communication network; and (e) a predictive model via the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS JPL/UCLA Joint Institute for Regional Earth System Science and Eng., University of California, LosA Smart Sensor Web for Ocean Observation: Integrated Acoustics, Satellite Networking

  7. A Metric to Evaluate Mobile Satellite Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Elizabeth L.

    1997-01-01

    The concept of a "cost per billable minute" methodology to analyze mobile satellite systems is reviewed. Certain assumptions, notably those about the marketplace and regulatory policies, may need to be revisited. Fading and power control assumptions need to be tested. Overall, the metric would seem to have value in the design phase of a system and for comparisons between and among alternative systems.

  8. Testing Microwave Landing Systems With Satellite Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiriazes, John J.

    1990-01-01

    Less time and equipment needed to perform tests. Satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS) measures accuracy of microwave scanning-beam landing system (MSBLS) at airports used to support Shuttle landings. Provides time and three-dimensional information on position and velocity with unprecedented accuracy. Useful for testing other electronic navigation aids like LORAN, TACAN and microwave landing systems (MLS).

  9. Critical areas: Satellite power systems concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Critical Areas are defined and discussed in the various areas pertinent to satellite power systems. The presentation is grouped into five areas (General, Space Systems, Solar Energy Conversion, Microwave Systems, and Environment/Ecology) with a sixth area (Power Relay) considered separately in an appendix. Areas for Future Consideration as critical areas are discussed in a second appendix.

  10. Observations of artificially produced scintillations using satellite transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, J. H.; Fritz, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The ionospheric modification experiment, utilizing a high-powered transmitter, provides an opportunity to study ionospheric irregularities under relatively known conditions. The irregularities were studied by means of transionospheric signals from the polar-orbiting satellite ESSA 8 transmitting at 137 MHz. These observations show that scintillations occur when the satellite to ground station geometry is such that the ray from the satellite passes through the region in the ionosphere under modification. In general, a cut across the illuminated volume is obtained; thus an active region of about 100 km in diameter is indicated. For the most part, the artificial scintillations appear to be similar to those obtained from naturally occurring irregularities, but a systematic change from 3 to 1 sec in the fluctuation period is usually observed as the satellite traverses from the northern to the southern portions of the active region. The change in period appears to be produced by a systematic change in irregularity scale size from about 4 to about 1 km.

  11. Science Report: Atmosphere A Comparison of Satellite-Based Cloud Observations to GLOBE Cloud Observations using the MODIS Cloud Product

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matt Rogers; Graeme Stephens

    GLOBE student observations of cloud type are compared to coincident satellite-derived observations, using MODIS Cloud Product data from the EOS-PM satellite. Cloud type is computed using satellite observed cloud top pressure and cloud optical thickness in the framework of the ISCCP cloud classification scheme (Rossow and Schiffer, 1991.) Common errors and biases in the surface based observations are explored, with

  12. Solar power satellite, system definition study. Part 2, volume 3: SPS satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The differences in approach to solar energy conversion by solar cells and thermal engine systems are examined. Systems requirements for the solar power satellite (SPS) are given along with a description of the primary subsystems. Trades leading to exact configuration selection, for example, selection of the Rankine cycle operating temperatures are explained, and two satellite configurations are discussed.

  13. Future satellite systems - Market demand assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiner, P. S.

    1981-01-01

    During 1979-80, a market study was performed regarding the future total demand for communications services, and satellite transmission service at the 4/6 GHz, 12/14 GHz, and 20/30 GHz frequencies. Included in the study were a variety of communications traffic characteristics as well as projections of the cost of C and Ku band satellite systems through the year 2000. In connection with the considered study, a total of 15 major study tasks and subtasks were undertaken and were all interrelated in various ways. The telecommunications service forecasts were concerned with a total of 21 data services, 5 voice services, and 5 video services. The traffic volumes within the U.S. for the three basic services were projected for three time periods. It is found that the fixed frequency allocation for domestic satellites combined with potential interference from adjacent satellites means a near term lack of orbital positions above the U.S.

  14. Appropriate satellite systems for rural telecommunications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickelson, R. L.

    In order to provide a minimum, basic telecommunications service to as large a segment of the unserved rural population as possible, the system objective should be to place one or a few telephone instruments in as many localities as possible, instead of placing a larger number of subscriber instruments in fewer localities. A high value of satellite figure of merit (G/T) combined with high transponder gain would facilitate the utilization of low transmit power from the earth station; it is claimed that this would be the key to the success of an operational rural telecommunications service via satellite. It is noted that demand assigned SCPC transmission techniques are ideally suited for this service. It is concluded that, for satellite communications to provide minimum basic rural telephone service within a reasonable time span, it will be necessary to employ properly designed high-transfer-gain satellites with large production runs of small low-cost earth stations.

  15. Land-mobile satellite communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Tsun-Yee (Inventor); Rafferty, William (Inventor); Dessouky, Khaled I. (Inventor); Wang, Charles C. (Inventor); Cheng, Unjeng (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A satellite communications system includes an orbiting communications satellite for relaying communications to and from a plurality of ground stations, and a network management center for making connections via the satellite between the ground stations in response to connection requests received via the satellite from the ground stations, the network management center being configured to provide both open-end service and closed-end service. The network management center of one embodiment is configured to provides both types of service according to a predefined channel access protocol that enables the ground stations to request the type of service desired. The channel access protocol may be configured to adaptively allocate channels to open-end service and closed-end service according to changes in the traffic pattern and include a free-access tree algorithm that coordinates collision resolution among the ground stations.

  16. Satellite Diversity Gain Over The LEOS Channel, Based CDMA Systems

    E-print Network

    Haddadi, Hamed

    proposed as the multiple access technique for a number of mobile satellite communication systemsSatellite Diversity Gain Over The LEOS Channel, Based CDMA Systems Tarek Attia, Peter Sweeney: There is a trend for mobile satellite system architectures aimed at the deployment of multi-satellite

  17. ECC Ozonesonde Reliability, Observations, and Comparisons with Satellite Ozone Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, F. J.; Northam, E. T.; Ross, E. D.; Schauer, A. G.; Gerlach, John C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) ozone instruments depend on the quality of care exercised in their pre-flight preparation. The ozone-measuring project conducted at Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility uses a number of mechanisms designed to inspect the ECC for anomalies that may interfere with the reception of valid ozone profiles. Complete electronic testing of the instrument, individually and when coupled to its radiosonde has led to exceptional monitoring of ozone for detecting long-term atmospheric changes. A number of factors are considered when preparing an ECC instrument for flight. These basically are specific calibrations of pump efficiency, volumetric flow rate, temperature of the air entering the pump, and background current. The concentration of the potassium iodide solution is also important. Wallops is the only site using a UV photometer (Dasibi) to compare ECC ozone output at various concentrations of ozone that allows adjustment to be made to offsets that may appear in the balloon-borne instrument prior to release. All of the above procedures allow identification of potential problems before release of the ECC instrument. Procedures followed at Wallops also are employed in Brazil, and Ascension Island where NASA has cooperative agreements in place to obtain ozonesondes data. All ECC instruments are prepared 3-4 weeks prior to the day of observation. We will briefly describe the instrumental tests employed. These tests have included simultaneous dual observations to compare the effect of different solution concentrations, comparison of sensors of different manufacturers, and comparisons with surface- and space-based instrumentation such as the Dobson Spectrophotometer and satellites. Vertical profiles of ozone from Arctic, mid-latitudes, and Antarctica will be discussed. Although not unusual, the data reveals ozone structure that correlate well with typical atmospheric temperatures and possibly relative humidity. Finally, vertical ozone distribution, compared with remotely measured ozone from lidar and satellite, will be discussed. Specific comparisons between ECC and HALOE measurements, integrated ECC total ozone overburden with the EP-TOMS and the Dobson, as well as comparisons with lidar are discussed. Results show agreement and some disagreement between the in situ measurements of the ECC and the remote instruments. We postulate reasons for the differences, or biases, which in spite of the excellent ECC quality control during pre-flight preparation and data analysis processes, may be due to uncertainties in both measuring systems.

  18. Introduction to Global Navigation Satellite System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreau, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the fundamentals of satellite navigation, and specifically how GPS works. It presents an overview and status of Global Positioning System, for both the current GPS, and plans to modernize it in the future. There is also a overview and status of other Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), specifically GLONASS, Galileo, and QZSS. There is also a review of Satellite based time transfer techniques. The topic is of interest to the Time and Frequency Community, because the Global Positioning system has become the primary system for distributing Time and frequency globally, and because it allows users to synchronize clocks and calibrate and control oscillators in any location that has a GPS antenna.

  19. Planning for Agile Earth Observation Satellites Johannes Aldinger and Johannes Lohr

    E-print Network

    Nebel, Bernhard

    Planning for Agile Earth Observation Satellites Johannes Aldinger and Johannes L¨ohr Albert}@informatik.uni-freiburg.de Abstract Agile Earth observation satellites are satellites orbiting Earth with the purpose to gather information of the Earth's surface by slewing the satellite toward regions of interest. Constraints arise

  20. On the Development of Multi-Scale Cumulus Ensemble Models with High-Resolution Satellite Radiance Observations and Multi-Frequency Satellite Simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, T.; Tao, W.; Chern, J.; Zeng, X.; Li, X.; Shi, J.; Lang, S.; Shen, B.

    2008-05-01

    A comprehensive unified satellite simulator, Goddard Satellite Data Simulation Unit (SDSU), is being developed at the Goddard Mesoscale Dynamics and Modeling Group. The Goddard SDSU is the end-to-end multi satellite simulator unit that can compute satellite-consistent radiance or backscattering signals from visible to microwave spectrum ranges based upon the simulated atmosphere and condensates consistent to the microphysics within the cumulus ensemble models. These simulated radiances and backscattering can be directly compared with the high-resolution satellite direct observations from TRMM satellite and A-Train satellites in order to establish the satellite-based cloud-parameterization evaluation framework. This presentation introduces applications of the Goddard SDSU and a simulator-based evaluation framework for the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model and Goddard Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF). This new evaluation utilizes novel statistics of multi- frequency radiance and backscattering signals observed from the TRMM and A-Train constellations of satellites in order to evaluate cloud-precipitation types and microphysics in these modeling systems. To this end, key issues of model biases and model improvement will be discussed.

  1. Large Scale Surface Radiation Budget from Satellite Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinker, R. T.

    1995-01-01

    During the current reporting period, the focus of our work was on preparing and testing an improved version of our Surface Radiation Budget algorithm for processing the ISCCP D1 data routinely at the SRB Satellite Data Analysis Center (SDAC) at NASA Langley Research Center. The major issues addressed are related to gap filling and to testing whether observations made from ERBE could be used to improve current procedures of converting narrowband observations, as available from ISCCP, into broadband observations at the TOA. The criteria for selecting the optimal version are to be based on results of intercomparison with ground truth.

  2. Al Gore attends Fall Meeting session on Earth observing satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    2011-12-01

    Former U.S. vice president Al Gore, making unscheduled remarks at an AGU Fall Meeting session, said, “The reason you see so many pictures” of the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) satellite at this session is “that it already has been built.” However, “because one of its primary missions was to help document global warming, it was canceled. So for those who are interested in struggling against political influence,” Gore said, “the benefits have been documented well here.” Gore made his comments after the third oral presentation at the 8 December session entitled “Earth Observations From the L1 (Lagrangian Point No. 1),” which focused on the capabilities of and progress on refurbishing DSCOVR. The satellite, formerly called Triana, had been proposed by Gore in 1998 to collect climate data. Although Triana was built, it was never launched: Congress mandated that before the satellite could be sent into space the National Academies of Science needed to confirm that the science it would be doing was worthwhile. By the time the scientific validation was complete, the satellite “was no longer compatible with the space shuttle manifest,” Robert C. Smith, program manager for strategic integration at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, told Eos.

  3. Satellite microwave SST observations of transequatorial tropical instability waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dudley B. Chelton; Frank J. Wentz; Chelle L. Gentemann; Roland A. de Szoeke; Michael G. Schlax

    2000-01-01

    Satellite measurements of sea-surface temper- ature (SST) by the TRMM Microwave Imager reveal pre- viously unreported features of tropical instability waves (TIWs). In the Pacic, TIW-related variability is observed from the eastern boundary to at least 160E. Cusp-shaped distortions of SST fronts and associated trains of anticy- clonic vortices both north and south of the equator prop- agate westward at

  4. FAST satellite wave observations in the AKR source region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Ergun; C. W. Carlson; J. P. McFadden; F. S. Mozer; G. T. Delory; W. Peria; C. C. Chaston; M. Temerin; R. Elphic; R. Strangeway; R. Pfaff; C. A. Cattell; D. Klumpar; E. Shelly; W. Peterson; E. Moebius; L. Kistler

    1998-01-01

    The Fast Auroral SnapshoT (FAST) satellite has made observations in the Auroral Kilometric Radiation (AKR) source region with unprecedented frequency and time resolution. We confirm the AKR source is in a density depleted cavity and present examples in which cold electrons appeared to have been nearly evacuated (nhot>ncold). Electron distributions were depleted at low-energies and up-going ion beams were always

  5. Time-periodic variations in stratospheric ozone from satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Pi-Huan; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Schaffner, S.; Woodbury, G. E.

    1989-01-01

    The time-periodic variations in stratospheric zonal mean ozone number density are examined with emphasis on annual and semi-annual oscillations. The data base for this analysis is the ozone observation from the SAGE II satellite instrument. A multiple linear regression method is adopted for the analysis. The results show that the amplitudes and phases of the time-periodic ozone variations are functions of altitude and latitude.

  6. Data distribution satellite system architecture concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Kent M.; Jorasch, Ronald E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a future communications satellite system architecture concept called the Data Distribution Satellite (DDS). The DDS is envisioned as a new system to be used as an adjunct to TDRS/TDAS for distributing new NASA science data throughout the U.S. as well as internationally. The DDS would also provide networking capability for interchange of science database files among science users and NASA archive depositories. Experimenters would be able to access and control their experimental packages remotely, relieving astronaut workload. This paper gives a conceptual system design based on year 1995 technology. Features of the design include use of Ku and Ka-bands, use of fixed spot beams, 2 Gb/s throughput, and on-board demodulation and switching. The satellite dry mass is 1,300 kg and end-of-life power is 4 kW.

  7. Laser satellite power systems: concepts and issues

    SciTech Connect

    Walbridge, E.W.

    1982-01-01

    A laser satellite power system (SPS) converts solar power captured by earth-orbiting satellites into electrical power on the earth's surface, the satellite-to-ground transmission of power being effected by a laser beam. The laser SPS is an alternative to the microwave SPS. Lasers and how they work are described, as are the types of lasers - electric discharge, direct and indirect solar pumped, free electron, and closed-cycle chemical - that are candidates for application in a laser SPS. The advantages of a laser SPS over the microwave alternative are pointed out. One such advantage is that, for the same power delivered to the utility busbar, land requirements for a laser system are much smaller (by a factor of 21) than those for microwave system. The four laser SPS concepts that have been presented in the literature are described and commented on. Finally key issues for further laser SPS research are discussed.

  8. Laser satellite power systems - Concepts and issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walbridge, E. W.

    A laser satellite power system (SPS) converts solar power captured by Earth-orbiting satellites into electrical power on the Earth's surface, the satellite-to-ground transmission of power being effected by a laser beam. The laser SPS is an alternative to the microwave SPS. Lasers and how they work are described, as are the types of lasers - electric discharge, direct and indirect solar pumped, free electron, and closed-cycle chemical - that are candidates for application in a laser SPS. The advantages of a laser SPS over the microwave alternative are pointed out. One such advantage is that, for the same power delivered to the utility busbar, land requirements for a laser system are much smaller (by a factor of 21) than those for a microwave system. The four laser SPS concepts that have been presented in the literature are described and commented on. Finally key issues for further laser SPS research are discussed.

  9. Observing system simulation experiments to evaluate the expected added-value of a new generation IASI satellite instrument for lower tropospheric ozone analyses and forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauphin, Pierre; Sellitto, Pasquale; Dufour, Gaëlle; Coman, Adriana; Forêt, Gilles; Eremenko, Maxim; Cuesta, Juan; Gaubert, Benjamin; Beekmann, Matthias; Peuch, Vincent-Henri; Flaud, Jean-Marie

    2013-04-01

    Tropospheric ozone can adversely impact human health, climate and the ecosystem. Monitoring and legislation are implemented to regulate its concentrations. Air quality (AQ) monitoring from space starts to be regarded as a useful tool to complement with in situ measurements and regional chemical transport models (rCTM) to draw a more comprehensive picture of pollution processes. Important progresses in the field of tropospheric ozone sounding from space have been accomplished during the last decade, especially with thermal infrared (TIR) space-borne instruments. It is now possible to observe tropospheric ozone concentrations from space with a reasonable accuracy. However, limitations remain with the current observation systems in particular to observe ozone in the lowermost troposphere. IASI-NG, that will be part of the EPS-SG (EUMETSAT Polar System-Second Generation) programme, is expected to improve the observation capabilities of AQ in terms of ozone in the lower troposphere. Observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) are powerful tools to quantify the added-value of future missions. An OSSE is composed of different elements: (1) one reference atmosphere, usually given by model simulations (the Nature Run); (2) an optimized observation simulator, providing the pseudo-observations; (3) an independent description of the atmosphere (the Control Run); (4) an assimilation system, providing the Assimilation Run. We conduct relative OSSEs, aimed at comparing the contribution of one possible configuration of IASI-NG (IASI-NG/IRS2) and the present IASI instrument, used as a baseline. The spectral resolution and the radiometric noise in the ozone spectral region, for IASI-NG/IRS2, are twice better than for IASI. IASI-NG/IRS2 pseudo-observations are processed using a comprehensive simulator based on the radiative transfer model KOPRA and the KOPRAFIT inversion module. The Nature Run is given by the CTM MOCAGE model, the Control Run is produced with the CHIMERE CTM, and the assimilation system is based on a Local Ensemble Kalman Filter. The objective is to assess the potential improvement bring by IASI-NG compared to IASI to constrain model simulations. The gain of these new observations to improve ozone analysis (and forecast) are quantified especially in the planetary boundary layer for the European domain.

  10. Domestic mobile satellite systems in North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wachira, Muya

    1990-01-01

    Telest Mobile Inc. (TMI) and the American Mobile Satellite Corporation (AMSC) are authorized to provide mobile satellite services (MSS) in Canada and the United States respectively. They are developing compatible systems and are undertaking joint specification and procurement of spacecraft and ground segment with the aim of operational systems by late 1993. Early entry (phase 1) mobile data services are offered in 1990 using space segment capacity leased from Inmarsat. Here, an overview is given of these domestic MSS with an emphasis on the TMI component of the MSAT systen.

  11. Optical communication systems for satellite applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suter, Joseph J.

    1999-07-01

    In conventional satellites, the RF and microwave signal transmissions between electronic modules are accomplished using waveguide or coaxial lines. Advances in fiber-optic technology have made it possible to modulate low-noise RF and microwave signal on fiber-optic distribution lines, resulting in weight and space savings. These optical communication systems enable intrasatellite communications among the electronic modules like transmitters, receivers, and clocks. This paper summarizes findings from several studies on the use of fiber-optic lines for RF/microwave signal transmission on-board satellites. It will also update some experimental results of prototype systems developed previously for intrasatellite signal distribution.

  12. ETS-VI multibeam satellite communications systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Makoto; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Ohtomo, Isao

    1989-10-01

    The fixed and mobile satellite communications systems of the Japanese Engineering Test Satellite-VI (ETS-VI) are described. The system requirements are outlined along with the system configuration. The ETS-VI multibeam system employs three frequency bands. When used for Ka-band fixed communications, it covers the Japanese main islands with thirteen 0.3-degree-wide spot beam. Four of the beams are active for ETS-VI. When used for S-band mobile communications, five beams cover the area within 200 nautical miles from the Japanese coast. The C-band beam for fixed communications covers the central area of the Japanese main islands with a single beam. The onboard antenna system is described along with the transponders and their associated onboard systems. A discussion of the system technology follows, covering the TDMA transmisssion system, the relay function, rainfall compensation, and the antenna and propagation performance.

  13. Spread spectrum synchronization for a LEO personal communications satellite system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Dodds; M. Moher

    1995-01-01

    This paper investigates required signal structure and receiver code synchronization techniques for satellite based CDMA personal communications systems. A signal structure is proposed in which different CDMA codes are used to differentiate each satellite (as in the GPS system) and different phases of one code (as in the IS-95 standard) to differentiate spot beams on one satellite. Due to satellite

  14. Propagation effects on satellite systems at frequencies below 10 GHz: A handbook for satellite systems design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warren L. Flock

    1987-01-01

    Frequencies below 10 GHz continue to be used for a large portion of satellite service, and new applications, including mobile satellite service and the global positioning system, use frequencies below 10 GHz. As frequency decreases below 10 GHz, attenuation due to precipitation and gases decreases and ionospheric effects increase. Thus the ionosphere, which can be largely neglected above 10 GHz,

  15. The 'Geostar' radio determination satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oneill, G. K.

    1986-05-01

    The proposed Geostar system which links portable and mobile terminals directly through satellite relays to a ground-based computer is capable of providing the following services in a variety of transportation modes: (1) navigational positioning, (2) terrain warning to pilots and hazard warning to mariners, (3) approach guidance for aircraft and (4) two-way digital message service. Able to operate in a supplementary or advisory mode, the Geostar system combines the existing technologies of orbital satellites, computers and integrated circuits. It consists of the following: (1) a ground station with a computer, two or more satellites at fixed locations in earth orbit, and terminals carried by aircraft, surface vehicles, etc. Geostar's practical implications are discussed as well as the fitting of its necessary radio frequencies in the ITU table of allocations.

  16. The investigation of tethered satellite system dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, E.

    1985-01-01

    Progress in tethered satellite system dynamics research is reported. A retrieval rate control law with no angular feedback to investigate the system's dynamic response was studied. The initial conditions for the computer code which simulates the satellite's rotational dynamics were extended to a generic orbit. The model of the satellite thrusters was modified to simulate a pulsed thrust, by making the SKYHOOK integrator suitable for dealing with delta functions without loosing computational efficiency. Tether breaks were simulated with the high resolution computer code SLACK3. Shuttle's maneuvers were tested. The electric potential around a severed conductive tether with insulator, in the case of a tether breakage at 20 km from the Shuttle, was computed. The electrodynamic hazards due to the breakage of the TSS electrodynamic tether in a plasma are evaluated.

  17. Advances towards the operational validation of satellite sea surface skin temperature observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Donlon; W. J. Emery; I. S. Robinson

    1998-01-01

    Deploying infrared radiometers at sea is difficult due to the harsh environmental conditions often encountered and high costs associated with many sea-going radiometer systems. This has prevented the operational collection of a global in situ sea surface skin temperature (SSST) data set forcing many satellite validation exercises to rely on subsurface “bulk” sea surface temperature (BSST) observations. We describe a

  18. High resolution earth observation satellites and services in the next decade a European perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, Gunter; Dech, Stefan

    2005-07-01

    Projects to use very high resolution optical satellite sensor data started in the late 90s and are believed to be the major driver for the commercialisation of earth observation. The global political security situation and updated legislative frameworks created new opportunities for high resolution, dual use satellite systems. In addition to new optical sensors, very high resolution synthetic aperture radars will become in the next few years an important component in the imaging satellite fleet. The paper will review the development in this domain so far, and give perspectives on future emerging markets and opportunities. With dual-use satellite initiatives and new political frameworks agreed between the European Commission and the European Space Agency (ESA), the European market becomes very attractive for both service suppliers and customers. The political focus on "Global Monitoring for Environment and Security" (GMES) and the "European Defence and Security Policy" drive and amplify this demand which ranges from low resolution climate monitoring to very high resolution reconnaissance tasks. In order to create an operational and sustainable GMES in Europe by 2007, the European infrastructure need to be adapted and extended. This includes the ESA SENTINEL and OXYGEN programmes, aiming for a fleet of earth observation satellites and an open and operational earth observation ground segment. The harmonisation of national and regional geographic information is driven by the European Commission's INSPIRE programme. The necessary satellite capacity to complement existing systems in the delivery of space based data required for GMES is currently under definition. Embedded in a market with global competition and in the global political framework of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems, European companies, agencies and research institutions are now contributing to this joint undertaking. The paper addresses the chances, risks and options for the future.

  19. Correction of real-time satellite precipitation with satellite soil moisture observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, W.; Pan, M.; Wanders, N.; Wood, E. F.

    2015-06-01

    Rainfall and soil moisture are two key elements in modeling the interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere. Accurate and high-resolution real-time precipitation is crucial for monitoring and predicting the on-set of floods, and allows for alert and warning before the impact becomes a disaster. Assimilation of remote sensing data into a flood-forecasting model has the potential to improve monitoring accuracy. Space-borne microwave observations are especially interesting because of their sensitivity to surface soil moisture and its change. In this study, we assimilate satellite soil moisture retrievals using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface model, and a dynamic assimilation technique, a particle filter, to adjust the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) real-time precipitation estimates. We compare updated precipitation with real-time precipitation before and after adjustment and with NLDAS gauge-radar observations. Results show that satellite soil moisture retrievals provide additional information by correcting errors in rainfall bias. High accuracy soil moisture retrievals, when merged with precipitation, generally increase both rainfall frequency and intensity, and are most effective in the correction of rainfall under dry to normal surface condition while limited/negative improvement is seen over wet/saturated surfaces. Errors from soil moisture, mixed among the real signal, may generate a false rainfall signal approximately 2 mm day-1 and thus lower the precipitation accuracy after adjustment.

  20. Observational and Dynamical Wave Climatologies. VOS vs Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorieva, Victoria; Badulin, Sergei; Chernyshova, Anna

    2013-04-01

    The understanding physics of wind-driven waves is crucially important for fundamental science and practical applications. This is why experimental efforts are targeted at both getting reliable information on sea state and elaborating effective tools of the sea wave forecasting. The global Visual Wave Observations and satellite data from the GLOBWAVE project of the European Space Agency are analyzed in the context of these two viewpoints. Within the first "observational" aspect we re-analyze conventional climatologies of all basic wave parameters for the last decades [5]. An alternative "dynamical" climatology is introduced as a tool of prediction of dynamical features of sea waves on global scales. The features of wave dynamics are studied in terms of one-parametric dependencies of wave heights on wave periods following the theoretical concept of self-similar wind-driven seas [3, 1, 4] and recently proposed approach to analysis of Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) data [2]. Traditional "observational" climatologies based on VOS and satellite data collections demonstrate extremely consistent pictures for significant wave heights and dominant periods. On the other hand, collocated satellite and VOS data show significant differences in wave heights, wind speeds and, especially, in wave periods. Uncertainties of visual wave observations can explain these differences only partially. We see the key reason of this inconsistency in the methods of satellite data processing which are based on formal application of data interpolation methods rather than on up-to-date physics of wind-driven waves. The problem is considered within the alternative climatology approach where dynamical criteria of wave height-to-period linkage are used for retrieving wave periods and constructing physically consistent dynamical climatology. The key dynamical parameter - exponent R of one-parametric dependence Hs ~ TR shows dramatically less pronounced latitudinal dependence as compared to observed Hs and T of conventional climatology in both satellite and VOS data collections. It can be treated as an effect of interaction of wind-driven seas and swell on global scales as it was stated in [2]. Further study combining the alternative and conventional climatologies can help to detail this important dynamical effect of global wave dynamics. The progress in satellite data processing and their physical interpretation is of great value for such study. The work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research grant 11-05-01114-a and the Russian government contracts No.11.G34.31.0035, No.11.G34.31.0078. References [1] S. I. Badulin, A. V. Babanin, D. Resio, and V. Zakharov. Weakly turbulent laws of wind-wave growth. J. Fluid Mech., 591:339-378, 2007. [2] S. I. Badulin and Grigorieva V. G. On discriminating swell and wind-driven seas in voluntary observing ship data. J. Geophys. Res., 117(C00J29), 2012. [3] S. I. Badulin, A. N. Pushkarev, D. Resio, and V. E. Zakharov. Self-similarity of wind-driven seas. Nonl. Proc. Geophys., 12:891-946, 2005. [4] E. Gagnaire-Renou, M. Benoit, and S. I. Badulin. On weakly turbulent scaling of wind sea in simulations of fetch-limited growth. J. Fluid Mech., 669:178-213, 2011. [5] S. K. Gulev, V. Grigorieva, A. Sterl, and D. Woolf. Assessment for the reliability of wave observations from voluntary observing ships: insights from the validation of a global wind wave climatology based on voluntary observing ship data. J. Geophys. Res. - Oceans, 108(C7):3236, doi:10,1029/2002JC001437, 2003.

  1. Interpretation of satellite-observed thunderstorm anvil structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, G. M.; Schotz, S.; Blackmer, R. H.; Szejwach, G.

    1982-01-01

    The radiative characteristics of an anvil plume sensed by satellite radiometers are studied to discern the reason for an observed 'V' pattern of colder temperatures and a corresponding internal warm region. The measured black body temperature is affected by the ice water content and particle distributions in the cloud layer. Attention is given to 'V' anvil structure examined by Haynesfield et al. (1979). The GOES satellite IR data are treated with a plane parallel geometric radiative transfer model and a particle trajectory model is used to simulate ice particle concentrations downwind from a strongly divergent cloud top. Output from the two models indicate the 'V' pattern arises from divergence in the storm anvil. The particle concentration was elevated within the V-shaped region, causing lower temperatures in the V arms. The V is produced by strong upper level flow as well as strong mass and moisture divergence in the storm outflow.

  2. Improving a Spectral Bin Microphysical Scheme Using TRMM Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xiaowen; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Matsui, Toshihisa; Liu, Chuntao; Masunaga, Hirohiko

    2010-01-01

    Comparisons between cloud model simulations and observations are crucial in validating model performance and improving physical processes represented in the mod Tel.hese modeled physical processes are idealized representations and almost always have large rooms for improvements. In this study, we use data from two different sensors onboard TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission) satellite to improve the microphysical scheme in the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model. TRMM observed mature-stage squall lines during late spring, early summer in central US over a 9-year period are compiled and compared with a case simulation by GCE model. A unique aspect of the GCE model is that it has a state-of-the-art spectral bin microphysical scheme, which uses 33 different bins to represent particle size distribution of each of the seven hydrometeor species. A forward radiative transfer model calculates TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) reflectivity and TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) 85 GHz brightness temperatures from simulated particle size distributions. Comparisons between model outputs and observations reveal that the model overestimates sizes of snow/aggregates in the stratiform region of the squall line. After adjusting temperature-dependent collection coefficients among ice-phase particles, PR comparisons become good while TMI comparisons worsen. Further investigations show that the partitioning between graupel (a high-density form of aggregate), and snow (a low-density form of aggregate) needs to be adjusted in order to have good comparisons in both PR reflectivity and TMI brightness temperature. This study shows that long-term satellite observations, especially those with multiple sensors, can be very useful in constraining model microphysics. It is also the first study in validating and improving a sophisticated spectral bin microphysical scheme according to long-term satellite observations.

  3. Satellite observations of air quality of megacities in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, N.; Valks, P.; Smedt, I. D.; Loyola, D.; Roozendael, M. V.; Zhou, B.; Zimmer, W.

    2012-04-01

    In the last three decades, air pollution has become a major environmental issue in metropolitan areas of China as a consequence of fast industrialization and urbanization, and the rapid increase of the vehicle ownership. Now in China there are 3 megacities (Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou) in existence. A recent study of Asian megacities showed that they cover less than 2% of the land area, hold more than 30% of the population and produce about 10% of the anthropogenic gas and aerosol emissions. Therefore, it is important to qualify and understand current air pollution distribution and development in and around the megacities of China. Satellite observations provide unique insight into the regional air quality around megacities and air pollution transport from surrounding areas. In this work, we present an investigation of air quality over Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou combining satellite and ground-based measurements. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT), precursors of ozone (notably NO2 and CH2O), and SO2 are observed from space. The operational GOME-2 trace gases products developed at German Aerospace Center and MODIS AOT products will be used. Moreover, near surface concentrations of particular matter (PM), NO2 and SO2 in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou are investigated. The effect of air pollution transport from neighboring areas to megacities will be researched using satellite measurements. Initial comparison between satellite and ground-based measurements of air pollutants in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou will be shown. We will present the relationship between AOT and PM concentrations in megacities. The use of AOT, tropospheric NO2 and CH2O columns for air quality applications will also be shown.

  4. Global Observing Systems Information Center (GOSIC)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    GOSIC

    This extensive site was established at the College of Marine Studies of the University of Delaware, to provide a single entry point for users of data and information produced by three global observing systems. The Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) focuses on satellite and in situ observations for climate in the atmospheric, oceanic, and terrestrial domain. Ocean Observing Systems for climate are planned jointly with the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). Terrestrial climate observing systems are planned jointly with the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS). The site features data, maps, diagrams, data matrices, and data flow diagrams.

  5. Observations on Complexity and Costs for Over Three Decades of Communications Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bearden, David A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper takes an objective look at approximately thirty communications satellites built over three decades using a complexity index as an economic model. The complexity index is derived from a number of technical parameters including dry mass, end-of-life- power, payload type, communication bands, spacecraft lifetime, and attitude control approach. Complexity is then plotted versus total satellite cost and development time (defined as contract start to first launch). A comparison of the relative cost and development time for various classes of communications satellites and conclusions regarding dependence on system complexity are presented. Observations regarding inherent differences between commercially acquired systems and those procured by government organizations are also presented. A process is described where a new communications system in the formative stage may be compared against similarly "complex" missions of the recent past to balance risk within allotted time and funds. 1

  6. An Improved Satellite Data Collecting System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Rozenfeld; V. Orlando

    2002-01-01

    The experimental Environmental Data Collecting System, currently operated by INPE, is constituted by two small satellites (SCD1 and SCD2, placed in low altitude, 25 degrees inclination orbits) and a remote sensing one (CBERS1, placed in a low altitude 98.4 degrees inclination), two Data receiving Stations (Cuiaba and Alcantara), about 450 Data Collecting Platforms - DCP (covering a large range of

  7. Optimum systems for satellite fire detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiziana Beltramonte; Maurizio di Bisceglie; Carmela Galdi

    2010-01-01

    Significant improvements on the detection of thermal anomalies in multispectral satellite data can be obtained when both the false alarm rate and the probability of detection are known. A desirable, optimum system should have constant false alarm rate and maximum probability of detection. While proper hypotheses can be done on the background statistical distribution, on target for constant false alarm

  8. Satellite Power System (SPS) military implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, C. N.

    1978-01-01

    The military implications of the reference satellite power system (SPS) were examined is well as important military related study tasks. Primary areas of investigation were the potential of the SPS as a weapon, for supporting U.S. military preparedness, and for affecting international relations. In addition, the SPS's relative vulnerability to overt military action, terrorist attacks, and sabotage was considered.

