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Sample records for obtidas por meio

  1. MeioBase: a comprehensive database for meiosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Meng, Fanrui; Guo, Chunce; Wang, Yingxiang; Xie, Xiaojing; Zhu, Tiansheng; Zhou, Shuigeng; Ma, Hong; Shan, Hongyan; Kong, Hongzhi

    2014-01-01

    Meiosis is a special type of cell division process necessary for the sexual reproduction of all eukaryotes. The ever expanding meiosis research calls for an effective and specialized database that is not readily available yet. To fill this gap, we have developed a knowledge database MeioBase (http://meiosis.ibcas.ac.cn), which is comprised of two core parts, Resources and Tools. In the Resources part, a wealth of meiosis data collected by curation and manual review from published literatures and biological databases are integrated and organized into various sections, such as Cytology, Pathway, Species, Interaction, and Expression. In the Tools part, some useful tools have been integrated into MeioBase, such as Search, Download, Blast, Comparison, My Favorites, Submission, and Advice. With a simplified and efficient web interface, users are able to search against the database with gene model IDs or keywords, and batch download the data for local investigation. We believe that MeioBase can greatly facilitate the researches related to meiosis. PMID:25566299

  2. Body Size Versus Depth: Regional and Taxonomical Variation in Deep-Sea Meio- and Macrofaunal Organisms.

    PubMed

    van der Grient, Jesse M A; Rogers, Alex D

    2015-01-01

    Body size (weight per individual) is an important concept in ecology. It has been studied in the deep sea where a decrease in size with increasing depth has often been found. This has been explained as an adaptation to food limitation where size reduction results in a lowered metabolic rate and a decreased energetic requirement. However, observations vary, with some studies showing an increase in size with depth, and some finding no depth correlation at all. Here, we collected data from peer-reviewed studies on macro- and meiofaunal abundance and biomass, creating two datasets allowing statistical comparison of factors expected to influence body size in meio- and macrofaunal organisms. Our analyses examined the influence of region, taxonomic group and sampling method on the body size of meiofauna and macrofauna in the deep sea with increasing depth, and the resulting models are presented. At the global scale, meio- and macrofaunal communities show a decrease in body size with increasing depth as expected with the food limitation hypothesis. However, at the regional scale there were differences in trends of body size with depth, either showing a decrease (e.g. southwest Pacific Ocean; meio- and macrofauna) or increase (e.g. Gulf of Mexico; meiofauna only) compared to a global mean. Taxonomic groups also showed differences in body size trends compared to total community average (e.g. Crustacea and Bivalvia). Care must be taken when conducting these studies, as our analyses indicated that sampling method exerts a significant influence on research results. It is possible that differences in physiology, lifestyle and life history characteristics result in different responses to an increase in depth and/or decrease in food availability. This will have implications in the future as food supply to the deep sea changes as a result of climate change (e.g. increased ocean stratification at low to mid latitudes and reduced sea ice duration at high latitudes). PMID:26320616

  3. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  4. Astronomia cultural e meio ambiente segundo uma abordagem holística

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho ampliamos a discussão da abordagem holística para o ensino de astronomia que temos desenvolvido nos últimos anos, analisamos novos resultados e apresentamos exemplos práticos para interessados em experimentá-la. A constatação básica a orientar este enfoque é que cursos introdutórios em astronomia costumam ser excessiva e prematuramente técnicos, além de assumirem uma visão tradicional, muito estreita, do que seja educação científica, herdada da era cartesiana e positivista da ciência. Fundamentamos porque é importante que elementos de astronomia cultural ofereçam o mote e constituam o eixo norteador daqueles cursos e porque é urgente revermos a visão que temos da relação entre astronomia e meio ambiente. Um ponto central nesta abordagem é explorar formas de reativar e atualizar uma relação orgânica com o meio e excitar a consciência de nossa inevitável e profunda interdependência com ele em nível cósmico. Neste trabalho exemplificamos a possibilidade de concretização desta proposta em três diferentes situações: disciplinas de cursos de licenciatura em geografia e em física; escolas de nível fundamental; e, neste caso ainda a ser implementada, comunidades carentes. Estes casos envolvem públicos e espaços diferenciados para educação formal e não-formal. Dos casos já implementados, destacamos os resultados alcançados pelos alunos: enriquecimento cultural, aprendizagem significativa de conteúdos astronômicos tradicionais; mudanças de comportamento, incorporando contato diário com o céu; e freqüentes vivências de sentimentos empáticos que redirecionam a relação com a natureza e a consciência ecológica global. Além disto, para interessados em aplicar esta proposta, também socializamos procedimentos e cuidados para a implementação de ações alternativas consonantes com a mesma. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

  5. Combined use of meio- and macrobenthic indices to assess complex chemical impacts on a stream ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Sonne, Anne T.; Rasmussen, Jes J.; Traunspurger, Walter; Höss, Sebastian; Bjerg, Poul L.

    2016-04-01

    habitats for overall ecosystem health, many biological indices tend only to reflect the ecological quality of surface water, rather than of the sedimentary zones where the accumulation of pollutants is often highest. To address this issue, we monitored meiobenthic (i.e. nematodes) and macrobenthic invertebrate communities along a pollution gradient in order to assess the impact of multiple stressors on a groundwater-fed stream, and thus quantify the link between chemical and ecological status. The studied stressors included point source pollutants originating from contaminated groundwater and aquaculture, and diffuse source pollutants originating from conventional agriculture and urban areas. The use of macrofauna is now well-accepted for assessing ecological integrity in aquatic ecosystems, but less is known about the application of meiofaunal community indicators. High abundance and ubiquitous distribution are two potential advantages for including meiofaunal indicators, and notably - for the case of groundwater-surface water interactions - they are particularly suitable for identifying changes in environmental conditions over smaller spatial scales. The results indicate a change in community composition for both meio- and macrobenthic fauna, pointing towards the presence of a local impact resulting from the discharging contaminated groundwater, which extends downstream along a dilution gradient of the groundwater contaminants. Ecological impacts could be linked to xenobiotic compounds coming from groundwater (both chlorinated solvents and pharmaceuticals), as well as the presence of trace metals of diffuse and/or biogenic origin.

  6. Development of Bifunctional Gadolinium-Labeled Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles (Gd-MnMEIO) for In Vivo MR Imaging of the Liver in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gin-Chung; Wang, Yun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Liver tumors are common and imaging methods, particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), play an important role in their non-invasive diagnosis. Previous studies have shown that detection of liver tumors can be improved by injection of two different MR contrast agents. Here, we developed a new contrast agent, Gd-manganese-doped magnetism-engineered iron oxide (Gd-MnMEIO), with enhancement effects on both T1- and T2-weighted MR images of the liver. A 3.0T clinical MR scanner equipped with transmit/receiver coil for mouse was used to obtain both T1-weighted spoiled gradient-echo and T2-weighted fast spin-echo axial images of the liver before and after intravenous contrast agent injection into Balb/c mice with and without tumors. After pre-contrast scanning, six mice per group were intravenously injected with 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-MnMEIO, or the control agents, i.e., Gd-DTPA or SPIO. The scanning time points for T1-weighted images were 0.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 min after contrast administration. The post-enhanced T2-weighted images were then acquired immediately after T1-weighted acquisition. We found that T1-weighted images were positively enhanced by both Gd-DTPA and Gd-MnMEIO and negatively enhanced by SPIO. The enhancement by both Gd-DTPA and Gd-MnMEIO peaked at 0.5 min and gradually declined thereafter. Gd-MnMEIO (like Gd-DTPA) enhanced T1-weighted images and (like SPIO) T2-weighted images. Marked vascular enhancement was clearly visible on dynamic T1-weighted images with Gd-MnMEIO. In addition, the T2 signal was significantly decreased at 30 min after administration of Gd-MnMEIO. Whereas the effects of Gd-MnMEIO and SPIO on T2-weighted images were similar (p = 0.5824), those of Gd-MnMEIO and Gd-DTPA differed, with Gd-MnMEIO having a significant T2 contrast effect (p = 0.0086). Our study confirms the feasibility of synthesizing an MR contrast agent with both T1 and T2 shortening effects and using such an agent in vivo. This agent enables tumor detection and

  7. Development of Bifunctional Gadolinium-Labeled Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles (Gd-MnMEIO) for In Vivo MR Imaging of the Liver in an Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yu-Ting; Chen, Chiao-Yun; Liu, Gin-Chung; Wang, Yun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Liver tumors are common and imaging methods, particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), play an important role in their non-invasive diagnosis. Previous studies have shown that detection of liver tumors can be improved by injection of two different MR contrast agents. Here, we developed a new contrast agent, Gd-manganese-doped magnetism-engineered iron oxide (Gd-MnMEIO), with enhancement effects on both T1- and T2-weighted MR images of the liver. A 3.0T clinical MR scanner equipped with transmit/receiver coil for mouse was used to obtain both T1-weighted spoiled gradient-echo and T2-weighted fast spin-echo axial images of the liver before and after intravenous contrast agent injection into Balb/c mice with and without tumors. After pre-contrast scanning, six mice per group were intravenously injected with 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-MnMEIO, or the control agents, i.e., Gd-DTPA or SPIO. The scanning time points for T1-weighted images were 0.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 min after contrast administration. The post-enhanced T2-weighted images were then acquired immediately after T1-weighted acquisition. We found that T1-weighted images were positively enhanced by both Gd-DTPA and Gd-MnMEIO and negatively enhanced by SPIO. The enhancement by both Gd-DTPA and Gd-MnMEIO peaked at 0.5 min and gradually declined thereafter. Gd-MnMEIO (like Gd-DTPA) enhanced T1-weighted images and (like SPIO) T2-weighted images. Marked vascular enhancement was clearly visible on dynamic T1-weighted images with Gd-MnMEIO. In addition, the T2 signal was significantly decreased at 30 min after administration of Gd-MnMEIO. Whereas the effects of Gd-MnMEIO and SPIO on T2-weighted images were similar (p = 0.5824), those of Gd-MnMEIO and Gd-DTPA differed, with Gd-MnMEIO having a significant T2 contrast effect (p = 0.0086). Our study confirms the feasibility of synthesizing an MR contrast agent with both T1 and T2 shortening effects and using such an agent in vivo. This agent enables tumor detection and

  8. The Meio 1498 earthquake and tsunami : driving force of abrupt environmental change in the Hamana floodplain, Shizuoka prefecture, Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyvaert, Vanessa M. A.; Fujiwara, Osamu; Umitsu, Masatomo; Sato, Yoshiki; Ono, Einsuke; Yata, Toshifumi

