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1

On the development of earth observation satellite systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Subsequent to the launching of the first LANDSAT by NASA, Japan has recognized the importance of data from earth observation satellites, has conducted studies, and is preparing to develop an independent system. The first ocean observation satellite will be launched in 1983, the second in 1985. The first land observation satellite is scheduled to be launched in 1987 and by 1990 Japan intends to have both land and ocean observation systems in regular operation. The association reception and data processing systems are being developed.

1977-01-01

2

The Earth Phenomena Observing System: Intelligent Autonomy for Satellite Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth monitoring systems of the future may include large numbers of inexpensive small satellites, tasked in a coordinated fashion to observe both long term and transient targets. For best performance, a tool which helps operators optimally assign targets to satellites will be required. We present the design of algorithms developed for real-time optimized autonomous planning of large numbers of small single-sensor Earth observation satellites. The algorithms will reduce requirements on the human operators of such a system of satellites, ensure good utilization of system resources, and provide the capability to dynamically respond to temporal terrestrial phenomena. Our initial real-time system model consists of approximately 100 satellites and large number of points of interest on Earth (e.g., hurricanes, volcanoes, and forest fires) with the objective to maximize the total science value of observations over time. Several options for calculating the science value of observations include the following: 1) total observation time, 2) number of observations, and the 3) quality (a function of e.g., sensor type, range, slant angle) of the observations. An integrated approach using integer programming, optimization and astrodynamics is used to calculate optimized observation and sensor tasking plans.

Ricard, Michael; Abramson, Mark; Carter, David; Kolitz, Stephan

2003-01-01

3

A satellite ocean color observation operator system for eutrophication assessment in coastal waters  

E-print Network

A satellite ocean color observation operator system for eutrophication assessment in coastal waters: Satellite ocean color Observation operator Eutrophication Remote sensing Radiative transfer modeling

Fontana, Clément

4

Satellite Observation Systems for Polar Climate Change Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The key observational tools for detecting large scale changes of various parameters in the polar regions have been satellite sensors. The sensors include passive and active satellite systems in the visible, infrared and microwave frequencies. The monitoring started with Tiros and Nimbus research satellites series in the 1970s but during the period, not much data was stored digitally because of limitations and cost of the needed storage systems. Continuous global data came about starting with the launch of ocean color, passive microwave, and thermal infrared sensors on board Nimbus-7 and Synthetic Aperture Radar, Radar Altimeter and Scatterometer on board SeaSat satellite both launched in 1978. The Nimbus-7 lasted longer than expected and provided about 9 years of useful data while SeaSat quit working after 3 months but provided very useful data that became the baseline for follow-up systems with similar capabilities. Over the years, many new sensors were launched, some from Japan Aeronautics and Space Agency (JAXA), some from the European Space Agency (ESA) and more recently, from RuSSia, China, Korea, Canada and India. For polar studies, among the most useful sensors has been the passive microwave sensor which provides day/night and almost all weather observation of the surface. The sensor provide sea surface temperature, precipitation, wind, water vapor and sea ice concentration data that have been very useful in monitoring the climate of the region. More than 30 years of such data are now available, starting with the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on board the Nimbus-7, the Special Scanning Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) on board a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on board the EOS/ Aqua satellite. The techniques that have been developed to derive geophysical parameters from data provided by these and other sensors and associated instrumental and algorithm errors and validation techniques will be discussed. An important issue is the organization and storage of hundreds of terabytes of data collected by even just a few of these satellite sensors. Advances in mass storage and computer technology have made it possible to overcome many of the collection and archival problems and the availability of comprehensive satellite data sets put together by NASA's Earth Observing System project will be discussed.

Comiso, Josefino C.

2012-01-01

5

Rule-based system architecting of Earth observation satellite systems  

E-print Network

System architecting is concerned with exploring the tradespace of early, high-level, system design decisions with a holistic, value-centric view. In the last few years, several tools and methods have been developed to ...

Selva Valero, Daniel

2012-01-01

6

NASDA's earth observation satellite data archive policy for the earth observation data and information system (EOIS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASDA's new Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) is scheduled for launch in August, 1996. ADEOS carries 8 sensors to observe earth environmental phenomena and sends their data to NASDA, NASA, and other foreign ground stations around the world. The downlink data bit rate for ADEOS is 126 MB/s and the total volume of data is about 100 GB per day. To archive and manage such a large quantity of data with high reliability and easy accessibility it was necessary to develop a new mass storage system with a catalogue information database using advanced database management technology. The data will be archived and maintained in the Master Data Storage Subsystem (MDSS) which is one subsystem in NASDA's new Earth Observation data and Information System (EOIS). The MDSS is based on a SONY ID1 digital tape robotics system. This paper provides an overview of the EOIS system, with a focus on the Master Data Storage Subsystem and the NASDA Earth Observation Center (EOC) archive policy for earth observation satellite data.

Sobue, Shin-ichi; Yoshida, Fumiyoshi; Ochiai, Osamu

1996-01-01

7

Earth observing satellite: Understanding the Earth as a system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is now a plan for global studies which include two very large efforts. One is the International Geosphere/Biosphere Program (IGBP) sponsored by the International Council of Scientific Unions. The other initiative is Mission to Planet Earth, an unbrella program for doing three kinds of space missions. The major one is the Earth Observation Satellite (EOS). EOS is large polar orbiting satellites with heavy payloads. Two will be placed in orbit by NASA, one by the Japanese and one or two by ESA. The overall mission measurement objectives of EOS are summarized: (1) the global distribution of energy input to and energy output from the Earth; (2) the structure, state variables, composition, and dynamics of the atmosphere from the ground to the mesopause; (3) the physical and biological structure, state, composition, and dynamics of the land surface, including terrestrial and inland water ecosystems; (4) the rates, important sources and sinks, and key components and processes of the Earth's biogeochemical cycles; (5) the circulation, surface temperature, wind stress, sea state, and the biological activity of the oceans; (6) the extent, type, state, elevation, roughness, and dynamics of glaciers, ice sheets, snow and sea ice, and the liquid equivalent of snow in the global cryosphere; (7) the global rates, amounts, and distribution of precipitation; and (8) the dynamic motions of the Earth (geophysics) as a whole, including both rotational dynamics and the kinematic motions of the tectonic plates.

Soffen, Gerald

1990-01-01

8

Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) for the Earth Observing System (EOS) CHEM Satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is an imaging infrared Fourier transform spectrometer scheduled to be launched into polar sun-synchronous orbit on the Earth Observing System (EOS) CHEM satellite in December 2002.

Beer, R.; Glavich, T.; Rider, D.

2000-01-01

9

How Satellite Observations Impact NWP  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Satellite observations have a huge impact on numerical weather prediction (NWP) model analyses and forecasts, with sounding data from polar orbiting and GPS-radio occultation satellites reducing model forecast error by almost half. All of this despite the fact that NWP models only assimilate 5% of all satellite observations! This lesson discusses the use of satellite observations in NWP and how model limitations prevent more of the data from being assimilated. The lesson begins by briefly describing the history of satellite observations in NWP and their impact on NWP model forecast skill. The next part provides background information about the types of environmental satellites that provide input to NWP, the satellite observations that are assimilated, the major components of NWP models, and how they forecast atmospheric behavior. This sets the stage for the main part of the lesson, which examines how observations from new satellite instruments are vetted for inclusion in data assimilation systems and how observations deemed acceptable are actually assimilated. The final part describes current challenges to making optimal use of satellite observations in NWP and advances that are expected to address these challenges and improve model forecasts.

COMET

2014-03-12

10

System architecting of a campaign of earth observing satellites  

E-print Network

Given the current level of concern over anthropogenic climate change, and the ongoing debate worldwide regarding what action should be taken to reduce and reverse future warming, the ability to collect data on Earth system ...

Colson, Justin M

2008-01-01

11

Candidate configuration trade study, Stellar-inertial Measurement Systems (SIMS) for an Earth Observation Satellite (EOS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of analytical and simulation studies of the stellar-inertial measurement system (SIMS) for an earth observation satellite are presented. Subsystem design analyses and sensor design trades are reported. Three candidate systems are considered: (1) structure-mounted gyros with structure-mounted star mapper, (2) structure-mounted gyros with gimbaled star tracker, and (3) gimbaled gyros with structure-mounted star mapper. The purpose of the study is to facilitate the decisions pertaining to gimbaled versus structure-mounted gyros and star sensors, and combinations of systems suitable for the EOS satellite.

Ogletree, G.; Coccoli, J.; Mckern, R.; Smith, M.; White, R.

1972-01-01

12

Stereoscopic observations from meteorological satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capability of making stereoscopic observations of clouds from meteorological satellites is a new basic analysis tool with a broad spectrum of applications. Stereoscopic observations from satellites were first made using the early vidicon tube weather satellites (e.g., Ondrejka and Conover [1]). However, the only high quality meteorological stereoscopy from low orbit has been done from Apollo and Skylab, (e.g., Shenk et al. [2] and Black [3], [4]). Stereoscopy from geosynchronous satellites was proposed by Shenk [5] and Bristor and Pichel [6] in 1974 which allowed Minzner et al. [7] to demonstrate the first quantitative cloud height analysis. In 1978 Bryson [8] and desJardins [9] independently developed digital processing techniques to remap stereo images which made possible precision height measurement and spectacular display of stereograms (Hasler et al. [10], and Hasler [11]). In 1980 the Japanese Geosynchronous Satellite (GMS) and the U.S. GOES-West satellite were synchronized to obtain stereo over the central Pacific as described by Fujita and Dodge [12] and in this paper. Recently the authors have remapped images from a Low Earth Orbiter (LEO) to the coordinate system of a Geosynchronous Earth Orbiter (GEO) and obtained stereoscopic cloud height measurements which promise to have quality comparable to previous all GEO stereo. It has also been determined that the north-south imaging scan rate of some GEOs can be slowed or reversed. Therefore the feasibility of obtaining stereoscopic observations world wide from combinations of operational GEO and LEO satellites has been demonstrated. Stereoscopy from satellites has many advantages over infrared techniques for the observation of cloud structure because it depends only on basic geometric relationships. Digital remapping of GEO and LEO satellite images is imperative for precision stereo height measurement and high quality displays because of the curvature of the earth and the large angular separation of the two satellites. A general solution for accurate height computation depends on precise navigation of the two satellites. Validation of the geosynchronous satellite stereo using high altitude mountain lakes and vertically pointing aircraft lidar leads to a height accuracy estimate of +/- 500 m for typical clouds which have been studied. Applications of the satellite stereo include: 1) cloud top and base height measurements, 2) cloud-wind height assignment, 3) vertical motion estimates for convective clouds (Mack et al. [13], [14]), 4) temperature vs. height measurements when stereo is used together with infrared observations and 5) cloud emissivity measurements when stereo, infrared and temperature sounding are used together (see Szejwach et al. [15]). When true satellite stereo image pairs are not available, synthetic stereo may be generated. The combination of multispectral satellite data using computer produced stereo image pairs is a dramatic example of synthetic stereoscopic display. The classic case uses the combination of infrared and visible data as first demonstrated by Pichel et al. [16]. Hasler et at. [17], Mosher and Young [18] and Lorenz [19], have expanded this concept to display many channels of data from various radiometers as well as real and simulated data fields. A future system of stereoscopic satellites would be comprised of both low orbiters (as suggested by Lorenz and Schmidt [20], [19]) and a global system of geosynchronous satellites. The low earth orbiters would provide stereo coverage day and night and include the poles. An optimum global system of stereoscopic geosynchronous satellites would require international standarization of scan rate and direction, and scan times (synchronization) and resolution of at least 1 km in all imaging channels. A stereoscopic satellite system as suggested here would make an extremely important contribution to the understanding and prediction of the atmosphere.

Hasler, A. F.; Mack, R.; Negri, A.

13

Ionospheric Simulation System for Satellite Observations and Global Assimilative Model Experiments - ISOGAME  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modeling and imaging the Earth's ionosphere as well as understanding its structures, inhomogeneities, and disturbances is a key part of NASA's Heliophysics Directorate science roadmap. This invention provides a design tool for scientific missions focused on the ionosphere. It is a scientifically important and technologically challenging task to assess the impact of a new observation system quantitatively on our capability of imaging and modeling the ionosphere. This question is often raised whenever a new satellite system is proposed, a new type of data is emerging, or a new modeling technique is developed. The proposed constellation would be part of a new observation system with more low-Earth orbiters tracking more radio occultation signals broadcast by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) than those offered by the current GPS and COSMIC observation system. A simulation system was developed to fulfill this task. The system is composed of a suite of software that combines the Global Assimilative Ionospheric Model (GAIM) including first-principles and empirical ionospheric models, a multiple- dipole geomagnetic field model, data assimilation modules, observation simulator, visualization software, and orbit design, simulation, and optimization software.

Pi, Xiaoqing; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Stephens, Philip; Iijima, Bryron A.

2013-01-01

14

Observing system simulation experiments to assess the potential impact of proposed satellite instruments on hurricane prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) are an important tool for evaluating the potential impact of proposed new observing systems, as well as for evaluating trade-offs in observing system design, and in developing and assessing improved methodology for assimilating new observations. Extensive OSSEs have been conducted at NASA/ GSFC and NOAA/AOML over the last three decades. These OSSEs determined correctly the quantitative potential for several proposed satellite observing systems to improve weather analysis and prediction prior to their launch, evaluated trade-offs in orbits, coverage and accuracy for space-based wind lidars, and were used in the development of the methodology that led to the first beneficial impacts of satellite surface winds on numerical weather prediction. In this paper, we summarize early applications of global OSSEs to hurricane track forecasting and new experiments using both global and regional models. These experiments are aimed at determining (1) the potential impact of unmanned aerial systems, (2) the relative impact of alternative concepts for space-based lidar winds, and (3) the relative impact of alternative concepts for polar and geostationary hyperspectral sounders.

Atlas, Robert; Pagano, Thomas S.

2014-09-01

15

Satellite Mapping of Agricultural Water Requirements in California with the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite mapping of evapotranspiration (ET) from irrigated agricultural lands can provide water managers and agricultural producers with information that can be used to optimize agricultural water use, especially in regions with limited water supplies. In particular, the timely delivery of information on agricultural crop water requirements has the potential to make irrigation scheduling more practical, convenient, and accurate. We present findings from the development and deployment of a prototype system for irrigation scheduling and management support in California. The system utilizes the NASA Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System to integrate satellite observations and meteorological observations to map crop canopy development, basal crop coefficients (Kcb), and evapotranspiration (ETcb) values for multiple crop types in the Central Valley of California at the scale of individual fields. Information is distributed to agricultural producers and water managers via a web-based irrigation management decision support system and web services. We present the prototype system, including comparisons of estimates of ETcb from the prototype system against estimates of ET from other methods, including surface renewal stations and observations from wireless sensor networks deployed in operational agricultural fields across California. We discuss the potential for integration of ET from energy balance models to support near real-time mapping of consumptive water use and crop water stress.

Melton, F. S.; Lund, C.; Johnson, L.; Michaelis, A.; Pierce, L.; Guzman, A.; Hiatt, S.; Purdy, A. J.; Rosevelt, C.; Brandt, W. T.; Votava, P.; Nemani, R. R.

2012-12-01

16

Satellite Irrigation Monitoring and Management Support in California with the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite data can be used to map crop evapotranspiration over large areas and make irrigation scheduling more practical, convenient, and accurate, but requires the development of new tools and computing frameworks to support operational use in irrigation scheduling and water management. We present findings from the development and deployment of a prototype system for irrigation scheduling and management support. The system utilizes the NASA Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) to integrate satellite observations and meteorological observations to map basal crop coefficient (Kcb) and evapotranspiration (ETcb) values for multiple crop types in the Central Valley of California at spatial resolutions that are useful for irrigation management at the field level (30m). Integration of data from the NOAA NWS Forecasted Reference Evapotranspiration (FRET) system also allows forecasting of irrigation demand with lead times of up to one week, supporting both irrigation scheduling and water delivery planning. Information is distributed to agricultural producers and water managers via a web-based irrigation management decision support system, web services, and hand held devices. We also present comparisons of estimates of ETcb from the prototype system against estimates from other methods, including surface renewal stations, energy balance models, and water balance models driven with data from wireless sensor networks deployed in operational agricultural fields across California.

Melton, F. S.; Johnson, L.; Lund, C.; Michaelis, A.; Pierce, L.; Guzman, A.; Hiatt, S.; Purdy, A. J.; Lee, C.; Rosevelt, C.; Fletcher, N.; Votava, P.; Milesi, C.; Hashimoto, H.; Wang, W.; Sheffner, E. J.; Nemani, R.

2011-12-01

17

VLBI observations of geosynchronous satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principle of determining spacecraft angular position with differential VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) technique is described. The first domestic differential VLBI observations of geosynchronous satellites were performed with participations of Shanghai, Urumqi and Kunming stations. Three strong quasars within angular separation of 15° from target satellites were selected as reference radio sources. The main purpose of such observations is to obtain interferometric fringes of the satellites, and to estimate accuracy of differential VLBI observations. A 2-station FX type correlator at SHAO (Shanghai Astronomical Observatory) was used to do cross-correlations of radio signals in MK3A-C tape format. Strong fringes of the satellites were detected to all stations. The precision of time delay and rate was derived from the correlator output. Based on system errors analysis, we estimated that ?DOR (Delta Differential One-way Ranging) error was about 41 cm, and ?DOD (Delta Differential One-way Doppler) error was about 0.148mm/s, which corresponded, respectively, to the position error of 8m and the velocity error of 2.8mm/s for the geosynchronous satellite on the plane of sky.

Shu, Fengchun; Zhang, Xiuzhong; Zheng, Weimin

18

Stereoscopic observations from meteorological satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capability of making stereoscopic observations of clouds from meteorological satellites is a new basic analysis tool with a broad spectrum of applications. Stereoscopic observations from satellites were first made using the early vidicon tube weather satellites (e.g., Ondrejka and Conover [1]). However, the only high quality meteorological stereoscopy from low orbit has been done from Apollo and Skylab, (e.g.,

A. F. Hasler; R. Mack; A. Negri

1982-01-01

19

Ionospheric Simulation System for Satellite Observations and Global Assimilative Modeling Experiments (ISOGAME)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ISOGAME is designed and developed to assess quantitatively the impact of new observation systems on the capability of imaging and modeling the ionosphere. With ISOGAME, one can perform observation system simulation experiments (OSSEs). A typical OSSE using ISOGAME would involve: (1) simulating various ionospheric conditions on global scales; (2) simulating ionospheric measurements made from a constellation of low-Earth-orbiters (LEOs), particularly Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) radio occultation data, and from ground-based global GNSS networks; (3) conducting ionospheric data assimilation experiments with the Global Assimilative Ionospheric Model (GAIM); and (4) analyzing modeling results with visualization tools. ISOGAME can provide quantitative assessment of the accuracy of assimilative modeling with the interested observation system. Other observation systems besides those based on GNSS are also possible to analyze. The system is composed of a suite of software that combines the GAIM, including a 4D first-principles ionospheric model and data assimilation modules, an Internal Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model that has been developed by international ionospheric research communities, observation simulator, visualization software, and orbit design, simulation, and optimization software. The core GAIM model used in ISOGAME is based on the GAIM++ code (written in C++) that includes a new high-fidelity geomagnetic field representation (multi-dipole). New visualization tools and analysis algorithms for the OSSEs are now part of ISOGAME.

Pi, Xiaoqing; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Verkhoglyadova, Olga P.; Stephens, Philip; Wilson, Brian D.; Akopian, Vardan; Komjathy, Attila; Lijima, Byron A.

2013-01-01

20

The Effect of Satellite Observing System Changes on MERRA Water and Energy Fluxes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because reanalysis data sets offer state variables and fluxes at regular space / time intervals, atmospheric reanalyses have become a mainstay of the climate community for diagnostic purposes and for driving offline ocean and land models. Although one weakness of these data sets is the susceptibility of the flux products to uncertainties because of shortcomings in parameterized model physics, another issue, perhaps less appreciated, is the fact that continual but discreet changes in the evolving observational system, particularly from satellite sensors, may also introduce artifacts in the time series of quantities. In this paper we examine the ability of the NASA MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications) and other recent reanalyses to determine variability in the climate system over the satellite record (approximately the last 30 years). In particular we highlight the effect on the reanalysis of discontinuities at the junctures of the onset of passive microwave imaging (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) in late 1987 as well as improved sounding and imaging with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit, AMSU-A, in 1998. We first examine MERRA fluxes from the perspective of how physical modes of variability (e.g. ENSO events, Pacific Decadal Variability) are contaminated by artificial step-like trends induced by the onset of new moisture data these two satellite observing systems. Secondly, we show how Redundancy Analysis, a statistical regression methodology, is effective in relating these artifact signals in the moisture and temperature analysis increments to their presence in the physical flux terms (e.g. precipitation, radiation). This procedure is shown to be effective greatly reducing the artificial trends in the flux quantities.

Robertson, Franklin R.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Chen, J.; Miller, t. L.

2010-01-01

21

The Effect of Satellite Observing System Changes on MERRA Water and Energy Fluxes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because reanalysis data sets offer state variables and fluxes at regular space / time intervals, atmospheric reanalyses have become a mainstay of the climate community for diagnostic purposes and for driving offline ocean and land models. Although one weakness of these data sets is the susceptibility of the flux products to uncertainties because of shortcomings in parameterized model physics, another issue, perhaps less appreciated, is the fact that continual but discreet changes in the evolving observational system, particularly from satellite sensors, may also introduce artifacts in the time series of quantities. In this paper we examine the ability of the NASA MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications) and other recent reanalyses to determine variability in the climate system over the satellite record (approx. the last 30 years). In particular we highlight the effect on the reanalysis of discontinuities at the junctures of the onset of passive microwave imaging (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) in late 1987 and, more prominently, with improved sounding and imaging with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit, AMSU-A, in 1998. We first examine MERRA fluxes from the perspective of how physical modes of variability (e.g. ENSO events, Pacific Decadal Variability) are contained by artificial step-like trends induced by the onset of new moisture data these two satellite observing systems. Secondly, we show how Redundancy Analysis, a statistical regression methodology, is effective in relating these artifact signals in the moisture and temperature analysis increments to their presence in the physical flux terms (e.g. precipitation, radiation). This procedure is shown to be effective greatly reducing the artificial trends in the flux quantities.

Robertson, Franklin R.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Chen, J.; Miller, T. L.

2011-01-01

22

Cold War Space Policy and Observation Satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constellations of observation satellites resemble the ''Panopticon'' system ima- gined by British philosopher Jeremy Bentham in his 18th century project for an ideal jailhouse—a system that Michel Foucault analyzed in Discipline and Punish (1975). Just as the warden in the central tower watches the prison- ers without their being able to see him, satellites watch the Earth while observed countries

Laurence Nardon

2007-01-01

23

Korea Earth Observation Satellite Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

via Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) as the prime contractor in the area of Korea earth observation satellite program to enhance Korea's space program development capability. In this paper, Korea's on-going and future earth observation satellite programs are introduced: KOMPSAT- 1 (Korea Multi Purpose Satellite-1), KOMPSAT-2 and Communication, Broadcasting and Meteorological Satellite (CBMS) program. KOMPSAT-1 satellite successfully launched in December 1999 with Taurus launch vehicle. Since launch, KOMPSAT-1 is downlinking images of Korea Peninsular every day. Until now, KOMPSAT-1 has been operated more than 2 and half years without any major hardware malfunction for the mission operation. KOMPSAT-1 payload has 6.6m panchromatic spatial resolution at 685 km on-orbit and the spacecraft bus had NASA TOMS-EP (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe) spacecraft bus heritage designed and built by TRW, U.S.A.KOMPSAT-1 program was international co-development program between KARI and TRW funded by Korean Government. be launched in 2004. Main mission objective is to provide geo-information products based on the multi-spectral high resolution sensor called Multi-Spectral Camera (MSC) which will provide 1m panchromatic and 4m multi-spectral high resolution images. ELOP of Israel is the prime contractor of the MSC payload system and KARI is the total system prime contractor including spacecraft bus development and ground segment. KARI also has the contract with Astrium of Europe for the purpose of technical consultation and hardware procurement. Based on the experience throughout KOMPSAT-1 and KOMPSAT-2 space system development, Korea is expecting to establish the infrastructure of developing satellite system. Currently, KOMPSAT-2 program is in the critical design stage. are scheduled to launch in 2008 and in 2014, respectively. The mission of CBMS consists of two areas. One is of space technology test for the communications mission, and the other is of a real- time environmental observation for meteorological mission on the geosynchronous orbit for public services. The CBMS is expected to weigh about 2 ~ 2.5 tons, and 6 channels of Ka-band and S- band transponder are equipped for communications service and observation payloads such as meteorological and ocean sensors. To increase the reliability of the first CBMS, a cooperative development with advanced foreign companies of the space business is being considered.

Baek, Myung-Jin; Kim, Zeen-Chul

24

A satellite observation system simulation experiment for carbon monoxide in the lowermost troposphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the feasibility of using observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) studies to help define quantitative trace gas measurement requirements for satellite missions and to evaluate the expected performance of proposed observing strategies. The 2007 U.S. National Research Council Decadal Survey calls for a geostationary (GEO) satellite mission for atmospheric composition and air quality applications (Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events Mission (GEO-CAPE)). The requirement includes a multispectral (near-infrared and thermal infrared) measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) at high spatiotemporal resolution with information on lowermost troposphere concentration. We present an OSSE to assess the improvement in surface CO characterization that would result from the addition of a GEO-CAPE CO measurement to current low Earth orbit (LEO) thermal infrared-only measurements. We construct instrument simulators for these two measurement scenarios and study the case of July 2004 when wildfires in Alaska and Canada led to significant CO pollution over the contiguous United States. Compared to a control experiment, an ensemble-based data assimilation of simulated satellite observations in a global model leads to improvements in both the surface CO distributions and the time evolution of CO profiles at locations affected by wildfire plumes and by urban emissions. In all cases, an experiment with the GEO-CAPE CO measurement scenario (overall model skill of 0.84) performed considerably better than the experiment with the current LEO/thermal infrared measurement (skill of 0.58) and the control (skill of 0.07). This demonstrates the advantages of increased sampling from GEO and enhanced measurement sensitivity to the lowermost troposphere with a multispectral retrieval.

Edwards, David P.; Arellano, Avelino F.; Deeter, Merritt N.

2009-07-01

25

Low-dimensional dynamical system model for observed coherent structures in ocean satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of coherent structures present in real-world environmental data is analyzed. The method developed in this paper combines the power of the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) technique to identify these coherent structures in experimental data sets, and its optimality in providing Galerkin basis for projecting and reducing complex dynamical models. The POD basis used is the one obtained from the experimental data. We apply the procedure to analyze coherent structures in an oceanic setting, the ones arising from instabilities of the Algerian current, in the western Mediterranean Sea. Data are from satellite altimetry providing Sea Surface Height, and the model is a two-layer quasigeostrophic system. A four-dimensional dynamical system that correctly describes the observed coherent structures (moving eddies) is obtained. Finally, a bifurcation analysis is performed on the reduced model.

López, Cristóbal; Hernández-García, Emilio

2003-10-01

26

An Attitude Control System for SumbandilaSAT an Earth Observation Satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the attitude determination and control system to support the multi-spectral earth observation main payload of the SumbandilaSAT microsatellite. The satellite has only a single main Y- body mounted solar panel and the attitude control system must ensure a nominal sun-pointed attitude under all non-imaging conditions during the sunlit part of the orbit. The control actuators employed are 3- axis magnetic torquer rods and reaction wheels. During initial detumbling and safe mode operations a simple new magnetic control law is used to bring the satellite to a sun-pointed Y-spinning attitude for maximum solar power collection. From this sun-pointed, spinning attitude an intermediate control mode is entered when the Y-reaction wheel is utilised as a momentum wheel, to absorb the body spin rate and to inertially stabilise the angular momentum vector towards the sun direction. During the intermediate mode the magnetic rods are used to maintain the momentum vector size and direction and to do nutation damping. The pitch angle is also controlled using the Y-wheel, to keep the main imager payload as close as possible to an earth-pointed attitude and to thermally stabilise the imager telescope. The final and nominal attitude control mode is entered when a zero biased 3-axis reaction wheel controller is enabled, for: 1) sun tracking for optimal solar power collection, 2) target tracking during viewfinder use or during imaging download communication with a ground station and 3) pushbroom imager scanning with a forward motion compensation capability. During the nominal mode the magnetic rods are used to dump the angular momentum from the reaction wheels during sun tracking periods. A short introduction to the Sumbandila satellite will be given. All the control modes, the attitude sensors and estimators utilised, will be introduced in the paper. Specifically, a unique agile viewfinder control mode to manually select targets for subsequent high resolution image scanning, when a control ground station is available within the communication footprint of the satellite, will be explained more thoroughly.

Steyn, W. H.

2008-08-01

27

Cross-calibration of Earth Observing System Terra satellite sensors MODIS and ASTER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emissive and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) are two of the five sensors onboard the Earth Observing System's Terra satellite. These sensors share many similar spectral channels while having much different spatial and operational parameters. ASTER is a tasked sensor and sometimes referred to a zoom camera of the MODIS that collects a full-earth image every one to two days. It is important that these sensors have a consistent characterization and calibration for continued development and use of their data products. This work uses a variety of test sites to retrieve and validate intercalibration results. The refined calibration of Collection 6 of the Terra MODIS data set is leveraged to provide the up-to-date reference for trending and validation of ASTER. Special attention is given to spatially matching radiance measurements using prelaunch spatial response characterization of MODIS. Despite differences in spectral band properties and spatial scales, ASTER-MODIS is an ideal case for intercomparison since the sensors have nearly identical views and acquisitions times and therefore can be used as a baseline of intercalibration performance of other satellite sensor pairs.

McCorkel, J.

2014-09-01

28

A Regional CO2 Observing System Simulation Experiment for the ASCENDS Satellite Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Top-down estimates of the spatiotemporal variations in emissions and uptake of CO2 will benefit from the increasing measurement density brought by recent and future additions to the suite of in situ and remote CO2 measurement platforms. In particular, the planned NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) satellite mission will provide greater coverage in cloudy regions, at high latitudes, and at night than passive satellite systems, as well as high precision and accuracy. In a novel approach to quantifying the ability of satellite column measurements to constrain CO2 fluxes, we use a portable library of footprints (surface influence functions) generated by the WRF-STILT Lagrangian transport model in a regional Bayesian synthesis inversion. The regional Lagrangian framework is well suited to make use of ASCENDS observations to constrain fluxes at high resolution, in this case at 1 degree latitude x 1 degree longitude and weekly for North America. We consider random measurement errors only, modeled as a function of mission and instrument design specifications along with realistic atmospheric and surface conditions. We find that the ASCENDS observations could potentially reduce flux uncertainties substantially at biome and finer scales. At the 1 degree x 1 degree, weekly scale, the largest uncertainty reductions, on the order of 50 percent, occur where and when there is good coverage by observations with low measurement errors and the a priori uncertainties are large. Uncertainty reductions are smaller for a 1.57 micron candidate wavelength than for a 2.05 micron wavelength, and are smaller for the higher of the two measurement error levels that we consider (1.0 ppm vs. 0.5 ppm clear-sky error at Railroad Valley, Nevada). Uncertainty reductions at the annual, biome scale range from 40 percent to 75 percent across our four instrument design cases, and from 65 percent to 85 percent for the continent as a whole. Our uncertainty reductions at various scales are substantially smaller than those from a global ASCENDS inversion on a coarser grid, demonstrating how quantitative results can depend on inversion methodology. The a posteriori flux uncertainties we obtain, ranging from 0.01 to 0.06 Pg C yr-1 across the biomes, would meet requirements for improved understanding of long-term carbon sinks suggested by a previous study.

Wang, J. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Baker, D. F.; Mountain, M.; Henderson, J.; Nehrkorn, T.; Zaccheo, T. S.

2014-01-01

29

A regional CO2 observing system simulation experiment for the ASCENDS satellite mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Top-down estimates of the spatiotemporal variations in emissions and uptake of CO2 will benefit from the increasing measurement density brought by recent and future additions to the suite of in situ and remote CO2 measurement platforms. In particular, the planned NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) satellite mission will provide greater coverage in cloudy regions, at high latitudes, and at night than passive satellite systems, as well as high precision and accuracy. In a novel approach to quantifying the ability of satellite column measurements to constrain CO2 fluxes, we use a portable library of footprints (surface influence functions) generated by the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model in combination with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in a regional Bayesian synthesis inversion. The regional Lagrangian particle dispersion model framework is well suited to make use of ASCENDS observations to constrain weekly fluxes in North America at a high resolution, in this case at 1° latitude × 1° longitude. We consider random measurement errors only, modeled as a function of the mission and instrument design specifications along with realistic atmospheric and surface conditions. We find that the ASCENDS observations could potentially reduce flux uncertainties substantially at biome and finer scales. At the grid scale and weekly resolution, the largest uncertainty reductions, on the order of 50%, occur where and when there is good coverage by observations with low measurement errors and the a priori uncertainties are large. Uncertainty reductions are smaller for a 1.57 ?m candidate wavelength than for a 2.05 ?m wavelength, and are smaller for the higher of the two measurement error levels that we consider (1.0 ppm vs. 0.5 ppm clear-sky error at Railroad Valley, Nevada). Uncertainty reductions at the annual biome scale range from ~40% to ~75% across our four instrument design cases and from ~65% to ~85% for the continent as a whole. Tests suggest that the quantitative results are moderately sensitive to assumptions regarding a priori uncertainties and boundary conditions. The a posteriori flux uncertainties we obtain, ranging from 0.01 to 0.06 Pg C yr-1 across the biomes, would meet requirements for improved understanding of long-term carbon sinks suggested by a previous study.

Wang, J. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Baker, D. F.; Mountain, M.; Henderson, J.; Nehrkorn, T.; Zaccheo, T. S.

2014-12-01

30

A regional CO2 observing system simulation experiment for the ASCENDS Satellite Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Top-down estimates of the spatiotemporal variations in emissions and uptake of CO2 will benefit from the increasing measurement density brought by recent and future additions to the suite of in situ and remote CO2 measurement platforms. In particular, the planned NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) satellite mission will provide greater coverage in cloudy regions, at high latitudes, and at night than passive satellite systems, as well as high precision and accuracy. In a novel approach to quantifying the ability of satellite column measurements to constrain CO2 fluxes, we use a portable library of footprints (surface influence functions) generated by the WRF-STILT Lagrangian transport model in a regional Bayesian synthesis inversion. The regional Lagrangian framework is well suited to make use of ASCENDS observations to constrain fluxes at high resolution, in this case at 1° latitude × 1° longitude and weekly for North America. We consider random measurement errors only, modeled as a function of mission and instrument design specifications along with realistic atmospheric and surface conditions. We find that the ASCENDS observations could potentially reduce flux uncertainties substantially at biome and finer scales. At the 1° × 1°, weekly scale, the largest uncertainty reductions, on the order of 50%, occur where and when there is good coverage by observations with low measurement errors and the a priori uncertainties are large. Uncertainty reductions are smaller for a 1.57 ?m candidate wavelength than for a 2.05 ?m wavelength, and are smaller for the higher of the two measurement error levels that we consider (1.0 ppm vs. 0.5 ppm clear-sky error at Railroad Valley, Nevada). Uncertainty reductions at the annual, biome scale range from ∼40% to ∼75% across our four instrument design cases, and from ∼65% to ∼85% for the continent as a whole. Our uncertainty reductions at various scales are substantially smaller than those from a global ASCENDS inversion on a coarser grid, demonstrating how quantitative results can depend on inversion methodology. The a posteriori flux uncertainties we obtain, ranging from 0.01 to 0.06 Pg C yr-1 across the biomes, would meet requirements for improved understanding of long-term carbon sinks suggested by a previous study.

Wang, J. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Baker, D. F.; Mountain, M.; Henderson, J.; Nehrkorn, T.; Zaccheo, T. S.

2014-05-01

31

Preliminary design of a satellite observation system for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Degobah Satellite Systems (DSS), in cooperation with the University Space Research Association (USRA), NASA - Johnson Space Center (JSC), and the University of Texas, has completed the preliminary design of a satellite system to provide inexpensive on-demand video images of all or any portion of Space Station Freedom (SSF). DSS has narrowed the scope of the project to complement the work done by Mr. Dennis Wells at Johnson Space Center. This three month project has resulted in completion of the preliminary design of AERCAM, the Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera, detailed in this design report. This report begins by providing information on the project background, describing the mission objectives, constraints, and assumptions. Preliminary designs for the primary concept and satellite subsystems are then discussed in detail. Included in the technical portion of the report are detailed descriptions of an advanced imaging system and docking and safing systems that ensure compatibility with the SSF. The report concludes by describing management procedures and project costs.

Cabe, Greg (editor); Gallagher, Chris; Wilson, Brian; Rehfeld, James; Maurer, Alexa; Stern, Dan; Nualart, Jaime; Le, Xuan-Trang

1992-01-01

32

Evolution of the Loop Current System During the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Event as Observed With Drifters and Satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ocean circulation patterns of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Loop Current (LC) system and their effects on the advection of the oil discharged during the Deepwater Horizon incident are described using in situ surface drifter trajectories and satellite observations from May to August 2010. These observations include altimetry-derived surface geostrophic velocities, sea surface temperature, ocean color, and surface oil

Yonggang Liu; Robert H. Weisberg; Chuanmin Hu; Charles Kovach

2011-01-01

33

Evaluation of the model representation of the evolution of convective systems using satellite observations of outgoing  

E-print Network

Evaluation of the model representation of the evolution of convective systems using satellite October 2010. [1] We introduce a technique for assessing the diurnal development of convective storm systems based on outgoing longwave radiation fields. Using the size distribution of the storms measured

Hogan, Robin

34

The Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) on the Aura Satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder measures several atmospheric chemical species (OH, HO2, H2O, O3, HCl, ClO, HOCl, BrO, HNO3, N2O, CO, HCN, CH3CN, volcanic SO2), cloud ice, temperature, and geopotential height to improve our understanding of stratospheric ozone chemistry, the interaction of composition and climate, and pollution in the upper troposphere. All measurements are made simultaneously and continuously, during both day and night. The instrument uses heterodyne radiometers that observe thermal emission from the atmospheric limb in broad spectral regions centered near 118, 190, 240, and 640 GHz, and 2.5 THz. It was launched July 15, 2004 on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Aura satellite and started full-up science operations on August 13, 2004. An atmospheric limb scan and radiometric calibration for all bands are performed routinely every 25 s. Vertical profiles are retrieved every 165 km along the suborbital track, covering 82 S to 82 N latitudes on each orbit. Instrument performance to date has been excellent; data have been made publicly available; and initial science results have been obtained.

Waters, Joe W.; Froidevaux, Lucien; Harwood, Robert S.; Jarnot, Robert F.; Pickett, Herbert M.; Read, William G.; Siegel, Peter H.; Cofield, Richard E.; Filipiak, Mark J.; Flower, Dennis A.; Holden, James R.; Lau, Gary K.; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Manney, Gloria L; Pumphrey, Hugh C.; Santee, Michelle L.; Wu, Dong L.; Cuddy, David T.; Lay, Richard R.; Loo, Mario S.; Perun, Vincent S.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Stek, Paul C.; Thurstans, Robert P.; Boyles, Mark A.

2006-01-01

35

The dynamics of Martian satellites from observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the study of the motion of Martian satellites and with the determination of kinematic and dynamic parameters describing this system of satellites and planet. The values of these parameters are found on the basis of all available data of ground-based and space-based observations of Phobos and Deimos. The original analytical theory of the motion of the satellites was used and the data set was wider than in similar papers of other authors. Thus, a new specified model of the motion of Mars' satellites has been constructed.

Emelyanov, N. V.; Vashkovyak, S. N.; Nasonova, L. P.

1993-01-01

36

Broadband Satellite Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the interest in broadband satellite multimedia (BSM) systems has grown rapidly. Advancements in transmission technology have led to the availability of low-cost satellite earth terminals. The superior remote access capabilities of satellite networks are foreseen to provide broadband services to geographically diverse user groups. The desire to support a wide range of broadband services in satellite networks implies that

Daniel Jozef Bem; Tadeusz W. Wieckowski; Ryszard J. Zielinski

2000-01-01

37

Simulating satellite infrared sounding retrievals in support of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new set of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) are underway to assess the impact of higher spatial and temporal resolution sounding on hurricane forecast accuracy. To support these studies, we have developed an OSSE retrieval simulation system. The system uses a simulated satellite orbit track to provide sample locations and footprint area of the infrared sounder configuration to be simulated over the region of interest. The data to be sampled are an OSSE nature run developed by the NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) and the University of Miami (UM). The nature run is sampled at the sounder locations and integrated over the sounder footprint area. The resulting averaged profiles are smoothed vertically with simulated averaging kernels for the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) using a linear retrieval simulation to produce calculated temperature and water vapor profiles. With reasonable fidelity, the sampled and smoothed profiles simulate the retrievals we can expect from a sounder like AIRS for the orbit and sampling configurations under test. Three instruments were simulated corresponding to the AIRS 45×45km footprint in LEO, a hypothetical sounder at 2×2km footprint in LEO, and a hypothetical GEO sounder at 5×5km regional and 10km × 10km full disk footprint sizes. RMS error relative to the nature run is calculated to demonstrate the error characteristics of the simulation system. The simulated retrievals as a result of this effort are currently being assessed by NOAA AOML in an OSSE study to determine the impact of advanced hyperspectral infrared sounders on hurricane forecast improvement.

Pagano, Thomas S.; Mathews, William; Irion, Frederick W.; Sturm, Erick J.

2014-09-01

38

Nonlinear Observer with Time-Varying Gains for Inertial Navigation Aided by Satellite Reference Systems in Dynamic Positioning  

E-print Network

time horizons, however inertial sensor errors such as biases, scale factors and alignment errors sensors. I. INTRODUCTION A strapdown inertial navigation system (INS) is mounted on a navigating objectNonlinear Observer with Time-Varying Gains for Inertial Navigation Aided by Satellite Reference

Johansen, Tor Arne

39

Estimating Zenith Tropospheric Delays from BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Observations  

PubMed Central

The GNSS derived Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD) plays today a very critical role in meteorological study and weather forecasts, as ZTDs of thousands of GNSS stations are operationally assimilated into numerical weather prediction models. Recently, the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) was officially announced to provide operational services around China and its neighborhood and it was demonstrated to be very promising for precise navigation and positioning. In this contribution, we concentrate on estimating ZTD using BDS observations to assess its capacity for troposphere remote sensing. A local network which is about 250 km from Beijing and comprised of six stations equipped with GPS- and BDS-capable receivers is utilized. Data from 5 to 8 November 2012 collected on the network is processed in network mode using precise orbits and in Precise Point Positioning mode using precise orbits and clocks. The precise orbits and clocks are generated from a tracking network with most of the stations in China and several stations around the world. The derived ZTDs are compared with that estimated from GPS data using the final products of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The comparison shows that the bias and the standard deviation of the ZTD differences are about 2 mm and 5 mm, respectively, which are very close to the differences of GPS ZTD estimated using different software packages. PMID:23552104

Xu, Aigong; Xu, Zongqiu; Ge, Maorong; Xu, Xinchao; Zhu, Huizhong; Sui, Xin

2013-01-01

40

Estimating zenith tropospheric delays from BeiDou navigation satellite system observations.  

PubMed

The GNSS derived Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD) plays today a very critical role in meteorological study and weather forecasts, as ZTDs of thousands of GNSS stations are operationally assimilated into numerical weather prediction models. Recently, the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) was officially announced to provide operational services around China and its neighborhood and it was demonstrated to be very promising for precise navigation and positioning. In this contribution, we concentrate on estimating ZTD using BDS observations to assess its capacity for troposphere remote sensing. A local network which is about 250 km from Beijing and comprised of six stations equipped with GPS- and BDS-capable receivers is utilized. Data from 5 to 8 November 2012 collected on the network is processed in network mode using precise orbits and in Precise Point Positioning mode using precise orbits and clocks. The precise orbits and clocks are generated from a tracking network with most of the stations in China and several stations around the world. The derived ZTDs are compared with that estimated from GPS data using the final products of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The comparison shows that the bias and the standard deviation of the ZTD differences are about 2 mm and 5 mm, respectively, which are very close to the differences of GPS ZTD estimated using different software packages. PMID:23552104

Xu, Aigong; Xu, Zongqiu; Ge, Maorong; Xu, Xinchao; Zhu, Huizhong; Sui, Xin

2013-01-01

41

Operational Applications of Satellite Snowcover Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The history of remote sensing of snow cover is reviewed and the following topics are covered: various techniques for interpreting LANDSAT and NOAA satellite data; the status of future systems for continuing snow hydrology applications; the use of snow cover observations in streamflow forecasts by Applications Systems Verification and Transfer participants and selected foreign investigators; and the benefits of using satellite snow cover data in runoff prediction.

Rango, A. (editor); Peterson, R. (editor)

1980-01-01

42

Applications of Satellite Total Lightning Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-earth orbit satellite measurements of total lightning have diverse applications for lightning-related NOx production. Topics to be covered include: (1) current availability of gridded global and tropical lightning climatologies from the OTD and LIS sensors; (2) estimation of the IC:CG ratio from combination of satellite and surface network observations (relevant for net storm production); (3) determination of land and ocean storm flash rate spectra, and their implications for parameterized "scaling law" approaches to lightning NOx estimation; and (4) use of satellite observations to assess and correct for the range-dependent performance of groundbased systems, including LDAR and NLDN.

Boccippio, Dennis J.; Christian, High J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

43

Assessing the Impact of Advanced Satellite Observations in the NASA GEOS-5 Forecast System Using the Adjoint Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The adjoint of a data assimilation system provides a flexible and efficient tool for estimating observation impacts on short-range weather forecasts. The impacts of any or all observations can be estimated simultaneously based on a single execution of the adjoint system. The results can be easily aggregated according to data type, location, channel, etc., making this technique especially attractive for examining the impacts of new hyper-spectral satellite instruments and for conducting regular, even near-real time, monitoring of the entire observing system. In this talk, we present results from the adjoint-based observation impact monitoring tool in NASA's GEOS-5 global atmospheric data assimilation and forecast system. The tool has been running in various off-line configurations for some time, and is scheduled to run as a regular part of the real-time forecast suite beginning in autumn 20 I O. We focus on the impacts of the newest components of the satellite observing system, including AIRS, IASI and GPS. For AIRS and IASI, it is shown that the vast majority of the channels assimilated have systematic positive impacts (of varying magnitudes), although some channels degrade the forecast. Of the latter, most are moisture-sensitive or near-surface channels. The impact of GPS observations in the southern hemisphere is found to be a considerable overall benefit to the system. In addition, the spatial variability of observation impacts reveals coherent patterns of positive and negative impacts that may point to deficiencies in the use of certain observations over, for example, specific surface types. When performed in conjunction with selected observing system experiments (OSEs), the adjoint results reveal both redundancies and dependencies between observing system impacts as observations are added or removed from the assimilation system. Understanding these dependencies appears to pose a major challenge for optimizing the use of the current observational network and defining requirements for future observing systems.