  9. Satellite Power System (SPS) military applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozeroff, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    The potential military role, both offensive and defensive, of a Satellite Power System (SPS) is examined. A number of potential military support possibilities are described. An SPS with military capabilities may have a strong negative impact on international relations if it is not internationalized. The SPS satellite would be vulnerable to military action of an enemy with good space capability, but would experience little or no threat from saboteurs or terrorists, except via the ground controls. The paper concludes with an outline of some of the key issues involved, and a number of recommendations for future study, including some areas for long term efforts.

  10. Speculative histories of the Uranian satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peale, S. J.

    1988-05-01

    The hypothetical histories presently considered for the Uranian satellite system are very sensitive to the assumed satellite masses, within the errors of their determinations, as well as to the Uranian tidal effective dissipation function. A determination is made of the resonances that could have been encountered in these histories, and of the orbital eccentricity constraints that would have led to certain capture. It is found that if the mass of Miranda were of the upper extreme value, it would have been locked in a long-term 2/1 orbital resonance with Ariel to form a Laplacelike, three-body resonance that encompassed Umbriel.

  11. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (i) total solar irradiance, (ii) Earth radiation budget, (iii) land cover & land use change, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (v) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (vi) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including: dust storms over the worlds deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean, with a special emphasis on satellite observations available for studying the southern African environment.

  12. Using the Global Navigation Satellite System and satellite altimetry for combined Global Ionosphere Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorova, S.; Hobiger, T.; Schuh, H.

    2008-08-01

    For deriving global maps of the Total Electron Content (TEC) from space geodetic techniques usually observations from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) are taken. However, the GNSS stations are inhomogeneously distributed, with large gaps particularly over the sea surface. Within this study we create Global Ionosphere Maps (GIM) from GNSS data and additionally introduce satellite altimetry observations, which help to compensate the insufficient GNSS coverage of the oceans. The obtained global maps are in 2 h intervals and daily values of Differential Code Biases (DCB) for all the GNSS satellites and receivers are also estimated. The combination of the data from around 160 GNSS stations and two satellite altimetry missions Jason-1 and TOPEX/Poseidon is performed on the normal equation level. The comparison between the integrated ionosphere models and the GNSS-only maps shows a higher accuracy of the combined GIM over the seas. The study aims at improved combined global TEC maps, which should make best use of the advantages of each particular type of data and have higher accuracy and reliability than the results derived by the two methods if treated individually.

  13. Space telemetric panomorph imaging system for micro/nano satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, Simon; Harvey, Eric

    2008-04-01

    For many years, many microsatellites (satellites in the 10-100 kg mass range) and nanosatellites (in the 1-10 kg mass range) missions have been designed, built and launched having the objective of technology demonstration. Recently, due to the advance of technologies over the past decade, a new trend is to use them in more demanding space missions such as space science, earth observation, flying formation and space surveillance. In micro/nano satellites applications, the need for size, mass, power consumption and cost reduction is critical. This is why there is an effort toward the development of specialized and integrated hardware. Among space hardware for satellites, the development of optical imaging payload and miniaturized attitude sensors are of great interest for space surveillance and space science applications. We proposed the development of a panomorph lens optical module designed to record wide and broadband images of a panoramic scene around the satellite. A key requirement of the optical module is therefore to be able to manage the field coverage properties to distinguish true element that can be used for star tracking, earth horizon sensing and related tracking functionalities. The optical module must provide all usable telemetric information for the satellite. The proposed technology consists of a concept of space telemetric imaging system, which will combine optically imaging for surveillance/visual monitoring of space and attitude determination capabilities in one compact and low-power consumption device for micro/nano satellite applications.

  14. Distributed Satellite Communication System Design: First-Order Interactions between System and Network

    E-print Network

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Distributed Satellite Communication System Design: First-Order Interactions between System to bankruptcy. The upfront capital required to implement a satellite communications system is staggering and performance of a system. Traditionally, the first step toward designing satellite communication systems

  15. Analysis of L5 phase variations in GPS IIF satellites by the raw observation PPP approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sha; Becker, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    GPS modernization along with Glonass modernization and the emerging Galileo and Compass system has been highly anticipated by every GNSS user since several years. The third civilian L5 signal transmitted by the modernized GPS satellites brings us to the GNSS multi-frequency era. The first GPS IIF satellite was launched in May 2010, until now there are eight block IIF satellites in service and the remaining four IIF satellites are planned to be launched by 2016. The introduction of the third frequency to GPS and the usage of advanced atomic clocks not only provide the users more possibilities but also enable higher positioning accuracy. Nevertheless phase variations are found on the new L5 observation of GPS SVN62. Further investigations suggest that the variations of this satellite are strongly dependent on the satellite inner temperature variation caused by sun illumination. Besides achieving precise positioning accuracy, PPP is also frequently used as a tool to analyze and evaluate various GNSS errors, for instance, tropospheric delays and receiver clock errors. Other than with differential GNSS, it is possible to separate different errors and to identify the error sources with PPP. Conventional PPP is based on the ionosphere-free linear combination, in order to eliminate the first-order ionospheric delays. However only dual frequencies can be used to build ionosphere-free linear combination, which leads to the waste of the information on the third frequency. Furthermore, the frequency dependent errors can not be separated and traced. A new PPP approach that avoids using any linear combination is proposed recently, which is called the raw observation PPP. One advantage of the raw observation PPP approach is that data of all frequencies and all GNSS systems can be jointly used. In addition, the frequency dependent errors are possible to be separated, identified and analyzed. In this paper the raw observation PPP is utilized to analyze the phase variations on L5 for all available GPS IIF satellites. IGS MGEX stations with good global distribution are chosen to analyze this effect continuously. The L5 phase variations are detected in all 8 GPS block IIF satellites, the amplitude of the variations varies with the sun elevation angle above the satellite plane. The correction model proposed by Montenbruck is used to correct the variations. Finally, the influence of the L5 phase variations on PPP performance is investigated. Keywords: GPS block IIF, L5 phase variation, PPP, raw observation PPP, MGEX station

  16. Fast Emission Estimates in China Constrained by Satellite Observations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijling, B.; van der A, R.

    2013-12-01

    Emission inventories of air pollutants are crucial information for policy makers and form important input data for air quality models. Unfortunately, bottom-up emission inventories, compiled from large quantities of statistical data, are easily outdated for an emerging economy such as China, where rapid economic growth changes emissions accordingly. Alternatively, top-down emission estimates from satellite observations of air constituents have important advantages of being spatial consistent, having high temporal resolution, and enabling emission updates shortly after the satellite data become available. Constraining emissions from concentration measurements is, however, computationally challenging. Within the GlobEmission project of the European Space Agency (ESA) a new algorithm has been developed, specifically designed for fast daily emission estimates of short-lived atmospheric species on a mesoscopic scale (0.25 × 0.25 degree) from satellite observations of column concentrations. The algorithm needs only one forward model run from a chemical transport model to calculate the sensitivity of concentration to emission, using trajectory analysis to account for transport away from the source. By using a Kalman filter in the inverse step, optimal use of the a priori knowledge and the newly observed data is made. We apply the algorithm for NOx emission estimates in East China, using the CHIMERE model together with tropospheric NO2 column retrievals of the OMI and GOME-2 satellite instruments. The observations are used to construct a monthly emission time series, which reveal important emission trends such as the emission reduction measures during the Beijing Olympic Games, and the impact and recovery from the global economic crisis. The algorithm is also able to detect emerging sources (e.g. new power plants) and improve emission information for areas where proxy data are not or badly known (e.g. shipping emissions). The new emission estimates result in a better agreement between observations and simulations of air pollutant concentrations, facilitating improved air quality forecasts. The EU project MarcoPolo will combine these emission estimates from space with statistical information on e.g. land use, population density and traffic to construct a new up-to-date emission inventory for China.

  17. System requirements for laser power beaming to geosynchronous satellites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Neal; Thomas S. McKechnie; Daniel R. Neal

    1994-01-01

    Geosynchronous satellites use solar arrays as their primary source of electrical power. During earth eclipse, which occurs 90 times each year, the satellites are powered by batteries, but the heavy charge-discharge cycle decreases their life expectancy. By beaming laser power to satellites during the eclipses, satellite life expectancy can be significantly increased. In this paper, we investigate the basic system

  18. Automated tracking for advanced satellite laser ranging systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan F. McGarry; John J. Degnan; Paul Titterton; Harold Sweeney; Brion P. Conklin; Peter J. Dunn; Hughes STX

    NASA's Satellite Laser Ranging Network was originally developed during the 1970s to track satellites carrying corner cube reflectors. Today eight NASA systems, achieving millimeter ranging precision, are part of a global network of more than 40 stations that track 17 international satellites. To meet the tracking demands of a steadily growing satellite constellation within existing resources, NASA is embarking on

  19. Astrometric positions for 18 irregular satellites of giant planets from 23 years of observations

    E-print Network

    Gomes-Júnior, A R; Vieira-Martins, R; Arlot, J -E; Camargo, J I B; Braga-Ribas, F; Neto, D N da Silva; Andrei, A H; Dias-Oliveira, A; Morgado, B E; Benedetti-Rossi, G; Duchemin, Y; Desmars, J; Lainey, V; Thuillot, W

    2015-01-01

    The irregular satellites of the giant planets are believed to have been captured during the evolution of the solar system. Knowing their physical parameters, such as size, density, and albedo is important for constraining where they came from and how they were captured. The best way to obtain these parameters are observations in situ by spacecrafts or from stellar occultations by the objects. Both techniques demand that the orbits are well known. We aimed to obtain good astrometric positions of irregular satellites to improve their orbits and ephemeris. We identified and reduced observations of several irregular satellites from three databases containing more than 8000 images obtained between 1992 and 2014 at three sites (Observat\\'orio do Pico dos Dias, Observatoire de Haute-Provence, and European Southern Observatory - La Silla). We used the software PRAIA (Platform for Reduction of Astronomical Images Automatically) to make the astrometric reduction of the CCD frames. The UCAC4 catalog represented the Inte...

  20. Error assessment of an autonomous real-time precision orbit determination program for a low-earth-orbit satellite using GPS observation data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung Hyun Jo

    2002-01-01

    An autonomous, real-time, precision orbit determination (ARTPOD) program for low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellites using the Global Positioning System (GPS) is planned and developed. Numerical simulations are used to assess the anticipated accuracy of LEO satellite tracking using GPS observation data. The GPS observation data for a particular LEO satellite, CHAMP (Challenging Mini-satellite Payload), is processed with the ARTPOD program and results

  1. Ocean observing systems demystified

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Bermudez; Eric Delory; T. O'Reilly; Joaquin del Rio Fernandez

    2009-01-01

    An ocean observing system could be defined as a set of independent elements that interact to form a whole for the purpose of observing ocean data. But, what is a system? Is a sensor a system? Is a buoy a system? Is a collection of stations a system? This paper defines the components of an ocean observing system and how

  2. Satellite time transfer via Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chi, A. R.

    1979-01-01

    With two geosynchronous relay satellites the tracking and data relay satellite system (TDRSS) can provide nearly worldwide coverage for communication between all near orbiting satellites and the satellite control center at Goddard Space Flight Center. Each future NASA satellite will carry a TDRSS transponder with which the satellite can communicate through a TDRSS to the ground station at White Sands, New Mexico. It is using this system that the ground station master clock time signal can be transmitted to the near Earth orbiting satellite in which a clock may be maintained independently to the accuracy required by the experimenters. The satellite time transfer terminal design concept and the application of the time signal in autonomously operated spacecraft clock are discussed. Some pertinent TDRSS parameters and corrections for the propagation delay measurement as well as the time code used to transfer the time signal are given.

  3. Determining the Range of an Artificial Satellite Using its Observed Trigonometric Parallax

    E-print Network

    Earl, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Observing artificial satellites is a relatively new and unique branch of astronomy that is very interesting and dynamic. One specific aspect of observing these objects is that although they appear amongst the celestial background, as deep-sky objects do, their apparent locations amongst this background depend on where you are standing on Earth at a given time. This effect is known as parallax. When a satellite is observed at a specific time from a specific location, the satellite's equatorial coordinates can be determined using astrometric means. Its range from the observer, however, is still unknown unless the observer knows the satellite's precise orbit elements or has easy access to a radar station. However, when two or more observers, separated by some distance, observe the same satellite at the same time, their observations can be used to determine the range of the satellite using the satellite's observed trigonometric parallax.

  4. Satellite-based Observation of the Tectonics of Southern Tibet

    SciTech Connect

    Ryerson, F J; Finkel, R; van der Woerd, J

    2003-02-06

    The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau were formed as a result of the collision of India and Asia, and provide an excellent natural laboratory for the investigation of the mechanical response of the outer 100 km of the Earth (the lithosphere) to tectonic stress. Geophysicists are divided in their views on the nature of this response with one group advocating homogeneously distributed deformation in which the lithosphere deforms as a fluid continuum while others contend that deformation is highly localized with the lithosphere deforming as a system of rigid blocks. These rigid blocks or plate undergo little internal deformation. The latter group draws support from the high slip-rates recently observed on strike-slip faults along the northern edge of the Plateau (the Altyn Tagh Fault, ATF), coupled with seismic observations suggesting that these faults penetrate the entire lithosphere. These ''lithospheric faults'' define continental lithospheric plates and facilitate the eastward extrusion of the ''central Tibet plate''. If extrusion of a rigid Tibet occurs then there must be equivalent features at its southern boundary with slip-rates similar to those in the north. The southern boundary of Tibet, defined by the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), has no lateral component of motion and is therefore kinematically incompatible with motion in the north. However, a series of features, the Karakorum Fault, the Karakorum-Jiali Fracture Zone (KJFZ), the Jiali Fault and the Red River Fault which lie to the north of the MHT may define the actual, kinematic, southern boundary of this ''central Tibet plate''. We have investigated the rate of slip along the Karakorum Fault (KKF), the major strike-slip fault in southwestern Tibet. If the KKF represents the actual, kinematic, southern boundary of this Tibet, and is the only feature accommodating eastward extrusion of Tibet, then its slip-rate should be similar to that of the ATF in the north. Offsets along the Karakorum Fault ranging from tens of meters to kilometers have been mapped using satellite imagery and field mapping, and samples ages determined by cosmic-ray exposure dating. Near Bulong Kol (39{sup o}N, 75{sup o}E) cosmogenic dating of a 40 m fluvial offset yields a slip rate of {approx}6.5 mm/yr. Near Mt. Kailas (31.5{sup o}N, 80.7{sup o}E), a glacial moraine offset by {approx}350 m has been dated at 32.3 {+-} 9.5 thousand years, yielding a slip rate of 10.8 {+-} 3.6 mm/yr. In the Gar Valley (32{sup o}N, 80{sup o}E) a river channel incised in glacial sediments yields an offset of 1750 m and an age of 283,000 years equivalent to a slip-rate of 6 mm/yr. Relative to the ATF, the slip rates on the KKF are lower than expected, and since these measurements cover almost the entire length of the KKF, the disparity cannot be attributed to along strike variation in the rate. Based upon the analysis of satellite images along the Karakorum Fault, we believe that this apparent slip deficit may be to the en echelon arrangement of multiple strike slip fault segments that characterize what should more appropriately be called the Karakorum Fault Zone. The geometric arrangement of parallel fault segments produces the ''pull apart'' basins that form the valleys along the KKF. Hence, at any given latitude, slip along the KKF may be distributed among numerous fault segments. This investigation supports efforts to understand the structure and mechanical response of the Earth's crust and supports the application of remote sensing methods.

  5. Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS): enabling technologies and platform performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Takanori; Ishida, Haruyuki; Osawa, Yuji

    2008-10-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) was launched on January 24, 2006. Since then, it has been operated successfully on orbit, delivering a variety of high-resolution images in numerous quantities and contributing to disaster management support many times. ALOS is a JAXA's flagship for high-resolution Earth observation. It is the Earth observation satellite that is capable of attaining conflicting goals: global data collection and high resolution (2.5m). To attain these goals, a variety of platform and mission technologies were developed. In particular, high-resolution optical sensor technology, phased-array synthetic aperture radar technology, precision attitude and position determination and control technology, and high-speed data handling technology were developed. This paper gives an overview of the ALOS mission and spacecraft with a particular emphasis on the critical platform and mission technologies. This also reviews the last 31 months' operations and on-orbit status of the ALOS spacecraft with the flight data analysis. The assessment and calibration of the mission-related platform performances such as orbit determination and control accuracies, attitude determination and control accuracies, attitude stability, and pixel geolocation determination accuracy are also reported along with our efforts to improve these performances.

  6. Surface topography estimated by inversion of satellite gravity gradiometry observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramillien, Guillaume

    2015-04-01

    An integration of mass elements is presented for evaluating the six components of the 2-order gravity tensor (i.e., second derivatives of the Newtonian mass integral for the gravitational potential) created by an uneven sphere topography consisting of juxtaposed vertical prisms. The method is based on Legendre polynomial series with the originality of taking elastic compensation of the topography by the Earth's surface into account. The speed of computation of the polynomial series increases logically with the observing altitude from the source of anomaly. Such a forward modelling can be easily used for reduction of observed gravity gradient anomalies by the effects of any spherical interface of density. Moreover, an iterative least-square inversion of the observed gravity tensor values ??? is proposed to estimate a regional set of topographic heights. Several tests of recovery have been made by considering simulated gradiometry anomaly data, and for varying satellite altitudes and a priori levels of accuracy. In the case of GOCE-type gradiometry anomalies measured at an altitude of ~300 km, the search converges down to a stable and smooth topography after 20-30 iterations while the final r.m.s. error is ~100 m. The possibility of cumulating satellite information from different orbit geometries is also examined for improving the prediction.

  7. Gas Flaring Volume Estimates with Multiple Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziskin, D. C.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.; Ghosh, T.; Hsu, F. C.

    2010-12-01

    Flammable gases (primarily methane) are a common bi-product associated with oil wells. Where there is no infrastructure to use the gas or bring it to market, the gases are typically flared off. This practice is more common at remote sites, such as an offshore drilling platform. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) is a series of satellites with a low-light imager called the Operational Linescan System (OLS). The OLS, which detects the flares at night, has been a valuable tool in the estimation of flared gas volume [Elvidge et al, 2009]. The use of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire product has been processed to create products suitable for an independent estimate of gas flaring on land. We are presenting the MODIS flare product, the results of our MODIS gas flare volume analysis, and independent validation of the published DMSP estimates. Elvidge, C. D., Ziskin, D., Baugh, K. E., Tuttle, B. T., Ghosh, T., Pack, D. W., Erwin, E. H., Zhizhin, M., 2009, "A Fifteen Year Record of Global Natural Gas Flaring Derived from Satellite Data", Energies, 2 (3), 595-622

  8. A Sun-to-Earth Campaign Joining Observations from the Great Observatory with Worldwide Satellite and Ground-Based Resources to Investigate System Science Frontiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. U. Kozyra; K. Shibata; R. J. Barnes; S. Basu; J. M. Davila; N. J. Fox; N. Gopalswamy; M. M. Kuznetsova; D. Pallamraju; L. J. Paxton; A. Ridley; M. Weiss; C. A. Young; L. J. Zanetti

    2006-01-01

    An Internet-based cross-disciplinary analysis campaign that will make heavy use of Great Observatory missions as well as international satellite and ground-based assets is being undertaken with joint support from the CAWSES, IHY, LWS, and ICESTAR programs planned for late April or early May 2006. An evolving list of open science questions that serve as sun-to-Earth focus areas for the worldwide

  9. Advanced technology for satellite data collection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cote, C. E.; Painter, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    Technological developments in satellite data collection are aimed at relieving constraints of existing systems to permit expanded capability at lower costs in future operations. Constraints imposed by the limited electromagnetic spectrum available in the UHF band and the cost of user equipment are principal targets for improvement through technology. This paper describes ongoing developmental activities in system and component areas which will become available for the next generation of operations.

  10. Solar power satellite system definition study, volume 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Guidelines and assumptions used in the design of a system of geosynchronous satellites for transmitting solar power to earth were discussed as well as the design evolutions of the principle types of solar power satellites and space support systems.

  11. Satellite observation and mapping of wintertime ozone variability in the lower stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Marvin A.; Chi, Yuechen; Rood, Richard B.; Douglass, Anne R.; Kaye, Jack A.; Allen, Dale J.

    1992-01-01

    Comparison is made between 30 mbar ozone fields that are generated by a transport chemistry model utilizing the winds from the Goddard Space Flight Center stratospheric data assimilation system (STRATAN), observations from the LIMS instrument on Nimbus-7, and the ozone fields that result from 'flying a mathematical simulation of LIMS observations through the transport chemistry model ozone fields. The modeled ozone fields were found to resemble the LIMS observations, but the model fields show much more temporal and spatial structure than do the LIMS observations. The 'satellite mapped' model results resemble the LIMS observations much more closely. These results are very consistent with the earlier discussions of satellite space-time sampling by Salby.

  12. Cooling systems for satellite remote sensing instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, R. J.; Oren, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of a cryogenic cooling system for the Pollution Monitoring Satellite (PMS) are discussed. Studies were conducted to make the following determinations: (1) the characteristics and use of proven and state-of-the-art cryogenic cooling systems for six specified ranges of performance, (2) the system most applicable for each of the six cooling categories, and (3) conceptual designs for candidate system for each of the six representative cooling categories. The six cooling categories of electrical loads are defined. The desired mission life for the cooling system is two years with both continuous and intermittent operating conditions.

  13. GPS satellites as calibrator sources for solar observations with the PBDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Felipe; Silva, Jorge; Sawant, Hanumant; Padmanabhan, Janardhan; Cecatto, José; Freitas, Ubiratan

    The use of standard interferometer calibration techniques and calibrator sources is generally not enough to completely and uniquely solve the problem of calibration of solar interferometer data. Because, in the decimetric range, the celestial calibrators are many orders of magnitude fainter than the Sun, it is almost impossible to obtain an accurate amplitude calibration. Phase calibration is possible only thourgh use of different attenuation, that might insert unknown phase errors in the data. A different approach is presented in this work. Attempts have been made to use satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS) as calibrator sources for solar observations with the Prototype of the Brazilian Decimetric Array (PBDA). The GPS satellites can be regarded as point sources for most of the solar-observing arrays, and have the advantage that their orbits and the power emitted by their transmitters are well known, and the flux on Earth's surface is higher than that of the Quiet Sun at 1575 MHz. These properties led to the suggestion that these satellites should be possible sources for the calibration of solar interferometric observations. We present results of observations of GPS satellites alone and also of solar observations that were calibrated using this scheme during the period from May to September, 2007. The results indicate that the GPS signals are adequate for interferometer calibration, as can be concluded from the solar maps presented.

  14. Satellite Situation Center data system for magnetospheric science planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aist-Sagara, L.; Cooper, J. F.; McGuire, R. E.; Parthasarathy, R.; Peredo, M.

    1995-01-01

    Critical problems in planning coordinated observation campaigns for magnetospheric science include the need to predict time intervals when one or more observing satellites or ground stations will be connected along magnetic field lines to other observation sites, or when such sites will be located within magnetospheric regions of common interest. The Satellite Situation Center (SSC) was created at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) during the International Magnetospheric Study in the 1970s to address these problems. The SSC Data System has evolved since that era to support potentially complex queries by SSC staff and has now been opened to NASA Science Internet access via the NSSDC On-line Data Information System (NODIS). The SSC software, ephemeris data base, and access modes are described for the Version 2.1 release in 1993.

  15. The principle of the positioning system based on communication satellites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guoxiang Ai; Huli Shi; Haitao Wu; Zhigang Li; Ji Guo

    2009-01-01

    It is a long dream to realize the communication and navigation functionality in a satellite system in the world. This paper\\u000a introduces how to establish the system, a positioning system based on communication satellites called Chinese Area Positioning\\u000a System (CAPS). Instead of the typical navigation satellites, the communication satellites are configured firstly to transfer\\u000a navigation signals from ground stations, and

  16. The French broadcasting satellite system TDF 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgy, J.

    A detailed technical description is given of the French broadcasting satellite system TDF 1, and the services offered by a fully operational DBS system are discussed. The DBS project is discussed in terms of the allocations to France, the Franco-German cooperative program, and the satellite under construction. The modular design of the latter is considered in detail, including the attitude control, the power conditioning, the telemetry and tracking functions, the antenna module, solar array module, and feeder link station. Data on the power budget and mass budget are presented. The development schedule of the TDF 1 is summarized, and planned broadcasting programs and receivers are briefly discussed along with the cost of the DBS system.

  17. Oceanic satellite data service system based on web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yan; Pan, Delu; He, Xianqiang; Wang, Difeng; Chen, Jianyu; Chen, Xiaoyan

    2011-11-01

    The ocean satellite observation is more and more important to study the global change, protect ocean resource and implement ocean engineering for their large area cover and high frequency observation, which have already given us a global view of ocean environment parameters, including the sea surface temperature, ocean color, wind, wave, sea level and sea ice, etc... China has made great progress in ocean environment remote sensing over the last couple of years. These data are widely used for a variety of applications in ocean environment studies, coastal water quality monitoring environmental, fishery resources protection, development and utilization of fishery resources, coastal engineering and oceanography. But the data are no online information access and dissemination, no online visualization & browsing, no online query and analyze capability. To facilitate the application of the data and to help disseminating the data, a web-service system has developed. The system provides capabilities of online oceanic satellite information access, query, visualize and analyze. It disseminates oceanic satellite data to the users via real time retrieval, processing and publishing through standards-based geospatial web services. A region of interest can also be exported directly to Google Earth for displaying or downloaded. This web service system greatly improves accessibility, interoperability, usability, and visualization of oceanic satellite data without any client-side software installation.

  18. Sensing the Earth using Global Navigation Satellite System signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shuanggen; Rizos, Chris; Rius, Antonio

    2011-11-01

    International Workshop on GNSS Remote Sensing for Future Missions and Sciences; Shanghai, China, 7-9 August 2011 The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) has been widely used in navigation, positioning, and geoscience applications. Recently, the versatility of GNSS as a new remote sensing tool has been demonstrated with the use of refracted, reflected, and scattered GNSS signals to sound the atmosphere and ionosphere, ocean, land surfaces (including soil moisture), and cryosphere. Existing GPS radio occultation (RO) missions—e.g., the U.S.-Argentina SAC-C, German Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP), U.S.-Germany Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), Taiwan-U.S. Formosa Satellite Mission-3/Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC) satellites, German TerraSAR-X satellite, and European MetOp—together with groundbased GNSS observations, have provided precise and high-resolution information on tropospheric water vapor, pressure, temperature, tropopause parameters, ionospheric total electron content, and electron density profiles. GNSS signals reflected from the ocean and land surface can determine the ocean height, ocean surface wind speed and wind direction, soil moisture, and ice and snow thickness. With improvement expected due to the next generation of multifrequency GNSS systems and receivers, and new space-based instruments tracking GNSS reflected and refracted signals, new scientific applications of GNSS are expected in the near future across a number of environmental remote sensing fields.

  19. Anomalous event diagnosis for environmental satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsay, Bruce H.

    1993-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) is responsible for the operation of the NOAA geostationary and polar orbiting satellites. NESDIS provides a wide array of operational meteorological and oceanographic products and services and operates various computer and communication systems on a 24-hour, seven days per week schedule. The Anomaly Reporting System contains a database of anomalous events regarding the operations of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), communication, or computer systems that have degraded or caused the loss of GOES imagery. Data is currently entered manually via an automated query user interface. There are 21 possible symptoms (e.g., No Data), and 73 possible causes (e.g., Sectorizer - World Weather Building) of an anomalous event. The determination of an event's cause(s) is made by the on-duty computer operator, who enters the event in a paper based daily log, and by the analyst entering the data into the reporting system. The determination of the event's cause(s) impacts both the operational status of these systems, and the performance evaluation of the on-site computer and communication operations contractor.

  20. A heuristic for the multi-satellite, multi-orbit and multi-user management of Earth observation satellites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola Bianchessi; Jean-françois Cordeau; Jacques Desrosiers; Gilbert Laporte; Vincent Raymond

    2007-01-01

    Earth observation satellites are platforms equipped with optical instruments that orbit the Earth in order to take photographs of specific areas at the request of users. This article is concerned with the management of several satellites performing multiple orbits over a given planning horizon. It describes a tabu search heuristic for the problem of selecting and scheduling the requests to

  1. Alaskan mountain glacial melting observed by satellite gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. L.; Tapley, B. D.; Wilson, C. R.

    2006-08-01

    We use satellite gravity measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) as an indication of mass change to study potential long-term mountain glacial melting in southern Alaska and West Canada. The first 3.5 yr of GRACE monthly gravity data, spanning April 2002-November 2005, show a prominent glacial melting trend in the mountain regions around the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). GRACE-observed surface mass changes correlate remarkably well with available mass balance data at Gulkana and Wolverine, two benchmark glaciers of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), although the GRACE signals are smaller in magnitude. In addition, terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes estimated from an advanced land surface model show significant mass loss in this region during the same period. After correcting for the leakage errors and removing TWS contributions using model estimates, we conclude that GRACE-observed glacial melting in the GOA mountain region is equivalent to ˜ - 101 ± 22 km 3/yr, which agrees quite well with the assessment of ˜ - 96 ± 35 km 3/yr based on airborne laser altimetry data, and is consistent with an earlier estimate based on the first 2 yr of GRACE data. This study demonstrates the significant potentials of satellite gravity measurements for monitoring mountain glacial melting and regional climate change.

  2. MCPC system and terminal equipment for satellite communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Saruwatari; K. Yamada; T. Takahashi; S. Isobe; M. Iguchi; H. Ohashi; I. Nishiyama; S. Tsuchiya

    1982-01-01

    In a domestic satellite communication system, small capacity communication links using small-sized earth stations are required for thin routes. At Radio Research Laboratories, the Multi-Channel Per Carrier (MCPC), a small capacity satellite communication system, has been proposed and successfully developed in the Medium Capacity Communications Satellite for Experimental Purposes (CS) experimental project. The operation of the MCPC system is similar

  3. A Geostationary Satellite Constellation for Observing Global Air Quality: Status of the CEOS Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saadi, J. A.; Zehner, C.

    2011-12-01

    Several countries and space agencies are currently planning to launch geostationary satellites in the 2017-2022 time frame to obtain atmospheric composition measurements for characterizing anthropogenic and natural distributions of tropospheric ozone, aerosols, and their precursors, which are important factors in understanding air quality and climate change. While a single geostationary satellite can view only a portion of the globe, it is possible for a minimum of three geostationary satellites, positioned to view Europe/Middle East/Africa, Asia/Australasia, and the Americas, to collectively provide near-global coverage. Harmonizing the planned geostationary missions to be contemporaneous and have common observing capabilities and data distribution protocols would synergistically enable critically needed understanding of the interactions between regional and global atmospheric composition and of the implications for air quality and climate. Such activities would directly address societal benefit areas of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), including Health, Energy, Climate, Disasters, and Ecosystems, and are responsive to the requirements of each mission to provide advanced user services and societal benefits. Over the past 2 years, the Atmospheric Composition Constellation (ACC) of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) has developed a white paper describing such collaboration and the benefits to be derived from it. The resulting ACC recommendations were endorsed by CEOS in May 2011. Here we will present an update on collaborative activities and next steps. This presentation is envisioned to serve as an introduction to the oral sessions associated with Session A.25.

  4. Space technology in support of Earth observational satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowther, R.

    With the sucessful launch of the remote sensing satellite ERS-1 in July 1991, the Earth Observation Commmunity in Europe came of age. The United Kingdom (UK) is guaranteed a leading role in this, the newest of the Space industries, because of its sustained commitment to support and development of related technologies. The Royal Aerospace Establishment (RAE) acts as the focus for these efforts and serves as the platform on which allied and complementary technology programs can be built in a coordinated and strategic manner. This paper presents a summary of the work carried out at the RAE and shows how this has evolved to support the technological requirements of Earth Observation activities in the UK.

  5. Evolution in the lineament patterns associated to strong earthquakes revealed by satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-Pinto, C. A.; Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Ouzounov, D. P.

    2011-12-01

    We study the temporal evolution of the stress patterns in the crust by using high-resolution (10-300 m) satellite images from MODIS and ASTER satellite sensors. We are able to detect some changes in density and orientation of lineaments preceding earthquake events. A lineament is generally defined as a straight or a somewhat curved feature in the landscape visible in a satellite image as an aligned sequence of pixels of a contrasting intensity compared to the background. The system of lineaments extracted from the satellite images is not identical to the geological lineaments; nevertheless, it generally reflects the structure of the faults and fractures in the Earth's crust. Our analysis has shown that the system of lineaments is very dynamical, and the significant number of lineaments appeared approximately one month before an earthquake, while one month after the earthquake the lineament configuration returned to its initial state. These features were not observed in the test areas that are free of any seismic activity in that period (null hypothesis). We have designed a computational prototype capable to detect lineament evolution and to utilize both ASTER and MODIS satellite L1/L2. We will demonstrate the first successful test results for several Mw> 5 earthquakes in Chile, Peru, China, and California (USA).

  6. Satellite communications systems move into the twenty-first century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard S. Golding

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution of communication satellite systems and communications satellite technology from the 1960's\\u000a to the 1990's. The paper identifies the key attributes of satellite communications that has driven this evolution and now\\u000a drives the future directions such systems will take. The paper then discusses the future direction of communication satellite\\u000a systems including DBS, MSS, FSS and hybrid

  7. Subtropical Gyre Variability Observed by Ocean Color Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClain, Charles R.; Signorini, Sergio R.; Christian, James R.