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this research is to study the role of a tsunami, generated by the 1498 Meio earthquake (M8.2 - 8.4) along the eastern Nankai on the geomorphological evolution of the Hamana river floodplain, located along the Pacific coastline of Central Japan (Shizuoka prefecture). Historical sources document a sudden decline at the end of the 15th century of the harbour town Hashimoto, located along the river Hamana. Before the 15th century, this river connected the Pacific Ocean with an enclosed coastal embayment separated by a sand barrier (i.e. the present-day Hamana lake) from the Pacific. The reconstruction of the palaeocourse of the Hamana river was carried out on the basis of detailed facies and diatom analyses of undisturbed sediment cores (geoslicer and drilling). The palaeochannel was detected along the western side of the present-day coastal embayment. It seems that the river's mouth was abruptly sealed off due to the migration of huge volumes of sand that initiated the development of a marsh environment upstream along the channel. The identification and radiocarbon dating of these sandy high-energy flow deposits in several cores (thick sand bed of marine origin intercalated at the estuarine - marsh environmental change boundary) suggests that the river mouth closure was initated by mass sediment transport by a storm surge or tsunami (1498 Meio tsunami and/or 1498 and 1499 large storm surges along the Hamana coastline). The same process, of sudden river mouth sealing by tsunami-transported sediments, was recently observed in the northeast of Japan during the great 2011 Sendai tsunami (Uda, T., 2011). Historical sources document that after the 1498 Meio tsunami, the Hamana back-barrier sheltered environment was reconnected to the Pacific Ocean due to breaching of its sand barrier. Both environmental changes (river mouth closure and barrier breaching)are synchronous with the sudden decline of the harbour town Hashimoto. These data suggest that disruption

  9. Size matters at deep-sea hydrothermal vents: different diversity and habitat fidelity patterns of meio- and macrofauna

    PubMed Central

    Gollner, Sabine; Govenar, Breea; Fisher, Charles R.; Bright, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Species with markedly different sizes interact when sharing the same habitat. Unravelling mechanisms that control diversity thus requires consideration of a range of size classes. We compared patterns of diversity and community structure for meio- and macrofaunal communities sampled along a gradient of environmental stress at deep-sea hydrothermal vents on the East Pacific Rise (9° 50′ N) and neighboring basalt habitats. Both meio- and macrofaunal species richnesses were lowest in the high-stress vent habitat, but macrofaunal richness was highest among intermediate-stress vent habitats. Meiofaunal species richness was negatively correlated with stress, and highest on the basalt. In these deep-sea basalt habitats surrounding hydrothermal vents, meiofaunal species richness was consistently higher than that of macrofauna. Consideration of the physiological capabilities and life history traits of different-sized animals suggests that different patterns of diversity may be caused by different capabilities to deal with environmental stress in the 2 size classes. In contrast to meiofauna, adaptations of macrofauna may have evolved to allow them to maintain their physiological homeostasis in a variety of hydrothermal vent habitats and exploit this food-rich deep-sea environment in high abundances. The habitat fidelity patterns also differed: macrofaunal species occurred primarily at vents and were generally restricted to this habitat, but meiofaunal species were distributed more evenly across proximate and distant basalt habitats and were thus not restricted to vent habitats. Over evolutionary time scales these contrasting patterns are likely driven by distinct reproduction strategies and food demands inherent to fauna of different sizes. PMID:26166922

  10. Evolution of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (POR) in Apiales - POR 1 is missing.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Hansen, Niels Bjørn; Laursen, Tomas; Weitzel, Corinna; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2016-05-01

    The NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligate electron donor to eukaryotic microsomal cytochromes P450 enzymes. The number of PORs within plant species is limited to one to four isoforms, with the most common being two PORs per plant. These enzymes provide electrons to a huge number of different cytochromes P450s (from 50 to several hundred within one plant). Within the eudicotyledons, PORs can be divided into two major clades, POR 1 and POR 2. Based on our own sequencing analysis and publicly available data, we have identified 45 PORs from the angiosperm order Apiales. These were subjected to a phylogenetic analysis along with 237 other publicly available (NCBI and oneKP) POR sequences found within the clade Asterids. Here, we show that the order Apiales only harbor members of the POR 2 clade, which are further divided into two distinct subclades. This is in contrast to most other eudicotyledon orders that have both POR 1 and POR 2. This suggests that through gene duplications and one gene deletion, Apiales only contain members of the POR 2 clade. Three POR 2 isoforms from Thapsia garganica L., Apiaceae, were all full-length in an Illumina root transcriptome dataset (available from the SRA at NCBI). All three genes were shown to be functional upon reconstitution into nanodiscs, confirming that none of the isoforms are pseudogenes. PMID:26854662

  11. Portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This document provides storage requirements for 1,000 CFM portable exhausters POR-O07/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F. These requirements are presented in three parts: preparation for storage, storage maintenance and testing, and retrieval from storage. The exhauster component identification numbers listed in this document contain the prefix POR-007 or POR-008 depending on which exhauster is being used.

  12. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Miller, Walter L; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2011-04-10

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ∼40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ∼60%, is found on ∼28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (∼8% of Asians and ∼13% of Caucasians) at -152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ∼30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

  13. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Walter L.; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ~40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ~60%, is found on ~28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (~8% of Asians and ~13% of Caucasians) at −152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ~30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically-relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

  14. Desigualdades por cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Información básica de las desigualdades en salud por cáncer en EE. UU., factores que contribuyen a la carga desproporcionada del cáncer en algunos grupos y ejemplos de desigualdades en incidencia y mortalidad entre ciertos grupos de la población.

  15. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Gorasia, Dhana G.; Veith, Paul D.; Hanssen, Eric G.; Glew, Michelle D.; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32–36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  16. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  17. Intermitência alfvênica gerada por caos na atmosfera solar e no vento solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, E. L.; Chian, A. C.-L.; Macau, E. E. N.; Rosa, R. R.

    2003-08-01

    Dados medidos no vento solar rápido proveniente dos buracos coronais revelam que os plasmas no meio interplanetário são dominados por flutuações Alfvênicas, caracterizadas por uma alta correlação entre as variações do campo magnético e da velocidade do plasma. As flutuações exibem muitas características esperadas em turbulência magneto-hidrodinâmica totalmente desenvolvida, tais como intermitência e espectros contínuos. Contudo, os mecanismos responsáveis pela evolução de turbulência Alfvênica intermitente não são completamente compreendidos. Neste trabalho a teoria de caos é usada para explicar como sistemas Alfvênicos, modelados pela equação Schrödinger não-linear derivativa e pela equação Kuramoto-Sivashinsky, podem se tornar fortemente caóticos à medida em que parâmetros do plasma são variados. Pequenas perturbações no parâmetro de dissipação podem fazer com que o sistema mude bruscamente de um regime periódico, ou fracamente caótico, para um regime fortemente caótico. As séries temporais das flutuações do campo magnético nos regimes fortemente caóticos exibem comportamento intermitente, em que fases laminares ou fracamente caóticas são interrompidas por fortes estouros caóticos. É mostrado que o regime fortemente caótico é atingido quando as soluções periódicas ou fracamente caóticas globalmente estáveis interagem com soluções do sistema que são fortemente caóticas, mas globalmente instáveis. Estas soluções globalmente instáveis são conjuntos caóticos não-atrativos conhecidos como selas caóticas, e são responsáveis pelos fortes estouros nos regimes intermitentes. Selas caóticas têm sido detectadas experimentalmente em uma grande variedade de sistemas, sendo provável que elas desempenhem um papel importante na turbulência intermitente observada em plasmas espaciais.

  18. Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOURĀO, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  19. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  20. Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteins secreted by the Por secretion system.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Narita, Yuka; Shoji, Mikio; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a number of potential virulence factors for periodontopathogenicity. In particular, cysteine proteinases named gingipains are of interest given their abilities to degrade host proteins and process other virulence factors such as fimbriae. Gingipains are translocated on the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu by the Por secretion system (PorSS), which consists of a number of membrane or periplasmic proteins including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorO, PorP, PorQ, PorT, PorU, PorV (PG27, LptO), PorW and Sov. To identify proteins other than gingipains secreted by the PorSS, we compared the proteomes of P. gingivalis strains kgp rgpA rgpB (PorSS-proficient strain) and kgp rgpA rgpB porK (PorSS-deficient strain) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide-mass fingerprinting. Sixteen spots representing 10 different proteins were present in the particle-free culture supernatant of the PorSS-proficient strain but were absent or faint in that of the PorSS-deficient strain. These identified proteins possessed the C-terminal domains (CTDs), which had been suggested to form the CTD protein family. These results indicate that the PorSS is used for secretion of a number of proteins other than gingipains and that the CTDs of the proteins are associated with the PorSS-dependent secretion. PMID:23075153

  1. System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

  2. Disminuyen en los Estados Unidos las infecciones por VPH.

    Cancer.gov

    La infección por los tipos del virus del papiloma humano (VPH) en el blanco de la vacuna cuadrivalente se redujo en casi dos tercios en las adolescentes desde que se recomendó la vacunación en los Estados Unidos.

  3. Centros oncológicos designados por el NCI

    Cancer.gov

    El programa de centros oncológicos designados por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) reconoce a los centros de todo el país que cumplen con rigurosos criterios para participar en proyectos avanzados de primer nivel para la investigación multidisciplinaria del cáncer.