Gelaro, Ron; Liu, Emily; Sienkiewicz, Meta

2011-01-01

44

Satellite Observations of Tropospheric Chemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The troposphere is an essential component of the earth's life support system as well as the gateway for the exchange of chemicals between different geochemical reservoirs of the earth. The chemistry of the troposphere is sensitive to perturbation from a wide range of natural phenomena and human activities. The societal concern has been greatly enhanced in recent decades due to ever increasing pressures of population growth and industrialization. Chemical changes within the troposphere control a vast array of processes that impact human health, the biosphere, and climate. A main goal of tropospheric chemistry research is to measure and understand the response of atmospheric composition to natural and anthropogenic perturbations, and to develop the capability to predict future change. Atmospheric chemistry measurements are extremely challenging due to the low concentrations of critical species and the vast scales over which the observations must be made. Available tropospheric data are mainly from surface sites and aircraft missions. Because of the limited temporal extent of aircraft observations, we have very limited information on tropospheric composition above the surface. This situation can be contrasted to the stratosphere, where satellites have provided critical and detailed chemical data on the global distribution of key trace gases.

Singh, Hanwant B.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

45

A comparison of mapped and measured total ionospheric electron content using global positioning system and beacon satellite observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total ionospheric electron contents (TEC) were measured by global positioning system (GPS) dual-frequency receivers developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The measurements included P-code (precise ranging code) and carrier phase data for six GPS satellites during multiple five-hour observing sessions. A set of these GPS TEC measurements were mapped from the GPS lines of sight to the line of sight

Gabor E. Lanyi; Titus Roth

1988-01-01

46

Satellite observed thermodynamics during FGGE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the First Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) Global Experiment (FGGE), determinations of temperature and moisture were made from TIROS-N and NOAA-6 satellite infrared and microwave sounding radiance measurements. The data were processed by two methods differing principally in their horizontal resolution. At the National Earth Satellite Service (NESS) in Washington, D.C., the data were produced operationally with a horizontal resolution of 250 km for inclusion in the FGGE Level IIb data sets for application to large-scale numerical analysis and prediction models. High horizontal resolution (75 km) sounding data sets were produced using man-machine interactive methods for the special observing periods of FGGE at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and archived as supplementary Level IIb. The procedures used for sounding retrieval and the characteristics and quality of these thermodynamic observations are given.

Smith, W. L.

1985-01-01

47

A comparison of mapped and measured total ionospheric electron content using global positioning system and beacon satellite observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Total ionospheric electron contents (TEC) were measured by global positioning system (GPS) dual-frequency receivers developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The measurements included P-code (precise ranging code) and carrier phase data for six GPS satellites during multiple five-hour observing sessions. A set of these GPS TEC measurements were mapped from the GPS lines of sight to the line of sight of a Faraday beacon satellite by statistically fitting the TEC data to a simple model of the ionosphere. The mapped GPS TEC values were compared with the Faraday rotation measurements. Because GPS transmitter offsets are different for each satellite and because some GPS receiver offsets were uncalibrated, the sums of the satellite and receiver offsets were estimated simultaneously with the TEC in a least squares procedure. The accuracy of this estimation procedure is evaluated indicating that the error of the GPS-determined line of sight TEC can be at or below 1 x 10 to the 16th el/sq cm. Consequently, the current level of accuracy is comparable to the Faraday rotation technique; however, GPS provides superior sky coverage.

Lanyi, Gabor E.; Roth, Titus

1988-01-01

48

Storm-time plasma redistribution in the coupled plasmasphere-ionosphere system: Coordinated ground and satellite observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plasma distribution in the coupled plasmasphere-ionosphere system can undergo significant changes during magnetic storms, posing a challenging problem to observers and modelers for quantifying all the important physical mechanisms involved. During many magnetic storms, internal depletion occurs within the new plasmaspheric boundary layer, but the responsible physical mechanism for such depletion remains an outstanding problem. As an effort to piece together the jigsaw of this complicated phenomenon, this study examines a collection of critical ground and satellite observations, including the mass density inferred from field line resonance sounding, the charge density deduced from whistler traces, ionosonde data, and the RPI observations from the IMAGE satellite. A case study of the April 2005 storm (min Dst = -85 nT) shows that, within the new plasmaspheric boundary layer, the equatorial mass density dropped by nearly 50% after the first three days of the storm. By contrast, the equatorial charge density decreased by only 25% during the same interval. The stronger degree of heavy ion depletion coincides with a significantly lower ionospheric content at similar L-values. Our observations suggest that the concurrent negative ionospheric storm is a likely cause of the internal depletion of the storm-time plasmasphere, a scenario that can be tested by future numerical simulations of the coupled plasmasphere-ionosphere system.

Chi, Peter; Tu, Jiannan; Spasojevic, Maria; Carpenter, Donald; Russell, Christopher

49

Earth resources satellite systems for flood monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The environmental satellites NOAA-2 and ERTS-1 observed flooding in United States' rivers such as the Mississippi during 1973. Combination of NOAA-2 observation frequency and the ERTS-1 resolution provides an adequate satellite system for monitoring floods. Several polar-orbiting satellites of the ERTS type could view flooded areas at a reasonably high resolution every three to five days. A high-resolution earth-synchronous satellite would further enhance flood mapping by providing observations whenever clouds are absent.

Mcginnis, D. F.; Rango, A.

1975-01-01

50

Satellite Observations of Tropospheric Ammonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global high-spectral resolution (0.06 cm-1) nadir measurements from TES-Aura enable the simultaneous retrieval of a number of tropospheric pollutants and trace gases in addition to the TES standard operationally retrieved products (e.g. carbon monoxide, ozone). Ammonia (NH3) is one of the additional species that can be retrieved in conjunction with the TES standard products, and is important for local, regional, and global tropospheric chemistry studies. Ammonia emissions contribute significantly to several well-known environmental problems, yet the magnitude and seasonal/spatial variability of the emissions are poorly constrained. In the atmosphere, an important fraction of fine particulate matter is composed of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate. These particles are statistically associated with health impacts. When deposited to ecosystems in excess, nitrogen, including ammonia can cause nutrient imbalances, change in ecosystem species composition, eutrophication, algal blooms and hypoxia. Ammonia is also challenging to measure in-situ. Observations of surface concentrations are rare and are particularly sparse in North America. Satellite observations of ammonia are therefore highly desirable. We recently demonstrated that tropospheric ammonia is detectable in the TES spectra and presented some corresponding preliminary retrievals over a very limited range of conditions (Beer et al., 2008). Presented here are results that expand upon these initial TES ammonia retrievals in order to evaluate/validate the retrieval results utilizing in-situ surface observations (e.g. LADCO, CASTNet, EPA /NC State) and chemical models (e.g. GEOS-Chem and CMAQ). We also present retrievals over regions of interest that have the potential to help further understand air quality and the active nitrogen cycle. Beer, R., M. W. Shephard, S. S. Kulawik, S. A. Clough, A. Eldering, K. W. Bowman, S. P. Sander, B. M. Fisher, V. H. Payne, M. Luo, G. B. Osterman, and J. R. Worden, First satellite observations of lower tropospheric ammonia and methanol, Geophysical Res. Letters, 35, L09801, doi:10.1029/2008GL033642, 2008.

Shephard, M. W.; Luo, M.; Rinsland, C. P.; Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Beer, R.; Pinder, R. W.; Henze, D.; Payne, V. H.; Clough, S.; Rodgers, C. D.; Osterman, G. B.; Bowman, K. W.; Worden, H. M.

2008-12-01

51

Cyberinfrastructure Initiatives of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) was established in 1984 in response to a recommendation from the Economic Summit of Industrialized Nations Working Group on Growth, Technology, and Employment's Panel of Experts on Satellite Remote Sensing. CEOS participants are Members, who are national or international governmental organizations who operate civil spaceborne Earth observation satellites, and Associates who are governmental organizations with civil space programs in development or international scientific or governmental bodies who have an interest in and support CEOS objectives. The primary objective of CEOS is to optimize benefits of satellite Earth observations through cooperation of its participants in mission planning and in development of compatible data products, formats, services, applications and policies. To pursue its objectives, CEOS establishes working groups and associated subgroups that focus on relevant areas of interest. While the structure of CEOS has evolved over its lifetime, today there are three permanent working groups. One is the Working Group on Calibration and Validation that addresses sensor-specific calibration and validation and geophysical parameter validation. A second is the Working Group on Education, Training, and Capacity Building that facilitates activities that enhance international education and training in Earth observation techniques, data analysis, interpretation and applications, with a particular focus on developing countries. The third permanent working group is the Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS). The purpose of WGISS is to promote collaboration in the development of the systems and services based on international standards that manage and supply the Earth observation data and information from participating agencies' missions. WGISS places great emphasis on the use of demonstration projects involving user groups to solve the critical interoperability issues associated with the achievement of global services and its structure reflects that objective. The Technology and Services Subgroup initiates tasks to explore emerging technologies that can be employed to create data and information systems and to develop interoperable services. The interests of the subgroup span the full range of the information processing chain from the initial ingestion of satellite data into archives through to the incorporation of derived information into end-user applications. The subgroup has overseen the creation of an Interoperable Directory Network and an Interoperable Catalog System and has tasks that are investigating the use of new technologies such as Web Services, Grid, and Open Geographical Information Systems to provide enhanced capabilities. The WGISS Projects and Applications Subgroup works with outside organizations to understand their requirements and then helps them to exploit the tools and services available through WGISS and its members and associates. WGISS has instituted the concept of a WGISS Test Facility to test and develop information systems and services prototypes collaboratively with these organizations to meet their specific requirements. This approach has the dual benefit of addressing real information systems and services needs of science and applications projects and helping WGISS to expand and improve its capabilities based on the experience and lessons learned from working with the projects.

McDonald, K. R.; Faundeen, J. L.; Petiteville, I.

2005-12-01

52

Jupiter System Observer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the proposed mission for the Jupiter System Observer. The presentation also includes overviews of the mission timeline, science goals, and spacecraftspecifications for the satellite.

Senske, Dave; Kwok, Johnny

2008-01-01

53

The Earth observing system microwave limb sounder (EOS MLS) on the aura Satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder measures several atmospheric chemical species (OH, HO2, H2O, O3, HCl, ClO, HOCl, BrO, HNO3, N2O, CO, HCN, CH3CN, volcanic SO2), cloud ice, temperature, and geopotential height to improve our understanding of stratospheric ozone chemistry, the interaction of composition and climate, and pollution in the upper troposphere. All measurements are made simultaneously and continuously,

Joe W. Waters; Lucien Froidevaux; Robert S. Harwood; Robert F. Jarnot; Herbert M. Pickett; William G. Read; Peter H. Siegel; Richard E. Cofield; Mark J. Filipiak; Dennis A. Flower; James R. Holden; Gary K. Lau; Nathaniel J. Livesey; Gloria L. Manney; Hugh C. Pumphrey; Michelle L. Santee; Dong L. Wu; David T. Cuddy; Richard R. Lay; Mario S. Loo; Vincent S. Perun; Michael J. Schwartz; Paul C. Stek; Robert P. Thurstans; Mark A. Boyles; Kumar M. Chandra; Marco C. Chavez; Gun-Shing Chen; Bharat V. Chudasama; Randy Dodge; Ryan A. Fuller; Michael A. Girard; Jonathan H. Jiang; Yibo Jiang; Brian W. Knosp; Remi C. LaBelle; Jonathan C. Lam; Karen A. Lee; Dominick Miller; John E. Oswald; Navnit C. Patel; David M. Pukala; Ofelia Quintero; David M. Scaff; W. Van Snyder; Michael C. Tope; Paul A. Wagner; Marc J. Walch

2006-01-01

54

Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 1: Operational applications of satellite snow cover observations: Executive summary. [usefulness of satellite snow-cover data for water yield prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both LANDSAT and NOAA satellite data were used in improving snowmelt runoff forecasts. When the satellite snow cover data were tested in both empirical seasonal runoff estimation and short term modeling approaches, a definite potential for reducing forecast error was evident. A cost benefit analysis run in conjunction with the snow mapping indicated a $36.5 million annual benefit accruing from a one percent improvement in forecast accuracy using the snow cover data for the western United States. The annual cost of employing the system would be $505,000. The snow mapping has proven that satellite snow cover data can be used to reduce snowmelt runoff forecast error in a cost effective manner once all operational satellite data are available within 72 hours after acquisition. Executive summaries of the individual snow mapping projects are presented.

Rango, A.

1981-01-01

55

A Real Time EDAC System for Applications Onboard Earth Observation Small Satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Onboard error detection and correction (EDAC) devices aim to secure data transmitted between the central processing unit (CPU) of a satellite onboard computer (OBC) and its local memory. A follow-up is presented here of some low-complexity EDAC techniques for application in random access memories (RAMs) onboard the Algerian microsatellite Alsat-1. The application of a double-bit EDAC method is described and

Y. Bentoutou

2012-01-01

56

A Global Observing System for Mars: The dual satellite Mars Astrobiology and Climate Observatory (MACO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We summarize a planetary decadal survey white paper describing the rationale for and key elements of a dual satellite orbiting mission (DSM) concept called the Mars Astrobiology and Climate Observatory (MACO). MACO uses mm-wavelength satellite to satellite (sat-sat) occultations in combination with solar occultations (SO) to answer and strongly constrain many key lower and middle atmosphere Mars science questions previously considered unachievable from orbit. On the climate side, MACO would focus on the hydrological, dust and energy cycles of Mars. MACO would measure the transport of water in the present Martian climate, identify sources and sinks and constrain processes in order to better understand present and past Martian climate and glacial and subsurface water reservoirs. Dust-penetrating, satellite-to-satellite mm-wave occultations would profile water vapor to 3%, temperature to 0.4K, geopotential height of pressure to 10 m, line of sight winds to < 2 m/s and balanced winds via pressure gradients, as well turbulence and certain trace constituents with 60 meter diffraction limited vertical resolution and high precision extending down to the surface. A prototype mm-wave occultation instrument will be demonstrated in 2010 via high altitude aircraft to aircraft occultations. MACO will make coincident thermal IR and shortwave measurements to characterize airborne dust to understand dust storm initiation and evolution and how atmospheric dust concentrations are maintained in general. The combination of sensitivity, accuracy and vertical resolution from the satellite to satellite occultation is simply not possible with radiometers and will provide ~30,000 globally distributed near-entry probe quality profiles each Martian year profiling the boundary layer and exchange between the atmosphere and surface. A near-IR solar occultation instrument, such as the French SOIR or a derivative of the Canadian ACE FTIR instrument, would survey chemical trace species such as methane in the Martian atmosphere to look for signatures of subsurface processes related to possible habitable zones and life. MACO’s winds will be key in tracing plumes back to their source regions. Proposed near-surface ion-related heterogeneous chemistry will be assessed by profiling near surface concentrations of H2O2, H2O and dust to look for predicted enhancements in of H2O2 and how they vary with H2O and dust concentrations. MACO’s combined capabilities are a superset of the Mars Science Orbiter (MSO) recommended by the Calvin et al. (2007) report. MACO would fit as a moderate scale mission in the 2016 launch opportunity. Alternatively, since NASA and ESA have recently announced their intent to fly a single orbiter, trace gas mission in 2016, the MACO mm occultation receiver (which can also measure thermal emission and solar occultations) could be flown on that mission and the occultation transmitter could be carried on another mission flown by an international partner such as Japan or India.

Kursinski, E. R.; Lyons, J.; Newman, C.; Richardson, M. I.; Ward, D.; Otarola, A. C.

2009-12-01

57

Double-decker Earth Observing Satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Envisat, which will continue observations from two earlier European remote sensing missions, is “the most complex Earth observation satellite ever to be built,” British Science Minister Lord Sainsbury said prior to the satellite's successful 1 March launch from Kourou Spaceport in French Guiana.The $2-billion polar-orbiting satellite, which was developed by the British National Space Center, and by the British space industry in partnership with the European Space Agency includes 10 different instruments to measure Earth's atmosphere, ocean, land, and ice over a 5-year period. Sainsbury said the satellite is like a double-decker bus compared with most satellites that have one or two instruments on board.

Showstack, Randy

58

Double-decker Earth Observing Satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Envisat, which will continue observations from two earlier European remote sensing missions, is "the most complex Earth observation satellite ever to be built," British Science Minister Lord Sainsbury said prior to the satellite's successful 1 March launch from Kourou Spaceport in French Guiana.The $2-billion polar-orbiting satellite, which was developed by the British National Space Center, and by the British space industry in partnership with the European Space Agency includes 10 different instruments to measure Earth's atmosphere, ocean, land, and ice over a 5-year period. Sainsbury said the satellite is like a double-decker bus compared with most satellites that have one or two instruments on board.

Showstack, Randy

59

The Effect of Environmental Conditions on Tropical Deep Convective Systems Observed from the TRMM Satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study uses measurements of radiation and cloud properties taken between January and August 1998 by three Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) instruments, the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanner, the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI), and the Visible and InfraRed Scanner (VIRS), to evaluate the variations of tropical deep convective systems (DCS) with sea surface temperature (SST) and precipitation. This study finds that DCS precipitation efficiency increases with SST at a rate of approx. 2%/K. Despite increasing rainfall efficiency, the cloud areal coverage rises with SST at a rate of about 7%/K in the warm tropical seas. There, the boundary layer moisture supply for deep convection and the moisture transported to the upper troposphere for cirrus-anvil cloud formation increase by approx. 6.3%/K and approx. 4.0%/K, respectively. The changes in cloud formation efficiency, along with the increased transport of moisture available for cloud formation, likely contribute to the large rate of increasing DCS areal coverage. Although no direct observations are available, the increase of cloud formation efficiency with rising SST is deduced indirectly from measurements of changes in the ratio of DCS ice water path and boundary layer water vapor amount with SST. Besides the cloud areal coverage, DCS cluster effective sizes also increase with precipitation. Furthermore, other cloud properties, such as cloud total water and ice water paths, increase with SST. These changes in DCS properties will produce a negative radiative feedback for the earth's climate system due to strong reflection of shortwave radiation by the DCS. These results significantly differ from some previous hypothesized dehydration scenarios for warmer climates, and have great potential in testing current cloud-system resolving models and convective parameterizations of general circulation models.

Lin, Bing; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Minnis, Patrick; Chambers, Lin H.; Xu, Kuan-Man; Hu, Yongxiang; Fan, Tai-Fang

2005-01-01

60

Linking Regional Satellite Observations with Coupled Human-Ecological Systems in Global Drylands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The African Sahel has attracted consistent attention since a series of droughts in the 1970s and 1980s caused widespread famine and land degradation (desertification). These events spawned international conventions and sustained development efforts to increase food security and reverse poverty for the local populations, and to arrest environmental degradation. Since 1985, several studies using satellite data have described a general “greening” in response to increased rainfall trends. However, some areas show more greening while others less greening than can be explained by precipitation alone (Glob. Env. Change 15- 2005). The debated question is how to explain the residual changes: management, policy, human adaptation, or something else? Placing results in an human-ecological framework could help answer this question. Providing a meaningful assessment will allow national and international agencies to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative approaches to poverty alleviation and environmental restoration in drylands at regional and global scales.

Hutchinson, C.; Reynolds, J. F.

2009-12-01

61

AMOS Galaxy 15 Satellite Observations and Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In early April 2010, the Galaxy 15 geosynchronous satellite experienced an on-orbit anomaly. Even though the satellite's transmitters and articulating solar panel were still functioning, ground controllers lost the ability to command and maneuver the satellite. With its orbital position no longer maintained, Galaxy 15 began to drift eastward. This forced several other satellites to make collision avoidance maneuvers during the following months. Soon after the initial anomaly, Galaxy 15's operators predicted that the satellite’s reaction wheels would eventually become saturated, causing a loss of both spacecraft attitude and proper sunward orientation of the solar panels. This "off-pointing" event finally occurred in late December, ultimately leading to a depletion of Galaxy 15's batteries. This near-death experience had a fortunate side effect, however, in that it forced the satellite’s command unit to reboot and once again be able to both receive and execute ground commands. The satellite operators have since recovered control of the satellite. AMOS conducted non-resolved photometric observations of Galaxy 15 before, during and after these events. Similar observations were conducted of Galaxy 12, the nearly-identical replacement satellite. This presentation presents and discusses these temporal brightness signatures in detail, comparing the changing patterns in the observations to the known sequence of events.

Hall, D.

2011-09-01

62

Astrometric observations of inner Saturnian satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents observations of four inner Saturnian satellites (SX = Janus, SXI = Epimetheus, SXVI = Prometheus and SXVII = Pandora) made in August and November 1995 during the Earth and Sun crossings of Saturn's ring plane, respectively. The August 1995 data combine data taken with the Adonis optics system mounted on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, and images from the Hubble Space telescope (HST). The November 1995 data are based on HST images only. Orbits fits show that these observations combined with those of Nicholson et al. (\\cite{N96}) have residuals of about 0.05 arcsec.

Poulet, F.; Sicardy, B.

2001-01-01

63

Satellite Observations for Detecting and Tracking Changes in Atmospheric Composition  

EPA Science Inventory

The international scientific community's Integrated Global Atmosphere Chemistry Observation System report outlined a plan for ground-based, airborne and satellite Measurements, and models to integrate the observations into a 4-dimensional representation of the atmosphere (space a...

64

AMOS Observations of NASA's IMAGE Satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) satellite stopped transmitting telemetry to ground stations in December 2005, after functioning for more than 5 years on Earth orbit. Before this loss of telemetry, the IMAGE satellite actively maintained a spin-stabilized attitude with spin axis perpendicular to the orbital plane and a nominal rotation rate of about 0.5 rpm. The spinning action served to both stabilize the satellite and keep the 250 m-long radial wire antennas of the satellite's Radio Plasma Imager under tension perpendicular to the satellite spin axis. After loss of telemetry, it was unclear whether the spacecraft remained in this spin-stabilized configuration, or whether it could continue to receive and execute up- linked commands. In late January and early February of 2006 the AMOS 3.6m Advanced Electro Optical System (AEOS) conducted an initial set of observations in an effort to help diagnose the state of the unresponsive spacecraft. The AEOS observations employed the Visible Imager (VisIm) instrument in the photometric I-band as well as the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) imager. The wide field-of-view VisIm images clearly show the long radial wire antennas glinting in reflected sunlight during each revolution of the spinning spacecraft, creating a photometric signature characterized by large amplitude periodic variations. Analysis of concurrent AEOS LWIR observations indicates radiometric temperatures ranging from 250 to 310 Kelvin, with the higher temperatures occurring when more of the continuously-sunlit portions of the spacecraft were observable from AMOS. A detailed periodic analysis of the VisIm photometric signatures acquired on 2006 day-of-year (DOY) 028, 031 and 034 indicates a spin axis orientation consistent with that reported in the last telemetry down-linked from the satellite approximately seven weeks earlier. However, the periodic variations indicate a satellite spin rate of 0.4741 ° 0.0005 rpm, measurably slower than the last known spin rate from down-linked telemetry. Shortly after these initial AEOS observations were conducted, the NASA IMAGE satellite team up-linked commands to the spacecraft to increase the spin rate up to 0.52 rpm in order to test if the spacecraft could receive and execute such commands. Subsequent AMOS observations conducted 2006 DOY 150, however, did not show evidence of an increased spin rate, but instead indicated a further reduction down to 0.4709 ° 0.0004 rpm. The AEOS observations therefore confirm that the IMAGE spacecraft has lost the ability to receive and/or execute up-linked commands, and indicates that, between 2005-DEC-12 and 2006-MAY-30, the spacecraft's spin axis orientation remained stable to within detection limits but the spin rate declined at a rate of (3.1 ± 0.3) × 10-5 rpm/day, a deceleration most likely caused by magnetically-induced environmental torques.

Hall, D.; Africano, J.; Archambeault, D.; Birge, B.; Witte, D.; Kervin, P.

65

Satellite video security systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last few years, satellites have been increasingly used to carry commercial free television programs, paid for by the viewers, as well as business and medical conferences. As a result, there is a large and growing need for video security systems to prevent both freeloading and eavesdropping. An ideal satellite security system would accept standard video and audio and convert them into totally random noise with no discernable information content. At the receive end, this noise would be converted back to video and audio identical to what went in. An investigation is conducted regarding the possibility to reproduce the features of the ideal system by means of a practically feasible system. It is pointed out that an extremely high degree of security can be achieved by digitizing signals, then applying an encryption algorithm. If done properly, the scrambled signal is almost random and the system is almost impossible to break.

Pennypacker, F. C.

66

Severe storms observing satellite (STORMSAT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary payload for this satellite is the Advanced Atmospheric Sounding and Imaging Radiometer which will perform precise infrared temperature sounding and visible/infrared imaging from geostationary orbit. A secondary payload instrument which may be utilized on STORMSAT is the Microwave Atmospheric Sounding Radiometer which provides an independent set of temperature and humidity sounding in cloudy, meteorologically active regions. The study provides satellite designs and identifies mission-unique subsystems using the Multimission Modular Spacecraft using a Shuttle/Interim Upper Stage launch vehicle.

1976-01-01

67

Orbit Design of Earth-Observation Satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to design a reliable orbit for a medium-resolution scientific satellite to observe Earth for developmental issues such as water resources, agricultural, and industrial. To meet this objective this study firstly, defines the mission, secondly, determines mission constraints, thirdly, design the attitude and orbit control system. As for the observation requirements, and the revisit time are provided as a function of the orbital parameters. Initial orbital parameters are obtained by optimal analysis between observation characteristics and attitude and orbit maintenance costs. Long term station-keeping strategies will be provided for the proposed solutions. Impulsive control will be investigated to provide a reliable and affordable attitude and orbit control system.

Owis, Ashraf

68

Heuristics for scheduling Earth observing satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes several methods for assigning tasks to Earth Observing Systems Satellites (EOS). We present empirical results for three heuristics, called: Priority Dispatch (PD), Look Ahead (LA), and Genetic Algorithm (GA). These heuristics progress from simple to complex, from less accurate to more accurate, and from fast to slow. We present empirical results as applied to the Window-Constrained Packing problem (WCP). The WCP is a simplified version of the EOS scheduling problem. We discuss the problem of having more than one optimization criteria. We will also discuss the relationship between the WCP and the more traditional Knapsack and Weighted Early/Tardy problems.

Wolfe, William J.; Sorensen, Stephen E.

1999-09-01

69

Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 4: Operational applications of satellite snow cover observations. Colorado Field Test Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study was conducted on six watersheds ranging in size from 277 km to 3460 km in the Rio Grande and Arkansas River basins of southwestern Colorado. Six years of satellite data in the period 1973-78 were analyzed and snowcover maps prepared for all available image dates. Seven snowmapping techniques were explored; the photointerpretative method was selected as the most accurate. Three schemes to forecast snowmelt runoff employing satellite snowcover observations were investigated. They included a conceptual hydrologic model, a statistical model, and a graphical method. A reduction of 10% in the current average forecast error is estimated when snowcover data in snowmelt runoff forecasting is shown to be extremely promising. Inability to obtain repetitive coverage due to the 18 day cycle of LANDSAT, the occurrence of cloud cover and slow image delivery are obstacles to the immediate implementation of satellite derived snowcover in operational streamflow forecasting programs.

Shafer, B. A.; Leaf, C. F.; Danielson, J. A.; Moravec, G. F.

1981-01-01

70

Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 5: Operational applications of satellite snow-cover observations, northwest United States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study objective was to develop or modify methods in an operational framework that would allow incorporation of satellite derived snow cover observations for prediction of snowmelt derived runoff. Data were reviewed and verified for five basins in the Pacific Northwest. The data were analyzed for up to a 6-year period ending July 1978, and in all cases cover a low, average, and high snow cover/runoff year. Cloud cover is a major problem in these springtime runoff analyses and have hampered data collection for periods of up to 52 days. Tree cover and terrain are sufficiently dense and rugged to have caused problems. The interpretation of snowlines from satellite data was compared with conventional ground truth data and tested in operational streamflow forecasting models. When the satellite snow-covered area (SCA) data are incorporated in the SSARR (Streamflow Synthesis and Reservoir Regulation) model, there is a definite but minor improvement.

Dillard, J. P.

1981-01-01

71

Satellite Navigation Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Global Positioning System (GPS) has been in operation for several years, and its use is continually rising. GPS is the main satellite navigation system developed by the United States. There are countless applications of this technology, and numerous international efforts are currently underway.The Topcon Positioning Systems company provides an excellent introduction to GPS technology in its online book (1). The first couple chapters describe the evolution of GPS and its fundamentals, and the remaining material focuses on some specific issues. A more advanced tutorial is given through the IBM Web site (2). A brief, free registration is required to view it, and some familiarity with Java is recommended. The European Space Agency provides this page about satellite navigation (3), which describes, among other things, Galileo. This is not the astronomer; Galileo is Europe's version of GPS, scheduled for completion in 2008. Another system, developed by Russia, is detailed on the Space and Technology Web site (4). The short summary describes the 20-year history of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS), as well as upgrades that are in progress. Differential GPS, a service that is more accurate than standard GPS in areas with poor coverage, is operated by the US Coast Guard Navigation Center (5). Some information about the status of nationwide DGPS expansion is given. Several research and development projects, technology highlights, and GPS implementations are covered on the UNAVCO home page (6). The facility primarily fosters work to expand the applications of satellite navigation. With the wave of kidnapping cases reported across the country, a novel use of GPS is being marketed to keep track of children (7). These portable devices can be worn on the wrist, like a watch, so parents can always know where their kids are. Another news story describes the use of GPS in mining operations (8). The technology allows operators of huge three-story dump trucks to detect obstacles and maneuver the vehicle with only limited visibility.

Leske, Cavin.

2002-01-01

72

Laser satellite power systems  

SciTech Connect

A laser satellite power system (SPS) converts solar power captured by earth-orbiting satellites into electrical power on the earth's surface, the satellite-to-ground transmission of power being effected by laser beam. The laser SPS may be an alternative to the microwave SPS. Microwaves easily penetrate clouds while laser radiation does not. Although there is this major disadvantage to a laser SPS, that system has four important advantages over the microwave alternative: (1) land requirements are much less, (2) radiation levels are low outside the laser ground stations, (3) laser beam sidelobes are not expected to interfere with electromagnetic systems, and (4) the laser system lends itself to small-scale demonstration. After describing lasers and how they work, the report discusses the five lasers that are candidates for application in a laser SPS: electric discharge lasers, direct and indirect solar pumped lasers, free electron lasers, and closed-cycle chemical lasers. The Lockheed laser SPS is examined in some detail. To determine whether a laser SPS will be worthy of future deployment, its capabilities need to be better understood and its attractiveness relative to other electric power options better assessed. First priority should be given to potential program stoppers, e.g., beam attenuation by clouds. If investigation shows these potential program stoppers to be resolvable, further research should investigate lasers that are particularly promising for SPS application.

Walbridge, E.W.

1980-01-01

73

Monitoring Changes in Water Resources Systems Using High Resolution Satellite Observations: Application to Lake Urmia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Urmia with its unique ecosystem in northwestern Iran is the second largest saltwater lake in the world. It is home of more than 300 species of birds, reptiles, and mammals with high salinity level of more than 300 g/l. In recent years, a significant water retreat has occurred in this lake. In this study, we tried to monitor the desiccation of the lake over more than four decades using remote sensing observations. Multi-spectral high-resolution LandSat images of the Lake Urmia region from 1972 to 2012 were acquired to derive the lake area. The composite maps of the lake were created, and a Bayesian Maximum Likelihood classification technique was used to classify land and water in the composite maps. The time series of the lake area reveals that it has shrunk by more than 40% in the past ten years. Moreover, water budget related components such as precipitation, soil moisture, and drought indices from remote sensing of the lake basin were utilized to investigate if droughts or climate change are the primary driving forces behind this phenomenon. These analyses show that the retreat of the lake is not related to droughts or global climate change as it has survived several drought events before year 2000. Similar analyses conducted on Lake Van located about 400 km west of Lake Urmia with very similar climate pattern revealed no significant areal change despite the lake's exposure to similar drought events. These results raise serious concern about the destructive role of unbridled development coupled with supply-oriented water management scheme driven by a classic upstream-downstream competition for water in the Lake Urmia region. There is an urgent need to investigate sustainable restoration initiatives for Lake Urmia in order to prevent an environmental disaster comparable to catastrophic death of Aral Sea.

Norouzi, H.; AghaKouchak, A.; Madani, K.; Mirchi, A.; Farahmand, A.; Conway, C.

2013-12-01

74

The artificial satellite observation chronograph controlled by single chip microcomputer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The instrument specifications, hardware structure, software design, and other characteristics of the chronograph mounting on a theodolite used for artificial satellite observation are presented. The instrument is a real time control system with a single chip microcomputer.

Guangrong Pan; Jufan Tan; Yuanjun Ding

1991-01-01

75

The artificial satellite observation chronograph controlled by single chip microcomputer.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The instrument specifications, hardware structure, software design, and other characteristics of the chronograph mounting on a theodolite used for artificial satellite observation are presented. The instrument is a real time control system with a single chip microcomputer.

Pan, Guangrong; Tan, Jufan; Ding, Yuanjun

1991-06-01

76

Question No. 5: What Role Can Satellites Take, as a Complement to Ground Based Measurement Systems, to Provide Sustained Observations to Monitor GHG Emissions?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

What role can satellites take, as a complement to ground based measurement systems, to provide sustained observations to monitor GHG emissions (e.g., CO2, CH4, O3, N2O, CFC s, NH3, and NF3) that contribute to global warming?

Chahine, Moustafa; Olsen, Edward

2011-01-01

77

Satellite Observations of Forest Fires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean Remote Sensing Group of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory has made available a series of maps of some of the fifteen major wildfires that were burning Wednesday across 264,794 acres in six Western states--Oregon, California, Idaho, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado. The images are not intended as a working fire detection resource, but are offered as interesting observations. Background information is provided, and the subject matter of each image is briefly described. The files are in GIF format and range in size from 200 to 500K. The publicly available data used is from the NOAA polar orbiter AVHRR sensor, which scans the earth beneath six times per second. Links are provided to the Wildland Fire Assessment System of the USDA and Go West forest fire reports, which offers a list of links for each state with major fires.

Sterner, Ray.

1996-01-01

78

Investigation of mesoscale meteorological phenomena as observed by geostationary satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite imagery plus conventional synoptic observations were used to examine three mesoscale systems recently observed by the GOES-EAST satellite. The three systems are an arc cloud complex (ACC), mountain lee wave clouds and cloud streets parallel to the wind shear. Possible gravity-wave activity is apparent in all three cases. Of particular interest is the ACC because of its ability to interact with other mesoscale phenomena to produce or enhance convection.

Brundidge, K. C.

1982-01-01

79

Geostationary satellite observations of ozone air quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ozone in surface air is the primary cause of polluted air in the United States. The current ozone observing network is insufficient either to assess air quality or to fully inform our understanding of the factors controlling tropospheric ozone. This thesis investigates the benefit of an instrument in geostationary orbit for observing near surface ozone using Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs). An OSSE was performed to define the measurement requirements for geostationary observations of ozone air quality. Hourly observations of ozone from geostationary orbit improve the assimilation considerably relative to daily observation from low earth orbit. There is little propagation of ozone information from the free troposphere to the surface, making instrument sensitivity in the boundary layer is essential. Assimilation of data from a best-case multispectral instrument reduces model error for surface ozone by a factor of two. A joint assimilation framework was developed to use observations of carbon monoxide as an additional constraint on surface ozone concentrations through exploitation of model error correlations. Ozone-CO error correlations are positive in continental outflow but negative over land on a regional scale. Joint ozone-CO data assimilation provides substantial benefit for informing US ozone air quality if the instrument sensitivity for CO in the boundary layer is greater than that for ozone. Planned geostationary TEMPO satellite observations of ozone were used in conjunction with complementary surface and low-elevation orbit observations to demonstrate the capability of a future observing system to monitor and attribute air quality exceedances in the Intermountain West. Assimilation of surface measurements alone does not capture elevated ozone levels. Assimilation of TEMPO geostationary observations greatly improves the assimilated model's ability to reproduce ozone exceedances and attribute them to background influence.

Zoogman, Peter William

80

Observing Climate with Satellites - Are We on Thin Ice?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth s climate is determined by irradiance from the Sun and properties of the atmosphere, oceans, and land that determine the reflection, absorption, and emission of energy within our atmosphere and at the Earth s surface. Since the 1970s, Earth-viewing satellites have complimented non-satellite geophysical observations with consistent, quantitative, and spatially-continuous measurements that have led to an unprecedented understanding of the Earth s climate system. I will describe the Earth s climate system as elaborated by satellite and in situ observations, review arguments against global warming, and show the convergence of evidence for human-caused warming of our planet.

Tucker, Compton

2012-01-01

81

ASTER satellite observations for international disaster management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

When lives are threatened or lost due to catastrophic disasters, and when massive financial impacts are experienced, international emergency response teams rapidly mobilize to provide urgently required support. Satellite observations of affected areas often provide essential insight into the magnitude and details of the impacts. The large cost and high complexity of developing and operating satellite flight and ground systems encourages international collaboration in acquiring imagery for such significant global events in order to speed delivery of critical information to help those affected, and optimize spectral, spatial, and temporal coverage of the areas of interest. The International Charter-Space and Major Disasters was established to enable such collaboration in sensor tasking during times of crisis and is often activated in response to calls for assistance from authorized users. Insight is provided from a U.S. perspective into sensor support for Charter activations and other disaster events through a description of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), which has been used to support emergency situations for over a decade through its expedited tasking and near real-time data delivery capabilities. Examples of successes achieved and challenges encountered in international collaboration to develop related systems and fulfill tasking requests suggest operational considerations for new missions as well as areas for future enhancements.

Duda, K.A.; Abrams, M.

2012-01-01

82

The AMSC mobile satellite system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American Mobile Satellite Consortium (AMSC) Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) system is described. AMSC will use three multi-beam satellites to provide L-band MSS coverage to the United States, Canada and Mexico. The AMSC MSS system will have several noteworthy features, including a priority assignment processor that will ensure preemptive access to emergency services, a flexible SCPC channel scheme that will support a wide diversity of services, enlarged system capacity through frequency and orbit reuse, and high effective satellite transmitted power. Each AMSC satellite will make use of 14 MHz (bi-directional) of L-band spectrum. The Ku-band will be used for feeder links.

Agnew, Carson E.; Bhagat, Jai; Hopper, Edwin A.; Kiesling, John D.; Exner, Michael L.; Melillo, Lawrence; Noreen, Gary K.; Parrott, Billy J.

1988-05-01

83

Magnetopause structure from satellite observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations on magnetopause structure are reported. Major topics covered include: classical reconnection, transport mechanisms, magnetospheric boundary layers, tearing modes, and Jupiter's magnetopause.

Sonnerup, B. U. O.

1979-01-01

84

Dual-Satellite Observations of VHF Lightning From GPS Orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last several years, the remote sensing of very high frequency (VHF) lightning emissions from both low-earth orbit and Global Positioning System (GPS) orbit has been demonstrated with the Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) satellite and with an experimental VHF receiver aboard the SVN 54 GPS satellite. Analyses have shown that these systems are most sensitive to an impulsive type of in-cloud lightning that appears to be a good generic indicator of thunderstorm convective activity. As a consequence, satellite-based VHF receivers are now recognized as potential candidates for global lightning monitoring missions. With the recent launch of a second experimental VHF receiver aboard the SVN 56 GPS satellite, we now have the opportunity to characterize multi-satellite detection of VHF lightning from GPS orbit. This paper presents data from and analysis of simultaneous observations of VHF lightning events by the SVN 54 and SVN 56 VHF receivers. The dual-satellite observations are used to (1) characterize the expected performance parameters of a multi-satellite VHF global lightning detection system, (2) demonstrate two-satellite thunderstorm geolocation using an intersecting isochron technique and (3) determine a detection efficiency for impulsive in-cloud lightning as a function of zenith angle (radiation pattern).

Suszcynsky, D. M.; Pongratz, M. B.; Linford, J.; Jacobson, A. R.

2003-12-01

85

Thirty Years of Natural Satellites Mutual Events Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenomena in the Solar System have been observed for years: solar and lunar eclipses, occultations of stars by the Moon and the asteroids, eclipses of the satellites of Jupiter. Since 1973, mutual occultations and eclipses of the satellites of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus were observed extensively during each opportunity i.e. the equinox on the planet: why? The study of the systems of natural satellites needs to explore the dynamics of these objects: each small dynamical effect is the signature of some physical property. In order to validate the theoretical models, very accurate observations are needed. Most of the direct astrometric observations have their accuracy limited by the diffraction of the light in the telescope and by the star catalogues used for calibration. Phenomena have not this limitation: the accuracy is not in angle but in kilometres in space. Since, the observed satellites have no atmosphere, these photometric events are easy to analyse providing relative positions accurate to a few kilometres corresponding to a few mas in geocentric angle. More, during an occultation, the surface of the satellites may be studied: volcanoes of Io (positions and fluxes) were observed that way. Mutual events observations together with the best observations made since several decades allowed improving dynamical models of the satellites systems of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. Concerning Io, the dissipation of energy in its internal structure by the Jovian tides has been made into evidence thanks to fitting the models on accurate observations including mutual events. Eight observational campaigns were organized for the Jovian satellites, three for the Saturnians and one for the Uranians providing more than 1400 light curves (see the data base at http://www.imcce.fr/fr/ephemerides/generateur/saimirror/obsindhe.htm ). The author acknowledges the numerous observers worldwide who provide the observations, the observatories permitting observations and the French CNRS who supported these campaigns.

Arlot, Jean-eudes; Events Observers, Mutual

2009-09-01

86

Satellite personal communications system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Voice channel communication between low power mobile stations dispersed over a large area is provided by a system which includes a geostationary satellite utilizing a large UHF antenna that can receive a transmission from a caller and retransmit it over any one beam of a matrix of narrow beams, so the chosen beam covers an area in which a designated called party is located. A single up-link control channel occupying a narrow frequency band, can be utilized to receive dial up signals from a caller, and another single down link control channel can be utilized to ring up the called party located anywhere within the continental United States. The satellite antenna includes a matrix of feed horns that not only direct the beams in a controlled matrix onto the area of the continental United States, but also permit detection of the region from which the caller's signal is transmitted and the region from which the called party's answer is received, to enable the interconnection of signals received from these two regions. The system is particularly useful for rural areas.

Reilly, N. B.; Smith, J. G. (inventors)

1980-01-01

87

Earth System: Satellites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are thousands of artificial satellites circling our planet for navigation, communications, entertainment, and science. These satellites are an integral part of our everyday life, and they collect data which cannot be obtained from Earth's surface. This video segment describes the basic components of a satellite and some of applications that have been developed for both geostationary and orbiting satellites. The segment is three minutes fifty seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

88

Estimating Soil Moisture from Satellite Microwave Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cooperative research in microwave remote sensing between the Hydrological Sciences Branch of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Earth Sciences Faculty of the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam began with the Botswana Water and Energy Balance Experiment and has continued through a series of highly successful International Research Programs. The collaboration between these two research institutions has resulted in significant scientific achievements, most notably in the area of satellite-based microwave remote sensing of soil moisture. The Botswana Program was the first joint research initiative between these two institutions, and provided a unique data base which included historical data sets of Scanning Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer (SN4NM) data, climate information, and extensive soil moisture measurements over several large experimental sites in southeast Botswana. These data were the basis for the development of new approaches in physically-based inverse modelling of soil moisture from satellite microwave observations. Among the results from this study were quantitative estimates of vegetation transmission properties at microwave frequencies. A single polarization modelling approach which used horizontally polarized microwave observations combined with monthly composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index was developed, and yielded good results. After more precise field experimentation with a ground-based radiometer system, a dual-polarization approach was subsequently developed. This new approach realized significant improvements in soil moisture estimation by satellite. Results from the Botswana study were subsequently applied to a desertification monitoring study for the country of Spain within the framework of the European Community science research programs EFEDA and RESMEDES. A dual frequency approach with only microwave data was used for this application. The Microwave Polarization Difference Index (MPDI) was calculated from 37 GHz data and used to derive the one-way canopy transmissivity. Using a simple radiative transfer model, this information was combined with horizontally polarized 6.6 GHz SMMR observations to derive a 9-year time series of soil moisture for all of Spain at a one quarter degree spatial scale. Both day and night SMMR observations were used independently, in order to check the consistency of the results. A first order Fourier Transform was performed on the mean monthly soil moisture values to identify major characteristics of time series such as trend, amplitude, and phase shift.

Owe, M.; VandeGriend, A. A.; deJeu, R.; deVries, J.; Seyhan, E.

1998-01-01

89

New progress in the CCD astrometric observation of natural satellites.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CCD astrometric observation of natural satellites is important for the spacecraft probation of the outer planets, the planetary physics, and the link between different astronomical reference systems. In this paper the author introduces the difficulties on CCD observation of natural satellites by the long focus telescope and different solving methods and mainly reviews and describes the CCD image processing and reducing methods. At last, some factors affecting the accuracy of the positional determination of natural satellites and the accuracy of the newest results are also introduced.

Peng, Qingyu

1998-06-01

90

Severe storms observing satellite study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Payload distribution and the attitude control system for the multi-mission modular spacecraft/StormSat configuration are discussed. The design of the advanced atmospheric sounder and imaging radiometer (AASIR) gimbal drive and its servomechanism is described. Onboard data handling, data downlink communications, and ground data handling systems are developed. Additional topics covered include: magnetic unloading at synchronous altitude, north-south stationkeeping, and the feasibility and impact of flying the microwave atmospheric sounding radiometer (MASR) as an additional payload.

Iwens, R. P.; Stern, D. A.

1976-01-01

91

Land mobile satellite demonstration system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A land mobile satellite demonstration system is described. It ulilizes the INMARSAT MARECS B2 satellite at 26 degrees W. The system provides data transmission using a poll-response protocol with error detection and retransmission at 200 b/s rate. For most tests a 1.8 inch monopole antenna was used, along with a satellite EIRP normally used for four voice channels. A brief summary of the results are given and the overall system consisting of three elements in addition to the satellite (the mobile unit, the base station, and the office terminal and map display) is described. Throughput statistics from one trip are summarized.

Gooch, Guy M.; Nicholas, David C.

1988-01-01

92

Satellite Power System (SPS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potential organizational options for a solar power satellite system (SPS) were investigated. Selection and evaluation criteria were determined to include timeliness, reliability, and adequacy to contribute meaningfully to the U.S. supply; political feasibility (both national and international); and cost effectiveness (including environmental and other external costs). Based on these criteria, four organizational alternatives appeared to offer reasonable promise as potential options for SPS. A large number of key issues emerged as being factors which would influence the final selection process. Among these issues were a variety having to do with international law, international institutions, environmental controls, economics, operational flexibility, congressional policies, commercial-vs-governmental ownership, national dedication, and national and operational stategic issues.

Edler, H. G.