    2002-01-01

    The subtropical gyres of the world are extensive, coherent regions that occupy about 40% of the surface of the earth. Once thought to be homogeneous and static habitats, there is increasing evidence that mid-latitude gyres exhibit substantial physical and biological variability on a variety of time scales. While biological productivity within these oligotrophic regions may be relatively small, their immense size makes their total contribution significant. Global distributions of dynamic height derived from satellite altimeter data, and chlorophyll concentration derived from satellite ocean color data, show that the dynamic center of the gyres, the region of maximum dynamic height where the thermocline is deepest, does not coincide with the region of minimum chlorophyll concentration. The physical and biological processes by which this distribution of ocean properties is maintained, and the spatial and temporal scales of variability associated with these processes, are analyzed using global surface chlorophyll-a concentrations, sea surface height, sea surface temperature and surface winds from operational satellite and meteorological sources, and hydrographic data from climatologies and individual surveys. Seasonal and interannual variability in the areal extent of the subtropical gyres are examined using 8 months (November 1996 - June 1997) of OCTS and nearly 5 years (September 1997 - June 02) of SeaWiFS ocean color data and are interpreted in the context of climate variability and measured changes in other ocean properties (i.e., wind forcing, surface currents, Ekman pumping, and vertical mixing). The North Pacific and North Atlantic gyres are observed to be shrinking over this period, while the South Pacific, South Atlantic, and South Indian Ocean gyres appear to be expanding.

  8. The future German television broadcasting satellite system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kaltschmidt

    1980-01-01

    A German television broadcasting satellite, known as TV-Sat, is being developed with direct receiving terminals. WARC 77 has allocated frequency ranges and antenna illumination zones for the system's future use; according to the Haeberle study (1977), the project could be put in operation with the 1982\\/1983 Ariane launching. A joint German-French WARC-compatible project was undertaken, whereby both countries would build

  9. In-situ observation of aurora fine structure and simulation of satellite-plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, M.; Ejiri, M.; Sakanoi, T.; Hirahara, M.

    2002-12-01

    INDEX satellite is scheduled to be launched in 2004 by ISAS/JAPAN in order to investigate the aurora fine structure. This satellite is designed to fly polar orbit with hight of 680km. Main instruments are the electron/ion analyzer, the aurora camera and the impedance probe. All insturments are designed to measure small scale plasma parameters down to 100m scale. In order to distinguish background plasma phenomena from the disturbances due to the satellite itself, we have developed a new simulation code which simulates electromagnetic environment in the vicinity of a spacecraft. This code solves plasma particle behavior as well as background electric and magnetic field. The simulation code adopts unstructured-grid as the spatial coordinate system. This enables us to model 3-dimensional shape of the spacecraft. We will be able to show the results from the spacecraft charging simulations and possible applications to the observation of plasma fine structure in the earth's auroral region.

  10. Telecom 1: French domestic communications satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-05-01

    Services supplied by TELECOM 1, the components of the TELECOM 1 system, the industrial organization, and the project schedule are described. The TELECOM 1 system: provides broadband digital links between companies in France and neighboring states; routes telephone communications and television broadcasts between France and its overseas territories; and handles government communications. A ground control and monitoring station operates the TDMA system and supervises ground station performance, synchronizes the bursts from each station, surveys the repeaters and provides the billing. Three satellites, including one spare, developed from OTS, MARECS and ECS designs, are launched by Ariane.

  11. An Examination of Intertidal Temperatures Through Remotely Sensed Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmi, V.

    2010-12-01

    MODIS Aqua and Terra satellites produce both land surface temperatures and sea surface temperatures using calibrated algorithms. In this study, the land surface temperatures were retrieved during clear-sky (non-cloudy) conditions at a 1 km2 resolution (overpass time at 10:30 am) whereas the sea surface temperatures are also retrieved during clear-sky conditions at approximately 4 km resolution (overpass time at 1:30 pm). The purpose of this research was to examine remotely sensed sea surface (SST), intertidal (IST), and land surface temperatures (LST), in conjunction with observed in situ mussel body temperatures, as well as associated weather and tidal data. In Strawberry Hill, Oregon, it was determined that intertidal surface temperatures are similar to but distinctly different from land surface temperatures although influenced by sea surface temperatures. The air temperature and differential heating throughout the day, as well as location in relation to the shore, can greatly influence the remotely sensed surface temperatures. Therefore, remotely sensed satellite data is a very useful tool in examining intertidal temperatures for regional climatic changes over long time periods and may eventually help researchers forecast expected climate changes and help determine associated biological implications.

  12. Suggestion of EFS-small satellite system for impending earthquake forecast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zuji Qiang; Ainai Ma; Fangyun Chen; Junrong Zhang; Laixing Lin; Zhenlin Lu

    2000-01-01

    In the IAF Congress ’92 a multiple small satellite Earth observation system was put forward with sensors of visible and infrared\\u000a spectrums. The system could shorten the revisiting period so that any place on the world could be observed twice a day. Now\\u000a we extend the idea to the microwave remote sensing satellite system. The main purpose of the system

  13. Energy deposition in the ionosphere derived from LEO satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolle, Claudia; Park, Jaeheung; Buchert, Stephan; Trulik, Vladimir; Bilitza, Dieter

    2014-05-01

    Ten years of successful operation of the multi-instrument CHAMP satellite mission at a unique orbit altitude of about 400 km revealed many interesting features of the coupling between the thermosphere and ionosphere. Different processes contribute to the deposition of solar and magnetospheric energy into the thermosphere. One important venue is heating through thermal electrons transferring energy by collisions with ions and neutrals. In the ionospheric F region thermal electrons are heated primarily through photoelectrons by local or non-local processes. At high latitudes soft precipitation and electromagnetic heating play a major role. The energy deposition can be quantified by a family of chemo-physical equations (Schunk and Nagy, 2009) that depend on plasma and neutral densities and temperatures. One important indicator for the energy transfer is the difference between electron and ion- and neutral- temperatures. Electron cooling leads to thermospheric heating and and we expect that this process leads to a local enhancement of mass density (air drag). Sizable electron cooling rates in the F region have been published from EISCAT radar observations in the ionospheric cusp. Based on CHAMP observation of electron density and temperature we estimate the energy deposit in the F-region through cooling of the thermal electron gas caused by elastic and inelastic processes. We find that a significant deposition is present during day at mid latitudes. At low latitudes the energy flux remains important until midnight. Observed heating rates depend on the satellite altitudes, but they are globally available from the CHAMP data. Missing observations in the CHAMP dataset, e.g., ion temperature, are derived from empirical models as IRI or MSIS. We investigate the global distribution of the electron cooling rate, we quantify the contributions of the different processes (equations) to the total energy transfer, e.g., depending on height, and we intend to compare our results with radar observations. Our focus is to apply Swarm observations also including ion temperature. We are interested in evaluating possible improvements when using the new Swarm observations instead empirical model results. These activities are preceded by a validation study of the Swarm Level-1b data derived from the Langmuir probe, e.g., electron density and temperature against estimations from IRI. From this project we expect to quantify the quality of the accuracy of the Langmuir Probe data within 20 percent uncertainty.

  14. Pseudo-coherent demodulation for mobile satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.

    1993-01-01

    This paper proposes three so-called pseudo-coherent demodulation schemes for use in land mobile satellite channels. The schemes are derived based on maximum likelihood (ML) estimation and detection of an N-symbol observation of the received signal. Simulation results for all three demodulators are presented to allow comparison with the performance of differential PSK (DPSK) and ideal coherent demodulation for various system parameter sets of practical interest.

  15. The Role of Satellite Earth Observation Data in Monitoring and Verifying International Environmental Treaties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Shaida

    2004-01-01

    The term verification implies compliance verification in the language of treaty negotiation and implementation, particularly in the fields of disarmament and arms control. The term monitoring on the other hand, in both environmental and arms control treaties, has a much broader interpretation which allows for use of supporting data sources that are not necessarily acceptable or adequate for direct verification. There are many ways that satellite Earth observation (EO) data can support international environmental agreements, from national forest inventories to use in geographic information system (GIs) tools. Though only a few references to satellite EO data and their use exist in the treaties themselves, an expanding list of applications can be considered in support of multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). This paper explores the current uses of satellite Earth observation data which support monitoring activities of major environmental treaties and draws conclusions about future missions and their data use. The scope of the study includes all phases of environmental treaty fulfillment - development, monitoring, and enforcement - and includes a multinational perspective on the use of satellite Earth observation data for treaty support.

  16. Survey of the ionospheric disturbances related with large seismic events in multi-satellite ionospheric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, K.; Chae, J.; Lee, E.; Kil, H.

    2013-12-01

    We survey the ionospheric disturbances in the plasma and electro-magnetic wave measurements during the simultaneous observation period of DEMETER (Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions), CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload) and DMSP(Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) missions. The multi-satellite observation around three large earthquakes that occurred between 2004 and 2005 were investigated. The observational evidences of the earth-quake precursory phenomena and the recent progress of physical modeling of the ionospheric disturbances caused by the coupling of the stressed rock, Earth surface charges, atmosphere, and ionosphere system are reviewed. Then, we focus on identifying the precursory disturbances from the well-studied plasma disturbances in the ionosphere, which are known to originate from various physical mechanism other than the seismic activities. Electron density/temperature, ion density/temperature, and electro-magnetic field/wave data measured by various instruments equipped in the satellites were analyzed in finding specific examples of anomaly caused by large seismic activities. Finally, the possibility of forecasting or predicting large earthquakes using the plasma measurements of LEO (low earth orbit) satellites will be discussed.

  17. Environmental objectives for the Russian American Observational Satellites (RAMOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humpherys, Thomas; Anderson, Robert; Stair, Alvin T., Jr.; Schiller, Ilya; Sinelshchikov, Valery; Abramov, V.; Misnik, Victor

    2003-06-01

    The RAMOS program embodies a new direction for cooperative space-based cooperative research and development between the Russian Federation and the United States. The planned system configuration is a constellation of two satellite constellation orbiting in approximately in the same plane and at an altitude of about 500 km. These satellites, equipped with passive electro-optical sensors operating from infrared (IR) to ultraviolet (UV), are designed for near-simultaneous stereo-optical measurement capability. The projected launch date is 2007 with an on-orbit lifetime of two years minimum and five years possible. The environmental objectives are: 1. Measuring cyclones to predict their future strengths and paths, 2. Measuring fires and winds to demonstrate location and assessment capability, 3. Measuring volcanic plumes in three dimensions 3-D measurements of volcanic plumes for to assess aircraft hazards, 4. Measuring global three-dimensional wind velocities, 5. Measuring water vapor profiles at the 100-meter scale, 6. Obtaining a three-dimensional multi-spectral background data base in the mid-wave infrared, visible and ultraviolet wavelength regions and making infrared and visible polarization measurements of solar scattered backgrounds.

  18. Interpretation of satellite gyroharmonic resonance observations. [of ionosphere by Alouette

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, R. F.; Bitoun, J.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical expression is obtained for the rendezvous conditions between a propagating wave near nfH and a moving ionospheric sounder antenna, where fH is the ambient value of the electron gyrofrequency and n is an integer greater than 1. The agreement between the theoretical predictions and Alouette 1 satellite observations indicates that most of the long duration resonances (those with durations greater than about 2 msec) can be interpreted in terms of the reception of sounder-stimulated electrostatic waves that are reflected and returned to the sounder antenna. The results provide a technique for obtaining from sounder-stimulated plasma resonances information on ambient electron temperature corresponding to electron motions perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field.

  19. Satellites: New global observing techniques for ice and snow. [using erts-1 and nimbus 5 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloersen, P.; Salomonson, V. V.

    1974-01-01

    The relation of aereal extent of snow cover to the average monthly runoff in a given watershed was investigated by comparing runoff records with a series of snowcover maps. Studies using the high spatial resolution available with ERTS-1 imagery were carried out for the Wind River Mountains watersheds in Wyoming, where it was found that the empirical relationship varied with mean elevation of the watershed. In addition, digital image enhancement techniques are shown to be useful for identifying glacier features related to extent of snowcover, moraine characteristics, and debris average. Longer wavelength observations using sensors on board the Nimbus 5 Satellite are shown to be useful for indicating crystal size distributions and onset of melting on glacier snow cover.

  20. Terrestrial kilometric radiation: 1: Spatial structures studies. [from satellite observation (Explorer 2 satellite) of lunar occultation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. K.; Kaiser, M. L.

    1976-01-01

    Observations are presented of lunar occultations of the earth at 250 kHz obtained with the Radio-Astronomy-Explorer-2 satellite which were used to derive two dimensional maps of the location of the sources of terrestrial kilometric radiation (TKR). By examining the two dimensional source distributions as a function of the observer's location (lunar orbit) with respect to the magnetosphere, the average three dimensional location of the emission regions can be estimated. Although TKR events at 250 kHz can often be observed at projected distances corresponding to the 250 kHz electron gyro or plasma level (approximately 2 earth radii), many events are observed much farther from the earth (between 5 and 15 earth radii). Dayside emission apparently in the region of the polar cusp and the magnetosheath and night emission associated with regions of the magnetotail are examined. The nightside emission is suggestive of a mechanism involving plasma sheet electron precipitation in the pre-midnight sector.

  1. Improvements and Extensions for Joint Polar Satellite System Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, K. D.; Feeley, J. H.; Miller, S. W.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS replaced the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the old POES system managed by the NOAA. JPSS satellites will carry sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground processing system for the JPSS is the Common Ground System (CGS), and provides command, control, and communications (C3), data processing and product delivery. CGS's data processing capability processes the data from the JPSS satellites to provide environmental data products (including Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs)) to the NOAA Satellite Operations Facility. The first satellite in the JPSS constellation, known as the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, was launched on 28 October 2011. CGS is currently processing and delivering SDRs and EDRs for S-NPP and will continue through the lifetime of the JPSS program. The EDRs for S-NPP are currently undergoing an extensive Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val) campaign. Changes identified by the Cal/Val campaign are coming available for implementation into the operational system in support of both S-NPP and JPSS-1 (scheduled for launch in 2017). Some of these changes will be available in time to update the S-NPP algorithm baseline, while others will become operational just prior to JPSS-1 launch. In addition, new capabilities, such as higher spectral and spatial resolution, will be exercised on JPSS-1. This paper will describe changes to current algorithms and products as a result of the Cal/Val campaign and related initiatives for improved capabilities. Improvements include Cross Track Infrared Sounder high spectral processing, extended spectral and spatial ranges for Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite ozone Total Column and Nadir Profiles, and updates to Vegetation Index, Snow Cover, Active Fires, Suspended Matter, and Ocean Color. Updates will include Sea Surface Temperature, Cloud Mask, Cloud Properties, and other improvements.

  2. Operational aspects of satellite data collection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morakis, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Operational aspects of satellite data collection systems (DCS) are discussed with consideration given to a cooperative program between the United States and France. The Tiros-N DCS is described which is a random access system providing operational capability for position location and/or data collection of 4000 to 16,000 moving and/or fixed platforms. The platform transmissions and processing of the data is designed to conform with the user needs. The position location is obtained through ground processing of Doppler measurements made by the data collection instrument on board the spacecraft.

  3. Satellite communications systems and technology. Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, Burton I.; Pelton, Joseph N.; Bostian, Charles W.; Brandon, William T.; Chan, Vincent W. S.; Hager, E. Paul; Helm, Neil R.; Jennings, Raymond D.; Kwan, Robert; Mahle, Christoph E.

    1993-01-01

    NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF) commissioned a panel of US experts to study the international status of satellite communications systems and technology. The study covers emerging systems concepts, applications, services, and the attendant technologies. The panel members travelled to Europe, Japan, and Russia to gather information first-hand. They visited 17 sites in Europe, 20 sites in Japan, and four in Russia. These included major manufacturers, government organizations, service providers, and associated R&D facilities. The panel's report was reviewed by the sites visited, by the panel, and by representatives of US industry. The report details the information collected and compares it to US activities.

  4. ORIGIN OF THE DIFFERENT ARCHITECTURES OF THE JOVIAN AND SATURNIAN SATELLITE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, T.; Ida, S. [Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Stewart, G. R., E-mail: takanori@geo.titech.ac.j, E-mail: ida@geo.titech.ac.j, E-mail: gstewart@lasp.colorado.ed [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Campus Box 392, Boulder, CO 80309-0392 (United States)

    2010-05-10

    The Jovian regular satellite system mainly consists of four Galilean satellites that have similar masses and are trapped in mutual mean-motion resonances except for the outer satellite, Callisto. On the other hand, the Saturnian regular satellite system has only one big icy body, Titan, and a population of much smaller icy moons. We have investigated the origin of these major differences between the Jovian and Saturnian satellite systems by semi-analytically simulating the growth and orbital migration of proto-satellites in an accreting proto-satellite disk. We set up two different disk evolution/structure models that correspond to Jovian and Saturnian systems, by building upon previously developed models of an actively supplied proto-satellite disk, the formation of gas giants, and observations of young stars. Our simulations extend previous models by including the (1) different termination timescales of gas infall onto the proto-satellite disk and (2) different evolution of a cavity in the disk, between the Jovian and Saturnian systems. We have performed Monte Carlo simulations and have shown that in the case of the Jovian systems, four to five similar-mass satellites are likely to remain trapped in mean-motion resonances. This orbital configuration is formed by type I migration, temporal stopping of the migration near the disk inner edge, and quick truncation of gas infall caused by Jupiter opening a gap in the solar nebula. The Saturnian systems tend to end up with one dominant body in the outer regions caused by the slower decay of gas infall associated with global depletion of the solar nebula. The total mass and compositional zoning of the predicted Jovian and Saturnian satellite systems are consistent with the observed satellite systems.

  5. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (1) total solar irradiance, (2) Earth radiation budget, (3) land cover & land use change, (4) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (5) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (6) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including dust storms over the world's deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean.

  6. Advanced Microelectronics Technologies for Future Small Satellite Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkalai, Leon

    1999-01-01

    Future small satellite systems for both Earth observation as well as deep-space exploration are greatly enabled by the technological advances in deep sub-micron microelectronics technologies. Whereas these technological advances are being fueled by the commercial (non-space) industries, more recently there has been an exciting new synergism evolving between the two otherwise disjointed markets. In other words, both the commercial and space industries are enabled by advances in low-power, highly integrated, miniaturized (low-volume), lightweight, and reliable real-time embedded systems. Recent announcements by commercial semiconductor manufacturers to introduce Silicon On Insulator (SOI) technology into their commercial product lines is driven by the need for high-performance low-power integrated devices. Moreover, SOI has been the technology of choice for many space semiconductor manufacturers where radiation requirements are critical. This technology has inherent radiation latch-up immunity built into the process, which makes it very attractive to space applications. In this paper, we describe the advanced microelectronics and avionics technologies under development by NASA's Deep Space Systems Technology Program (also known as X2000). These technologies are of significant benefit to both the commercial satellite as well as the deep-space and Earth orbiting science missions. Such a synergistic technology roadmap may truly enable quick turn-around, low-cost, and highly capable small satellite systems for both Earth observation as well as deep-space missions.

  7. The future German television broadcasting satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltschmidt, H.

    1980-10-01

    A German television broadcasting satellite, known as TV-Sat, is being developed with direct receiving terminals. WARC 77 has allocated frequency ranges and antenna illumination zones for the system's future use; according to the Haeberle study (1977), the project could be put in operation with the 1982/1983 Ariane launching. A joint German-French WARC-compatible project was undertaken, whereby both countries would build a satellite having three, rather than five, transmitting channels. The satellites are required to have a transmitting uplink band of 17.3-17.7 GHz and a downlink band of 11.7-12.1 GHz; the antenna transmit boresight crosspolar on the German TV-Sat is -40 dB. The TV-Sat is built on a modular concept, consisting of the antenna module, the communication module, the service module, the propulsion module, and two solar generator wings. It is designed with a development potential to allow for five simultaneous transmitting channels.

  8. A comparison of satellite water vapor observations with model simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.J. [NOAA/ERL Climate Diagnostic Center, Boulder, CO (United States); Jackson, D.L. [CIRES Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This paper compares observations of precipitable water (PW) and upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) with Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) simulations. PW observational data was from a scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SSMR); the mean observed PW for the 6-year coincident period was compared with AMIP simulation. Upper tropospheric relative humidity observational data was obtained from high resolution infrared radiometer instruments on NOAA satellites. Direct comparisons of observed UTH data are made with AMIP relative humidity. The model means and variability over the oceans compare well with values from SMMR observations. The mean annual cycle of PW from AMIP compares well with SMMR data, although SMMR values are consistently higher in the tropics. Interannual anomaly time series correlations between SMMR and AMIP PW values show a high regional dependence. In the subtropics, about one third of the AMIP models show highly significant interannual anomaly correlations, about one third show significant correlations, and about one third are not significantly correlated. In the tropics, almost all of the AMIP models are highly significantly correlated with the SMMR interannual PW anomalies; this is attributed to similar model responses during the extreme El Nino event of 1982-83. All models show significantly higher relative humidity at all levels; this may be due to tuning against radiosonde climatologies of upper tropospheric humidity climatologies that contain known large systematic biases. Variations in 10-year mean 300 millibar relative humidity between models was shown to be significantly different. Overall, the models are doing only an adequate job in simulation of PW and its variability, and are doing a completely inadequate job of simulating UTH and its variability. Inadequate simulation of UTH translates into large errors in simulation of the outgoing longwave radiation. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. The Satellite System for the VSOP-2 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Y.; Hirabayashi, H.; Natori, M. C.; Edwards, P. G.; Asaki, Y.; Mochizuki, N.; Inoue, M.; Kameno, S.; Kono, Y.; Kasuga, T.; VSOP-2 Team

    VSOP-2 is a next generation space VLBI project following the VSOP project Over all mission view of the mission is presented by Hirabayashi 2006 in this meeting We present the design of the satellite system for the VSOP-2 mission New functions of the satellite relative to the VSOP-2 mission is as follows 1 Observing frequency till 43 GHz 2 Dual polarization cooled receivers for 22 and 43 GHz for getting higher sensitivity and the polarization observation 3 High data rate sampling and data transfer 1 Gbps for the sensitivity of the continuum sources 4 High speed maneuver and high accuracy navigation system for the phase-referencing observation The satellite is designed to be launched M-V rocket in JAXA Its mass and total power are estimated to be 910 kg and 1 8 kW respectively Nominal orbit is elliptical with 25 000 apogee height and 1 000 km perigee height with 7 5 hour period We use the deployable modular type antenna for the 9-m main dish of the VSOP-2 satellite The deployment mechanism is same as that of the ETS-VIII mission in JAXA The main dish is consist of 7 modules and each module is newly developed to get higher surface accuracy than that of ETS-VIII and tested The cooled HEMT receiver is designed with using the on-board starling cycle cooler which have already developed for Suzaku X-ray astronomy mission and Akari Astro-F Infrared astronomy mission We finished the concept design of the receivers High date rate processing and data transfer system is also another challenge of the system We plan to use 37-38 GHz for

  10. Determination of long-term changes in the Earth's gravity field from satellite laser ranging observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Cheng; C. K. Shum; B. D. Tapley

    1997-01-01

    Temporal changes in the Earth's gravity field have been determined by analyzing satellite laser ranging (SLR) observations of eight geodetic satellites using data spanning an interval of over 20 years. The satellites used in the analysis include Starlette, LAGEOS 1 and 2, Ajisai, Etalon 1 and 2, Stella, and BE-C. Geophysical parameters, related to both secular and long-period variations in

  11. Fuel models and fire potential from satellite and surface observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burgan, R.E.; Klaver, R.W.; Klarer, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    A national 1-km resolution fire danger fuel model map was derived through use of previously mapped land cover classes and ecoregions, and extensive ground sample data, then refined through review by fire managers familiar with various portions of the U.S. The fuel model map will be used in the next generation fire danger rating system for the U.S., but it also made possible immediate development of a satellite and ground based fire potential index map. The inputs and algorithm of the fire potential index are presented, along with a case study of the correlation between the fire potential index and fire occurrence in California and Nevada. Application of the fire potential index in the Mediterranean ecosystems of Spain, Chile, and Mexico will be tested.

  12. Relative position and attitude estimation for Inner-Formation Gravity Measurement Satellite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Yulin

    2011-09-01

    Inner-Formation Gravity Measurement Satellite System (IFGMSS) is used to map the gravity field of the Earth. The IFGMSS consists of two satellites, in which one is the inner satellite; the other is the outer satellite. The inner satellite flies in the cavity of the outer satellite and is affected only by the Earth gravitational force. To detect the relative position of the inner satellite in real time, it has suggested an optical scheme to observe the mass center of the inner satellite. This paper describes a modified Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) algorithm to estimate the relative motion between inner satellite and outer satellite. An integrated relative rotational and translational dynamics is constructed when the outer satellite tracking the inner satellite. Particular attention is given to the nonlinearity due to the coupled dynamics between the translational and rotational motion equations. Simulation results are presented in order to validate the proposed estimation scheme with and without control. Three different scenarios are simulated to validate the effectiveness of this approach. And the results showed that the estimation accuracy is affected by the nonlinearity of the dynamics. Through analysis, the proposed estimation algorithm is able to provide high accurate relative attitude and position estimation for the IFGMSS.

  13. SATCOL - A domestic satellite system for Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado Romero, D.; Calvit, T. O.

    The Colombian Government has made important strides toward the eventual implementation and independent operation of a full domestic satellite system. System studies have been completed, and a pilot system is in operation. The initial space segment for the full system, which is expected to go into operation early in 1985, will have a design lifetime of seven years. The space segment will provide redundant coverage for expected types of communications requirements through the year 1992. Earth stations are planned which will accommodate the traffic of metropolitan areas, smaller urban centers and rural communities, providing maximum efficiency and growth potential for each type of service. It is planned to integrate TTC&M equipment in two of the larger earth stations so that Telecom may assume control of the system from the beginning of operation.

  14. The global Earth observation system of systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achache, José

    2010-05-01

    Recognizing the growing need for improved Earth observations, 140 governments and leading international organizations have established the Group on Earth Observations, or GEO, to collaborate and implement a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) by the year 2015. Countries and organizations are contributing their respective Earth monitoring systems, from satellites in space and in situ instruments on land, in the oceans and in the atmosphere. They are interlinking these systems so that, together, they provide a more complete picture of Earth's systems dynamics. GEO is developing common technical standards to pool observations and ensure their cross calibration and validation. It is building a web-based infrastructure to ensure easy access to the wealth of data and services contributed to, or generated by, GEOSS. GEO has been promoting the free and open sharing and dissemination of Earth observation data which has already driven significant changes in data distribution policies of several key Earth observing satellites: Landsat, Cbers and the future Sentinels of GMES. GEO is also reflecting on solutions to transition research systems into operational observing systems and ensure their long-term sustainability. First, the current status of GEOSS implementation and these core activities of GEO will be presented. Then, examples of global data sets and information systems or services developed through GEOSS will be presented: - a high-resolution global digital elevation model (DEM) based on Aster data was released by Japan and the USA. In situ measurements are now being used to improve the model as well as the stacking procedure used to develop it; - the Supersites initiative ensures coordinated access to data and information on natural hazards in geologically active regions. In light of the recent tragedy in Haiti, this project created a dedicated web site regularly updated with maps of seismicity, tectonics, Coulomb stress changes, topography, real and synthetic interferograms, as well as damage maps, data, and space images. See http://supersites.unavco.org/haiti.php; - the global carbon observation and analysis system combines observations, reanalysis and product development to provide regional information on emission variations. It addresses the three components of the carbon cycle (atmosphere, land, ocean). The project includes the improvement of global networks of atmospheric CO2 observations, air-surface exchange flux networks, surface ocean CO2 and related marine biochemistry observations, as well as space-based measurements combining Sciamachy , Airs and the newly launched Japanese Gosat; - the Forest Carbon Tracking (FCT) project coordinates the acquisition of observations from multi-spectral and radar (X, C and L-band) satellites, their processing through different models and methodologies and their validation by in situ measurements in 7 selected countries. The aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of a global monitoring and verification system for carbon storage and change in forests. Data and results can be viewed on-line at www.geo-fct.org. This portal allows users to visualize the FCT National Demonstrators, the relevant validation sites and the inventory of the coordinated acquisitions of satellite and in-situ data. Maps and information resulting from the processing of the data will also be posted here when available.

  15. Influence of inhomogeneous cloud fields on optical properties retrieved from satellite observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jules R. Dim; Tamio Takamura; Itaru Okada; Takashi Y. Nakajima; Hideaki Takenaka

    2007-01-01

    Analyses of solar radiation exchanges between the atmosphere and clouds are vital for the understanding of climate processes and cycles. Comparisons of satellite-to-satellite or satellite-to-ground-truth observations aiming at, elucidating the radiative behavior of atmospheric components (clouds, aerosols, gas, etc.), or validating data of a particular satellite are a common practice in global radiation investigations. In order to assess the quality

  16. Modal analysis for small satellite system with finite element method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhengfeng Bai; Yang Zhao; Wenlai Ma; Hao Tian

    2008-01-01

    Modal analysis of satellite system is the basic requirement for the satellite structural design. The theory of normal modes is analysed rounded in this paper. And the finite element model of a small satellite, of which the monolithic structure is honeycomb sandwich plate, is established by using the finite element analysis software PATRAN\\/NASTRAN. Furthermore, the equivalent model for honeycomb sandwich

  17. The new view of the irregular planetary satellite systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-M. Petit; B. Gladman; M. Holman; T. Grav; J. J. Kavelaars; P. Nicholson

    2003-01-01

    The giant planets in the Solar System each have two groups of satellites. The regular satellites move along nearly circular orbits in the planet's orbital plane, revolving about it in the same sense as the planet spins. In contrast, the so-called irregular satellites are generally smaller in size and are characterized by large orbits with significant eccentricity, inclination or both.

  18. Sentinel-2: next generation satellites for optical land observation from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lautenschläger, G.; Gessner, R.; Gockel, W.; Haas, C.; Schweickert, G.; Bursch, S.; Welsch, M.; Sontag, H.

    2013-10-01

    The first Sentinel-2 satellites, which constitute the next generation of operational Earth observation satellites for optical land monitoring from space, are undergoing completion in the facilities at Astrium ready for launch end 2014. Sentinel-2 will feature a major breakthrough in the area of optical land observation since it will for the first time enable continuous and systematic acquisition of all land surfaces world-wide with the Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI), thus providing the basis for a truly operational service. Flying in the same orbital plane and spaced at 180°, the constellation of two satellites, designed for an in-orbit nominal operational lifetime of 7 years each, will acquire all land surfaces in only 5 days at the equator. In order to support emergency operations, the satellites can further be operated in an extended observation mode allowing to image any point on Earth even on a daily basis. MSI acquires images in 13 spectral channels from Visible-to-Near Infrared (VNIR) to Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) with a swath of almost 300 km on ground and a spatial resolution up to 10 m. The data ensure continuity to the existing data sets produced by the series of Landsat and SPOT satellites, and will further provide detailed spectral information to enable derivation of biophysical or geophysical products. Excellent geometric image quality performances are achieved with geolocation better than 16 m, thanks to an innovative instrument design in conjunction with a high-performance satellite AOCS subsystem centered around a 2-band GPS receiver, high-performance star trackers and a fiberoptic gyro. To cope with the high data volume on-board, data are compressed using a state-of-the-art wavelet compression scheme. Thanks to a powerful mission data handling system built around a newly developed very large solid-state mass memory based on flash technology, on-board compression losses will be kept to a minimum. The Sentinel-2 satellite design features a highly flexible operational concept, allowing downlink of all mission data to a nominal X-band core ground stations network. In addition, users could receive mission data sets at selected X-band local user ground stations or through an Optical Communication Payload (OCP) via an inter-orbit optical link to a geostationary EDRS relay satellite at Ka-band user ground stations. Different priority schemes can be selected in flight to allow transmission of critical image data with the shortest possible latency. The system is designed for high system autonomy allowing for pre-programming of the operational schedule for 15 days in advance without interference from ground. Apart from the nominal and extended imaging modes, the satellites also feature a calibration mode to support regular in-orbit radiometric calibration of the instrument. Overall, the Sentinel- 2 satellites are designed to provide in-orbit availability for the instrument data greater than 97%, which fulfills the requirements of a fully operational system for multispectral Earth observation.

  19. Satellite based Global Flood Detection System - strengths and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revilla-Romero, Beatriz; Salamon, Peter; Thielen, Jutta; De Groeve, Tom; Zajac, Zuzanna

    2014-05-01

    One of the main problems for global hydrological models is that for many regions only very limited or no observational data for a model assessment is available. This problem could be overcome with filling the gaps using information derived from satellite observations. Thus, an evaluation of the remote sensing signal of the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS) against observed discharge data was performed in order to test the use of this data in sparsely gauged river basins. The study was carried out at 398 locations near the main rivers and in Africa, Asia, Europe, North America and South America. After evaluating different methodologies for extracting the satellite signal, a temporal (4 days) and spatial (4 GFDS pixels) average was chosen to proceed with the analysis. For the 340 stations with a concurrent time series longer than seven years for both, the signal and the in situ observed discharge (obtained mainly from the Global Runoff Data Centre), a calibration based on monthly linear models was carried out. The validation was executed and several skill scores were calculated such as the R2, Nash-Sutcliffe (NSE), and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). It is important to highlight that, for this study, 230 stations globally had Nash-Sutcliffe efficient score higher than zero, indicating that for specific conditions the satellite signal as used in GFDS can fill the gaps where observations are not available. For example, several locations in African catchments have good performance as in the Niger, Volta and Zambezi for which Nash-Sutcliffe is greater than 0.75. It is known that a number of factors affect total upwelling microwave brightness from a mixed water and land surface measured by a single image pixel. Aiming to better understand how some features of the sites could affect the satellite signal and the correlation with in situ observations, apart from the dependency on the river geometry, a multivariate analysis was carried out between the skill scores (NSE and R2) obtained from the validation and the local characteristics of the site. The potential affecting factors that were studied were the land cover, leaf area index, climatic areas, the flood extent maps, mean runoff, presence of dams and permafrost layer, as well as the upstream area. Results showed that many of the stations which received poor skills scores were due to low flow conditions. Importance of the outstanding local characteristics affecting will be explained. The work undertaken provide us with a better understanding of the impact of the local conditions on the performance of the satellite signal and give us guidance on the best locations and limitations for estimating discharge values from daily satellite signal.