  4. Se evitaron casi 800 000 muertes por descenso del tabaquismo

    Cancer.gov

    Programas y estrategias de control del tabaco del siglo XX fueron responsables de la prevención de más de 795 000 muertes por cáncer de pulmón en Estados Unidos de 1975 al 2000. Si todo el tabaquismo en este país hubiera cesado después de la publicación d

  5. Neisseria meningitidis Lacking the Major Porins PorA and PorB Is Viable and Modulates Apoptosis and the Oxidative Burst of Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Peak, Ian R; Chen, Adrienne; Jen, Freda E-C; Jennings, Courtney; Schulz, Benjamin L; Saunders, Nigel J; Khan, Arshad; Seifert, H Steven; Jennings, Michael P

    2016-08-01

    The bacterial pathogen Neisseria meningitidis expresses two major outer-membrane porins. PorA expression is subject to phase-variation (high frequency, random, on-off switching), and both PorA and PorB are antigenically variable between strains. PorA expression is variable and not correlated with meningococcal colonisation or invasive disease, whereas all naturally-occurring strains express PorB suggesting strong selection for expression. We have generated N. meningitidis strains lacking expression of both major porins, demonstrating that they are dispensable for bacterial growth in vitro. The porAB mutant strain has an exponential growth rate similar to the parental strain, as do the single porA or porB mutants, but the porAB mutant strain does not reach the same cell density in stationary phase. Proteomic analysis suggests that the double mutant strain exhibits compensatory expression changes in proteins associated with cellular redox state, energy/nutrient metabolism, and membrane stability. On solid media, there is obvious growth impairment that is rescued by addition of blood or serum from mammalian species, particularly heme. These porin mutants are not impaired in their capacity to inhibit both staurosporine-induced apoptosis and a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced oxidative burst in human neutrophils suggesting that the porins are not the only bacterial factors that can modulate these processes in host cells. PMID:26562068

  6. Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Hardie, A.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, L. L.; Jones, M.; Lazarus, I.; Nolan, P. J.; Pucknell, V.; Rigby, S. V.; Seller, P.; Scraggs, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Slee, M.; Sweeney, A.; PorGamRays Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point 133Ba and 57Co sources located ˜35 mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of ˜20 mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

  7. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    This document describes Acceptance Testing performed on Portable Exhauster POR-007/Skid E. It includes measurements of bearing vibration levels, pressure decay testing, programmable logic controller interlocks, high vacuum, flow and pressure control functional testing. The purpose of Acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-0490, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  8. Typing and surface charges of the variable loop regions of PorB from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Stefanelli, Paola; Neri, Arianna; Tanabe, Mikio; Fazio, Cecilia; Massari, Paola

    2016-06-01

    PorB is a pan-Neisserial major outer membrane protein with a trimeric β-barrel structure. Each monomer presents eight periplasmic turns and eight surface exposed loop regions with sequence variability. PorB induces activation of host cell responses via a TLR2-dependent mechanism likely mediated by electrostatic interactions between TLR2 and PorB surface exposed loops. Variability in the loop amino acid sequence is known to influence cell responses to PorB in vitro, particularly for the residues in L5 and L7. In this work, the sequence of the porB gene and the electrostatic surface charges of PorB from 35 invasive meningococcal isolates belonging to the main clonal complexes identified in Italy and from five carriage genomes available on the website http://pubmlst.org/neisseria/ were examined. Analysis of the porB encoding regions from the invasive meningococci has identified four new alleles and a potential association between porB alleles, serogroup, and clonal complexes. Through computer-based modeling and analysis of the electrostatic surface charges of PorB from these strains, loop charge segregation between PorB from invasive serogroups B and C was observed. Specifically, loops 1, 4, and 7 were negatively charged and L2 and L8 were mostly neutral in serogroup B isolates, while an overall homogeneous positive surface charge was present in PorB from invasive serogroup C strains. A higher PorB sequence variability was observed among carriage genomes, and a general prevalence of negative loop surface charges. The surface charge differences in PorB from serogroups B and C invasive and carriage strains may, in part, influence the outcomes of Neisseriae interactions with host cells. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(6):488-495, 2016. PMID:27156582

  9. Meio-Socks & Other Genetic Yarns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stravroulakis, Anthea M.

    2005-01-01

    As a teacher, the author is always interested in novel pedagogical methods for presenting complex concepts and material in genetics that interest and engage the students, while helping them understand and recall the lesson. In this article, she describes sock and yarn models that allow students the opportunity to examine the meiotic process in a…

  10. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    Portable Exhauster POR-008 was procured via HNF-0490, Specification for a Portable Exhausted System for Waste Tank Ventilation. Prior to taking ownership, acceptance testing was performed at the vendors. However at the conclusion of testing a number of issues remained that required resolution before the exhausters could be used by Project W-320. The purpose of acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-O49O, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  11. VDAC and the bacterial porin PorB of Neisseria gonorrhoeae share mitochondrial import pathways.

    PubMed

    Müller, Anne; Rassow, Joachim; Grimm, Jan; Machuy, Nikolaus; Meyer, Thomas F; Rudel, Thomas

    2002-04-15

    The human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae induces host cell apoptosis during infection by delivering the outer membrane protein PorB to the host cell's mitochondria. PorB is a pore-forming beta-barrel protein sharing several features with the mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), which is involved in the regulation of apoptosis. Here we show that PorB of pathogenic Neisseria species produced by host cells is efficiently targeted to mitochondria. Imported PorB resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane and forms multimers with similar sizes as in the outer bacterial membrane. The mitochondria completely lose their membrane potential, a characteristic previously observed in cells infected with gonococci or treated with purified PorB. Closely related bacterial porins of non-pathogenic Neisseria mucosa or Escherichia coli remain in the cytosol. Import of PorB into mitochondria in vivo is independent of a linear signal sequence. Insertion of PorB into the mitochondrial outer membrane in vitro depends on the activity of Tom5, Tom20 and Tom40, but is independent of Tom70. Our data show that human VDAC and bacterial PorB are imported into mitochondria by a similar mechanism. PMID:11953311

  12. Successful Mnemonics for "por"/"para" and Affirmative Commands with Pronouns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Two mnemonic devices, "4A Rule" and "PERFECT," are described to simplify the learning of two grammar points: the placement of object pronouns with respect to commands and the distinction between "por" and "para." (five references) (LB)

  13. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Zoe A; Seviour, Robert J; Tucci, Joseph; Petrovski, Steve

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA. PMID:27313312

  14. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Zoe A.; Seviour, Robert J.; Tucci, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA. PMID:27313312

  15. Structural basis for solute transport, nucleotide regulation, and immunological recognition of Neisseria meningitidis PorB

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Mikio; Nimigean, Crina M.; Iverson, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    PorB is the second most prevalent outer membrane protein in Neisseria meningitidis. PorB is required for neisserial pathogenesis and can elicit a Toll-like receptor mediated host immune response. Here, the x-ray crystal structure of PorB has been determined to 2.3 Å resolution. Structural analysis and cocrystallization studies identify three putative solute translocation pathways through the channel pore: One pathway transports anions nonselectively, one transports cations nonselectively, and one facilitates the specific uptake of sugars. During infection, PorB likely binds host mitochondrial ATP, and cocrystallization with the ATP analog AMP–PNP suggests that binding of nucleotides regulates these translocation pathways both by partial occlusion of the pore and by restricting the motion of a putative voltage gating loop. PorB is located on the surface of N. meningitidis and can be recognized by receptors of the host innate immune system. Features of PorB suggest that Toll-like receptor mediated recognition outer membrane proteins may be initiated with a nonspecific electrostatic attraction. PMID:20351243

  16. An investigation of exploitation versus exploration in GBEA optimization of PORS 15 and 16 Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Kaelynn

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the variations in time to solution are driven by the competing mechanisms of exploration and exploitation.This thesis explores this hypothesis by examining two contrasting problems that embody the hypothesized tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. Plus one recall store (PORS) is an optimization problem based on the idea of a simple calculator with four buttons: plus, one, store, and recall. Integer addition and store are classified as operations, and one and memory recall are classified as terminals. The goal is to arrange a fixed number of keystrokes in a way that maximizes the numerical result. PORS 15 (15 keystrokes) represents the subset of difficult PORS problems and PORS 16 (16 keystrokes) represents the subset of PORS problems that are easiest to optimize. The goal of this work is to examine the tradeoff between exploitation and exploration in graph based evolutionary algorithm (GBEA) optimization. To do this, computational experiments are used to examine how solutions evolve in PORS 15 and 16 problems when solved using GBEAs. The experiment is comprised of three components; the graphs and the population, the evolutionary algorithm rule set, and the example problems. The complete, hypercube, and cycle graphs were used for this experiment. A fixed population size was used.

  17. Crystallographic analysis of Neisseria meningitidis PorB extracellular loops potentially implicated in TLR2 recognition.

    PubMed

    Kattner, Christof; Toussi, Deana N; Zaucha, Jan; Wetzler, Lee M; Rüppel, Nadine; Zachariae, Ulrich; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2014-03-01

    Among all Neisseriae species, Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the only human pathogens, causative agents of bacterial meningitis and gonorrhoea, respectively. PorB, a pan-Neisseriae trimeric porin that mediates diffusive transport of essential molecules across the bacterial outer membrane, is also known to activate host innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated signaling. The molecular mechanism of PorB binding to TLR2 is not known, but it has been hypothesized that electrostatic interactions contribute to ligand/receptor binding. Strain-specific sequence variability in the surface-exposed loops of PorB which are potentially implicated in TLR2 binding, may explain the difference in TLR2-mediated cell activation in vitro by PorB homologs from the commensal Neisseriae lactamica and the pathogen N. meningitidis. Here, we report a comparative structural analysis of PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup B strain 8765 (63% sequence homology with PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup W135) and a mutant in which amino acid substitutions in the extracellular loop 7 lead to significantly reduced TLR2-dependent activity in vitro. We observe that this mutation both alters the loop conformation and causes dramatic changes of electrostatic surface charge, both of which may affect TLR2 recognition and signaling. PMID:24361688

  18. Structural basis for solute transport, nucleotide regulation, and immunological recognition of Neisseria meningitidis PorB

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Mikio; Nimigean, Crina M.; Iverson, T.M.

    2010-06-25

    PorB is the second most prevalent outer membrane protein in Neisseria meningitidis. PorB is required for neisserial pathogenesis and can elicit a Toll-like receptor mediated host immune response. Here, the x-ray crystal structure of PorB has been determined to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. Structural analysis and cocrystallization studies identify three putative solute translocation pathways through the channel pore: One pathway transports anions nonselectively, one transports cations nonselectively, and one facilitates the specific uptake of sugars. During infection, PorB likely binds host mitochondrial ATP, and cocrystallization with the ATP analog AMP-PNP suggests that binding of nucleotides regulates these translocation pathways both by partial occlusion of the pore and by restricting the motion of a putative voltage gating loop. PorB is located on the surface of N. meningitidis and can be recognized by receptors of the host innate immune system. Features of PorB suggest that Toll-like receptor mediated recognition outer membrane proteins may be initiated with a nonspecific electrostatic attraction.