1978-01-01

93

Applications of Satellite Observations to Aerosol Analyses and Forecasting using the NAAPS Model and the DataFed Distributed Data System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-real-time (NRT) aerosol characterization, forecasting and decision support is now possible through the availability of (1) surface-based monitoring of regional PM concentrations, (2) global-scale columnar aerosol observations through satellites; (3) an aerosol model (NAAPS) that is capable of assimilating NRT satellite observations; and (4) an emerging cyber infrastructure for processing and distribution of data and model results (DataFed) for a wide range of users. This report describes the evolving NRT aerosol analysis and forecasting system and its applications at Federal and State and other AQ Agencies and groups. Through use cases and persistent real-world applications in the US and abroad, the report will show how satellite observations along with surface data and models are combined to aid decision support for AQ management, science and informing the public. NAAPS is the U.S. Navy's global aerosol and visibility forecast model that generates operational six-day global-scale forecasts for sulfate, dust, sea salt, and smoke aerosol. Through NAVDAS-AOD, NAAPS operationally assimilates filtered and corrected MODIS MOD04 aerosol optical depths and uses satellite-derived FLAMBÉ smoke emissions. Washington University's federated data system, DataFed, consist of a (1) data server which mediates the access to AQ datasets from distributed providers (NASA, NOAA, EPA, etc.,); (2) an AQ Data Catalog for finding and accessing data; and (3) a set of application programs/tools for browsing, exploring, comparing, aggregating, fusing data, evaluating models and delivering outputs through interactive visualization. NAAPS and DataFed are components of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). Satellite data support the detection of long-range transported wind-blown dust and biomass smoke aerosols on hemispheric scales. The AQ management and analyst communities use the satellite/model data through DataFed and other channels as evidence for Exceptional Events (EE) as defined by EPA; i.e., Sahara dust impact on Texas and Florida, local dusts events in the Southwestern U.S. and Canadian smoke events over the Northeastern U.S. Recent applications include the impact analysis of a major Saudi Arabian dust event on Mumbai, India air quality. The NAAPS model and the DataFed tools can visualize the dynamic AQ events as they are manifested through the different sensors. Satellite-derived aerosol observations assimilated into NAAPS provide estimates of daily emission rates for dust and biomass fire sources. Tuning and reconciliation of the observations, emissions and models constitutes a key and novel contribution yielding a convergence toward the true five-dimensional (X, Y, Z, T, Composition) characterization of the atmospheric aerosol data space. This observation-emission-model reconciliation effort is aided by model evaluation tools and supports the international HTAP program. The report will also discuss some of the challenges facing multi-disciplinary, multi-agency, multi-national applications of integrated observation-modeling system of systems that impede the incorporation of satellite observations into AQ management decision support systems.

Husar, R. B.; Hoijarvi, K.; Westphal, D. L.; Scheffe, R.; Keating, T.; Frank, N.; Poirot, R.; DuBois, D. W.; Bleiweiss, M. P.; Eberhard, W. L.; Menon, R.; Sethi, V.; Deshpande, A.

2012-12-01

94

Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 2: Operational applications of satellite snow-cover observations and data-collection systems in the Arizona test site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ground surveys and aerial observations were used to monitor rapidly changing moisture conditions in the Salt-Verde watershed. Repetitive satellite snow cover observations greatly reduce the necessity for routine aerial snow reconnaissance flights over the mountains. High resolution, multispectral imagery provided by LANDSAT satellite series enabled rapid and accurate mapping of snow-cover distributions for small- to medium-sized subwatersheds; however, the imagery provided only one observation every 9 days of about a third of the watershed. Low resolution imagery acquired by the ITOSa dn SMS/GOES meteorological satellite series provides the daily synoptic observation necessary to monitor the rapid changes in snow-covered area in the entire watershed. Short term runoff volumes can be predicted from daily sequential snow cover observations.

Schumann, H. H.

1981-01-01

95

Global canopy interception from satellite observations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new methodology for retrieving rainfall interception rates from multi satellite observations is presented. The approach makes use of the daily productof the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) as driving data and applies Gash’s analytical model to derive interception rates at global sc...

96

Satellite observations of transionospheric pulse pairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The BLACKBEARD payload aboard the ALEXIS satellite has been making broadband observations in the VHF band of the radio spectrum. Since November of 1993 several hundred unusual signals have been recorded. The peculiar nature of these bursts of radio noise is that they have a duration of approximately 10 μsec, are typically 20 to 40 dB brighter than the average

D. N. Holden; C. P. Munson; J. C. Devenport

1995-01-01

97

Comparison of filter predictions with satellite observations  

SciTech Connect

Satellite observations of meteor entry are used to calibrate a filter model of fragmentation. Predicted sizes and masses compare favorably with data and analytic interpretations for objects of all sizes. However, objects that fragment into many large objects should be treated by the decomposition of the radiation signal into the contributions from the different fragments.

Canavan, G.H.

1997-10-01

98

Scheduling Earth Observing Satellites with Evolutionary Algorithms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We hypothesize that evolutionary algorithms can effectively schedule coordinated fleets of Earth observing satellites. The constraints are complex and the bottlenecks are not well understood, a condition where evolutionary algorithms are often effective. This is, in part, because evolutionary algorithms require only that one can represent solutions, modify solutions, and evaluate solution fitness. To test the hypothesis we have developed a representative set of problems, produced optimization software (in Java) to solve them, and run experiments comparing techniques. This paper presents initial results of a comparison of several evolutionary and other optimization techniques; namely the genetic algorithm, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel optimization, and stochastic hill climbing. We also compare separate satellite vs. integrated scheduling of a two satellite constellation. While the results are not definitive, tests to date suggest that simulated annealing is the best search technique and integrated scheduling is superior.

Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Pryor, Anna

2003-01-01

99

Seasonal streamflow estimation employing satellite snowcover observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low resolution meteorological satellite and high resolution earth resources satellite data have been used to map snow covered area over the upper Indus River and the Wind River Mountains of Wyoming, respectively. For the Indus River early spring snow covered area was extracted and related to April through June stream flow from 1967-1971 using a regression equation. Prediction of the April-June 1972 stream flow from the satellite data was within three percent of the actual total. Composited results from two years of data over seven Wind River Mountain watersheds indicated that LANDSAT-1 snow cover observations, separated on the basis of watershed elevation, could also be related to runoff in significant regression equations.

Rango, A.; Salomonson, V. V.; Foster, J. L.

1975-01-01

100

Satellite observations of an ionospheric acceleration mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A satellite-borne energetic ion mass spectrometer experiment has detected fluxes of O\\/sup +\\/ and H\\/sup +\\/ ions flowing up out of the ionosphere in the auroral and polar regions. The observed ions have energies in the keV range, narrow pitch-angle distributions aligned along the magnetic field direction and peak flux intensities of the order of 10⁸ (cm²-sec-sterad-keV)⁻¹. The observations were

E. G. Shelley; R. D. Sharp; R. G. Johnson

1976-01-01

101

Communications satellite systems capacity analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analog and digital modulation techniques are compared with regard to efficient use of the geostationary orbit by communications satellites. Included is the definition of the baseline systems (both space and ground segments), determination of interference susceptibility, calculation of orbit spacing, and evaluation of relative costs. It is assumed that voice or TV is communicated at 14/11 GHz using either FM or QPSK modulation. Both the Fixed-Satellite Service and the Broadcasting-Satellite Service are considered. For most of the cases examined the digital approach requires a satellite spacing less than or equal to that required by the analog approach.

Browne, L.; Hines, T.; Tunstall, B.

1982-01-01

102

Use of meteorological satellite observations in weather modification programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential value of weather satellite data in field operations of weather modification is appraised. It was found that satellites could play a useful role in operational weather modification projects, particularly in the recognition of treatment opportunities. Satellite cloud photographs and infrared observations appear promising in the identification of treatment opportunities in seeding orographic cloud systems for increased snowpack, in seeding convective clouds for increased rainfall, in identifying hail threats, and in tracking and observing hurricanes as an aid to timing and location of seeding treatments. It was concluded that the potential value of satellite data in the treatment and evaluation phases of operational projects is not as great as in the recognition of treatment opportunity.

Dennis, A. S.; Smith, P. L., Jr.; Biswas, K. R.

1973-01-01

103

Radiocommunications for meteorological satellite systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general overview is presented of the spectrum utilization and frequency requirements of present and planned meteorological satellite programs. The sensors, and TIROS operational systems are discussed along with the Nimbus and Synchronous Meteorological Satellites. STORMSAT, SEASAT, and the Spacelab are briefly described.

Walton, B. A.

1975-01-01

104

Globally Gridded Satellite observations for climate studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geostationary satellites have provided routine, high temporal resolution Earth observations since the 1970s. Despite the long period of record, use of these data in climate studies has been limited for numerous reasons, among them that no central archive of geostationary data for all international satellites exists, full temporal and spatial resolution data are voluminous, and diverse calibration and navigation formats encumber the uniform processing needed for multisatellite climate studies. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) set the stage for overcoming these issues by archiving a subset of the full-resolution geostationary data at ~10-km resolution at 3-hourly intervals since 1983. Recent efforts at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center to provide convenient access to these data include remapping the data to a standard map projection, recalibrating the data to optimize temporal homogeneity, extending the record of observations back to 1980, and reformatting the data for broad public distribution. The Gridded Satellite (GridSat) dataset includes observations from the visible, infrared window, and infrared water vapor channels. Data are stored in Network Common Data Format (netCDF) using standards that permit a wide variety of tools and libraries to process the data quickly and easily. A novel data layering approach, together with appropriate satellite and file metadata, allows users to access GridSat data at varying levels of complexity based on their needs. The result is a climate data record already in use by the meteorological community. Examples include reanalysis of tropical cyclones, studies of global precipitation, and detection and tracking of the intertropical convergence zone.

Knapp, K.R.; Ansari, S.; Bain, C.L.; Bourassa, M.A.; Dickinson, M.J.; Funk, C.; Helms, C.N.; Hennon, C.C.; Holmes, C.D.; Huffman, G.J.; Kossin, J.P.; Lee, H.-T.; Loew, A.; Magnusdottir, G.

2011-01-01

105

Satellite Observations for Detecting and Tracking Changes in Atmospheric Composition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The satellite observations provide constraints on detailed atmospheric modeling, including emissions inventories, indications of transport, harmonized data over vast areas suitable for trends analysis, and a link between spatial scales ranging from local to global, and temporal scales from diurnal to interannual. 1 The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) long-term commitments help provide these observations in cooperation with international meteorological organizations. NASA s long-term commitments will advance scientifically important observations as part of its Earth Science Program, and will assist the transition of the science measurements to applied analyses through the Applied Science Program. Both NASA and NOAA have begun to provide near realtime data and tools to visualize and analyze satellite data,2 while maintaining data quality, validation, and standards. Consequently, decision-makers can expect satellite data services to support air quality decision making now and in the future. The international scientific community's Integrated Global Atmosphere Chemistry Observation System Report3 outlined a plan for ground-based, airborne and satellite measurements and models to integrate the observations into a four-dimensional representation of the atmosphere (space and time) to support assessment and policy information needs. This plan is being carried out under the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). Demonstrations of such an integrated capability4 provide new understanding of the changing atmosphere and link policy decisions to benefits for society. In this article, we highlight the use of satellite data to constrain biomass burning emissions, to assess oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emission reductions, and to contribute to state implementation plans, as examples of the use of satellite observations for detecting and tracking changes in atmospheric composition.

Neil, Doreen O.; Kondragunbta, Shobha; Osterman, Gregory; Pickering, Kenneth; Pinder, Robert W.; Prados, Ana I.; Szykman, James

2009-01-01

106

Observation of solid precipitation using satellite gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding hydrological processes in the arctic region and their variation are emerging and important issues in the association with global climate changes. Solid precipitation is particularly important because it plays a major role in controlling the winter hydrological cycle and spring discharge. Nevertheless, observations of winter snowfall in high latitudes is challenging due to sharply decreasing numbers of precipitation gauges and gauge measurement biases. In addition, conventional satellite methods that work well in low-latitudes are unsuitable for the high latitude conditions. In this study, we present a new method of estimating winter snowfall in the arctic region with GRACE time varying gravity measurements. In northern high latitudes, it is very cold in winter, and thus solid precipitation accumulates with very limited melting and evapotranspiration. Therefore, observed gravity increments during winter mainly result from solid precipitation. We estimate amount of solid precipitation during winter (DJF) from four major arctic basins, Mackenzie, Lena, Yenisei and Ob. New estimates using satellite gravity are compared to global satellite and reanalysis precipitation products , which are GPCP, CMAP, NCEP/NCAR, ECMWF and JCDAS. GRACE-based estimates of snowfall are very close to those of CMAP, ECMWF and JCDAS. We extend the methodology to examine spatial distribution of solid precipitation in the pan-arctic land areas, which shows a good agreement with JCDAS. This new measurement of solid precipitation can provide an altogether new form of observations for hydrological cycle research studies, model and precipitation product evaluation and data assimilation efforts.

Seo, K.; Waliser, D. E.; Ryu, D.; Tian, B.; Kim, B.

2009-12-01

107

Infrared observations of outer planet satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This task supports IR observations of the outer planet satellites. These data provide vital information about the thermophysical properties of satellite surfaces, including internal heat sources for Io. Observations include both broad and narrow band measurementsin the 2 to 20 micrometer spectral range. The program in the last year has aimed at obtaining lonitude coverage on Io to establish stability of hot spot patterns previously reported. Several runs produced the most complete data set for an apparition since the start of the program. Unfortunately, bad weather limited coverage of key longitude ranges containing the largest known hot spot Loki. Among the preliminary results is the observation of an outburst in Io's thermal flux that was measured at 4.8, 8.7 and 20 micrometer. Analysis of the data has given the best evidence to date of silicate volcanism on Io; this is one of the most significant pieces of the puzzle as to the relative roles of silicate and sulfur volcanism on Io. Researchers are collaborating with J. Goguen (NRC RRA to finish reduction of mutual event data, which have already improved ephermeris information for the satellites. The data appear to place significant limits on the characteristics of any leading side hot spots.

Johnson, T. V.

1988-01-01

108

Simulated NASA Satellite Data Products for the NOAA Integrated Coral Reef Observation Network/Coral Reef Early Warning System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment will demonstrate the use of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and LDCM (Landsat Data Continuity Mission) sensor data as significant input to the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) ICON/ CREWS (Integrated Coral Reef Observation System/Coral Reef Early Warning System). The project affects the Coastal Management Program Element of the Applied Sciences Program.

Estep, Leland; Spruce, Joseph P.

2007-01-01

109

'Tethered-satellite' systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two satellites coupled together by a cable whose properties entail elongation elasticity as well as bending and torsion rigidity are examined. The equations of motion and the boundary condition equations are presented based on Kirchhoff's equations of force. Graphs that depict floor length, shuttle\\/earth distance versus time, in-plane angle of tether versus time, and tether configuration projections on the XY

R. Weber; R. Wehrli

1980-01-01

110

NASA's Earth Observing System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is "a coordinated series of polar-orbiting and low inclination satellites for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans." On their website, visitors can learn about the EOS's various projects and initiatives via their in-house newsletter, "The Earth Observer," and by looking at their vast collection of images captured by satellites. Users can select the Images by Mission drop-down menu to peruse images from fifteen different missions, including Aquarius, ICESat, and SeaWinds. The site also contains a Communications area, which offers up key publications, educational posters, calendars, booklets, and facet sheets. [KMG

2013-07-01

111

Geostationary satellite observations of dynamic phytoplankton photophysiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since June 2010, the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) has been collecting the first diurnally resolved satellite ocean measurements. Here GOCI retrievals of phytoplankton chlorophyll concentration and fluorescence are used to evaluate daily to seasonal changes in photophysiological properties. We focus on nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) processes that protect phytoplankton from high light damage and cause strong diurnal cycles in fluorescence emission. This NPQ signal varies seasonally, with maxima in winter and minima in summer. Contrary to expectations from laboratory studies under constant light conditions, this pattern is highly consistent with an earlier conceptual model and recent field observations. The same seasonal cycle is registered in fluorescence data from the polar-orbiting Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aqua satellite sensor. GOCI data reveal a strong correlation between mixed layer growth irradiance and fluorescence-derived phytoplankton photoacclimation state that can provide a path for mechanistically accounting for NPQ variability and, subsequently, retrieving information on iron stress in global phytoplankton populations.

O'Malley, Robert T.; Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Westberry, Toby K.; Milligan, Allen J.; Shang, Shaoling; Yan, Jing

2014-07-01

112

Satellite observations of transionospheric pulse pairs  

SciTech Connect

The BLACKBEARD payload aboard the ALEXIS satellite has been making broadband observations in the VHF band of the radio spectrum. Since November of 1993 several hundred unusual signals have been recorded. The peculiar nature of these bursts of radio noise is that they have a duration of approximately 10 {mu}sec, are typically 20 to 40 dB brighter than the average background, and occur in pairs separated by approximately 50 {mu}sec. The authors have dubbed these emissions TransIonospheric Pulse Pairs, or TIPP events. They do not know what the source of these emissions is, but the dispersion of these signals is consistent with an origin at or near the earth`s surface. The satellite field of view and time of day when TIPP events are generally detected are consistent with regions of thunderstorm activity such as south-central Africa or Indonesia. 4 refs., 5 figs.

Holden, D.N.; Munson, C.P.; Devenport, J.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-04-15

113

Feasibility of tropical cyclone intensity estimation using satellite-borne radiometer measurements: An observing system simulation experiment  

E-print Network

This study evaluates the potential of a proposed technique in using satellite-borne radiometer measurements and weather analyses to estimate the intensity of tropical cyclones. This theory shows that intensity is essentially ...

Sieron, Scott B.

114

Students as Ground Observers for Satellite Cloud Retrieval Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Students' Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL) Project was initiated in 1997 to obtain student observations of clouds coinciding with the overpass of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on NASA's Earth Observing System satellites. Over the past seven years we have accumulated more than 9,000 cases worldwide where student observations are available within 15 minutes of a CERES observation. This paper reports on comparisons between the student and satellite data as one facet of the validation of the CERES cloud retrievals. Available comparisons include cloud cover, cloud height, cloud layering, and cloud visual opacity. The large volume of comparisons allows some assessment of the impact of surface cover, such as snow and ice, reported by the students. The S'COOL observation database, accessible via the Internet at http://scool.larc.nasa.gov, contains over 32,000 student observations and is growing by over 700 observations each month. Some of these observations may be useful for assessment of other satellite cloud products. In particular, some observing sites have been making hourly observations of clouds during the school day to learn about the diurnal cycle of cloudiness.

Chambers, Lin H.; Costulis, P. Kay; Young, David F.; Rogerson, Tina M.

2004-01-01

115

Meteorological Satellites (METSAT) and Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) instruments that are being designed and manufactured for the Meteorological Satellites Project (METSAT) and the Earth Observing System (EOS) integrated programs. The FMEA analyzes the design of the METSAT and EOS instruments as they currently exist. This FMEA is intended to identify METSAT and EOS failure modes and their effect on spacecraft-instrument and instrument-component interfaces. The prime objective of this FMEA is to identify potential catastrophic and critical failures so that susceptibility to the failures and their effects can be eliminated from the METSAT/EOS instruments.

1996-01-01

116

Evolution of the Loop Current System During the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Event as Observed With Drifters and Satellites  

E-print Network

Evolution of the Loop Current System During the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Event as Observed reestablishing a direct LC pathway from the region of the oil spill to the Florida Straits. The mean geostrophic role in advecting the oil from the spill site. On the northern side, shelf currents are generally

Meyers, Steven D.

117

The data distribution satellite system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Data Distributed Satellite (DDS) will be capable of providing the space research community with inexpensive and easy access to space payloads and space data. Furthermore, the DDS is shown to be a natural outgrowth of advances and evolution in both NASA's Space Network and commercial satellite communications. The roadmap and timescale for this evolution is described along with key demonstrations, proof-of-concept models, and required technology development that will support the projected system evolution toward the DDS.

Bruno, Ronald C.; Weinberg, Aaron

1991-01-01

118

Middle atmosphere composition revealed by satellite observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of plots that describe the state of the stratosphere and to some degree, the mesosphere as revealed by satellite observations are shown. The pertinent instrument features, spatial and temporal coverage, and details of accuracy and precision for the experiments providing the data were described. The main features of zonal mean cross sections and polar stereographic projections were noted and intercomparisons were discussed where a parameter was measured by more than one experiment. The main purpose was to collect the available data in one place and provide enough inforamation on limitations or cautions about the data so that they could be used in model comparisons and science studies.

Russell, J. M., III; Solomon, S.; Mccormick, M. P.; Miller, A. J.; Barnett, J. J.; Jones, R. L.; Rusch, D. W.

1986-01-01

119

Satellite Application for Disaster Management Information Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract Satellites are becoming increasingly vital to modern day disaster management activities. Earth observation (EO) satellites provide images at various wavelengths that assist rapid-mapping in all phases of the disaster management cycle: mitigation of potential risks in a given area, preparedness for eventual disasters, immediate response to a disaster event, and the recovery/reconstruction efforts follo wing it. Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) assist all the phases by providing precise location and navigation data, helping manage land and infrastructures, and aiding rescue crews coordinate their search efforts. Effective disaster management is a complex problem, because it involves many parameters, which are usually not easy to measure and even identify: Analysis of current situation, planning, optimum resource management, coordination, controlling and monitoring current activities and making quick and correct decisions are only some of these parameters, whose complete list is very long. Disaster management information systems (DMIS) assist disaster management to analyse the situation better, make decisions and suggest further actions following the emergency plans. This requires not only fast and thorough processing and optimization abilities, but also real-time data provided to the DMIS. The need of DMIS for disaster’s real-time data can be satisfied by small satellites data utilization. Small satellites can provide up-to-data, plus a better media to transfer data. This paper suggests a rationale and a framework for utilization of small Satellite data by DMIS. DMIS should be used ‘’before’’, ‘’during’’ and ‘’after’’ the disasters. Data provided by the Small Satellites are almost crucial in any period of the disasters, because early warning can save lives, and satellite data may help to identify disasters before they occur. The paper also presents’ ‘when’’, ‘’where’’ and ‘’how’’ small satellite data should be used by DMIS.

Okpanachi, George

120

The American mobile satellite system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During 1989, the American Mobile Satellite Corporation (AMSC) was authorized to construct, launch, and operate satellites to provide mobile satellite services (MSS) to the U.S. and Puerto Rico. The AMSC has undertaken three major development programs to bring a full range of MSS services to the U.S. The first program is the space segment program that will result in the construction and launch of the satellites as well as the construction and installation of the supporting ground telemetry and command system. The second segment will result in the specification, design, development, construction, and installation of the Network Control System necessary for managing communications access to the satellites, and the specification and development of ground equipment for standard circuit switched and packet switched communications services. The third program is the Phase 1 program to provide low speed data services within the U.S. prior to availability of the AMSC satellites and ground segment. Described here are the present status and plans for these three programs as well as an update on related business arrangements and regulatory matters.

Garner, William B.

1990-01-01

121

Meteorological Satellites (METSAT) and Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Stress Analysis Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stress analysis of the primary structure of the Meteorological Satellites Project (METSAT) Advanced Microwave Sounding Units-A, A1 Module using static loads is presented. The structural margins of safety and natural frequency predictions for the METSAT design are reported.

Heffner, Robert

1996-01-01

122

Decadal Record of Satellite Carbon Monoxide Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) distributions are controlled by anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning, chemical production, transport and oxidation by reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH). Quantifying trends in CO is therefore important for understanding changes related to all of these contributions. Here we present a comprehensive record of satellite observations from 2000 through 2011 of total column CO using the available measurements from nadir-viewing thermal infrared instruments: MOPITT, AIRS, TES and IASI. We examine trends for CO in the Northern and Southern hemispheres along with regional trends for E. China, E. USA, Europe and India. Measurement and sampling methods for each of the instruments are discussed, and we show diagnostics for systematic errors in MOPITT trends. We find that all the satellite observations are consistent with a modest decreasing trend around -1%/year in total column CO over the Northern hemisphere for this time period. Decreasing trends in total CO column are observed for the United States, Europe and E. China with more than 2? significance. For India, the trend is also decreasing, but smaller in magnitude and less significant. Decreasing trends in surface CO have also been observed from measurements in the U.S. and Europe. Although less information is available for surface CO in China, there is a decreasing trend reported for Beijing. Some of the interannual variability in the observations can be explained by global fire emissions, and there may be some evidence of the global financial crisis in late 2008 to early 2009. But the overall decrease needs further study to understand the implications for changes in anthropogenic emissions.

Worden, Helen; Deeter, Merritt; Frankenberg, Christian; George, Maya; Nichitiu, Florian; Worden, John; Aben, Ilse; Bowman, Kevin; Clerbaux, Cathy; Coheur, Pierre-Francois; de Laat, Jos; Warner, Juying; Drummond, James; Edwards, David; Gille, John; Hurtmans, Daniel; Ming, Luo; Martinez-Alonso, Sara; Massie, Steven; Pfister, Gabriele

2013-04-01

123

Satellite height determination using satellite-to-satellite tracking and ground laser systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The height of the GEOS-C spacecraft was utilized as measured by the onboard radar altimeter, for an improved determination of the earth's gravitational field and for the determination of the variation of the physical surface of the oceans. Two tracking system approaches to accurately determine the spacecraft height (orbit) are described and their results stated. These are satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) and ground laser tracking (GLT). Height variations can be observed in the dm-regions using SST and in the m-region using present GLT.

Vonbun, F. O.

1972-01-01

124

Advanced satellite communication system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this research program was to develop an innovative advanced satellite receiver/demodulator utilizing surface acoustic wave (SAW) chirp transform processor and coherent BPSK demodulation. The algorithm of this SAW chirp Fourier transformer is of the Convolve - Multiply - Convolve (CMC) type, utilizing off-the-shelf reflective array compressor (RAC) chirp filters. This satellite receiver, if fully developed, was intended to be used as an on-board multichannel communications repeater. The Advanced Communications Receiver consists of four units: (1) CMC processor, (2) single sideband modulator, (3) demodulator, and (4) chirp waveform generator and individual channel processors. The input signal is composed of multiple user transmission frequencies operating independently from remotely located ground terminals. This signal is Fourier transformed by the CMC Processor into a unique time slot for each user frequency. The CMC processor is driven by a waveform generator through a single sideband (SSB) modulator. The output of the coherent demodulator is composed of positive and negative pulses, which are the envelopes of the chirp transform processor output. These pulses correspond to the data symbols. Following the demodulator, a logic circuit reconstructs the pulses into data, which are subsequently differentially decoded to form the transmitted data. The coherent demodulation and detection of BPSK signals derived from a CMC chirp transform processor were experimentally demonstrated and bit error rate (BER) testing was performed. To assess the feasibility of such advanced receiver, the results were compared with the theoretical analysis and plotted for an average BER as a function of signal-to-noise ratio. Another goal of this SBIR program was the development of a commercial product. The commercial product developed was an arbitrary waveform generator. The successful sales have begun with the delivery of the first arbitrary waveform generator.

Staples, Edward J.; Lie, Sen

1992-01-01

125

Understanding the Hydrosphere Using Satellite Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using satellite observations from the joint NASA/DLR Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission to monitor, simulate, and understand ongoing changes in the Earth's hydrosphere and water cycle was the topic of a recent workshop sponsored by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Center for Climate Sciences and GRACE team, with support from the Global Energy and Water Exchanges Project (GEWEX). The meeting brought together more than 60 international scientists with backgrounds in hydrology, oceanography, geodesy, and climate modeling to discuss the best uses of GRACE data in these fields. Since 2002, the GRACE mission has provided global observations of variations in the Earth's gravity field in unprecedented detail, revealing key insights into global water storage and transport.

Landerer, Felix W.; Boening, Carmen; Watkins, Michael

2013-09-01

126

Monitoring the Climate System with Satellites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The international science community has identified a set of Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) that should be monitored for measuring the climate system, how it is changing, and its likely impact on future climate. Environmental satellites play an important role in this effort. They are uniquely positioned to provide broad, spatially consistent, and continuous global sampling of many of the ECVs. This module explores the benefits of monitoring the climate system with satellites. We begin by reviewing how satellites observe key atmospheric elements and features that are found in a variety of climate cycles and are important for studying long-term climate trends. From there, we explore events at the different scales (from seasonal to long-term) and the contributions that satellites make to improving our understanding, monitoring, and prediction of them. Finally, we discuss the challenges involved in monitoring climate with satellites. Among these is the need for continuous, stable, high-resolution, and validated measurements that are coordinated with the world’s satellite operators.

COMET

2012-01-10

127

Satellite observed ozone variations and solar activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The degree of association between total and stratospheric ozone and solar ultraviolet irradiance is evaluated based on mean monthly latitudinally averaged ozone observations from the Nimbus-4 BUV data set. The mean monthly 10.7 cm solar flux f(10.7), adjusted for varying earth-sun distance, is used as a convenient index of solar UV variation. Results show no obvious relationship between total ozone and solar ultraviolet irradiance based on analysis of satellite data over a period of seven years, even though such a relationship has been suggested from theoretical considerations. However, the analysis does indicate that there may be a positive response in the upper tropical stratosphere, at a height of about 45-50 km such that there is an increase in the ozone concentration following an increase in solar UV radiation, which is assumed to be indicated by an increase in f(10.7) flux

London, J.

1981-01-01

128

Morelos Satellite System for Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The telephone, television, and data communication services that the Morelos Satellite System (MSS) provides are discussed. The design and functions of the MSS which consists of two geosynchronous communication satellites that operate in C and Ku frequency bands and are located at 113.5 deg and 116.5 deg W longitude are described. The capabilities of the antenna, communication, attitude control, telemetry, command, reaction control, electrical power, and thermal control subsystems are studied. The components of the earth station are examined. The economic and social benefits possible from the application of the MSS to banking, rural clinics, food distribution services, and the oil and electric industries are analyzed.

Sanchez Ruiz, M. E.

1986-03-01

129

An estimation of the condensation rates in three severe storm systems from satellite observations of the convective mass flux  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique was developed for estimating the condensation rates of convective storms using satellite measurements of cirrus anvil expansion rates and radiosonde measurements of environmental water vapor. Three cases of severe convection in Oklahoma were studied and a diagnostic model was developed for integrating radiosonde data with satellite data. Two methods were used to measure the anvil expansion rates - the expansion of isotherm contours on infrared images, and the divergent motions of small brightness anomalies tracked on the visible images. The differences between the two methods were large as the storms developed, but these differences became small in the latter stage of all three storms. A comparison between the three storms indicated that the available moisture in the lowest levels greatly affected the rain rates of the storms. This was evident from both the measured rain rates of the storms and the condensation rates estimated by the model. The possibility of using this diagnostic model for estimating the intensities of convective storms also is discussed.

Mack, R. A.; Wylie, D. P.

1982-01-01

130

Inferring Land Surface Model Parameters for the Assimilation of Satellite-Based L-Band Brightness Temperature Observations into a Soil Moisture Analysis System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission provides global measurements of L-band brightness temperatures at horizontal and vertical polarization and a variety of incidence angles that are sensitive to moisture and temperature conditions in the top few centimeters of the soil. These L-band observations can therefore be assimilated into a land surface model to obtain surface and root zone soil moisture estimates. As part of the observation operator, such an assimilation system requires a radiative transfer model (RTM) that converts geophysical fields (including soil moisture and soil temperature) into modeled L-band brightness temperatures. At the global scale, the RTM parameters and the climatological soil moisture conditions are still poorly known. Using look-up tables from the literature to estimate the RTM parameters usually results in modeled L-band brightness temperatures that are strongly biased against the SMOS observations, with biases varying regionally and seasonally. Such biases must be addressed within the land data assimilation system. In this presentation, the estimation of the RTM parameters is discussed for the NASA GEOS-5 land data assimilation system, which is based on the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and the Catchment land surface model. In the GEOS-5 land data assimilation system, soil moisture and brightness temperature biases are addressed in three stages. First, the global soil properties and soil hydraulic parameters that are used in the Catchment model were revised to minimize the bias in the modeled soil moisture, as verified against available in situ soil moisture measurements. Second, key parameters of the "tau-omega" RTM were calibrated prior to data assimilation using an objective function that minimizes the climatological differences between the modeled L-band brightness temperatures and the corresponding SMOS observations. Calibrated parameters include soil roughness parameters, vegetation structure parameters, and the single scattering albedo. After this climatological calibration, the modeling system can provide L-band brightness temperatures with a global mean absolute bias of less than 10K against SMOS observations, across multiple incidence angles and for horizontal and vertical polarization. Third, seasonal and regional variations in the residual biases are addressed by estimating the vegetation optical depth through state augmentation during the assimilation of the L-band brightness temperatures. This strategy, tested here with SMOS data, is part of the baseline approach for the Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture data product from the planned Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite mission.

Reichle, Rolf H.; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.

2012-01-01

131

Using the JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System to study the climatology of hurricane precipitation structure from 10 years of passive microwave satellite observations in the Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In spite of recent improvements in hurricane track forecast accuracy, currently there are still many unanswered questions about the physical processes that determine hurricane genesis, and evolution. Furthermore, a significant amount of work remains to be done in validating and improving hurricane forecast models. None of this can be accomplished without a comprehensive set of multi-parameter observations that are relevant to both the large-scale and the storm-scale processes in the atmosphere and in the ocean. Despite the significant amount of satellite observations today, they are still underutilized in hurricane research and operations, due to complexity and volume. To facilitate hurricane research, we developed the JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS) of multi-instrument satellite observations pertaining to: i) the thermodynamic and microphysical structure of the storms; ii) the air-sea interaction processes; iii) the larger-scale environment as depicted by the SST and the Total Precipitable Water of the environment (Hristova-Veleva et al., 2008, 2011). Our goal was to create a one-stop place to provide the researchers with an extensive set of observed hurricane data, and their graphical representation, organized in an easy way to determine when coincident observations from multiple instruments are available. In this study we use the 10+ years of passive microwave observations of Atlantic hurricanes to create composite structures that are segregated by hurricane category and by intensification rate. The use of composite structures provides a statistically robust framework (e.g. Rogers et al., 2012). We analyze the storm asymmetry as depicted by several factors - brightness temperatures and their derivatives such as a newly-develop Rain Indicator and a new convective/stratiform separation that is based on the value and the spatial variability of this Rain Indicator. The goal is to determine whether the storm morphology (in particular, the storm asymmetry or lack thereof) carries predictive skills regarding the potential for intensification. The presentation will describe the JPL TCIS and the results of our analysis of the passive microwave satellite observations of the Atlantic hurricanes. Refernces: Hristova-Veleva, S. M., C. Ao, Y. Chao, V. Dang, R. Fovell, M. Garay, Z. Haddad, B. Knosp, B. Lambrigtsen, P. P. Li, K. J. Park, W. Poulsen, H. Su, S. Tanelli, D. Vane, Q. A. Vu, J. Willis, D. L. Wu, 2008: "Using the JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System for Research and Applications", AMS 28th Hurricane and Tropical Meteorology Conference, Orlando, FL, 28Apr.-02May 2008 Hristova-Veleva, S. M., A. Chau, Z. Haddad, B. Knosp, B. Lambrigtsen, P. P. Li, E. Rodriguez, T. -. P. Shen, B. Stiles, H. Su, J. Turk, and Q. Vu, 2011: "Impact of microphysical parameterizations on the structure and intensity of simulated hurricanes: Using satellite data to determine the parameterizations that produce most realistic storms", 14th Conference on Mesoscale Processes, 1-4 August 2011, Los Angeles, California Rogers, R., S. Lorsolo, P. Reasor, J. Gamache, F. Marks, 2012: Multiscale Analysis of Tropical Cyclone Kinematic Structure from Airborne Doppler Radar Composites. Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 77-99.

Hristova-Veleva, Svetla; Haddad, Ziad; Knosp, Brian; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn; Li, P. Peggy; Poulsen, William; Seo, Eun-Kyoung; Shen, Tsae-Pyng; Turk, Francis J.; Vu, Quoc

2013-04-01

132

Global Precipitation Analysis Using Satellite Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global precipitation analysis covering the last few decades and the impact of the new TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) observations are reviewed in the context of weather and climate applications. All the data sets discussed are the result of mergers of information from multiple satellites and gauges, where available. The focus of the talk is on TRMM-based 3 hr. analyses that use TRMM to calibrate polar-orbit microwave observations from SSM/I (and other satellites) and geosynchronous IR observations and merges the various calibrated observations into a final, 3 hr. resolution map. This TRMM standard product will be available for the entire TRMM period (January 1998-present) at the end of 2002. A real-time version of this merged product is being produced and is available at 0.25 deg latitude-longitude resolution over the latitude range from 50 deg N-50 deg S. Examples will be shown, including its use in monitoring flood conditions and in relating weather-scale patterns to climate-scale patterns. The 3-hourly analysis is placed in the context of two research products of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP/GEWEX) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). The first is the 23 year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis that is used to explore global and regional variations and trends and is compared to the much shorter TRMM tropical data set. The GPCP data set shows no significant global trend in precipitation over the twenty years, unlike the positive trend in global surface temperatures over the past century. Regional trends are also analyzed. A trend pattern that is a combination of both El Nino and La Nina precipitation features is evident in the Goodyear data set. This pattern is related to an increase with time in the number of combined months of El Nino and La Nina during the 23 year period. Monthly anomalies of precipitation are related to ENSO variations with clear signals extending into middle and high latitudes of both hemispheres. Also shown is the GPCP daily, 1 deg latitude-longitude analysis, which is available from January 1997 to the present. Plans to incorporate the TRMM data and 3-hourly analysis into the GPCP products are outlined. The outcome should be an improved global analysis and climatology on monthly scales for the 23 year period and finer time scale analyses for more recent periods, including real-time 3-hourly (or finer) analyses over much of the globe.

Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George; Curtis, Scott; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric

2002-01-01

133

Earth Observing System/Meteorological Satellite (EOS/METSAT). Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Contamination Control Plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Contamination Control Plan is submitted in response the Contract Document requirements List (CDRL) 007 under contract NAS5-32314 for the Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A (AMSU-A). In response to the CDRL instructions, this document defines the level of cleanliness and methods/procedures to be followed to achieve adequate cleanliness/contamination control, and defines the required approach to maintain cleanliness/contamination control through shipping, observatory integration, test, and flight. This plan is also applicable to the Meteorological Satellite (METSAT) except where requirements are identified as EOS-specific. This plan is based on two key factors: a. The EOS/METSAT AMSU-A Instruments are not highly contamination sensitive. b. Potential contamination of other EOS Instruments is a key concern as addressed in Section 9/0 of the Performance Assurance Requirements for EOS/METSAT Integrated Programs AMSU-A Instrument (MR) (NASA Specification S-480-79).

Fay, M.

1998-01-01

134

Temporal and spatial variations of global deep cloud systems based on CloudSat and CALIPSO satellite observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial and temporal global distribution of deep clouds was analyzed using a four-year dataset (2007-10) based on observations from CloudSat and CALIPSO. Results showed that in the Northern Hemisphere, the number of deep cloud systems (DCS) reached a maximum in summer and a minimum in winter. Seasonal variations in the number of DCS varied zonally in the Southern Hemisphere. DCS occurred most frequently over central Africa, the northern parts of South America and Australia, and Tibet. The mean cloud-top height of deep cloud cores (TDCC) decreased toward high latitudes in all seasons. DCS with the highest TDCC and deepest cores occurred over east and south Asian monsoon regions, west-central Africa and northern South America. The width of DCS (WDCS) increased toward high latitudes in all seasons. In general, DCS were more developed in the horizontal than in the vertical direction over high latitudes and vice versa over lower latitudes. Findings from this study show that different mechanisms are behind the development of DCS at different latitudes. Most DCS at low latitudes are deep convective clouds which are highly developed in the vertical direction but cover a relatively small area in the horizontal direction; these DCS have the highest TDCC and smallest WDCS. The DCS at midlatitudes are more likely to be caused by cyclones, so they have less vertical development than DCS at low latitudes. DCS at high latitudes are mainly generated by large frontal systems, so they have the largest WDCS and the smallest TDCC.

Peng, Jie; Zhang, Hua; Li, Zhanqing

2014-05-01

135

Satellite data assimilation in global forecast system in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite data is very important for model initialization and verification. A large number of satellite observations are currently assimilated into the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) systems at the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF). Apart from Global meteorological observations from GTS, near-real time satellite observations are received at NCMRWF from other operational centres like ISRO, NOAA/NESDIS, EUMETCAST, etc. Recently India has become member of Asia-Pacific Regional ATOVS Retransmission Service (APRARS) for faster access to high resolution global satellite data useful for high resolution regional models. Indian HRPT at Chennai covers the APRARS data gap region over South East Asia. A robust data monitoring system has been implemented at NCMRWF to assess the quantity and quality of the data as well as the satellite sensor strength, before getting assimilated in the models. Validation of new satellite observations, especially from Indian satellites are being carried out against insitu observations and similar space borne platforms. After establishing the quality of the data, Observation System Experiments (OSEs) are being conducted to study their impact in the assimilation and forecast systems. OSEs have been carried out with the Oceansat-2 scatterometer winds and radiance data from Megha-Tropiques SAPHIR sensor. Daily rainfall analysis dataset is being generated by merging satellite estimates and in-situ observations. ASCAT soil wetness measurements from METOP satellite is being assimilated into the global model. Land surface parameters (LuLc and albedo) retrieved from Indian satellites are being explored for its possible usage in the global and regional models. OLR from Indian satellites are used for validating model outputs. This paper reviews the efforts made at NCMRWF in (i) assimilating the data from Indian/International satellites and (ii) generating useful products from the satellite data.

Basu, Swati

2014-11-01

136

First Public Library Satellite Receiver System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Description of video services at Lake County Public Library, Indiana, highlights the installation of a satellite receiver system and notes funding and justification, components of a satellite system, decisions and sources of assistance, programming available, and future considerations. (EJS)

Donaldson, Marion F.

1982-01-01

137

Plasmaspheric ELF hiss observed by ISIS satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characteristics of plasmaspheric ELF hiss in the topside ionosphere are statistically investigated using ELF/VLF electric field data of 231 ISIS passes received at Kashima station, Japan, from 1973-1977. ELF hiss is classified into two types, steady ELF hiss whose upper frequency limit is aproximately constant with latitude and ELF hiss whose upper frequency limit increases with increasing latitude. Spectral shape and bandwidth of ELF hiss obseved in the topside ionosphere are very similar to those of the plasmaspheric hiss or inner zone hiss observed by OGO-5 and OGO-6. The occurrence rate of steady ELF hiss is about 0.3 near the geomagnetic equator and decreses rapidly with increasing latitude around L = 3.37 percent of ELF hiss events occured during storms and 63 percent during quiet periods. 67 percent of 82 storm ELF hiss events occurred in the storm recovery phase. Electric field spectra of ELF hiss observed in mid- and low latitudes exhibit marked electric field weakness every ten seconds over one half of the satellite spin period.

Ondoh, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Aikyo, K.; Murakami, T.

1982-11-01

138

Design and performances of laser retro-reflector arrays for Beidou navigation satellites and SLR observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beidou is the regional satellite navigation system in China, consisting of three kinds of orbiting satellites, MEO, GEO and IGSO, with the orbital altitudes of 21500-36000 km. For improving the accuracy of satellites orbit determination, calibrating microwave measuring techniques and providing better navigation service, all Beidou satellites are equipped with laser retro-reflector arrays (LRAs) to implement high precision laser ranging. The paper presents the design of LRAs for Beidou navigation satellites and the method of inclined installation of LRAs for GEO satellites to increase the effective reflective areas for the regional ground stations. By using the SLR system, the observations for Beidou satellites demonstrated a precision of centimeters. The performances of these LRAs on Beidou satellites are very excellent.

Zhang, Zhong-Ping; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Chen, Wan-Zhen; Li, Pu; Meng, Wen-Dong; Wang, Yuan-Ming; Wang, Jie; Hu, Wei; Yang, Fu-Min

2014-09-01

139

Saturn's Icy Satellites: Observations From Cassini\\/Huygens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The so-called icy satellites of Saturn include all the orbiting objects in the system larger than a ring particle ( ˜microns to meters) and smaller than Titan, which, with a density of 1880 kg m-3, is an icy satellite also, but whose planet-scale size and massive atmosphere make it an object for special attention. Although the densities of the satellites

T. V. Johnson

2004-01-01

140

Satellite observations of stratospheric carbonyl fluoride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vast majority of emissions of fluorine-containing molecules are anthropogenic in nature, e.g. chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). These molecules slowly degrade in the atmosphere leading to the formation of HF, COF2, and COClF, which are the main fluorine-containing species in the stratosphere. Ultimately both COF2 and COClF further degrade to form HF, an almost permanent reservoir of stratospheric fluorine due to its extreme stability. Carbonyl fluoride (COF2) is the second most abundant stratospheric "inorganic" fluorine reservoir with main sources being the atmospheric degradation of CFC-12 (CCl2F2), HCFC-22 (CHF2Cl), and CFC-113 (CF2ClCFCl2). This work reports the first global distributions of carbonyl fluoride in the Earth's atmosphere using infrared satellite remote-sensing measurements by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS), which has been recording atmospheric spectra since 2004, and the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) instrument, which has recorded thermal emission atmospheric spectra between 2002 and 2012. The observations reveal a high degree of seasonal and latitudinal variability over the course of a year. These have been compared with the output of SLIMCAT, a state-of-the-art three-dimensional chemical transport model. In general the observations agree well with each other and compare well with SLIMCAT, although MIPAS is biased high by as much as ~30%. Between January 2004 and September 2010 COF2 grew most rapidly at altitudes above ~25 km in the southern latitudes and at altitudes below ~25 km in the northern latitudes, whereas it declined most rapidly in the tropics. These variations are attributed to changes in stratospheric dynamics over the observation period. The overall COF2 global trend over this period is calculated as 0.85 ± 0.34 % year-1 (MIPAS), 0.30 ± 0.44% year-1 (ACE), and 0.88% year-1 (SLIMCAT).

Harrison, J. J.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Dudhia, A.; Cai, S.; Dhomse, S.; Boone, C. D.; Bernath, P. F.

2014-07-01

141

Satellite observations of stratospheric carbonyl fluoride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vast majority of emissions of fluorine-containing molecules are anthropogenic in nature, e.g. chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). These molecules slowly degrade in the atmosphere, leading to the formation of HF, COF2, and COClF, which are the main fluorine-containing species in the stratosphere. Ultimately both COF2 and COClF further degrade to form HF, an almost permanent reservoir of stratospheric fluorine due to its extreme stability. Carbonyl fluoride (COF2) is the second-most abundant stratospheric "inorganic" fluorine reservoir, with main sources being the atmospheric degradation of CFC-12 (CCl2F2), HCFC-22 (CHF2Cl), and CFC-113 (CF2ClCFCl2). This work reports the first global distributions of carbonyl fluoride in the Earth's atmosphere using infrared satellite remote-sensing measurements by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS), which has been recording atmospheric spectra since 2004, and the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) instrument, which recorded thermal emission atmospheric spectra between 2002 and 2012. The observations reveal a high degree of seasonal and latitudinal variability over the course of a year. These have been compared with the output of SLIMCAT, a state-of-the-art three-dimensional chemical transport model. In general the observations agree well with each other, although MIPAS is biased high by as much as ~30%, and compare well with SLIMCAT. Between January 2004 and September 2010 COF2 grew most rapidly at altitudes above ~25 km in the southern latitudes and at altitudes below ~25 km in the northern latitudes, whereas it declined most rapidly in the tropics. These variations are attributed to changes in stratospheric dynamics over the observation period. The overall COF2 global trend over this period is calculated as 0.85 ± 0.34 (MIPAS), 0.30 ± 0.44 (ACE), and 0.88% year-1 (SLIMCAT).