  20. Inmarsat aeronautical mobile satellite system: Internetworking issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengupta, Jay R.

    1990-01-01

    The Inmarsat Aeronautical Mobile Satellite System (AMSS) provides air-ground and air-air communications services to aero-mobile users on a global basis. Communicating parties may be connected either directly, or more commonly, via interconnecting networks to the Inmarsat AMSS, in order to construct end-to-end communications circuits. The aircraft earth station (AES) and the aeronautical ground earth station (GES) are the points of interconnection of the Inmarsat AMSS to users, as well as to interconnecting networks. This paper reviews the internetworking aspects of the Inmarsat AMSS, by introducing the Inmarsat AMSS network architecture and services concepts and then discussing the internetwork address/numbering and routing techniques.

  1. Payload system tradeoffs for mobile communications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moody, H. J.

    1990-01-01

    System level trade-offs carried out during Mobile Satellite (M-SAT) design activities are described. These trade-offs relate to the use of low level beam forming, flexible power and spectrum distribution, and selection of the number of beams to cover the service area. It is shown that antenna performance can be improved by sharing horns between beams using a low level beam forming network (BFN). Additionally, greatly increased power utilization is possible using a hybrid matrix concept to share power between beams.

  2. Satellite Power System (SPS) student participation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladwig, A.; David, L.

    1978-01-01

    A assessment of methods which are appropriate to initiate student participation in the discussion of a satellite power system (SPS) is presented. Methods which are incorporated into the campus environment and the on-going learning experience are reported. The discussion of individual methods for student participation includes a description of the technique, followed by comments on its enhancing and limiting factors, references to situations where the method has been demonstrated, and a brief consideration of cost factors. The two categories of recommendations presented are: an outline of fourteen recommendations addressing specific activities related to student participation in the discussion of SPS, and three recommendations pertaining to student participation activities in general.

  3. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  4. The spatial distribution of long lived gas clouds emitted by satellites in the outer solar system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T.-M. Fang; W. H. Smyth; M. B. McElroy

    1976-01-01

    Simple models are presented for the spatial distribution of gases emitted by satellites in the outer solar system, with emphasis on Io and Titan. The models, valid for long-lived species in regions of space outside the gravitational zone of the parent satellite, are applied to observed hydrogen and sodium clouds orbiting Jupiter and to an expected hydrogen cloud around Saturn.

  5. Determining dislocation Love numbers using satellite gravity mission GRACE observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    junyan, Y.; Sun, W.

    2013-12-01

    Some large megathrust earthquakes can be detected by satellite gravity mission GRACE. The coseismic gravity changes from GRACE measurements can be perfectly explained by spherical dislocation theory. On the contrary, we can use GRACE data to invert earth dislocation Love numbers. This paper proposes a more completed theory and an inversion method to determine dislocation Love numbers using GRACE data. Taking effect of ocean water mass redistribution into consideration, we give an observation equation to model GRACE observations. The ABIC (Akaike Bayes Information Criterion) method is employed to inverse the gravity dislocation Love numbers by the constraint of a prior PREM model. Based on this method, we inverse sphere dislocation Love numbers by using simulated data and GRACE data of 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) respectively. The results show that sensitivities of Love numbers to the measurement errors are dependent on spherical harmonic degrees. The SNRs (Signal Noise Ratio) of lower degrees are much stronger than the higher ones, and the inverted gravity Love numbers of former are closer to the priori PREM model than the latter. Furthermore, GRACE can be used to invert dislocation Love numbers. However, the unknown Love numbers K12, K32 and K33-K22 cannot be constrained by the PREM Earth model at the same extent due to the orders of magnitude are much different; the K33-K22 agrees the PREM model best. Finally, the gravity changes predicted by inverted Love numbers agree GRACE data well.

  6. MY NASA DATA Lesson Plan: Storm Clouds-Fly over a Late Winter Storm onboard a NASA Earth Observing Satellite

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-01-01

    : This lesson plan uses Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) cloud data and a weather map to explore cloud coverage during a winter storm. When atmospheric scientists, including meteorologists, study weather patterns, they may use several different sources of information. For example, in studying storm patterns, they may use a combination of Earth Observing Satellite data, such as from CERES, or NOAA weather satellite imagery, and geographical tools to determine locations and paths of storms. As one part of the training to analyze this data and imagery, scientists look at 'case studies' such as the late winter storm shown in the weather satellite imagery included with the lesson. An infrared satellite image looks at the temperature. Cold things (like high clouds) are very bright. Warm things (like Mexico and Florida) are dark. The imagery can be compared to data collected by other satellites, so that improved models of storm patterns can be developed.

  7. Current Sounding Capability From Satellite Meteorological Observation With Ultraspectral Infrared Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Liu, Xu; Larar, Allen M.

    2008-01-01

    Ultraspectral resolution infrared spectral radiance obtained from near nadir observations provide atmospheric, surface, and cloud property information. The intent of the measurement of tropospheric thermodynamic state and trace abundances is the initialization of climate models and the monitoring of air quality. The NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I), designed to support the development of future satellite temperature and moisture sounders, aboard high altitude aircraft has been collecting data throughout many field campaigns. An advanced retrieval algorithm developed with NAST-I is now applied to satellite data collected with the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) on the Aqua satellite launched on 4 May 2002 and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the MetOp satellite launched on October 19, 2006. These instruments possess an ultra-spectral resolution, for example, both IASI and NAST-I have 0.25 cm-1 and a spectral coverage from 645 to 2760 cm-1. The retrieval algorithm with a fast radiative transfer model, including cloud effects, is used for atmospheric profile and cloud parameter retrieval. The physical inversion scheme has been developed, dealing with cloudy as well as cloud-free radiance observed with ultraspectral infrared sounders, to simultaneously retrieve surface, atmospheric thermodynamic, and cloud microphysical parameters. A fast radiative transfer model, which applies to the clouded atmosphere, is used for atmospheric profile and cloud parameter retrieval. A one-dimensional (1-d) variational multi-variable inversion solution is used to improve an iterative background state defined by an eigenvector-regression-retrieval. The solution is iterated in order to account for non-linearity in the 1-d variational solution. It is shown that relatively accurate temperature and moisture retrievals can be achieved below optically thin clouds. For optically thick clouds, accurate temperature and moisture profiles down to cloud top level are obtained. For both optically thin and thick cloud situations, the cloud top height can be retrieved with relatively high accuracy (i.e., error less than 1 km). Retrievals of atmospheric soundings, surface properties, and cloud microphysical properties with the AIRS and IASI observations are obtained and presented. These retrievals are further inter-compared with those obtained from airborne FTS system, such as the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed? Interferometer (NAST I), dedicated dropsondes, radiosondes, and ground based Raman Lidar. The capabilities of satellite ultra-spectral sounder such as the AIRS and IASI are investigated. These advanced satellite ultraspectral infrared instruments are now playing an important role in satellite meteorological observation for numerical weather prediction.

  8. Assimilating multi-sensor satellite observations for initializing hydrologic and agricultural forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreadis, Konstantinos; Das, Narendra; Granger, Stephanie; Han, Eunjin; Ines, Amor; Stampoulis, Dimitrios

    2015-04-01

    The application of data assimilation techniques in hydrologic studies has been gaining traction in the last 10-15 years. Most of these studies have focused on a single water cycle component, while few studies have examined methods of assimilating multiple observations from different sensors and of different hydrologic variables. The latter is challenging since any potential disparities in the observations could lead to suboptimal estimates after assimilation. The optimal estimates of hydrologic states, such as soil moisture, can be used as initial conditions for hydrologic forecasting systems. A multi-sensor and multivariate data assimilation forecast system has been developed at JPL (RHEAS, Regional Hydrologic Extremes Assessment System) with an initial focus on forecasting drought characteristics. The core of RHEAS is the VIC hydrology model, which has been widely used for many water resources applications. Apart from hydrologic forecasts, RHEAS can produce agricultural forecasts by coupling VIC with the DSSAT crop growth model. The modeling system is supported by a spatial database component, which provides access to multiple in-situ and satellite observations and allows data to be delivered to users through web-GIS or mobile application interfaces. The satellite observations, which include soil moisture, water storage, evapotranspiration, and snow cover, are assimilated into the VIC model to update the initial state of seasonal hydrologic and crop growth forecasts. We demonstrate the value of ingesting satellite observations by performing a series of hindcast experiments over both the United States (California and Upper Colorado basins) and Kenya (Nzoia basin). In-situ measurements along with a simulation with the best available datasets are used as the benchmark to evaluate the hindcasts against. The impact of each observation type or sensor is quantified, allowing for evaluating their relative contribution to improving the forecast skill. Particular case studies that are discussed in more detail include the ongoing California as well as the 2011 East Africa droughts.

  9. Detailed Analysis of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall Processes with Modern/High-Quality Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Mehta, Amita V.; Yang, Song

    2007-01-01

    We examine, in detail, Indian Summer Monsoon rainfall processes using modernhigh quality satellite precipitation measurements. The focus here is on measurements derived from three NASA cloud and precipitation satellite missionslinstruments (TRMM/PR&TMI, AQUNAMSRE, and CLOUDSATICPR), and a fourth TRMM Project-generated multi-satellite precipitation measurement dataset (viz., TRMM standard algorithm 3b42) -- all from a period beginning in 1998 up to the present. It is emphasized that the 3b42 algorithm blends passive microwave (PMW) radiometer-based precipitation estimates from LEO satellites with infi-ared (IR) precipitation estimates from a world network of CEO satellites (representing -15% of the complete space-time coverage) All of these observations are first cross-calibrated to precipitation estimates taken from standard TRMM combined PR-TMI algorithm 2b31, and second adjusted at the large scale based on monthly-averaged rain-gage measurements. The blended approach takes advantage of direct estimates of precipitation from the PMW radiometerequipped LEO satellites -- but which suffer fi-om sampling limitations -- in combination with less accurate IR estimates from the optical-infrared imaging cameras on GEO satellites -- but which provide continuous diurnal sampling. The advantages of the current technologies are evident in the continuity and coverage properties inherent to the resultant precipitation datasets that have been an outgrowth of these stable measuring and retrieval technologies. There is a wealth of information contained in the current satellite measurements of precipitation regarding the salient precipitation properties of the Indian Summer Monsoon. Using different datasets obtained from the measuring systems noted above, we have analyzed the observations cast in the form of: (1) spatially distributed means and variances over the hierarchy of relevant time scales (hourly I diurnally, daily, monthly, seasonally I intra-seasonally, and inter-annually), (2) time series at these different time scales taken as area-averages over the hierarchy of relevant space scales (Indian sub-Division, Indian sub-continent, and Circumambient Indian Ocean), (3) principal autocorrelation and cross-correlation structures over various monsoon space-time domains, (4) diurnally modulated amplitude-phase properties of rain rates over different monsoon space-time domains, (5) foremost rain rate probability distributions intrinsic to monsoon precipitation, and (6) behavior of extreme events including occurrences of flood and drought episodes throughout the course of inter-annual monsoon processes.

  10. 2.5aA laser satellite ranging system--Part I: Equipment description

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S. JOHNSON; H. H. PLOTKIN; P. L. SPADIN

    1967-01-01

    A laser tracking system has been used to track three satellites equipped with retroreflectors. An rms scatter of one to two meters derived from 200-200 observations per pass agrees with the expected instrumental precision.

  11. New Constraints on Additional Satellites of the Pluto System

    E-print Network

    A. J. Steffl; M. J. Mutchler; H. A. Weaver; S. A. Stern; D. D. Durda; D. Terrell; W. J. Merline; L. A. Young; E. F. Young; M. W. Buie; J. R. Spencer

    2006-05-23

    Observations of Pluto and its solar-tidal stability zone were made using the Advanced Camera for Surveys' (ACS) Wide Field Channel (WFC) on the Hubble Space Telescope on UT 2005 May 15 and UT 2005 May 18. Two small satellites of Pluto, provisionally designated S/2005 P 1 and S/2005 P 2, were discovered, as discussed by Weaver et al. (2006) and Stern et al. (2006a). Confirming observations of the newly discovered moons were obtained using the ACS in the High Resolution Channel (HRC) mode on 2006 Feb 15 (Mutchler et al. 2006). Both sets of observations provide strong constraints on the existence of any additional satellites in the Pluto system. Based on the May 2005 observations using the ACS/WFC, we place a 90%-confidence lower limit of m_V = 26.8 (m_V = 27.4 for a 50%-confidence lower limit) on the magnitude of undiscovered satellites greater than 5" (1.1x10^5 km) from Pluto. Using the 2005 Feb 15 ACS/HRC observations we place 90%-confidence lower limits on the apparent magnitude of any additional satellites of m_V = 26.4 between 3"-5" (6.9x10^4-1.1x10^5 km) from Pluto, m_V = 25.7 between 1"-3" (2.3x10^4-6.9x10^4 km) from Pluto, and m_V = 24. between 0.3"-1" (6.9x10^3-2.3x10^4 km) from Pluto. The 90%-confidence magnitude limits translate into upper limits on the diameters of undiscovered satellites of 29 km outside of 5" from Pluto, 36 km between 3"-5" from Pluto, 49 km between 1"-3" from Pluto, and 115 km between 0.3"-1" for a comet-like albedo of p_V = 0.04. If potential satellites are assumed to have a Charon-like albedo of p_V = 0.38, the diameter limits are 9 km, 12 km, 16 km, and 37 km, respectively.

  12. Increased-specificity famine prediction using satellite observation data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Quinn; Anthony Gidudu

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the use of remote sensing satellite data to predict food shortages among different categories of households in famine-prone areas. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and rainfall estimate data, which can be derived from multi-spectral satellite radiometer images, has long been used to predict crop yields and hence famine. This gives an overall prediction of food insecurity in

  13. Influence of cloud properties on satellite total ozone observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Antón; Diego Loyola

    2011-01-01

    Clouds represent one of the most important atmospheric factors that can significantly reduce the accuracy of satellite total ozone column (TOC) data. The influence of clouds on the TOC retrieval from satellites is usually assessed by means of theoretical studies using radiative transfer models. In contrast, few experimental results were found in the literature about the effects of the cloud

  14. 218 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 22, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2004 Cache Satellite Distribution Systems: Modeling,

    E-print Network

    Levy, Hanoch

    218 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 22, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2004 Cache Satellite observed by Web clients. Cache satellite distribution systems (CSDSs) have emerged as a technology. The central station selects a collection of Web documents, which are "pushed" via a satellite broadcast

  15. National Satellite Forest Monitoring systems for REDD+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonckheere, I. G.

    2012-12-01

    Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) is an effort to create a financial value for the carbon stored in forests, offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development. "REDD+" goes beyond deforestation and forest degradation, and includes the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. In the framework of getting countries ready for REDD+, the UN-REDD Programme assists developing countries to prepare and implement national REDD+ strategies. For the monitoring, reporting and verification, FAO supports the countries to develop national satellite forest monitoring systems that allow for credible measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of REDD+ activities. These are among the most critical elements for the successful implementation of any REDD+ mechanism. The UN-REDD Programme through a joint effort of FAO and Brazil's National Space Agency, INPE, is supporting countries to develop cost- effective, robust and compatible national monitoring and MRV systems, providing tools, methodologies, training and knowledge sharing that help countries to strengthen their technical and institutional capacity for effective MRV systems. To develop strong nationally-owned forest monitoring systems, technical and institutional capacity building is key. The UN-REDD Programme, through FAO, has taken on intensive training together with INPE, and has provided technical help and assistance for in-country training and implementation for national satellite forest monitoring. The goal of the support to UN-REDD pilot countries in this capacity building effort is the training of technical forest people and IT persons from interested REDD+ countries, and to set- up the national satellite forest monitoring systems. The Brazilian forest monitoring system, TerraAmazon, which is used as a basis for this initiative, allows countries to adapt it to country needs and the training on the TerraAmazon system is a tool to enhance existing capacity on carbon monitoring systems. The support with the National Forest Monitoring System will allow these countries to follow all actions related to the implementation of its national REDD+ policies and measures. The monitoring system will work as a platform to obtain information on their REDD+ results and actions, related directly or indirectly to national REDD+ strategies and may also include actions unrelated to carbon assessment, such as forest law enforcement. With the technical assistance of FAO, INPE and other stakeholders, the countries will set up an autonomous operational forest monitoring system. An initial version and the methodologies of the system for DRC and PNG has been launched in Durban, South Africa during COP 17 and in 2012 Paraguay, Viet Nam and Zambia will be launched in Doha, Qatar at COP 18. The access to high-quality satellite data for these countries is crucial for the set-up.

  16. Observations in the thermal IR and visible of a retired satellite in the graveyard orbit, and comparisons to active satellites in GEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Mark A.; Russell, Ray W.; Kelecy, Tom; Gregory, Steve; Rudy, Richard J.; Kim, Daryl L.; Crawford, Kirk

    2014-12-01

    There exists a population of defunct satellites in the geo-stationary arc that potentially pose a hazard to current and future operational satellites. These drifting, non-station-kept objects have a variety of ages and sizes, and many are trapped in libration orbits around the Earth's two gravitational potential wells (the non-spherical nature of the Earth gives rise to two geo-potential wells or "stable points" that affect objects in geostationary and geosynchronous orbits), whereas others were boosted to higher altitudes into so-called "graveyard" orbits. We have observed several of the approximately 49 objects in libration orbits about the Western stable point (R. Choc, T. Flohrer, and B. Bastida, "Classification of Geosynchronous Objects," Issue 13, ESA/ESOC, February 2011), as well as objects in graveyard orbits. We have carried out an observational campaign utilizing The Aerospace Corporation's 3-13 ?m Broadband Array Spectrograph System (BASS), as well as with several optical sensors to collect data on a representative sample of these objects at a variety of solar phase angles. Here we report on recent BASS observations of a retired satellite in the "graveyard" orbit, and compare them with data we had collected over six years ago, while the satellite was still active. Data are also presented on similar satellites that are still active. We describe our methods, the data collected, our results, and our future plans.

  17. Progress in Near Real-Time Volcanic Cloud Observations Using Satellite UV Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotkov, N. A.; Yang, K.; Vicente, G.; Hughes, E. J.; Carn, S. A.; Krueger, A. J.

    2011-12-01

    Volcanic clouds from explosive eruptions can wreak havoc in many parts of the world, as exemplified by the 2010 eruption at the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland, which caused widespread disruption to air traffic and resulted in economic impacts across the globe. A suite of satellite-based systems offer the most effective means to monitor active volcanoes and to track the movement of volcanic clouds globally, providing critical information for aviation hazard mitigation. Satellite UV sensors, as part of this suite, have a long history of making unique near-real time (NRT) measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ash (aerosol Index) in volcanic clouds to supplement operational volcanic ash monitoring. Recently a NASA application project has shown that the use of near real-time (NRT,i.e., not older than 3 h) Aura/OMI satellite data produces a marked improvement in volcanic cloud detection using SO2 combined with Aerosol Index (AI) as a marker for ash. An operational online NRT OMI AI and SO2 image and data product distribution system was developed in collaboration with the NOAA Office of Satellite Data Processing and Distribution. Automated volcanic eruption alarms, and the production of volcanic cloud subsets for multiple regions are provided through the NOAA website. The data provide valuable information in support of the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration goal of a safe and efficient National Air Space. In this presentation, we will highlight the advantages of UV techniques and describe the advances in volcanic SO2 plume height estimation and enhanced volcanic ash detection using hyper-spectral UV measurements, illustrated with Aura/OMI observations of recent eruptions. We will share our plan to provide near-real-time volcanic cloud monitoring service using the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) on the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS).

  18. Satellite Observations of the Effect of Natural and Anthropogenic Aerosols on Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.

    2006-01-01

    Our knowledge of atmospheric aerosols (smoke, pollution, dust or sea salt particles, small enough to be suspended in the air), their evolution, composition, variability in space and time and interaction with clouds and precipitation is still lacking despite decades of research. Understanding the global aerosol system is critical to quantifying anthropogenic climate change, to determine climate sensitivity from observations and to understand the hydrological cycle. While a single instrument was used to demonstrate 50 years ago that the global CO2 levels are rising, posing threat of global warming, we need an array of satellites and field measurements coupled with chemical transport models to understand the global aerosol system. This complexity of the aerosol problem results from their short lifetime (1 week) and variable chemical composition. A new generation of satellites provides exciting opportunities to measure the global distribution of aerosols, distinguishing natural from anthropogenic aerosol and measuring their interaction with clouds and climate.

  19. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) System Architecture: Suomi-NPP to the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furgerson, J.; Layns, A.; Feeley, J. H.; Griffin, A.; Trumbower, G.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system, named the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). NOAA has overall responsibility for the system including funding and requirements while the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) serves as the acquisition and development agent. The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite was launched on 28 October, 2011, and is a pathfinder for JPSS and provides continuity for the NASA Earth Observation System and the NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) system. S-NPP and the follow-on JPSS satellites will operate in the 1330 LTAN orbit. JPSS-1 is scheduled to launch in early 2017. NASA is developing the Common Ground System which will process JPSS data and has the flexibility to process data from other satellites. This poster will provide a top level status update of the program, as well as an overview of the JPSS system architecture. The space segment carries a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, and climatological observations of the earth and atmosphere. The system design allows centralized mission management and delivers high quality environmental products to military, civil and scientific users through a Command, Control, and Communication Segment (C3S). The data processing for S-NPP/JPSS is accomplished through an Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS)/Field Terminal Segment (FTS) that processes S-NPP/JPSS satellite data to provide environmental data products to U.S. and international partners as well as remote terminal users throughout the world.

  20. Observational capabilities of solar satellite "Coronas-Photon"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, Yu.

    Coronas-Photon mission is the third satellite of the Russian Coronas program on solar activity observation The main goal of the Coronas-Photon is the study of solar hard electromagnetic radiation in the wide energy range from UV up to high energy gamma-radiation sim 2000MeV Scientific payload for solar radiation observation consists of three type of instruments 1 monitors Natalya-2M Konus-RF RT-2 Penguin-M BRM Phoka Sphin-X Sokol for spectral and timing measurements of full solar disk radiation with timing in flare burst mode up to one msec Instruments Natalya-2M Konus-RF RT-2 will cover the wide energy range of hard X-rays and soft Gamma rays 15keV to 2000MeV and will together constitute the largest area detectors ever used for solar observations Detectors of gamma-ray monitors are based on structured inorganic scintillators with energy resolution sim 5 for nuclear gamma-line band to 35 for GeV-band PSD analysis is used for gamma neutron separation for solar neutron registration T 30MeV Penguin-M has capability to measure linear polarization of hard X-rays using azimuth are measured by Compton scattering asymmetry in case of polarization of an incident flux For X-ray and EUV monitors the scintillation phoswich detectors gas proportional counter CZT assembly and Filter-covered Si-diodes are used 2 Telescope-spectrometer TESIS for imaging solar spectroscopy in X-rays with angular resolution up to 1 in three spectral lines and RT-2 CZT assembly of CZT

  1. Contel ASC satellite and network control operations system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, Des R.

    The various elements of the Contel ASC satellite and network control system are described. The tracking, telemetry, and command system is addressed, and the satellite operations control center is considered. The in-orbit test system and the network services center are examined. The challenges inherent in operating the entire system are discussed.

  2. Mobile satellite communications systems: Toward global personal communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John H. Lodge

    1991-01-01

    The constraints imposed by the RF environment are reviewed. An overview of present and planned mobile satellite systems is given. Present systems refer to those already in operation, while planned systems refer to those that have authority to offer the services and have either a satellite in orbit or one being built to support the systems. Future directions for mobile

  3. Retrofitting a fine-pointing system to satellite optics

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, R.O.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describe a system that was added to an existing satellite-borne telescope design for the purpose of compensating the boresight errors that had been observed in earlier flights of similar instruments. Those errors had been found to be caused by thermal distortion of the spaceframe. This retrofit design was subject to severe volume restrictions because it was fitted into an already tightly-packaged instrument envelope. It was found practical to improve the basic design by converting a redundant structure into a statically-determinate one. It was also possible to use portions of the mechanical actuation system to facilitate the position encoding needed for computer interfacing.

  4. An advanced system design for future global mobile satellite communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideo Okinaka; Yasuo Hirata

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a system concept applicable to the future global mobile satellite communications system. The main features of the proposed system are a demand-assigned beam-hopping TDMA operation in the satellite-to-mobile direction and a demand-assigned SCPC operation in the mobile-to-satellite direction. A beam-hopping repeater configuration which does not require a dynamic switch between transmitters and a multiple spot beam antenna

  5. First Satellite Observations of Lower Tropospheric Ammonia and Methanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beer, Reinhard; Shephard, Mark W.; Kulawik, Susan S.; Clough, Shepard A.; Eldering, Annmarie; Bowman, Kevin W.; Sander, Stanley P.; Fisher, Brendan M.; Payne, Vivienne H.; Luo, Mingzhao; Osterman, Gregory B.; Worden, John R.

    2008-01-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the EOS Aura satellite makes global measurements of infrared radiances which are used to derive profiles of species such as O3, CO, H2O, HDO and CH4 as routine standard products. In addition, TES has a variety of special modes that provide denser spatial mapping over a limited geographical area. A continuous-coverage mode (called ''transect'', about 460 km long) has now been used to detect additional molecules indicative of regional air pollution. On 10 July 2007 at about 05:37 UTC (13:24 LMST) TES conducted such a transect observation over the Beijing area in northeast China. Examination of the residual spectral radiances following the retrieval of the TES standard products revealed surprisingly strong features attributable to enhanced concentrations of ammonia (NH3) and methanol (CH3OH), well above the normal background levels. This is the first time that these molecules have been detected in space-based nadir viewing measurements that penetrate into the lower atmosphere.

  6. Assimilating satellite ocean-colour observations into oceanic ecosystem models.

    PubMed

    Hemmings, John C P; Srokosz, Meric A; Challenor, Peter; Fasham, Michael J R

    2003-01-15

    The effectiveness of ocean-colour data assimilation in providing robust biological-parameter estimates for basin-scale ecosystem models is investigated for a phytoplankton-zooplankton-nutrient model using North Atlantic satellite chlorophyll data. The model is forced by annual cycles of mixed-layer depth, day length, photosynthetically available radiation and a temperature-dependent phytoplankton maximum growth rate. Although ocean-colour data are potentially limited in their ability to constrain model parameters because they provide information about the phytoplankton component only, this limitation is offset by the volume of data available covering the range of possible biogeochemical responses to similar and widely varying physical conditions. The results are improved by applying wintertime nutrient estimates based on in situ observations as an additional constraint. Repeatability of parameter estimates obtained from independent samples is examined. Results obtained using regional and basin-wide sampling strategies for obtaining the optimization dataset are compared and the geographic applicability of the calibrated models is assessed. PMID:12626236

  7. Cirrus cloud-temperature interactions over a tropical station, Gadanki from lidar and satellite observations

    SciTech Connect

    S, Motty G, E-mail: mottygs@gmail.com; Satyanarayana, M., E-mail: mottygs@gmail.com; Krishnakumar, V., E-mail: mottygs@gmail.com; Dhaman, Reji k., E-mail: mottygs@gmail.com [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Trivandrum-695 581, Kerala (India)

    2014-10-15

    The cirrus clouds play an important role in the radiation budget of the earth's atmospheric system and are important to characterize their vertical structure and optical properties. LIDAR measurements are obtained from the tropical station Gadanki (13.5{sup 0} N, 79.2{sup 0} E), India, and meteorological indicators derived from Radiosonde data. Most of the cirrus clouds are observed near to the tropopause, which substantiates the strength of the tropical convective processes. The height and temperature dependencies of cloud height, optical depth, and depolarization ratio were investigated. Cirrus observations made using CALIPSO satellite are compared with lidar data for systematic statistical study of cirrus climatology.

  8. SAW based systems for mobile communications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peach, R. C.; Miller, N.; Lee, M.

    1993-01-01

    Modern mobile communications satellites, such as INMARSAT 3, EMS, and ARTEMIS, use advanced onboard processing to make efficient use of the available L-band spectrum. In all of these cases, high performance surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are used. SAW filters can provide high selectivity (100-200 kHz transition widths), combined with flat amplitude and linear phase characteristics; their simple construction and radiation hardness also makes them especially suitable for space applications. An overview of the architectures used in the above systems, describing the technologies employed, and the use of bandwidth switchable SAW filtering (BSSF) is given. The tradeoffs to be considered when specifying a SAW based system are analyzed, using both theoretical and experimental data. Empirical rules for estimating SAW filter performance are given. Achievable performance is illustrated using data from the INMARSAT 3 engineering model (EM) processors.

  9. Spectroradiometric considerations for advanced land observing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1986-01-01

    Research aimed at improving the inflight absolute radiometric calibration of advanced land observing systems was initiated. Emphasis was on the satellite sensor calibration program at White Sands. Topics addressed include: absolute radiometric calibration of advanced remote sensing; atmospheric effects on reflected radiation; inflight radiometric calibration; field radiometric methods for reflectance and atmospheric measurement; and calibration of field relectance radiometers.

  10. Ionospheric electron density irregularities observed by satellite-to-satellite, dual-frequency, low-low Doppler tracking link

    SciTech Connect

    Estes, R.D.; Grossi, M.D.

    1984-07-01

    A low-low, satellite-to-satellite, dual-frequency, Doppler tracking experiment was performed. The data are analyzed here for irregularities in electron density at the altitude of 212 km. The differential Doppler data with the relative motion term removed are integrated to obtain a representation of the electron density variation along the satellite path. Well-known large-scale features such as the equatorial geomagnetic anomaly and day/night ionization level differences are clearly observed in the integrated data. The larger crest of the morning geomagnetic anomaly is seen to occur in the southern (winter) hemisphere in agreement with previous observations. In addition, a sharp peak in the electron density at the day-to-night transition point is observed in two consecutive revolutions. This effect may be due to the previously postulated atmospheric shock wave generated by supersonic motion of the terminator. 48 references.

  11. Accessing Recent Trend of Land Surface Temperature from Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, S.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Romanov, P.

    2011-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is an important element to measure the state of the terrestrial ecosystems and to study the surface energy budgets. In support of the land cover/land use change related international program MAIRS (Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study), we have collected the global monthly LST measured by MODIS since the beginning of the missions. The MODIS LST time series have ~11 years of data from Terra since 2000 and ~9 years of data from Aqua since 2002, which makes possible to study the recent climate, such as trend and variability. In this study, monthly climatology from two satellite platforms are calculated and compared. The spatial patterns of LST trends are accessed, focusing on the Asian Monsoon region. Furthermore, the MODIS LST trends are compared with the skin temperature trend from the NASA's atmospheric assimilation model, MERRA (MODERN ERA RETROSPECTIVE-ANALYSIS FOR RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS), which has longer data record since 1979. The calculated climatology and anomaly of MODIS LST will be integrated into the online visualization system, Giovanni, at NASA GES DISC for easy access and use by scientists and general public.

  12. Texstar: The all-Texas educational satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Longhorn Satellite Company (LSC) has designed Texstar, and educational satellite communications system which will be considered as a means of equalizing the distribution of educational resources throughout the state of Texas. Texstar will be capable of broadcasting live lectures and documentaries in addition to transmitting data from a centralized receiving-transmitting station. Included in the design of Texstar is the system and subsystem design for the satellite and the design of the ground stations. The launch vehicle used will be the Texas-built Conestoga 421-48. The Texstar system incorporates three small satellites in slightly inclined geosynchronous orbits. Due to the configuration and spacing of these satellites, the system will be accessed as if it were one large, geostationary satellite. Texstar is shown to be a viable option to the educational crisis in the state of Texas.

  13. The first observations of laser satellites from plasma created by high intense laser pulses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Yu Skobelev; A. Ya Faenov; A. I. Magunov; A. Osterheld; B. Young; J. Dunn; R. E. Stewart

    1997-01-01

    Laser satellites, i.e. spectral lines caused by non-linear interaction of strong laser radiation with multicharged ions, are observed for the first time. Their identification are carried out by comparison of both experimental wavelengths and intensities with theoretical ones. It is shown that observation of laser satellites allows to measure directly the energies of ionic metastable states.

  14. Characterizing Open Ocean Ecosystems Using Satellite Observations: Beyond the Remote Assessment of Chlorophyll

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Siegel

    2009-01-01

    Satellite observations have brought a new vantage for characterizing open ocean ecosystems on local to global spatial scales and from intraseasonal to interannual time scales. These satellite observations are most often used to assess the time\\/space distribution of the chlorophyll concentration, the primary photosynthetic pigment found in all phytoplankton. However, there are additional optically active constituents regulating the color of

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF TROPOSPHERIC TRACE GAS SOURCES: SYNERGISTIC USE OF HCHO AND OTHER SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry Marbach; Steffen Beirle; Christian Frankenberg; Ulrich Platt; Thomas Wagner

    2007-01-01

    Satellite observations provide unique opportunities for the identifications of trace gas sources on a global scale. In our case, the satellite Formaldehyde (HCHO) observations provide information concerning the localization of biomass burning (intense source of HCHO over the Amazon basin region and in central Africa) and biogenic isoprene emissions. The HCHO data can be compared with NO2, glyoxal and CO

  16. Diode laser satellite systems for beamed power transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Williams; J. H. Kwon; G. H. Walker; D. H. Humes

    1990-01-01

    A power system composed of an orbiting laser satellite and a surface-based receiver\\/converter is described. Power is transmitted from the satellite to the receiver\\/converter by laser beam. The satellite components are: (1) solar collector; (2) blackbody; (3) photovoltaic cells; (4) heat radiators; (5) laser system; and (6) transmission optics. The receiver\\/converter components are: receiver dish; lenticular lens; photocells; and heat

  17. Solar power satellite system definition study, volume 4, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Results of an overall evaluation of the solar power satellite concept are reported. Specific topics covered include: solid state sandwich configuration; parametric development of reliability design; power distribution system for solid state solar power satellites; multibeam transmission; GEO base system configuration; suppression of the heavy lift launch vehicle trajectory; conceptual design of an offshore space center facility; solar power satellite development and operations scenario; and microwave power transmission technology, advancement, development, and facility requirements.