  19. Molecular characterisation of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) isolates from different outbreaks in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Rivera-Benítez, J F; Blomström, A-L; Ramliden, M; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Ramírez-Mendoza, H; Berg, M

    2016-02-01

    Since the report of the initial outbreak of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) infection in pigs, only one full-length genome from 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been characterised. To investigate the overall genetic variation, full-length gene nucleotide sequences of current PorPV isolates were obtained from different clinical cases of infected swine. Genome organisation and sequence analysis of the encoded proteins (NP, P, F, M, HN and L) revealed high sequence conservation of the NP protein and the expression of the P and V proteins in all PorPV isolates. The V protein of one isolate displayed a mutation that has been implicated to antagonise the antiviral immune responses of the host. The M protein indicated a variation in a short region that could affect the electrostatic charge and the interaction with the membrane. One PorPV isolate recovered from the lungs showed a mutation at the cleavage site (HRKKR) of the F protein that could represent an important factor to determine the tissue tropism and pathogenicity of this virus. The HN protein showed high sequence identity through the years (up to 2013). Additionally, a number of sequence motifs of very high amino acid conservation among the PorPV isolates important for polymerase activity of the L protein have been identified. In summary, genetic comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that three different genetic variants of PorPV are currently spreading within the swine population, and a new generation of circulating virus with different characteristics has begun to emerge. PMID:26728078

  20. Por Secretion System-Dependent Secretion and Glycosylation of Porphyromonas gingivalis Hemin-Binding Protein 35

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Mikio; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Kondo, Yoshio; Narita, Yuka; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2011-01-01

    The anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen in severe forms of periodontal disease and refractory periapical perodontitis. We have recently found that P. gingivalis has a novel secretion system named the Por secretion system (PorSS), which is responsible for secretion of major extracellular proteinases, Arg-gingipains (Rgps) and Lys-gingipain. These proteinases contain conserved C-terminal domains (CTDs) in their C-termini. Hemin-binding protein 35 (HBP35), which is one of the outer membrane proteins of P. gingivalis and contributes to its haem utilization, also contains a CTD, suggesting that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS. In this study, immunoblot analysis of P. gingivalis mutants deficient in the PorSS or in the biosynthesis of anionic polysaccharide-lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) revealed that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS and is glycosylated with A-LPS. From deletion analysis with a GFP-CTD[HBP35] green fluorescent protein fusion, the C-terminal 22 amino acid residues of CTD[HBP35] were found to be required for cell surface translocation and glycosylation. The GFP-CTD fusion study also revealed that the CTDs of CPG70, peptidylarginine deiminase, P27 and RgpB play roles in PorSS-dependent translocation and glycosylation. However, CTD-region peptides were not found in samples of glycosylated HBP35 protein by peptide map fingerprinting analysis, and antibodies against CTD-regions peptides did not react with glycosylated HBP35 protein. These results suggest both that the CTD region functions as a recognition signal for the PorSS and that glycosylation of CTD proteins occurs after removal of the CTD region. Rabbits were used for making antisera against bacterial proteins in this study. PMID:21731719

  1. Gliding Motility and Por Secretion System Genes Are Widespread among Members of the Phylum Bacteroidetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yongtao

    2013-01-01

    The phylum Bacteroidetes is large and diverse, with rapid gliding motility and the ability to digest macromolecules associated with many genera and species. Recently, a novel protein secretion system, the Por secretion system (PorSS), was identified in two members of the phylum, the gliding bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae and the nonmotile oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. The components of the PorSS are not similar in sequence to those of other well-studied bacterial secretion systems. The F. johnsoniae PorSS genes are a subset of the gliding motility genes, suggesting a role for the secretion system in motility. The F. johnsoniae PorSS is needed for assembly of the gliding motility apparatus and for secretion of a chitinase, and the P. gingivalis PorSS is involved in secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors. Comparative analysis of 37 genomes of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes revealed the widespread occurrence of gliding motility genes and PorSS genes. Genes associated with other bacterial protein secretion systems were less common. The results suggest that gliding motility is more common than previously reported. Microscopic observations confirmed that organisms previously described as nonmotile, including Croceibacter atlanticus, “Gramella forsetii,” Paludibacter propionicigenes, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Robiginitalea biformata, exhibit gliding motility. Three genes (gldA, gldF, and gldG) that encode an apparent ATP-binding cassette transporter required for F. johnsoniae gliding were absent from two related gliding bacteria, suggesting that the transporter may not be central to gliding motility. PMID:23123910

  2. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  3. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  4. An Analysis of Interlanguage Development Over Time: Part 1, "por" and "para".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guntermann, Gail

    1992-01-01

    The first part of a larger planned investigation, this study examines the use of "por" and "para" by nine Peace Corps volunteers in oral interviews at the end of training and roughly one year later, to trace their acquisition over time, in two learning contexts. (24 references) (LB)

  5. The Acquisition of Lexical Meaning in a Study Abroad Context: The Spanish Prepositions "por" and "para."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A.; Ryan, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Examination of the development of form/function relations of the prepositions "por" and "para" at different levels of proficiency in the interlanguage of study-abroad students in Granada, Spain, revealed "noncanonical" as well as "canonical" uses of these prepositions. The most common noncanonical uses were as substitutions for other prepositions…

  6. The porA gene in serogroup A meningococci: evolutionary stability and mechanism of genetic variation.

    PubMed

    Suker, J; Feavers, I M; Achtman, M; Morelli, G; Wang, J F; Maiden, M C

    1994-04-01

    Molecular analyses were applied to the genes encoding variants of the serosubtyping antigen, the class 1 outer membrane protein (PorA), from 55 serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis strains. These genes were evolutionarily stable and exhibited a limited range of genetic variation, primarily generated by recombination. Translation of the gene sequences revealed a total of 19 distinct amino acid sequences in the variable regions of the protein, 6 of which were not recognized by currently available serosubtyping monoclonal antibodies. Knowledge of these amino acid sequences permitted a rational re-assignment of serosubtype names. Comparison of the complete genes with porA gene sequences from serogroup B and C meningococci showed that serogroup A possessed a limited number of the possible porA genes from a globally distributed gene pool. Each serogroup A subgroup was characterized by one of four porA gene types, probably acquired upon subgroup divergence, which was stable over periods of decades and during epidemiological spread. Comparison with other variable genes (pil and iga) indicated that the three alleles were independently assorted within the subgroup, suggesting that their gene types were older than the subgroups in which they occurred. PMID:8057850

  7. Informe a la Nación de mortalidad por cáncer sigue bajando

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, de 1975 a 2009, indica que los índices generales de mortalidad por cáncer siguen bajando en los Estados Unidos en hombres y mujeres, entre todos los grupos raciales y étnicos principales y para todo

  8. Perfis de temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copetti, M. V. F.

    2003-08-01

    As flutuações de temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII, inicialmente propostas para explicar as discrepâncias entre os valores de temperatura obtidos por diferentes métodos, têm sido apontadas como a causa mais provável das enormes diferenças encontradas entre as abundâncias químicas medidas através de linhas excitadas colisionalmente e de linhas de recombinação. Recentemente têm sido reportadas tentativas de detecção e quantificação diretas das flutuações de temperatura eletrônica através de medidas ponto a ponto, obtidas por meio de espectroscopia de fenda longa, das razões de linhas [OIII]l4263/l5007 e [NII]l5755/l6584, principais sensores de temperatura. Neste trabalho, utilizamos o código numérico de fotoionização Cloudy para avaliar a confiabilidade desse procedimento. Concluímos que, para valores de densidade eletrônica e de temperatura efetiva da estrela ionizante típicos das regiões HII, os perfis superficiais de temperatura obtidos via medidas do sensor [OIII]l4263/l5007 são bons traçadores dos gradientes internos de temperatura eletrônica. Já os perfis de temperatura eletrônica medidos por meio da razão [NII]l5755/l6584 não reproduzem os gradientes verdadeiros de temperatura.

  9. Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.

    Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.

  10. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-06-27

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-005 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  11. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-006 skid D

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-07-29

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-006 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  12. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-004 skid B

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-05-06

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-004 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  13. Correlation between Serological and Sequencing Analyses of the PorB Outer Membrane Protein in the Neisseria meningitidis Serotyping System

    PubMed Central

    Sacchi, Claudio T.; Lemos, Ana P. S.; Whitney, Anne M.; Solari, Claude A.; Brandt, Mary E.; Melles, Carmo E. A.; Frasch, Carl E.; Mayer, Leonard W.

    1998-01-01

    The current serological typing scheme for Neisseria meningitidis is not comprehensive; a proportion of isolates are not serotypeable. DNA sequence analysis and predicted amino acid sequences were used to characterize the structures of variable-region (VR) epitopes on N. meningitidis PorB proteins (PorB VR typing). Twenty-six porB gene sequences were obtained from GenBank and aligned with 41 new sequences. Primary amino acid structures predicted from those genes were grouped into 30 VR families of related variants that displayed at least 60% similarity. We correlated VR families with monoclonal antibody (MAb) reactivities, establishing a relationship between VR families and epitope locations for 15 serotype-defining MAbs. The current panel of serotype-defining MAbs underestimates by at least 50% the PorB VR variability because reagents for several major VR families are lacking or because a number of VR variants within some families are not recognized by serotype-defining MAbs. These difficulties, also reported for serosubtyping based on the PorA protein, are shown as inconsistent results between serological and sequence analyses, leading to inaccurate strain identification and incomplete epidemiological data. The information from this study enabled the expansion of the panel of MAbs currently available for serotyping, by including MAbs of previously undetermined specificities. Use of the expanded serotype panel enabled us to improve the sensitivity of serotyping by resolving a number of formerly nonserotypeable strains. In most cases, this information can be used to predict the VR family placement of unknown PorB proteins without sequencing the entire porB gene. PorB VR typing complements serotyping, and a combination of both techniques may be used for full characterization of meningococcal strains. The present work represents the most complete and integrated data set of PorB VR sequences and MAb reactivities of serogroup B and C meningococci produced to date. PMID

  14. Zinc Finger Nuclease Knock-out of NADPH:Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) in Human Tumor Cell Lines Demonstrates That Hypoxia-activated Prodrugs Differ in POR Dependence*

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jiechuang; Gu, Yongchuan; Pruijn, Frederik B.; Smaill, Jeff B.; Patterson, Adam V.; Guise, Christopher P.; Wilson, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia, a ubiquitous feature of tumors, can be exploited by hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) that are substrates for one-electron reduction in the absence of oxygen. NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is considered one of the major enzymes responsible, based on studies using purified enzyme or forced overexpression in cell lines. To examine the role of POR in HAP activation at endogenous levels of expression, POR knock-outs were generated in HCT116 and SiHa cells by targeted mutation of exon 8 using zinc finger nucleases. Absolute quantitation by proteotypic peptide mass spectrometry of DNA sequence-confirmed multiallelic mutants demonstrated expression of proteins with residual one-electron reductase activity in some clones and identified two (Hko2 from HCT116 and S2ko1 from SiHa) that were functionally null by multiple criteria. Sensitivities of the clones to 11 HAP (six nitroaromatics, three benzotriazine N-oxides, and two quinones) were compared with wild-type and POR-overexpressing cells. All except the quinones were potentiated by POR overexpression. Knocking out POR had a marked effect on antiproliferative activity of the 5-nitroquinoline SN24349 in both genetic backgrounds after anoxic exposure but little or no effect on activity of most other HAP, including the clinical stage 2-nitroimidazole mustard TH-302, dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and benzotriazine N-oxide SN30000. Clonogenic cell killing and reductive metabolism of PR-104A and SN30000 under anoxia also showed little change in the POR knock-outs. Thus, although POR expression is a potential biomarker of sensitivity to some HAP, identification of other one-electron reductases responsible for HAP activation is needed for their rational clinical development. PMID:24196959

  15. Characterization of Plasmid pOR1 from Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale and Construction of a Shuttle Plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Ruud; Chansiripornchai, Niwat; Gaastra, Wim; van Putten, Jos P. M.