Harrison, J. J.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Dudhia, A.; Cai, S.; Dhomse, S.; Boone, C. D.; Bernath, P. F.

2014-11-01

142

Satellite observations of a monsoon depression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The exploration of a monsoon depression over Burma and the Bay of Bengal is discussed. Aircraft and satellite data were examined, with an emphasis on the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) aboard TIROS-N and the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) aboard Nimbus-7. The structure of the monsoon depression was found to be dominated by cumulus convection. The only systematic large scale behavior discerned was a propagation of the depression westward, and diurnal migration of contours of brightness temperature. These contours in the middle troposphere showed a gradient toward the north with the patterns migrating northward at night. From SMMR and dropwindsonde data, water vapor contents were found to be near 65 mm, increasing to more than 70 mm in the northeast Bay of Bengal. Cloud water contents reached about three mm. Rainfall rates exceeding 5.7 mm/h occurred over a small part of the storm area, while mean rainfall rates in areas of order 20,000 sq km reached approximately 0.5 mm/h. Measured MSU brightness temperatures were reconciled very well with dropwindsonde data and with airborne in situ observations of clouds (by photography) and hydrometeors (by radar). Diffuse scattering was determined to be important in computing brightness temperature.

Warner, C.

1984-01-01

143

Introduction satellite observations of atmospheric constitents have  

E-print Network

and can be oxidised within airborne water droplets, producing sulphuric acid. This acidic pollution can suitable for monitoring anthropogenic pollution aspects. Tropospheric nitrogen dioxide Satellite light from the Earth's atmosphere with a reference spectrum, the column density of nitrogen dioxide

Haak, Hein

144

Satellite Observations towards the Agriculture applications  

E-print Network

2008. · Hourly browse images, kmz files for GoogleEarth, and 24hour movies are also available from Web and updated every hour JAXA provides Global Rainfall Map from Satellites Internet access · Images & Movies

145

Operational Applications of Satellite Snowcover Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LANDSAT and NOAA satellites data were used to study snow depth. These snow measurements were used to help forecast runoff and flooding. Many areas of California, Arizona, Colorado, and Wyoming were emphasized.

Rango, A. (editor)

1975-01-01

146

Outline of the survey on the development of earth observation satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An independent earth observation system with land and sea satellites to be developed by Japan is described. Visible and infrared radiometers, microwave radiometers, microwave scattermeters, synthetic aperture radar, and laser sensors are among the instrumentation discussed. Triaxial attitude control, basic technology common to sea and land observation satellites as well as land data analytical technology developed for U.S. LANDSAT data are reviewed.

1977-01-01

147

Detection and orbit determination of tethered satellite systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic algorithm for determining which satellites are tether-connected is described. It is assumed that observations in the forms of range, azimuth and elevation data, for several satellites, including singles, two-satellite tethered systems, and three-satellite tethered systems are available. The detection process is performed using the dynamic model and a minimum variance batch filter to process simulated observations over a period of ten minutes. In the process, the estimated acceleration per unit length between pairs of satellites due to a tether is assumed to be constant during this "short arc" observation period. The values of acceleration per unit length are used as indicators of which pairs of satellites are connected. Use of the algorithm is illustrated by applying it to a set of nine satellites that includes two tethered pairs. For small librational motion of the tethered pairs, values of the constraint accelerations per unit length that are large relative to zero were obtained. On the other hand, values very close to zero were obtained for un-tethered pairs. These results indicate that non-librating, two-satellite tethered systems can be successfully identified (i.e. "detected") when perfect and small-level noise corrupted observations are available. However, identification of two-satellite tethered systems with the large libration angle, or those with a very short tether when medium and large levels of noise are present is more difficult. The detection of a three-satellite tethered system was also performed with the same algorithm. After detection of a two-satellite tethered system (or three-satellite) is performed, its orbit may be determined by using long arcs of observations (over one orbital period). In the long arc estimation process used herein, the constraint acceleration per unit length is considered to be a time-varying variable. For an exemplary set of satellites, results for long arc estimations were obtained. Since observation data for both satellites in a tethered system were used and few approximations of the tether dynamics were made, the results are very accurate. The orbital motion of the three-satellite tether system was found to be similar to that of two-satellite tether system when the librational motion was small. The major difference was that larger tether accelerations were present due to another tether connected body. It should be relatively easy to incorporate the new method for detection and motion determination developed in this study into a general orbit determination process. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Choe, Nammi Jo

148

First satellite observations of lower tropospheric ammonia and methanol  

E-print Network

First satellite observations of lower tropospheric ammonia and methanol Reinhard Beer,1 Mark W) and methanol (CH3OH), well above the normal background levels. This is the first time that these molecules have. Citation: Beer, R., et al. (2008), First satellite observations of lower tropospheric ammonia and methanol

149

Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite Lunar Mystery  

E-print Network

LCROSS Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite Lunar Mystery Earth's closest neighbor signatures detected in permanently shadowed craters at the lunar poles by NASA's Lunar Prospector exploration beyond low-Earth orbit. The Lunar CRater Observing and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission

150

Observations of Active Volcanoes Using the EO1 Satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous satellite observations of active volcanoes have been hampered by instruments that are primarily designed to measure surface reflectance of the Earth's vegetation. Sensors detecting radiation in the near-IR and IR are frequently saturated by highly radiant active volcanic features. Two satellite instruments, Hyperion and the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on the Earth Observing -1 (EO-1) offer a means to

L. P. Flynn; A. J. Harris; R. Wright; C. Oppenheimer; L. R. Geschwind; S. Donegan; H. Garbeil

2001-01-01

151

Satellite operations support expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Satellite Operations Support Expert System is an effort to identify aspects of satellite ground support activity which could profitably be automated with artificial intelligence (AI) and to develop a feasibility demonstration for the automation of one such area. The hydrazine propulsion subsystems (HPS) of the International Sun Earth Explorer (ISEE) and the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUS) were used as applications domains. A demonstration fault handling system was built. The system was written in Franz Lisp and is currently hosted on a VAX 11/750-11/780 family machine. The system allows the user to select which HPS (either from ISEE or IUE) is used. Then the user chooses the fault desired for the run. The demonstration system generates telemetry corresponding to the particular fault. The completely separate fault handling module then uses this telemetry to determine what and where the fault is and how to work around it. Graphics are used to depict the structure of the HPS, and the telemetry values displayed on the screen are continually updated. The capabilities of this system and its development cycle are described.

1985-01-01

152

Satellite observed preferential states in soil moisture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents observational evidence for the existence of preferential states in soil moisture content. Recently there has been much debate about the existence, location and explanations for preferential states in soil moisture. A number of studies have provided evidence either in support or against the hypothesis of a positive feedback mechanism between soil moisture and subsequent precipitation in certain regions. Researchers who support the hypothesis that preferential states in soil moisture holds information about land atmosphere feedback base their theory on the impact of soil moisture on the evaporation process. Evaporation recycles moisture to the atmosphere and soil moisture has a direct impact on the supply part of this process but also on the partitioning of the available energy for evaporation. According to this theory, the existence of soil moisture bimodality can be used as an indication of possible land-atmosphere feedbacks, to be compared with model simulations of soil moisture feedbacks. On the other hand, other researchers argue that seasonality in the meteorological conditions in combination with the non-linearity of soil moisture response alone can induce bimodality. In this study we estimate the soil moisture bimodality at a global scale as derived from the recently available 30+ year ESA Climate Change Initative satellite soil moisture dataset. An Expectation-Maximization iterative algorithm is used to find the best Gaussian Mixture Model, pursuing the highest likelihood for soil moisture bimodality. With this approach we mapped the regions where bi-modal probability distribution of soil moisture appears for each month for the period between 1979-2010. These bimodality areas are analyzed and compared to maps of model simulations of soil moisture feedbacks. The areas where more than one preferential state exists compare surprisingly well with the map of land-atmosphere coupling strength from model simulations. This approach might therefore be useful as an additional tool to further enhance our knowledge on land-atmosphere interactions.

Vilasa, Luis U.; De Jeu, Richard A. M.; Dolman, Han A. J.; Wang, Guojie

2013-04-01

153

Recent La Plata basin drought conditions observed by satellite gravimetry  

E-print Network

The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) provides quantitative measures of terrestrial water storage (TWS) change. GRACE data show a significant decrease in TWS in the lower (southern) La Plata river basin of South America over the period 2002-2009, consistent with recognized drought conditions in the region. GRACE data reveal a detailed picture of temporal and spatial evolution of this severe drought event, which suggests that the drought began in lower La Plata in around austral spring 2008 and then spread to the entire La Plata basin and peaked in austral fall 2009. During the peak, GRACE data show an average TWS deficit of ~12 cm (equivalent water layer thickness) below the 7 year mean, in a broad region in lower La Plata. GRACE measurements are consistent with accumulated precipitation data from satellite remote sensing and with vegetation index changes derived from Terra satellite observations. The Global Land Data Assimilation System model captures the drought event but underestimates its in...

Chen, J L; Tapley, B D; Longuevergne, L; Yang, Z L; Scanlon, B R; 10.1029/2010JD014689

2010-01-01

154

Automated satellite telemetry processing system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe the design and important implementation details of the new automated system for processing satellite telemetry developedat Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Moscow State University (SINP MSU) . We discuss the most common tasks and pitfall for such systems built around data stream from a single spacecraft or a single instrument, and suggest a solution that allows to quickly develop telemetry processing modules and to integrate them with an existing polling mechanism, support infrastructure and data storage in Oracle or MySQL database systems. We also demonstrate the benefits of this approach using modules for processing three different spacecraft data streams: Coronas-Photon (2009-003A), Tatiana-2 (2009-049D) and Meteor-M no.1 (2009-049A). The data format and protocols used by each of these spacecraft have distinct peculiarities, which nevertheless did not pose a problem for integrating their modules into the main system. Remote access via web interface to Oracle databases and sophisticated visualization tools create a possibility of efficient scientific exploitation of satellite data. Such a system is already deployed at the web portal of the Space Monitoring Data Center (SMDC) of SINP MSU (http://smdc.sinp.msu.ru).

Parunakian, David; Kalegaev, Vladimir; Barinova, Vera

155

Satellite voice broadcast system study, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study investigates the feasibility of providing Voice of America (VOA) broadcasts by satellite relay, rather than via terrestrial relay stations. Satellite voice broadcast systems are described for three different frequency bands: HF (26 MHz), VHF (68 MHz), and L-band (1.5 GHz). The geographical areas of interest at HF and L-band include all major land masses worldwide with the exception of the U.S., Canada, and Australia. Geostationary satellite configurations are considered for both frequency bands. In addition, a system of subsynchronous, circular satellites with an orbit period of 8 hours is developed for the HF band. VHF broadcasts, which are confined to the Soviet Union, are provied by a system of Molniya satellites. Satellites intended for HF or VHF broadcastinbg are extremely large and heavy. Satellite designs presented here are limited in size and weight to the capability of the STS/Centaur launch vehicle combination. Even so, at HF it would take 47 geostationary satellites or 20 satellites in 8-hour orbits to fully satisfy the voice-channel requirements of the broadcast schedule provided by VOA. On the other hand, three Molniya satellites suffice for the geographically restricted schedule at VHF. At L-band, only four geostationary satellites are needed to meet the requirements of the complete broadcast schedule. Moreover, these satellites are comparable in size and weight to current satellites designed for direct broadcast of video program material.

Horstein, M.

1985-01-01

156

STABILITY OF SATELLITES IN CLOSELY PACKED PLANETARY SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

We perform numerical integrations of four-body (star, planet, planet, satellite) systems to investigate the stability of satellites in planetary systems with tightly packed inner planets (STIPs). We find that the majority of closely spaced stable two-planet systems can stably support satellites across a range of parameter-space which is only slightly decreased compared to that seen for the single-planet case. In particular, circular prograde satellites remain stable out to ?0.4 R{sub H} (where R{sub H} is the Hill radius) as opposed to 0.5 R{sub H} in the single-planet case. A similarly small restriction in the stable parameter-space for retrograde satellites is observed, where planetary close approaches in the range 2.5-4.5 mutual Hill radii destabilize most satellites orbits only if a ? 0.65 R{sub H} . In very close planetary pairs (e.g., the 12:11 resonance) the addition of a satellite frequently destabilizes the entire system, causing extreme close approaches and the loss of satellites over a range of circumplanetary semi-major axes. The majority of systems investigated stably harbored satellites over a wide parameter-space, suggesting that STIPs can generally offer a dynamically stable home for satellites, albeit with a slightly smaller stable parameter-space than the single-planet case. As we demonstrate that multi-planet systems are not a priori poor candidates for hosting satellites, future measurements of satellite occurrence rates in multi-planet systems versus single-planet systems could be used to constrain either satellite formation or past periods of strong dynamical interaction between planets.

Payne, Matthew J.; Holman, Matthew J. [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)] [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Deck, Katherine M. [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Perets, Hagai B., E-mail: matthewjohnpayne@gmail.com [Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

2013-10-01

157

Physical properties of the planets and satellites from radar observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radar cross section of a planetary target is defined as the area of an isotropic scatterer, normal to the illumination, that would yield the observed echo intensity, if it were placed at the target's location. Attention is given to the angular scattering law, surface imagery, and topography. The observational results are discussed, taking into account the moon and the inner planets, the asteroids, the Galilean satellites, and the rings of Saturn. It is pointed out that the reach of radar astronomy has maintained nearly an exponential growth over the past three decades, as the sensitivity of available radar systems has on average more than doubled each year. There are, however, limits to this growth set by the large costs required for a new generation of observing facilities. Only modest increases in radar system sensitivity are, therefore, expected for the next decade.

Pettengill, G. H.

1978-01-01

158

Co-ordination of satellite and data programs: The committee on earth observation satellites' approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every year, an average of eight new civilian remote sensing satellite missions are launched. Cumulatively, over 250 such missions, each with a cost equivalent in current value to between US 100 million to US 1000 million, have been sponsored by space agencies in perhaps two dozen countries. These missions produce data and information products which are vital for informed decision making all over the world, on matters relating to natural resource exploitation, health and safety, sustainable national development, infrastructure planning, and a host of other applications. By contributing to better scientific understanding of global changes in the atmosphere, land surface, oceans and ice caps, these silently orbiting sentinels in the sky make it possible for governments and industries to make wiser environmental policy decisions and support the economic development needs of humanity. The international Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) is the premier world body for co-ordinating and planning civilian satellite missions for Earth observation. Through its technical working groups and special task teams, it endeavours to: • maximise the international benefits from Earth observation satellites; and • harmonise practice in calibration, validation, data management and information systems for Earth observation. CEOS encompasses not only space agencies (data providers), but also the great international scientific and operational programs which rely on Earth science data from space. The user organisations affiliated with CEOS, together with the mission operators, attempt to reconcile user needs with the complex set of considerations — including national interests, cost, schedule — which affect the undertaking of space missions. Without such an internationally co-ordinated consensual approach, there is a much greater risk of waste through duplication, and of missed opportunity, or through the absence of measurements of some vital physical or biological parameter by space borne sensors. Mechanisms used by CEOS to carry out these tasks are built upon consensus and understanding, as well as on technology transfer between countries. An area of recent heightened endeavour in CEOS has been to determine and address the special needs of developing countries in respect of Earth observation data. In the next several years, a new wave of Earth observation will break, as the private sector, revitalised with decommissioned military technology, brings exciting new capabilities to international remote sensing. With rapidly burgeoning markets in spatial information or geomatics, as well as the continuing thirst of science programs for spatial information, there is a challenge upon the international space community to reassess continually, the most expedient and socially constructive means of making available in a fair and open way, geographically-reference information obtained with space observation systems.

Embleton, B. J. J.; Kingwell, J.

1997-01-01

159

Developing a global aeronautical satellite system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Arinc, an airline industry-owned and operated company in the United States, has taken steps toward establishing a global aeronautical satellite communications system. Plans call for initiation of a thin-route data operation in 1989, upgrading to establish voice communications via shared spot-beam transponders carried on other satellites, and deploying a worldwide network using dedicated satellites by 1994.

Dement, Donald K.

1988-01-01

160

The Aerospace Corporation 2009 Communication Satellite Systems  

E-print Network

© The Aerospace Corporation 2009 Communication Satellite Systems Trends and Network Aspects Paul://www.aero.org/ Lee Center, Caltech 13 April 2009 #12;22 Communication Satellites · Brief History by Decade · Trends: ­ Communication Satellites, fifth edition, by D. Martin, P. Anderson, L. Bartamian, Aerospace / AIAA Press, 2006

Low, Steven H.

161

Observe animated satellite images of water vapor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation points out water vapor content 6-10 km above Earth's surface measured by infrared sensors on satellites. Lighter areas represent high moisture content, darker areas, little water vapor. Jet streams are viewed as elongated dark regions bordered by lighter sections.

GOES

162

Issues in satellite personal communication systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper various issues in personal satellite communications are addressed. Basic geostationary and non?geostationary\\u000a satellite constellations are considered. The narrowband and wideband characterization of the mobile satellite channel and\\u000a related system implications are discussed. Satellite diversity is presented as a measure to overcome signal shadowing. The\\u000a capacity of TDMA and CDMA multiple access is estimated, taking into account co?channel

Erich Lutz

1998-01-01

163

Observing System Forecast Experiments: Approach I  

E-print Network

and a surface system. The control system included all of the ERA40 observations apart from humidity data types of observing system were constructed: a control system, a terrestrial system, a satellite system. The humidity observations were excluded from all four of the observing systems because they were found to have

Froude, Lizzie

164

Perl Tools for Automating Satellite Ground Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The freeware scripting language Pert offers many opportunities for automating satellite ground systems for new satellites as well as older, in situ systems. This paper describes a toolkit that has evolved from of the experiences gained by using Pert to automate the ground system for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) and for automating some of the elements in the Earth Observing System Data and Operations System (EDOS) ground system at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). CGRO is an older ground system that was forced to automate because of fund cuts. Three 8 hour shifts were cut back to one 8 hour shift, 7 days per week. EDOS supports a new mission called Terra, launched December 1999 that requires distribution and tracking of mission-critical reports throughout the world. Both of these ground systems use Pert scripts to process data and display it on the Internet as well as scripts to coordinate many of the other systems that make these ground systems work as a coherent whole. Another task called Automated Multimodal Trend Analysis System (AMTAS) is looking at technology for isolation and recovery of spacecraft problems. This effort has led to prototypes that seek to evaluate various tools and technology that meet at least some of the AMTAS goals. The tools, experiences, and lessons learned by implementing these systems are described here.

McLean, David; Haar, Therese; McDonald, James

2000-01-01

165

Economics of satellite communications systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is partly a tutorial, telling systematically how one goes about calculating the total annual costs of a satellite communications system, and partly the expression of some original ideas on the choice of parameters so as to minimize these costs. The calculation of costs can be divided into two broad categories. The first is technical and is concerned with estimating what particular equipment will cost and what will be the annual expense to maintain and operate it. One starts in the estimation of any new system by listing the principal items of equipment, such as satellites, earth stations of various sizes and functions, telemetry and tracking equipment and terrestrial interfaces, and then estimating how much each item will cost. Methods are presented for generating such estimates, based on a knowledge of the gross parameters, such as antenna size, coverage area, transmitter power and information rate. These parameters determine the system performance and it is usually possible, knowing them, to estimate the costs of the equipment rather well. Some formulae based on regression analyses are presented. Methods are then given for estimating closely related expenses, such as maintenance and operation, and then an approximate method is developed for estimating terrestrial interconnection costs. It is pointed out that in specific cases when tariff and geographical information are available, it is usually better to work with specific data, but nonetheless it is often desirable, especially in global system estimating, to approximate these interconnect costs without recourse to individual tariffs. The procedure results in a set of costs for the purchase of equipment and its maintenance, and a schedule of payments. Some payments will be incurred during the manufacture of the satellite and before any systems operation, but many will not be incurred until the system is no longer in use, e.g. incentives. In any case, with the methods presented in the first section, one arrives at a schedule of costs and payments for all the items and the years in which they will be incurred. The second category of costing problems is one of financing or engineering economics. All the costs are first "present valued" to some reference period using rates of return appropriate to the particular situation. One finally arrives at sets of annual costs which can be used as the basis for setting lease costs or revenue requirements and tariffs. The correspondence between methods using discounted rates of return and capital recovery formulae on one hand and those using various depreciation schedules, such as is typical of regulated industries on the other hand, is discussed. The remainder of the paper is devoted to discussing the relationship between critical parameters, such as replacement schedules, design lifetime, satellite power and Earth station antenna size, and the overall costs. It is shown that optima for these parameters may exist and can be calculated. In particular, the optimization of satellite replacement schedules to minimize the present value of total investment over a very long period is presented, along with simplified versions of the theory suitable for system planning. The choice of EIRP is also discussed and a procedure for choosing the value that minimizes the costs is shown.

Pritchard, Wilbur L.

166

Assessment of Global Annual Atmospheric Energy Balance from Satellite Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global atmospheric energy balance is one of the fundamental processes for the earth's climate system. This study uses currently available satellite data sets of radiative energy at the top of atmosphere (TOA) and surface and latent and sensible heat over oceans for the year 2000 to assess the global annual energy budget. Over land, surface radiation data are used to constrain assimilated results and to force the radiation, turbulent heat, and heat storage into balance due to a lack of observation-based turbulent heat flux estimations. Global annual means of the TOA net radiation obtained from both direct measurements and calculations are close to zero. The net radiative energy fluxes into the surface and the surface latent heat transported into the atmosphere are about 113 and 86 Watts per square meter, respectively. The estimated atmospheric and surface heat imbalances are about -8 9 Watts per square meter, values that are within the uncertainties of surface radiation and sea surface turbulent flux estimates and likely systematic biases in the analyzed observations. The potential significant additional absorption of solar radiation within the atmosphere suggested by previous studies does not appear to be required to balance the energy budget the spurious heat imbalances in the current data are much smaller (about half) than those obtained previously and debated at about a decade ago. Progress in surface radiation and oceanic turbulent heat flux estimations from satellite measurements significantly reduces the bias errors in the observed global energy budgets of the climate system.

Lin, Bing; Stackhouse, Paul; Minnis, Patrick; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Hu, Yongxiang; Sun, Wenbo; Fan, Tai-Fang (Alice); Hinkelman, Laura

2008-01-01

167

Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS): International Directory Network (IDN)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites International Directory Network (CEOS/IDN) is an international effort developed to assist researchers in locating information on remotely sensed datasets. It provides free, on-line access to information on worldwide datasets in the Earth sciences: geoscience, satellite remote sensing; and hydrospheric, biospheric, and atmospheric sciences. Users may search datasets by topic, data category, or text search.

168

Rapid disintegration of Alpine glaciers observed with satellite data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of multispectral satellite data indicate accelerated glacier decline around the globe since the 1980s. By using digitized glacier outlines inferred from the 1973 inventory and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data from 1985 to 1999, we obtained area changes of about 930 Alpine glaciers. The 18% area reduction as observed for the period 1985 to 1999 (-1.3% a-1) corresponds

Frank Paul; Andreas Kääb; Max Maisch; Tobias Kellenberger; Wilfried Haeberli

2004-01-01

169

Satellite Observed Changes in the Arctic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Arctic is currently considered an area in transformation. Glaciers have been retreating, permafrost has been diminishing, snow covered areas have been decreasing, and sea ice and ice sheets have been thinning. This paper provides an overview of the unique role that satellite sensors have contributed in the detection of changes in the Arctic and demonstrates that many of the changes are not just local but a pan-Arctic phenomenon. Changes from the upper atmosphere to the surface are discussed and it is apparent that the magnitude of the trends tends to vary from region to region and from season to season. Previous reports of a warming Arctic and a retreating perennial ice cover have also been updated, and results show that changes are ongoing. Feedback effects that can lead to amplification of the signals and the role of satellite data in enhancing global circulation models are also discussed.

Comiso, Josefino C.; Parkinson, Claire L.

2004-01-01

170

The Nimbus satellites - Pioneering earth observers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The many scientific achievements of the Nimbus series of seven satellites for low-altitude atmospheric research and global weather surveillance are reviewed. The series provides information on fishery resources, weather modeling, atmospheric pollution monitoring, earth's radiation budget, ozone monitoring, ocean dynamics, and the effects of cloudiness. Data produced by the forty-eight instruments and sensors flown on the satellites are applied in the fields of oceanography, hydrology, geology, geomorphology, geography, cartography, agriculture and meteorology. The instruments include the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (which depicts phytoplankton concentrations in coastal areas), the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (which measures sea-surface temperatures and sea-surface wind-speed), and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (which provides information on total amounts of ozone in the earth's atmosphere).

White, Carolynne

1990-01-01

171

Satellite observations of Mt. St. Helens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major eruption of Mt. St. Helens on May 18, 1980, was recorded by infrared sensors aboard two U.S. Air Force satellites. The extent of the coverage and the completeness of the data base appear to be unique, providing information unavailable from other sources. The eruption was monitored essentially continuously, beginning at 15:32:57 UT, less than 1 min after the

D. J. Rice; D. K. Watson

1981-01-01

172

Interactive analysis of a large aperture Earth observations satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system level design and analysis has been conducted on an Earth Observation Satellite (EOS) system using the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) computer-aided design and analysis program. The IDEAS program consists of about 40 user-friendly technical modules and an interactive graphics display. The reflector support system and feed mast of the EOS spacecraft are constructed with box-truss structural concept, a lattice configuration which can be packaged for delivery in a single Shuttle flight and deployed in orbit. The deployed spacecraft consists of a 120-m by 60-m parabolic focal axis. The spacecraft was modeled for structural, thermal, and control systems analysis and structural elements were designed. On-orbit dynamic and thermal loading analyses were conducted; spacecraft weights and developmental and first unit costs were determined.

Wright, R. L.; Deryder, D. D.; Ferebee, M. J., Jr.; Smith, J. C.

1983-01-01

173

Precise station positions from VLBI observations to satellites: a simulation study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) tracking of satellites is a topic of increasing interest for the establishment of space ties. This shall strengthen the connection of the various space geodetic techniques that contribute to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame. The concept of observing near-Earth satellites demands research on possible observing strategies. In this paper, we introduce this concept and discuss its possible benefits for improving future realizations of the International Terrestrial Reference System. Using simulated observations, we develop possible observing strategies that allow the determination of radio telescope positions in the satellite system on Earth with accuracies of a few millimeters up to 1-2 cm for weekly station coordinates. This is shown for satellites with orbital heights between 2,000 and 6,000 km, observed by dense regional as well as by global VLBI-networks. The number of observations, as mainly determined by the satellite orbit and the observation interval, is identified as the most critical parameter that affects the expected accuracies. For observations of global positioning system satellites, we propose the combination with classical VLBI to radio sources or a multi-satellite strategy. Both approaches allow station position repeatabilities of a few millimeters for weekly solutions.

Plank, Lucia; Böhm, Johannes; Schuh, Harald

2014-07-01

174

Observations of Reflected Ions and Plasma Turbulence for Satellite Potentials Greater Than the Ion Ram Energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the TSS-1R mission, the behavior of the ions flowing from the forward hemisphere of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) satellite was examined as the potential on the satellite was changed from below to above 5 Volts. The ram energy of the ambient atomic oxygen ions is about 5 eV. For satellite potentials less than 5 V, no ions were observed on the ram side of the satellite. When the satellite potential was raised above 5 V, ions were observed to be flowing from the forward region of the satellite. In the region sampled, the ion flux was a few percent of the ambient with energies of about 5 eV. The temperature of the outflowing ions was observed to be enhanced, relative to the ambient ionosphere, and had a maximum in a plane containing the center of the satellite and normal to the geomagnetic field. The net current to the probe package became much more noisy for satellite potentials above 5 V as compared with satellite potentials below 5 V indicating a more disturbed plasma environment.

Wright, K. H., Jr.; Stone, N. H.; Sorensen, J.; Winningham, J. D.; Gurgiolo, C.

1997-01-01

175

Optimum parameters of aerogyroscopic satellite orientation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of a satellite with an aerodynamic stabilizer and two gyros with parallel precession axes is analyzed, and equilibrium configurations of the system in circular orbit are obtained. The parameters for which the natural oscillations of the satellite are damped with maximum rapidity are determined, and separate consideration is given to a satellite with fixed moments of inertia, an axisymmetric satellite, and a satellite with arbitrary moments of inertia. Oscillations in the plane of the circular orbit are studied analytically, and the effect of the aerodynamic stabilizer on the amplitude of eccentric oscillations is evaluated.

Sarychev, V. A.; Mirer, S. A.; Zlatoustov, V. A.

1985-05-01

176

Observations of orbital debris and satellites in Slovak Republic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many accidental optically tracked artificial objects during observations at Astronom-ical and Geophysical Observatory FMPI CU, Modra, Slovak Republic (AGO). Those objects are usually orbital debris or satellites. A tool to identify such a type of objects was necessary to create. Our software is called SatEph and is used to identify tracked artificial objects and to compute their orbital elements. SatEph is based on analytic propagation model SGP4 and TLE data. Program is still under development and in the near future it will be a part of software for automated search telescope for small near Earth asteroids at AGO. We present orbital debris observation simulation for the new optical searching system. Unlike other aster-oids searching systems (Catalina Sky Survey, LINEAR, Spacewatch etc.) our system should be capable to detect small asteroids in close vicinity of the Earth (smaller then Lunar distance) with high angular speed. The limiting magnitude of observable objects is about +16 magnitude and the pixel scale is 4,6 arcsec/px. This allows us to detect man made objects as well. We studied how many satellites and orbital debris with known orbital elements are able to track per given observing night. We also studied frequency detection of tracked object during one night. The searching system field of view will be 4.4 x 4.4 square degrees and the system will search more then 2000 square degrees per night. Exposure time for every single CCD shot is set to 30 seconds. We found out, there is possible to track from 250 to 450 objects (mostly with geosynchronous orbits) per one night in dependence on given day of the year. More then 200 objects have at least 3 astrometric positions per one night, which can be useful for orbit determination process. The tracked objects are mostly satellites and rocket bodies, which have different orbits, from low Earth orbit to geosynchronous Earth orbit. Data of orbital debris astrometric positions will be offered for national space agencies and used for our own orbit determination. Those data could be useful for orbital elements updating of catalogue, or non catalogue artificial objects.

Silha, Jiri; Toth, Juraj

177

Improving UK Air Quality Modelling Through Exploitation of Satellite Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work the applicability of satellite observations to evaluate the operational UK Met Office Air Quality in the Unified Model (AQUM) have been investigated. The main focus involved the AQUM validation against satellite observations, investigation of satellite retrieval error types and of synoptic meteorological-atmospheric chemistry relationships simulated/seen by the AQUM/satellite. The AQUM is a short range forecast model of atmospheric chemistry and aerosols up to 5 days. It has been designed to predict potentially hazardous air pollution events, e.g. high concentrations of surface ozone. The AQUM has only been validated against UK atmospheric chemistry recording surface stations. Therefore, satellite observations of atmospheric chemistry have been used to further validate the model, taking advantage of better satellite spatial coverage. Observations of summer and winter 2006 tropospheric column NO2 from both OMI and SCIAMACHY show that the AQUM generally compares well with the observations. However, in northern England positive biases (AQUM - satellite) suggest that the AQUM overestimates column NO2; we present results of sensitivity experiments on UK emissions datasets suspected to be the cause. In winter, the AQUM over predicts background column NO2 when compared to both satellite instruments. We hypothesise that the cause is the AQUM winter night-time chemistry, where the NO2 sinks are not substantially defined. Satellite data are prone to errors/uncertainty such as random, systematic and smoothing errors. We have investigated these error types and developed an algorithm to calculate and reduce the random error component of DOAS NO2 retrievals, giving more robust seasonal satellite composites. The Lamb Weather Types (LWT), an objective method of classifying the daily synoptic weather over the UK, were used to create composite satellite maps of column NO2 under different synoptic conditions. Under cyclonic conditions, satellite observed UK column NO2 is reduced as the indicative south-westerly flow transports it away from the UK over the North Sea. However, under anticyclonic conditions, the satellite shows that the stable conditions enhance the build-up of column NO2 over source regions. The influence of wind direction on column NO2 can also be seen from space with transport leeward of the source regions.

Pope, Richard; Chipperfield, Martyn; Savage, Nick

2014-05-01

178

Characterizing user requirements for future land observing satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective procedure was developed for identifying probable sensor and mission characteristics for an operational satellite land observing system. Requirements were systematically compiled, quantified and scored by type of use, from surveys of federal, state, local and private communities. Incremental percent increases in expected value of data were estimated for critical system improvements. Comparisons with costs permitted selection of a probable sensor system, from a set of 11 options, with the following characteristics: 30 meter spatial resolution in 5 bands and 15 meters in 1 band, spectral bands nominally at Thematic Mapper (TM) bands 1 through 6 positions, and 2 day data turn around for receipt of imagery. Improvements are suggested for both the form of questions and the procedures for analysis of future surveys in order to provide a more quantitatively precise definition of sensor and mission requirements.

Barker, J. L.; Cressy, P. J.; Schnetzler, C. C.; Salomonson, V. V.

1981-01-01

179

A study of satellite emergency locator systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite emergency locator systems were studied. The objective of the study was to determine the feasibility and hardware requirements for satellite systems capable of identifying and locating the position emergency locator transmitters and emergency position indicating radio beacons. Both geosynchronous and near-polar-orbiting satellites were considered. One of the most important aspects of the study was to minimize the cost of the hardware required.

1977-01-01

180

Integration of mobile satellite and cellular systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By integrating the ground based infrastructure component of a mobile satellite system with the infrastructure systems of terrestrial 800 MHz cellular service providers, a seamless network of universal coverage can be established. Users equipped for both cellular and satellite service can take advantage of a number of features made possible by such integration, including seamless handoff and universal roaming. To provide maximum benefit at lowest posible cost, the means by which these systems are integrated must be carefully considered. Mobile satellite hub stations must be configured to efficiently interface with cellular Mobile Telephone Switching Offices (MTSO's), and cost effective mobile units that provide both cellular and satellite capability must be developed.

Drucker, Elliott H.; Estabrook, Polly; Pinck, Deborah; Ekroot, Laura

1993-01-01

181

The Use of a Parallel Data Processing and Error Analysis System (DPEAS) for the Observational Exploration of Complex Multi-Satellite Non-Gaussian Data Assimilation Algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CSU/NOAA Data Processing and Error Analysis System (DPEAS) was created to merge, or blend, multiple satellite and model data sets within a single consistent framework. DPEAS is designed to be used at both research and operational facilities to facilitate Research-to-Operations technology transfers. The system supports massive parallelization via grid computing technologies, and hosts data fusion techniques for transference to 24/7 operations in a low cost computational environment. In this work, we highlight the data assimilation and data fusion methodologies of the DPEAS framework that facilitates new and complex multi-satellite non-Gaussian data assimilation algorithm developments. DPEAS is in current operational use at NOAA/NESDIS Office of Satellite and Product Operations (OSPO) and performs multi-product data fusion of global "blended" Total Precipitable Water (bTPW) and blended Rainfall Rate (bRR). In this work we highlight: 1) the current dynamic inter-satellite calibration processing performed within the DPEAS data fusion and error analysis, 2) as well as our DPEAS development plans for future blended products (AMSR-2 and Megha-Tropiques), and 3) layered TPW products using the NASA AIRS data for National Weather Service forecaster use via the NASA SPoRT facility at Huntsville, AL. We also discuss new system additions for cloud verification and prediction activities in collaboration with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), and planned use with the USAF Air Force Weather Agency's (AFWA) global Cloud Depiction and Forecast System (CDFS) facilities. Scientifically, we focus on the data fusion of atmospheric and land surface product information, including global cloud and water vapor data sets, soil moisture data, and specialized land surface products. The data fusion methods include the use of 1DVAR data assimilation for satellite sounding data sets, and numerous real-time statistical analysis methods. Our new development activities to extend the current 1DVAR algorithm to use and test a new non-Gaussian data assimilation method are presented. This research was supported by multiple grants from the NOAA/NESDIS Product System Development and Implementation (PSDI) program, a NASA ROSES grant, and a grant by the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) to the DoD Center for Geosciences / Atmospheric Research (CG/AR) at Colorado State University, as well as a subcontract from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to CSU.

Jones, A. S.; Fletcher, S. J.; Kidder, S. Q.; Forsythe, J. M.

2012-12-01

182

Overview of Japan's Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The post-ALOS program has been defined in the basic plan for Japan's space policy which was established by the Strategic Headquarters for Space Policy on June 2nd, 2009. It emphasizes the continuity of the ALOS mission not only disaster monitoring but also land infrastructure management, earth environment and resource monitoring and so on. JAXA had completed the System Definition Review of the ALOS-2 satellite and ground system in February, 2009 and started phase B design of the new L-band SAR, satellite and ground system with the target launch in 2013.This paper introduces the mission and major specification of ALOS-2 satellite and L-band SAR.

Suzuki, Shinichi; Osawa, Yuji; Hatooka, Yasushi; Kankaku, Yukihiro; Watanabe, Tomohiro

2009-09-01

183

Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 6: Operational applications of satellite snow-cover observations NOAA/NESS support study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geostationary and polar orbiting satellite data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration were used to operationally provide field hydrologists with basin snowcover percentages for inclusion in runoff models. Data reduction is accomplished thru the use of optical rectification devices and electronic color density slicers. Over two thousand satellite-derived snow maps covering 30 different basins in the western United States were provided to users. Plans for improving snowmapping techniques on computer interactive systems and by all-digital analysis are presented. A description of the newest generation of NOAA polar orbiters, TIROS-N, and its potential for snowmapping is reviewed. Snowcover percentages for all basins determined between November 1974 and July 1978 are presented in tabular format.

Schneider, S. R.

1981-01-01

184

ECS - The European Communication Satellite system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of the European Communication Satellite system (ECS) is traced from feasibility studies in 1970 to the development and launch in 1978 of the Orbital Test Satellite (OTS) by the European Space Agency to prove the new satellite and radio transmission technology being used on ECS. This was followed by the establishment of 'Interim EUTELSAT' in 1979 as the organization to operate ECS. The satellite, which operates at 11/14 GHz, covers all the capitals in Europe via three spot beam antennas, supplemented by a 'Eurobeam' regional coverage antenna which extends the range to cover all of Europe and the Mediterranean basin. Telephony channels are transmitted digitally using time division multiple access (TDMA) with digital speech interpolation (DSI) to optimize satellite capacity. Television transmission is by analog FM over the Eurobeam antenna to North African as well as European capitals. System implications of TDMA operation are discussed, and the EUTELSAT policy for Special Services or satellite business systems is discussed.

Wooster, C. B.

1981-09-01

185

Satellite Observation Highlights of the 2010 Russian Wildfires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From late-July through mid-August 2010, wildfires raged in western Russia. The resulting thick smoke and biomass burning products were transported over the highly populated Moscow city and surrounding regions, seriously impairing visibility and affecting human health. We demonstrate the uniqueness of the 2010 Russian wildfires by using satellite observations from NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms. Over Moscow and the region of major fire activity to the southeast, we calculate unprecedented increases in the MODIS fire count record of 178 %, an order of magnitude increase in the MODIS fire radiative power (308%) and OMI absorbing aerosols (255%), and a 58% increase in AIRS total carbon monoxide (CO). The exceptionally high levels of CO are shown to be of comparable strength to the 2006 El Nino wildfires over Indonesia. Both events record CO values exceeding 30x10(exp 7) molec/ square cm.

Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Douglass, Anne R.; Duncan, Bryan N.; daSilva, Arlindo; Torres, Omar

2010-01-01

186

Observing tectonic plate motions and deformations from satellite laser ranging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scope of geodesy has been greatly affected by the advent of artificial near-earth satellites. The present paper provides a description of the results obtained from the reduction of data collected with the aid of satellite laser ranging. It is pointed out that dynamic reduction of satellite laser ranging (SLR) data provides very precise positions in three dimensions for the laser tracking network. The vertical components of the stations, through the tracking geometry provided by the global network and the accurate knowledge of orbital dynamics, are uniquely related to the center of mass of the earth. Attention is given to the observations, the methodologies for reducing satellite observations to estimate station positions, Lageos-observed tectonic plate motions, an improved temporal resolution of SLR plate motions, and the SLR vertical datum.

Christodoulidis, D. C.; Smith, D. E.; Kolenkiewicz, R.; Klosko, S. M.; Torrence, M. H.

1985-01-01

187

Propagation Effects Handbook for Satellite Systems Design  

E-print Network

Propagation Effects Handbook for Satellite Systems Design Fifth Edition Section 1 Background Dr REV. 01 #12;i Section01R1.doc 1/22/2005 PREFACE This Fifth Edition of the Propagation Effects Handbook and how they impact satellite communications system design and performance. The First Edition

Pulfrey, David L.

188

The Public Broadcasting Satellite Interconnection System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A satellite system to interconnect the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) and 165 public television stations (PTV) is planned to replace the present terrestrial system. Stations are located on and outside of the United States mainland. Advantages offered by satellite are: (1) equal cost of program originations from points close to and remote from…

Ball, John E. D.

189

Observations of Reflected Ions and Plasma Turbulence for Satellite Potentials Greater than the Ion Ram Energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the TSS-1R mission, the behavior of the ions flowing from the forward hemisphere of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) satellite was examined as the potential of the satellite was changed from below to above 5 V. The ram energy of the ambient atomic oxygen ions is approximately 5 eV. For satellite potentials less than 5 V, no ions were observed on the ram side of the satellite. When the satellite potential was raised greater than 5 V, ions were observed to be flowing from the forward region of the satellite. In the region sampled, the ion flux was a few percent of the ambient with energies of approximately 5 eV. The temperature of the out-flowing ions was observed to be enhanced, relative to the ambient ionosphere. The net current to the probe package became much more noisy for satellite potentials greater than 5 V as compared with satellite potentials less than 5 V, indicating a more disturbed plasma environment.

Wright, K. H., Jr.; Stone, N. H.; Sorensen, J.; Winningham, J. D.; Gurgiolo, C.

1998-01-01

190

Small Earth Observing Satellites Flying with Large Satellites in the A-Train  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper/poster presents a real-life example of the benefits of flying small satellites with other satellites, large or small, and vice versa. Typically, most small satellites fly payloads consisting of one or two instruments and fly in orbits that are independent from that of other satellites. The science data from these satellites are either used in isolation or correlated with instrument data from other satellites. Data correlation with other satellites is greatly improved when the measurements of the same point or air mass are taken at approximately the same time. Scientists worldwide are beginning to take advantage of the opportunities for improved data correlation, or coincidental science, offered by the international Earth Observing Constellation known as the A-Train (sometimes referred to as the Afternoon Constellation). Most of the A-Train satellites are small - the A-Train is anchored by two large NASA satellites (EOS-Aqua and EOS-Aura), but consists also of 5 small satellites (CloudSat, CALIPSO, PARASOL, OCO and Glory these last two will join in 2009). By flying in a constellation, each mission benefits from coincidental observations from instruments on the other satellites in the constellation. Essentially, from a data point of view, the A-Train can be envisioned as a single, virtual science platform with multiple instruments. Satellites in the A-Train fly at 705 km in sun-synchronous orbits. Their mean local times at the equator are within seconds to a few minutes of each other. This paper describes the challenges of operating an international constellation of independent satellites from the U.S. and Europe to maximize the coincidental science opportunities while at the same time minimizing the level of operational interactions required between team members. The A-Train mission teams have been able to demonstrate that flying as members of an international constellation does not take away the flexibility to accommodate new requirements. Specific examples will be cited, including CloudSat's relocation (to accommodate a new viewing angle for the CALIPSO satellite), Glory's replan to move closer to PARASOL, and OCO's long term plans to minimize on-orbit operations costs while maintaining safety. In all cases, safety is ensured, science returns are enhanced, and operational flexibility is retained to the maximum extent possible.

Kelly, Angelita C.; Loverro, Adam; Case, Warren F.; Queruel, Nadege; Marechal, Chistophe; Barroso, Therese

2009-01-01

191

US EPA: A USER AGENCY PERSPECTIVE ON POLAR SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Agency uses satellite sensor observations in its work on measuring, monitoring and modeling the environment and human health. It generates observations in collaboration with states, local and regional governments, tribes and others, and is a consumer of observations from a v...

192

CEOS Committee on Earth Observations Satellites Consolidated Report, 1992  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concise overview of the committee on Earth Observations Satellites (CEOS) and its Working Groups, covering the history and purpose of the Committee and its accomplishments to date are provided. The report will be updated annually before each Plenary meeting, and as developments in the Working Groups warrant. The committee on Earth Observations Satellites (originally named the International Earth Observations Satellite committee, IEOS) was treated in 1984, in response to a recommendation from the Economic Summit of Industrialized Nations Working Group on Growth, Technology, and Employment's Panel of Experts on Satellite Remote Sensing. This group recognized the multidisciplinary nature of satellite Earth observations, and the value of coordinating across all proposed missions. Thus, CEOS combined the previously existing groups for coordination on Ocean Remote-Sensing Satellites (CORSS) and coordination on Land Remote-Sensing Satellites (CLRSS), and established a broad framework for coordination across all spaceborne Earth observations missions. The first three LEOS Plenary meetings focused on treating and guiding the Working Groups deemed necessary to carry out the objectives of the CEOS members. After the third meeting, it was agreed that a more active orientation was required by the Plenary, and additional issues were brought before the group at the fourth meeting. At the fifth Plenary, international scientific programs and relevant intergovernmental organizations accepted invitations and participated as affiliate members of CEOS. This enabled progress toward integrating satellite data users' requirements into the CEOS process. Data exchange principles for global change research were also adopted. An interim CEOS Plenary meeting was held in April 1992, in preparation for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). Brief encapsulations of the Plenary sessions immediately follow the Terms of Reference that govern the activities of CEOS as a whole; Terms of Reference for the individual Working Groups are included as Appendix A. A complete listing of CEOS members is offered as Appendix B.

1992-01-01

193

Licensing of future mobile satellite systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The regulatory process for licensing mobile satellite systems is complex and can require many years to complete. This process involves frequency allocations, national licensing, and frequency coordination. The regulatory process that resulted in the establishment of the radiodetermination satellite service (RDSS) between 1983 and 1987 is described. In contrast, each of these steps in the licensing of the mobile satellite service (MSS) is taking a significantly longer period of time to complete.

Lepkowski, Ronald J.

1990-01-01

194

Principles in Remote Sensing: Earth Observations from Satellites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this self-paced, interactive tutorial, learners become familiar with basic concepts related to remote sensing of the Earth by satellites. Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) and Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites, as well as different types of onboard sensors, are examined for their applicability to various real-world data collection and research applications. This resource is part of the tutorial series, Satellite Observations in Science Education, and is the first of three modules in the tutorial, Principles in Remote Sensing. (Note: requires Java plug-in).

195

ECC Ozonesonde Calibration and Observations: Satellite Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reliability of the Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) ozonesonde depends on the care exercised in preparing the instrument for use. Although the ECC can be quickly prepared and flown, generally within less then one day if necessary, it is best to prepare the instrument at least one week prior to use, and as our tests have confirmed even 2-3 weeks prior to use may actually be better. There are a number of factors that must be considered when preparing an ECC. These basically are the pump efficiency, volumetric flow rate, temperature of the air entering the pump, and the background current. Also of importance is the concentration of the potassium iodide solution. Tests conducted at Wallops Island (38 N) has enabled us to identify potential problem areas and ways to avoid them. The calibration and pre-flight preparation methods will be discussed. The method of calibrating the ECC also is used at Ascension Island (8 S) and Natal, Brazil (5 S). Comparisons between vertical profiles of the ECC instrument and satellites will be reviewed as well as comparison with ground based instruments, such as, the Dobson Spectrophotometer and hand held Microtops photometers.