  18. Performance and observation summary of Changchun Satellite Laser Ranging Station

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chengzhi Liu; You Zhao; Cunbo Fan; Douxing Cui; Xingwei Han; Fumin Yang

    2002-01-01

    This note introduces the performance and observation summary of the SLR system at Changcun Observatory, the Chinese Academy\\u000a of Sciences. The performance of the SLR system has been greatly improved since August 1997. The single shot precision is improved\\u000a from 5–7 cm to 1–2 cm and the normal point precision reaches 4–7 mm. The long-term stability is better than 1

  19. Satellites around Massive Galaxies Since z ~ 2: Confronting the Millennium Simulation with Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quilis, Vicent; Trujillo, Ignacio

    2012-06-01

    Minor merging has been postulated as the most likely evolutionary path to produce the increase in size and mass observed in the massive galaxies since z ~ 2. In this Letter, we directly test this hypothesis, comparing the population of satellites around massive galaxies in cosmological simulations versus the observations. We use state-of-the-art, publically available, Millennium I and II simulations, and the associated semi-analytical galaxy catalogs to explore the time evolution of the fraction of massive galaxies that have satellites, the number of satellites per galaxy, the projected distance at which the satellites locate from the host galaxy, and the mass ratio between the host galaxies and their satellites. The three virtual galaxy catalogs considered here overproduce the fraction of galaxies with satellites by a factor ranging between 1.5 and 6 depending on the epoch, whereas the mean projected distance and ratio of the satellite mass over host mass are in closer agreement with data. The larger pull of satellites in the semi-analytical samples could suggest that the size evolution found in previous hydrodynamical simulations is an artifact due to the larger number of infalling satellites compared to the real universe. These results advise us to revise the physical ingredients implemented in the semi-analytical models in order to reconcile the observed and computed fraction of galaxies with satellites, and eventually, it would leave some room for other mechanisms explaining the galaxy size growth not related to the minor merging.

  20. LCROSS (Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite) Observation Campaign: Strategies, Implementation, and Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Colaprete, Anthony; Wooden, Diane H.; Ackermann, Robert F.; Acton, David D.; Backus, Peter R.; Bailey, Vanessa; Ball, Jesse G.; Barott, William C.; Blair, Samantha K.; Buie, Marc W.; Callahan, Shawn; Chanover, Nancy J.; Choi, Young-Jun; Conrad, Al; Coulson, Dolores M.; Crawford, Kirk B.; DeHart, Russell; de Pater, Imke; Disanti, Michael; Forster, James R.; Furusho, Reiko; Fuse, Tetsuharu; Geballe, Tom; Gibson, J. Duane; Goldstein, David; Gregory, Stephen A.; Gutierrez, David J.; Hamilton, Ryan T.; Hamura, Taiga; Harker, David E.; Harp, Gerry R.; Haruyama, Junichi; Hastie, Morag; Hayano, Yutaka; Hinz, Phillip; Hong, Peng K.; James, Steven P.; Kadono, Toshihiko; Kawakita, Hideyo; Kelley, Michael S.; Kim, Daryl L.; Kurosawa, Kosuke; Lee, Duk-Hang; Long, Michael; Lucey, Paul G.; Marach, Keith; Matulonis, Anthony C.; McDermid, Richard M.; McMillan, Russet; Miller, Charles; Moon, Hong-Kyu; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Noda, Hirotomo; Okamura, Natsuko; Ong, Lawrence; Porter, Dallan; Puschell, Jeffery J.; Rayner, John T.; Rembold, J. Jedadiah; Roth, Katherine C.; Rudy, Richard J.; Russell, Ray W.; Ryan, Eileen V.; Ryan, William H.; Sekiguchi, Tomohiko; Sekine, Yasuhito; Skinner, Mark A.; Sôma, Mitsuru; Stephens, Andrew W.; Storrs, Alex; Suggs, Robert M.; Sugita, Seiji; Sung, Eon-Chang; Takatoh, Naruhisa; Tarter, Jill C.; Taylor, Scott M.; Terada, Hiroshi; Trujillo, Chadwick J.; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya; Vilas, Faith; Walls, Brian D.; Watanabe, Jun-ihi; Welch, William J.; Woodward, Charles E.; Yim, Hong-Suh; Young, Eliot F.

    2012-05-01

    NASA's LCROSS (Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite) mission was designed to explore the nature of previously detected enhanced levels of hydrogen near the lunar poles. The LCROSS mission impacted the spent upper stage of the launch vehicle into a permanently shadowed region of the lunar surface to create an ejecta plume. The resultant impact crater and plume were then observed by the LCROSS Shepherding Spacecraft as well as a cadre of telescopes on the Earth and in space to determine the nature of the materials contained within the permanently shadowed region. The Shepherding Spacecraft then became a second impactor which was also observed by multiple assets. The LCROSS Observation Campaign was a key component of the LCROSS mission. The goal of the Observation Campaign was to realize the scientific benefits of extending the LCROSS observations to multiple ground and space-based assets. This paper describes the LCROSS Observation Campaign and provides an overview of the Campaign coordination and logistics as well as a summary of the observation techniques utilized at a multitude of observatories. Lessons learned from the LCROSS Observation Campaign are also discussed to assist with the planning of future unique observing events.

  1. SatCam: A mobile application for coordinated ground/satellite observation of clouds and validation of satellite-derived cloud mask products.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumley, L.; Parker, D.; Flynn, B.; Holz, R.; Marais, W.

    2011-12-01

    SatCam is an application for iOS devices that allows users to collect observations of local cloud and surface conditions in coordination with an overpass of the Terra, Aqua, or NPP satellites. SatCam allows users to acquire images of sky conditions and ground conditions at their location anywhere in the world using the built-in iPhone or iPod Touch camera at the same time that the satellite is passing overhead and viewing their location. Immediately after the sky and ground observations are acquired, the application asks the user to rate the level of cloudiness in the sky (Completely Clear, Mostly Clear, Partly Cloudy, Overcast). For the ground observation, the user selects their assessment of the surface conditions (Urban, Green Vegetation, Brown Vegetation, Desert, Snow, Water). The sky condition and surface condition selections are stored along with the date, time, and geographic location for the images, and the images are uploaded to a central server. When the MODIS (Terra and Aqua) or VIIRS (NPP) imagery acquired over the user location becomes available, a MODIS or VIIRS true color image centered at the user's location is delivered back to the SatCam application on the user's iOS device. SSEC also proposes to develop a community driven SatCam website where users can share their observations and assessments of satellite cloud products in a collaborative environment. SSEC is developing a server side data analysis system to ingest the SatCam user observations, apply quality control, analyze the sky images for cloud cover, and collocate the observations with MODIS and VIIRS satellite products (e.g., cloud mask). For each observation that is collocated with a satellite observation, the server will determine whether the user scored a "hit", meaning their sky observation and sky assessment matched the automated cloud mask obtained from the satellite observation. The hit rate will be an objective assessment of the accuracy of the user's sky observations. Users with high hit rates will be identified automatically and their observations will be used globally to evaluate the performance of the MODIS cloud mask algorithm for Terra and Aqua and the VIIRS cloud mask algorithm for NPP. The user's assessment of the ground conditions will also be used to evaluate the cloud mask accuracy in selecting the correct surface type at the user's location, which is an important element in the decision path used internally by the cloud mask algorithm. This presentation will describe the SatCam application, how it is used, and show examples of SatCam observations.

  2. Retrieval of Aerosol Absorption Properties from Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Omar; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Jethva, H.; Ahn, Chang-Woo

    2012-01-01

    The Angstrom Absorption Exponent (AAE) is a parameter commonly used to characterize the wavelength-dependence of aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD). It is closely related to aerosol composition. Black carbon (BC) containing aerosols yield AAE values near unity whereas Organic carbon (OC) aerosol particles are associated with values larger than 2. Even larger AAE values have been reported for desert dust aerosol particles. Knowledge of spectral AAOD is necessary for the calculation of direct radiative forcing effect of aerosols and for inferring aerosol composition. We have developed a satellitebased method of determining the spectral AAOD of absorbing aerosols. The technique uses multi-spectral measurements of upwelling radiation from scenes where absorbing aerosols lie above clouds as indicated by the UV Aerosol Index. For those conditions, the satellite measurement can be explained, using an approximations of Beer's Law (BL), as the upwelling reflectance at the cloud top attenuated by the absorption effects of the overlying aerosol layer. The upwelling reflectance at the cloud-top in an aerosol-free atmospheric column is mainly a function of cloud optical depth (COD). In the proposed method of AAE derivation, the first step is determining COD which is retrieved using a previously developed color-ratio based approach. In the second step, corrections for molecular scattering effects are applied to both the observed ad the calculated cloud reflectance terms, and the spectral AAOD is then derived by an inversion of the BL approximation. The proposed technique will be discussed in detail and application results making use of OMI multi-spectral measurements in the UV-Vis. will be presented.

  3. Characterizing tropical overshooting deep convection from joint analysis of CloudSat and geostationary satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hanii; Luo, Zhengzhao Johnny

    2014-01-01

    overshooting deep convection (ODC) plays an important role in affecting the heat and constituent budgets of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. This study investigates the properties and behaviors of such intense deep convection using a combination of CloudSat observations and geostationary satellite data. Our study approaches the subject from two unique perspectives: first, W-band cloud profiling radar (CPR) observations from CloudSat are used, which add to our knowledge of the internal vertical structure of tropical ODC; second, each snapshot observation from CloudSat is cast into the time evolution of the convective systems through joint analysis of geostationary satellite data, which provides a lifecycle view of tropical ODC. Climatology of tropical ODC based on CloudSat data is first presented and compared with previous works. Various parameters from CloudSat observations pertaining to cloud vertical extent, convective intensity, and convective environment are analyzed. Although results broadly agree with previous studies, we show that CloudSat CPR is capable of capturing both small cloud particles and large precipitation-size particles, thus presenting a more complete depiction of the internal vertical structure of tropical ODC. Geostationary satellite observations are analyzed in conjunction with CloudSat data to identify the life stage of the convective systems (CSs) in which ODC is embedded. ODC associated with the growing, mature, and dissipating stage of the CSs represents, respectively, 66.2%, 33.4%, and 0.4% of the total population. Convective intensity of the ODC is found to be stronger during the growing stage than the mature stage.

  4. Feature Detection Systems Enhance Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    In 1963, during the ninth orbit of the Faith 7 capsule, astronaut Gordon Cooper skipped his nap and took some photos of the Earth below using a Hasselblad camera. The sole flier on the Mercury-Atlas 9 mission, Cooper took 24 photos - never-before-seen images including the Tibetan plateau, the crinkled heights of the Himalayas, and the jagged coast of Burma. From his lofty perch over 100 miles above the Earth, Cooper noted villages, roads, rivers, and even, on occasion, individual houses. In 1965, encouraged by the effectiveness of NASA s orbital photography experiments during the Mercury and subsequent Gemini manned space flight missions, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) director William Pecora put forward a plan for a remote sensing satellite program that would collect information about the planet never before attainable. By 1972, NASA had built and launched Landsat 1, the first in a series of Landsat sensors that have combined to provide the longest continuous collection of space-based Earth imagery. The archived Landsat data - 37 years worth and counting - has provided a vast library of information allowing not only the extensive mapping of Earth s surface but also the study of its environmental changes, from receding glaciers and tropical deforestation to urban growth and crop harvests. Developed and launched by NASA with data collection operated at various times by the Agency, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Earth Observation Satellite Company (EOSAT, a private sector partnership that became Space Imaging Corporation in 1996), and USGS, Landsat sensors have recorded flooding from Hurricane Katrina, the building boom in Dubai, and the extinction of the Aral Sea, offering scientists invaluable insights into the natural and manmade changes that shape the world. Of the seven Landsat sensors launched since 1972, Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 are still operational. Though both are in use well beyond their intended lifespans, the mid-resolution satellites, which provide the benefit of images detailed enough to reveal large features like highways while still broad enough for global coverage, continue to scan the entirety of the Earth s surface. In 2012, NASA plans to launch the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), or Landsat 8, to extend the Landsat program s contributions to cartography, water management, natural disaster relief planning, and more.

  5. KAGLVis - On-line 3D Visualisation of Earth-observing-satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szuba, Marek; Ameri, Parinaz; Grabowski, Udo; Maatouki, Ahmad; Meyer, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    One of the goals of the Large-Scale Data Management and Analysis project is to provide a high-performance framework facilitating management of data acquired by Earth-observing satellites such as Envisat. On the client-facing facet of this framework, we strive to provide visualisation and basic analysis tool which could be used by scientists with minimal to no knowledge of the underlying infrastructure. Our tool, KAGLVis, is a JavaScript client-server Web application which leverages modern Web technologies to provide three-dimensional visualisation of satellite observables on a wide range of client systems. It takes advantage of the WebGL API to employ locally available GPU power for 3D rendering; this approach has been demonstrated to perform well even on relatively weak hardware such as integrated graphics chipsets found in modern laptop computers and with some user-interface tuning could even be usable on embedded devices such as smartphones or tablets. Data is fetched from the database back-end using a ReST API and cached locally, both in memory and using HTML5 Web Storage, to minimise network use. Computations, calculation of cloud altitude from cloud-index measurements for instance, can depending on configuration be performed on either the client or the server side. Keywords: satellite data, Envisat, visualisation, 3D graphics, Web application, WebGL, MEAN stack.

  6. Engineering calculations for communications satellite systems planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, E.; Aebker, E.; Mata, F.; Reilly, C.

    1991-01-01

    The final phase of a satellite synthesis project is described. Several methods for generating satellite positionings with improved aggregate carrier to interference characteristics were studied. Two general methods for modifying required separation values are presented. Also, two methods for improving aggregate carrier to interference (C/I) performance of given satellite synthesis solutions are presented. A perturbation of the World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC) synthesis is presented.

  7. Developing aerosol retrieval algorithm applicable for multi-platform satellite observations in Far East Asia: problems and sensitivity tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, M.; Kim, H.; Lee, D.

    2012-12-01

    Aerosols have diverse impacts on human health, industrial activities, and the climate system of the earth. Given their large spatial and temporal variability, monitoring aerosols from multiple observation systems, especially from satellites, is essential, but it has been reported in the literature that there are large discrepancies of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) among different aerosol products, which prevents users from widely using those datasets by combining multiple data products observed at different times in a diurnal cycle. Major factors causing such discrepancies include the differences in cloud-screening and aerosol optical property models employed in respective retrieval algorithms. In this study a satellite-based aerosol retrieval algorithm is under development, which is intended to apply for the observations from multiple satellite platforms such as MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua and Meteorological Imager aboard Communication, Ocean, Meteorological Satellite (COMS) in Far East Asia. While a retrieval algorithm applicable for multiple satellite platforms including a geostationary satellite has a limitation in terms of taking advantages of multi-channel information to better resolve aerosol optical properties during retrieval process, consistency in cloud-screening and aerosol optical property models is expected to help improve coherence in the retrieved AOT from different satellite platforms for their combined use. In this presentation, outstanding issues and problems to develop a single retrieval algorithm applicable to multiple satellite sensors and relevant results of sensitive tests are provided. Acknowledgment: This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant CATER2012-2064.

  8. Interleaved Observation Execution and Rescheduling on Earth Observing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khatib, Lina; Frank, Jeremy; Smith, David; Morris, Robert; Dungan, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Observation scheduling for Earth orbiting satellites solves the following problem: given a set of requests for images of the Earth, a set of instruments for acquiring those images distributed on a collecting of orbiting satellites, and a set of temporal and resource constraints, generate a set of assignments of instruments and viewing times to those requests that satisfy those constraints. Observation scheduling is often construed as a constrained optimization problem with the objective of maximizing the overall utility of the science data acquired. The utility of an image is typically based on the intrinsic importance of acquiring it (for example, its importance in meeting a mission or science campaign objective) as well as the expected value of the data given current viewing conditions (for example, if the image is occluded by clouds, its value is usually diminished). Currently, science observation scheduling for Earth Observing Systems is done on the ground, for periods covering a day or more. Schedules are uplinked to the satellites and are executed rigorously. An alternative to this scenario is to do some of the decision-making about what images are to be acquired on-board. The principal argument for this capability is that the desirability of making an observation can change dynamically, because of changes in meteorological conditions (e.g. cloud cover), unforeseen events such as fires, floods, or volcanic eruptions, or un-expected changes in satellite or ground station capability. Furthermore, since satellites can only communicate with the ground between 5% to 10% of the time, it may be infeasible to make the desired changes to the schedule on the ground, and uplink the revisions in time for the on-board system to execute them. Examples of scenarios that motivate an on-board capability for revising schedules include the following. First, if a desired visual scene is completely obscured by clouds, then there is little point in taking it. In this case, satellite resources, such as power and storage space can be better utilized taking another image that is higher quality. Second, if an unexpected but important event occurs (such as a fire, flood, or volcanic eruption), there may be good reason to take images of it, instead of expending satellite resources on some of the lower priority scheduled observations. Finally, if there is unexpected loss of capability, it may be impossible to carry out the schedule of planned observations. For example, if a ground station goes down temporarily, a satellite may not be able to free up enough storage space to continue with the remaining schedule of observations. This paper describes an approach for interleaving execution of observation schedules with dynamic schedule revision based on changes to the expected utility of the acquired images. We describe the problem in detail, formulate an algorithm for interleaving schedule revision and execution, and discuss refinements to the algorithm based on the need for search efficiency. We summarize with a brief discussion of the tests performed on the system.

  9. Aircraft Earth Station for Experimental Mobile Satellite System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ohmori; Yoshihiro Hase; K. Kosaka; M. Tanaka

    1986-01-01

    A mobile satellite communication system, which can provide high quality service for small ships and aircraft, has been studied in Japan. This system is scheduled to be carried into experimental and evaluation phase in 1987, when a geostationary satellite (ETS-V) is launched by a Japanese rocket. This paper describes an aircraft earth station, which can establish telephone communication links for

  10. Computer-Aided Communication Satellite System Analysis and Optimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagl, Thomas W.; And Others

    Various published computer programs for fixed/broadcast communication satellite system synthesis and optimization are discussed. The rationale for selecting General Dynamics/Convair's Satellite Telecommunication Analysis and Modeling Program (STAMP) in modified form to aid in the system costing and sensitivity analysis work in the Program on…

  11. Analysis of submarine cable and communication satellite systems reliabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Li

    1977-01-01

    The performance of AT&T's overseas message telephone circuits for the years 1970-1975 was the basis for ana analysis of the reliability of submarine cables and communication satellite systems. Data presented in 24 tables is devided into three categories: (1) over cable and satellite system outage statistics for each of the six years and the six year average, (2) detailed cable

  12. A satellite system architecture for single-hop VSAT networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Horstein; Peter J. Hadinger

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a satellite system architecture that provides complete single-hop interconnectivity among terminals in a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) network. The link design procedure and the major satellite subsystems are described, and the terminal cost is estimated. The various system cost elements are combined and used, together with postulated terminal population and traffic scenarios, to determine the user

  13. Satellite Observations of NO2 Trend over Romania

    PubMed Central

    Voiculescu, Mirela; Georgescu, Lucian

    2013-01-01

    Satellite-based measurements of atmospheric trace gases loading give a realistic image of atmospheric pollution at global, regional, and urban level. The aim of this paper is to investigate the trend of atmospheric NO2 content over Romania for the period 1996–2010 for several regions which are generally characterized by different pollutant loadings, resulting from GOME-1, SCIAMACHY, OMI, and GOME-2 instruments. Satellite results are then compared with ground-based in situ measurements made in industrial and relatively clean areas of one major city in Romania. This twofold approach will help in estimating whether the trend of NO2 obtained by means of data satellite retrievals can be connected with the evolution of national industry and transportation. PMID:24453819

  14. A New Satellite Communication System Integrated into Public Switched Networks. - DYANET

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahumi Ohnuki; Masahiro Umehira; Hiroshi Nakashima; Shuzo Kato

    1992-01-01

    A system concept of a common alternative routing system is proposed for reducing total network costs by integrating satellite communications into public-switched networks, where satellite systems carry overflow traffic from terrestrial systems through common satellite channels. This concept has been realized by a satellite communication system called DYANET (dynamic channel assigning and routing satellite aided digital networks), which provides trunk

  15. System requirements for laser power beaming to geosynchronous satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, R.D. [Martin Marietta, Denver, CO (United States); McKechnie, T.S. [POD Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neal, D.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Geosynchronous satellites use solar arrays as their primary source of electrical power. During earth eclipse, which occurs 90 times each year, the satellites are powered by batteries, but the heavy charge-discharge cycle decreases their life expectancy. By beaming laser power to satellites during the eclipses, satellite life expectancy can be significantly increased. In this paper, the authors investigate the basic system parameters and trade-offs of using reactor pumped laser technology to beam power from the Nevada Test Site. A first order argument is used to develop a consistent set of requirements for such a system.

  16. HALCA's Onboard VLBI Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Wajima, Kiyoaki; Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Murata, Yasuhiro; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kameno, Seiji; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Fujisawa, Kenta; Inoue, Makoto; Hirosawa, Haruto

    2000-12-01

    The first space VLBI satellite, HALCA, was launched on 1997 February 12. We report the characteristics of HALCA as an orbiting VLBI station with 8-m deployment antenna. It is required the high system gain, low system noise, and high stability of phase transfer. And the stabilities of system gain and system noise are needed for imaging of VLBI. HALCA achieved the requirement as a VLBI stations and has made almost 3 times longer baselines than ground global VLBI networks. It means observations with 3 times higher angular resolution have been carried out. We have measured aperture efficiencies of the deployment antenna, system noise temperatures, stability of onboard local oscillators, and stability of phase link. HALCA's onboard radio astronomy system has 1.60-1.73 GHz, 4.7-5.0 GHz, and 21.9-22.3 GHz receivers and two-channel high-rate samplers. Typical values of system noise temperature in orbit are 70 K and 90 K at 1.6 and 5 GHz respectively. At 22 GHz, the apparent system noise temperature is 400 K; however, this is mostly due to attenuation between the main antenna and the 22 GHz low noise amplifier. A reference tone signal is transmitted from a ground tracking station which is locked on a ground hydrogen maser oscillator. The internal phase stability of local oscillators is around 5deg r.m.s. at 5 GHz. The total gain of the receiving system and the bit distribution of the high-rate samplers have also been checked. With the exception of the 22 GHz attenuation, the in-orbit performance of the VLBI observing system matches the ground-test results very well.

  17. Satellite services system analysis study. Volume 3: Service equipment requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Service equipment mission requirements are discussed. On-orbit operations, satellite classes, and reference missions are included. Service equipment usage and requirements are considered. Equipment identification methodology is discussed. Service equipment usage is analyzed, including initial launch, revisit, Earth return, and orbital storage. A summary of service requirements and equipment is presented, including service equipment status, even interaction, satellite features, and observations.

  18. Thermal monitoring of Nyiragongo SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS OF THERMAL EMISSION

    E-print Network

    Wright, Robert

    things, the em- placement of lava domes (e.g. Oppenheimer et al. 1993, Wright et al. 2002a), lava lakes, AND AFTER, THE JANUARY 2002 ERUPTION OF NYIRAGONGO Robert Wright* · Luke P. Flynn Hawaii Institute: modis, remote sensing, thermal monitoring, Nyiragongo * wright@higp.hawaii.edu Introduction Satellite

  19. Improving UK Air Quality Modelling Through Exploitation of Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, R.; Chipperfield, M.; Savage, N.

    2012-12-01

    The Met Office's operational regional Air Quality Unified Model (AQUM) contains a description of atmospheric chemistry/aerosols which allows for the short-term forecast of chemical weather (e.g. high concentrations of ozone or nitrogen dioxide, which can trigger warnings of poor air quality). AQUM's performance has so far only been tested against a network of surface monitoring stations. Therefore, with recent improvements in the quality and quantity of satellite measurements, data products (e.g. tropospheric columns, vertical profiles) from several satellite instruments will be used to test the performance of the model. First comparisons between an AQUM simulation for the UK heatwave event of July 2006 and data from OMI, TES (both on AURA) and MODIS (on AQUA) have identified multiple model-satellite biases. The chemical/aerosol species investigated for this simulation include nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), formaldehyde (HCHO), carbon monoxide (CO) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 0.55 microns wavelength. NO2 spatial positive mean biases (AQUM-OMI July 2006 monthly mean tropospheric columns) over north- east England suggest model overestimation in the area's urban regions. Currently, sensitivity tests of the NOx emission datasets are investigating these biases and the model's represent of urban pollution. In the UK O3 monthly mean vertical profile comparisons (AQUM-TES), strong positive mean biases are detected in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere. Since the AQUM does not use a stratospheric chemistry scheme, the satellite climatological vertical boundary conditions will be investigated (e.g. test the model with new boundary conditions using multiple satellite instruments or perturb existing climatologies). Comparisons of HCHO (AQUM-OMI monthly mean tropospheric columns) biases highlight strong negative biases over continental Europe and sporadic positive biases in the south-east lateral boundary conditions. Therefore, evaluation and development of the GEMS HCHO lateral boundary conditions is needed. The TES CO data appears to be suspicious for this period and correlated poorly with the AQUM CO fields once the satellite averaging kernel was applied to the model. Finally, spatial mean biases in the AOD (AQUM-MODIS) correlate greatest with the spatial pattern of the ammonium nitrate aerosols. Therefore, CLASSIC's representation of this aerosol type needs further investigation. Once the reasons behind the model-satellite biases have been clarified, modifications will be tested in a version of the AQUM (e.g. improved NOx emission datasets to better represent AQUM's ability to simulate north-east England urban pollution). Then any successful modifications will be introduced into the operational AQUM to improve the still of UK public air quality forecasts.

  20. Adding a Mission to the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions: 1) Command and control and mission management for the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) mission today, expanding this support to the JPSS-1 satellite and the Polar Free Flyer mission in 2017 2) Data acquisition via a Polar Receptor Network (PRN) for S-NPP, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), POES, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Coriolis/WindSat for the Department of Defense (DoD) 3) Data routing over a global fiber Wide Area Network (WAN) for S-NPP, JPSS-1, Polar Free Flyer, GCOM-W1, POES, DMSP, Coriolis/WindSat, the NASA Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN, which includes several Earth Observing System [EOS] missions), MetOp for the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), and the National Science Foundation (NSF) 4) Environmental data processing and distribution for S-NPP, GCOM-W1 and JPSS-1 With this established infrastructure and existing suite of missions, the CGS is extensible to a wider array of potential new missions. This paper will describe the basic steps for adding a mission to the CGS, addressing the existing types of support defined above.

  1. Synchronization of system-of-systems interfaces in military satellite communications

    E-print Network

    Davis, Mark J. (Mark Jeffrey)

    2008-01-01

    Military systems continue to become more complex and nearly all are now part of one or more system of systems (SoS). Military satellite communications programs have expanded over the last decade from three distinct satellite ...

  2. Satellite communications systems and technology. Volume 1: Analytical chapters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, Burton I. (editor); Pelton, Joseph N. (editor); Bostian, Charles W.; Brandon, William T.; Chan, Vincent W. S.; Hager, E. Paul; Helm, Neil R.; Jennings, Raymond D.; Kwan, Robert K.; Mahle, Christoph E.

    1993-01-01

    This is Volume 1 (Analytical Chapters) of the final report of the NASA/NSF Panel Satellite Communications Systems and Technology. The panel surveyed advanced technology being developed for commercial use in the satellite communications field in Europe, Japan, and Russia. All aspects of satellite communications were considered, including fixed, broadcast, mobile, personal communications, navigation, low earth orbit, and small satellites. The focus was on experimental and advanced technology being developed in R&D and demonstration programs rather than on today's production capabilities. Focus was on commercial satellite technology, and does not review defense-related or other confidential satellite communications capabilities. The NASA/NSF panel concluded that the United States has lost its leading position in many critical satellite communications technologies. Although U.S. industry retains a leading position in today's marketplace for satellite communications systems and services, this position is largely founded on technologies and capabilities developed in the 1960's and 1970's. Because the United States is losing ground with respect to a wide range of technologies and systems that will be key to future communications markets, the market share of the U.S. satellite communications industry is at risk.

  3. Satellite communications systems and technology. Volume 1; Analytic Chapters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Raymond D.; Mahle, Christoph E.; Miller, Edward F.; Riley, Lance; Pelton, Joseph N.; Bostian, Charles W.; Brandon, William T.; Chan, Vincent W. S.; Hager, E. Paul; Edelson, Burton I.; Kwan, Robert K.; Helm, Neil R.

    1993-01-01

    Volume 1 (Analytical Chapters) of the final report of the NASA/NSF Panel Satellite Communications Systems and Technology is presented. The panel surveyed advanced technology being developed for commercial use in the satellite communications field in Europe, Japan, and Russia. All aspects of satellite communications were considered, including fixed, broadcast, mobile, personal communications, navigation, low earth orbit, and small satellites. The focus of the study was on experimental and advanced technology being developed in R&D and demonstration programs rather than on today's production capabilities. The report focuses on commercial satellite technology, and does not review defense-related or other confidential satellite communications capabilities. The NASA/NSF panel concluded that the United States has lost its leading position in many critical satellite communications technologies. Although U.S. industry retains a leading position in today's marketplace for satellite communications systems and services, this position is largely founded on technologies and capabilities developed in the 1960s and 1970s. Because the United States is losing ground with respect to a wide range of technologies and systems that will be key to future communications markets, the market share of the U.S. satellite communications industry is at risk.

  4. Space telecommunications. III - The ground sector. Satellite telecommunications systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombard, D.; Monnot, M.; Payet, G.; Rancy, F.; Ranvoisy, P.; Cazemajou, J.

    The operations, equipment, and principles of ground stations for communictions satellites are adescribed. The evolution of ground station configurations and capabilities is explored, with attention given to antenna design and operations, particularly in interfaces with Intelsat spacecraft. Tracking systems are detailed, together with the radio equipment and signal characteristics, the features of small earth stations, and earth stations for reception of Symphonie satellite television signals. Various communications satellite systems are described, including those of Canada, France, the U.S., the U.S.S.R., and Japan, and consideration is given to mobile services linked to satellites. Systems and appliactions for satellite backscattering are outlined and military use of communications spacecraft are analysed. Finally, the f eatures of the Eutalsat, Symphonie, and Telecom I systems and performance are presented. No individual items are abstracted in this volume

  5. Geodetic positioning using a global positioning system of satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fell, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    Geodetic positioning using range, integrated Doppler, and interferometric observations from a constellation of twenty-four Global Positioning System satellites is analyzed. A summary of the proposals for geodetic positioning and baseline determination is given which includes a description of measurement techniques and comments on rank deficiency and error sources. An analysis of variance comparison of range, Doppler, and interferometric time delay to determine their relative geometric strength for baseline determination is included. An analytic examination to the effect of a priori constraints on positioning using simultaneous observations from two stations is presented. Dynamic point positioning and baseline determination using range and Doppler is examined in detail. Models for the error sources influencing dynamic positioning are developed. Included is a discussion of atomic clock stability, and range and Doppler observation error statistics based on random correlated atomic clock error are derived.

  6. Evaluation of CDMA system capacity for mobile satellite system applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Partrick O.; Geraniotis, Evaggelos A.

    1988-01-01

    A specific Direct-Sequence/Pseudo-Noise (DS/PN) Code-Division Multiple-Access (CDMA) mobile satellite system (MSAT) architecture is discussed. The performance of this system is evaluated in terms of the maximum number of active MSAT subscribers that can be supported at a given uncoded bit-error probability. The evaluation decouples the analysis of the multiple-access capability (i.e., the number of instantaneous user signals) from the analysis of the multiple-access mutliplier effect allowed by the use of CDMA with burst-modem operation. We combine the results of these two analyses and present numerical results for scenarios of interest to the mobile satellite system community.

  7. Astrometric observations of Saturn's satellites from McDonald Observatory, 1972. [using reference stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbot, R. I.; Mulholland, J. D.; Shelus, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Observations of Saturn's satellites were reduced by means of secondary reference stars obtained by reduction of Palomar Sky Survey (PSS) plates. This involved the use of 39 SAO stars and plate overlap technique to determine the coordinates of 59 fainter stars in the satellite field. Fourteen plate constants were determined for each of the two PSS plates. Comparison of two plate measurement and reduction techniques on the satellite measurements demonstrate the existence of a serious background gradient effect and the utility of microdensitometry to eliminate this error source in positional determinations of close satellites.

  8. Astrometric observations of Saturn's satellites from McDonald Observatory, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbot, R. I.; Mulholland, J. D.; Shelus, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    Observations of Saturn's satellites have been reduced by means of secondary reference stars obtained by reduction of Palomar Sky Survey plates. This involved the use of 29 SAO stars and plate overlap technique to determine the coordinates of 59 fainter stars in the satellite field. Fourteen plate constants were determined for each of the two PSS plates. Comparison of two plate measurement and reduction techniques on the satellite measures appears to demonstrate the existence of a serious background gradient effect and the utility of microdensitometry to eliminate this error source in positional determinations of close satellites.

  9. Ephemerides of the major Neptunian satellites determined from earth-based astrometric and Voyager imaging observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, R. A.; Lewis, G. D.; Owen, W. M.; Riedel, J. E.; Roth, D. C.; Synnott, S. P.; Taylor, A. H.

    1990-01-01

    The Voyager project used Neptunian satellite ephemerides to support both navigation and acquisition of scientific data. The development of postencounter ephemerides for the satellites Triton, Nereid, and 1989N1 is discussed. Primary results are the final set of model parameters which generate orbits that best fit both the earth-based satellite observations and data acquired by Voyager. The ephemerides are compared with those generated preencounter, and the accuracy of the final ephemerides is assessed. Mean orbital elements are also provided as a geometrical representation for the satellite orbits.

  10. Observational Datasets We use two different satellite soil moisture datasets, one derived from the Advanced Microwave

    E-print Network

    Guichard, Francoise

    Observational Datasets We use two different satellite soil moisture datasets, one derived from of the datasets. Whilst the AMSRE soil moisture product is gridded at 0.25°, the footprint of the sensor different precipitation datasets which use a combination of satellite data and, in some cases, surface

  11. Global Land-surface Evaporation Estimated from Satellite-based Observations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper outlines a new methodology to derive evaporation from satellite observations. The approach uses a variety of satellite-sensor products to estimate daily evaporation at a global scale, with a 0.25 degree spatial resolution. Central to this approach is the use of the Priestley and Taylor (P...