    2004-01-01

    The bacterium Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale has been recognized as an emerging pathogen in poultry since about 10 years ago. Knowledge of this bacterium and its mechanisms of virulence is still very limited. Here we report the development of a transformation system that enables genetic modification of O. rhinotracheale. The system is based on a cryptic plasmid, pOR1, that was derived from an O. rhinotracheale strain of serotype K. Sequencing indicated that the plasmid consisted of 14,787 nucleotides. Sequence analysis revealed one replication origin and several rep genes that control plasmid replication and copy number, respectively. In addition, pOR1 contains genes with similarity to a heavy-metal-transporting ATPase, a TonB-linked siderophore receptor, and a laccase. Reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that these genes were transcribed. Other putative open reading frames exhibited similarities with a virulence-associated protein in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and a number of genes coding for proteins with unknown function. An Escherichia coli-O. rhinotracheale shuttle plasmid (pOREC1) was constructed by cloning the replication origin and rep genes from pOR1 and the cfxA gene from Bacteroides vulgatus, which codes for resistance to the antibiotic cefoxitin, into plasmid pGEM7 by using E. coli as a host. pOREC1 was electroporated into O. rhinotracheale and yielded cefoxitin-resistant transformants. The pOREC1 isolated from these transformants was reintroduced into E. coli, demonstrating that pOREC1 acts as an independent replicon in both E. coli and O. rhinotracheale, fulfilling the criteria for a shuttle plasmid that can be used for transformation, targeted mutagenesis, and the construction of defined attenuated vaccine strains. PMID:15466524

  16. Expression, purification and preliminary X-ray analysis of the Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorB

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Mikio; Iverson, Tina M.

    2010-01-28

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorB was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified from inclusion bodies by denaturation in urea followed by refolding in buffered LDAO on a size-exclusion column. PorB has been crystallized in three different crystal forms: C222, R32 and P6{sub 3}. The C222 crystal form may contain either one or two PorB monomers in the asymmetric unit, while both the R32 and P6{sub 3} crystal forms contained one PorB monomer in the asymmetric unit. Of the three, the P6{sub 3} crystal form had the best diffraction quality, yielding data extending to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution.

  17. Application of POR-Tveks to the radiochemical recovery of yttrium-90

    SciTech Connect

    Maksimova, A.M.; Kvasnitskii, I.B.

    1988-01-01

    The authors describe a method for the radiochemical analysis of fish bones for the accumulation of strontium 90 and yttrium 90 from power plant contamination of surface waters which involves labelling the sample with isotopes and subsequent adsorption of the yttrium component with the use of POR-Tveks, an adsorbent based on a copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene with heteroradical phosphine oxide. The yield of yttrium is determined from the mass of the oxide and from the half-life of the yttrium isotope.

  18. Antigenic topology of chlamydial PorB protein and identification of targets for immune neutralization of infectivity.

    PubMed

    Kawa, Diane E; Stephens, Richard S

    2002-05-15

    The outer membrane protein PorB is a conserved chlamydial protein that functions as a porin and is capable of eliciting neutralizing Abs. A topological antigenic map was developed using overlapping synthetic peptides representing the Chlamydia trachomatis PorB sequence and polyclonal immune sera. To identify which antigenic determinants were surface accessible, monospecific antisera were raised to the PorB peptides and were used in dot-blot and ELISA-based absorption studies with viable chlamydial elementary bodies (EBs). The ability of the surface-accessible antigenic determinants to direct neutralizing Ab responses was investigated using standardized in vitro neutralization assays. Four major antigenic clusters corresponding to Phe(34)-Leu(59) (B1-2 and B1-3), Asp(112) -Glu(145) (B2-3 and B2-4), Gly(179)-Ala(225) (B3-2 to B3-4), and Val(261)-Asn(305) (B4-4 to B5-2) were identified. Collectively, the EB absorption and dot-blot assays established that the immunoreactive PorB Ags were exposed on the surface of chlamydial EBs. Peptide-specific antisera raised to the surface-accessible Ags neutralized chlamydial infectivity and demonstrated cross-reactivity to synthetic peptides representing analogous C. pneumoniae PorB sequences. Furthermore, neutralization of chlamydial infectivity by C. trachomatis PorB antisera was inhibited by synthetic peptides representing the surface-exposed PorB antigenic determinants. These findings demonstrate that PorB Ags may be useful for development of chlamydial vaccines. PMID:11994474

  19. Multiple active site residues are important for photochemical efficiency in the light-activated enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR).

    PubMed

    Menon, Binuraj R K; Hardman, Samantha J O; Scrutton, Nigel S; Heyes, Derren J

    2016-08-01

    Protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes the light-driven reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), an essential, regulatory step in chlorophyll biosynthesis. The unique requirement of the enzyme for light has provided the opportunity to investigate how light energy can be harnessed to power biological catalysis and enzyme dynamics. Excited state interactions between the Pchlide molecule and the protein are known to drive the subsequent reaction chemistry. However, the structural features of POR and active site residues that are important for photochemistry and catalysis are currently unknown, because there is no crystal structure for POR. Here, we have used static and time-resolved spectroscopic measurements of a number of active site variants to study the role of a number of residues, which are located in the proposed NADPH/Pchlide binding site based on previous homology models, in the reaction mechanism of POR. Our findings, which are interpreted in the context of a new improved structural model, have identified several residues that are predicted to interact with the coenzyme or substrate. Several of the POR variants have a profound effect on the photochemistry, suggesting that multiple residues are important in stabilizing the excited state required for catalysis. Our work offers insight into how the POR active site geometry is finely tuned by multiple active site residues to support enzyme-mediated photochemistry and reduction of Pchlide, both of which are crucial to the existence of life on Earth. PMID:27285815

  20. Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA

    PubMed Central

    González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

  1. Effect of SPM-based cleaning POR on EUV mask performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaehyuck; Lee, Han-shin; Yoon, Jinsang; Shimomura, Takeya; Friz, Alex; Montgomery, Cecilia; Ma, Andy; Goodwin, Frank; Kang, Daehyuk; Chung, Paul; Shin, Inkyun; Cho, H.

    2011-11-01

    EUV masks include many different layers of various materials rarely used in optical masks, and each layer of material has a particular role in enhancing the performance of EUV lithography. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the mask quality and patterning performance can change during mask fabrication, EUV exposure, maintenance cleaning, shipping, or storage. The fact that a pellicle is not used to protect the mask surface in EUV lithography suggests that EUV masks may have to undergo more cleaning cycles during their lifetime. More frequent cleaning, combined with the adoption of new materials for EUV masks, necessitates that mask manufacturers closely examine the performance change of EUV masks during cleaning process. We have investigated EUV mask quality and patterning performance during 30 cycles of Samsung's EUV mask SPM-based cleaning and 20 cycles of SEMATECH ADT exposure. We have observed that the quality and patterning performance of EUV masks does not significantly change during these processes except mask pattern CD change. To resolve this issue, we have developed an acid-free cleaning POR and substantially improved EUV mask film loss compared to the SPM-based cleaning POR.

  2. Methodology for obtaining stakeholder assessments of obesity policy options in the PorGrow project.

    PubMed

    Stirling, A; Lobstein, T; Millstone, E

    2007-05-01

    The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project (PorGrow) study provided a unique opportunity to develop a large-scale application of a semi-quantitative technique for exploring interviewees' views on options to tackle obesity, using multi-criteria mapping. This 'heuristic' approach utilizes the advantages of a structured interviews framework by predefining a set of options for appraisal, while leaving interviewees free to select their own criteria for making their judgements. Additional information can be gleaned from the interview transcripts and related materials to set the appraisals in their policy context, and allowing interviewees to express their views on the options presented and their own appraisals. The PorGrow study team agreed a predefined set of 20 options for appraisal, and interviewed sets of stakeholders representing more than 20 aspects of policy development in each of the nine participating countries. The details of the methodology adopted are set out in this paper. PMID:17371304

  3. Effects of heme precursors on CYP1A2 and POR expression in the baculovirus/Spodoptera frugiperda system☆

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Huiyuan; Ma, Jun; Liu, Nian; Wang, Shoulin

    2010-01-01

    Objective CYP1A2 and NADPH-CYP450 oxidoreductase (POR) were expressed in the baculovirus/Spodoptera frugiperda (sf9) system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of heme precursors on the expression of CYP1A2 and POR. Methods The heme precursors [δ-Aminolaevulinic Acid (5-ALA), Fe3+ and hemin] were introduced into the system to evaluate their effects on the expression of CYP1A2, POR and their co-expression. All the proteins were identified using immunoblotting, CO-difference spectroscopy, or cytochrome c assay. Results In the present study, functional CYP1A2 and POR were successfully expressed in the baculovirus/sf9 system, and both of them showed high activities. Co-addition of 5-ALA and Fe3+ significantly improved expression of CYP1A2 by about 50% compared with the addition of 5-ALA, Fe3+ or hemin alone. Either co-addition of 5-ALA and Fe3+ or addition of 5-ALA or Fe3+ alone improved the POR expression level 2 fold and its activity 7-10 fold compared with control (no addition). However, unlike CYP1A2, there was no difference between the co-addition and addition of these heme precursors alone. Different ratios of BvCYP1A2 to BvPOR also affected the co-expression of CYP1A2 and POR, with a 3:1 ratio of BvCYP1A2 / BvPOR significantly increasing their co-expression. Surprisingly, the addition of 0.1 mM 5-ALA or Fe3+ alone, but not their co-addition, could significantly improve the CYP1A2 and POR co-expression (P < 0.05). Conclusion 5-ALA and Fe3+ increased the expression of CYP1A2 and POR in a baculovirus/sf9 system, but the pattern of their expression was different between their expression alone and co-expression. PMID:23554636

  4. Geometry sensing through POR1 regulates Rac1 activity controlling early osteoblast differentiation in response to nanofiber diameter.