Schmidlin, Francis J.; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

196

Satellite and ground observation of VLF emissions at low latitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simultaneous occurrence of VLF emissions in satellite and ground station is examined by analyzing Demeter satellite and ground data observed at Agra station for a period of three months between 01 October and 31 December, 2010. The results show nineteen cases of VLF emissions occurring in the ionosphere in the satellite in narrow and broad frequency bands at low latitudes whereas three cases of hiss bands in the ground station. A clear relation between the ground and satellite data is not established. This is interpreted in terms of nonducted propagation of VLF emissions because of which they are not transmitted to ground. The period of observation was magnetically quite, hence the signals could not propagate on the ground in pro-longitudinal mode of propagation.

Pandey, U.; Singh, B.

2012-12-01

197

Recent state of the Aral sea from regular satellite observations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aral Sea disaster is one of the most significant examples of ecological catastrophe caused by mismanagement of water resources. Aral sea level dropped on 22 meters for the last 35 years. The sea separated in to two independent parts , the Large Sea(Southern) and the Small Sea (Northern), loosing more than 90% of its original water masses. After the collapse of the former Soviet Union, satellite retrieved data became the main source of information on this perishing system. Regular observations from AVHRR, SeaWiFS, MODIS and ASTER satellite sensors were used for our investigations. Sea surface temperature (SST) data of the AVHRR sensor and digital bottom map topography were used for sea level drop calculations. The Sea level defined as the digital map isobate corresponds quite well to the satellite derived coastline for the Eastern part of the Large Sea with a bottom slope of ˜ 0.00015. For the period 1989-2002 the sea level of the Large Sea dropped on 9.2 meters. However in 2003 the sea level remained stable. This stabilisation was due to an increase of water output of the rivers Amu--Darya and Syr-Darya in 2003. High resolution ASTER data showed that the main amount of Syr-Darya waters is discharged into the Large Sea. The dried bottom area now covers more than 45000 km2. On the base of AVHRR-SST data the temperature regime for different parts of the Aral Sea was calculated for the years 2002-2003. The annual amplitude of the SST variation reaches 37° C for the open waters. The observed minimum freezing point was -7° C due to very high salinity. Estimations from satellite retrieved freezing points show an increase of salinity up to 10% in the Eastern part of the Large Sea. It is almost paradox that on satellite images the ice appears warmer than the water. Strong variations of the water temperature (up to 5° C) within a few days could be observed from April to August and could be related to wind induced mixing. SeaWiFS ocean colour data were used for the investigation of the optical properties of the water in different parts of the Aral Sea for the years 2002-2003. A significant relation of optical properties with wind and temperature was obtained. Strong changes of the thermal regimes of the Sea can cause variations in local climatic conditions: The analysis of AVHRR NDVI - data for the surrounding areas demonstrated a shift in the annual vegetation cycle. In addition phenomena like: salt storms, wind driven tides, sources of groundwater, eddies and frontal structures as well as ice coverage of the Aral Sea were demonstrated on satellite images.

Stanichny, S.; Davidov, A.; Djenidi, S.; Horstmann, U.; Stanichnaya, R.; Soloviev, D.

198

Satellite systems for Latin American telecommunication requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aspects of satellite telecommunications systems of interest to Latin America are discussed. Presently existing systems are described, including both state-run and international services. Services planned for the region are examined, including Geostar, a service that provides satellite radio determination and message services, a system which will provide a high-capacity digital voice and data service for airlines, and direct broadcast satellites. Applications of these systems in education, rural telephony, data transmission, news services, publishing, emergency communications, and mobile communications are addressed.

Elizondo, Eduardo L.

199

Small satellite radiometric measurement system  

SciTech Connect

A critical need for the US Global Change Research Program is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for the earth's radiation budget. This paper describes a new, compact, relatively light-weight, adaptable radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated measurements and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on small satellites, aircraft, or remotely piloted aircraft (RPAs). An example of the implementation of this radiometer on a small satellite is given. Significant benefits derive from simultaneous measurements of specific narrow (in wavelength) spectral features; such data may be obtained by combining LARI with a compact spectrometer on the same platform. Well-chosen satellite orbits allow one to use data from other satellites (e.g. DMSP) to enhance the data product, or to provide superior coverage of specific locations. 23 refs.

Weber, P.G.

1992-01-01

200

Small satellite radiometric measurement system  

SciTech Connect

A critical need for the US Global Change Research Program is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for the earth`s radiation budget. This paper describes a new, compact, relatively light-weight, adaptable radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated measurements and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on small satellites, aircraft, or remotely piloted aircraft (RPAs). An example of the implementation of this radiometer on a small satellite is given. Significant benefits derive from simultaneous measurements of specific narrow (in wavelength) spectral features; such data may be obtained by combining LARI with a compact spectrometer on the same platform. Well-chosen satellite orbits allow one to use data from other satellites (e.g. DMSP) to enhance the data product, or to provide superior coverage of specific locations. 23 refs.

Weber, P.G.

1992-01-01

201

Unusual satellite data: A black hole?. [International Ultraviolet Explorer observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data obtained by the NASA-launched European Space Agency's International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite suggests the possibility of a massive black hole at the center of some globular clusters (star groups) in our galaxy. Six of these clusters, three of them X-ray sources, were closely examined. Onboard short wavelength UV instrumentation penetrated the background denseness of the clusters 15,000 light years away where radiation, probably from a group of 10 to 20 bright blue stars orbiting the core, was observed. The stars may well be orbiting a massive black hole the size of 1,000 solar systems. The existence of the black hole is uncertain. The dynamics of the stars must be studied first to determine how they rotate in relation to the center of the million-star cluster. This may better indicate what provides the necessary gravitational pull that holds them in orbit.

1978-01-01

202

REPORT ON SATELLITE AND SPACE PROPULSION SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-thrust propulsion systems that can be used to extend satellite ; orbits, to control or modify satellite orbits, and for lunar and interplanetary ; exploration are surveyed. The most feasible combinations of energy sources ; (chemicals, radioisotopes, solar rays, nuclear fission, and nuclear fusion), ; electric generators (chemical batteries, radioisotope batteries, thermopiles, ; solar batteries, turboelectric generators, and plasma induction),

Partel

1962-01-01

203

Solar power satellite system definition study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A synopsis of the study plan for the solar power satellite system is presented. Descriptions of early task progress is reported for the following areas: (1) laser annealing, (2) solid state power amplifiers, (3) rectenna option, (4) construction of an independent electric orbit transfer vehicle, and (5) construction of a 2.5 GW solar power satellite.

1978-01-01

204

Power Control Algorithms for Satellite Communication Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different ground terminal transmit power control concepts for a Satcom system are examined. The effectiveness of constant satellite power (CSP) sharing among the carriers and adaptive satellite power (ASP) sharing is compared with constant ground terminal transmit power (CTP). It is shown that ASP offers substantial advantages over CSP in combating environmental degradations and that both can increase link

A. Ince; D. Brown; J. Midgley

1976-01-01

205

Observations of Uranus' satellites: Bibliography and literature search  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A literature search has yielded more than 10,000 observations of the satellites of Uranus made from 1787 to 1985. The type (photographic, micrometer) and the number of observations are tabulated in 5 year increments and a complete bibliography is provided.

Jacobson, R. A.

1985-01-01

206

A Sun-to-Earth Campaign Joining Observations from the Great Observatory with Worldwide Satellite and Ground-Based Resources to Investigate System Science Frontiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Internet-based cross-disciplinary analysis campaign that will make heavy use of Great Observatory missions as well as international satellite and ground-based assets is being undertaken with joint support from the CAWSES, IHY, LWS, and ICESTAR programs planned for late April or early May 2006. An evolving list of open science questions that serve as sun-to-Earth focus areas for the worldwide campaign were identified during a small interdisciplinary CAWSES workshop at Stanford University in December 2005 as well as during a joint CAWSES/ICESTAR session at the CEDAR meeting in Boulder the preceding summer. The analysis campaign will take place over the Internet in the form of virtual poster sessions with message boards and monitors that summarize the important science issues and new results daily. Poster authors will be asked to closely monitor their message boards during the day of their poster session as well as the following day. Outreach to other disciplines and international students will take the form of tutorial talks that place campaign science issues into the context of the current state of knowledge in each discipline area. Global models and data sets (TEC, magnetometer maps, ULF wave maps, assimilative models, MHD model outputs, continuous solar images) will be available to provide context for local and regional observations. The Community Coordinated Data Center (CCMC) is developing a small number of new data display formats that extract data from global models and place it in the same format as the observations either for ground-based stations or along satellite tracks. Other ideas being explored include real time upload of additional posters in response to issues raised during the poster session, library of related articles, reference archive of observations, etc. A summary of which aspects and/or tools worked and which were less useful will be presented.

Kozyra, J. U.; Shibata, K.; Barnes, R. J.; Basu, S.; Davila, J. M.; Fox, N. J.; Gopalswamy, N.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Pallamraju, D.; Paxton, L. J.; Ridley, A.; Weiss, M.; Young, C. A.; Zanetti, L. J.

2006-05-01

207

Satellite observations of Schumann resonances in the Earth's ionosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using electric field measurements gathered on the C/NOFS satellite, we report, Schumann resonance signatures detected in space, well beyond the upper boundary of the resonant cavity formed by the earth's surface and the lower edge of the ionosphere. The resonances are routinely observed in the satellite ELF data during nighttime conditions within the altitude region of 400-850 km sampled by the satellite. They exhibit the distinctive frequency patterns predicted for Schumann resonances and are consistent with the corresponding frequency characteristics of ground-based observations of this phenomenon. The observations of Schumann resonances in space support a leaky cavity interpretation of the ionosphere and call for revisions of models of extremely low frequency wave propagation in the ionosphere. They suggest new remote sensing capabilities for investigating atmospheric electricity on Earth and other planets.

Simões, Fernando; Pfaff, Robert; Freudenreich, Henry

2011-11-01

208

Planning and Scheduling for Fleets of Earth Observing Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We address the problem of scheduling observations for a collection of earth observing satellites. This scheduling task is a difficult optimization problem, potentially involving many satellites, hundreds of requests, constraints on when and how to service each request, and resources such as instruments, recording devices, transmitters, and ground stations. High-fidelity models are required to ensure the validity of schedules; at the same time, the size and complexity of the problem makes it unlikely that systematic optimization search methods will be able to solve them in a reasonable time. This paper presents a constraint-based approach to solving the Earth Observing Satellites (EOS) scheduling problem, and proposes a stochastic heuristic search method for solving it.

Frank, Jeremy; Jonsson, Ari; Morris, Robert; Smith, David E.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

209

A new digital land mobile satellite system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of the different digital services planned to be carried over existing and planned mobile satellite systems. These systems are then compared with analog services in terms of bandwidth and power efficiency. This comparison provides the rationale for the establishment of a digital land mobile satellite service (DLMSS) to use frequencies that are currently available but not yet assigned to a domestic mobile satellite system in the United States. The focus here is on the expected advantages of digital transmission techniques in accommodating additional mobile satellite systems in this portion of the spectrum, and how such techniques can fully satisfy voice, data and facsimile mobile communications requirements in a cost effective manner. A description is given of the system architecture of the DMLSS service proposed by the Geostar Messaging Corporation (GMC) and the market potential of DLMSS.

Schneider, Philip

1990-01-01

210

NASA Satellite Observations: A Unique Asset for the Study of the Environment and Implications for Public Health  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation highlights how satellite observation systems are assets for studying the environment in relation to public health. It includes information on current and future satellite observation systems, NASA's public health and safety research, surveillance projects, and NASA's public health partners.

Estes Sue M.

2010-01-01

211

History of telescopic observations of the Martian satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article intends to review the different studies of the Mars satellites Phobos and Deimos realized by means of ground-based telescopic observations as well in the astrometry and dynamics domain as in the physical one. This study spans the first period of investigations of the Martian satellites since their discovery in 1877 through the astrometry and the spectrometry methods, mainly before the modern period of the space era. It includes also some other observations performed thanks to the Hubble Space Telescope. The different techniques used and the main results obtained for the positionning, the size estimate, the albedo and surface composition are described.

Pascu, D.; Erard, S.; Thuillot, W.; Lainey, V.

2014-11-01

212

Observations of a Geosynchronous Satellite with Optical Interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a tentative interferometric detection of an earth-orbiting artificial satellite using optical interferometry. We targeted four geosynchronous communications satellites with the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI) near Flagstaff, AZ, and obtained interferometric fringes on one of them, DIRECTV-9S. We used an east-west 15.9-meter baseline of the NPOI and took data in 16 spectral channels covering the 500-850 nm wavelength range. Observations took place during the "glint season" of 28 February to 3 March 2008, when the geometry of the solar panel arrays and the Sun's position creates glints as bright as 2nd magnitude of a few minutes' duration each night. We detected fringes on the satellite at approximately the 2 sigma level on 1 March at magnitude 4.5. Subsequent analysis shows that the fringe amplitudes are consistent with a size scale of 2 meters (50 nanoradians at GEO) in an east-west direction. This detection shows that interferometric detection of satellites at visual wavelengths is possible, and suggests that a multi-baseline interferometer array tailored to the angular size and brightness of geosynchronous satellites could lead to images of these satellites.

Armstrong, J.; Hindsley, R.; Restaino, S.; Benson, J.; Hutter, D.; Vrba, F.; Zavala, R.; Gregory, S.; Schmitt, H.

213

Observations of a geosynchronous satellite with optical interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a tentative interferometric detection of an earth-orbiting artificial satellite using optical interferometry. We targeted four geosynchronous communications satellites with the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI) near Flagstaff, AZ, and obtained interferometric fringes on one of them, DIRECTV-9S. We used an east-west 15.9-meter baseline of the NPOI and took data in 16 spectral channels covering the 500-850 nm wavelength range. Observations took place during the "glint season" of 28 February to 3 March 2008, when the geometry of the solar panel arrays and the Sun's position creates glints as bright as 2nd magnitude of a few minutes' duration each night. We detected fringes on the satellite at approximately the 2 ? level on 1 March at magnitude 4.5. Subsequent analysis shows that the fringe amplitudes are consistent with a size scale of 2 meters (50 nanoradians at geosynchronous orbit) in an east-west direction. This detection shows that interferometric detection of satellites at visual wavelengths is possible, and suggests that a multi-baseline interferometer array tailored to the angular size and brightness of geosynchronous satellites could lead to images of these satellites.

Armstrong, J. T.; Hindsley, R. B.; Restaino, S. R.; Zavala, R. T.; Benson, J. A.; Vrba, F. J.; Hutter, D. J.; Gregory, S. A.; Schmitt, H. R.; Andrews, J. R.; Wilcox, C. C.

2010-08-01

214

Observations of a geosynchronous satellite with optical interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an interferometric detection of an earth-orbiting artificial satellite using optical interferometry. We targeted four geosynchronous communications satellites with the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI) near Flagstaff, AZ, and obtained interferometric fringes on one of them, DIRECTV-9S. We used an east-west 15.9-meter baseline of the NPOI and took data in 16 spectral channels covering the 500-850 nm wavelength range. Observations took place during the "glint season" of 28 February to 3 March 2008, and then again in February - March 2009, when the geometry of the solar panel arrays and the Sun's position creates glints as bright as 2nd magnitude of a few minutes' duration each night. We detected fringes on the satellite at approximately the 2 sigma level on 1 March at magnitude 4.5. Subsequent analysis shows that the fringe amplitudes are consistent with a size scale of 2 meters (50 nanoradians at GEO) in an east-west direction. This detection shows that interferometric detection of satellites at visual wavelengths is possible, and suggests that a multi-baseline interferometer array tailored to the angular size and brightness of geosynchronous satellites could lead to images of these satellites.

Armstrong, J. T.; Hindsley, R. B.; Restaino, S. R.; Benson, J. A.; Hutter, D. J.; Vrba, F. J.; Zavala, R. T.; Gregory, S. A.; Schmitt, H. R.

2009-08-01

215

A Satellite Observation Information Service for Data Assimilation Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-mission Observation Operator (M2O2) team at NASA is developing a streamlined interface mechanism that simplifies the assimilation process of satellite-observations by providing 'assimilation-ready' observation information 'on-demand'. The 'assimilation-ready' observation information is referred to as L2# (L2-sharp) data in contrast to level-2 (L2) data. The 'on-demand' indicates a web-service protocol for L2# data request handling. A L2# data service is developed for each atmospheric component of a mission to apply component-specific quality screening and post processing and deliver mission-generic observation information required for assimilation. The observation information is organized for sampling (time and location), sounding (pressure profile and averaging kernel), and retrieval results (a priori state, estimated state, and error). The M2O2 extensions to GEOS-Chem (version 9.0.1) and GEOS-Chem-Adjoint (version 34) have been employed to assimilate MLS-O3 (2004-2012), TES-O3 (2005-2009), TES-CH4 (2009) and ACOS-XCO2 (2009-2011). The L2# data services for MLS-O3 (2004-current), ACOS-XCO2 (2009-current), and AIRS-CO (2002-current) have been installed at GES DISC for assimilation-community-wide access. We will present the 'lessons learned' in three areas: 1) diversity of level-2 data product organization, 2) observation information formulation and validation, and 3) generalized model-coupling process. The M2O2 research is supported by NASA's Advancing Collaborative Connections for Earth System Science (ACCESS) program.

Lee, M.; Weidner, R. J.; Lynnes, C.; Gerasimov, I. V.

2013-12-01

216

Satellite voice broadcast. Volume 2: System study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Technical Volume of the Satellite Broadcast System Study is presented. Designs are synthesized for direct sound broadcast satellite systems for HF-, VHF-, L-, and Ku-bands. Methods are developed and used to predict satellite weight, volume, and RF performance for the various concepts considered. Cost and schedule risk assessments are performed to predict time and cost required to implement selected concepts. Technology assessments and tradeoffs are made to identify critical enabling technologies that require development to bring technical risk to acceptable levels for full scale development.

Bachtell, E. E.; Bettadapur, S. S.; Coyner, J. V.; Farrell, C. E.

1985-01-01

217

A small terminal for satellite communication systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A small portable, low-cost satellite communications terminal system incorporating a modulator/demodulator and convolutional-Viterbi coder/decoder is described. Advances in signal processing and error-correction techniques in combination with higher power and higher frequencies aboard satellites allow for more efficient use of the space segment. This makes it possible to design small economical earth stations. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) was chosen to test the system. ACTS, operating at the Ka band incorporates higher power, higher frequency, frequency and spatial reuse using spot beams and polarization.

Xiong, Fuqin; Wu, Dong; Jin, Min

1994-01-01

218

Tropospheric effects of satellite power systems  

SciTech Connect

The construction and operation of a system of solar power satellites is expected to have a variety of effects on the troposphere. The launching of large space vehicles affects the air quality in the vicinity of the launch site, and the ground cloud associated with such a launch is known to stimulate the growth of water clouds under some circumstances. The transmission of power from satellite to the Earth's surface may affect certain meteorological parameters in the vicinity of the rectenna site. These and other effects are discussed in reference to the proposed solar power satellite system.

Brubaker, K.L.; Lee, J.

1980-01-01

219

Satellite antenna management system and method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The antenna management system and method allow a satellite to communicate with a ground station either directly or by an intermediary of a second satellite, thus permitting communication even when the satellite is not within range of the ground station. The system and method employ five major software components, which are the control and initialization module, the command and telemetry handler module, the contact schedule processor module, the contact state machining module, and the telemetry state machine module. The control and initialization module initializes the system and operates the main control cycle, in which the other modules are called. The command and telemetry handler module handles communication to and from the ground station. The contact scheduler processor module handles the contact entry schedules to allow scheduling of contacts with the second satellite. The contact and telemetry state machine modules handle the various states of the satellite in beginning, maintaining and ending contact with the second satellite and in beginning, maintaining and ending communication with the satellite.

Leath, Timothy T (Inventor); Azzolini, John D (Inventor)

1999-01-01

220

SOFT project: a new forecasting system based on satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the SOFT project is to develop a new ocean forecasting system by using a combination of satellite dat, evolutionary programming and numerical ocean models. To achieve this objective two steps are proved: (1) to obtain an accurate ocean forecasting system using genetic algorithms based on satellite data; and (2) to integrate the above new system into existing deterministic numerical models. Evolutionary programming will be employed to build 'intelligent' systems that, learning form the past ocean variability and considering the present ocean state, will be able to infer near future ocean conditions. Validation of the forecast skill will be carried out by comparing the forecasts fields with satellite and in situ observations. Validation with satellite observations will provide the expected errors in the forecasting system. Validation with in situ data will indicate the capabilities of the satellite based forecast information to improve the performance of the numerical ocean models. This later validation will be accomplished considering in situ measurements in a specific oceanographic area at two different periods of time. The first set of observations will be employed to feed the hybrid systems while the second set will be used to validate the hybrid and traditional numerical model results.

Pascual, Ananda; Orfila, A.; Alvarez, Alberto; Hernandez, E.; Gomis, D.; Barth, Alexander; Tintore, Joaquim

2002-01-01

221

Greenland surface albedo changes 1981-2012 from satellite observations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Significant melt over Greenland has been observed during the last several decades associated with extreme warming events over the northern Atlantic Ocean. An analysis of surface albedo change over Greenland is presented, using a 32-year consistent satellite albedo product from the Global Land Surfac...

222

Gravity waves in the thermosphere observed by the AE satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric Explorer (AE) satellite data were used to investigate the spectra characteristics of wave-like structure observed in the neutral and ionized components of the thermosphere. Power spectral analysis derived by the maximum entropy method indicate the existence of a broad spectrum of scale sizes for the fluctuations ranging from tens to thousands of kilometers.

Gross, S. H.; Reber, C. A.; Huang, F. T.

1983-01-01

223

Sensor Web Interoperability Testbed Results Incorporating Earth Observation Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an Earth Observation Sensor Web scenario based on the Open Geospatial Consortium s Sensor Web Enablement and Web Services interoperability standards. The scenario demonstrates the application of standards in describing, discovering, accessing and tasking satellites and groundbased sensor installations in a sequence of analysis activities that deliver information required by decision makers in response to national, regional or local emergencies.

Frye, Stuart; Mandl, Daniel J.; Alameh, Nadine; Bambacus, Myra; Cappelaere, Pat; Falke, Stefan; Derezinski, Linda; Zhao, Piesheng

2007-01-01

224

CORRECTING PHOTOLYSIS RATES ON THE BASIS OF SATELLITE OBSERVED CLOUDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Clouds can significantly affect photochemical activities in the boundary layer by altering radiation intensity, and therefore their correct specification in the air quality models is of outmost importance. In this study we introduce a technique for using the satellite observed c...

225

Satellite interferometric observations of displacements associated with seasonal groundwater  

E-print Network

Satellite interferometric observations of displacements associated with seasonal groundwater in the elevation of the water table. We confirm this hypothesis through the analysis of a longer span of data, which is consistent with water table measurements as well as with the end of the rainy season when

Sandwell, David T.

226

Observed Weather Satellite Thermal IR Responses Prior to Earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of observers claim to have seen thermal anomalies prior to earthquakes, but subsequent analysis by others have failed to produce similar findings. It was the purpose of this study to determine if thermal anomalies could be found in association with known earthquakes by systematically co-registering weather satellite images at the sub-pixel level and then determining if statistically significant

N. A. Bryant; A. L. Zobrist; L. L. Logan; F. Freund; S. Nishenko

2002-01-01

227

Recent La Plata basin drought conditions observed by satellite gravimetry  

E-print Network

Recent La Plata basin drought conditions observed by satellite gravimetry J. L. Chen,1 C. R. Wilson over the period 2002­2009, consistent with recognized drought conditions in the region. GRACE data reveal a detailed picture of temporal and spatial evolution of this severe drought event, which suggests

Yang, Zong-Liang

228

Globally Gridded Satellite (GridSat) Observations for Climate Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geostationary satellites have provided routine, high temporal resolution Earth observations since the 1970s. Despite the long period of record, use of these data in climate studies has been limited for numerous reasons, among them: there is no central archive of geostationary data for all international satellites, full temporal and spatial resolution data are voluminous, and diverse calibration and navigation formats encumber the uniform processing needed for multi-satellite climate studies. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project set the stage for overcoming these issues by archiving a subset of the full resolution geostationary data at approx.10 km resolution at 3 hourly intervals since 1983. Recent efforts at NOAA s National Climatic Data Center to provide convenient access to these data include remapping the data to a standard map projection, recalibrating the data to optimize temporal homogeneity, extending the record of observations back to 1980, and reformatting the data for broad public distribution. The Gridded Satellite (GridSat) dataset includes observations from the visible, infrared window, and infrared water vapor channels. Data are stored in the netCDF format using standards that permit a wide variety of tools and libraries to quickly and easily process the data. A novel data layering approach, together with appropriate satellite and file metadata, allows users to access GridSat data at varying levels of complexity based on their needs. The result is a climate data record already in use by the meteorological community. Examples include reanalysis of tropical cyclones, studies of global precipitation, and detection and tracking of the intertropical convergence zone.

Knapp, Kenneth R.; Ansari, Steve; Bain, Caroline L.; Bourassa, Mark A.; Dickinson, Michael J.; Funk, Chris; Helms, Chip N.; Hennon, Christopher C.; Holmes, Christopher D.; Huffman, George J.; Kossin, James P.; Lee, Hai-Tien; Loew, Alexander; Magnusdottir, Gudrun

2012-01-01

229

The Saturn System's Icy Satellites: New Results from Cassini  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cassini-Huygens is a multidisciplinary, international planetary mission consisting of an orbiting spacecraft and a probe. The Huygens probe successfully landed on Titan's surface on January 14, 2005, while the orbiter has performed observations of Saturn, its rings, satellites, and magnetosphere since it entered orbit around Saturn on July 1, 2004. The Cassini mission has been prolific in its scientific discoveries about the Saturn system. In this special section, we present new mission results with a focus on the 'icy satellites,' which we define as all Saturn's moons with the exception of Titan. The results included in this section have come out of the Cassini SOST--Satellites Orbiter Science Team--a multi-instrument and multidiscipline group that works together to better understand the icy satellites and their interactions with Saturn and its rings. Other papers included in this issue present ground-based observations and interior modeling of these icy moons.

Lopes-Gautier, Rosaly M.; Buratti, Bonnie; Hendrix, A. R.

2008-01-01

230

Satellite observations of transient radio impulses from thunderstorms  

SciTech Connect

Transient radio emissions from thunderstorms detected by satellites were first reported in 1995. The nature and source of these emissions remained a mystery until the launch of the FORTE satellite in 1997. FORTE, with its more sophisticated triggering and larger memory capacity showed that these emissions were connected to major thunderstorm systems. The analysis reported here, connecting FORTE RF events with ground based lightning location data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), shows that localized regions within thunderstorms are responsible for the creation of the satellite detected rf signals. These regions are connected with the areas of strong radar returns from the NEXRAD Doppler radar system, indicating that they are from regions of intense convection. The authors will also show data from several storms detected in the extended Caribbean, in which the height profile of the source regions can be determined. Although as a single low earth orbit satellite FORTE cannot provide global coverage of thunderstorm/lightning events, follow-on satellite constellations should be able to provide detailed information on global lightning in near real-time.

Argo, P.E.; Kirkland, M.; Jacobson, A.; Massey, R.; Suszynsky, D.; Eack, K.; Fitzgerald, T.J.; Smith, D.

1999-06-01

231

Photometric and spectroscopic observations of the Uranian satellite Sycorax  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have started an observing program of the recently discovered Uranian satellite Sycorax (S/1997 U 2), including both photometry and spectroscopy. Dynamical studies suggest that some irregular satellites could be captured objects (see eg. Pollack et al., Icarus, 37: 587-611, 1979). Thus, studying the irregular satellites of the giant planets is of great interest because of possible relationships with asteroids and comets. In particular, irregular satellites of Uranus and Neptune could be linked to the Trans-Neptunian and Centaur populations. Photometric observations performed at the time of the discovery gave a first estimate of the broad-band colors in BRI bands (Gladman et al., Nature, vol. 392, 1998). On the basis of these data, Sycorax appears to be nearly as red as the reddest objects of the Kuiper Belt. A better knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of this satellite, which requires to obtain a more complete data set, could help in constraining and understanding the possible link of Sycorax with the Kuiper Belt objects. As Sycorax is a faint object (V magnitude of about 20), it is very difficult to observe, and large telescopes are required. To date, we performed infrared photometry (in H and K bands) and J band spectroscopy at the VLT (ESO, Chile) with the ISAAC spectrometer. We also plan to obtain visible colors and H and K-band spectra. We will present the current status of our observing program. Our first results seem to confirm the redness of this object, but we also found a decrease of the slope in the near-IR. The same kind of behaviour has already been observed in some Trans-Neptunian objects.

Romon, J.; de Bergh, C.; Barucci, M. A.; Cuby, J.-G.; Le Bras, A.

2000-10-01

232

A land mobile satellite data system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Telesat Mobile Incorporated (TMI) Mobile Data System (MDS) was developed to apply satellite technology to the transportation industry's requirement for a fleet management system. It will provide two-way messaging and automatic position reporting capabilities between dispatch centers and customers' fleets of trucks. The design was based on the Inmarsat L-Band space segment with system link parameters and margins adjusted to meet the land mobile satellite channel characteristics. The system interfaces with the Teleglobe Des Laurentides earth station at Weir, Quebec. The signaling protocols were derived from the Inmarsat Standard C packet signalling system with unique trucking requirements incorporated where necessary.

Kent, John D. B.

1990-01-01

233

Satellite reconnaissance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of the observation equipment in remote sensing satellites is described. United States meteorology, land use and oceanography satellites and the major US Earth observation programs are listed. Imaging satellite systems are described such as: visible light and near infrared, thermal IR window, and microwave window. It is concluded that a geometrical resolution between 10 and 40 m can be expected. In order to reduce the data flow from the satellite system the input side of the system (the object-sensor interaction) has to be known. Satellites with synthetic aperture radar are increasingly important, but satellites can never fully replace observations with aircraft and drones.

Deloor, G. P.

1984-06-01

234

NASA Perspectives on Earth Observations from Satellite or 50 Years of Meteorological Satellite Experiments-The NASA Perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA was established in 1959. From those very eady days to the present NASA has been intimately involved with NOAA and the scientific community in the development and operation of satellite and sensor experiments. The early efforts included experiments on the TIROS and geostationary Applications Technology Satellites (ATS) series. In the latter case the spin-scan cameras conceived by Verner Suomi, along with the TIROS cameras, opened new vistas at what could be done in meteorological studies with the daily, nearly global, synoptic views from space-borne sensors As the years passed and the Nimbus series of satellites came into being in the 1960's, more quantitative observations with longer-lifetime, increasingly capable, better calibrated instruments came into being. NASA, in collaboration with and in support of NOAA, implemented operational systems that we now know as the Polar Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) series and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) series that provided dependable, continuous, dedicated satellite observations for use by the weather and atmospheric science communities. Through the 1970's, 1980's, and 1990's improved, well-calibrated instruments with more spectral bands extending into the thermal and the microwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum were provided to obtain accurate soundings of the atmosphere, atmospheric chemistry constituents such as ozone, global sea surface temperature, snow and ice extent, vegetation dynamics, etc. In the 1990's and up to the present the NASA/Earth Observing System (EOS) has been developed, implemented, and operated over many years to provide a very comprehensive suite of observations of the atmosphere, as well as land and ocean parameters. The future looks bright wherein the development of new systems, broadly described by the National Academy of Science Decadal Study, is now underway. NASA, along with collaborations with NOAA, other agencies, and the scientific and applications communities looks forward to achieving in the years to come goals possible with the global information provided by satellites and continuously improved with technology development, joint data assimilation efforts, and attendant research studies.

Einaudi, Franco

2010-01-01

235

Observations of a Geosynchronous Satellite with Optical Interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the interferometric detection of an earth-orbiting artificial satellite using optical interferometry. We targeted four geosynchronous communications satellites with the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI) near Flagstaff, AZ, and obtained interferometric fringes on one of them, DIRECTV-9S. We used an east-west 15.9-meter baseline of the NPOI and took data in 16 spectral channels covering the 500-850 nm wavelength range. Observations took place during the "glint season" of 28 February to 3 March 2008 and then again from 26 February to 4 March 2009, when the geometry of the solar panel arrays and the Sun's position creates glints as bright as 2nd magnitude for a few minutes each night. Subsequent analysis shows that the fringe amplitudes are consistent with a size scale of the glinting area of less than 2 meters (50 nanoradians at GEO) in an east-west direction. This work shows that interferometric detection of satellites at visual wavelengths is possible, and suggests that a multi-baseline interferometer array tailored to the angular size and brightness of geosynchronous satellites could lead to images of these satellites.

Restaino, S.

236

Cassini VIMS observations of the Galilean satellites including the VIMS calibration procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) observed the Galilean satellites during the Cassini spacecraft's 2000\\/2001 flyby of Jupiter, providing compositional and thermal information about their surfaces. The Cassini spacecraft approached the jovian system no closer than about 126 Jupiter radii, about 9 million kilometers, at a phase angle of 90°, resulting in only sub-pixel observations by VIMS of the

T. B. McCord; A. Coradini; C. A. Hibbittsb; F. Capaccioni; G. B. Hansenb; G. Filacchione; R. N. Clark; P. Cerroni; R. H. Browne; K. H. Baines; G. Bellucci; J.-P. Bibring; B. J. Buratti; E. Bussoletti; M. Combes; D. P. Cruikshank; P. Drossart; V. Formisano; R. Jaumann; Y. Langevin; D. L. Matson; R. M. Nelson; P. D. Nicholson; B. Sicardy; C. Sotin

2004-01-01

237

Whistler-triggered emissions observed by ISIS satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A statistical examination has been conducted of the ducted and nonducted whistler-triggered emissions (WTEs) observed by the ISIS satellites in the 1979-1981 period. Most WTEs are observed with simultaneous lower hybrid resonance in the topside ionosphere. The VLF emissions triggered by ducted whistlers frequently occur at L of 2-3, while those triggered by nonducted whistlers occur in the wider latitudinal regions at L of 2.2-4.3.

Nakamura, Y.; Ondoh, T.

1989-01-01

238

25-Year Ocean Wind Climatology from Satellite Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A consistently processed ocean wind climatology derived from 10 satellite microwave sensors is now available. This array of satellites extends from 1987 to present and includes 6 SSM/I, AMSR-E, WindSat, F17 SSM/IS, and QuikScat. Two of the satellite sensors, WindSat and QuikScat, provide wind direction in addition to wind speed. This ocean wind climatology is the basis for the cross-calibrated, multi-platform (CCMP) wind product. CCMP assimilates these satellite winds along with conventional ship and buoy wind observations using the ECMWF analysis as a background field to produce 6-hour vector wind fields at a 25-km resolution. The satellite wind retrievals from these multi-platforms have been carefully inter-calibrated, and the typical annual, globally averaged differences among the satellites are less than 0.1 m/s. The error (2-sigma) in the resulting decadal wind trends over the 25-years is estimated to be about 0.06 m/s/decade. Observed large-scale regional wind trends can be as large as 0.5 m/s/decade and hence are well above the noise level of estimating trends. We will present an overview of the ocean wind climatology and the methodology used to inter-calibrate the various sensors. Wind timeseries from the various sensors will be inter-compared with each other and with ocean buoys. An analysis of estimated trend error will be presented. Finally, some examples of global wind trends over the last quarter century will be shown.

Wentz, F. J.; Ricciardulli, L.; Smith, D. K.

2012-12-01

239

Telepsychiatry, the satellite system and family consultation.  

PubMed

A pilot telepsychiatry session was conducted with the US Department of Defense Satellite Communication System. The subjects were a family incompletely divorced many years before. There were two satellite interviews with this family. Bringing together all members of the original family so that questions could be addressed as to what happened when the children were very young unblocked a 13-year-old communication problem. PMID:9218383

Paul, N L

1997-01-01

240

Satellite Communication Hardware Emulation System (SCHES)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite Communication Hardware Emulator System (SCHES) is a powerful simulator that emulates the hardware used in TDRSS links. SCHES is a true bit-by-bit simulator that models communications hardware accurately enough to be used as a verification mechanism for actual hardware tests on user spacecraft. As a credit to its modular design, SCHES is easily configurable to model any user satellite communication link, though some development may be required to tailor existing software to user specific hardware.

Kaplan, Ted

1993-01-01

241

Satellite power system salvage and disposal alternatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wide range of salvage options for the SPS satellite, ranging from use in and beyond geosynchronous orbit to use in low Earth orbit in return and use on Earth are presented. The satellite can be used intact to provide power for various purposes, it can be cannibalized or it can be melted down to supply materials for space or ground based products. The use of SPS beyond its nominal lifetime provides value that can be deducted from the SPS capital investment cost. The present value of the salvage value of the SPS satellites, referenced to the system initial operation data, is on the order of five to ten percent of its on-orbit capital cost. (Given a 30 year satellite lifetime and a four percent discount rate, the theoretical maximum salvage value is 30.8 percent of the capital cost.) The SPS demonstration satellite is available some 30 years earlier than the first full scale SPS satellite and has a salvage value on the order of 80 percent of its on-orbit capital cost. In the event that it becomes desirable to dispose of either the demonstration of full scale SPS satellite, a number of disposal options is presented for which intact disposal costs are less than one percent of capital costs.

1980-01-01

242

Modeling Prairie Pothole Lakes: Linking Satellite Observation and Calibration (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the response of a complex lake wetland system to variations in climate. The focus is on the lakes and wetlands of the Missouri Coteau, which is part of the larger Prairie Pothole Region of the Central Plains of North America. Information on lake size was enumerated from satellite images, and yielded power law relationships for different hydrological

F. W. Schwartz; G. Liu; B. Zhang; Z. Yu

2009-01-01

243

Remote Observing with the Keck Telescope Using the ACTS Satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a technical demonstration project for the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS), we have implemented remote observing on the 10-meter Keck II telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii from the California Institute of Technology campus in Pasadena. The data connection consists of optical fiber networks in Hawaii and California, connecting the end-points to high data rate (HDR) ACTS satellite antennae at JPL in Pasadena and at the Tripler Army Medical Center in Honolulu. The terrestrial fiber networks run the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) protocol at DS-3 (45 Mbit/sec) speeds, providing ample bandwidth to enable remote observing with a software environment identical to that used for on-site observing in Hawaii. This experiment has explored the data requirements of remote observing with a modern research telescope and large-format detector arrays. While the maximum burst data rates are lower than those required for many other applications (e.g., HDTV), the network reliability and data integrity requirements are critical. As we show in this report, the former issue particularly may be the greatest challenge for satellite networks for this class of application. We have also experimented with the portability of standard TCP/IP applications to satellite networks, demonstrating the need for alternative TCP congestion algorithms and minimization of bit error rates (BER). Reliability issues aside, we have demonstrated that true remote observing over high-speed networks provides several important advantages over standard observing paradigms. Technical advantages of the high-speed network access include more rapid download of data to a user's home institution and the opportunity for alternative communication facilities between members of an observing team, such as audio- and videoconferencing.

Cohen, Judy; Shopbell, Patrick; Bergman, Larry

1998-01-01

244

Critical areas: Satellite power systems concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Critical Areas are defined and discussed in the various areas pertinent to satellite power systems. The presentation is grouped into five areas (General, Space Systems, Solar Energy Conversion, Microwave Systems, and Environment/Ecology) with a sixth area (Power Relay) considered separately in an appendix. Areas for Future Consideration as critical areas are discussed in a second appendix.

1975-01-01

245

A Metric to Evaluate Mobile Satellite Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of a "cost per billable minute" methodology to analyze mobile satellite systems is reviewed. Certain assumptions, notably those about the marketplace and regulatory policies, may need to be revisited. Fading and power control assumptions need to be tested. Overall, the metric would seem to have value in the design phase of a system and for comparisons between and among alternative systems.

Young, Elizabeth L.

1997-01-01

246

Time Resolved Atmospheric Carbon Satellite Observations from Geostationary Orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation describes proposed satellite carbon measurements from CHRONOS (Commercially Hosted spectroRadiometer Observations and New Opportunities for Science). The primary goal of this mission is to measure the atmospheric pollutants carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4) from geostationary orbit, with hourly observations of North America at high spatial resolution. Carbon monoxide is produced by combustion processes such as urban activity and wildfires, and serves as a proxy for other combustion pollutants that are not easily measured. Both CO and CH4 are chemical precursors of tropospheric ozone pollution. Methane has diverse anthropogenic sources ranging from fossil fuel production, animal husbandry, agriculture and waste management. The impact of gas exploration in the Western States of the USA and oil extraction from the Canadian tar sands will be particular foci of the mission, as will the poorly-quantified natural CH4 emissions from wetlands and thawing permafrost. In addition to characterizing pollutant sources, improved understanding of the domestic CH4 budget is a priority for policy decisions related to short-lived climate forcers. A primary motivation for targeting CO is its value as a tracer of atmospheric pollution. The CHRONOS measurements will provide insight into local and long-range transport across the North American continent, as well as the processes governing the entrainment and venting of pollution in and out of the planetary boundary layer. As a result of significantly improved characterization of diurnal changes in atmospheric composition, CHRONOS observations will find direct societal applications for air quality regulation and forecasting. We present a quantification of this expected improvement in the prediction of near-surface concentrations when CHRONOS measurements are used in Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs). If CHRONOS and the planned NASA Earth Venture TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution) mission were implemented concurrently, the resulting measurement suite would efficiently and expeditiously serve to address the science goals of the Decadal Survey proposed GEO-CAPE mission.

Edwards, D. P.; Worden, H. M.; Deeter, M. N.; Worden, H. M.

2013-12-01

247

Science Observations with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer Satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite will obtain high spectral resolution (lambda /Delta lambda = 30,000) measurements in the 905 - 1195 Angstroms bandpass from low-earth orbit. The high sensitivity and low background of the instrument will permit for the first time FUV observations of faint extragalactic sources, as well as sources throughout our Galaxy. A preliminary science plan has been developed to address wide variety of fundamental problems in astrophysics. This plan includes a substantial commitment of time to high priority topics identified by the FUSE Science Team: - Measurement of the deuterium/hydrogen ratio in a wide variety of environments in the disk and halo of the Galaxy, in high velocity clouds, and in the halos of other galaxies. - Measurement of O VI in the disk and halo to determine the distribution, kinematics, and the sources of the ionization of hot gas in the Galaxy. - Observations of QSOs in the redshift range 2 < z < 2.9 to search for evidence of the Gunn-Peterson effect in He II. - Calibration of the H2/CO ratio in cool molecular clouds. - Mass loss and atmospheric processes in hot and cool stars. - Accretion phenomena and other properties of active galactic nuclei. - Solar system studies, including the Io torus, the atmosphere of Jupiter, and comets. Additional topics are currently being considered for inclusion on this list. Details of these problems, plans for target selection, and observing strategies are presented. We also discuss preliminary plans for the FUSE Guest Investigator program which, together with allocations to Canada and France as collaborators in the mission, will comprise approximately 60% of the observing time over the expected three year lifetime of FUSE. FUSE is scheduled to be launched on a Med-Lite rocket at the end of 1998.

Friedman, S. D.; Oegerle, W.; Moos, W.; Sonneborn, G.

1995-05-01

248

Time Resolved Atmospheric Carbon Satellite Observations from Geostationary Orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation describes proposed satellite carbon measurements from CHRONOS (Commercially Hosted spectroRadiometer Observations and New Opportunities for Science). The primary goal of this mission is to measure the atmospheric pollutants carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4) from geostationary orbit, with hourly observations of North America at high spatial resolution. Carbon monoxide is produced by combustion processes such as urban activity and wildfires, and serves as a proxy for other combustion pollutants that are not easily measured. Both CO and CH4 are chemical precursors of tropospheric ozone pollution. Methane has diverse anthropogenic sources ranging from fossil fuel production, animal husbandry, agriculture and waste management. The impact of gas exploration in the Western States of the USA and oil extraction from the Canadian tar sands will be particular foci of the mission, as will the poorly-quantified natural CH4 emissions from wetlands and thawing permafrost. In addition to characterizing pollutant sources, improved understanding of the domestic CH4 budget is a priority for policy decisions related to short-lived climate forcers. A primary motivation for targeting CO is its value as a tracer of atmospheric pollution. The CHRONOS measurements will provide insight into local and long-range transport across the North American continent, as well as the processes governing the entrainment and venting of pollution in and out of the planetary boundary layer. As a result of significantly improved characterization of diurnal changes in atmospheric composition, CHRONOS observations will find direct societal applications for air quality regulation and forecasting. We present a quantification of this expected improvement in the prediction of near-surface concentrations when CHRONOS measurements are used in Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs). If CHRONOS and the planned NASA Earth Venture TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution) mission were implemented concurrently, the resulting measurement suite would efficiently and expeditiously serve to address the science goals of the Decadal Survey proposed GEO-CAPE mission.

Edwards, David; Worden, Helen

249

The Western Union Telegraph Company's present Westar satellite system and advanced Westar satellite system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuous evolution of the Westar satellite system is reviewed. Each of the two satellites which initially formed the Westar system has 12 transponders with a bandwidth of approximately 36 MHz apiece, spread over the total allocated bandwidth of about 500 MHz. Each transponder can carry one of the following: one full color analog broadcast TV channel; one digital bitstream

P. Schneider

1979-01-01

250

Solar power satellite, system definition study. Part 2, volume 3: SPS satellite systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The differences in approach to solar energy conversion by solar cells and thermal engine systems are examined. Systems requirements for the solar power satellite (SPS) are given along with a description of the primary subsystems. Trades leading to exact configuration selection, for example, selection of the Rankine cycle operating temperatures are explained, and two satellite configurations are discussed.

1977-01-01

251

Appropriate satellite systems for rural telecommunications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to provide a minimum, basic telecommunications service to as large a segment of the unserved rural population as possible, the system objective should be to place one or a few telephone instruments in as many localities as possible, instead of placing a larger number of subscriber instruments in fewer localities. A high value of satellite figure of merit (G/T) combined with high transponder gain would facilitate the utilization of low transmit power from the earth station; it is claimed that this would be the key to the success of an operational rural telecommunications service via satellite. It is noted that demand assigned SCPC transmission techniques are ideally suited for this service. It is concluded that, for satellite communications to provide minimum basic rural telephone service within a reasonable time span, it will be necessary to employ properly designed high-transfer-gain satellites with large production runs of small low-cost earth stations.

Nickelson, R. L.

252

Land-mobile satellite communication system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A satellite communications system includes an orbiting communications satellite for relaying communications to and from a plurality of ground stations, and a network management center for making connections via the satellite between the ground stations in response to connection requests received via the satellite from the ground stations, the network management center being configured to provide both open-end service and closed-end service. The network management center of one embodiment is configured to provides both types of service according to a predefined channel access protocol that enables the ground stations to request the type of service desired. The channel access protocol may be configured to adaptively allocate channels to open-end service and closed-end service according to changes in the traffic pattern and include a free-access tree algorithm that coordinates collision resolution among the ground stations.