  12. Simulator Development of an Attitude Determination and Control Subsystem of an Earth Observation Satellite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Naqvi; M. Raza

    2007-01-01

    The proposed paper presents a simulator development of an attitude determination and control subsystem (ADCS) of an Earth observation satellite (EOS). Attitude is the orientation of the satellite in space and the ADCS is one of the crucial subsystem of an EOS. The envisaged simulator incorporates the magnetometer as a sensor and Torquer rod as an actuator devise. The IGRF

  13. Effects of satellite transponder nonlinearities on spread spectrum satellite communication systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaaki Katayama; Norihiko Morinaga; Toshihiko Namekawa

    1982-01-01

    Correlation analysis using the autocorrelation function is applied to assess the effects of satellite-transponder nonlinearities on multiple access SS (spread-spectrum) signals when SS techniques are applied to satellite-communication systems. Both AM\\/PM-conversion and AM\\/AM-conversion nonlinearities are employed in the model (parameters k and L). The model can represent various kinds of nonlinearities by choosing the pair of parameters (k, L) and

  14. Synergy of Satellite-Surface Observations for Studying the Properties of Absorbing Aerosols in Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee

    2010-01-01

    Through interaction with clouds and alteration of the Earth's radiation budget, atmospheric aerosols significantly influence our weather and climate. Monsoon rainfalls, for example, sustain the livelihood of more than half of the world's population. Thus, understanding the mechanism that drives the water cycle and freshwater distribution is high-lighted as one of the major near-term goals in NASA's Earth Science Enterprise Strategy. Every cloud droplet/ice-crystal that serves as an essential element in portraying water cycle and distributing freshwater contains atmospheric aerosols at its core. In addition, the spatial and temporal variability of atmospheric aerosol properties is complex due to their dynamic nature. In fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring, which is associated with the peak season of biomass burning activities and regional/long-range transport of dust aerosols. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of absorbing aerosols on regional-to-global climate requires not only modeling efforts but also continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, networks of ground-based instruments and dedicated field experiments. Since 1997 NASA has been successfully launching a series of satellites the Earth Observing System - to intensively study, and gain a better understanding of, the Earth as an integrated system. Through participation in many satellite remote-sensing/retrieval and validation projects over the years, we have gradually developed and refined the SMART (Surface-sensing Measurements for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer) and COMMIT (Chemical, Optical & Microphysical Measurements of In-situ Troposphere) mobile observatories, a suite of surface remote sensing and in-situ instruments that proved to be vital in providing high temporal measurements, which complement the satellite observations. In this talk, we will present SMART-COMMIT which has played key roles, serving as network or supersite, in major international research projects such as the Joint Aerosol Monsoon Experiment (JAM EX), a core element of the Asian Monsoon Years (AMY, 2008-2012). SMART-COMMIT deployments during 2008 AMY/JAMEX were conducted in northwestern China to characterize the properties of dust-laden aerosols and in the vicinity of Beijing for mega-city aerosols. In 2009, SMART-COMMIT also participated in the JAMEX/RAJO-MEGHA (Radiation, Aerosol Joint Observations-Monsoon Experiment in the Gangetic-Himalayan Area; Sanskrit for Dust-Cloud) to study the aerosol properties, solar absorption and the associated atmospheric warming, and the climatic impact of elevated aerosols during the pre-monsoon season in South Asia. We will show results from these field experiments, as well as discuss a new initiative of 7-SEAS (7 South East Asian Studies) to study the interaction of anthropogenic aerosols with regional meteorology, particularly with clouds.

  15. The PTV Satellite System: Turning Point or High Anxiety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingras, Richard

    1978-01-01

    The Westar I satellite communications system for public television is discussed, and rationale for the original construction of the system, programming capabilities utilizing multichannel distribution, and additional communications services are reviewed. (RAO)

  16. The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloom, H.

    The tri-agency Integrated Program Office (IPO) is responsible for managing the development of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS will replace the current military and civilian operational polar-orbiting ``weather'' satellites. The Northrop Grumman Space Technology - Raytheon team was competitively selected in 2002 as the Acquisition and Operations contractor team to develop, integrate, deploy, and operate NPOESS satellites to meet the tri-agency user requirements for NPOESS over the 10-year (2009-2018) operational life of the program. Beginning in 2009, NPOESS spacecraft will be launched into three orbital planes to provide significantly improved operational capabilities and benefits to satisfy critical civil and national security requirements for space-based, remotely sensed environmental data. With the development of NPOESS, we are evolving operational ``weather'' satellites into integrated environmental observing systems by expanding our capabilities to observe, assess, and predict the total Earth system - atmosphere, ocean, land, and the space environment. In recent years, the operational weather forecasting and climate science communities have levied more rigorous requirements on space-based observations of the Earth's system that have significantly increased demands on performance of the instruments, spacecraft, and ground systems required to deliver NPOESS data, products, and information to end users. The ``end-to-end'' system consists of: the spacecraft; instruments and sensors on the spacecraft; launch support capabilities; the command, control, communications, and data routing infrastructure; and data processing hardware and software. NPOESS will observe significantly more phenomena simultaneously from space than its operational predecessors. NPOESS is expected to deliver large volumes of more accurate measurements at higher spatial (horizontal and vertical) and temporal resolution at much higher data rates and with more frequent space-to-ground data communications than are currently in use. When NPOESS reaches full operational capability in 2013, spacecraft in all three orbital planes will provide global coverage with a data refresh rate of approximately four hours for most observations. User demands for more real-time data from NPOESS are driving the space and ground-based architectures for data routing and retrieval that will dramatically shorten data latency. To meet user-validated requirements for 55 geophysical parameters, NPOESS will deliver global data to four U.S. centers for processing and distribution to end users. Global data will be down-linked to 15 globally-distributed, low-cost, unmanned ground stations that will be tied to these four processing centers via commercial fiber-optic networks. This innovative ground system will deliver 75% of the global (daily average) within 15 minutes and 95% of the data (daily average) within 26 minutes from the time of on-orbit collection. NPOESS spacecraft will also simultaneously broadcast two types of real-time data to suitably equipped ground stations. Early flight-testing of instruments will reduce development risk and demonstrate and validate global imaging and sounding instruments, algorithms, and pre-operational ground systems prior to the first NPOESS flight in 2009. Four NPOESS sensors are scheduled to fly on the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/IPO NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) mission in 2006. Early system-level integration and testing will provide ``lessons learned'' and allow for any required modifications in time to support readiness for the first NPOESS launch in 2009. NPP will demonstrate the utility of improved imaging and radiometric data in short-term weather ``nowcasting'' and forecasting and in other oceanic and terrestrial applications, such as harmful algal blooms, volcanic ash, and wildfire detection. NPP will help ensure continuity of important climate-quality measurements during the transition from NASA's Earth Observing System Terra and Aqua research mis

  17. Density and crosswind from GOCE - comparisons with other satellite data, ground-based observations and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doornbos, E.; Bruinsma, S.; Conde, M.; Forbes, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Observations made by the European Space Agency (ESA) Gravity field and Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite have enabled the production of a spin-off product of high resolution and high accuracy data on thermosphere density, derived from aerodynamic analysis of acceleration measurements. In this regard, the mission follows in the footsteps of the earlier accelerometer-carrying gravity missions CHAMP and GRACE. The extremely high accuracy and redundancy of the six accelerometers carried by GOCE in its gravity gradiometer instrument has provided new insights on the performance and calibration of these instruments. Housekeeping data on the activation of the GOCE drag free control thruster, made available by ESA has made the production of the thermosphere data possible. The long duration low altitude of GOCE, enabled by its drag free control system, has ensured the presence of very large aerodynamic accelerations throughout its lifetime. This has been beneficial for the accurate derivation of data on the wind speed encountered by the satellite. We have compared the GOCE density observations with data from CHAMP and GRACE. The crosswind data has been compared with CHAMP observations, as well as ground-based observations, made using Scanning Doppler Imagers in Alaska. Models of the thermosphere can provide a bigger, global picture, required as a background in the interpretation of the local space- and ground-based measurements. The comparison of these different sources of information on thermosphere density and wind, each with their own strengths and weaknesses, can provide scientific insight, as well as inputs for further refinement of the processing algorithms and models that are part of the various techniques. Density and crosswind data derived from GOCE (dusk-dawn) and CHAMP (midnight-noon) satellite accelerometer data, superimposed over HWM07 modelled horizontal wind vectors.

  18. The alignment of satellite galaxies and cosmic filaments: observations and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempel, E.; Guo, Q.; Kipper, R.; Libeskind, N. I.

    2015-07-01

    The accretion of satellites on to central galaxies along vast cosmic filaments is an apparent outcome of the anisotropic collapse of structure in our Universe. Numerical work (based on gravitational dynamics of N-body simulations) indicates that satellites are beamed towards hosts along preferred directions imprinted by the velocity shear field. Here, we use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to observationally test this claim. We construct 3D filaments and sheets and examine the relative position of satellite galaxies. A statistically significant alignment between satellite galaxy position and filament axis in observations is confirmed. We find a qualitatively compatible alignments by examining satellites and filaments similarly identified in the Millennium simulation, semi-analytical galaxy catalogue. We also examine the dependence of the alignment strength on galaxy properties such as colour, magnitude and (relative) satellite magnitude, finding that the alignment is strongest for the reddest and brightest central and satellite galaxies. Our results confirm the theoretical picture and the role of the cosmic web in satellite accretion. Furthermore our results suggest that filaments identified on larger scales can be reflected in the positions of satellite galaxies that are quite close to their hosts.

  19. Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS) system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS) is intended to provide investigators in several biological disciplines with a relatively inexpensive method to access space for up to 60 days with eventual recovery on Earth. The RRS will permit totally intact, relatively soft, recovery of the vehicle, system refurbishment, and reflight with new and varied payloads. The RRS is to be capable of three reflights per year over a 10-year program lifetime. The RRS vehicle will have a large and readily accessible volume near the vehicle center of gravity for the Payload Module (PM) containing the experiment hardware. The vehicle is configured to permit the experimenter late access to the PM prior to launch and rapid access following recovery. The RRS will operate in one of two modes: (1) as a free-flying spacecraft in orbit, and will be allowed to drift in attitude to provide an acceleration environment of less than 10(exp -5) g. the acceleration environment during orbital trim maneuvers will be less than 10(exp -3) g; and (2) as an artificial gravity system which spins at controlled rates to provide an artificial gravity of up to 1.5 Earth g. The RRS system will be designed to be rugged, easily maintained, and economically refurbishable for the next flight. Some systems may be designed to be replaced rather than refurbished, if cost effective and capable of meeting the specified turnaround time. The minimum time between recovery and reflight will be approximately 60 days. The PMs will be designed to be relatively autonomous, with experiments that require few commands and limited telemetry. Mass data storage will be accommodated in the PM. The hardware development and implementation phase is currently expected to start in 1991 with a first launch in late 1993.

  20. The investigation of tethered satellite system dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, E.

    1985-01-01

    The tether control law to retrieve the satellite was modified in order to have a smooth retrieval trajectory of the satellite that minimizes the thruster activation. The satellite thrusters were added to the rotational dynamics computer code and a preliminary control logic was implemented to simulate them during the retrieval maneuver. The high resolution computer code for modelling the three dimensional dynamics of untensioned tether, SLACK3, was made fully operative and a set of computer simulations of possible tether breakages was run. The distribution of the electric field around an electrodynamic tether in vacuo severed at some length from the shuttle was computed with a three dimensional electrodynamic computer code.

  1. Satellite power system (SPS) brightness due to reflected sunlight

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-10-01

    The development and operation of a Satellite Power System would place very large structures in orbit around earth for several decades. Sunlight reflected off such structures, particularly specular components from large flat areas, is expected to create ground illumination that will attract observers. In order to assure that this illumination does not exceed the irradiance tolerances of the eye, reflections from these satellites must be carefully controlled by vehicle orientation and surface specifications. The solar power satellite (SPS) at geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) has 55 km/sup 2/ of glass covered solar cells that are oriented normal to the sun, as well as a 1 km/sup 2/ microwave antenna. Transportation of construction materials from low earth orbit (LEO) to GEO requires 23 Orbit Transfer Vehicles (OTVs) that have 1.6 km/sup 2/ solar panels oriented normal to the sun during their 6 month transits. The Staging Base (SB) at LEO, that accommodates OTV fabrication and cargo transfer, consists of 0.5 km arms protruding from a .44 km/sup 2/ open grid aligned with its orbit plane. Diffuse reflections would make the SB/OTVs readily discernible in the daytime and the OTVs and SPSs observable all night (except during eclipse). Sporadic specular glints would appear on the ground from the OTVs and SPSs near the midnight meridian, from the solar panel surfaces of OTVs during LEO fabrication around midday, and from OTVs near LEO at dawn and dusk. The ground level irradiance has been evaluated for several unusually bright configurations using the present system design. Procedures and results are presented and discussed.

  2. Adaptive Beamforming in Mobile, Massively Multiuser Satellite Communications: A System

    E-print Network

    Gesbert, David

    Adaptive Beamforming in Mobile, Massively Multiuser Satellite Communications: A System Perspective Xiao Lei, Laura Cottatellucci, Samah A. M. Ghanem Mobile Communications Department, Eurecom, France Email: {xiao.lei; laura.cottatellucci; samah.ghanem}@eurecom.fr Abstract--We consider a Mobile Satellite

  3. Satellite communications systems and technology. Volume 2; Site Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, Burton I.; Pelton, Joseph N.; Bostian, Carles W.; Brandon, William T.; Chan, Vincent W. S.; Hager, E. Paul; Helm, Neil R.; Jennings, Raymond D.; Kwan, Robert K.; Mahle, Christoph E.; Miller, Edward F.; Riley, Lance

    1993-01-01

    Volume 2 of the final report of the NASA/NSF Panel on Satellite Communications Systems and Technology is presented. It consists of the site reports from the panel's visits to satellite communications facilities and laboratories in Europe, Japan, and Russia.

  4. Design of Satellite Control System Using Optimal Nonlinear Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luiz Carlos Gadelha de Souza

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays, attitude control systems (ACS) of satellites demand better performance, resulting in the application of new advanced nonlinear control theory. In this paper, a nonlinear control law for a satellite attitude control is presented. It is based on an extension of the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) theory. The control law designed by this technique comprehends two parts: the first one

  5. Satellite gravimetry observation of Antarctic snow accumulation related to ENSO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Sasgen; H. Dobslaw; Z. Martinec; M. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Interannual ice-mass variations along the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) and in the Amundsen Sea Sector (AS) are obtained for the years 2002 until 2009 using satellite data of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment, that correlate well (r?0.7) with accumulation variations based on the net precipitation from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. Moreover, mass signals for AP and

  6. Positional measuring procedure and CCD observations for Saturnian satellites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. Y. Peng; A. Vienne; K. X. Shen

    2002-01-01

    A positional measuring procedure for the eight major satellites of Saturn (Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Rhea, Titan, Hyperion and Iapetus) is developed. Using this procedure, 199 frames of CCD images, obtained with the 1-meter telescope at the Yunnan Observatory from 1996-2000, are measured. These positions are compared to the ones computed with the Vienne & Duriez ephemerides (TASS1.7). The calibrated

  7. Broadband VHF observations for lightning impulses from a small satellite SOHLA-1 (Maido 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, T.; Kikuchi, H.; Ushio, T.; Kawasaki, Z.; Hidekazu, H.; Aoki, T.

    2009-12-01

    Lightning Research Group of Osaka University (LRG-OU) has been developing VHF Broadband Digital Interferometer (DITF) to image precise lightning channels and monitor lightning activity widely. The feature of broadband DITF is its ultrawide bandwidth (from 25MHz to 100MHz) and implicit redundancy for estimating VHF source location. LRG-OU considers an application of the broadband DITF to the spaceborne measurement system and joins the SOHLA (Space Oriented Higashi-Osaka Leading Associate) satellite project. The SOHLA satellite project represents a technology transfer program to expand the range of the space development community in Japan. The objective is to get SMEs (Small and Medium sized manufacturing Enterprises) involved in small space projects and new space technologies. Under the cooperative agreement, JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) intends to contribute to socio-economic development by returning its R&D results to society, and SOHLA tries to revitalize the local economy through the commercialization of versatile small satellites. According to the agreement, JAXA provides SOHLA its technical information on small satellites and other technical assistance for the development of the small satellites, SOHLA-1. The prime objective of the SOHLA-1 program is to realize low-cost and short term development of a microsatellite which utilizes the components and bus technologies of JAXA’s MicroLabSat. SOHLA-1 is a spin-stabilized microsatellite of MicroLabSat heritage (about 50 kg). The spin axis is fixed to inertial reference frame. The spin axis (z-axis) lies in the plane containing the solar direction and the normal to the orbital plane. LRG-OU takes responsibility for a science mission of SOHLA-1. To examine the feasibility of the DITF receiving VHF lightning impulses in space, LRG-OU proposes the BMW (Broadband Measurement of Waveform for VHF Lightning Impulses). BMW consists of a single pair of an antenna, a band-pass filter, an amplifier, and an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to record broadband VHF pulses in orbit. The waveforms of 100 EM pulses in VHF band emitted from a lightning flash are obtained. Three pairs of BMW with accurate synchronized 3-channel-ADC are needed to realize DITF. From the successful satellite observation like TRMM/LIS, the effectiveness and impact of satellite observations for lightning are obvious. The combination of optical and VHF lightning observations are complimentary each other. ISS/JEM is a candidate platform to realize the simplest DITF and synchronous observations with optical sensors. SOHLA-1 was launched by a HII-A rocket at January 23, 2009 and named Maido-1. Then BMW has worked well and recorded VHF EM waveforms. The development of Maido-1 and its observations results will be presented.

  8. The Positions, Colors, and Photometric Variability of Pluto's Small Satellites from HST Observations 2005-2006

    E-print Network

    S. A. Stern; M. J. Mutchler; H. A. Weaver; A. J. Steffl

    2006-05-02

    Pluto's two small satellites, temporarily designated S/2005 P 1 and S/2005 P 2, were observed on four dates (15.1 and 18.1 May 2005, 15.7 February 2006, and 2.8 March 2006) using the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). Here we collect together the astrometric positions of these two satellites (henceforth P1 and P2), as well as a single color measurement for each satellite and initial constraints on their photometric variability obtained during these observations. We find that both satellites have essentially neutral (grey) reflectivities, like Charon. We also find that neither satellite exhibited strong photometric variation, which might suggest that P1 and P2 are toward the large end of their allowable size range, and therefore may have far lower reflectivities than Charon.

  9. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 2, phase 1: Systems analyses tradeoffs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A systems definition study of the solar power satellite system is presented. The satellite solar energy conversion and microwave power transmission systems are discussed. Space construction and support systems are examined including a series construction and equipment characteristics analysis. Space transportation for the satellite and the ground receiving station are assessed.

  10. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 3: Reference system description, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of the solar power satellite system is presented. The satellite solar energy conversion and microwave power transmission systems are discussed including the structure, power distribution, thermal control, and energy storage. Space construction and support systems are described including the work support facilities and construction equipment. An assessment of the space transportation system for the satellite and the ground receiving station is presented.

  11. Model Evaluation with Multi-wavelength Satellite Observations Using a Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolassa, Jana; Jimenez, Carlos; Aires, Filipe

    2013-04-01

    A methodology has been developed to evaluate fields of modelled parameters against a set of satellite observations. The method employs a Neural Network (NN) to construct a statistical model capturing the relationship between the satellite observations and the parameter from a land surface model, in this case the Soil Moisture (SM). This statistical model is then used to estimate the parameter of interest from the set of satellite observations. These estimates are compared to the modelled parameter in order to detect local deviations indicating a possible problem in the model or in the satellite observations. Several synthetic tests, during which an artificial error was added to the"true" soil moisture fields, showed that the methodology is able to correct the errors (Jimenez et al., submitted, 2012). This evaluation technique is very general and can be applied to any modelled parameter for which sensitive satellite observations are available. The use of NNs simplifies the evaluation of the model against satellite observations and is particularly well-suited to utilize the synergy from the observations at different wavelengths (Aires et al., 2005, 2012). In this study the proposed methodology has been applied to evaluate SM fields from a number of land surface models against a synergy of satellite observations from passive and active microwave, infrared and visible sensors. In an inter-comparison of the performance of several land surface models (ORCHIDEE (de Rosnay et al., 2002), HTESSEL (Balsamo et al., 2009), JULES (Best et al., 2011) ) it was found that the soil moisture fields from JULES, HTESSEL and ORCHIDEE are very consistent with the observations, but ORCHIDEE soil moisture shows larger local deviations close to some river basins (Kolassa et al., in press, 2012; Jimenez et al., submitted, 2012). Differences between all models and the observations could also be observed in the Eastern US and over mountainous regions, however, the errors here are more likely linked to the retrieved SM uncertainties. The proposed methodology can also be used to evaluate the quality of the model forcings: two soil moisture fields from ORCHIDEE using WATCH (Weedon et al., 2011) and ERA-interim (Balsamo et al., 2010) forcings were analysed. It was shown that the WATCH forcing data are more optimal, underlining the importance of forcing data for the accuracy of model predictions (Kolassa et al., in press, 2012). References Aires, F., Prigent, C., and Rossow, W.B. (2005), Sensitivity of satellite microwave and infrared observations to soil moisture at a global scale: 2. Global statistical relationships, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D11103, doi:10.1029/2004JD005094. Aires, F., O. Aznay, C. Prigent, M. Paul, F. Bernardo, Synergetic multi-wavelegnth remote sensing versus a posteriori combination of retrieved products: Application for the retrieval of atmospheric profiles using MetOp measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 2011 Balsamo, G., Viterbo, P., Beljaars, A., van den Hurk, B., Hirschi, M., Betts, A. and Scipa,l K. (2009) A Revised Hydrology for the ECMWF Model: Verification from Field Site to Terrestrial Water Storage and Impact in the Integrated Forecast System, J. Hydrol., 10, 623-643 Balsamo, G., Boussetta, S., Lopez, P., and Ferranti, L. (2010), Evaluation of ERA-Interim and ERA- Interim-GPCP-rescaled precipitation over the U.S.A., ERA-Report Series, 5, pp. 10. Best, M. J., M. Pryor, D. B. Clark, G. G. Rooney, R .L. H. Essery, C. B. Ménard, J. M. Edwards, M. A. Hendry, A. Porson, N. Gedney, L. M. Mercado, S. Sitch, E. Blyth, O. Boucher, P. M. Cox, C. S. B. Grimmond, and R. J. Harding (2011), The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES), model description - Part 1: Energy and water fluxes, Geosci. Model Dev., 4 Jimenez, C., Clark, D., Kolassa, J., Aires, F., Prigent, C., and Blyth, E. (2012), A joint analysis of modeled soil moisture fields and satellite observations (2012), J. Geophys. Res., Kolassa, J., Aires, F., Polcher, J., Prigent, C., and Pereira, J. (2012), Soil moisture Retrieval from Multi-instrument Observations: Inform

  12. Intercomparison of surface heat transfer in the Arctic for multiple reanalyses, satellite data and field observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repina, Irina; Mazilkina, Alexandra; Ivanov, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated surface heat fluxes from reanalyses (ERAInterim, NCEP/NCAR, ASR) in the Arctic Ocean during summer and fall. Several types of surface conditions are compared: very new ice cover during a period of low temperature, ice-free conditions, ice with leads and melt ponds, pack ice and marginal ice zone. Meteorological and micrometeorological observations were used to validate the temperature profiles and surface heat fluxes in the major reanalyses. We use data from Nansen and Amundsen basins observation system (NABOS) project to evaluate the performance of reanalyses forin the Arctic Ocean. The NABOS field experiment was carried out in the central part of the Arctic and in the eastern Arctic seas during summer and fall period of 2004-2009 and 2013. Compared data arrays are independent and sufficiently detailed to perform trustworthy evaluations. With the explicit treatment of the ice concentration, ERA-Interim generally reproduces the surface heat transfer, while NCEP/NCAR, based on a 55% concentration threshold, shows obvious disagreement with the observations in highly ice-covered and ice-free situations. The spatial and temporal patterns of the resulting flux fields are investigated and compared with those derived from satellite observations such as HOAPS, from blended data such as AOFLUX (in the open water cases). A computation of the sensible heat flux at the surface is formulated on the basis of spatial variations of the surface temperature estimated from satellite data. Based on the comparison of field experiments data, satellite-derived data and reanalysis the causes of underestimation of the values of turbulent heat fluxes in the Arctic modern reanalysis are investigated. Obtained differences are related to the temperature and structural inhomogeneity of the surface and the development of space-organized convection fields. Reanalyses data are sometimes used to calculate the surface heat budgets over polynyas to estimate ice production in polar/sub-polar oceans. In particular, the near-surface air temperature and wind fields, which are difficult to observe using satellites or with in-situ measurements, are key parameters for estimating turbulent heat fluxes. If the sea-ice concentration and SST in reanalyses are not treated appropriately, careful attention is needed when using the resultant air temperature for such calculations. The study was supported by RSF grant # 14-37-00053.

  13. DCS - A global satellite environmental data collection system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claire, E. J.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the results of a comparative study of satellite data collection systems which utilize remote ground data collection platforms transmitting data directly to a satellite and down to low-cost direct read-out local user terminals. The general objective of the study was to evaluate cost and technical feasibility of five medium orbiting and six geo-synchronous satellite data collection system (DCS) configurations with varying degrees of spacecraft and local user terminal (LUT) complexity. The goal of trading spacecraft and LUT complexity was to determine practical feasible systems with low-cost terminals, yet with a reasonable overall system cost the would permit the broad worldwide utilization of a highly beneficial data collection system. Results presented include data collection system analyses, satellite and local user terminal designs, and estimated costs. A summary of the types of local users and their requirements is also included.

  14. BeiDou Navigation Satellite System and its time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chunhao; Yang, Yuanxi; Cai, Zhiwu

    2011-08-01

    The development and current status of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System are briefly introduced. The definition and realization of the system time scales are described in detail. The BeiDou system time (BDT) is an internal and continuous time scale without leap seconds. It is maintained by the time and frequency system of the master station. The frequency accuracy of BDT is superior to 2 × 10-14 and its stability is better than 6 × 10-15/30 days. The satellite synchronization is realized by a two-way time transfer between the uplink stations and the satellite. The measurement uncertainty of satellite clock offsets is less than 2 ns. The BeiDou System has three modes of time services: radio determination satellite service (RDSS) one-way, RDSS two-way and radio navigation satellite service (RNSS) one-way. The uncertainty of the one-way time service is designed to be less than 50 ns, and that of the two-way time service is less than 10 ns. Finally, some coordinate tactics of UTC from the viewpoint of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are discussed. It would be helpful to stop the leap second, from our viewpoint, but to keep the UTC name, the continuity and the coordinate function unchanged.

  15. Intraannual variability of tides in the thermosphere from model simulations and in situ satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häusler, K.; Hagan, M. E.; Forbes, J. M.; Zhang, X.; Doornbos, E.; Bruinsma, S.; Lu, G.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we provide insights into limitations imposed by current satellite-based strategies to delineate tidal variability in the thermosphere, as well as the ability of a state-of-the-art model to replicate thermospheric tidal determinations. Toward this end, we conducted a year-long thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model (TIME-GCM) simulation for 2009, which is characterized by low solar and geomagnetic activity. In order to account for tropospheric waves and tides propagating upward into the ˜30-400 km model domain, we used 3-hourly MERRA (Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Application) reanalysis data. We focus on exospheric tidal temperatures, which are also compared with 72 day mean determinations from combined Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite observations to assess the model's capability to capture the observed tidal signatures and to quantify the uncertainties associated with the satellite exospheric temperature determination technique. We found strong day-to-day tidal variability in TIME-GCM that is smoothed out when averaged over as few as ten days. TIME-GCM notably overestimates the 72 day mean eastward propagating tides observed by CHAMP/GRACE, while capturing many of the salient features of other tidal components. However, the CHAMP/GRACE tidal determination technique only provides a gross climatological representation, underestimates the majority of the tidal components in the climatological spectrum, and moreover fails to characterize the extreme variability that drives the dynamics and electrodynamics of the ionosphere-thermosphere system. A multisatellite mission that samples at least six local times simultaneously is needed to provide this quantification.

  16. Contribution of Tropical Cyclones to the North Pacific Climatological Rainfall as Observed from Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, Edward B.; Adler, Robert F.; Pierce, Harold F.

    1997-01-01

    Tropical cyclone monthly rainfall amounts are estimated from passive microwave satellite observations for an eleven year period. These satellite-derived rainfall amounts are used to assess the impact of tropical cyclone rainfall in altering the geographical, seasonal, and inter-annual distribution of the North Pacific Ocean total rainfall during June-November when tropical cyclones are most important. To estimate these tropical cyclone rainfall amounts, mean monthly rain rates are derived from passive microwave satellite observations within 444 km radius of the center of those North Pacific tropical cyclones that reached storm stage and greater. These rain rate observations are converted to monthly rainfall amounts and then compared to those for non-tropical cyclone systems. The main results of this study indicate that: 1) tropical cyclones contribute 7% of the rainfall to the entire domain of the North Pacific during the tropical cyclone season and 12%, 3%, and 4% when the study area is limited to, respectively, the western, central, and eastern third of the ocean; 2) the maxima in tropical cyclone rainfall are poleward (5 deg to 10 deg latitude depending on longitude) of the maxima in non-tropical cyclone rainfall; 3) tropical cyclones contribute a maximum of 30% northeast of the Philippine Islands and 40% of the lower Baja California coast; 4) in the western North Pacific, the tropical cyclone rainfall lags the total rainfall by approximately two months and shows seasonal latitudinal variation following the ITCZ; and 5) in general, tropical cyclone rainfall is enhanced during the El Nino years by warm SSTs in the eastern North Pacific and by the monsoon trough in the western and central North Pacific.

  17. A satellite system for land-mobile communications in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholome, P.; Rogard, R.

    1988-05-01

    There exists a great unsatisified demand for land mobile communications in Europe, particularly in sectors of business activity such as the road transport industry. This demand could best be satisfied by means of satellite-based private networks providing voice and data communications in a hub configuration. The potential market is estimated to encompass several hundred thousand road vehicles and the transmission capacity required would be several thousand channels. ESA is currently demonstrating the potential of satellite communications for this type of application, using a system called PRODAT. System studies are being performed with the aim of defining the architecture of a regional satellite system for Europe.

  18. Connecting Satellite Observations with Water Cycle Variables Through Land Data Assimilation: Examples Using the NASA GEOS-5 LDAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.; Forman, Barton A.; Draper, Clara S.; Liu, Qing

    2013-01-01

    A land data assimilation system (LDAS) can merge satellite observations (or retrievals) of land surface hydrological conditions, including soil moisture, snow, and terrestrial water storage (TWS), into a numerical model of land surface processes. In theory, the output from such a system is superior to estimates based on the observations or the model alone, thereby enhancing our ability to understand, monitor, and predict key elements of the terrestrial water cycle. In practice, however, satellite observations do not correspond directly to the water cycle variables of interest. The present paper addresses various aspects of this seeming mismatch using examples drawn from recent research with the ensemble-based NASA GEOS-5 LDAS. These aspects include (1) the assimilation of coarse-scale observations into higher-resolution land surface models, (2) the partitioning of satellite observations (such as TWS retrievals) into their constituent water cycle components, (3) the forward modeling of microwave brightness temperatures over land for radiance-based soil moisture and snow assimilation, and (4) the selection of the most relevant types of observations for the analysis of a specific water cycle variable that is not observed (such as root zone soil moisture). The solution to these challenges involves the careful construction of an observation operator that maps from the land surface model variables of interest to the space of the assimilated observations.

  19. Synthesis and Assimilation Systems - Essential Adjuncts to the Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rienecker, Michele M.; Lee, Tong

    2009-01-01

    Assimilation systems synthesize diverse in-situ and satellite data streams into full four-dimensional state estimates by combining the strengths of each data set and also of the model. The resulting analysis provides an integrated view of the information in the various observations as well as derived estimates of unobserved quantities. Assimilation systems are particularly important for the ocean where subsurface observations, even today, are sparse and intermittent compared with the scales needed to represent ocean variability and where satellites only sense the surface. Increasingly, models and assimilation systems are being used to provide information about the current observing system and to help in the design plans for new observations. Whether it is as a user of observations or a contributor to evaluation of the observing system, ocean synthesis and assimilation systems are now an integral part of the global ocean observing and information system. Major advances have been made over the last decade under the auspices of WCRP's Climate Variability and Predictability Project (CLIVAR) and the Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE). In addition to advances in the assimilation systems, there have been major developments in the observing system, with satellite altimetry, the tropical moored buoy arrays in the Pacific and Atlantic, and more recently Argo. These developments have led to significant advances in our understanding and prediction of ocean variations at both mesoscale and climate scales. Many challenges remain. Some of these challenges lie in the observations themselves, some in the assimilation systems that, even in the more recent era of unprecedented observations from satellite altimetry and Argo, provide different views of climate variations. Yet there are many examples of successful applications from ocean assimilation products. Use of these systems for assessing the observing system helps identify the strengths of each observation type, and indicates that none of the current observations is redundant. Indeed, the indication is that the ocean remains under-sampled and that further improvements in the observing system are needed for both climate monitoring and prediction. Future developments will be increasingly towards consistent analyses across components of the Earth system using, e.g., coupled atmosphere-ocean models.

  20. Satellite observations of plasma physics near the magnetic field reconnection X line

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Satellite observations of plasma physics near the magnetic field reconnection X line F. S. Mozer,1 the electric field. Citation: Mozer, F. S., D. Sundkvist, J. P. McFadden, P. L. Pritchett, and I. Roth (2011

  1. Combined observations of rock mass movements using satellite SAR interferometry, differential GPS, airborne digital

    E-print Network

    Kääb, Andreas

    interferometry, differential GPS, airborne digital photogrammetry, and airborne photography interpretation Tazio of combined remote sensing observations from satellite and airborne microwave and optical sensors synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry, differential GPS, and airborne digital photogrammetry

  2. Aerosol loading in the Southeastern United States: reconciling surface and satellite observations

    E-print Network

    Ford, B.

    We investigate the seasonality in aerosols over the Southeastern United States using observations from several satellite instruments (MODIS, MISR, CALIOP) and surface network sites (IMPROVE, SEARCH, AERONET). We find that ...