    PubMed

    Higgins, A M; Banik, B L; Brown, J L

    2015-02-01

    Bone grafting procedures in the United States rely heavily upon autografts and allografts, which are donor-dependent, cause donor site pain, and can transmit disease. Synthetic bone grafts can reduce these risks; however, synthetics lack the bone differentiating (osteoinductive) abilities of auto- and allografts. Achieving innate osteoinductive properties of synthetics through surface modifications is currently under investigation. This study focuses on nanofibers, with emphasis on how fiber diameter and the potential curvature sensor POR1 affect the activation of the signaling molecules Rac1 and Arf1, and leading to expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an osteoinductive marker. Diameters of 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 μm were compared against a flat control. The highest level of Rac1 activation was achieved on the smallest fibers (0.1 μm), a trend that was lost in POR1 knockdowns. This supports the hypothesis that on small nanofibers, POR1 favorably binds to highly curved cell membranes, which allows Rac1 to subsequently dissociate and activate. When the curvature is insufficient to bind POR1, POR1 binds to inactive Rac1 and competitively inhibits its activation. Arf1 activation followed an opposite trend, with the largest nanofibers exhibiting the highest activity. This trend reinforces the known interaction between Rac1 and Arf1 through the GIT-PIX complex, an Arf1 GAP and Rac1 GEF, respectively. Large, (1.0 μm), nanofibers demonstrated the highest ALP activity, indicating that ALP expression is inversely dependent on Rac1 activation. Knockdown of POR1 resulted in increased ALP activity across the substrates but without regard to the curvature sensing trend seen previously. Thus, POR1 senses curvature and increases Rac1 activity, which negatively regulates bone differentiation. PMID:25539497

  5. Substrate-specific modulation of CYP3A4 activity by genetic variants of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR)

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Vishal; Choi, Ji Ha; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Miller, Walter L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives CYP3A4 receives electrons from P450 oxidoreductase (POR) to metabolize about 50% of clinically used drugs. There is substantial inter-individual variation in CYP3A4 catalytic activity that is not explained by CYP3A4 genetic variants. CYP3A4 is flexible and distensible, permitting it to accommodate substrates varying in shape and size. To elucidate mechanisms of variability in CYP3A4 catalysis, we examined the effects of genetic variants of POR, and explored the possibility that substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4 differentially affect the ability of POR variants to support catalysis. Methods We expressed human CYP3A4 and four POR variants (Q153R, A287P, R457H, A503V) in bacteria, reconstituted them in vitro and measured the Michaelis constant and maximum velocity with testosterone, midazolam, quinidine and erythromycin as substrates. Results POR A287P and R457H had low activity with all substrates; Q153R had 76–94% of wild type (WT) activity with midazolam and erythromycin, but 129–150% activity with testosterone and quinidine. The A503V polymorphism reduced CYP3A4 activity to 61–77% of wild type with testosterone and midazolam, but had nearly wild type activity with quinidine and erythromycin. Conclusion POR variants affect CYP3A4 activities. The impact of a POR variant on catalysis by CYP3A4 is substrate-specific, probably due to substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4. PMID:20697309

  6. Fabrication of por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers for gas microsensors and nanosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotov, V. V. Korusenko, P. M.; Nesov, S. N.; Povoroznyuk, S. N.; Roslikov, V. E.; Kurdyukova, E. A.; Sten'kin, Yu. A.; Shelyagin, R. V.; Knyazev, E. V.; Kan, V. E.; Ponomareva, I. V.

    2011-05-15

    Two-phase nanocomposite layers based on porous silicon and nonstoichiometric tin oxide were fabricated by various methods. The structure, as well as elemental and phase composition, of the obtained nanocomposites were studied using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results obtained confirm the formation of nanocomposite layers with a thickness as large as 2 {mu}m thick and SnO{sub x} stoichiometry coefficients x = 1.0-2.0. Significant tin diffusion into the porous silicon matrix with D{sub eff} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} was observed upon annealing at 770 K. Test sensor structures based on por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers grown by magnetron deposition showed fairly high stability of properties and sensitivity to NO{sub 2}.

  7. Recovery of naphthalene during evaporative concentration. [Tenax; XAD-2; POR-Q, XE-340

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.E.; Guerin, M.R.

    1980-10-01

    The analysis of trace organics usually requires concentrating organic extracts to small volumes prior to instrumental analysis. The use of a concentration apparatus employing a nitrogen blanket and reduced pressure is desirable because the inert atmosphere and low temperature help to ensure stable composition. Unfortunately, diaromatic compounds such as the naphthalenes and biphenyls are frequently almost completely lost during the concentration step. Even under carefully controlled conditions only 26 +- 11% of the naphthalene is recovered. By placing a sorbent either in or downstream of the evaporation concentration flask, recovery of diaromatic compounds can be improved significantly. In this investigation, the following sorbents, Tenax, XAD-2, POR-Q, and XE-340 were tested. Recoveries with and without the use of sorbents, effects of solute concentration, purge time after solvent removal, and type of solvent used are reported here.

  8. Using the PORS Problems to Examine Evolutionary Optimization of Multiscale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, Zachary; Molian, Vaelan; Bryden, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all systems of practical interest are composed of parts assembled across multiple scales. For example, an agrodynamic system is composed of flora and fauna on one scale; soil types, slope, and water runoff on another scale; and management practice and yield on another scale. Or consider an advanced coal-fired power plant: combustion and pollutant formation occurs on one scale, the plant components on another scale, and the overall performance of the power system is measured on another. In spite of this, there are few practical tools for the optimization of multiscale systems. This paper examines multiscale optimization of systems composed of discrete elements using the plus-one-recall-store (PORS) problem as a test case or study problem for multiscale systems. From this study, it is found that by recognizing the constraints and patterns present in discrete multiscale systems, the solution time can be significantly reduced and much more complex problems can be optimized.

  9. Display of a PorA peptide from Neisseria meningitidis on the bacteriophage T4 capsid surface.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, J; Abu-Shilbayeh, L; Rao, V B

    1997-01-01

    The exterior of bacteriophage T4 capsid is coated with two outer capsid proteins, Hoc (highly antigenic outer capsid protein; molecular mass, 40 kDa) and Soc (small outer capsid protein; molecular mass, 9 kDa), at symmetrical positions on the icosahedron (160 copies of Hoc and 960 copies of Soc per capsid particle). Both these proteins are nonessential for phage infectivity and viability and assemble onto the capsid surface after completion of capsid assembly. We developed a phage display system which allowed in-frame fusions of foreign DNA at a unique cloning site in the 5' end of hoc or soc. A DNA fragment corresponding to the 36-amino-acid PorA peptide from Neisseria meningitidis was cloned into the display vectors to generate fusions at the N terminus of Hoc or Soc. The PorA-Hoc and PorA-Soc fusion proteins retained the ability to bind to the capsid surface, and the bound peptide was displayed in an accessible form as shown by its reactivity with specific monoclonal antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. By employing T4 genetic strategies, we show that more than one subtype-specific PorA peptide can be displayed on the capsid surface and that the peptide can also be displayed on a DNA-free empty capsid. Both the PorA-Hoc and PorA-Soc recombinant phages are highly immunogenic in mice and elicit strong antipeptide antibody titers even with a weak adjuvant such as Alhydrogel or no adjuvant at all. The data suggest that the phage T4 hoc-soc system is an attractive system for display of peptides on an icosahedral capsid surface and may emerge as a powerful system for construction of the next generation multicomponent vaccines. PMID:9353063

  10. Rescue of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por) mouse mutants reveals functions in vasculogenesis, brain and limb patterning linked to retinoic acid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ribes, Vanessa; Otto, Diana M E; Dickmann, Leslie; Schmidt, Katy; Schuhbaur, Brigitte; Henderson, Colin; Blomhoff, Rune; Wolf, C Roland; Tickle, Cheryll; Dollé, Pascal

    2007-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) acts as an electron donor for all cytochrome P450 enzymes. Knockout mouse Por(-/-) mutants, which are early embryonic (E9.5) lethal, have been found to have overall elevated retinoic acid (RA) levels, leading to the idea that POR early developmental function is mainly linked to the activity of the CYP26 RA-metabolizing enzymes (Otto et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 23, 6103-6116). By crossing Por mutants with a RA-reporter lacZ transgene, we show that Por(-/-) embryos exhibit both elevated and ectopic RA signaling activity e.g. in cephalic and caudal tissues. Two strategies were used to functionally demonstrate that decreasing retinoid levels can reverse Por(-/-) phenotypic defects, (i) by culturing Por(-/-) embryos in defined serum-free medium, and (ii) by generating compound mutants defective in RA synthesis due to haploinsufficiency of the retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Raldh2) gene. Both approaches clearly improved the Por(-/-) early phenotype, the latter allowing mutants to be recovered up until E13.5. Abnormal brain patterning, with posteriorization of hindbrain cell fates and defective mid- and forebrain development and vascular defects were rescued in E9.5 Por(-/-) embryos. E13.5 Por(-/-); Raldh2(+/-) embryos exhibited abdominal/caudal and limb defects that strikingly phenocopy those of Cyp26a1(-/-) and Cyp26b1(-/-) mutants, respectively. Por(-/-); Raldh2(+/-) limb buds were truncated and proximalized and the anterior-posterior patterning system was not established. Thus, POR function is indispensable for the proper regulation of RA levels and tissue distribution not only during early embryonic development but also in later morphogenesis and molecular patterning of the brain, abdominal/caudal region and limbs. PMID:17126317

  11. Functional POR A503V is associated with the risk of bladder cancer in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xue; Ma, Gaoxiang; Li, Shushu; Wang, Meilin; Liu, Nian; Ma, Lan; Zhang, Zhan; Chu, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) plays important roles in the metabolism of exogenous carcinogens and endogenous sterol hormones. However, few studies have explored the association between POR variants and the risk of bladder cancer. In this study, we first sequenced all 16 POR exons among 50 randomly selected controls, and found three variants, rs1135612, rs1057868 (A503V) and rs2228104, which were then assessed the relation to risk of bladder cancer in a case-control study of 1,050 bladder cancer cases and 1,404 cancer-free controls in a Chinese population. People with A503V TT genotype have a decreased risk of bladder cancer in a recessive model (TT vs. CC/CT, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.57–0.93), which was more pronounced among elderly male, non-smoking, subjects. Especially, A503V TT genotype showed a protective effect in the invasive tumor stage. Functional analysis revealed that A503V activity decreased in cytochrome c reduction (50.5 units/mg vs. 135.4 units/mg), mitomycin C clearance (38.3% vs. 96.8%), and mitomycin C-induced colony formation (78.0 vs 34.3 colonies per dish). The results suggested that POR A503V might decrease the risk of bladder cancer by reducing its metabolic activity, and should be a potential biomarker for predicting the susceptibility to human bladder cancer. PMID:26123203

  12. Global Microlending in Education Reform: Enseñá Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Enseñá por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,…