Yan, Tsun-Yee (Inventor); Rafferty, William (Inventor); Dessouky, Khaled I. (Inventor); Wang, Charles C. (Inventor); Cheng, Unjeng (Inventor)

1993-01-01

253

Satellite Diversity Gain Over The LEOS Channel, Based CDMA Systems  

E-print Network

proposed as the multiple access technique for a number of mobile satellite communication systemsSatellite Diversity Gain Over The LEOS Channel, Based CDMA Systems Tarek Attia, Peter Sweeney: There is a trend for mobile satellite system architectures aimed at the deployment of multi-satellite

Haddadi, Hamed

254

ECC Ozonesonde Reliability, Observations, and Comparisons with Satellite Ozone Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) ozone instruments depend on the quality of care exercised in their pre-flight preparation. The ozone-measuring project conducted at Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility uses a number of mechanisms designed to inspect the ECC for anomalies that may interfere with the reception of valid ozone profiles. Complete electronic testing of the instrument, individually and when coupled to its radiosonde has led to exceptional monitoring of ozone for detecting long-term atmospheric changes. A number of factors are considered when preparing an ECC instrument for flight. These basically are specific calibrations of pump efficiency, volumetric flow rate, temperature of the air entering the pump, and background current. The concentration of the potassium iodide solution is also important. Wallops is the only site using a UV photometer (Dasibi) to compare ECC ozone output at various concentrations of ozone that allows adjustment to be made to offsets that may appear in the balloon-borne instrument prior to release. All of the above procedures allow identification of potential problems before release of the ECC instrument. Procedures followed at Wallops also are employed in Brazil, and Ascension Island where NASA has cooperative agreements in place to obtain ozonesondes data. All ECC instruments are prepared 3-4 weeks prior to the day of observation. We will briefly describe the instrumental tests employed. These tests have included simultaneous dual observations to compare the effect of different solution concentrations, comparison of sensors of different manufacturers, and comparisons with surface- and space-based instrumentation such as the Dobson Spectrophotometer and satellites. Vertical profiles of ozone from Arctic, mid-latitudes, and Antarctica will be discussed. Although not unusual, the data reveals ozone structure that correlate well with typical atmospheric temperatures and possibly relative humidity. Finally, vertical ozone distribution, compared with remotely measured ozone from lidar and satellite, will be discussed. Specific comparisons between ECC and HALOE measurements, integrated ECC total ozone overburden with the EP-TOMS and the Dobson, as well as comparisons with lidar are discussed. Results show agreement and some disagreement between the in situ measurements of the ECC and the remote instruments. We postulate reasons for the differences, or biases, which in spite of the excellent ECC quality control during pre-flight preparation and data analysis processes, may be due to uncertainties in both measuring systems.

Schmidlin, F. J.; Northam, E. T.; Ross, E. D.; Schauer, A. G.; Gerlach, John C. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

255

Assimilating Satellite SST Observations into a Diurnal Cycle Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wealth of satellite sea surface temperature (SST) data now available opens the possibility of large improvements in SST estimation. However the use of such data is not straight forward; a major difficulty in assimilating satellite observations is that they represent a near surface temperature, whereas in ocean models the top level represents the temperature at a greater depth. During the day, under favourable conditions of clear skies and calm winds, the near surface temperature is often seen to have a diurnal cycle that is picked up in satellite observations. Current ocean models do not have the vertical or temporal resolution to adequately represent this daytime warming. The usual approach is to discard daytime observations as they are considered diurnally `corrupted'. A new assimilation technique is developed here that assimilates observations into a diurnal cycle model. The diurnal cycle of SSTs are modelled using a 1-D mixed layer model with fine near surface resolution and 6 hourly forcing from NWP analyses. The accuracy of the SST estimates are hampered by uncertainties in the forcing data. The extent of diurnal SST warming at a particular location and time is predominately governed by a non-linear response to cloud cover and sea surface wind speeds which greatly affect the air-sea fluxes. The method proposed here combines infrared and microwave SST satellite observations in order to derive corrections to the cloud cover and wind speed values over the day. By adjusting the forcing, SST estimation and air-sea fluxes should be improved and are at least more consistent with each other. This new technique for assimilating SST data can be considered a tool for producing more accurate diurnal warming estimates.

Pimentel, S.; Haines, K.; Nichols, N. K.

2006-12-01

256

Extreme ultraviolet explorer satellite observation of Jupiter's Io plasma torus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the first Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite observation of the Jupiter system, obtained during the 2 day period 1993 March 30 through April 1, which shows a rich emission-line spectrum from the Io plasma torus spanning wavelengths 370 to 735 A. The emission features correspond primarily to known multiplets of oxygen and sulfur ions, but a blended feature near 372 A is a plausible Na II transition. The summed detected energy flux of (7.2 +/- 0.2) x 10(exp -11) ergs/sq cm(s) corresponds to a radiated power of approximately equal to 4 x 10(exp 11) W in this spectral range. All ansa emissions show a distinct dawn-dusk brightness asymmetry and the measured dusk/dawn ratio of the bright S III lambda-680 feature is 2.3 +/- 0.3, significantly larger than the ratio measured by the Voyager spacecraft ultraviolet (UV) instruments. A preliminary estimate of ion partitioning indicates that the oxygen/sulfur ion ratio is approximately equal to 2, compared to the value approximately equal to 1.3 measured by Voyager, and that (Na(+))/(e) greater than 0.01.

Hall, D. T; Gladstone, G. R.; Moos, H. W.; Bagenal, F.; Clarke, J. T.; Feldman, P. D.; Mcgrath, M. A.; Schneider, N. M.; Shemansky, D. E.; Strobel, D. F.

1994-01-01

257

Long-Focus Astrometric Observations of the Planetary Satellites at USNO: 1967 2003  

E-print Network

59 Long-Focus Astrometric Observations of the Planetary Satellites at USNO: 1967 ­ 2003 Dan Pascu of long- focus observations of the planetary satellites made at the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) from refractor, targeted the Martian satellites, the Galilean moons of Jupiter and satellites I ­ VIII of Saturn

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

258

Horizon-Based Satellite Navigation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earth's horizon provides an important and conspicuous basis for the development of self-contained systems for earth-satellite navigation. The present paper investigates horizonbased navigational systems in which the requirement for vehicular yaw stabilization is not imposed. This permits the development of a variety of navigational techniques which generally fall within one of the following divisions: star matching, stellar almucantar transits,

R. L. Lillestrand; J. E. Carroll

1963-01-01

259

Laser satellite power systems: concepts and issues  

SciTech Connect

A laser satellite power system (SPS) converts solar power captured by earth-orbiting satellites into electrical power on the earth's surface, the satellite-to-ground transmission of power being effected by a laser beam. The laser SPS is an alternative to the microwave SPS. Lasers and how they work are described, as are the types of lasers - electric discharge, direct and indirect solar pumped, free electron, and closed-cycle chemical - that are candidates for application in a laser SPS. The advantages of a laser SPS over the microwave alternative are pointed out. One such advantage is that, for the same power delivered to the utility busbar, land requirements for a laser system are much smaller (by a factor of 21) than those for microwave system. The four laser SPS concepts that have been presented in the literature are described and commented on. Finally key issues for further laser SPS research are discussed.

Walbridge, E.W.

1982-01-01

260

Al Gore attends Fall Meeting session on Earth observing satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Former U.S. vice president Al Gore, making unscheduled remarks at an AGU Fall Meeting session, said, “The reason you see so many pictures” of the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) satellite at this session is “that it already has been built.” However, “because one of its primary missions was to help document global warming, it was canceled. So for those who are interested in struggling against political influence,” Gore said, “the benefits have been documented well here.” Gore made his comments after the third oral presentation at the 8 December session entitled “Earth Observations From the L1 (Lagrangian Point No. 1),” which focused on the capabilities of and progress on refurbishing DSCOVR. The satellite, formerly called Triana, had been proposed by Gore in 1998 to collect climate data. Although Triana was built, it was never launched: Congress mandated that before the satellite could be sent into space the National Academies of Science needed to confirm that the science it would be doing was worthwhile. By the time the scientific validation was complete, the satellite “was no longer compatible with the space shuttle manifest,” Robert C. Smith, program manager for strategic integration at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, told Eos.

Richman, Barbara T.

2011-12-01

261

Improving National Air Quality Forecasts with Satellite Aerosol Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate air quality forecasts can allow for mitigation of the health risks associated with high levels of air pollution. During September 2003, a team of NASA, NOAA, and EPA researchers demonstrated a prototype tool for improving fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air quality forecasts using satellite aerosol observations. Daily forecast products were generated from a near-real-time fusion of multiple input data

Jassim Al-Saadi; James Szykman; R. Bradley Pierce; Chieko Kittaka; Doreen Neil; D. Allen Chu; Lorraine Remer; Liam Gumley; Elaine Prins; Lewis Weinstock; Clinton MacDonald; Richard Wayland; Fred Dimmick; Jack Fishman

2005-01-01

262

Satellite observations of formaldehyde over North America from GOME  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formaldehyde (HCHO) is an important indicator of tropospheric hydrocarbon emissions and photochemical activity. We present HCHO observations over North America for July 1996 from the GOME instrument on-board the ESA ERS-2 satellite. Slant columns are determined to <4×1015moleculescm-2 sensitivity by directly fitting GOME radiance measurements. These show a distinct enhancement over the southeastern United States, consistent with a large regional

Kelly Chance; Paul I. Palmer; Robert J. D. Spurr; Randall V. Martin; Thomas P. Kurosu; Daniel J. Jacob

2000-01-01

263

Observing system simulation experiments to evaluate the expected added-value of a new generation IASI satellite instrument for lower tropospheric ozone analyses and forecasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropospheric ozone can adversely impact human health, climate and the ecosystem. Monitoring and legislation are implemented to regulate its concentrations. Air quality (AQ) monitoring from space starts to be regarded as a useful tool to complement with in situ measurements and regional chemical transport models (rCTM) to draw a more comprehensive picture of pollution processes. Important progresses in the field of tropospheric ozone sounding from space have been accomplished during the last decade, especially with thermal infrared (TIR) space-borne instruments. It is now possible to observe tropospheric ozone concentrations from space with a reasonable accuracy. However, limitations remain with the current observation systems in particular to observe ozone in the lowermost troposphere. IASI-NG, that will be part of the EPS-SG (EUMETSAT Polar System-Second Generation) programme, is expected to improve the observation capabilities of AQ in terms of ozone in the lower troposphere. Observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) are powerful tools to quantify the added-value of future missions. An OSSE is composed of different elements: (1) one reference atmosphere, usually given by model simulations (the Nature Run); (2) an optimized observation simulator, providing the pseudo-observations; (3) an independent description of the atmosphere (the Control Run); (4) an assimilation system, providing the Assimilation Run. We conduct relative OSSEs, aimed at comparing the contribution of one possible configuration of IASI-NG (IASI-NG/IRS2) and the present IASI instrument, used as a baseline. The spectral resolution and the radiometric noise in the ozone spectral region, for IASI-NG/IRS2, are twice better than for IASI. IASI-NG/IRS2 pseudo-observations are processed using a comprehensive simulator based on the radiative transfer model KOPRA and the KOPRAFIT inversion module. The Nature Run is given by the CTM MOCAGE model, the Control Run is produced with the CHIMERE CTM, and the assimilation system is based on a Local Ensemble Kalman Filter. The objective is to assess the potential improvement bring by IASI-NG compared to IASI to constrain model simulations. The gain of these new observations to improve ozone analysis (and forecast) are quantified especially in the planetary boundary layer for the European domain.

Dauphin, Pierre; Sellitto, Pasquale; Dufour, Gaëlle; Coman, Adriana; Forêt, Gilles; Eremenko, Maxim; Cuesta, Juan; Gaubert, Benjamin; Beekmann, Matthias; Peuch, Vincent-Henri; Flaud, Jean-Marie

2013-04-01

264

Polarimetric observations of the Galilean satellites near opposition in 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of the new polarimetric observations of the Galilean satellites Io, Ganymede, Europe, and Callisto carried out on October 21 - November 1, 2011. We used 1.25m telescope equipped with the UBVRI double image chopping photoelectric polarimeter, 2.6m Shain telescope equipped with a one-channel photoelectric photometer-polarimeter, 1m RCC telescope equipped with a one-channel photoelectric photometer-polarimeter (Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, Ukraine), and 0.7m telescope equipped with a one-channel photoelectric photometer-polarimeter (Chuguev Observational Station of Astronomical Institute of Karazin Kharkiv National University, Ukraine). The measurements were performed at phase angles ranging from 0.34° to 2.12°. Our new observations fully confirmed the presence of the polarization opposition effect for high-albedo satellites Io, Europa, and Ganymede at phase angles less than 2°. Within the accuracy of the measurements we did not detect the polarization opposition effect for moderate-albedo satellite Callisto.

Zaitsev, S. V.; Kiselev, N. N.; Rosenbush, V. K.; Velichko, F. P.; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Antonyuk, K. A.; Psarev, V. N.

2012-11-01

265

Satellite Power System (SPS) public outreach experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An outreach experiment was conducted to improve the results of the satellite power system (SPS) concept development and evaluation program. The objectives of the outreach were to: (1) determine the areas of major concern relative to the SPS concept and (2) gain experience with an outreach process for use in future public involvement. The response to the outreach effort was positive, suggesting that the effort extended by the SPS project division to encourage an information exchange with the public was well received. The responses were analyzed and from them some questions and answers about the satellite power system are presented.

Mcneal, S. R.

1980-01-01

266

Domestic mobile satellite systems in North America  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Telest Mobile Inc. (TMI) and the American Mobile Satellite Corporation (AMSC) are authorized to provide mobile satellite services (MSS) in Canada and the United States respectively. They are developing compatible systems and are undertaking joint specification and procurement of spacecraft and ground segment with the aim of operational systems by late 1993. Early entry (phase 1) mobile data services are offered in 1990 using space segment capacity leased from Inmarsat. Here, an overview is given of these domestic MSS with an emphasis on the TMI component of the MSAT systen.

Wachira, Muya

1990-01-01

267

Dynamic switch matrix for the TDMA satellite switching system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future high capacity satellite communication systems require signal processing on board satellites. The on-board signal processing includes switching of RF signals between multiple antennas to provide interconnection between the uplink and downlink beams. This paper describes the development of a dynamic switch matrix for a TDMA satellite switching system to be used in the next generation communications satellites. In this

P. T. Ho; J. H. Wisniewski; J. R. Pelose; H. M. Perasso

1982-01-01

268

Determination of motion extrema in multi-satellite systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spacecraft, or satellite formation flight has been a topic of interest dating back to the Gemini program of the 1960s. Traditionally space missions have been designed around large monolithic assets. Recent interest in low cost, rapid call up mission architectures structured around fractionated systems, small satellites, and constellations has spurred renewed efforts in spacecraft relative motion problems. While such fractionated, or multi-body systems may provide benefits in terms of risk mitigation and cost savings, they introduce new technical challenges in terms of satellite coordination. Characterization of satellite formations is a vital requirement for them to have utility to industry and government entities. Satellite formations introduce challenges in the form of constellation maintenance, inter-satellite communications, and the demand for more sophisticated guidance, navigation, and control systems. At the core of these challenges is the orbital mechanics which govern the resulting motion. New applications of algebraic techniques are applied to the formation flight problem, specifically Gröbner basis tools, as a means of determining extrema of certain quantities pertaining to formation flight. Specifically, bounds are calculated for the relative position components, relative speed, relative velocity components, and range rate. The position based metrics are relevant for planning formation geometry, particularly in constellation or Earth observation applications. The velocity metrics are relevant in the design of end game interactions for rendezvous and proximity operations. The range rate of one satellite to another is essential in the design of radio frequency hardware for inter-satellite communications so that the doppler shift can be calculated a priori. Range rate may also have utility in space based surveillance and space situational awareness concerns, such as cross tagging. The results presented constitute a geometric perspective and have utility to mission designers, particularly for missions involving rendezvous and proximity operations.

Allgeier, Shawn E.

269

Satellite sound broadcasting system study: Mobile considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussed here is the mobile reception part of a study to investigate a satellite sound broadcast system in the UHF or L bands. Existing propagation and reception measurements are used with proper interpretation to evaluate the signaling, coding, and diversity alternatives suitable for the system. Signal attenuation in streets shadowed by buildings appear to be around 29 db, considerably higher than the 10 db adopted by CCIR. With the marriage of proper technologies, an LMSS class satellite can provide substantial direct satellite audio broadcast capability in UHF or L bands for high quality mobile and portable indoor reception by low cost radio receivers. This scheme requires terrestrial repeaters for satisfactory mobile reception in urban areas. A specialized bandwidth efficient spread spectrum signalling technique is particularly suitable for the terrestrial repeaters.

Golshan, Nasser

1990-01-01

270

Integration of satellite fire products into MPI Earth System Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires are the ubiquitous phenomenon affecting all natural biomes. Since the beginning of the satellite Era, fires are being continuously observed from satellites. The most interesting satellite parameter retrieved from satellite measurements is the burned area. Combined with information on biomass available for burning the burned area can be translated into climate relevant carbon emissions from fires into the atmosphere. In this study we integrate observed burned area into a global vegetation model to derive global fire emissions. Global continuous burned area dataset is provided by the Global Fire Emissions Dataset (GFED). GFED products were obtained from MODIS (and pre-MODIS) satellites and are available for the time period of 14 years (1997-2011). This dataset is widely used, well documented and supported by periodical updates containing new features. We integrate the global burned area product into the land model JSBACH, a part of the Earth-System model developed at the Max Plank Institute for Meteorology. The land model JSBACH simulates land biomass in terms of carbon content. Fire is an important disturbance process in the Earth's carbon cycle and affects mainly the carbon stored in vegetation. In the standard JSBACH version fire is represented by process based algorithms. Using the satellite data as an alternative we are targeting better comparability of modeled carbon emissions with independent satellite measurements of atmospheric composition. The structure of burned vegetation inside of a biome can be described as the balance between woody and herbaceous vegetation. GFED provides in addition to the burned area satellite derived information of the tree cover distribution within the burned area. Using this dataset, we can attribute the burned area to the respective simulated herbaceous or woody biomass within the vegetation model. By testing several extreme cases we evaluate the quantitative impact of vegetation balance between woody and herbaceous vegetation on fire carbon emissions. The integration procedure of satellite observed burned area into JSBACH is developed in a way that it can be easily adapted to future satellite fire datasets (e.g. expected ESA CCI Fire-ECV products). Here we will also discuss further possibilities for the integration of satellite fire data into vegetation models.

Khlystova, Iryna G.; Kloster, Silvia

2013-04-01

271

Effects of the Satellite Power System on low Earth orbit and geosynchronous satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large amount of power contained in the main beam and principal sidelobes of the proposed Solar Power System (SPS), now under study by DOE and NASA, potentially presents an EMC problem for other satellite systems. This report examines selected geosynchronous orbit (GEO) satellites in adjacent slots to an SPS, GEO satellites on a chord passing an Earth horizon, and

W. B. Grant; E. L. Morrison; J. R. Juroshek

1981-01-01

272

Astrometric observations of the satellites of the outer planets. I - The Galilean satellites in 1977  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astrometric observations of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter performed around the opposition of 1977 with a 67-cm photovisual refractor are reported. The measurements are reduced to absolute and intersatellite positions by two different methods: a linear least-squares plate-constant solution to the AGK3 reference-star frame and the trail-scale method of Pascu (1977). Results of a plate-constant reduction are also presented for two observations of JV (Amalthea). Comparison of the data with Liske's (1978) theoretical predictions for the intersatellite positions indicates no systematic bias in the data; a probable scatter of about 15 arcsec in both right ascension and declination is estimated.

Ianna, P. A.; Seitzer, P.; Levinson, F.

1979-01-01

273

A Comparison of Techniques for Scheduling Earth-Observing Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scheduling observations by coordinated fleets of Earth Observing Satellites (EOS) involves large search spaces, complex constraints and poorly understood bottlenecks, conditions where evolutionary and related algorithms are often effective. However, there are many such algorithms and the best one to use is not clear. Here we compare multiple variants of the genetic algorithm: stochastic hill climbing, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel optimization and iterated sampling on ten realistically-sized EOS scheduling problems. Schedules are represented by a permutation (non-temperal ordering) of the observation requests. A simple deterministic scheduler assigns times and resources to each observation request in the order indicated by the permutation, discarding those that violate the constraints created by previously scheduled observations. Simulated annealing performs best. Random mutation outperform a more 'intelligent' mutator. Furthermore, the best mutator, by a small margin, was a novel approach we call temperature dependent random sampling that makes large changes in the early stages of evolution and smaller changes towards the end of search.

Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Pryor, Anna

2004-01-01

274

Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (i) total solar irradiance, (ii) Earth radiation budget, (iii) land cover & land use change, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (v) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (vi) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including: dust storms over the worlds deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean, with a special emphasis on satellite observations available for studying the southern African environment.

King, Michael D.

2003-01-01

275

Planetocentric versus heliocentric impacts in the Jovian and Saturnian satellite system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Readily applicable equations are derived for calculating the impact velocities, collision intervals, and cumulative crater frequencies in a satellite system for planetocentric and heliocentric impactors. Observed cumulative crater frequencies in the Saturnian satellite system and a sometimes observed lack of apex-antapex asymmetry of crater frequencies favor crater-producing projectiles orbiting initially in elliptic orbits round the parent planet (planetocentric impactors). On

G. P. Horedt; G. Neukum

1984-01-01

276

Solar power satellite system sizing tradeoffs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical and economic tradeoffs of smaller solar power satellite systems configured with larger antennas, reduced output power, and smaller rectennas, are considered. The differential costs in electricity for seven antenna/rectenna configurations operating at 2.45 GHz and five satellite systems operating at 5.8 GHz are calculated. Two 2.45 GHz configurations dependent upon the ionospheric power density limit are chosen as examples. If the ionospheric limit could be increased to 54 mW sq/cm from the present 23 mW sq/cm level, a 1.53 km antenna satellite operating at 2.45 GHz would provide 5.05 GW of output power from a 6.8 km diameter rectenna. This system gives a 54 percent reduction in rectenna area relative to the reference solar power satellite system at a modest 17 percent increase in electricity costs. At 5.8 GHz, an 0.75 km antenna providing 2.72 GW of power from a 5.8 km diameter rectenna is selected for analysis. This configuration would have a 67 percent reduction in rectenna area at a 36 percent increase in electricity costs. Ionospheric, atmospheric, and thermal limitations are discussed. Antenna patterns for three configurations to show the relative main beam and sidelobe characteristics are included.

Arndt, G. D.; Monford, L. G.

1981-01-01

277

System specification for the reusable reentry satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The RRS design shall provide a relatively inexpensive method of access to micro and fractional gravity space environments for an extended period of time, with eventual intact recovery on the surface of the Earth. This specification establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS) system.

1991-01-01

278

Satellite power system (SPS) military implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the potential military role, both offensive and defensive, of a Satellite Power System (SPS). The very large orbital power source of the SPS could have a number of potential military applications. Perhaps the most arresting, but certainly one in the very distant future is the possibility of developing an anti-ballistic defense weapon utilizing laser or particle beams.

Ozeroff

1978-01-01

279

Satellite Power System (SPS) military applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential military role, both offensive and defensive, of a Satellite Power System (SPS) is examined. A number of potential military support possibilities are described. An SPS with military capabilities may have a strong negative impact on international relations if it is not internationalized. The SPS satellite would be vulnerable to military action of an enemy with good space capability, but would experience little or no threat from saboteurs or terrorists, except via the ground controls. The paper concludes with an outline of some of the key issues involved, and a number of recommendations for future study, including some areas for long term efforts.

Ozeroff, M. J.

1978-01-01

280

Verification of Cloud Cover Forecast with Satellite Observation over West Africa NATHALIE SHNE AND JEAN-PIERRE CHABOUREAU  

E-print Network

Verification of Cloud Cover Forecast with Satellite Observation over West Africa NATHALIE SÃ?HNE exists for improving the skills of weather forecasting over West Africa. 1. Introduction Clouds the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite were used to document the cloud system variability over West

Guichard, Francoise

281

Correlation of satellite lightning observations with ground-based lightning experiments in Florida, Texas and Oklahoma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite observations of lightning were correlated with ground-based measurements of lightning from data bases obtained at three separate sites. The percentage of ground-based observations of lightning that would be seen by an orbiting satellite was determined.

Edgar, B. C.; Turman, B. N.

1982-01-01

282

Satellite sound broadcasting system, portable reception  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies are underway at JPL in the emerging area of Satellite Sound Broadcast Service (SSBS) for direct reception by low cost portable, semi portable, mobile and fixed radio receivers. This paper addresses the portable reception of digital broadcasting of monophonic audio with source material band limited to 5 KHz (source audio comparable to commercial AM broadcasting). The proposed system provides transmission robustness, uniformity of performance over the coverage area and excellent frequency reuse. Propagation problems associated with indoor portable reception are considered in detail and innovative antenna concepts are suggested to mitigate these problems. It is shown that, with the marriage of proper technologies a single medium power satellite can provide substantial direct satellite audio broadcast capability to CONUS in UHF or L Bands, for high quality portable indoor reception by low cost radio receivers.

Golshan, Nasser; Vaisnys, Arvydas

1990-01-01

283

An automated mapping satellite system ( Mapsat).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The favorable environment of space permits a satellite to orbit the Earth with very high stability as long as no local perturbing forces are involved. Solid-state linear-array sensors have no moving parts and create no perturbing force on the satellite. Digital data from highly stabilized stereo linear arrays are amenable to simplified processing to produce both planimetric imagery and elevation data. A satellite imaging system, called Mapsat, including this concept has been proposed to produce data from which automated mapping in near real time can be accomplished. Image maps as large as 1:50 000 scale with contours as close as a 20-m interval may be produced from Mapsat data. -from Author

Colvocoresses, A.P.

1982-01-01

284

Distributed Satellite Communication System Design: First-Order Interactions between System and Network  

E-print Network

Distributed Satellite Communication System Design: First-Order Interactions between System to bankruptcy. The upfront capital required to implement a satellite communications system is staggering and performance of a system. Traditionally, the first step toward designing satellite communication systems

de Weck, Olivier L.

285

Role of light satellites in the high-resolution Earth observation domain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current 'classic' applications using and exploring space based earth imagery are exclusive, narrow niche tailored, expensive and hardly accessible. On the other side new, inexpensive and widely used 'consumable' applications will be only developed concurrently to the availability of appropriate imagery allowing that process. A part of these applications can be imagined today, like WWW based 'virtual tourism' or news media, but the history of technological, cultural and entertainment evolution teaches us that most of future applications are unpredictable -- they emerge together with the platforms enabling their appearance. The only thing, which can be ultimately stated, is that the definitive condition for such applications is the availability of the proper imagery platform providing low cost, high resolution, large area, quick response, simple accessibility and quick dissemination of the raw picture. This platform is a constellation of Earth Observation satellites. Up to 1995 the Space Based High Resolution Earth Observation Domain was dominated by heavy, super-expensive and very inflexible birds. The launch of Israeli OFEQ-3 Satellite by MBT Division of Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI) marked the entrance to new era of light, smart and cheap Low Earth Orbited Imaging satellites. The Earth Resource Observation System (EROS) initiated by West Indian Space, is based on OFEQ class Satellites design and it is capable to gather visual data of Earth Surface both at high resolution and large image capacity. The main attributes, derived from its compact design, low weight and sophisticated logic and which convert the EROS Satellite to valuable and productive system, are discussed. The major advantages of Light Satellites in High Resolution Earth Observation Domain are presented and WIS guidelines featuring the next generation of LEO Imaging Systems are included.

Fishman, Moshe

1999-12-01

286

Contributions of Satellite Observations to Understanding Climate Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the challenges facing atmospheric scientists is to interpret trends in multi-decadal data records. Although data records from satellite instruments are not as long as some ground-based records, global coverage and resolved vertical profiles provide unique information for identifying signatures of climate change. For example, the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite provided profiles of O3, H2O, HC1, HF, CH4 from October 1991 until November 2005. There are also multi-annual ground based measurements of the column HCl. Middle latitude ground-based measurements show a seasonal cycle, and the HALOE profiles show that this is driven by the seasonal change in the composition and mass of the region between the tropopause and 380K surface (the lowermost stratosphere). Understanding the processes that produce the seasonal cycle makes it possible to interpret a future change in the seasonal cycle as a marker of a change in the stratospheric residual circulation. Satellite observations have also provided key information for improving the physical basis of models used to predict future composition and climate circulation. An example is the "tape recorder" signature in tropical stratospheric water vapor, i.e., the slow ascent of high and low water vapor anomalies roughly corresponding to the tropopause temperature at the time air entered the stratosphere. This signature has become a key diagnostic of performance for climate models.

Douglass, Anne R.

2006-01-01

287

Fast Emission Estimates in China Constrained by Satellite Observations (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission inventories of air pollutants are crucial information for policy makers and form important input data for air quality models. Unfortunately, bottom-up emission inventories, compiled from large quantities of statistical data, are easily outdated for an emerging economy such as China, where rapid economic growth changes emissions accordingly. Alternatively, top-down emission estimates from satellite observations of air constituents have important advantages of being spatial consistent, having high temporal resolution, and enabling emission updates shortly after the satellite data become available. Constraining emissions from concentration measurements is, however, computationally challenging. Within the GlobEmission project of the European Space Agency (ESA) a new algorithm has been developed, specifically designed for fast daily emission estimates of short-lived atmospheric species on a mesoscopic scale (0.25 × 0.25 degree) from satellite observations of column concentrations. The algorithm needs only one forward model run from a chemical transport model to calculate the sensitivity of concentration to emission, using trajectory analysis to account for transport away from the source. By using a Kalman filter in the inverse step, optimal use of the a priori knowledge and the newly observed data is made. We apply the algorithm for NOx emission estimates in East China, using the CHIMERE model together with tropospheric NO2 column retrievals of the OMI and GOME-2 satellite instruments. The observations are used to construct a monthly emission time series, which reveal important emission trends such as the emission reduction measures during the Beijing Olympic Games, and the impact and recovery from the global economic crisis. The algorithm is also able to detect emerging sources (e.g. new power plants) and improve emission information for areas where proxy data are not or badly known (e.g. shipping emissions). The new emission estimates result in a better agreement between observations and simulations of air pollutant concentrations, facilitating improved air quality forecasts. The EU project MarcoPolo will combine these emission estimates from space with statistical information on e.g. land use, population density and traffic to construct a new up-to-date emission inventory for China.

Mijling, B.; van der A, R.

2013-12-01

288

Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 7: Cost/benefit analysis for the ASVT on operational applications of satellite snow-cover observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the OASSO ASVT's were used to estimate the benefits accruing from the added information available from satellite snowcover area measurement. Estimates of the improvement in runoff prediction due to addition of SATSCAM were made by the Colorado ASVT personnel. The improvement estimate is 6-10%. Data were applied to subregions covering the Western States snow area amended by information from the ASVT and other watershed experts to exclude areas which are not impacted by snowmelt runoff. Benefit models were developed for irrigation and hydroenergy uses. The benefit/cost ratio is 72:1. Since only two major benefit contributors were used and since the forecast improvement estimate does not take into account future satellite capabilities these estimates are considered to be conservative. The large magnitude of the benefit/cost ratio supports the utility and applicability of SATSCAM.

Castruccio, P.; Loats, H.; Lloyd, D.; Newman, P.

1981-01-01

289

Tropical convective systems life cycle characteristics from geostationary satellite and precipitating estimates derived from TRMM and ground weather radar observations for the West African and South American regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the tropics most of the rainfall comes in the form of individual storm events embedded in the synoptic circulations (e.g., monsoons). Understanding the rainfall and its variability hence requires to document these highly contributing tropical convective systems (MCS). Our knowledge of the MCS life cycle, from a physical point of view mainly arises from individual observational campaigns heavily based on ground radar observations. While this large part of observations enabled the creation of conceptual models of MCS life cycle, it nevertheless does not reach any statistically significant integrated perspective yet. To overcome this limitation, a composite technique, that will serve as a Day-1 algorithm for the Megha-Tropiques mission, is considered in this study. this method is based on a collocation in space and time of the level-2 rainfall estimates (BRAIN) derived from the TMI radiometer onboard TRMM with the cloud systems identified by a new MCS tracking algorithm called TOOCAN and based on a 3-dimensional segmentation (image + time) of the geostationary IR imagery. To complete this study, a similar method is also developed collocating the cloud systems with the precipitating features derived from the ground weather radar which has been deployed during the CHUVA campaign over several Brazilian regions from 2010 up to now. A comparison of the MCSs life cycle is then performed for the 2010-2012 summer seasons over the West African, and South American regions. On the whole region of study, the results show that the temporal evolution of the cold cloud shield associated to MCSs describes a symmetry between the growth and the decay phases. It is also shown that the parameters of the conceptual model of MCSs are strongly correlated, reducing thereby the problem to a single degree of freedom. At the system scale, over both land and oceanic regions, rainfall is described by an increase at the beginning (the first third) of the life cycle and then smoothly decreases as the system shrinks and dissipates. The evolutions of the precipitating properties associated to MCSs indicate that the life cycle of these systems can be described by three phases: initiation, mature and dissipation. This pattern is robust across the entire monsoonal region and the scale factors of this idealized model indicate complex regional specificities.

Fiolleau, T.; Roca, R.; Angelis, F. C.; Viltard, N.

2012-12-01

290

A Sun-to-Earth Campaign Joining Observations from the Great Observatory with Worldwide Satellite and Ground-Based Resources to Investigate System Science Frontiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Internet-based cross-disciplinary analysis campaign that will make heavy use of Great Observatory missions as well as international satellite and ground-based assets is being undertaken with joint support from the CAWSES, IHY, LWS, and ICESTAR programs planned for late April or early May 2006. An evolving list of open science questions that serve as sun-to-Earth focus areas for the worldwide

J. U. Kozyra; K. Shibata; R. J. Barnes; S. Basu; J. M. Davila; N. J. Fox; N. Gopalswamy; M. M. Kuznetsova; D. Pallamraju; L. J. Paxton; A. Ridley; M. Weiss; C. A. Young; L. J. Zanetti

2006-01-01

291

Satellite-based Observation of the Tectonics of Southern Tibet  

SciTech Connect

The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau were formed as a result of the collision of India and Asia, and provide an excellent natural laboratory for the investigation of the mechanical response of the outer 100 km of the Earth (the lithosphere) to tectonic stress. Geophysicists are divided in their views on the nature of this response with one group advocating homogeneously distributed deformation in which the lithosphere deforms as a fluid continuum while others contend that deformation is highly localized with the lithosphere deforming as a system of rigid blocks. These rigid blocks or plate undergo little internal deformation. The latter group draws support from the high slip-rates recently observed on strike-slip faults along the northern edge of the Plateau (the Altyn Tagh Fault, ATF), coupled with seismic observations suggesting that these faults penetrate the entire lithosphere. These ''lithospheric faults'' define continental lithospheric plates and facilitate the eastward extrusion of the ''central Tibet plate''. If extrusion of a rigid Tibet occurs then there must be equivalent features at its southern boundary with slip-rates similar to those in the north. The southern boundary of Tibet, defined by the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), has no lateral component of motion and is therefore kinematically incompatible with motion in the north. However, a series of features, the Karakorum Fault, the Karakorum-Jiali Fracture Zone (KJFZ), the Jiali Fault and the Red River Fault which lie to the north of the MHT may define the actual, kinematic, southern boundary of this ''central Tibet plate''. We have investigated the rate of slip along the Karakorum Fault (KKF), the major strike-slip fault in southwestern Tibet. If the KKF represents the actual, kinematic, southern boundary of this Tibet, and is the only feature accommodating eastward extrusion of Tibet, then its slip-rate should be similar to that of the ATF in the north. Offsets along the Karakorum Fault ranging from tens of meters to kilometers have been mapped using satellite imagery and field mapping, and samples ages determined by cosmic-ray exposure dating. Near Bulong Kol (39{sup o}N, 75{sup o}E) cosmogenic dating of a 40 m fluvial offset yields a slip rate of {approx}6.5 mm/yr. Near Mt. Kailas (31.5{sup o}N, 80.7{sup o}E), a glacial moraine offset by {approx}350 m has been dated at 32.3 {+-} 9.5 thousand years, yielding a slip rate of 10.8 {+-} 3.6 mm/yr. In the Gar Valley (32{sup o}N, 80{sup o}E) a river channel incised in glacial sediments yields an offset of 1750 m and an age of 283,000 years equivalent to a slip-rate of 6 mm/yr. Relative to the ATF, the slip rates on the KKF are lower than expected, and since these measurements cover almost the entire length of the KKF, the disparity cannot be attributed to along strike variation in the rate. Based upon the analysis of satellite images along the Karakorum Fault, we believe that this apparent slip deficit may be to the en echelon arrangement of multiple strike slip fault segments that characterize what should more appropriately be called the Karakorum Fault Zone. The geometric arrangement of parallel fault segments produces the ''pull apart'' basins that form the valleys along the KKF. Hence, at any given latitude, slip along the KKF may be distributed among numerous fault segments. This investigation supports efforts to understand the structure and mechanical response of the Earth's crust and supports the application of remote sensing methods.

Ryerson, F J; Finkel, R; van der Woerd, J

2003-02-06

292

DEMETER satellite observations of lightning-induced electron precipitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DEMETER spacecraft detects short bursts of lightning-induced electron precipitation (LEP) simultaneously with newly-injected upgoing whistlers, and sometimes also with once-reflected (from conjugate hemisphere) whistlers. For the first time causative lightning discharges are definitively geo-located for some LEP bursts aboard a satellite. The LEP bursts occur within <1 s of the causative lightning and consist of 100-300 keV electrons. First in-situ observations of large regions of enhanced background precipitation are presented. The regions are apparently produced and maintained by high rate of lightning within a localized thunderstorm.

Inan, U. S.; Piddyachiy, D.; Peter, W. B.; Sauvaud, J. A.; Parrot, M.

2007-04-01

293

Gas Flaring Volume Estimates with Multiple Satellite Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flammable gases (primarily methane) are a common bi-product associated with oil wells. Where there is no infrastructure to use the gas or bring it to market, the gases are typically flared off. This practice is more common at remote sites, such as an offshore drilling platform. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) is a series of satellites with a low-light imager called the Operational Linescan System (OLS). The OLS, which detects the flares at night, has been a valuable tool in the estimation of flared gas volume [Elvidge et al, 2009]. The use of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire product has been processed to create products suitable for an independent estimate of gas flaring on land. We are presenting the MODIS flare product, the results of our MODIS gas flare volume analysis, and independent validation of the published DMSP estimates. Elvidge, C. D., Ziskin, D., Baugh, K. E., Tuttle, B. T., Ghosh, T., Pack, D. W., Erwin, E. H., Zhizhin, M., 2009, "A Fifteen Year Record of Global Natural Gas Flaring Derived from Satellite Data", Energies, 2 (3), 595-622

Ziskin, D. C.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.; Ghosh, T.; Hsu, F. C.

2010-12-01

294

Satellite Observations of Desert Dust-induced Himalayan Snow Darkening  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optically thick aerosol layer along the southern edge of the Himalaya has been subject of several recent investigations relating to its radiative impacts on the South Asian summer monsoon and regional climate forcing. Prior to the onset of summer monsoon, mineral dust from southwest Asian deserts is transported over the Himalayan foothills on an annual basis. Episodic dust plumes are also advected over the Himalaya, visible as dust-laden snow surface in satellite imagery, particularly in western Himalaya. We examined spectral surface reflectance retrieved from spaceborne MODIS observations that show characteristic reduction in the visible wavelengths (0.47 nm) over western Himalaya, associated with dust-induced solar absorption. Case studies as well as seasonal variations of reflectance indicate a significant gradient across the visible (0.47 nm) to near-infrared (0.86 nm) spectrum (VIS-NIR), during premonsoon period. Enhanced absorption at shorter visible wavelengths and the resulting VIS-NIR gradient is consistent with model calculations of snow reflectance with dust impurity. While the role of black carbon in snow cannot be ruled out, our satellite-based analysis suggests the observed spectral reflectance gradient dominated by dust-induced solar absorption during premonsoon season. From an observational viewpoint, this study underscores the importance of mineral dust deposition toward darkening of the western Himalayan snow cover, with potential implications to accelerated seasonal snowmelt and regional snow albedo feedbacks.

Gautam, Ritesh; Hsu, N. Christina; Lau, William K.-M.; Yasunari, Teppei J.

2013-01-01

295

Observations of Active Volcanoes Using the EO-1 Satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous satellite observations of active volcanoes have been hampered by instruments that are primarily designed to measure surface reflectance of the Earth's vegetation. Sensors detecting radiation in the near-IR and IR are frequently saturated by highly radiant active volcanic features. Two satellite instruments, Hyperion and the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on the Earth Observing -1 (EO-1) offer a means to circumvent saturation issues. Hyperion is a hyperspectral instrument that collects data in 242 narrow spectral bands between 0.4 and 2.5 microns and produces images that are 7.5 km x 100 km. For each 30m x 30m pixel, accurate atmospheric corrections and multiple component thermal models for lava flows can be generated. ALI is a Landsat-like instrument having 10 spectral bands at 0.4 - 2.35 microns. One of these, the 1.2 micron band, is sensitive to high temperature thermal anomalies such as overturning lava lakes and open lava channels. ALI also has a 10-m panchromtic band that allows for greater detailed mapping of volcanic features. ALI and Hyperion analyses for Erta Ale (Ethiopia), Mt. Etna (Sicily), Santiaguito (Guatemala), Popocatepetl (Mexico), and Mayon (Philippines) will be presented. While distribution of these data sets is limited to the EO-1 Science Team, the future of NASA's high spatial resolution terrestrial observation program will likely be based on a hybrid of these EO-1 sensors.

Flynn, L. P.; Harris, A. J.; Wright, R.; Oppenheimer, C.; Geschwind, L. R.; Donegan, S.; Garbeil, H.

2001-12-01

296

Cooling systems for satellite remote sensing instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of a cryogenic cooling system for the Pollution Monitoring Satellite (PMS) are discussed. Studies were conducted to make the following determinations: (1) the characteristics and use of proven and state-of-the-art cryogenic cooling systems for six specified ranges of performance, (2) the system most applicable for each of the six cooling categories, and (3) conceptual designs for candidate system for each of the six representative cooling categories. The six cooling categories of electrical loads are defined. The desired mission life for the cooling system is two years with both continuous and intermittent operating conditions.

Copeland, R. J.; Oren, J. A.

1974-01-01

297

Solar power satellite system definition study, volume 7  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Guidelines and assumptions used in the design of a system of geosynchronous satellites for transmitting solar power to earth were discussed as well as the design evolutions of the principle types of solar power satellites and space support systems.

1977-01-01

298

STABILITY OF SATELLITES IN CLOSELY PACKED PLANETARY SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

We perform numerical integrations of four-body (star, planet, planet, satellite) systems to investigate the stability of satellites in planetary systems with tightly packed inner planets (STIPs). We find that the majority ...

Payne, Matthew J.

299

Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer observations of geosynchronous satellites.  

PubMed

Using a 15.9? m baseline at the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI), we have successfully detected interferometric fringes in observations of the geosynchronous satellite (geosat) DirecTV-9S while it glinted on two nights in March 2009. The fringe visibilities can be fitted by a model consisting of two components, one resolved (?3.7? m) and one unresolved (?1.1? m). Both the length of the glint and the specular albedos are consistent with the notion that the glinting surfaces are not completely flat and scatter reflected sunlight into an opening angle of roughly 15°. Enhancements to the NPOI that would improve geosat observations include adding an infrared capability, which could extend the glint season, and adding larger, adaptive-optics equipped telescopes. Future work may test the feasibility of observing geosats with aperture-masked large telescopes and of developing an array of six to nine elements. PMID:21673773

Hindsley, Robert B; Armstrong, J Thomas; Schmitt, Henrique R; Andrews, Jonathan R; Restaino, Sergio R; Wilcox, Christopher C; Vrba, Frederick J; Benson, James A; DiVittorio, Michael E; Hutter, Donald J; Shankland, Paul D; Gregory, Steven A

2011-06-10

300

Modeling Prairie Pothole Lakes: Linking Satellite Observation and Calibration (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the response of a complex lake wetland system to variations in climate. The focus is on the lakes and wetlands of the Missouri Coteau, which is part of the larger Prairie Pothole Region of the Central Plains of North America. Information on lake size was enumerated from satellite images, and yielded power law relationships for different hydrological conditions. More traditional lake-stage data were made available to us from the USGS Cottonwood Lake Study Site in North Dakota. A Probabilistic Hydrologic Model (PHM) was developed to simulate lake complexes comprised of tens-of-thousands or more individual closed-basin lakes and wetlands. What is new about this model is a calibration scheme that utilizes remotely-sensed data on lake area as well as stage data for individual lakes. Some ¼ million individual data points are used within a Genetic Algorithm to calibrate the model by comparing the simulated results with observed lake area-frequency power law relationships derived from Landsat images and water depths from seven individual lakes and wetlands. The simulated lake behaviors show good agreement with the observations under average, dry, and wet climatic conditions. The calibrated model is used to examine the impact of climate variability on a large lake complex in ND, in particular, the “Dust Bowl Drought” 1930s. This most famous drought of the 20th Century devastated the agricultural economy of the Great Plains with health and social impacts lingering for years afterwards. Interestingly, the drought of 1930s is unremarkable in relation to others of greater intensity and frequency before AD 1200 in the Great Plains. Major droughts and deluges have the ability to create marked variability of the power law function (e.g. up to one and a half orders of magnitude variability from the extreme Dust Bowl Drought to the extreme 1993-2001 deluge). This new probabilistic modeling approach provides a novel tool to examine the response of the behavior of a complex of closed lakes vary in scale from the footprint of a small house to that of a small city.

Schwartz, F. W.; Liu, G.; Zhang, B.; Yu, Z.

2009-12-01

301

Anomalous event diagnosis for environmental satellite systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) is responsible for the operation of the NOAA geostationary and polar orbiting satellites. NESDIS provides a wide array of operational meteorological and oceanographic products and services and operates various computer and communication systems on a 24-hour, seven days per week schedule. The Anomaly Reporting System contains a database of anomalous events regarding the operations of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), communication, or computer systems that have degraded or caused the loss of GOES imagery. Data is currently entered manually via an automated query user interface. There are 21 possible symptoms (e.g., No Data), and 73 possible causes (e.g., Sectorizer - World Weather Building) of an anomalous event. The determination of an event's cause(s) is made by the on-duty computer operator, who enters the event in a paper based daily log, and by the analyst entering the data into the reporting system. The determination of the event's cause(s) impacts both the operational status of these systems, and the performance evaluation of the on-site computer and communication operations contractor.

Ramsay, Bruce H.