  3. Satellite Navigation Systems: Policy, Commercial and Technical Interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rycroft

    2003-01-01

    This book adopts a broad perspective on positioning and navigation systems which rely on Earth orbiting satellites for their successful operation. The first of such global systems was the US Global Positioning System (GPS), and the next the Russian GLONASS system. Now studies relating to Europe's future Galileo system are gaining momentum and other nations are planning regional augmentation systems.

  4. Extracting the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami signals from sea surface height data observed by satellite altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Altimeter-equipped satellites flew over the propagating area of the Indian Ocean tsunami caused by the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake on 26 December 2004. Tsunami signals can be detected as differences in sea level changes of multiple tracks. However, observed changes in sea level differences involve not only tsunami signals but also effects from various ocean phenomena and errors due to observation technology and data processing. A multisatellite time-spatial interpolation method is performed to define reference sea surface heights. After applying the method to the products on sea level anomalies along tracks of altimeter-equipped satellites, quality tsunami-height profiles with only 4- to 5-cm root mean square errors were obtained for the Indian Ocean tsunami along five tracks from four satellites (Jason-1, TOPEX/POSEIDON, ENVISAT, and Geosat Follow-On). Maximum tsunami height in the open ocean for the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami as observed from satellite altimetry was 1.1 m trough-to-crest 115 min after the main shock. Reliable tsunami-height profiles from satellite altimetry were extracted for the first time. The method employed in this study has the potential to extract tsunami signals of 0.1 m or greater trough-to-crest height from satellite altimetry observation data on the deep sea by ongoing satellite missions.

  5. Satellite-aided land mobile communications system implementation considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. E.

    1982-01-01

    It was proposed that a satellite-based land mobile radio system could effectively extend the terrestrial cellular mobile system into rural and remote areas. The market, technical and economic feasibility for such a system is studied. Some of the aspects of implementing an operational mobile-satellite system are discussed. In particular, two key factors in implementation are examined: (1) bandwidth requirements; and (2) frequency sharing. Bandwidth requirements are derived based on the satellite antenna requirements, modulation characteristics and numbers of subscribers. Design trade-offs for the satellite system and potential implementation scenarios are identified. Frequency sharing is examined from a power flux density and modulation viewpoint. Previously announced in STAR as N82-25290

  6. Satellite observations and estimates of surface flow in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico 

    E-print Network

    Barron, Charlie Nelms

    1992-01-01

    SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS AND ESTIMATES OF SURFACE FLOW IN THE NORTHWESTERN GULF OF MEXICO A Thesis by CHARLIE NELMS BARRON JR. Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1992 Major Subject: Oceanography SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS AND ESTIMATES OF SURFACE FLOW IN THE NORTHWESTERN GULF OF MEXICO A Thesis by CHARLIE NELMS BARRON JR. Approved as to style and content by: Andrew C. Vastano...

  7. A Multi-Constellations Satellite Selection Algorithm for Integrated Global Navigation Satellite Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duangduen Roongpiboonsopit; Hassan A. Karimi

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS) is currently the only fully operational global navigation satellite system (GNSS) that has been widely utilized in navigation and data collection, among other applications. In the near future, there will be other GNSSs such as the Russian GLONASS, the European Galileo, and the Chinese Compass that provide compatible services with GPS and will be

  8. Joint Polar Satellite System Common Ground System Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Smith, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    Jointly acquired by NOAA & NASA, the next-generation civilian environmental satellite system, Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS), will supply the afternoon orbit & ground system of the restructured NPOESS program. JPSS will replace NOAA's current POES satellites and the ground processing part of both POES & DoD's Defense Weather Satellite System (DWSS)(DMSP replacement). JPSS sensors will collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and solar-geophysical data. The ground system, or JPSS Common Ground System (CGS), has 6 integrated product teams/segments: Command, Control & Communications (C3S); Interface Data Processing (IDPS); Field Terminal (FTS); Systems Engineering, Integration & Test (SEIT); Operations & Support (O&S); and Sustainment developed by Raytheon Intelligence & Information Systems. The IDPS will process JPSS data to provide Environmental Data Records (EDRs) to NOAA & DoD processing centers beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and through JPSS & DWSS eras. C3S will: manage overall JPSS & DWSS missions from control/status of space/ground assets to ensure timely delivery of high-quality data to IDPS; provide globally-distributed ground assets to collect/transport mission, telemetry and command data between satellites & processing locations; provide all commanding & state-of-health monitoring functions of NPP, JPSS and DWSS satellites, and delivery of mission data to each Central IDP and monitor/report system-wide health/status and data communications with external systems and between CGS segments. SEIT leads the overall effort, including: manage/coordinate/execute JPSS CGS activities with NASA participation/oversight; plan/conduct all activities related to systems engineering, develop & ensure completeness of JPSS CGS functional & technical baselines and perform integration, deployment, testing and verification; sponsor/support modeling & simulation, performance analysis and trade studies; provide engineering for the product segments to implement proper security controls and directly manage integration, test & verification of product segments into the system. O&S operates the JPSS CGS, performs all mission operations and provides onsite support & logistics. O&S responsibilities range from developing, training, maintaining, and executing operational procedures; tracking/resolving anomalies; scheduling, measuring, trending and tracking all Program resources; to securing all assets. O&S has operated/supported the NPP C3S & IDPS baselines since Oct 2008 and Jul 2009 deliveries, respectively. Sustainment updates & maintains H/W & S/W baselines at Raytheon facilities in Colorado & Nebraska. They have done this for the NPP C3S & IDPS baselines since Oct 2008 and Jul 2009, respectively. This presentation will also give an overview of the JPSS CGS ground architecture features & enhancements for the JPSS (post-NPP) era. These include: C3S-provided space-to-ground connectivity, reliable/secure data delivery and insight/oversight of total operations; added ground receptor sites to reduce data latency; delivery of added sensor data products from NPP-like and additional JPSS sensors and expansion to 2 more Centrals (FNMOC & NAVO). The IDPS will act as a buffer to minimize changes in how users request/receive data products.

  9. Comparison of Satellite Observations of Nitrogen Dioxide to Surface Monitor Nitrogen Dioxide Concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, Mary M.; Pippin, Margaret R.; Pierce, R. Bradley; Neil, Doreen O.; Lingenfelser, Gretchen; Szykman, James J.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide is one of the U. S. EPA s criteria pollutants, and one of the main ingredients needed for the production of ground-level ozone. Both ozone and nitrogen dioxide cause severe public health problems. Existing satellites have begun to produce observational data sets for nitrogen dioxide. Under NASAs Earth Science Applications Program, we examined the relationship between satellite observations and surface monitor observations of this air pollutant to examine if the satellite data can be used to facilitate a more capable and integrated observing network. This report provides a comparison of satellite tropospheric column nitrogen dioxide to surface monitor nitrogen dioxide concentration for the period from September 1996 through August 1997 at more than 300 individual locations in the continental US. We found that the spatial resolution and observation time of the satellite did not capture the variability of this pollutant as measured at ground level. The tools and processes developed to conduct this study will be applied to the analysis of advanced satellite observations. One advanced instrument has significantly better spatial resolution than the measurements studied here and operates with an afternoon overpass time, providing a more representative distribution for once-per-day sampling of this photochemically active atmospheric constituent.

  10. Estimability and simple dynamical analyses of range (range-rate range-difference) observations to artificial satellites. [laser range observations to LAGEOS using non-Bayesian statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangelder, B. H. W.

    1978-01-01

    Non-Bayesian statistics were used in simulation studies centered around laser range observations to LAGEOS. The capabilities of satellite laser ranging especially in connection with relative station positioning are evaluated. The satellite measurement system under investigation may fall short in precise determinations of the earth's orientation (precession and nutation) and earth's rotation as opposed to systems as very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and lunar laser ranging (LLR). Relative station positioning, determination of (differential) polar motion, positioning of stations with respect to the earth's center of mass and determination of the earth's gravity field should be easily realized by satellite laser ranging (SLR). The last two features should be considered as best (or solely) determinable by SLR in contrast to VLBI and LLR.

  11. Assimilation of global navigation satellite radio occultation observations in GRAPES: Operational implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Xue, Jishan

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the design of an observation operator for assimilation of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) refractivity and the related operational implementation strategy in the global GRAPES variational data assimilation system. A preliminary assessment of the RO data assimilation effect is performed. The results show that the RO data are one of the most important observation types in GRAPES, as they have a significant positive impact on the analysis and forecast at all ranges, especially in the Southern Hemisphere and the global stratosphere where in-situ measurements are lacking. The GRAPES model error cannot be controlled in the Southern Hemisphere without RO data being assimilated. In addition, it is found that the RO data play a key role in the stable running of the GRAPES global assimilation and forecast system. Even in a relatively simple global data assimilation experiment, in which only the conventional and RO data are assimilated, the system is able to run for more than nine months without drift compared with NCEP analyses. The analysis skills in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres are still relatively comparable even after nine-month integration, especially in the stratosphere where the number of conventional observations decreases and RO observations with a uniform global coverage dominate gradually.

  12. Aircraft earth station for experimental mobile satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmori, S.; Hase, Y.; Kosaka, K.; Tanaka, M.

    A mobile satellite communication system, which can provide high quality service for small ships and aircraft, has been studied in Japan. This system is scheduled to be carried into experimental and evaluation phase in 1987, when a geostationary satellite (ETS-V) is launched by a Japanese rocket. This paper describes an aircraft earth station, which can establish telephone communication links for passengers on board the aircraft. The new technologies, especially an airborne phased array antenna, are developed. This is the first development in the world in mobile satellite communication areas.

  13. Space-based augmentation for global navigation satellite systems.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Mohinder S

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes space-based augmentation for global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). Space-based augmentations increase the accuracy and integrity of the GNSS, thereby enhancing users' safety. The corrections for ephemeris, ionospheric delay, and clocks are calculated from reference station measurements of GNSS data in wide-area master stations and broadcast via geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellites. This paper discusses the clock models, satellite orbit determination, ionospheric delay estimation, multipath mitigation, and GEO uplink subsystem (GUS) as used in the Wide Area Augmentation System developed by the FAA. PMID:22481784

  14. Use of CDMA access technology in mobile satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramasastry, Jay; Wiedeman, Bob

    1995-01-01

    Use of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology in terrestrial wireless systems is fairly well understood. Similarly, design and operation of Power Control in a CDMA-based system in a terrestrial environment is also well established. Terrestrial multipath characteristics, and optimum design of the CDMA receiver to deal with multipath and fading conditions are reliably established. But the satellite environment is different. When the CDMA technology is adopted to the satellite environment, other design features need to be incorporated (for example; interleaving, open-loop and closed-loop power control design, diversity characteristics) to achieve comparable level of system performance. In fact, the GLOBALSTAR LEO/MSS system has incorporated all these features. Contrary to some published reports, CDMA retains the advantages in the satellite environment that are similar to those achieved in the terrestrial environment. This document gives a description of the CDMA waveform and other design features adopted for mobile satellite applications.

  15. Design definition study of the Earth radiation budget satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.; Wallschlaeger, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    Instruments for measuring the radiation budget components are discussed, and the conceptual design of instruments for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite System (ERBSS) are reported. Scanning and nonscanning assemblies are described. The ERBSS test program is also described.

  16. An Evaluation of Soil Moisture Retrievals Using Aircraft and Satellite Passive Microwave Observations during SMEX02

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolten, John D.; Lakshmi, Venkat

    2009-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Experiments conducted in Iowa in the summer of 2002 (SMEX02) had many remote sensing instruments that were used to study the spatial and temporal variability of soil moisture. The sensors used in this paper (a subset of the suite of sensors) are the AQUA satellite-based AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer- Earth Observing System) and the aircraft-based PSR (Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer). The SMEX02 design focused on the collection of near simultaneous brightness temperature observations from each of these instruments and in situ soil moisture measurements at field- and domain- scale. This methodology provided a basis for a quantitative analysis of the soil moisture remote sensing potential of each instrument using in situ comparisons and retrieved soil moisture estimates through the application of a radiative transfer model. To this end, the two sensors are compared with respect to their estimation of soil moisture.

  17. The role of satellite observations through the whole disaster monitoring cycle: the impact of new satellite constellations and of collaborative approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruzzi, Stefano; Candela, Laura

    2013-04-01

    The contribution of satellite observations to the complete disaster monitoring cycle is to day not fully demonstrated. Several isolated examples exist for the monitoring of the various phases of a disaster cycle. None of them is showing the full capability of satellite observations to contribute to the whole cycle. Recent more open-minded approaches, based on a collaborative use of satellite resources and observation capabilities, show a promise of an improved availability of satellite observations to support the whole disaster monitoring cycle. Several initiatives pave the way towards a more effective and enlarged use of satellite observations in this domain. The International Charter for disaster monitoring, created in 1998 by CNES and ESA, has been extremely effective in demonstrating the interest of satellite observations in the post-event activities but, by itself, it falls short of demonstrating an operational, long term and sustainable contribution of satellite data to the complete disaster monitoring cycle. CEOS has since long attempted a system approach to disaster monitoring, and its recent "Consensus Report" of the ad hoc disaster team shows clearly how a collaborative approach, organizing the potential contributions of different missions and actors, may well provide a more consistent and sustained response to the requirements expressed by stakeholders and actors. GEO has sponsored some important activities, also supported by CEOS and a plethora of actors in the field: the science oriented GEO-hazards supersites initiative is undoubtedly one of the most promising efforts of coordination in the domain. The paper will introduce the opportunities offered by the GMES Collaborative Ground Segment to develop sustainable EO-based services to be operated at national level. These initiatives show the importance of coordination and of the need for a sustained access to several data sources, in order to meet the requirements of the disaster monitoring cycle. The same initiatives indicate that substantial efforts are underway to make available consistent series of satellite data for the long term monitoring of disaster prone areas and in order to facilitate post-disaster activities. The paper will depict, on this background, how local efforts have to connect to global initiatives, taking into account the specificity of disaster situations, how in particular a favourable situation is developing in Europe with the coming into operation of the sentinel satellites and with the availability of national missions of extreme interest for disaster monitoring. The European picture guarantees a long term availability of critical data sets and indicates the way for a wider international cooperation, which is well in the makings by the agencies in CEOS. Without large scale cooperation and a well conceived approach to coordinated observations, all efforts in this domain are bound to fail. Without extremely efficient local nodes for data access and tailored services no large scale international coordination will succeed.

  18. Engineering calculations for communications satellite systems planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, C. H.; Gonsalvez, D. J.; Levis, C. A.; Wang, C. W.

    1983-12-01

    Progress is reported on a computer code to improve the efficiency of spectrum and orbit utilization for the Broadcasting Satellite Service in the 12 GHz band for Region 2. It implements a constrained gradient search procedure using an exponential objective function based on aggregate signal to noise ratio and an extended line search in the gradient direction. The procedure is tested against a manually generated initial scenario and appears to work satisfactorily. In this test it was assumed that alternate channels use orthogonal polarizations at any one satellite location.

  19. Ku-band satellite digital transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGann, W. E.

    1985-09-01

    A nation-wide data communications service is being placed in service by a major telecommunications carrier. This service will rely on a satellite network being provided and installed by Harris Satellite Communications Corporation. The network supports information data rates from 56 kb/s to 2.048 Mb/s. This data communications network has been architectured to include a number of innovative monitor and control functions, up-link power control, modular equipment shelter design and a modular antenna/feed subsystem. This paper will detail this application.

  20. Astrometric observations of satellites of Uranus using a 26-inch refractor in 2007-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshchina, E. A.; Izmailov, I. S.; Kiseleva, T. P.

    2015-05-01

    This paper reports CCD observations of Uranus and its main satellites using a 26-inch refractor at the Pulkovo Observatory in 2007-2011. These are 2450 CCD frames with images of Uranus and its four main satellites, i.e., Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, and Oberon. The field of view of the FLI Proline 9000 CCD camera is 12' × 12', which allows us to obtain stars and perform astrometric reduction by Turner's method to determine the satellites' equatorial coordinates. UCAC2 is used as a reference catalogue. The equatorial coordinates are compared with the GUST 06 theory. The average accuracy of normal places is 0.030?-0.040? in right ascension and declination. The positions of the satellites and their theoretical uranocentric coordinates by GUST 06 are used to calculate the equatorial coordinates of Uranus. The positions of Uranus are compared with the INPOP10 planetary theory. The paper also presents the satellites' differential coordinates relative to one another.

  1. Intelligent fault isolation and diagnosis for communication satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tallo, Donald P.; Durkin, John; Petrik, Edward J.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is a prototype diagnosis expert system to provide the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) System with autonomous diagnosis capability. The system, the Fault Isolation and Diagnosis EXpert (FIDEX) system, is a frame-based system that uses hierarchical structures to represent such items as the satellite's subsystems, components, sensors, and fault states. This overall frame architecture integrates the hierarchical structures into a lattice that provides a flexible representation scheme and facilitates system maintenance. FIDEX uses an inexact reasoning technique based on the incrementally acquired evidence approach developed by Shortliffe. The system is designed with a primitive learning ability through which it maintains a record of past diagnosis studies.

  2. Development of unified propulsion system for geostationary satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, S.; Kobayashi, H.; Masuda, I.; Kameishi, M.; Miyoshi, K.; Takahashi, M.

    Japan's first Liquid Apogee Propulsion System (LAPS) has been developed for ETS-VI (Engineering Test Satellite - VI) 2-ton class geostationary satellite. The next largest (2-ton class) geostationary satellite, COMETS (Communication and Broadcasting Engineering Test Satellite), requires a more compact apogee propulsion system in order to increase the space for mission instruments. The study for such a propulsion system concluded with a Unified Propulsion System (UPS), which uses a common N2H4 propellant tank for both bipropellant apogee engines and monopropellant Reaction Control System (RCS) thrusters. This type of propulsion system has several significant advantages compared with popular nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (NTO/MMH) bipropellant satellite propulsion systems: The NTO/N2H4 apogee engine has a high specific impulse, and N2H4 thrusters have high reliability. Residual of N2H4 caused by propellant utilization of apogee engine firing (AEF) can be consumed by N2H4 monopropellant thrusters; that means a considerably prolonged satellite life.

  3. Satellite Cloud Data Validation through MAGIC Ground Observation and the S'COOL Project: Scientific Benefits grounded in Citizen Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crecelius, S.; Chambers, L. H.; Lewis, P. M.; Rogerson, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Students' Cloud Observation On-Line (S'COOL) Project was launched in 1997 as the Formal Education and Public Outreach arm of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Mission. ROVER, the Citizen Scientist area of S'COOL, started in 2007 and allows participants to make 'roving' observations from any location as opposed to a fixed, registered classroom. The S'COOL Project aids the CERES Mission in trying to answer the research question: 'What is the Effect of Clouds on the Earth's Climate'. Participants from all 50 states, most U.S. Territories, and 63 countries have reported more than 100,500 observations to the S'COOL Project over the past 16 years. The Project is supported by an intuitive website that provides curriculum support and guidance through the observation steps; 1) Request satellite overpass schedule, 2) Observe clouds, and 3) Report cloud observations. The S'COOL Website also hosts a robust database housing all participants' observations as well as the matching satellite data. While the S'COOL observation parameters are based on the data collected by 5 satellite missions, ground observations provide a unique perspective to data validation. Specifically, low to mid level clouds can be obscured by overcast high-level clouds, or difficult to observe from a satellite's perspective due to surface cover or albedo. In these cases, ground observations play an important role in filling the data gaps and providing a better, global picture of our atmosphere and clouds. S'COOL participants, operating within the boundary layer, have an advantage when observing low-level clouds that affect the area we live in, regional weather patterns, and climate change. S'COOL's long-term data set provides a valuable resource to the scientific community in improving the "poorly characterized and poorly represented [clouds] in climate and weather prediction models'. The MAGIC Team contacted S'COOL in early 2012 about making cloud observations as part of the MAGIC cruises, and reported data from one complete leg of the experiment. S'COOL received 24 MAGIC observations from September to October of 2012 that correspond to a satellite overpass. Most show exact or very good agreement to the satellite data. This paper will report on the analysis of MAGIC's cloud observations specifically, while highlighting the benefit of citizen science collaborations and contributions to the scientific community. Best practices, challenges, and future plans will be shared from 16 years of the S'COOL Project and 6 years of S'COOL ROVER Citizen Science.

  4. Impact of synoptic patterns on East Asia pollutant transport pathways observed from satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. C.; Lee, P.; Kim, S.; Ngan, F.; Bae, C.; Kim, B. U.; Kim, E.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents that wintertime pollutant transport patterns in East Asia are visible from multiple satellite observations when inspected with corresponding synoptic weather analysis. Transport pathways of pollutants and anthropogenic emissions are investigated using satellite images, surface weather chart, and chemical transport model simulation in the context of conceptual categorization of synoptic weather pattern. We combined daily distributions of MODIS AOD and CMAQ simulated PM to represent aerosol distribution; and GOME-2 and OMI NO2 column density as a proxy for fresh anthropogenic emission flux; and Korean Meteorological Administration surface weather analysis chart to understand synoptic weather pattern using GIS geo-referencing technique. We identified a periodic extension of the Siberian high to south China and its associated migratory systems are important to understand transport patterns in this region. Based on the relative location and strength of high pressure system over south China, we classified three types of synoptic patterns that might affect high surface PM events: (1) Expansion of Siberian high as a result of cold surge, (2) Cold front passage associated with migratory northern low pressure system, and (3) Stagnant high pressure system near Yellow Sea. In all cases, the development of high pressure system in south China is essential for development of pollutant event. We demonstrate that observed and simulated surface PM show good agreement, not only with MODIS AOD but also with NO2 column density, implying the possible contributions of transported anthropogenic emissions. We also demonstrate many of these PM plumes are originated from northeastern China, pushed southward by cold front passage, generating unique narrow-band-shape PM plumes. All 3 types of transport patterns are shown to be important, in terms of intensity, frequency, and vertical lifting. These transport pathways are crucial to understand not only local pollutant events but also mechanisms to lift and to transport East Asian anthropogenic emissions into Pacific.

  5. Assessment of radiative feedback in climate models using satellite observations of annual flux variation.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Yoko; Manabe, Syukuro

    2013-05-01

    In the climate system, two types of radiative feedback are in operation. The feedback of the first kind involves the radiative damping of the vertically uniform temperature perturbation of the troposphere and Earth's surface that approximately follows the Stefan-Boltzmann law of blackbody radiation. The second kind involves the change in the vertical lapse rate of temperature, water vapor, and clouds in the troposphere and albedo of the Earth's surface. Using satellite observations of the annual variation of the outgoing flux of longwave radiation and that of reflected solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere, this study estimates the so-called "gain factor," which characterizes the strength of radiative feedback of the second kind that operates on the annually varying, global-scale perturbation of temperature at the Earth's surface. The gain factor is computed not only for all sky but also for clear sky. The gain factor of so-called "cloud radiative forcing" is then computed as the difference between the two. The gain factors thus obtained are compared with those obtained from 35 models that were used for the fourth and fifth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment. Here, we show that the gain factors obtained from satellite observations of cloud radiative forcing are effective for identifying systematic biases of the feedback processes that control the sensitivity of simulated climate, providing useful information for validating and improving a climate model. PMID:23613585

  6. Assessment of radiative feedback in climate models using satellite observations of annual flux variation

    PubMed Central

    Tsushima, Yoko; Manabe, Syukuro

    2013-01-01

    In the climate system, two types of radiative feedback are in operation. The feedback of the first kind involves the radiative damping of the vertically uniform temperature perturbation of the troposphere and Earth’s surface that approximately follows the Stefan–Boltzmann law of blackbody radiation. The second kind involves the change in the vertical lapse rate of temperature, water vapor, and clouds in the troposphere and albedo of the Earth’s surface. Using satellite observations of the annual variation of the outgoing flux of longwave radiation and that of reflected solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere, this study estimates the so-called “gain factor,” which characterizes the strength of radiative feedback of the second kind that operates on the annually varying, global-scale perturbation of temperature at the Earth’s surface. The gain factor is computed not only for all sky but also for clear sky. The gain factor of so-called “cloud radiative forcing” is then computed as the difference between the two. The gain factors thus obtained are compared with those obtained from 35 models that were used for the fourth and fifth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment. Here, we show that the gain factors obtained from satellite observations of cloud radiative forcing are effective for identifying systematic biases of the feedback processes that control the sensitivity of simulated climate, providing useful information for validating and improving a climate model. PMID:23613585

  7. FM-SCPC system and equipments for satellite communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Isobe; T. Saruwatari; M. Iguchi; H. Ohashi; S. Tsuchiya; I. Nishiyama; T. Takahashi

    1982-01-01

    It is planned that one of the K-band transponders of a Japanese communications satellite will be used for small traffic communications. In order to establish the small capacity communications system, the Signal Channel per Carrier (SCPC) system operating in 30\\/20 GHz band is being considered as part of the Medium Capacity Communications Satellite for Experimental Purposes (CS), and small-size earth

  8. Propagation considerations in the American Mobile Satellite system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittiver, Charles; Sigler, Charles E., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of the American Mobile Satellite Corporation (AMSC) mobile satellite services (MSS) system with special emphasis given to the propagation issues that were considered in the design is presented. The aspects of the voice codec design that effect system performance in a shadowed environment are discussed. The strategies for overcoming Ku-Band rain fades in the uplink and downlink paths of the gateway station are presented. A land mobile propagation study that has both measurement and simulation activities is described.

  9. Satellite freeze forecast system. Operating/troubleshooting manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martsolf, J. D. (principal investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Examples of operational procedures are given to assist users of the satellites freeze forecasting system (SFFS) in logging in on to the computer, executing the programs in the menu, logging off the computer, and setting up the automatic system. Directions are also given for displaying, acquiring, and listing satellite maps; for communicating via terminal and monitor displays; and for what to do when the SFFS doesn't work. Administrative procedures are included.

  10. IRECIN Nano-satellite communication system and ground segment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ferrante; M. Povia; L. Di Ciolo; A. Ortenzi; M. Petrozzi

    2005-01-01

    On board resources necessary to perform the mission tasks are very limited in nano-satellites. This paper proposes a real-time multi-processing system for the communication system between ground segment and IRECIN nano-satellite.The first microprocessor is devoted to interface to the rice-transceiver subsystem decoding packet information and the second one is in charge to communicate with the other subsystems through I2C bus.

  11. HTTP Performance Analysis over Multi-Hops Satellite Communication System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyasu Obata; Kenji Ishida; Junichi Funasaka; Satoru Takeuchi; Kouichi Hirose; Katsuyuki Yamazaki

    2004-01-01

    In order to provide a long distance communication such as the one between two nodes separated by about halfway around the earth, a multi-hops satellite communication system which goes through multiple satellites is attractive. Furthermore, in case of disasters, the system is useful as the alternative to submarine optical fiber links. HTTP1.1 (HyperText Transfer Protocol version 1.1) is one of

  12. The Phemu 2015 campaign of observations of the mutual events of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arlot, J.-E.; Saquet, E.; Robert, V.; Lainey, V.

    2014-04-01

    From September 2014 to June 2015 mutual events of the Galilean satellites will occur around the Jovian equinox occurring on February 6, 2015. The observations of these events provide very accurate information on the relative astrometry of the satellites. Past campaign of observations have shown the high interest of such observations now performed mainly by amateur astronomers: the Galilean satellites are bright and the magnitude drop during these events is easily observable. The 2014-2015 campaign will be especially favorable because of the maximum of events which will occur during the opposition between the Sun and Jupiter. More, the positive declination of Jupiter will make the observations easier in the Northern hemisphere where many observers are available.

  13. Satellite systems for the direct radiation of broadcasting programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lothaller, W.

    1980-11-01

    A brief historical enumeration of the earliest satellite experiments is presented, concentrating first on NASA's ATS-6, the Canadian Technology Satellite, 'Hermes', and the Japanese Broadcasting Satellite for Experimental Purposes. The three European news satellites now in geostationary orbit are mentioned: Symphonie, a German-French joint project, the Italian research satellite, SIRIO-1, and the ESA Orbital Test Satellite. Specifications for ESA's two direct broadcasting satellite projects are discussed: the H-Sat, with its two transmitting channels per broadcasting program, the increased lobe span of the antennas, its traveling wave tube transmitters at 150 W and 450 W, and its frequencies of 12168.62 MHz and 12053.54 MHz; the L-Sat, based on the H-Sat, with an improved ECS system and a potential for more flexible and widespread service. Great attention is given to West Germany's TV-Sat, built in three modules - payload, service, driving - and is marked by its high capacity traveling wave tubes, an ultra-light solar generator, high precision infrared sensors, and a radio frequency ion thrust assembly that is low on fuel consumption. Finally mention is given to NORDSAT, the Scandinavian satellite, which on a 12 GHz frequency band will have a total of 13 channels.

  14. Non-stationary internal tides observed with satellite altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, R. D.; Zaron, E. D.

    2011-09-01

    Temporal variability of the internal tide is inferred from a 17-year combined record of Topex/Poseidon and Jason satellite altimeters. A global sampling of along-track sea-surface height wavenumber spectra finds that non-stationary variance is generally 25% or less of the average variance at wavenumbers characteristic of mode-1 tidal internal waves. With some exceptions the non-stationary variance does not exceed 0.25 cm2. The mode-2 signal, where detectable, contains a larger fraction of non-stationary variance, typically 50% or more. Temporal subsetting of the data reveals interannual variability barely significant compared with tidal estimation error from 3-year records. Comparison of summer vs. winter conditions shows only one region of noteworthy seasonal changes, the northern South China Sea. Implications for the anticipated SWOT altimeter mission are briefly discussed.

  15. Satellite-Observed Algae Blooms in China's Lake Taihu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Menghua; Shi, Wei

    2008-05-01

    During the spring of 2007, a massive blue-green algae (Microcystis) bloom broke out in Lake Taihu, one of the largest inland lakes in China. This freshwater lake is located in the Yangtze River delta (Figure 1), one of the world's most urbanized and heavily populated areas. The massive bloom event became an environmental crisis that prompted officials to cut tap water supply to several million residents in nearby Wuxi city in China's Jiangsu province. The outbreak, which the Chinese government identified as a major natural disaster, forced unprepared residents to rush to buy bottled water for their normal usage. This article presents results from an analysis of that event that demonstrate an application of satellite-derived imagery for inland lake water quality monitoring, assessment, and management.

  16. Characterization of Spectral Absorption Properties of Aerosols Using Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, O.; Jethva, H.; Bhartia, P. K.; Ahn, C.

    2012-01-01

    The wavelength-dependence of aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) is generally represented in terms of the Angstrom Absorption Exponent (AAE), a parameter that describes the dependence of AAOD with wavelength. The AAE parameter is closely related to aerosol composition. Black carbon (BC) containing aerosols yield AAE values near unity whereas Organic carbon (OC) aerosol particles are associated with values larger than 2. Even larger AAE values have been reported for desert dust aerosol particles. Knowledge of spectral AAOD is necessary for the calculation of direct radiative forcing effect of aerosols and for inferring aerosol composition. We have developed a satellitebased method of determining the spectral AAOD of absorbing aerosols. The technique uses high spectral resolution measurements of upwelling radiation from scenes where absorbing aerosols lie above clouds as indicated by the UV Aerosol Index. For those conditions, the satellite measured reflectance (rho lambda) is approximately given by Beer's law rho lambda = rho (sub 0 lambda) e (exp -mtau (sub abs lambda)) where rho(sub 0 lambda) is the cloud reflectance, m is the geometric slant path and tau (sub abs lambda) is the spectral AAOD. The rho (sub 0 lambda) term is determined by means of radiative transfer calculations using as input the cloud optical depth derived as described in Torres et al. [JAS, 2012] that accounts for the effects of aerosol absorption. In the second step, corrections for molecular and aerosol scattering effects are applied to the cloud reflectance term, and the spectral AAOD is then derived by inverting the equation above. The proposed technique will be discussed in detail and application results will be presented. The technique can be easily applied to hyper-spectral satellite measurements that include UV such as OMI, GOME and SCIAMACHY, or to multi-spectral visible measurements by other sensors provided that the aerosol-above-cloud events are easily identified.

  17. Advanced mobile satellite communications system using Ka and MM-wave bands in Japan's R and D satellite project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shunkichi Isobe; Shingo Ohmori; Naokazu Hamamoto; Minoru Yamamoto

    1991-01-01

    Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) studied an advanced mobile satellite communications system using Ka and millimeter-wave bands in the R&D Satellite project. The project started in 1990 and the satellite will be launched in 1997. On-board multi-beam interconnecting is one of basic functions to realize one-hop connection among Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSATs), mobile, and hand-held terminals in future mobile satellite

  18. Use of satellite images for the monitoring of water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillebrand, Gudrun; Winterscheid, Axel; Baschek, Björn; Wolf, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Satellite images are a proven source of information for monitoring ecological indicators in coastal waters and inland river systems. This potential of remote sensing products was demonstrated by recent research projects (e.g. EU-funded project Freshmon - www.freshmon.eu) and other activities by national institutions. Among indicators for water quality, a particular focus was set on the temporal and spatial dynamics of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a). The German Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG) was using the Weser and Elbe estuaries as test cases to compare in-situ measurements with results obtained from a temporal series of automatically generated maps of SPM distributions based on remote sensing data. Maps of SPM and Chl-a distributions in European inland rivers and alpine lakes were generated by the Freshmon Project. Earth observation based products are a valuable source for additional data that can well supplement in-situ monitoring. For 2015, the BfG and the Institute for Lake Research of the State Institute for the Environment, Measurements and Nature Conservation of Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany (LUBW) are in the process to start implementing an operational service for monitoring SPM and Chl-a based on satellite images (Landsat 7 & 8, Sentinel 2, and if required other systems with higher spatial resolution, e.g. Rapid Eye). In this 2-years project, which is part of the European Copernicus Programme, the operational service will be set up for - the inland rivers of Rhine and Elbe - the North Sea estuaries of Elbe, Weser and Ems. Furthermore - Lake Constance and other lakes located within the Federal State of Baden-Wuerttemberg. In future, the service can be implemented for other rivers and lakes as well. Key feature of the project is a data base that holds the stock of geo-referenced maps of SPM and Chl-a distributions. Via web-based portals (e.g. GGInA - geo-portal of the BfG; UIS - environmental information system of the Federal State of Baden-Wuerttemberg; BOWIS - information system for the Lake Constance) the maps will be made accessible to the public. The aim of the project is to implement a service that automatically recognizes new satellite images covering the area of selected water systems (lake, river or estuary) and therefore is able to continually update the data base. Furthermore, the service includes a procedure to analyse newly available data with the highest possible degree of automatization. It is planned to add new maps of SPM and Chl-a distributions to the data base within a couple of days after the satellite image was taken. A high degree of automatization is the essential condition to process a large number of satellite images each year at reasonable costs. It could be demonstrated by the Freshmon Project that there are simplified but robust algorithms and procedures existing. For the successful implementation of the service, it is important to further validate the results obtained by the service line as well as the used procedure and algorithms. Therefore, several test cases will be set up. Each case is going to include an analysis of the uncertainties to describe the expected deviation between values derived from earth observation data and the in-situ data obtained from the BfG and LUBW monitoring networks. Furthermore, it will include a description of possible sources of error and the boundary conditions which are most sensitive to the analysis. Test cases are planned to be made public with all necessary data. The scientific community is invited to use the data as a benchmark test case to develop their own algorithms and procedures.