  13. [Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD, students at Budapest and Prague Faculties of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Mydlík, M; Derzsiová, K

    2010-11-01

    Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD were contemporaries, both born in 1899, one in Zvolen, the other in Dombovar, at the time of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Prof. Por attended the Faculty of Medicine in Budapest from 1918 to 1920, and Prof. Klopstock studied at the same place between 1917 and 1919. From 1920 until graduation on 6th February 1926, Prof. Por continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. Prof. Klopstock had to interrupt his studies in Budapest due to pulmonary tuberculosis; he received treatment at Tatranske Matliare where he befriended Franz Kafka. Later, upon Kafka's encouragement, he changed institutions and continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, where he graduated the first great go. It is very likely that, during their studies in Budapest and Prague, both professors met repeatedly, even though their life paths later separated. Following his graduation, Prof. Por practiced as an internist in Prague, later in Slovakia, and from 1945 in Kosice. In 1961, he was awarded the title of university professor of internal medicine at the Faculty of Medicine, Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice, where he practiced until his death in 1980. Prof. Klopstock continued his studies in Kiel and Berlin. After his graduation in 1933, he practiced in Berlin as a surgeon and in 1938 left for USA. In 1962, he was awarded the title of university professor of pulmonary surgery in NewYork, where he died in 1972. PMID:21250499

  14. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la

  15. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  16. Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad en Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La investigación tuvo como propósito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versión en español del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje útil en una población de niños y niñas escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 niños entre 5 y 13 años de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados con el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagnóstico fue confirmado con una entrevista clínica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagnóstico según el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje más preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado por el maestro en un corte de 20%, con una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados por los padres fue más baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado por las maestras con un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categorizó correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094

  17. Epitope specificity of murine and human bactericidal antibodies against PorA P1.7,16 induced with experimental meningococcal group B vaccines.

    PubMed

    Rouppe van der Voort, E M; Kuipers, B; Brugghe, H F; van Unen, L M; Timmermans, H A; Hoogerhout, P; Poolman, J T

    1997-03-01

    Synthetic peptides derived from the predicted loops 1 and 4 of meningococcal PorA, sero-subtype P1.7,16, were used to study the epitope specificity of murine and human PorA P1.7,16 bactericidal antibodies. The predicted loops 1 and 4 are surface exposed and carry in their apices the sero-subtype epitopes P1.7 (loop 1) or P1.16 (loop 4), respectively. Peptides were synthesized as mono- and multimeric peptides. Murine monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies were induced with meningococcal whole cell preparations. Polyclonal antibodies were evoked in volunteers after one immunization with 50 micrograms or 100 micrograms protein of a hexavalent meningococcal PorA vesicle vaccine. The induction of PorA antibodies was determined in ELISA using purified PorA P1.7,16. The epitope specificity of anti-PorA antibodies for both murine and human antibodies could be demonstrated by direct peptide ELISA using overlapping multimeric peptides almost spanning the entire loops 1 or 4 of the protein. The capacity of peptides to inhibit the bactericidal activity of murine and human antibodies was investigated using meningococcal strain H44/76 (B:15:P1.7,16) as a target strain. Bactericidal activities could be inhibited with both monomeric and multimeric peptides derived from epitopes P1.7 and P1.16. PMID:9093834

  18. Targeting of Neisserial PorB to the mitochondrial outer membrane: an insight on the evolution of β-barrel protein assembly machines.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jhih-Hang; Davies, John K; Lithgow, Trevor; Strugnell, Richard A; Gabriel, Kipros

    2011-11-01

    Mitochondria originated from Gram-negative bacteria through endosymbiosis. In modern day mitochondria, the Sorting and Assembly Machinery (SAM) is responsible for eukaryotic β-barrel protein assembly in the mitochondrial outer membrane. The SAM is the functional equivalent of the β-barrel assembly machinery found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. In this study we examined the import pathway of a pathogenic bacterial protein, PorB, which is targeted from pathogenic Neisseria to the host mitochondria. We have developed a new method for measurement of PorB assembly into mitochondria that relies on the mobility shift exhibited by bacterial β-barrel proteins once folded and separated under semi-native electrophoretic conditions. We show that PorB is targeted to the outer mitochondrial membrane with a dependence on the intermembrane space shuttling chaperones and the core component of the SAM, Sam50, which is a functional homologue of BamA that is required for PorB assembly in bacteria. The peripheral subunits of the SAM, Sam35 and Sam37, which are essential for eukaryotic β-barrel protein assembly but do not have distinguishable functional homologues in bacteria, are not required for PorB assembly in eukaryotes. This shows that PorB uses an evolutionary conserved 'bacterial like' mechanism to infiltrate the host mitochondrial outer membrane. PMID:22032638

  19. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity in UK infants of a novel meningococcal vesicle vaccine containing multiple class 1 (PorA) outer membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, K; Morris, R; Rümke, H; Fox, A; Borrow, R; Begg, N; Richmond, P; Poolman, J

    1999-06-01

    The development of effective vaccines against serogroup B meningococci is of great public health importance. We assessed a novel genetically engineered vaccine containing six meningococcal class 1 (PorA) outer membrane proteins representing 80% of prevalent strains in the UK. 103 infants were given the meningococcal vaccine at ages 2, 3 and 4 months with routine infant immunisations, with a fourth dose at 12-18 months. The vaccine was well tolerated. Three doses evoked good immune responses to two of six meningococcal strains expressing PorA proteins contained in the vaccine. Following a fourth dose, larger bactericidal responses to all six strains were observed, suggesting that the initial course had primed memory lymphocytes and revaccination stimulated a booster response. This hexavalent PorA meningococcal vaccine was safe and evoked encouraging immune responses in infants. Vaccines of this type warrant further development and evaluation. PMID:10418910

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal fragment of PorM, a subunit of the Porphyromonas gingivalis type IX secretion system.

    PubMed

    Stathopulos, Julien; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric; Roussel, Alain; Leone, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    PorM is a membrane protein involved in the assembly of the type IX secretion system (T9SS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major bacterial pathogen responsible for periodontal disease in humans. The periplasmic domain of PorM was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. A fragment of the purified protein was obtained by limited proteolysis. Crystals of this fragment belonged to the tetragonal space group P4(3)2(1)2. Native and MAD data sets were recorded to 2.85 and 3.1 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. PMID:25615973

  1. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    Mould materials for injection moulding of polymers and polymer-matrix composites represent a relevant industrial economic sector due to the large quantity of pieces and components processed. The material selection for mould manufacturing, its composition and heat treatment, the hardening procedures and machining and finishing processes determine the service performance and life of the mould. In the first part of the present study, the relationship between the hardness and microstructure and the wear resistance of mould steels from large blocks has been studied by pin-on-disc tests, studying the main wear mechanisms. In order to determine the surface damage on mould steels under real injection conditions, different commercial steels have been studied by measuring the variation of surface roughness with the number of injected pieces with different reinforcement percentages and different mould geometries, by using optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy techniques. It was important to determine the variation of surface roughness of the moulded pieces with the number of injection operations. The materials used were polybutyleneterephthalate pure and reinforced with either 20% or 50% glass fibre. For the different mould designs, the evolution of the glass fibre orientation with injection flow has been determined by image analysis and related to roughness changes and surface damage, both of the composite parts and of the mould steel surface. Finally, the abrasion resistance of the composite parts has been studied by scratch tests as a function of the number of injected parts and of the scratch direction with respect to injection flow and glass fibre orientation. Los materiales para moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos representan un sector economicamente muy relevante debido al gran aumento del numero de componentes fabricados a partir de materiales polimericos obtenidos mediante moldeo por inyeccion. La seleccion del material para la

  2. Adult Student Retention and Achievement with Language-Based Modular Materials. POR FIN: Program Organizing Related Family Instruction in the Neighborhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bexar County School Board, San Antonio, TX.

    The goal of the POR FIN research design was to develop a language-based curriculum emphasizing the audiolingual approach and integrating academic and social-functioning subject matter. The modular curriculum is designed so that each lesson is independent and complete in itself, and provides a high degree of motivation, retention, and achievement…

  3. P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C–H functionalization of biaryl derivatives to synthesize chiral phosphorous ligands

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rong-Bin; Wang, Hong-Li; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Heng; Ma, Yan-Na

    2014-01-01

    Summary Chiral phosphorus ligands have been widely used in transition metal-catalyzed asymmetric reactions. Herein, we report a new synthesis approach of chiral biaryls containing a phosphorus moiety using P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C–H activation; the functionalized products are produced with good enantioselectivity. PMID:25246966

  4. El proceso hacia la integracion de la equidad por genero al curriculo.(The Process of the Integration of Gender Equity in the Curriculum.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Bermudez, Carmen D.

    "El Proyecto Colaborativo de Equidad por Genero en la Educacion," or the Collaborative Project for Gender Equity in Education, was undertaken in Puerto Rico between 1990 and 1992 to study how to facilitate the integration of gender equity themes in the curriculum through the direct action of participating teachers. A study examined the attitudes…

  5. Informe a la nación indica que los índices de muertes por cáncer siguen bajando

    Cancer.gov

    Los índices de mortalidad por todos los cánceres combinados para hombres, mujeres y niños siguieron bajando en Estados Unidos entre 2004 y 2008, según el Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer de 1975 a 2008. El índice general de diagnóstico

  6. Community-based education in nutrition and cancer: the Por La Vida Cuidándome curriculum.

    PubMed

    Navarro, A M; Rock, C L; McNicholas, L J; Senn, K L; Moreno, C

    2000-01-01

    The Por La Vida (PLV) intervention model relies on community lay health advisors trained to conduct education sessions among members of their existing social networks. PLV Cuidándome was funded by the NCI to develop, implement, and evaluate the PLV model with respect to nutrition and cancer prevention, as well as early detection of breast and cervical cancers. The target population is the Latino community, for which substantial barriers to health care access exist. This article presents the curriculum that guides the sessions and describes its development, which was based on semi-structured interviews with Latina lay-health community workers to explore relevant attitudes and behaviors. Also key to the process was the work of the educational materials committee, whose members offered community representation as well as expertise in nutritional sciences, educational technologies, and community-based health promotion interventions and research. The 12-session curriculum's goal was to increase both the variety and the quality of fruits and/or vegetables consumed. It included information about consumption of fiber and fat in the importance of balance between energy intake and physical activity. The program has been well received. An ongoing study examines how it enhances nutrition and cancer prevention. PMID:11019766