1993-01-01

302

GPS satellites as calibrator sources for solar observations with the PBDA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of standard interferometer calibration techniques and calibrator sources is generally not enough to completely and uniquely solve the problem of calibration of solar interferometer data. Because, in the decimetric range, the celestial calibrators are many orders of magnitude fainter than the Sun, it is almost impossible to obtain an accurate amplitude calibration. Phase calibration is possible only thourgh use of different attenuation, that might insert unknown phase errors in the data. A different approach is presented in this work. Attempts have been made to use satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS) as calibrator sources for solar observations with the Prototype of the Brazilian Decimetric Array (PBDA). The GPS satellites can be regarded as point sources for most of the solar-observing arrays, and have the advantage that their orbits and the power emitted by their transmitters are well known, and the flux on Earth's surface is higher than that of the Quiet Sun at 1575 MHz. These properties led to the suggestion that these satellites should be possible sources for the calibration of solar interferometric observations. We present results of observations of GPS satellites alone and also of solar observations that were calibrated using this scheme during the period from May to September, 2007. The results indicate that the GPS signals are adequate for interferometer calibration, as can be concluded from the solar maps presented.

Madsen, Felipe; Silva, Jorge; Sawant, Hanumant; Padmanabhan, Janardhan; Cecatto, José; Freitas, Ubiratan

303

Oceanic satellite data service system based on web  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ocean satellite observation is more and more important to study the global change, protect ocean resource and implement ocean engineering for their large area cover and high frequency observation, which have already given us a global view of ocean environment parameters, including the sea surface temperature, ocean color, wind, wave, sea level and sea ice, etc... China has made great progress in ocean environment remote sensing over the last couple of years. These data are widely used for a variety of applications in ocean environment studies, coastal water quality monitoring environmental, fishery resources protection, development and utilization of fishery resources, coastal engineering and oceanography. But the data are no online information access and dissemination, no online visualization & browsing, no online query and analyze capability. To facilitate the application of the data and to help disseminating the data, a web-service system has developed. The system provides capabilities of online oceanic satellite information access, query, visualize and analyze. It disseminates oceanic satellite data to the users via real time retrieval, processing and publishing through standards-based geospatial web services. A region of interest can also be exported directly to Google Earth for displaying or downloaded. This web service system greatly improves accessibility, interoperability, usability, and visualization of oceanic satellite data without any client-side software installation.

Kang, Yan; Pan, Delu; He, Xianqiang; Wang, Difeng; Chen, Jianyu; Chen, Xiaoyan

2011-11-01

304

A generalized distance formula for planetary and satellite systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generalized distance formula for planetary and satellite systems is presented. The percentage of the distance error for the satellite systems is about 7 percent and for the planets 2.6 percent. For the satellite systems of Jupiter, Saturn and Neptune, the positions of hitherto unknown moons are predicted. The new Uranus moons fit well into the new distance relation.

R. Neuhaeuser; J. V. Feitzinger

1986-01-01

305

Indian Regional Navigation Satellites System (IRNSS) is the world's rst  

E-print Network

Indian Regional Navigation Satellites System (IRNSS) is the world's rst regional navigation system with its footprint primarily over the Indian subcontinent. The system is expected to have seven satellites in all, with three satellites in GEO stationary and four in GEO synchronous orbits (Kibe & Gowrishankar

Calgary, University of

306

Joint Polar Satellite System Science Seminar Annual Digest  

E-print Network

iii Joint Polar Satellite System Science Seminar Annual Digest 2013 #12;#12;Joint Polar Satellite System Science Seminar Annual Digest Page i From the Senior Program Scientist On behalf of the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Program Science, it is my pleasure to present this digest, which

307

Satellite Telemetry and Command using Big LEO Mobile Telecommunications Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various issues associated with satellite telemetry and command using Big LEO mobile telecommunications systems are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Commercial Satellite system overviews: Globalstar, ICO, and Iridium; 2) System capabilities and cost reduction; 3) Satellite constellations and contact limitations; 4) Capabilities of Globalstar, ICO and Iridium with emphasis on Globalstar; and 5) Flight transceiver issues and security.

Huegel, Fred

1998-01-01

308

Satellite observation of anomalous phytoplankton blooms in the Black Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AVHRR, MODIS, MERIS, ASAR, ETM+ data were used for bloom detection in the Black Sea and investigation of phytoplankton impact on the water properties. Intensive blooms of the blue green algae were observed last years by satellite data in the north-western part of the Black Sea in summer season. Well detected in optical data blue - green algae affected on thermal properties of the sea upper layer too. Possible reason of the bloom occurrence and development are discussed. Summer coccolithophore bloom is typical for the Black Sea event, but duration and intensity of the bloom in May-July 2012 were unique and not observed earlier. Intercomparison of the satellite data with in situ biological measurements gave Emiliania huxleyi concentration more than 20*106 cells per liter in zones of the maximum bloom. Estimations of the coccolith concentration in water gave 4*10-3 g/liter. Total mass of the coccolith and related sediments during bloom period was higher than integral for the previous 15 years.

Stanichny, Sergey; Stanychna, Rimma; Solovyov, Dmytro; Yasakova, Olga

2013-04-01

309

GOME-2 satellite observations of NOx emissions from ships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volume of international shipping has been rapidly increasing over the last decades, and further increases are expected for the coming years. A large fraction of the shipping is close to coastal areas but for intercontinental transport, shipping routes also pass through the remote oceans. As the volume of transported goods is increasing, so is the amount of shipping related pollutant emissions into the marine boundary layer. As result of the lack of legislation on shipping emissions, in particular in international waters, in combination with substantial emission reductions for many land based sources, the relative importance of pollution from ships is increasing. Satellite observations of NO2 and HCHO by GOME and SCIAMACHY have been used to identify shipping emissions mainly in the Indian Ocean, where high vessel densities and low background pollution levels facilitate the detection of small signals. With the better spatial coverage of recent satellite instruments such as GOME-2 and OMI, the statistics improved and better detection limits can now be achieved. In this study, three years of GOME-2 data of NO2 have been systematically examined for shipping signals. Compared to previous studies, additional shipping tracks could be identified in the NO2 maps. Comparison with SCIAMACHY measurements shows interesting changes in the paths taken by the ships in the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean. The observed patterns in ship emissions will be discussed with respect to reported vessel densities and GOME-2 measurement uncertainties.

Richter, Andreas; Hilboll, Andreas; Zien, Achim; Burrows, John P.

2010-05-01

310

Satellite microwave observations of the Utah Great Salt Lake Desert  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microwave data acquired over the Great Salt Lake Desert by sensors aboard Skylab and Nimbus 5 indicate that microwave emission and backscatter were strongly influenced by contributions from subsurface layers of sediment saturated with brine. This phenomenon was observed by Skylab's S-194 radiometer operating at 1.4 GHz, S-193 RADSCAT (Radiometer-Scatterometer) operating at 13.9 GHz and the Nimbus 5 ESMR (Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer) operating at 19.35 GHz. The availability of ESMR data over an 18 month period allowed an investigation of temporal variations. Aircraft 1.4 GHz radiometer data acquired two days after one of the Skylab passes confirm the satellites observations. Data from the ESMR revealed similar responses over the Bolivian deserts, which have geologic features similar to those of the Utah desert.

Ulaby, F. T.; Dellwig, L. F.; Schmugge, T. J.

1975-01-01

311

LCROSS: Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the success of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) project. The LCROSS mission science goals was to: (1) Confirm the presence or absence of water ice in a permanently shadowed region on the Moon (2) Identify the form/state of hydrogen observed by at the lunar poles (3) Quantify, if present, the amount of water in the lunar regolith, with respect to hydrogen concentrations (4) Characterize the lunar regolith within a permanently shadowed crater on the Moon. The mission confirmed the presence of water ice on the moon by impacting a part of the spent Centaur upper stage into the Cabeus crater.. The presentation includes pictures of the development of the spacecraft, testing, launch, impact site, impact and a section of what the author called "Lunacy" which showed joking cartoons.

Marmie, John

2010-01-01

312

Astrometric observations of natural satellites and orbit update , Cheng X.1,2  

E-print Network

181 Astrometric observations of natural satellites and orbit update Xi X.J.1,2 , Cheng X.1 100039, China Abstract: This paper reports on our observing campaign of nature satellites and orbit research of photo plates. 1 Research History In 1985, we start our research on natural satellites

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

313

Global Observations of Precipitation Using Satellite Passive Millimeter-Wave Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lack of reliable global ground truth has impeded accurate global observations of precipitation using satellites. Rain gauges, ground-based and satellite-borne radars, visible and infrared sensors, and various passive microwave sensors all have deficiencies. For example, rain inhomogeneities, wind, and the lack of good global coverage significantly degrade rain gauge measurements. Infrared satellite observations only see the tops of clouds, and

Chinnawat Surussavadee

2008-01-01

314

Evolution in the lineament patterns associated to strong earthquakes revealed by satellite observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the temporal evolution of the stress patterns in the crust by using high-resolution (10-300 m) satellite images from MODIS and ASTER satellite sensors. We are able to detect some changes in density and orientation of lineaments preceding earthquake events. A lineament is generally defined as a straight or a somewhat curved feature in the landscape visible in a satellite image as an aligned sequence of pixels of a contrasting intensity compared to the background. The system of lineaments extracted from the satellite images is not identical to the geological lineaments; nevertheless, it generally reflects the structure of the faults and fractures in the Earth's crust. Our analysis has shown that the system of lineaments is very dynamical, and the significant number of lineaments appeared approximately one month before an earthquake, while one month after the earthquake the lineament configuration returned to its initial state. These features were not observed in the test areas that are free of any seismic activity in that period (null hypothesis). We have designed a computational prototype capable to detect lineament evolution and to utilize both ASTER and MODIS satellite L1/L2. We will demonstrate the first successful test results for several Mw> 5 earthquakes in Chile, Peru, China, and California (USA).

Soto-Pinto, C. A.; Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Ouzounov, D. P.

2011-12-01

315

Subtropical Gyre Variability Observed by Ocean Color Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The subtropical gyres of the world are extensive, coherent regions that occupy about 40% of the surface of the earth. Once thought to be homogeneous and static habitats, there is increasing evidence that mid-latitude gyres exhibit substantial physical and biological variability on a variety of time scales. While biological productivity within these oligotrophic regions may be relatively small, their immense size makes their total contribution significant. Global distributions of dynamic height derived from satellite altimeter data, and chlorophyll concentration derived from satellite ocean color data, show that the dynamic center of the gyres, the region of maximum dynamic height where the thermocline is deepest, does not coincide with the region of minimum chlorophyll concentration. The physical and biological processes by which this distribution of ocean properties is maintained, and the spatial and temporal scales of variability associated with these processes, are analyzed using global surface chlorophyll-a concentrations, sea surface height, sea surface temperature and surface winds from operational satellite and meteorological sources, and hydrographic data from climatologies and individual surveys. Seasonal and interannual variability in the areal extent of the subtropical gyres are examined using 8 months (November 1996 - June 1997) of OCTS and nearly 5 years (September 1997 - June 02) of SeaWiFS ocean color data and are interpreted in the context of climate variability and measured changes in other ocean properties (i.e., wind forcing, surface currents, Ekman pumping, and vertical mixing). The North Pacific and North Atlantic gyres are observed to be shrinking over this period, while the South Pacific, South Atlantic, and South Indian Ocean gyres appear to be expanding.

McClain, Charles R.; Signorini, Sergio R.; Christian, James R.

2002-01-01

316

Antartic sea ice, 1973 - 1976: Satellite passive-microwave observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from the Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) on the Nimbus 5 satellite are used to determine the extent and distribution of Antarctic sea ice. The characteristics of the southern ocean, the mathematical formulas used to obtain quantitative sea ice concentrations, the general characteristics of the seasonal sea ice growth/decay cycle and regional differences, and the observed seasonal growth/decay cycle for individual years and interannual variations of the ice cover are discussed. The sea ice data from the ESMR are presented in the form of color-coded maps of the Antarctic and the southern oceans. The maps show brightness temperatures and concentrations of pack ice averaged for each month, 4-year monthly averages, and month-to-month changes. Graphs summarizing the results, such as areas of sea ice as a function of time in the various sectors of the southern ocean are included. The images demonstrate that satellite microwave data provide unique information on large-scale sea ice conditions for determining climatic conditions in polar regions and possible global climatic changes.

Zwally, H. J.; Comiso, J. C.; Parkinson, C. L.; Campbell, W. J.; Carsey, F. D.; Gloersen, P.

1983-01-01

317

Observing tectonic plate motions and deformations from satellite laser ranging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scope of geodesy has been greatly affected by the advent of artificial near-earth satellites. The present paper provides a description of the results obtained from the reduction of data collected with the aid of satellite laser ranging. It is pointed out that dynamic reduction of satellite laser ranging (SLR) data provides very precise positions in three dimensions for the

D. C. Christodoulidis; D. E. Smith; R. Kolenkiewicz; S. M. Klosko; M. H. Torrence

1985-01-01

318

Ambiguity resolution for satellite Doppler positioning systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implementation of satellite-based Doppler positioning systems frequently requires the recovery of transmitter position from a single pass of Doppler data. The least-squares approach to the problem yields conjugate solutions on either side of the satellite subtrack. It is important to develop a procedure for choosing the proper solution which is correct in a high percentage of cases. A test for ambiguity resolution which is the most powerful in the sense that it maximizes the probability of a correct decision is derived. When systematic error sources are properly included in the least-squares reduction process to yield an optimal solution the test reduces to choosing the solution which provides the smaller valuation of the least-squares loss function. When systematic error sources are ignored in the least-squares reduction, the most powerful test is a quadratic form comparison with the weighting matrix of the quadratic form obtained by computing the pseudoinverse of a reduced-rank square matrix. A formula for computing the power of the most powerful test is provided. Numerical examples are included in which the power of the test is computed for situations that are relevant to the design of a satellite-aided search and rescue system.

Argentiero, P.; Marini, J.

1979-01-01

319

Communications satellite systems operations with the space station, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A financial model was developed which described quantitatively the economics of the space segment of communication satellite systems. The model describes the economics of the space system throughout the lifetime of the satellite. The expected state-of-the-art status of communications satellite systems and operations beginning service in 1995 were assessed and described. New or enhanced space-based activities and associated satellite system designs that have the potential to achieve future communications satellite operations in geostationary orbit with improved economic performance were postulated and defined. Three scenarios using combinations of space-based activities were analyzed: a spin stabilized satellite, a three axis satellite, and assembly at the Space Station and GEO servicing. Functional and technical requirements placed on the Space Station by the scenarios were detailed. Requirements on the satellite were also listed.

Price, K.; Dixon, J.; Weyandt, C.

1987-01-01

320

47 CFR 5.64 - Special provisions for satellite systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...disclosing that fact shall be included in the debris mitigation disclosure. Such systems shall also indicate the anticipated evolution over time of the orbit of the proposed satellite or satellites. Where a space station operator requests the...

2014-10-01

321

47 CFR 5.64 - Special provisions for satellite systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...disclosing that fact shall be included in the debris mitigation disclosure. Such systems shall also indicate the anticipated evolution over time of the orbit of the proposed satellite or satellites. Where a space station operator requests the...

2013-10-01

322

Intelligent Satellite Data Information System (ISIS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Intelligent Satellite Data Information System is "the central user interface" to the data archived at the German Remote Sensing Data Center (DFD) and offers descriptions of (and facilitates access to) numerous online resources. For general information about remote sensing and the ISIS site, see the News section (including announcements of upcoming electronic resources), the Thesaurus (containing synonyms for about 7,000 important scientific terms), and the Infoboard section (including tutorials in English and German, a list of data products, and an array of links to related resources). The ISIS homepage also offers a new WWW-Gateway to the Data, in which users may search or browse Earth Science data "from various participating archive centers around the globe." For the latest satellite images, see the Special section, which features spectacular color images of The weather in Europe, Temperatures and vegetation, and Ozone-concentration, electron-density and chlorophyll-content.

323

The investigation of tethered satellite system dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A progress report is presented that deals with three major topics related to Tethered Satellite System Dynamics. The SAO rotational dynamics computer code was updated. The program is now suitable to deal with inclined orbits. The output has been also modified in order to show the satellite Euler angles referred to the rotating orbital frame. The three-dimensional high resolution computer program SLACK3 was developed. The code simulates the three-dimensional dynamics of a tether going slack taking into account the effect produced by boom rotations. Preliminary simulations on the three-dimensional dynamics of a recoiling slack tether are shown in this report. A program to evaluate the electric potential around a severed tether is immersed in a plasma. The potential is computed on a three-dimensional grid axially symmetric with respect to the tether longitudinal axis. The electric potential variations due to the plasma are presently under investigation.

Lorenzini, E.

1985-01-01

324

Attitude estimation for a bias-momentum geosynchronous satellite using an adaptive observer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attitude estimation for a bias momentum geosynchronous satellite is investigated using a modification of the adaptive observer technique developed by Kreisselmeier. The unknown parameters are taken to be the offsets of the angular momentum vector along the roll and yaw axes. The results are compared with those obtained using a Luenberger observer. The modified adaptive observer gives good estimates for roll, roll rate, and pitch rate only. It is suggested that this is due to the low degree of observability of the yaw angle and yaw rate of this system.

Campbell, J. L.

1983-03-01

325

Pseudo-coherent demodulation for mobile satellite systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper proposes three so-called pseudo-coherent demodulation schemes for use in land mobile satellite channels. The schemes are derived based on maximum likelihood (ML) estimation and detection of an N-symbol observation of the received signal. Simulation results for all three demodulators are presented to allow comparison with the performance of differential PSK (DPSK) and ideal coherent demodulation for various system parameter sets of practical interest.

Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.

1993-01-01

326

Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (1) total solar irradiance, (2) Earth radiation budget, (3) land cover & land use change, (4) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (5) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (6) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including dust storms over the world's deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean.

King, Michael D.

2001-01-01

327

An Application of ARGOS Observations to Satellite Drag  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most important applications of near-Earth space environmental forecasting is the routine estimation of upper atmospheric drag for precision orbit determination and prediction of objects in low earth orbit (LEO; altitudes less than 2500 km). Drag on LEO objects is the largest source of error in orbit determination, primarily because of the inaccuracy of upper atmospheric mass density estimates. Obsrevations acquired by the Low-Resolution Airglow and Auroral Spectrograph (LORAAS) sensor aboard the STP/P91-1 Advanced Research Global Observing Satellite (ARGOS) mission and the follow-on UV sensors on DMSP missions covering the next decade provide the ability to quantitatively assess the response of the upper atmosphere to solar and geomagnetic forcing. We report our investigation into geomagnetically quiet and active conditions and compare the results to climatological models. The ARGOS results will also be compared to drag-derived values obtained using the general perturbations (GP) and special perturbations (SP) techniques.

Nicholas, A. C.; Thonnard, S. E.; Dymond, K. F.; Budzien, S. A.; McCoy, R. P.; Knowles, S.

2001-12-01

328

Terrestrial Myriametric Radio Burst Observed by IMAGE and Geotail Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report the simultaneous detection of a terrestrial myriametric radio burst (TMRB) by IMAGE and Geotail on 19 August 2001. The TMRB was confined in time (0830-1006 UT) and frequency (12-50kHz). Comparisons with all known nonthermal myriametric radiation components reveal that the TMRB might be a distinct radiation with a source that is unrelated to the previously known radiation. Considerations of beaming from spin-modulation analysis and observing satellite and source locations suggest that the TMRB may have a fan beamlike radiation pattern emitted by a discrete, dayside source located along the poleward edge of magnetospheric cusp field lines. TMRB responsiveness to IMF Bz and By orientations suggests that a possible source of the TMRB could be due to dayside magnetic reconnection instigated by northward interplanetary field condition.

Fung, Shing F.; Hashimoto, KoZo; Kojima, Hirotsugu; Boardson, Scott A.; Garcia, Leonard N.; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Green, James L.; Reinisch, Bodo W.

2013-01-01

329

Internal solitary wave propagation observed by tandem satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Internal solitary waves (ISWs) are observed 2 times within 30 min in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image pairs from the Envisat and ERS-2 tandem satellites. Three pairs of SAR images were acquired in the South China Sea (SCS) in April 2007, August 2008, and March 2009, and 13 ISWs were tracked between the image pair in an ArcGIS environment. The phase speeds of these ISWs are calculated from their spatial displacement and time interval. The resultant ISW speeds agree well with the theoretical values estimated from the Sturm-Louisville equation using local bathymetric and monthly climatology ocean stratification data. This technique reveals the spatial variation in the ISWs speed in the water depth between 100 and 4000 m in the SCS. The study shows that ISWs speed is mainly affected by bottom topography and generally decreases from deep to shallow water from east to west and from south to north.

Liu, Bingqing; Yang, Hong; Zhao, Zhongxiang; Li, Xiaofeng

2014-03-01

330

Satellites - New global observing techniques for ice and snow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility that the variation in areal extent of the snow cover may be related by empirical means to the average monthly run-off in a given watershed was demonstrated by comparing run-off records from the Indus River Basin in south-east Asia with a series of snow-cover maps obtained from Nimbus-3 and 4 imagery. Similar studies using the higher spatial resolution available with ERTS-1 imagery were carried out for the Wind River Mountains watersheds in Wyoming, where it was found that the empirical relationship varied with mean elevation of the watershed. In addition, digital image enhancement techniques are shown to be useful for identifying glacier features thought to be related to extent of snow cover, moraine characteristics, debris coverage, and the like. Finally, longer wavelength observations using sensors on board the Nimbus-5 satellite are shown to be useful for indicating crystal size distributions and onset of melting on glacier snow cover.

Gloersen, P.; Salomonson, V. V.

1975-01-01

331

The Role of Satellite Earth Observation Data in Monitoring and Verifying International Environmental Treaties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The term verification implies compliance verification in the language of treaty negotiation and implementation, particularly in the fields of disarmament and arms control. The term monitoring on the other hand, in both environmental and arms control treaties, has a much broader interpretation which allows for use of supporting data sources that are not necessarily acceptable or adequate for direct verification. There are many ways that satellite Earth observation (EO) data can support international environmental agreements, from national forest inventories to use in geographic information system (GIs) tools. Though only a few references to satellite EO data and their use exist in the treaties themselves, an expanding list of applications can be considered in support of multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). This paper explores the current uses of satellite Earth observation data which support monitoring activities of major environmental treaties and draws conclusions about future missions and their data use. The scope of the study includes all phases of environmental treaty fulfillment - development, monitoring, and enforcement - and includes a multinational perspective on the use of satellite Earth observation data for treaty support.

Johnston, Shaida

2004-01-01

332

SEU induced errors observed in microprocessor systems  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the authors present software tools for predicting the rate and nature of observable SEU induced errors in microprocessor systems. These tools are built around a commercial microprocessor simulator and are used to analyze real satellite application systems. Results obtained from simulating the nature of SEU induced errors are shown to correlate with ground-based radiation test data.

Asenek, V.; Underwood, C.; Oldfield, M. [Univ. of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom). Surrey Space Centre] [Univ. of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom). Surrey Space Centre; Velazco, R.; Rezgui, S.; Cheynet, P. [TIMA Lab., Grenoble (France)] [TIMA Lab., Grenoble (France); Ecoffet, R. [Centre National d`Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse (France)] [Centre National d`Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse (France)

1998-12-01

333

Establishing the Antarctic Dome C community reference standard site towards consistent measurements from Earth observation satellites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Establishing satellite measurement consistency by using common desert sites has become increasingly more important not only for climate change detection but also for quantitative retrievals of geophysical variables in satellite applications. Using the Antarctic Dome C site (75°06?S, 123°21?E, elevation 3.2 km) for satellite radiometric calibration and validation (Cal/Val) is of great interest owing to its unique location and characteristics. The site surface is covered with uniformly distributed permanent snow, and the atmospheric effect is small and relatively constant. In this study, the long-term stability and spectral characteristics of this site are evaluated using well-calibrated satellite instruments such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). Preliminary results show that despite a few limitations, the site in general is stable in the long term, the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model works well, and the site is most suitable for the Cal/Val of reflective solar bands in the 0.4–1.0 µm range. It was found that for the past decade, the reflectivity change of the site is within 1.35% at 0.64 µm, and interannual variability is within 2%. The site is able to resolve calibration biases between instruments at a level of ~1%. The usefulness of the site is demonstrated by comparing observations from seven satellite instruments involving four space agencies, including OrbView-2–SeaWiFS, Terra–Aqua MODIS, Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) – Hyperion, Meteorological Operational satellite programme (MetOp) – Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), Envisat Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) – dvanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR), and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). Dome C is a promising candidate site for climate quality calibration of satellite radiometers towards more consistent satellite measurements, as part of the framework for climate change detection and data quality assurance for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS).

Cao, C.; Uprety, S.; Xiong, J.; Wu, A.; Jing, P.; Smith, D.; Chander, G.; Fox, N.; Ungar, S.

2010-01-01

334

Comparing the observed properties of the GRBs detected by the Fermi and Swift satellites  

E-print Network

We studied the distribution of the GRBs, observed by the Fermi satellite, in the multidimensional parameter space consisting of the duration, Fluence, Peak flux and Peak energy (if it was available). About 10% of the Fermi bursts was observed also by the Swift satellite. We did not find significant differences between the Peak flux and Peak energy of GRBs observed and not observed also by the Swift satellite. In contrast, those GRBs detected also by the Swift satellite had significantly greater Fluence and duration. We did a similar study for the GRBs detected by the Swift satellite. About 30% percent of these bursts was also measured by the Fermi satellite. We found a significant difference in the Fluence, Peak flux and Photon index but none in duration. These differences may be accounted for the different construction and observing strategy of the Fermi and Swift satellites.

Balazs, L G; Bagoly, Z; Kobori, J

2013-01-01

335

Satellites: New global observing techniques for ice and snow. [using erts-1 and nimbus 5 satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relation of aereal extent of snow cover to the average monthly runoff in a given watershed was investigated by comparing runoff records with a series of snowcover maps. Studies using the high spatial resolution available with ERTS-1 imagery were carried out for the Wind River Mountains watersheds in Wyoming, where it was found that the empirical relationship varied with mean elevation of the watershed. In addition, digital image enhancement techniques are shown to be useful for identifying glacier features related to extent of snowcover, moraine characteristics, and debris average. Longer wavelength observations using sensors on board the Nimbus 5 Satellite are shown to be useful for indicating crystal size distributions and onset of melting on glacier snow cover.

Gloersen, P.; Salomonson, V. V.

1974-01-01

336

The global Earth observation system of systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recognizing the growing need for improved Earth observations, 140 governments and leading international organizations have established the Group on Earth Observations, or GEO, to collaborate and implement a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) by the year 2015. Countries and organizations are contributing their respective Earth monitoring systems, from satellites in space and in situ instruments on land, in the oceans and in the atmosphere. They are interlinking these systems so that, together, they provide a more complete picture of Earth's systems dynamics. GEO is developing common technical standards to pool observations and ensure their cross calibration and validation. It is building a web-based infrastructure to ensure easy access to the wealth of data and services contributed to, or generated by, GEOSS. GEO has been promoting the free and open sharing and dissemination of Earth observation data which has already driven significant changes in data distribution policies of several key Earth observing satellites: Landsat, Cbers and the future Sentinels of GMES. GEO is also reflecting on solutions to transition research systems into operational observing systems and ensure their long-term sustainability. First, the current status of GEOSS implementation and these core activities of GEO will be presented. Then, examples of global data sets and information systems or services developed through GEOSS will be presented: - a high-resolution global digital elevation model (DEM) based on Aster data was released by Japan and the USA. In situ measurements are now being used to improve the model as well as the stacking procedure used to develop it; - the Supersites initiative ensures coordinated access to data and information on natural hazards in geologically active regions. In light of the recent tragedy in Haiti, this project created a dedicated web site regularly updated with maps of seismicity, tectonics, Coulomb stress changes, topography, real and synthetic interferograms, as well as damage maps, data, and space images. See http://supersites.unavco.org/haiti.php; - the global carbon observation and analysis system combines observations, reanalysis and product development to provide regional information on emission variations. It addresses the three components of the carbon cycle (atmosphere, land, ocean). The project includes the improvement of global networks of atmospheric CO2 observations, air-surface exchange flux networks, surface ocean CO2 and related marine biochemistry observations, as well as space-based measurements combining Sciamachy , Airs and the newly launched Japanese Gosat; - the Forest Carbon Tracking (FCT) project coordinates the acquisition of observations from multi-spectral and radar (X, C and L-band) satellites, their processing through different models and methodologies and their validation by in situ measurements in 7 selected countries. The aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of a global monitoring and verification system for carbon storage and change in forests. Data and results can be viewed on-line at www.geo-fct.org. This portal allows users to visualize the FCT National Demonstrators, the relevant validation sites and the inventory of the coordinated acquisitions of satellite and in-situ data. Maps and information resulting from the processing of the data will also be posted here when available.

Achache, José

2010-05-01

337

Advanced Microelectronics Technologies for Future Small Satellite Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future small satellite systems for both Earth observation as well as deep-space exploration are greatly enabled by the technological advances in deep sub-micron microelectronics technologies. Whereas these technological advances are being fueled by the commercial (non-space) industries, more recently there has been an exciting new synergism evolving between the two otherwise disjointed markets. In other words, both the commercial and space industries are enabled by advances in low-power, highly integrated, miniaturized (low-volume), lightweight, and reliable real-time embedded systems. Recent announcements by commercial semiconductor manufacturers to introduce Silicon On Insulator (SOI) technology into their commercial product lines is driven by the need for high-performance low-power integrated devices. Moreover, SOI has been the technology of choice for many space semiconductor manufacturers where radiation requirements are critical. This technology has inherent radiation latch-up immunity built into the process, which makes it very attractive to space applications. In this paper, we describe the advanced microelectronics and avionics technologies under development by NASA's Deep Space Systems Technology Program (also known as X2000). These technologies are of significant benefit to both the commercial satellite as well as the deep-space and Earth orbiting science missions. Such a synergistic technology roadmap may truly enable quick turn-around, low-cost, and highly capable small satellite systems for both Earth observation as well as deep-space missions.

Alkalai, Leon

1999-01-01

338

Improvements on global meteorological observations from the current Fengyun 3 satellites and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fengyun 3 (FY-3) series is the second generation of Chinese sun-synchronous meteorological satellites. The first two, FY-3A and FY-3B, were launched successfully on 27 May 2008 and 5 November 2010, respectively. FY-3A and FY-3B share the same design, equipped with 11 payloads to observe the Earth system, but FY-3A is on a monitoring-orbit and FY-3B is on an afternoon-orbit.

Jun Yang; Peng Zhang; Naimeng Lu; Zhongdong Yang; Jinming Shi; Chaohua Dong

2012-01-01

339

Analysis of ground-based observations of the satellites of Saturn 1874 - 1988  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have analyzed over 40,000 ground-based observations of the major satellites of Saturn (except Hyperion) by fitting analytical theories to the observations using the method of least-squares. In this paper, we use the observed-minus-computed residuals to compare the quality of the numerous sets of observations of the satellites made during the period 1874 to 1988.

Harper, D.; Taylor, D. B.

1994-04-01

340

Fixed and mobile satellite communication systems for ETS-VI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in launch vehicle technology have made multibeam communication satellites realistic. The Japanese national project to launch a 2-ton class geostationary satellite, ETS-VI (Engineering Test Satellite-VI), is in progress. NTT involves the development of on-board equipment for fixed and mobile multibeam satellite communication systems using Ka, S and C bands. Key technologies to be flight-verified are: large-diameter, high-precision reflectors, a low sidelobe cluster feeder, precise antenna pointing control system, monolithic IC satellite switch, monolithic IC transponder, Multi-Port Amplifier, and distributed supervisory and control system.

Nakagawa, Kazuo; Kawai, Makoto; Tanaka, Masayoshi

341

or more than 50 years, NOAA has operated earth-observing satellites and collected, processed, and  

E-print Network

F or more than 50 years, NOAA has operated earth- observing satellites and collected, processed in public awareness and preparedness. NOAA satellites scan the globe day and night, sending back an endless orbiting the Earth: geostationary and polar-orbiting satellites. Geostationary Operational Environmental

342

Cassini VIMS observations of the Galilean satellites including the VIMS calibration procedure  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) observed the Galilean satellites during the Cassini spacecraft's 2000/2001 flyby of Jupiter, providing compositional and thermal information about their surfaces. The Cassini spacecraft approached the jovian system no closer than about 126 Jupiter radii, about 9 million kilometers, at a phase angle of < 90 ??, resulting in only sub-pixel observations by VIMS of the Galilean satellites. Nevertheless, most of the spectral features discovered by the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) aboard the Galileo spacecraft during more than four years of observations have been identified in the VIMS data analyzed so far, including a possible 13C absorption. In addition, VIMS made observations in the visible part of the spectrum and at several new phase angles for all the Galilean satellites and the calculated phase functions are presented. In the process of analyzing these data, the VIMS radiometric and spectral calibrations were better determined in preparation for entry into the Saturn system. Treatment of these data is presented as an example of the VIMS data reduction, calibration and analysis process and a detailed explanation is given of the calibration process applied to the Jupiter data. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

McCord, T.B.; Coradini, A.; Hibbitts, C.A.; Capaccioni, F.; Hansen, G.B.; Filacchione, G.; Clark, R.N.; Cerroni, P.; Brown, R.H.; Baines, K.H.; Bellucci, G.; Bibring, J.-P.; Buratti, B.J.; Bussoletti, E.; Combes, M.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Drossart, P.; Formisano, V.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Matson, D.L.; Nelson, R.M.; Nicholson, P.D.; Sicardy, B.; Sotin, C.

2004-01-01

343

Advanced Satellite Sounding: The Benefits of Hyperspectral Observation - 2nd Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is an update to the 2008 expert lecture on hyperspectral observations presented by Dr. Mitch Goldberg, Program Scientist for NOAA's Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Program. The lesson discusses what hyperspectral observations are, how they are made, some current products, their contributions to improved monitoring of the atmosphere, oceans, and land surfaces, as well as their impact on numerical weather prediction. The lesson begins by discussing the importance of satellite observing systems. From there, it reviews the principles of remote sensing that are needed for deriving products from hyperspectral infrared observations. The third and largest section of the lesson examines results from and operational applications of the AIRS, IASI, and CrIS hyperspectral sounders. The final section discusses the importance of hyperspectral soundings from geostationary satellites. The lesson has been updated from the original presentation to include information about NASA and NOAA's new polar orbiting programs and CrIS, the Cross-track Infrared Sounder on the Suomi NPP polar orbiter.

COMET

2013-07-09

344

Combining numerical ocean circulation models with satellite observations in a trajectory forecast system: a rapid response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill presented an unprecedented threat to the Gulf of Mexico coastline and living marine resources, and possibly to that of the southeastern USA. Needed for mitigation efforts and to guide scientific investigations was a system for tracking the oil, both at the surface and at depth. We report on such system, implemented immediately upon spill onset,

Yonggang Liu; Robert H. Weisberg; Chuanmin Hu; Lianyuan Zheng

2011-01-01

345

Origin of satellite systems of the outer planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of regular satellite systems around outer planets is discussed here, with particular attention to the so-called disk phase, which links the formation of the primary body to that of the satellites. Disk models are proposed for Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus disks. The subsequent evolutive phases leading to the present satellite masses (formation of local planetesimals, collisional evolution leading

G. Magni; A. Coradini; P. Cerroni; C. Federico

1990-01-01

346

Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

347

Payload system tradeoffs for mobile communications satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System level trade-offs carried out during Mobile Satellite (M-SAT) design activities are described. These trade-offs relate to the use of low level beam forming, flexible power and spectrum distribution, and selection of the number of beams to cover the service area. It is shown that antenna performance can be improved by sharing horns between beams using a low level beam forming network (BFN). Additionally, greatly increased power utilization is possible using a hybrid matrix concept to share power between beams.

Moody, H. J.

1990-01-01

348

Inmarsat aeronautical mobile satellite system: Internetworking issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Inmarsat Aeronautical Mobile Satellite System (AMSS) provides air-ground and air-air communications services to aero-mobile users on a global basis. Communicating parties may be connected either directly, or more commonly, via interconnecting networks to the Inmarsat AMSS, in order to construct end-to-end communications circuits. The aircraft earth station (AES) and the aeronautical ground earth station (GES) are the points of interconnection of the Inmarsat AMSS to users, as well as to interconnecting networks. This paper reviews the internetworking aspects of the Inmarsat AMSS, by introducing the Inmarsat AMSS network architecture and services concepts and then discussing the internetwork address/numbering and routing techniques.

Sengupta, Jay R.

1990-01-01

349

Irregular Satellites of the Planets: Products of Capture in the Early Solar System  

E-print Network

All four giant planets in the Solar system possess irregular satellites, characterized by large, highly eccentric and/or inclined orbits that are distinct from the nearly circular, uninclined orbits of the regular satellites. This difference can be traced directly to different modes of formation. Whereas the regular satellites grew by accretion within circumplanetary disks the irregular satellites were captured from initially heliocentric orbits at an early epoch. Recently, powerful survey observations have greatly increased the number of known irregular satellites, permitting a fresh look at the group properties of these objects and motivating a re-examination of the mechanisms of capture. None of the suggested mechanisms, including gas-drag, pull-down, and three-body capture, convincingly fit the group characteristics of the irregular satellites. The sources of the satellites also remain unidentified.

David Jewitt; Nader Haghighipour

2007-03-03

350

THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE M31 SATELLITE SYSTEM; STRONG EVIDENCE FOR AN INHOMOGENEOUS DISTRIBUTION OF SATELLITES  

SciTech Connect

We undertake an investigation into the spatial structure of the M31 satellite system utilizing the distance distributions presented in a previous publication. These distances make use of the unique combination of depth and spatial coverage of the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey to provide a large, homogeneous sample consisting of 27 of M31's satellites, as well as M31 itself. We find that the satellite distribution, when viewed as a whole, is no more planar than one would expect from a random distribution of equal size. A disk consisting of 15 of the satellites is however found to be highly significant, and strikingly thin, with an rms thickness of just 12.34{sup +0.75}{sub -0.43} kpc. This disk is oriented approximately edge-on with respect to the Milky Way and almost perpendicular to the Milky Way disk. It is also roughly orthogonal to the disk-like structure regularly reported for the Milky Way satellite system and in close alignment with M31's Giant Stellar Stream. A similar analysis of the asymmetry of the M31 satellite distribution finds that it is also significantly larger than one would expect from a random distribution. In particular, it is remarkable that 20 of the 27 satellites most likely lie on the Milky Way side of the galaxy, with the asymmetry being most pronounced within the satellite subset forming the aforementioned disk. This lopsidedness is all the more intriguing in light of the apparent orthogonality observed between the satellite disk structures of the Milky Way and M31.

Conn, A. R.; Parker, Q. A.; Zucker, D. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); Lewis, G. F. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, A28, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia)] [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, A28, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia); Ibata, R. A.; Martin, N. F. [Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l'Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France)] [Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l'Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); McConnachie, A. W. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, British Columbia, V9E 2E7 (Canada)] [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, British Columbia, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Valls-Gabaud, D. [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, 61 Avenue de l'Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France)] [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, 61 Avenue de l'Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Tanvir, N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Irwin, M. J. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)] [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Ferguson, A. M. N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)] [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Chapman, S. C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, 6310 Coburg Road, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4R2 (Canada)] [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, 6310 Coburg Road, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4R2 (Canada)

2013-04-01

351

Satellite based Global Flood Detection System - strengths and limitations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main problems for global hydrological models is that for many regions only very limited or no observational data for a model assessment is available. This problem could be overcome with filling the gaps using information derived from satellite observations. Thus, an evaluation of the remote sensing signal of the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS) against observed discharge data was performed in order to test the use of this data in sparsely gauged river basins. The study was carried out at 398 locations near the main rivers and in Africa, Asia, Europe, North America and South America. After evaluating different methodologies for extracting the satellite signal, a temporal (4 days) and spatial (4 GFDS pixels) average was chosen to proceed with the analysis. For the 340 stations with a concurrent time series longer than seven years for both, the signal and the in situ observed discharge (obtained mainly from the Global Runoff Data Centre), a calibration based on monthly linear models was carried out. The validation was executed and several skill scores were calculated such as the R2, Nash-Sutcliffe (NSE), and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). It is important to highlight that, for this study, 230 stations globally had Nash-Sutcliffe efficient score higher than zero, indicating that for specific conditions the satellite signal as used in GFDS can fill the gaps where observations are not available. For example, several locations in African catchments have good performance as in the Niger, Volta and Zambezi for which Nash-Sutcliffe is greater than 0.75. It is known that a number of factors affect total upwelling microwave brightness from a mixed water and land surface measured by a single image pixel. Aiming to better understand how some features of the sites could affect the satellite signal and the correlation with in situ observations, apart from the dependency on the river geometry, a multivariate analysis was carried out between the skill scores (NSE and R2) obtained from the validation and the local characteristics of the site. The potential affecting factors that were studied were the land cover, leaf area index, climatic areas, the flood extent maps, mean runoff, presence of dams and permafrost layer, as well as the upstream area. Results showed that many of the stations which received poor skills scores were due to low flow conditions. Importance of the outstanding local characteristics affecting will be explained. The work undertaken provide us with a better understanding of the impact of the local conditions on the performance of the satellite signal and give us guidance on the best locations and limitations for estimating discharge values from daily satellite signal.

Revilla-Romero, Beatriz; Salamon, Peter; Thielen, Jutta; De Groeve, Tom; Zajac, Zuzanna

2014-05-01

352

Sentinel-2: next generation satellites for optical land observation from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first Sentinel-2 satellites, which constitute the next generation of operational Earth observation satellites for optical land monitoring from space, are undergoing completion in the facilities at Astrium ready for launch end 2014. Sentinel-2 will feature a major breakthrough in the area of optical land observation since it will for the first time enable continuous and systematic acquisition of all land surfaces world-wide with the Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI), thus providing the basis for a truly operational service. Flying in the same orbital plane and spaced at 180°, the constellation of two satellites, designed for an in-orbit nominal operational lifetime of 7 years each, will acquire all land surfaces in only 5 days at the equator. In order to support emergency operations, the satellites can further be operated in an extended observation mode allowing to image any point on Earth even on a daily basis. MSI acquires images in 13 spectral channels from Visible-to-Near Infrared (VNIR) to Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) with a swath of almost 300 km on ground and a spatial resolution up to 10 m. The data ensure continuity to the existing data sets produced by the series of Landsat and SPOT satellites, and will further provide detailed spectral information to enable derivation of biophysical or geophysical products. Excellent geometric image quality performances are achieved with geolocation better than 16 m, thanks to an innovative instrument design in conjunction with a high-performance satellite AOCS subsystem centered around a 2-band GPS receiver, high-performance star trackers and a fiberoptic gyro. To cope with the high data volume on-board, data are compressed using a state-of-the-art wavelet compression scheme. Thanks to a powerful mission data handling system built around a newly developed very large solid-state mass memory based on flash technology, on-board compression losses will be kept to a minimum. The Sentinel-2 satellite design features a highly flexible operational concept, allowing downlink of all mission data to a nominal X-band core ground stations network. In addition, users could receive mission data sets at selected X-band local user ground stations or through an Optical Communication Payload (OCP) via an inter-orbit optical link to a geostationary EDRS relay satellite at Ka-band user ground stations. Different priority schemes can be selected in flight to allow transmission of critical image data with the shortest possible latency. The system is designed for high system autonomy allowing for pre-programming of the operational schedule for 15 days in advance without interference from ground. Apart from the nominal and extended imaging modes, the satellites also feature a calibration mode to support regular in-orbit radiometric calibration of the instrument. Overall, the Sentinel- 2 satellites are designed to provide in-orbit availability for the instrument data greater than 97%, which fulfills the requirements of a fully operational system for multispectral Earth observation.

Lautenschläger, G.; Gessner, R.; Gockel, W.; Haas, C.; Schweickert, G.; Bursch, S.; Welsch, M.; Sontag, H.

2013-10-01

353

Space Weathering on Icy Satellites in the Outer Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space weathering produces well-known optical effects in silicate minerals in the inner Solar System, for example, on the Moon. Space weathering from solar wind and UV is expected to be weaker in the outer Solar System simply because intensities are lower. However, cosmic rays from inner to outer solar system would be similar to first order. Similarly with micrometeoroid bombardment. That, combined with the much higher volatility of icy surfaces means there is the potential for space weathering on icy outer Solar System surfaces to show optical effects. The Cassini spacecraft orbiting Saturn is providing evidence for space weathering on icy bodies. The Cassini VIMS instrument has spatially mapped satellite surfaces and the rings from .35-5 microns and the UVIS instrument from 0.1 to 0.2 microns. These data have sampled a complex mixing space between H2O ice and non-ice components and they show some common spectral properties. Similarly, spectra of the icy Galilean satellites and satellites in the Uranian system have some commonality in spectral properties with those in the Saturn system. The UV absorber is spectrally similar on many surfaces. VIMS has identified CO2, H2 and trace organics in varying abundances on Saturn's satellites. We postulate that through the spatial relationships of some of these compounds that they are created and destroyed through space weathering effects. For example, the trapped H2 and CO2 observed by VIMS in regions with high concentrations of dark material may in part be space weathering products from the destruction of H2O and organic molecules. The dark material, particularly on Iapetus which has the highest concentration in the Saturn system, is well matched by space-weathered silicates in the .4-2.6 micron range, and the spectral shapes closely match those of the most mature lunar soils, another indicator of space weathered material.

Clark, Roger N.; Perlman, Zachary; Pearson, Neil; Cruikshank, Dale P.

2014-11-01

354

LCROSS (Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite) Observation Campaign: Strategies, Implementation, and Lessons Learned  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA’s LCROSS (Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite) mission was designed to explore the nature of previously detected\\u000a enhanced levels of hydrogen near the lunar poles. The LCROSS mission impacted the spent upper stage of the launch vehicle\\u000a into a permanently shadowed region of the lunar surface to create an ejecta plume. The resultant impact crater and plume were\\u000a then

Jennifer L. Heldmann; Anthony Colaprete; Diane H. Wooden; Robert F. Ackermann; David D. Acton; Peter R. Backus; Vanessa Bailey; Jesse G. Ball; William C. Barott; Samantha K. Blair; Marc W. Buie; Shawn Callahan; Nancy J. Chanover; Young-Jun Choi; Al Conrad; Dolores M. Coulson; Kirk B. Crawford; Russell Dehart; Imke de Pater; Michael Disanti; James R. Forster; Reiko Furusho; Tetsuharu Fuse; Tom Geballe; J. Duane Gibson; David Goldstein; Stephen A. Gregory; David J. Gutierrez; Ryan T. Hamilton; Taiga Hamura; David E. Harker; Gerry R. Harp; Junichi Haruyama; Morag Hastie; Yutaka Hayano; Phillip Hinz; Peng K. Hong; Steven P. James; Toshihiko Kadono; Hideyo Kawakita; Michael S. Kelley; Daryl L. Kim; Kosuke Kurosawa; Duk-Hang Lee; Michael Long; Paul G. Lucey; Keith Marach; Anthony C. Matulonis; Richard M. McDermid; Russet McMillan; Charles Miller; Hong-Kyu Moon; Ryosuke Nakamura; Hirotomo Noda; Natsuko Okamura; Lawrence Ong; Dallan Porter; Jeffery J. Puschell; John T. Rayner; J. Jedadiah Rembold; Katherine C. Roth; Richard J. Rudy; Ray W. Russell; Eileen V. Ryan; William H. Ryan; Tomohiko Sekiguchi; Yasuhito Sekine; Mark A. Skinner; Mitsuru Sôma; Andrew W. Stephens; Alex Storrs; Robert M. Suggs; Seiji Sugita; Eon-Chang Sung; Naruhisa Takatoh; Jill C. Tarter; Scott M. Taylor; Hiroshi Terada; Chadwick J. Trujillo; Vidhya Vaitheeswaran; Faith Vilas; Brian D. Walls; Jun-Ihi Watanabe; William J. Welch; Charles E. Woodward; Hong-Suh Yim; Eliot F. Young

2011-01-01

355

Determining dislocation Love numbers using satellite gravity mission GRACE observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some large megathrust earthquakes can be detected by satellite gravity mission GRACE. The coseismic gravity changes from GRACE measurements can be perfectly explained by spherical dislocation theory. On the contrary, we can use GRACE data to invert earth dislocation Love numbers. This paper proposes a more completed theory and an inversion method to determine dislocation Love numbers using GRACE data. Taking effect of ocean water mass redistribution into consideration, we give an observation equation to model GRACE observations. The ABIC (Akaike Bayes Information Criterion) method is employed to inverse the gravity dislocation Love numbers by the constraint of a prior PREM model. Based on this method, we inverse sphere dislocation Love numbers by using simulated data and GRACE data of 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) respectively. The results show that sensitivities of Love numbers to the measurement errors are dependent on spherical harmonic degrees. The SNRs (Signal Noise Ratio) of lower degrees are much stronger than the higher ones, and the inverted gravity Love numbers of former are closer to the priori PREM model than the latter. Furthermore, GRACE can be used to invert dislocation Love numbers. However, the unknown Love numbers K12, K32 and K33-K22 cannot be constrained by the PREM Earth model at the same extent due to the orders of magnitude are much different; the K33-K22 agrees the PREM model best. Finally, the gravity changes predicted by inverted Love numbers agree GRACE data well.

junyan, Y.; Sun, W.