  19. Intelligent Weather Aware Scheme for Satellite Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamal Harb; Changcheng Huang; Anand Srinivasan; Brian Cheng

    2008-01-01

    Rain, snow, gaseous, cloud, fog, scintillation and other atmospheric properties can have a distorting effect on signal fidelity of Ku and Ka bands, thus resulting in excessive digital transmission error. This loss of signal is commonly referred to as signal attenuation. Signal attenuation impacts the QoS in wireless and satellite networks. Accurately predicting channel attenuation due to atmospheric conditions can

  20. The Ohio State University Geometric and Orbital (adjustment) Program (OSUGOP) for satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, J. R.; Schwarz, C. R.; Whiting, M. C.

    1972-01-01

    A computer program, OSUGOP, developed for adjusting ground station coordinates from observations made to satellites by stations observing from the ground is outlined. The observations can be optical or ranges, and the adjustments can be performed in either the geometric or orbital mode. The program was developed in such a way that certain specific tasks can be performed without resorting to a complete solution.

  1. An Examination of the Sea Surface Salinity - Fresh Water Flux Relationship Using Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, P.; Kumar, A.; Xue, Y.; Liu, W. T.

    2014-12-01

    Relationship between the sea surface salinity (SSS) and the oceanic fresh water flux (E-P) is examined using the SSS retrievals derived from the passive microwave (PMW) observations aboard the SMOS and Aquarius satellites, the CMORPH integrated satellite precipitation estimates (P) and the evaporation data (E) produced by the NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFS) reanalysis. Preprocessing is performed to construct gridded fields of SSS, P, and E on a 1o lat/lon grid over the global oceans and at a 30-min time resolution for a 54-month period from January 2010 to June 2014. Relationships between the SSS observed at a point in time and the P, E, and P-E at the same grid box accumulated over various time periods ending at the SSS observation time are examined. As a first step, we focused our investigation on an oceanic area over the central equatorial Pacific (10oS-10oN; 180o-160oW) where SSS is not influenced by the river runoffs. Our preliminary results show clear linear relationship between the satellite-observed skin SSS and the fresh water flux over the region. The Aquarius observed instantaneous SSS presents a correlation of ~0.4 with the E-P accumulated over the 30-min period of the SSS observations. The correlation between the instantaneous SSS and the E-P drops with the accumulation period for E-P, down to 0.36 for 6-hourly accumulated E-P. The Correlation, however, bounces back and improves with the E-P accumulation period longer than 6 hours, reaching to ~0.7 for an accumulation time period of 30 days. The existence of the minimum correlation between the instantaneous SSS and the E-P accumulation over a 6-hour period suggests the involvement of air-sea interaction and oceanic processes on multiple time scales in the manner E-P influences to the SSS variations. Among the two primary components of the fresh water flux, precipitation dominates the influences on the SSS. Further analysis is under way to repeat the examination for different regions to examine the regional dependence and seasonal changes of the SSS - fresh water flux over the global ocean and to examine the underlying physical processes. Detailed results will be reported at the AGU meetings.

  2. On-board processing for future satellite communications systems: Satellite-Routed FDMA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berk, G.; Christopher, P. F.; Hoffman, M.; Jean, P. N.; Rotholz, E.; White, B. E.

    1981-01-01

    A frequency division multiple access (FDMA) 30/20 GHz satellite communications architecture without on-board baseband processing is investigated. Conceptual system designs are suggested for domestic traffic models totaling 4 Gb/s of customer premises service (CPS) traffic and 6 Gb/s of trunking traffic. Emphasis is given to the CPS portion of the system which includes thousands of earth terminals with digital traffic ranging from a single 64 kb/s voice channel to hundreds of channels of voice, data, and video with an aggregate data rate of 33 Mb/s. A unique regional design concept that effectively smooths the non-uniform traffic distribution and greatly simplifies the satellite design is employed. The satellite antenna system forms thirty-two 0.33 deg beam on both the uplinks and the downlinks in one design. In another design matched to a traffic model with more dispersed users, there are twenty-four 0.33 deg beams and twenty-one 0.7 deg beams. Detailed system design techniques show that a single satellite producing approximately 5 kW of dc power is capable of handling at least 75% of the postulated traffic. A detailed cost model of the ground segment and estimated system costs based on current information from manufacturers are presented.

  3. Conjugate observations on board a satellite and on the ground of a remarkable MLR-like event

    E-print Network

    Santolik, Ondrej

    Conjugate observations on board a satellite and on the ground of a remarkable MLR-like event F observed by low-altitude satellites and on the ground have sometimes ­ when represented as a frequency an experimental study using both ground-based and satellite data, showing for the first time a detailed analysis

  4. A Smart Sensor Web for Ocean Observation: Integrated Acoustics, Satellite Networking, and Predictive Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabshahi, P.; Chao, Y.; Chien, S.; Gray, A.; Howe, B. M.; Roy, S.

    2008-12-01

    In many areas of Earth science, including climate change research, there is a need for near real-time integration of data from heterogeneous and spatially distributed sensors, in particular in-situ and space- based sensors. The data integration, as provided by a smart sensor web, enables numerous improvements, namely, 1) adaptive sampling for more efficient use of expensive space-based sensing assets, 2) higher fidelity information gathering from data sources through integration of complementary data sets, and 3) improved sensor calibration. The specific purpose of the smart sensor web development presented here is to provide for adaptive sampling and calibration of space-based data via in-situ data. Our ocean-observing smart sensor web presented herein is composed of both mobile and fixed underwater in-situ ocean sensing assets and Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite sensors providing larger-scale sensing. An acoustic communications network forms a critical link in the web between the in-situ and space-based sensors and facilitates adaptive sampling and calibration. After an overview of primary design challenges, we report on the development of various elements of the smart sensor web. These include (a) a cable-connected mooring system with a profiler under real-time control with inductive battery charging; (b) a glider with integrated acoustic communications and broadband receiving capability; (c) satellite sensor elements; (d) an integrated acoustic navigation and communication network; and (e) a predictive model via the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). Results from field experiments, including an upcoming one in Monterey Bay (October 2008) using live data from NASA's EO-1 mission in a semi closed-loop system, together with ocean models from ROMS, are described. Plans for future adaptive sampling demonstrations using the smart sensor web are also presented.

  5. Investigation of trace gas to aerosol relationships over biomass burning areas using daily satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Thomas; Penning de Vries, Marloes; Zörner, Jan; Beirle, Steffen

    2014-05-01

    The quantification and characterization of aerosols from space is a great challenge. Especially in the presence of clouds and over land surfaces, it is often difficult to distinguish the signals of aerosol scattering from scattering by cloud particles or surface reflection. Instead of deriving aerosol properties directly, satellite observations of tropospheric trace gases, emitted by the same emission sources as the aerosols, can be used to derive additional information on the aerosols. Such observations have two potential advantages: First, from the composition of trace gases, information on the aerosol type can be derived. Second, such observations are possible in the presence of clouds (although usually with reduced sensitivity if the trace gases are located below the cloud). In this feasibility study we investigate the relationship between satellite observations of trace gases (CO, NO2, HCHO, CHOCHO) and AOD (measured from satellite or ground). We also include in our comparison satellite observations of the so called UV aerosol index (UVAI), which is an indicator of the aerosol absorption. Like the trace gas observations, also the UVAI can be retrieved in the presence of clouds. We investigate aerosol-trace gas relationships over biomass burning regions. Depending on their optical properties and altitude distribution such aerosols can have a strong impact on the atmospheric energy budget through direct and indirect effects. We perform correlation analyses for selected AERONET stations and also for larger biomass burning areas by also taking into account satellite observations of fire counts.

  6. BeiDou Navigation Satellite System and its time scales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunhao Han; Yuanxi Yang; Zhiwu Cai

    2011-01-01

    The development and current status of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System are briefly introduced. The definition and realization of the system time scales are described in detail. The BeiDou system time (BDT) is an internal and continuous time scale without leap seconds. It is maintained by the time and frequency system of the master station. The frequency accuracy of BDT is

  7. A digital transmission system for global maritime satellite communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Hirata; Y. Yasuda; H. Okinaka; K. Kashiki

    1984-01-01

    A digital transmission system for global maritime satellite communications has been designed, and experimental communications equipment has been developed, taking account of its potential application to the Inmarsat system where analog modulation is currently used for telephone signal transmission. This paper discusses possible digital technologies to realize an efficient digital transmission system, and presents a concept for the designed system.

  8. Design of tracking mount and controller for mobile satellite laser ranging system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheol Hoon Park; Young Su Son; Byung In Kim; Sang Young Ham; Sung Whee Lee; Hyung Chul Lim

    In this study, we have proposed and implemented a design for the tracking mount and controller of the ARGO-M (Accurate Ranging system for Geodetic Observation – Mobile) which is a mobile satellite laser ranging (SLR) system developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) and Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM). The tracking mount comprises a few

  9. Observing System Variations Effect on Reanalyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Chen, Junye; Robertson, Franklin R.; da Silva, Arlindo

    2010-01-01

    Reanalyses integrate multitudes of satellite and conventional observations data assimilation and numerical weather prediction. The result is that many disparate observation platforms, discontinuous in space and time, lead to complete and consistent representations the state of the weather. The component also provides physical fields rarely or never observed. However, the numerical model bias is continuously being corrected by the observational analysis, and this bias changes as variations in the observations occur. NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) sensitivity to variations in the observing systems are explored. Specifically, we will evaluate the water budget and transport processes as they relate to the advent of SSM/I and AMSU-A radiance assimilation, and an additional case of radiosonde station that exhibits a dramatic shift in mean water states. The MERRA input observation data, now available online, is used to explore these variations.

  10. Trajectory Forecasts Based on Numerical Ocean Circulation Models and Satellite Observations: A Rapid Response to Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Weisberg, R. H.; Hu, C.; Zheng, L.

    2010-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill presented an unprecedented threat to the Gulf of Mexico marine resources. Needed for mitigation efforts and ship survey guidance was a system for tracking the oil, both at the surface and at depth. We report on such system, implemented immediately upon spill onset, by marshaling numerical model and satellite remote sensing resources available from existing coastal ocean observing activities. Surface oil locations inferred from satellite imagery were used to initialize the positions of the virtual particles in an ensemble of trajectory models, and the particles were tracked using forecast surface currents, with new particles added to simulate the continual release of oil from the well. Three dimensional subsurface tracking was also performed from the well site location at several different depths. This activity provides an example of how an Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) as a partnership between the academics, the agencies, and the private sector can be of great benefit to the nation.

  11. Review of power requirements for satellite remote sensing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morain, Stanley A.

    1988-01-01

    The space environment offers a multitude of attributes and opportunities to be used to enhance human life styles and qualities of life for all future generations, worldwide. Among the prospects having immense social as well as economic benefits are earth-observing systems capable of providing near real-time data in such areas as food and fiber production, marine fisheries, ecosystem monitoring, disaster assessment, and global environmental exchanges. The era of Space Station, the Shuttle program, the planned unmanned satellites in both high and low Earth orbit will transfer to operational status what, until now, has been largely research and development proof of concept for remotely sensing Earth's natural and cultural resources. An important aspect of this operational status focuses on the orbital designs and power requirements needed to optimally sense any of these important areas.

  12. Satellite positioning systems - Current status and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrumpf, B.

    1987-10-01

    Two categories of satellite systems are discussed: (1) systems such as Navstar/GPS which are dedicated exclusively to position location and are able to achieve high precision; and (2) systems such as Sarsat, Argos, and Geostar-Locstar which combine positioning with communications services and sacrifice precision for increased simplicity and automation. GPS applications include geodetic surveying and differential position determination for mobile units. The Argos system, employing two Tiros-N meteorological satellites, will be used for obtaining environmental data. The Geostar-Locstar system has a precision of 10 m for position location, and can transmit messages to ground, sea, and airborne mobile units.

  13. Ephemerides of the Uranian satellites determined from earth-based astrometric and Voyager imaging observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, R. A.; Lewis, G. D.; Riedel, J. E.; Roth, D. C.; Synnot, S. P.

    1986-01-01

    Uranian satellite ephemerides were needed by the Voyager project to support both navigation and acquisition of scientific data. This paper outlines the mathematical modeling approach taken to generate those ephemerides and discusses their pre-encounter development, real time updating, and post-encounter refinement. The results presented include the final set of model parameters which generate the ephemerides that best fit the Voyager optical data as well as the earth based observations of the satellites.

  14. Evaluating Climate Models Simulated Cloud Fraction and Radiation Budget Using Surface Satellite Observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Dong; B. Xi; A. Kennedy; A. Del Genio; A. Wolf; P. Minnis; M. Khaiyer; S. Xie; S. Klein

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate climate models simulations, we have collected the ARM ground-based radar-lidar and GOES\\/CERES satellite observations, as well as GISS SCM, NCAR CAM3 and GFDL AM2 results, over the DOE ARM SGP site during the January-December 2000. To have a reasonable comparison, we have averaged all surface, satellite and model results into the same temporal, vertical, and\\/or spatial resolutions. There

  15. An analysis of the 1985 observations of mutual phenomena of the Galilean satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, F.A.; Africano, J.; Allen, W.; Aksnes, K.; Birch, P. (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States) Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ (United States) Adams Lane Observatory, Blenheim (New Zealand) Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, La Serena (Chile) Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ (United States) Perth Observatory (Australia))

    1991-08-01

    This paper derives midtimes and relative satellite positions from nearly 200 light curves of mutual eclipses and occultations of the Galilean satellites that occurred in 1985. It is shown that, at least for observations of the highest quality, the standard errors on the midtimes are smaller than 1 s and close to 0.01 arcsec on the positional offsets in right ascension and declination. 12 refs.

  16. Gamma-Ray Burst Groups Observed by Different Satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, Istvan [Bolyai Military University, Budapest (Hungary); Balazs, Lajos G. [Konkoly Observatory, Budapest (Hungary); Veres, Peter [Bolyai Military University, Budapest (Hungary); Eotvos University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2009-05-25

    Two classes of gamma-ray bursts have been identified in the BATSE catalogs characterized by durations shorter and longer than about 2 seconds. There are, however, some indications for the existence of a third one. Swift satellite detectors have different spectral sensitivity than pre-Swift ones for gamma-ray bursts. Therefore it is worth to reanalyze the durations and their distribution and also the classification of GRBs. In this paper we are going to analyze the bursts' duration distribution and also the duration-hardness bivariate distribution, published in The First BAT Catalog, whether it contains two, three or maybe more groups. Similarly to the BATSE data, to explain the BAT GRBs duration distribution three components are needed. Although, the relative frequencies of the groups are different than they were in the BATSE GRB sample, the difference in the instrument spectral sensitivities can explain this bias in a natural way. This means theoretical models may have to explain three different type of gamma-ray bursts.

  17. Use of low orbital satellite communications systems for humanitarian programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlasov, Vladimir N.; Gorkovoy, Vladimir

    1991-01-01

    Communication and information exchange play a decisive role in progress and social development. However, in many parts of the world the communication infrastructure is inadequate and the capacity for on-line exchange of information may not exist. This is true of underdeveloped countries, remote and relatively inaccessible regions, sites of natural disasters, and of all cases where the resources needed to create complex communication systems are limited. The creation of an inexpensive space communications system to service such areas is therefore a high priority task. In addition to a relatively low-cost space segment, an inexpensive space communications systems requires a large number of ground terminals, which must be relatively inexpensive, energy efficient (using power generated by storage batteries, or solar arrays, etc.), small in size, and must not require highly expert maintenance. The ground terminals must be portable, and readily deployable. Communications satellites in geostationary orbit at altitudes of about 36,000 km are very expensive and require complex and expensive ground stations and launch vehicles. Given current technology, it is categorically impossible to develop inexpensive satellite systems with portable ground terminals using such satellites. To solve the problem of developing an inexpensive satellite communications system that can operate with relatively small ground stations, including portable terminals, we propose to use a system with satellites in low Earth orbit, at an altitude of 900-1500 km. Because low orbital satellites are much closer to the Earth than geostationary ones and require vastly less energy expenditure by the satellite and ground terminals for transmission of messages, a system using them is relatively inexpensive. Such a system could use portable ground terminals no more complex than ordinary mobile police radios.

  18. Exploiting the power law distribution properties of satellite fire radiative power retrievals: A method to estimate fire radiative energy and biomass burned from sparse satellite observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Kumar; D. P. Roy; L. Boschetti; R. Kremens

    2011-01-01

    Biomass burned retrieved conventionally from FRP significantly sensitive to samplingNew method based on observed FRP power law properties solves this sensitivityNew method demonstrated with ground and satellite fire observations

  19. Can oceanic submesoscale processes be observed with satellite altimetry?

    E-print Network

    of the range of conditions observed (see auxiliary material).1 2. Relative Importance of Low and High Frequency November 2010. [1] Highresolution (2 km and hourly) observations of surface currents from HighFrequency HighFrequency Radars (HFRs) deployed on the west shore of O'ahu, Hawai'i (providing 2km resolution

  20. ON THINNING METHODS FOR DATA ASSIMILATION OF SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS

    E-print Network

    Reiterer, Harald

    observational data with a background model to produce initial states of the atmosphere for numerical weather for numer- ical weather forecast. In this work we modify and improve the scheme of so-called estimation the observation density and the resolution of the model grid. Their theoretical study shows that the analysis

  1. Satellite communications systems and technology. Volume 2: Site reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, Burton I. (editor); Pelton, Joseph N. (editor); Bostian, Charles W.; Brandon, William T.; Chan, Vincent W. S.; Hager, E. Paul; Helm, Neil R.; Jennings, Raymond D.; Kwan, Robert K.; Mahle, Christoph E.

    1993-01-01

    This is volume 2 of the final report of the NASA/NSF Panel on Satellite Communications Systems and Technology. It consists of the site reports from the panel's visits to satellite communications facilities and laboratories in Europe, Japan, and Russia. The Executive Summary of the panel's final report is published separately. Volume 1, also published separately, consists of the panel's analytical chapters. Information on ordering the Executive Summary and Volume 1 from the National Technical Information Service is included.

  2. Design of Satellite Control System using the Optimal Nonlinear Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luiz Carlos Gadelha Souza

    Nowadays, attitude control systems of satellites with rigid and flexible components are demanding more and more better performance\\u000a resulting in the application of new advanced nonlinear control theory. This is the case when the dynamics of the plant that\\u000a describe the attitude motion of the satellite is nonlinear and the mission involves stringent pointing accuracy. As a result,\\u000a control designs

  3. Channel modeling and data transmission in mobile satellite systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan P. Castro

    1992-01-01

    The multipath fading in mobile satellite systems plagues the propagation medium by imposing random amplitude and phase variations on the transmission signal. However, the relative effect of an undesired random variation is reduced by the presence of a strong line-of-sight (l.o.s) component. In order to analyze the data transmission performance of the satellite-to-ground mobile channel, a Rician fading model is

  4. The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Bloom

    2004-01-01

    The tri-agency Integrated Program Office (IPO) is responsible for managing the development of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS will replace the current military and civilian operational polar-orbiting ``weather'' satellites. The Northrop Grumman Space Technology - Raytheon team was competitively selected in 2002 as the Acquisition and Operations contractor team to develop, integrate, deploy, and operate NPOESS

  5. Giant impacts in the Saturnian system: A possible origin of diversity in the inner mid-sized satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, Yasuhito; Genda, Hidenori

    2012-04-01

    It is widely accepted that Titan and the mid-sized regular satellites around Saturn were formed in the circum-Saturn disk. Thus, if these mid-sized satellites were simply accreted by collisions of similar ice-rock satellitesimals in the disk, the observed wide diversity in density (i.e., the rock fraction) of the Saturnian mid-sized satellites is enigmatic. A recent circumplanetary disk model suggests satellite growth in an actively supplied circumplanetary disk, in which Titan-sized satellites migrate inward by interaction with the gas and are eventually lost to the gas planet. Here we report numerical simulations of giant impacts between Titan-sized migrating satellites and smaller satellites in the inner region of the Saturnian disk. Our results suggest that in a giant impact with impact velocity ?˜1.4 times the escape velocity and impact angle of ˜45°, a smaller satellite is destroyed, forming multiple mid-sized satellites with a very wide diversity in satellite density (the rock fraction=0-92 wt%). Our results of the relationship between the mass and rock fraction of the satellites resulting from giant impacts reproduce the observations of the Saturnian mid-sized satellites. Giant impacts also lead to internal melting of the formed mid-sized satellites, which would initiate strong tidal dissipation and geological activity, such as those observed on Enceladus today and Tethys in the past. Our findings also imply that giant impacts might have affected the fundamental physical property of the Saturnian mid-sized satellites as well as those of the terrestrial planets in the solar system and beyond.

  6. Development of a PC based system for real-time, local reception of high resolution satellite data for environmental monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. D. Downey; Jim B. Williams; J. R. Stephenson; R. Stephenson; W. Looyen

    1997-01-01

    A recent EU funded study on the constraints and opportunities of Earth observation in developing countries has identified the lack of more direct access to satellite data as a major global restriction on resource management needs in these countries. The removal of this obstacle lies in direct readout satellite transmissions and the capabilities of low-cost, reception systems for data acquisition

  7. Relationship of intracloud lightning radiofrequency power to lightning storm height, as observed by the FORTE satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Abram R.

    2003-04-01

    Prior studies have noted a strongly nonlinear enhancement of lightning flash rates with increasing cloud height. Here we report a related observation, of a tendency for increasing intracloud-discharge radiofrequency-emission power for increased height of the electrified cloud. The FORTE satellite's radio-frequency-receiver payload has performed extensive recordings of electromagnetic emissions of lightning discharges. The most commonly occurring such emission arises from intracloud electrical breakdown and is usually recognizable by a pulse followed by a delayed echo from the ground reflection. We have used other systems of lightning monitors to provide source locations for an extended data set of FORTE intracloud-discharge signals. The interpulse separation within each pulse pair yields the discharge height above the reflective ground. The storm in which the pulse occurs usually provides many (at least 50) recorded events. From the pattern of these events' heights, we can usually infer a capping height, which serves as an upper bound on the lightning discharge heights for that storm. We find that there is a strong statistical increase of effective radiated power of intracloud discharges, for increasing capping height of the parent storm. Thus a future satellite-based lightning monitor that triggers on only the most intense radiofrequency emissions will be strongly selective for electrified storms with very deep vertical development. Such storms are also indicated in severe convective weather.

  8. Guidance and Control System for a Satellite Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Jonathan Lamar; Cox, James; Mays, Paul Richard; Neidhoefer, James Christian; Ephrain, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A distributed guidance and control algorithm was developed for a constellation of satellites. The system repositions satellites as required, regulates satellites to desired orbits, and prevents collisions. 1. Optimal methods are used to compute nominal transfers from orbit to orbit. 2. Satellites are regulated to maintain the desired orbits once the transfers are complete. 3. A simulator is used to predict potential collisions or near-misses. 4. Each satellite computes perturbations to its controls so as to increase any unacceptable distances of nearest approach to other objects. a. The avoidance problem is recast in a distributed and locally-linear form to arrive at a tractable solution. b. Plant matrix values are approximated via simulation at each time step. c. The Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) method is used to compute perturbations to the controls that will result in increased miss distances. 5. Once all danger is passed, the satellites return to their original orbits, all the while avoiding each other as above. 6. The delta-Vs are reasonable. The controller begins maneuvers as soon as practical to minimize delta-V. 7. Despite the inclusion of trajectory simulations within the control loop, the algorithm is sufficiently fast for available satellite computer hardware. 8. The required measurement accuracies are within the capabilities of modern inertial measurement devices and modern positioning devices.

  9. Satellite Observations Defying the Long-Held Tsunami Genesis Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.; Han, S.

    2009-12-01

    Using seismographs and GPS displacement measurements, we have fully estimated the seafloor deformation history of the December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and the March 2005 Nias Island earthquake by separating their deformation period into intervals of 800-sec, 1-hour, and 6-months. Their corresponding gravity changes (induced by the seafloor deformation) are 11.3, 12.5, and 14.9 microgalileo, respectively, consistent with the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites measurements of 15 microgalileo for the same period of six months. However, the vertical component of the accumulated seafloor deformation during the tsunami formation period could only generate a potential energy of 1.2E+15 Joules and account for only one third of the actual tsunami height measured by altimeters. The evidence is overwhelmingly contrary to the long-held theory that the vertical deformation of seafloor is the primary source of tsunamis. Surprisingly, we also found that a pioneering wave-maker experiment, which conceived the vertically-forced tsunami genesis theory in 1980s, used an exaggerated experimental ratio of the horizontal slip distance to the water depth, the key non-dimensional parameter that allows comparing the experiment with reality on an apple-to-apple basis, about 200 times of realistic earthquake parameters. The experiment is problematic in conceiving the vertically-forced tsunami theory. We conclude that the tsunami source has been poorly understood and the tsunami formation mechanism is not as simple as previously thought. Our study suggests a new method of using gravity measurement from space to constrain the under-sea earthquake source for tsunami modeling and to gain insight into the tsunami genesis theory. Seafloor deformation, corresponding gravity changes, and GRACE measurements of the December 26 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and the March 2005 Nias Island earthquake.

  10. Observations of Energetic Particles from FY-3 Satellites and Data Cross-Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Zhang, X.; Li, J.

    2014-12-01

    Since its launch on-board the satellite FY-3A in May 2008 and FY-3B in November 2010 separately, the space environment instrument is collecting data on trapped protons with energy 3 MeV ~300MeV and electron with energy 0.15MeV~5.7 MeV. The satellites were launched on a 98 degrees inclination solar orbit with altitude 830 km. The paper presents the observations of dynamics of charged particle with different energy performed from May 2008 until May 2014. The cross-calibration methodologies of high energetic particle data between FY-3 satellites and NOAA satellites will briefly be described, followed by the presentation of results obtained from the instruments in space. A case study of 2.5~6.9MeV protons and 0.3~1.1MeV electrons between FY-3B and NOAA-17 satellite based on possibly physical conjunctions shows that there are some systematic differences in FY-3B measurements when compared to NOAA-17 data. Quite good consistence between the satellite measurements after cross-calibration can be obtained. This effort should be useful for data application from multi-satellite missions.

  11. Solar Power Satellite Development: Advances in Modularity and Mechanical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belvin, W. Keith; Dorsey, John T.; Watson, Judith J.

    2010-01-01

    Space solar power satellites require innovative concepts in order to achieve economically and technically feasible designs. The mass and volume constraints of current and planned launch vehicles necessitate highly efficient structural systems be developed. In addition, modularity and in-space deployment will be enabling design attributes. This paper reviews the current challenges of launching and building very large space systems. A building block approach is proposed in order to achieve near-term solar power satellite risk reduction while promoting the necessary long-term technology advances. Promising mechanical systems technologies anticipated in the coming decades including modularity, material systems, structural concepts, and in-space operations are described

  12. The utilization of satellite observed total ozone to predict tropical cyclone recurvature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, Edward B.; Stout, John

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of using satellite measurements of total ozone to delineate the characteristic upper-tropospheric wave patterns conductive for tropical cyclone recurvature was investigated using measurements by the Nimbus-7 TOMS instrument measurements of total ozone fields were used to delineate the total ozone distribution for the straight-moving, left-curving, and right-curving tropical cyclones. Using these data for 12-h and 24-h forecasts, it is shown that the composite total ozone maps could be used to differentiate the recurving tropical cyclones from nonrecurving systems, suggesting that the majority of the upper-tropospheric waves delineated by total ozone distribution were deep enough to influence the motion of the storms. The left- and the right-recurving tropical cyclones observed during the 12-hr and 24-hr periods had, respectively, higher and lower upper-tropospheric heights downstream than the nonrecurving cyclones.

  13. PCOP: A system for long-term satellite Ephemeris predictions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth E. Williams

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses a system for predicting orbits for near-earth satellites without drag compensation systems. This system, known as the Personal Computer Orbit Predictor (PCOP), is intended to provide orbital elements suitable for station alerting for periods of up to one year into the future. A functional overview of PCOP is provided. The performance of PCOP is compared with that

  14. Diode laser satellite systems for beamed power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.; Kwon, J. H.; Walker, G. H.; Humes, D. H.

    1990-01-01

    A power system composed of an orbiting laser satellite and a surface-based receiver/converter is described. Power is transmitted from the satellite to the receiver/converter by laser beam. The satellite components are: (1) solar collector; (2) blackbody; (3) photovoltaic cells; (4) heat radiators; (5) laser system; and (6) transmission optics. The receiver/converter components are: receiver dish; lenticular lens; photocells; and heat radiator. Although the system can be adapted to missions at many locations in the solar system, only two are examined here: powering a lunar habitat; and powering a lunar rover. Power system components are described and their masses, dimensions, operating powers, and temperatures, are estimated using known or feasible component capabilities. The critical technologies involved are discussed and other potential missions are mentioned.

  15. Quasi-Zenith satellite observations for total electron content of plasmasphere and ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinugasa, N.; Shimizu, T.; Muto, T.; Kajiwara, T.; Takahashi, F.

    2012-12-01

    Quasi-Zenith satellite system (QZSS) is the regional navigation satellite system covering Japan and Oceania. Altitude of QZS (Quasi-Zenith satellite) is 32,000km at the perigee and 40,000km at the apogee, and that of GPS is 22,000km. Thus, the plasmaspheric contribution on QZS total electron content (TEC) seems to be larger than that on GPS TEC. QZSS has only one satellite now and therefore inter-frequency biases can not be solved by only QZS measurements. Then we suggest the method of estimating inter-frequency biases by combining QZS measurements with GPS measurements. We present the method of QZS TEC measuring and compare TEC measurements by QZS and by GPS for single receiver located in Japan. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) and NICT (National Institute of information and communications technology). We would like to thank Maho Nakamura, Takuya Tsugawa and Michi Nishioka.

  16. AIAA International Communication Satellite Systems Conference, 12th, Arlington, VA, Mar. 13-17, 1988, Technical Papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Various papers concerning communication satellite systems are presented. The general topics addressed include: regional and international systems, orbit and spectrum use, spacecraft bus developments, domestic satellite systems, advanced systems concepts, earth stations, report on NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite, direct broadcast satellite systems, and advanced communications payloads. Also considered are: small terminals, military satellite systems, on-board processing technology, power amplifiers, economic aspects of communication satellite systems, mobile satellite systems, launch vehicle report, transponder technology, multipurpose satellite systems, systems architecture, satellite antenna technology, and satellite operations.

  17. DC Electric Fields and Associated Plasma Drifts Observed with the C/NOFS Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.; Freudenreich, H.; Bromund, K.; Rowland, D.

    2009-01-01

    Initial DC electric field observations and associated plasma drifts are presented from the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite. We present statistical averages of the vector fields for the first year of operations that include both the zonal and radial components of the resulting E x B plasma flows at low latitudes. Magnetic field data from the VEFI science magnetometer are used to compute the plasma flows. The DC electric field detector reveals zonal and radial electric fields that undergo strong diurnal variations, typically displaying eastward and outward-directed fields during the day and westward and downward-directed fields at night. There is considerable variation in the large scale DC electric field data, in both the daytime and nighttime cases, with enhanced structures typically observed at night. In general, the measured zonal DC electric field amplitudes include excursions that extend within the 0.4 - 2 m V/m range, corresponding to E x B drifts of the order of 30-150 m/s. The average vertical or radial electric fields may exceed the zonal fields in amplitude by a factor of 1.5 to 2. Although the data compare well, in a general sense, with previous satellite observations and statistical patterns of vertical ion drifts, the E x B drifts we report from C/NOFS rarely show a pronounced pre-reversal enhancement after sunset. We attribute this to a combination of extreme solar minimum conditions and the fact that the C/NOFS orbit of 401 by 867 km carries the probes essentially above the lower altitude regions where the wind-driven dynamo might be expected to create enhanced upwards drifts in the early evening. Evidence for wavenumber 4 tidal effects and other longitudinal signatures have been detected and will be presented. We also discuss off-equatorial electric fields and their relation to the ambient plasma density.

  18. Auroral phenomena related to intense electric fields observed by the Freja satellite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. T. Marklund

    1997-01-01

    Electrodynamical features of the black aurora, and its optical counterpart, the aurora, are discussed on the basis of electric field, magnetic field and particle observations by Freja. Extraordinarily intense (1-2Vm-1) and small-scale (1 - 5 km) electric fields have been observed by the Freja satellite mostly in association with black aurora (vortices and east - west dark filaments) but also

  19. Battery Performance of ADEOS (Advanced Earth Observing Satellite) and Ground Simulation Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koga, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Kuwajima, S.; Kusawake, H.

    1997-01-01

    The Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) is developed with the aim of establishment of platform technology for future spacecraft and inter-orbit communication technology for the transmission of earth observation data. ADEOS uses 5 batteries, consists of two packs. This paper describes, using graphs and tables, the ground simulation tests and results that are carried to determine the performance of the ADEOS batteries.

  20. Refinement of the differential gravimetry approach for future inter-satellite observations Matthias Weigelt, Wolfgang Keller

    E-print Network

    Stuttgart, Universität

    , radial and crosstrack direction · best frame to understand the relative nature of the observables · main the satellites: Solution for current GRACE scenario: Reduction to residual quantities: B Epoch 2 B A K-Band GPS-Band observations · Second terms needs augmentation with GPS (loss of accuracy) Epoch 1 Absolute motion neglected