2013-12-01

356

Monitoring of global geodynamic processes using satellite observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study mechanisms of destructive geodynamic phenomena including determination of places of possible severe earthquakes, volcano eruptions and some other natural hazards, it is important to have means to evolve areas where maximum changes of the displacement velocities and the terrestrial crust vertical movements are possible. The previous experience has shown that the satellite geodesy techniques including global navigation systems and satellite laser ranging are the most effective for research activities in this field. Permanent control of secular movement of GPS-stations of the international geodynamic network, located in Russia, has allowed improving the reference coordinate frame for North Eurasia since Russian network stations provide representative covering of the largest stable areas (the Siberian and the East European) of the Eurasian plate. Along its southern border, there is a zone consisting of a great number of microplates surrounding the South-Eurasian stable plate. Interaction of these small plates and blocks influences distribution of seismic stresses in internal parts of the continent that is confirmed by the highest seismic activity of the triangle bordered by thrusts of the Himalayas and faults of the Pamirs, the Tien-Shan, the Baikal and the North-Eastern China. One of the active tectonic zones of Egypt located in Aswan, is characterized by regional basement rock uplift and regional faulting. In 1997, the African Regional Geodynamic Network was developed around the northern part of Lake Nasser, consists of 11 points, on both sides of the Lake. Its main goal is to study the geodynamical behavior around the northern part of the lake. The collected data were processed using the Bernese software version 5.0. From the velocity results, including also the African plate motion, it can be noticed that all stations of this network are moved to the northeast direction and it is typically the direction of the African plate motion.

Tatevian, S. K.; Attia, G. F.; Abou-Aly, N.; Ghoneim, R.; Hegazy, M.

2014-06-01

357

National Satellite Forest Monitoring systems for REDD+  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) is an effort to create a financial value for the carbon stored in forests, offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development. "REDD+" goes beyond deforestation and forest degradation, and includes the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. In the framework of getting countries ready for REDD+, the UN-REDD Programme assists developing countries to prepare and implement national REDD+ strategies. For the monitoring, reporting and verification, FAO supports the countries to develop national satellite forest monitoring systems that allow for credible measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of REDD+ activities. These are among the most critical elements for the successful implementation of any REDD+ mechanism. The UN-REDD Programme through a joint effort of FAO and Brazil's National Space Agency, INPE, is supporting countries to develop cost- effective, robust and compatible national monitoring and MRV systems, providing tools, methodologies, training and knowledge sharing that help countries to strengthen their technical and institutional capacity for effective MRV systems. To develop strong nationally-owned forest monitoring systems, technical and institutional capacity building is key. The UN-REDD Programme, through FAO, has taken on intensive training together with INPE, and has provided technical help and assistance for in-country training and implementation for national satellite forest monitoring. The goal of the support to UN-REDD pilot countries in this capacity building effort is the training of technical forest people and IT persons from interested REDD+ countries, and to set- up the national satellite forest monitoring systems. The Brazilian forest monitoring system, TerraAmazon, which is used as a basis for this initiative, allows countries to adapt it to country needs and the training on the TerraAmazon system is a tool to enhance existing capacity on carbon monitoring systems. The support with the National Forest Monitoring System will allow these countries to follow all actions related to the implementation of its national REDD+ policies and measures. The monitoring system will work as a platform to obtain information on their REDD+ results and actions, related directly or indirectly to national REDD+ strategies and may also include actions unrelated to carbon assessment, such as forest law enforcement. With the technical assistance of FAO, INPE and other stakeholders, the countries will set up an autonomous operational forest monitoring system. An initial version and the methodologies of the system for DRC and PNG has been launched in Durban, South Africa during COP 17 and in 2012 Paraguay, Viet Nam and Zambia will be launched in Doha, Qatar at COP 18. The access to high-quality satellite data for these countries is crucial for the set-up.

Jonckheere, I. G.

2012-12-01

358

Current Sounding Capability From Satellite Meteorological Observation With Ultraspectral Infrared Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultraspectral resolution infrared spectral radiance obtained from near nadir observations provide atmospheric, surface, and cloud property information. The intent of the measurement of tropospheric thermodynamic state and trace abundances is the initialization of climate models and the monitoring of air quality. The NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I), designed to support the development of future satellite temperature and moisture sounders, aboard high altitude aircraft has been collecting data throughout many field campaigns. An advanced retrieval algorithm developed with NAST-I is now applied to satellite data collected with the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) on the Aqua satellite launched on 4 May 2002 and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the MetOp satellite launched on October 19, 2006. These instruments possess an ultra-spectral resolution, for example, both IASI and NAST-I have 0.25 cm-1 and a spectral coverage from 645 to 2760 cm-1. The retrieval algorithm with a fast radiative transfer model, including cloud effects, is used for atmospheric profile and cloud parameter retrieval. The physical inversion scheme has been developed, dealing with cloudy as well as cloud-free radiance observed with ultraspectral infrared sounders, to simultaneously retrieve surface, atmospheric thermodynamic, and cloud microphysical parameters. A fast radiative transfer model, which applies to the clouded atmosphere, is used for atmospheric profile and cloud parameter retrieval. A one-dimensional (1-d) variational multi-variable inversion solution is used to improve an iterative background state defined by an eigenvector-regression-retrieval. The solution is iterated in order to account for non-linearity in the 1-d variational solution. It is shown that relatively accurate temperature and moisture retrievals can be achieved below optically thin clouds. For optically thick clouds, accurate temperature and moisture profiles down to cloud top level are obtained. For both optically thin and thick cloud situations, the cloud top height can be retrieved with relatively high accuracy (i.e., error less than 1 km). Retrievals of atmospheric soundings, surface properties, and cloud microphysical properties with the AIRS and IASI observations are obtained and presented. These retrievals are further inter-compared with those obtained from airborne FTS system, such as the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed? Interferometer (NAST I), dedicated dropsondes, radiosondes, and ground based Raman Lidar. The capabilities of satellite ultra-spectral sounder such as the AIRS and IASI are investigated. These advanced satellite ultraspectral infrared instruments are now playing an important role in satellite meteorological observation for numerical weather prediction.

Zhou, Daniel K.; Liu, Xu; Larar, Allen M.

2008-01-01

359

Gas Flaring Volume Estimates with Multiple Satellite Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flammable gases (primarily methane) are a common bi-product associated with oil wells. Where there is no infrastructure to use the gas or bring it to market, the gases are typically flared off. This practice is more common at remote sites, such as an offshore drilling platform. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) is a series of satellites with a low-light

D. C. Ziskin; C. Elvidge; K. Baugh; T. Ghosh; F. C. Hsu

2010-01-01

360

Application prospects of survey satellite imaging for geodinamics observating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Block structures is problem of earth crust and which can display in satellite supervisions. The theoretical substantiation of blocks vertical movements and earth crust (dimension < 140x140km) to influence on topography of ocean surface is given. That anomalies investigated satellite altimetry methods. Blocks inclinations (dimension < 140x140km) to influence of vertical movements air (inside atmosphere), it is discussed. They are

I. L. Uchytel; V. N. Yaroshenko; I. I. Gladkykh; B. B. Kapochkin

2004-01-01

361

MY NASA DATA Lesson Plan: Storm Clouds-Fly over a Late Winter Storm onboard a NASA Earth Observing Satellite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

: This lesson plan uses Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) cloud data and a weather map to explore cloud coverage during a winter storm. When atmospheric scientists, including meteorologists, study weather patterns, they may use several different sources of information. For example, in studying storm patterns, they may use a combination of Earth Observing Satellite data, such as from CERES, or NOAA weather satellite imagery, and geographical tools to determine locations and paths of storms. As one part of the training to analyze this data and imagery, scientists look at 'case studies' such as the late winter storm shown in the weather satellite imagery included with the lesson. An infrared satellite image looks at the temperature. Cold things (like high clouds) are very bright. Warm things (like Mexico and Florida) are dark. The imagery can be compared to data collected by other satellites, so that improved models of storm patterns can be developed.

2006-01-01

362

Climate studies from satellite observations - Special problems in the verification of earth radiation balance, cloud climatology, and related climate experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A body of techniques that have been developed and planned for use during the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), and related climate experiments of the 1980's are reviewed. Validation and verification methods must apply for systems of satellites. They include: (1) use of a normalization or intercalibration satellite, (2) special intensive observation areas located over ground-truth sites, and (3) monitoring of sun and earth by several satellites and/or several instruments at the same time. Since each climate application area has a hierarchy of user communities, validation techniques vary from very detailed methods to those that simply assure high relative accuracy in detecting space and time variations for climate studies. It is shown that climate experiments generally require more emphasis on long-term stability and internal consistency of satellite data sets than high absolute accuracy.

Vonder Haar, T. H.

1982-01-01

363

Joint Polar Satellite System: The United States next generation civilian polar-orbiting environmental satellite system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

next generation polar-orbiting environmental satellite system, designated as the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS), was proposed in February 2010, as part of the President's Fiscal Year 2011 budget request, to be the Civilian successor to the restructured National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). Beginning 1 October 2013, the JPSS baseline consists of a suite of five instruments: advanced microwave and infrared sounders critical for short- and medium-range weather forecasting; an advanced visible and infrared imager needed for environmental assessments such as snow/ice cover, droughts, volcanic ash, forest fires and surface temperature; ozone sensor primarily used for global monitoring of ozone and input to weather and climate models; and an Earth radiation budget sensor for monitoring the Earth's energy budget. NASA will fund the Earth radiation budget sensor and the ozone limb sensor for the second JPSS operational satellite--JPSS-2. JPSS is implemented through a partnership between NOAA and the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NOAA is responsible for overall funding; maintaining the high-level requirements; establishing international and interagency partnerships; developing the science and algorithms, and user engagement; NOAA also provides product data distribution and archiving of JPSS data. NASA's role is to serve as acquisition Center of Excellence, providing acquisition of instruments, spacecraft and the multimission ground system, and early mission implementation through turnover to NOAA for operations.

Goldberg, Mitchell D.; Kilcoyne, Heather; Cikanek, Harry; Mehta, Ajay

2013-12-01

364

Advanced hybrid satellite andAdvanced hybrid satellite and terrestrial system architecture forterrestrial system architecture for  

E-print Network

forterrestrial system architecture for emergency mobile communicationsemergency mobile communications Giuliana communications: Satellite links Mobile ad-hoc mesh network Conclusions Future work Main achievements Bibliography S-UMTS vehicle Mobile router Mobile terminal DVB-RCS vehicle Vehicle Communication Gateways #12

Gesbert, David

365

Selection of sensors and spectral bands of marine observation satellite (MOS) - 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After trading off the proposed requirements by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellite Development, cost and time for development of sensors, spacecraft and launch vehicle, the following sensors were selected for Marine Observation Satellite (MOS) - 1. (1) Four channel visible and near IR sensor (MESSR) with 50 meter resolution. (2) Four channel visible and thermal IR sensor (VTIR) with 0.9 km (visible) and 2.7 km (IR) resolution respectively. Out of three IR channels, two channels are atmospheric window channels while the third channel is water vapor absorption band. (3) Two channel microwave scanning radiometer (MSR) with responsivity in 23.8 and 31.4 GHz respectively. (4) Data collection system.

Tsuchiya, Kiyoshi

366

Detailed Analysis of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall Processes with Modern/High-Quality Satellite Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We examine, in detail, Indian Summer Monsoon rainfall processes using modernhigh quality satellite precipitation measurements. The focus here is on measurements derived from three NASA cloud and precipitation satellite missionslinstruments (TRMM/PR&TMI, AQUNAMSRE, and CLOUDSATICPR), and a fourth TRMM Project-generated multi-satellite precipitation measurement dataset (viz., TRMM standard algorithm 3b42) -- all from a period beginning in 1998 up to the present. It is emphasized that the 3b42 algorithm blends passive microwave (PMW) radiometer-based precipitation estimates from LEO satellites with infi-ared (IR) precipitation estimates from a world network of CEO satellites (representing -15% of the complete space-time coverage) All of these observations are first cross-calibrated to precipitation estimates taken from standard TRMM combined PR-TMI algorithm 2b31, and second adjusted at the large scale based on monthly-averaged rain-gage measurements. The blended approach takes advantage of direct estimates of precipitation from the PMW radiometerequipped LEO satellites -- but which suffer fi-om sampling limitations -- in combination with less accurate IR estimates from the optical-infrared imaging cameras on GEO satellites -- but which provide continuous diurnal sampling. The advantages of the current technologies are evident in the continuity and coverage properties inherent to the resultant precipitation datasets that have been an outgrowth of these stable measuring and retrieval technologies. There is a wealth of information contained in the current satellite measurements of precipitation regarding the salient precipitation properties of the Indian Summer Monsoon. Using different datasets obtained from the measuring systems noted above, we have analyzed the observations cast in the form of: (1) spatially distributed means and variances over the hierarchy of relevant time scales (hourly I diurnally, daily, monthly, seasonally I intra-seasonally, and inter-annually), (2) time series at these different time scales taken as area-averages over the hierarchy of relevant space scales (Indian sub-Division, Indian sub-continent, and Circumambient Indian Ocean), (3) principal autocorrelation and cross-correlation structures over various monsoon space-time domains, (4) diurnally modulated amplitude-phase properties of rain rates over different monsoon space-time domains, (5) foremost rain rate probability distributions intrinsic to monsoon precipitation, and (6) behavior of extreme events including occurrences of flood and drought episodes throughout the course of inter-annual monsoon processes.

Smith, Eric A.; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Mehta, Amita V.; Yang, Song

2007-01-01

367

The Variation of Tropical Cyclone Rainfall within the North Atlantic and Pacific as Observed from Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tropical cyclone monthly rainfall amounts are estimated from passive microwave satellite observations in the North Atlantic and in three equal geographical regions of the North Pacific (i.e., Western, Central, and Eastern North Pacific). These satellite-derived rainfall amounts are used to assess the impact of tropical cyclone rainfall in altering the geographical, seasonal, and inter-annual distribution of the 1987-1989, 1991-1998 North Atlantic and Pacific rainfall during June-November when tropical cyclones are most abundant. To estimate these tropical cyclone rainfall amounts, mean monthly rain rates are derived from the Defence Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave/ Radiometer (SSM/I) observations within 444 km radius of the center of those North Atlantic and Pacific tropical cyclones that reached storm stage and greater. These rain rate observations are then multiplied by the number of hours in a given month. Mean monthly rainfall amounts are also constructed for all the other North Atlantic and Pacific raining systems during this eleven year period for the purpose of estimating the geographical distribution and intensity of rainfall contributed by non-tropical cyclone systems. Further, the combination of the non-tropical cyclone and tropical cyclone (i.e., total) rainfall is constructed to delineate the fractional amount that tropical cyclones contributed to the total North Pacific rainfall.

Rodgers, Edward; Pierce, Harold; Adler, Robert

1999-01-01

368

Satellite power system (SPS) public outreach experiment  

SciTech Connect

To improve the results of the Satellite Power System (SPS) Concept Development and Evaluation Program, an outreach experiment was conducted. Three public interest groups participated: the L-5 Society (L-5), Citizen's Energy Project (CEP), and the Forum for the Advancement of Students in Science and Technology (FASST). Each group disseminated summary information about SPS to approximately 3000 constituents with a request for feedback on the SPS concept. The objectives of the outreach were to (1) determine the areas of major concern relative to the SPS concept, and (2) gain experience with an outreach process for use in future public involvement. Due to the combined efforts of all three groups, 9200 individuals/organizations received information about the SPS concept. Over 1500 receipients of this information provided feedback. The response to the outreach effort was positive for all three groups, suggesting that the effort extended by the SPS Project Division to encourage an information exchange with the public was well received. The general response to the SPS differed with each group. The L-5 position is very much in favor of SPS; CEP is very much opposed and FASST is relatively neutral. The responses are analyzed, and from the responses some questions and answers about the satellite power system are presented in the appendix. (WHK)

McNeal, S.R.

1980-12-01

369

Mobile satellite communications systems: Toward global personal communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The constraints imposed by the RF environment are reviewed. An overview of present and planned mobile satellite systems is given. Present systems refer to those already in operation, while planned systems refer to those that have authority to offer the services and have either a satellite in orbit or one being built to support the systems. Future directions for mobile

John H. Lodge

1991-01-01

370

Observational capabilities of solar satellite "Coronas-Photon"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronas-Photon mission is the third satellite of the Russian Coronas program on solar activity observation The main goal of the Coronas-Photon is the study of solar hard electromagnetic radiation in the wide energy range from UV up to high energy gamma-radiation sim 2000MeV Scientific payload for solar radiation observation consists of three type of instruments 1 monitors Natalya-2M Konus-RF RT-2 Penguin-M BRM Phoka Sphin-X Sokol for spectral and timing measurements of full solar disk radiation with timing in flare burst mode up to one msec Instruments Natalya-2M Konus-RF RT-2 will cover the wide energy range of hard X-rays and soft Gamma rays 15keV to 2000MeV and will together constitute the largest area detectors ever used for solar observations Detectors of gamma-ray monitors are based on structured inorganic scintillators with energy resolution sim 5 for nuclear gamma-line band to 35 for GeV-band PSD analysis is used for gamma neutron separation for solar neutron registration T 30MeV Penguin-M has capability to measure linear polarization of hard X-rays using azimuth are measured by Compton scattering asymmetry in case of polarization of an incident flux For X-ray and EUV monitors the scintillation phoswich detectors gas proportional counter CZT assembly and Filter-covered Si-diodes are used 2 Telescope-spectrometer TESIS for imaging solar spectroscopy in X-rays with angular resolution up to 1 in three spectral lines and RT-2 CZT assembly of CZT

Kotov, Yu.

371

Satellite Observations of the Effect of Natural and Anthropogenic Aerosols on Clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our knowledge of atmospheric aerosols (smoke, pollution, dust or sea salt particles, small enough to be suspended in the air), their evolution, composition, variability in space and time and interaction with clouds and precipitation is still lacking despite decades of research. Understanding the global aerosol system is critical to quantifying anthropogenic climate change, to determine climate sensitivity from observations and to understand the hydrological cycle. While a single instrument was used to demonstrate 50 years ago that the global CO2 levels are rising, posing threat of global warming, we need an array of satellites and field measurements coupled with chemical transport models to understand the global aerosol system. This complexity of the aerosol problem results from their short lifetime (1 week) and variable chemical composition. A new generation of satellites provides exciting opportunities to measure the global distribution of aerosols, distinguishing natural from anthropogenic aerosol and measuring their interaction with clouds and climate.

Kaufman, Yoram J.

2006-01-01

372

218 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 22, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2004 Cache Satellite Distribution Systems: Modeling,  

E-print Network

218 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 22, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2004 Cache Satellite observed by Web clients. Cache satellite distribution systems (CSDSs) have emerged as a technology. The central station selects a collection of Web documents, which are "pushed" via a satellite broadcast

Levy, Hanoch

373

Multipath study for a low altitude satellite utilizing a data relay satellite system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical considerations associated with a low altitude satellite operating in conjuction with a data relay satellite system are reported. Emphasis was placed on the quantitative characterization of multipath phenomenon and determination of power received via both the direct and earth reflection paths. Attempts were made to develop a means for estimating the magnitude and nature of the reflected power.

Eggert, D.

1970-01-01

374

Observations in the thermal IR and visible of a retired satellite in the graveyard orbit, and comparisons to active satellites in GEO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There exists a population of defunct satellites in the geo-stationary arc that potentially pose a hazard to current and future operational satellites. These drifting, non-station-kept objects have a variety of ages and sizes, and many are trapped in libration orbits around the Earth's two gravitational potential wells (the non-spherical nature of the Earth gives rise to two geo-potential wells or "stable points" that affect objects in geostationary and geosynchronous orbits), whereas others were boosted to higher altitudes into so-called "graveyard" orbits. We have observed several of the approximately 49 objects in libration orbits about the Western stable point (R. Choc, T. Flohrer, and B. Bastida, "Classification of Geosynchronous Objects," Issue 13, ESA/ESOC, February 2011), as well as objects in graveyard orbits. We have carried out an observational campaign utilizing The Aerospace Corporation's 3-13 ?m Broadband Array Spectrograph System (BASS), as well as with several optical sensors to collect data on a representative sample of these objects at a variety of solar phase angles. Here we report on recent BASS observations of a retired satellite in the "graveyard" orbit, and compare them with data we had collected over six years ago, while the satellite was still active. Data are also presented on similar satellites that are still active. We describe our methods, the data collected, our results, and our future plans.

Skinner, Mark A.; Russell, Ray W.; Kelecy, Tom; Gregory, Steve; Rudy, Richard J.; Kim, Daryl L.; Crawford, Kirk

2014-12-01

375

Spectroradiometric considerations for advanced land observing systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research aimed at improving the inflight absolute radiometric calibration of advanced land observing systems was initiated. Emphasis was on the satellite sensor calibration program at White Sands. Topics addressed include: absolute radiometric calibration of advanced remote sensing; atmospheric effects on reflected radiation; inflight radiometric calibration; field radiometric methods for reflectance and atmospheric measurement; and calibration of field relectance radiometers.

Slater, P. N.

1986-01-01

376

Rates of Horizontal Tau Air-Showers observable by satellites  

E-print Network

Up-going and Horizontal Tau Air-Showers, UpTaus and HorTaus, may trace Ultra High Energy Neutrino Tau Earth Skimming at the edge of the horizon. We show that such events even for minimal GZK neutrino fluxes could be detected by space telescopes such as the EUSO project. These Horizontal Tau Showers will track very long fan-like, multi-finger showers whose signature would be revealed by EUSO, OWL experiments. Moreover the additional imprint of their young secondaries muon, electron pairs and gamma bundles flashes might allow to disentangle their nature from the older UHECR secondaries in horizontal showers. Indeed at large zenith angles, the muon, electron pairs and gamma number for far and old Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays, becomes comparable. On the contrary up-ward muon bundles from UpTaus and HorTaus (as well as by anti-neutrino electron + electron resonance at Glashow peak) may arise within a young shower with a gamma-muon ratio as large as 10^2. Such a very characteristic imprint maybe observed by Crown detector arrays on Mountain, planes or balloons in space, as well as by gamma satellites in Space. We estimate the UpTaus and HorTaus rate from the Earth and the consequent event rate of +/-mu bundles, whose flux at 92^o -97^o may exceed the up-going muon flux induced by the atmospheric neutrino, by one or two order of magnitude.

D. Fargion; M. Grossi; M. De Santis; P. G. de Sanctis Lucentin

2005-01-03

377

First Satellite Observations of Lower Tropospheric Ammonia and Methanol  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the EOS Aura satellite makes global measurements of infrared radiances which are used to derive profiles of species such as O3, CO, H2O, HDO and CH4 as routine standard products. In addition, TES has a variety of special modes that provide denser spatial mapping over a limited geographical area. A continuous-coverage mode (called ''transect'', about 460 km long) has now been used to detect additional molecules indicative of regional air pollution. On 10 July 2007 at about 05:37 UTC (13:24 LMST) TES conducted such a transect observation over the Beijing area in northeast China. Examination of the residual spectral radiances following the retrieval of the TES standard products revealed surprisingly strong features attributable to enhanced concentrations of ammonia (NH3) and methanol (CH3OH), well above the normal background levels. This is the first time that these molecules have been detected in space-based nadir viewing measurements that penetrate into the lower atmosphere.

Beer, Reinhard; Shephard, Mark W.; Kulawik, Susan S.; Clough, Shepard A.; Eldering, Annmarie; Bowman, Kevin W.; Sander, Stanley P.; Fisher, Brendan M.; Payne, Vivienne H.; Luo, Mingzhao; Osterman, Gregory B.; Worden, John R.

2008-01-01

378

Satellite observations of oil spills in Bohai Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several oil spills occurred at two oil platforms in Bohai Sea, China on June 4 and 17, 2011. The oil spills were subsequently imaged by different types of satellite sensors including SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar), Chinese HJ-1-B CCD and NOAA MODIS. In order to detect the oil spills more accurately, images of the former three sensors were used in this study. Oil spills were detected using the semi-supervised Texture-Classifying Neural Network Algorithm (TCNNA) in SAR images and gradient edge detection algorithm in HJ-1-B and MODIS images. The results show that, on June 11, the area of oil slicks is 31 km2 and they are observed in the vicinity and to the north of the oilfield in SAR image. The coverage of the oil spill expands dramatically to 244 km2 due to the newly released oil after June 11 in SAR image of June 14. The results on June 19 show that under a cloud-free condition, CCD and MODIS images capture the oil spills clearly while TCNNA cannot separate them from the background surface, which implies that the optical images play an important role in oil detection besides SAR images.

Wei, Y. L.; Tang, Z. Y.; Li, X. F.

2014-03-01

379

Retrofitting a fine-pointing system to satellite optics  

SciTech Connect

This paper describe a system that was added to an existing satellite-borne telescope design for the purpose of compensating the boresight errors that had been observed in earlier flights of similar instruments. Those errors had been found to be caused by thermal distortion of the spaceframe. This retrofit design was subject to severe volume restrictions because it was fitted into an already tightly-packaged instrument envelope. It was found practical to improve the basic design by converting a redundant structure into a statically-determinate one. It was also possible to use portions of the mechanical actuation system to facilitate the position encoding needed for computer interfacing.

Woods, R.O.

1994-12-31

380

SAW based systems for mobile communications satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modern mobile communications satellites, such as INMARSAT 3, EMS, and ARTEMIS, use advanced onboard processing to make efficient use of the available L-band spectrum. In all of these cases, high performance surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are used. SAW filters can provide high selectivity (100-200 kHz transition widths), combined with flat amplitude and linear phase characteristics; their simple construction and radiation hardness also makes them especially suitable for space applications. An overview of the architectures used in the above systems, describing the technologies employed, and the use of bandwidth switchable SAW filtering (BSSF) is given. The tradeoffs to be considered when specifying a SAW based system are analyzed, using both theoretical and experimental data. Empirical rules for estimating SAW filter performance are given. Achievable performance is illustrated using data from the INMARSAT 3 engineering model (EM) processors.

Peach, R. C.; Miller, N.; Lee, M.

1993-01-01

381

Observability of complex systems  

PubMed Central

A quantitative description of a complex system is inherently limited by our ability to estimate the system’s internal state from experimentally accessible outputs. Although the simultaneous measurement of all internal variables, like all metabolite concentrations in a cell, offers a complete description of a system’s state, in practice experimental access is limited to only a subset of variables, or sensors. A system is called observable if we can reconstruct the system’s complete internal state from its outputs. Here, we adopt a graphical approach derived from the dynamical laws that govern a system to determine the sensors that are necessary to reconstruct the full internal state of a complex system. We apply this approach to biochemical reaction systems, finding that the identified sensors are not only necessary but also sufficient for observability. The developed approach can also identify the optimal sensors for target or partial observability, helping us reconstruct selected state variables from appropriately chosen outputs, a prerequisite for optimal biomarker design. Given the fundamental role observability plays in complex systems, these results offer avenues to systematically explore the dynamics of a wide range of natural, technological and socioeconomic systems. PMID:23359701

Liu, Yang-Yu; Slotine, Jean-Jacques; Barabási, Albert-László

2013-01-01

382

Jupiter System Observer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the scientific philosophy that is guiding the planning behind the Jupiter System Observer (JSO). The JSO would be a long-term platform for studying Jupiter and the complete Jovian system. The goal is to advance the understanding of the fundamental processes of planetary systems, their formation and evolution.

Senske, Dave; Prockter, Louise

2008-01-01

383

Cirrus cloud-temperature interactions over a tropical station, Gadanki from lidar and satellite observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cirrus clouds play an important role in the radiation budget of the earth's atmospheric system and are important to characterize their vertical structure and optical properties. LIDAR measurements are obtained from the tropical station Gadanki (13.50 N, 79.20 E), India, and meteorological indicators derived from Radiosonde data. Most of the cirrus clouds are observed near to the tropopause, which substantiates the strength of the tropical convective processes. The height and temperature dependencies of cloud height, optical depth, and depolarization ratio were investigated. Cirrus observations made using CALIPSO satellite are compared with lidar data for systematic statistical study of cirrus climatology.

S, Motty G.; Satyanarayana, M.; Krishnakumar, V.; Dhaman, Reji k.

2014-10-01

384

Cirrus cloud-temperature interactions over a tropical station, Gadanki from lidar and satellite observations  

SciTech Connect

The cirrus clouds play an important role in the radiation budget of the earth's atmospheric system and are important to characterize their vertical structure and optical properties. LIDAR measurements are obtained from the tropical station Gadanki (13.5{sup 0} N, 79.2{sup 0} E), India, and meteorological indicators derived from Radiosonde data. Most of the cirrus clouds are observed near to the tropopause, which substantiates the strength of the tropical convective processes. The height and temperature dependencies of cloud height, optical depth, and depolarization ratio were investigated. Cirrus observations made using CALIPSO satellite are compared with lidar data for systematic statistical study of cirrus climatology.

S, Motty G, E-mail: mottygs@gmail.com; Satyanarayana, M., E-mail: mottygs@gmail.com; Krishnakumar, V., E-mail: mottygs@gmail.com; Dhaman, Reji k., E-mail: mottygs@gmail.com [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Trivandrum-695 581, Kerala (India)

2014-10-15

385

Study of High-Performance Satellite Bus System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speaking of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites like earth observation satellites, the light-weighing and high performance bus system will make an great contribution to mission components development.Also, the rising ratio of payload to total mass will reduce the launch cost.Office of Research and Development in National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is studying such a sophisticated satellite bus system.The system is expected to consist of the following advanced components and subsystems which in parallel have been developed from the element level by the Office. (a) Attitude control system (ACS) This subsystem will provide function to very accurately determine and control the satellite attitude with a next generation star tracker, a GPS receiver, and the onboard software to achieve this function. (b) Electric power system (EPS) This subsystem will be getting much lighter and powerful by utilizing the more efficient solar battery cell, power MOS FET, and DC/DC converter.Besides, to cumulate and supply the power, the Office will also study a Litium battery for space which is light and small enough to contribute to reducing size and weight of the EPS. (c) Onboard computing system (OCS) This computing system will provide function of high speed processing.The MPU (Multi Processing Unit) cell in the OCS is capable of executing approximately 200 MIPS (Mega Instructions Per Second).The OCS will play an important role not only enough for the ACS to function well but also enough for the image processing data to be handled. (d) Thermal control system (TCS) As a thermal control system, mission-friendly system is under study.A small hybrid fluid thermal control system that the Office is studying with a combination of mechanical pump loop and capillary pump loop will be robust to change of thermal loads and facilitate the system to control the temperature. (e) Communications system (CS) In order to transmit high rate data, the office is studying an optical link system.The optical communications system will provide the much smaller size of component than the microwave, while it simultaneously provides transmission of a quantity of data at a high speed.

Shirai, Tatsuya; Noda, Atsushi; Tsuiki, Atsuo

2002-01-01

386

Accessing Recent Trend of Land Surface Temperature from Satellite Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land surface temperature (LST) is an important element to measure the state of the terrestrial ecosystems and to study the surface energy budgets. In support of the land cover/land use change related international program MAIRS (Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study), we have collected the global monthly LST measured by MODIS since the beginning of the missions. The MODIS LST time series have ~11 years of data from Terra since 2000 and ~9 years of data from Aqua since 2002, which makes possible to study the recent climate, such as trend and variability. In this study, monthly climatology from two satellite platforms are calculated and compared. The spatial patterns of LST trends are accessed, focusing on the Asian Monsoon region. Furthermore, the MODIS LST trends are compared with the skin temperature trend from the NASA's atmospheric assimilation model, MERRA (MODERN ERA RETROSPECTIVE-ANALYSIS FOR RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS), which has longer data record since 1979. The calculated climatology and anomaly of MODIS LST will be integrated into the online visualization system, Giovanni, at NASA GES DISC for easy access and use by scientists and general public.

Shen, S.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Romanov, P.

2011-12-01

387

An observational philosophy for GEOS-C satellite altimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The parameters necessary for obtaining a 10 cm accuracy for GEOS-C satellite altimetry are outlined. These data include oceanographic parameters, instrument calibration, pulse propagation, sea surface effects, and optimum design.

Weiffenbach, G. C.

1972-01-01

388

EUMETSAT Meteorological Satellite conference, Cordoba, 21/9/2010 observation  

E-print Network

discrimination · Combined receiver including: ­ Multi channel Mie receiver ­ Dual channel Rayleigh receiver scenario can be changed 8 times per orbit possibility of targeting #12;10EUMETSAT Meteorological Satellite

Stoffelen, Ad

389

DCS: A global satellite environmental data collection system study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cost analysis and technical feasibility data are presented on five medium orbiting and six geosynchronous satellite data collection systems with varying degrees of spacecraft and local user terminal complexity. Data are also provided on system approaches, user requirements, and user classes. Systems considered include orbiting ERTS and EOS type satellites and geosynchronous SmS and SEOS type data collectors.

1973-01-01

390

Observations of a geosynchronous satellite with optical interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a tentative interferometric detection of an earth-orbiting artificial satellite using optical interferometry. We targeted four geosynchronous communications satellites with the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI) near Flagstaff, AZ, and obtained interferometric fringes on one of them, DIRECTV-9S. We used an east-west 15.9-meter baseline of the NPOI and took data in 16 spectral channels covering the 500-850 nm wavelength

J. T. Armstrong; R. B. Hindsley; S. R. Restaino; R. T. Zavala; J. A. Benson; F. J. Vrba; D. J. Hutter; S. A. Gregory; H. R. Schmitt; J. R. Andrews; C. C. Wilcox

2010-01-01

391

Observations of a geosynchronous satellite with optical interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an interferometric detection of an earth-orbiting artificial satellite using optical interferometry. We targeted four geosynchronous communications satellites with the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI) near Flagstaff, AZ, and obtained interferometric fringes on one of them, DIRECTV-9S. We used an east-west 15.9-meter baseline of the NPOI and took data in 16 spectral channels covering the 500-850 nm wavelength range.

J. T. Armstrong; R. B. Hindsley; S. R. Restaino; J. A. Benson; D. J. Hutter; F. J. Vrba; R. T. Zavala; S. A. Gregory; H. R. Schmitt

2009-01-01

392

Observations of a Geosynchronous Satellite with Optical Interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the interferometric detection of an earth-orbiting artificial satellite using optical interferometry. We targeted four geosynchronous communications satellites with the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI) near Flagstaff, AZ, and obtained interferometric fringes on one of them, DIRECTV-9S. We used an east-west 15.9-meter baseline of the NPOI and took data in 16 spectral channels covering the 500-850 nm wavelength range.

S. Restaino

2009-01-01

393

Observations of a Geosynchronous Satellite with Optical Interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a tentative interferometric detection of an earth-orbiting artificial satellite using optical interferometry. We targeted four geosynchronous communications satellites with the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI) near Flagstaff, AZ, and obtained interferometric fringes on one of them, DIRECTV-9S. We used an east-west 15.9-meter baseline of the NPOI and took data in 16 spectral channels covering the 500-850 nm wavelength

J. Armstrong; R. Hindsley; S. Restaino; J. Benson; D. Hutter; F. Vrba; R. Zavala; S. Gregory; H. Schmitt

2008-01-01

394

Ionospheric electron density irregularities observed by satellite-to-satellite, dual-frequency, low-low Doppler tracking link  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low-low, satellite-to-satellite, dual-frequency, Doppler tracking experiment was performed. The data are analyzed here for irregularities in electron density at the altitude of 212 km. The differential Doppler data with the relative motion term removed are integrated to obtain a representation of the electron density variation along the satellite path. Well-known large-scale features such as the equatorial geomagnetic anomaly and day/night ionization level differences are clearly observed in the integrated data. The larger crest of the morning geomagnetic anomaly is seen to occur in the southern (winter) hemisphere in agreement with previous observations. In addition, a sharp peak in the electron density at the day-to-night transition point is observed in two consecutive revolutions. This effect may be due to the previously postulated atmospheric shock wave generated by supersonic motion of the terminator.

Estes, R. D.; Grossi, M. D.

1984-01-01

395

Validating Dust Storm Model Using Satellite Aerosol Retrievals and Ground-based Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust storm is a meteorological phenomenon with high dust concentration and strong striking force affecting transportation and causing disease. Considering the negative impacts of dust storm, the accuracy of dust storm forecasting is critical for, especially, responding to the emergencies. However, it is challenge to validating the forecasting limited by availability of observation data. The complexity is partially caused by the inconsistency in spatial and temporal resolutions between model simulation and field observation. In addition, the accuracy and reliability of observation data are not guaranteed. Therefore, in order to complement observation data in terms of temporal resolution and enhance the accuracy of observation data, validation methods should be based on data assimilation between satellite and ground-based observations. The dust storm simulation and forecasting model, NMM-dust, coupling Dust Regional Atmospheric Model (DREAM) and Non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model (NMM) meteorological module, produces higher resolution results for weather forecasting and enabling executability in parallel mode on distributed systems. So far, NMM-dust has been validated in the southwestern US only by comparison with measurement from AIRNOW data and with barely acceptable results. Observation data used for validation includes MODIS and SeaWiFS Deep Blue aerosol products, and ground-based observations from EPA-AQS. Results from comparisons between satellite data and model output show similar dust distribution patterns. Besides, the temporal resolution of satellite data is improved by using both MODIS and SeaWiFS. Quantitative analysis including time-series analysis and diagnose analysis are also examined to investigate the stability and consistency of the model.

YU, M.; Benedict, K. K.; Huang, Q.; Gui, Z.; XIA, J.; Chen, S.

2013-12-01

396

Texstar: The all-Texas educational satellite system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Longhorn Satellite Company (LSC) has designed Texstar, and educational satellite communications system which will be considered as a means of equalizing the distribution of educational resources throughout the state of Texas. Texstar will be capable of broadcasting live lectures and documentaries in addition to transmitting data from a centralized receiving-transmitting station. Included in the design of Texstar is the system and subsystem design for the satellite and the design of the ground stations. The launch vehicle used will be the Texas-built Conestoga 421-48. The Texstar system incorporates three small satellites in slightly inclined geosynchronous orbits. Due to the configuration and spacing of these satellites, the system will be accessed as if it were one large, geostationary satellite. Texstar is shown to be a viable option to the educational crisis in the state of Texas.

1990-01-01

397

Solar power satellite system definition study, volume 4, phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of an overall evaluation of the solar power satellite concept are reported. Specific topics covered include: solid state sandwich configuration; parametric development of reliability design; power distribution system for solid state solar power satellites; multibeam transmission; GEO base system configuration; suppression of the heavy lift launch vehicle trajectory; conceptual design of an offshore space center facility; solar power satellite development and operations scenario; and microwave power transmission technology, advancement, development, and facility requirements.

1979-01-01

398

Satellite-based observations of surface turbulent stress during severe weather  

E-print Network

Satellite-based observations of surface turbulent stress during severe weather Mark A. Bourassa and a vertical offset (i.e., displacement height) of the log-wind profile, due to wave modification The environment of severe marine weather is harsh: in situ and satellite observations of surface turbulent

399

On the geometric analysis and adjustment of optical satellite observations. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite geodesy methods were catagorized into three divisions: geometric, dynamic, and mixed. These catagories furnish the basis for distinction between geometric and dynamic satellite geodesy. The dual adjustment, geometric analysis, and Cartesian coodinate determination are examined for two observing stations. Similar illustrations are given when more than two observing stations are used.

Tsimis, E.

1972-01-01

400

Wind resources and wind farm wake effects offshore observed from satellite  

E-print Network

Wind resources and wind farm wake effects offshore observed from satellite Charlotte Bay Hasager, Wind Energy Department, Roskilde, Denmark Charlotte.hasager@risoe.dk, poul.astrup@risoe.dk, merete.bruun.Christiansen@risoe.dk, morten.Nielsen@risoe.dk, r.barthelmie@risoe.dk Abstract: Satellite observations of ocean wind speed

401

Ob' River flood inundations from satellite observations: A relationship with winter snow parameters and river runoff  

E-print Network

Ob' River flood inundations from satellite observations: A relationship with winter snow parameters­ 2000 monthly inundation extents over a Boreal environment, the Ob River basin. Over the entire: Papa, F., C. Prigent, and W. B. Rossow (2007), Ob' River flood inundations from satellite observations

402

Fast auroral snapshot satellite observations of very low frequency saucers R. E. Ergun  

E-print Network

Fast auroral snapshot satellite observations of very low frequency saucers R. E. Ergun 80303 Received 13 May 2002; accepted 24 October 2002 Wave and charged particle observations the Fast Auroral SnapshoT FAST satellite demonstrate that the majority 85% of VLF saucer emissions

California at Berkeley, University of

403

Feature Detection Systems Enhance Satellite Imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1963, during the ninth orbit of the Faith 7 capsule, astronaut Gordon Cooper skipped his nap and took some photos of the Earth below using a Hasselblad camera. The sole flier on the Mercury-Atlas 9 mission, Cooper took 24 photos - never-before-seen images including the Tibetan plateau, the crinkled heights of the Himalayas, and the jagged coast of Burma. From his lofty perch over 100 miles above the Earth, Cooper noted villages, roads, rivers, and even, on occasion, individual houses. In 1965, encouraged by the effectiveness of NASA s orbital photography experiments during the Mercury and subsequent Gemini manned space flight missions, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) director William Pecora put forward a plan for a remote sensing satellite program that would collect information about the planet never before attainable. By 1972, NASA had built and launched Landsat 1, the first in a series of Landsat sensors that have combined to provide the longest continuous collection of space-based Earth imagery. The archived Landsat data - 37 years worth and counting - has provided a vast library of information allowing not only the extensive mapping of Earth s surface but also the study of its environmental changes, from receding glaciers and tropical deforestation to urban growth and crop harvests. Developed and launched by NASA with data collection operated at various times by the Agency, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Earth Observation Satellite Company (EOSAT, a private sector partnership that became Space Imaging Corporation in 1996), and USGS, Landsat sensors have recorded flooding from Hurricane Katrina, the building boom in Dubai, and the extinction of the Aral Sea, offering scientists invaluable insights into the natural and manmade changes that shape the world. Of the seven Landsat sensors launched since 1972, Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 are still operational. Though both are in use well beyond their intended lifespans, the mid-resolution satellites, which provide the benefit of images detailed enough to reveal large features like highways while still broad enough for global coverage, continue to scan the entirety of the Earth s surface. In 2012, NASA plans to launch the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), or Landsat 8, to extend the Landsat program s contributions to cartography, water management, natural disaster relief planning, and more.

2009-01-01

404

Orbits design for LEO space based solar power satellite system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space Based Solar Power satellites use solar arrays to generate clean, green, and renewable electricity in space and transmit it to earth via microwave, radiowave or laser beams to corresponding receivers (ground stations). These traditionally are large structures orbiting around earth at the geo-synchronous altitude. This thesis introduces a new architecture for a Space Based Solar Power satellite constellation. The proposed concept reduces the high cost involved in the construction of the space satellite and in the multiple launches to the geo-synchronous altitude. The proposed concept is a constellation of Low Earth Orbit satellites that are smaller in size than the conventional system. 7For this application a Repeated Sun-Synchronous Track Circular Orbit is considered (RSSTO). In these orbits, the spacecraft re-visits the same locations on earth periodically every given desired number of days with the line of nodes of the spacecraft's orbit fixed relative to the Sun. A wide range of solutions are studied, and, in this thesis, a two-orbit constellation design is chosen and simulated. The number of satellites is chosen based on the electric power demands in a given set of global cities. The orbits of the satellites are designed such that their ground tracks visit a maximum number of ground stations during the revisit period. In the simulation, the locations of the ground stations are chosen close to big cities, in USA and worldwide, so that the space power constellation beams down power directly to locations of high electric power demands. The j2 perturbations are included in the mathematical model used in orbit design. The Coverage time of each spacecraft over a ground site and the gap time between two consecutive spacecrafts visiting a ground site are simulated in order to evaluate the coverage continuity of the proposed solar power constellation. It has been observed from simulations that there always periods in which s spacecraft does not communicate with any ground station. For this reason, it is suggested that each satellite in the constellation be equipped with power storage components so that it can store power for later transmission. This thesis presents a method for designing the solar power constellation orbits such that the number of ground stations visited during the given revisit period is maximized. This leads to maximizing the power transmission to ground stations.

Addanki, Neelima Krishna Murthy

2011-12-01

405

The introduction of new satellites to an operating system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A satellite addition may be occasioned by traffic growth exceeding existing space segment capacity or by declining space segment capacity due to aging satellites or by a combination of both conditions. In any event, critical decisions involving relatively large sums of money must be made and after technical/economical analyses are completed a judgement call is almost always required. The present investigation is concerned with the areas of study relevant to the introduction of new satellites. Attention is given to a brief review of Telesat Canada's satellite system history, orbital planning considerations, the need for some new or special satellite maneuver, the introduction of new satellite designs, and questions related to the planning of satellite launch dates.

Lester, R. M.

406

Retrieval of Aerosol Absorption Properties from Satellite Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Angstrom Absorption Exponent (AAE) is a parameter commonly used to characterize the wavelength-dependence of aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD). It is closely related to aerosol composition. Black carbon (BC) containing aerosols yield AAE values near unity whereas Organic carbon (OC) aerosol particles are associated with values larger than 2. Even larger AAE values have been reported for desert dust aerosol particles. Knowledge of spectral AAOD is necessary for the calculation of direct radiative forcing effect of aerosols and for inferring aerosol composition. We have developed a satellitebased method of determining the spectral AAOD of absorbing aerosols. The technique uses multi-spectral measurements of upwelling radiation from scenes where absorbing aerosols lie above clouds