  7. Estimaciones de Prevalencia del VIH por Género y Grupo de Riesgo en Tijuana, México: 2006

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Hogg, Robert S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Elder, John P.; Viani, Rolando M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO Estimar la prevalencia del VIH en adultos de 15-49 años de edad en Tijuana, México - en la población general y en subgrupos de riesgo en el 2006. METODOS Se obtuvieron datos demográficos del censo Mexicano del 2005, y la prevalencia del VIH se obtuvo de la literatura. Se construyó un modelo de prevalencia del VIH para la población general y de acuerdo al género. El análisis de sensibilidad consistió en estimar errores estándar del promedio-ponderado de la prevalencia del VIH y tomar derivados parciales con respecto a cada parámetro. RESULTADOS La prevalencia del VIH es 0.54%(N = 4,347) (Rango: 0.22%–0.86%, (N = 1,750–6,944)). Esto sugiere que 0.85%(Rango: 0.39%–1.31%) de los hombres y 0.22%(Rango: 0.04%–0.40%) de las mujeres podrían ser VIH-positivos. Los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), las trabajadoras sexuales usuarias de drogas inyectables (MTS-UDI), MTS-noUDI, mujeres UDI, y los hombres UDI contribuyeron las proporciones más elevadas de personas infectadas por el VIH. CONCLUSIONES El número de adultos VIH-positivos entre subgrupos de riesgo en la población de Tijuana es considerable, marcando la necesidad de enforcar las intervenciones de prevención en sus necesidades específicas. El presente modelo estima que hasta 1 en cada 116 adultos podrían ser VIH-positivos. PMID:19685824

  8. Study of the interaction mechanisms between absorbed NO{sub 2} and por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotov, V. V.; Kan, V. E. Makushenko, R. K.; Biryukov, M. Yu.; Ivlev, K. E.; Roslikov, V. E.

    2013-10-15

    The interaction mechanisms between NO{sub 2} molecules and the surface of por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposites obtained by magnetron deposition and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are studied by infrared absorption spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance methods. The observed increase in the free carrier concentration in the por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers is explained by a change in the charge state of P{sub b} centers due to the formation of neutral 'surface defect-adsorbed NO{sub 2} molecule' complexes with free carrier generation in the crystallite bulk. In the nanocomposite layers grown by the CVD method, the increase in the free hole concentration during NO{sub 2} adsorption is much less pronounced in comparison with the composite grown by magnetron deposition, which is caused by the competing interaction channel of NO{sub 2} molecules with electrically neutral P{sub b} centers.

  9. Binding of Complement Factor H to PorB3 and NspA Enhances Resistance of Neisseria meningitidis to Anti-Factor H Binding Protein Bactericidal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Giuntini, Serena; Pajon, Rolando; Ram, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Among 25 serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis clinical isolates, we identified four (16%) with high factor H binding protein (FHbp) expression that were resistant to complement-mediated bactericidal activity of sera from mice immunized with recombinant FHbp vaccines. Two of the four isolates had evidence of human FH-dependent complement downregulation independent of FHbp. Since alternative complement pathway recruitment is critical for anti-FHbp bactericidal activity, we hypothesized that in these two isolates binding of FH to ligands other than FHbp contributes to anti-FHbp bactericidal resistance. Knocking out NspA, a known meningococcal FH ligand, converted both resistant isolates to anti-FHbp susceptible isolates. The addition of a nonbactericidal anti-NspA monoclonal antibody to the bactericidal reaction also increased anti-FHbp bactericidal activity. To identify a role for FH ligands other than NspA or FHbp in resistance, we created double NspA/FHbp knockout mutants. Mutants from both resistant isolates bound 10-fold more recombinant human FH domains 6 and 7 fused to Fc than double knockout mutants prepared from two sensitive meningococcal isolates. In light of recent studies showing functional FH-PorB2 interactions, we hypothesized that PorB3 from the resistant isolates recruited FH. Allelic exchange of porB3 from a resistant isolate to a sensitive isolate increased resistance of the sensitive isolate to anti-FHbp bactericidal activity (and vice versa). Thus, some PorB3 variants functionally bind human FH, which in the presence of NspA enhances anti-FHbp resistance. Combining anti-NspA antibodies with anti-FHbp antibodies can overcome resistance. Meningococcal vaccines that target both NspA and FHbp are likely to confer greater protection than either antigen alone. PMID:25644002

  10. Los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón siguen en descenso y contribuyen a la continua reducc

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975 a 2010), mostró un descenso más acelerado que en años anteriores de los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón. También contiene una sección especial que destaca los efectos significativos

  11. La doctora Amelie Ramírez y la investigación de desigualdades de salud por cáncer en la comunidad la

    Cancer.gov

    La doctora Ramírez es la investigadora principal de Redes en Acción, un centro del programa de redes comunitarias subvencionado por el NCI que se propone reducir la incidencia del cáncer en la comunidad latina a través de una red nacional de grupos comunitarios, investigadores, agencias de salud gubernamentales y la población en general.

  12. Adjuvant Effects Elicited by Novel Oligosaccharide Variants of Detoxified Meningococcal Lipopolysaccharides on Neisseria meningitidis Recombinant PorA Protein: A Comparison in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Ojas H.; Norheim, Gunnstein; Hoe, J . Claire; Rollier, Christine S.; Nagaputra, Jerry C.; Makepeace, Katherine; Saleem, Muhammad; Chan, Hannah; Ferguson, David J. P.; Jones, Claire; Sadarangani, Manish; Hood, Derek W.; Feavers, Ian; Derrick, Jeremy P.; Pollard, Andrew J.; Moxon, E . Richard

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has adjuvant properties that can be exploited to assist vaccine immunogenicity. The modified penta-acylated LPS retains the adjuvant properties of hexa-acylated LPS but has a reduced toxicity profile. In this study we investigated whether two modified glycoform structures (LgtE and IcsB) of detoxified penta-acylated LPS exhibited differential adjuvant properties when formulated as native outer membrane vesicles (nOMVs) as compared to the previously described LgtB variant. Detoxified penta-acylated LPS was obtained by disruption of the lpxL1 gene (LpxL1 LPS), and three different glycoforms were obtained by disruption of the lgtB, lgtE or icsB genes respectively. Mice (mus musculus) were immunized with a recombinant PorA P1.7-2,4 (rPorA) protein co-administered with different nOMVs (containing a different PorA serosubtype P1.7,16), each of which expressed one of the three penta-acylated LPS glycoforms. All nOMVs induced IgG responses against the rPorA, but the nOMVs containing the penta-acylated LgtB-LpxL1 LPS glycoform induced significantly greater bactericidal activity compared to the other nOMVs or when the adjuvant was Alhydrogel. Compared to LgtE or IcsB LPS glycoforms, these data support the use of nOMVs containing detoxified, modified LgtB-LpxL1 LPS as a potential adjuvant for future meningococcal protein vaccines. PMID:25545241

  13. Binding of complement factor H to PorB3 and NspA enhances resistance of Neisseria meningitidis to anti-factor H binding protein bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Giuntini, Serena; Pajon, Rolando; Ram, Sanjay; Granoff, Dan M

    2015-04-01

    Among 25 serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis clinical isolates, we identified four (16%) with high factor H binding protein (FHbp) expression that were resistant to complement-mediated bactericidal activity of sera from mice immunized with recombinant FHbp vaccines. Two of the four isolates had evidence of human FH-dependent complement downregulation independent of FHbp. Since alternative complement pathway recruitment is critical for anti-FHbp bactericidal activity, we hypothesized that in these two isolates binding of FH to ligands other than FHbp contributes to anti-FHbp bactericidal resistance. Knocking out NspA, a known meningococcal FH ligand, converted both resistant isolates to anti-FHbp susceptible isolates. The addition of a nonbactericidal anti-NspA monoclonal antibody to the bactericidal reaction also increased anti-FHbp bactericidal activity. To identify a role for FH ligands other than NspA or FHbp in resistance, we created double NspA/FHbp knockout mutants. Mutants from both resistant isolates bound 10-fold more recombinant human FH domains 6 and 7 fused to Fc than double knockout mutants prepared from two sensitive meningococcal isolates. In light of recent studies showing functional FH-PorB2 interactions, we hypothesized that PorB3 from the resistant isolates recruited FH. Allelic exchange of porB3 from a resistant isolate to a sensitive isolate increased resistance of the sensitive isolate to anti-FHbp bactericidal activity (and vice versa). Thus, some PorB3 variants functionally bind human FH, which in the presence of NspA enhances anti-FHbp resistance. Combining anti-NspA antibodies with anti-FHbp antibodies can overcome resistance. Meningococcal vaccines that target both NspA and FHbp are likely to confer greater protection than either antigen alone. PMID:25644002

  14. Corynebacterium jeikeium jk0268 Constitutes for the 40 Amino Acid Long PorACj, Which Forms a Homooligomeric and Anion-Selective Cell Wall Channel

    PubMed Central

    Norouzy, Amir; Schulz, Robert; Nau, Werner M.; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich; Tauch, Andreas; Benz, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Corynebacterium jeikeium, a resident of human skin, is often associated with multidrug resistant nosocomial infections in immunodepressed patients. C. jeikeium K411 belongs to mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes, the mycolata and contains a channel-forming protein as judged from reconstitution experiments with artificial lipid bilayer experiments. The channel-forming protein was present in detergent treated cell walls and in extracts of whole cells using organic solvents. A gene coding for a 40 amino acid long polypeptide possibly responsible for the pore-forming activity was identified in the known genome of C. jeikeium by its similar chromosomal localization to known porH and porA genes of other Corynebacterium strains. The gene jk0268 was expressed in a porin deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum strain. For purification temporarily histidine-tailed or with a GST-tag at the N-terminus, the homogeneous protein caused channel-forming activity with an average conductance of 1.25 nS in 1M KCl identical to the channels formed by the detergent extracts. Zero-current membrane potential measurements of the voltage dependent channel implied selectivity for anions. This preference is according to single-channel analysis caused by some excess of cationic charges located in the channel lumen formed by oligomeric alpha-helical wheels. The channel has a suggested diameter of 1.4 nm as judged from the permeability of different sized hydrated anions using the Renkin correction factor. Surprisingly, the genome of C. jeikeium contained only one gene coding for a cell wall channel of the PorA/PorH type found in other Corynebacterium species. The possible evolutionary relationship between the heterooligomeric channels formed by certain Corynebacterium strains and the homooligomeric pore of C. jeikeium is discussed. PMID:24116064

  15. Obtención de la curva de luz en la ocultación de 35 Sgr por Júpiter el 6 de marzo de 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolantonio, S.; Duffard, R.; Carranza, G.

    La ocultación de la estrella de quinta magnitud 35 Sgr por Júpiter, se produjo el 6 de Marzo de 1996 a las 13 hs. TU. El objetivo era medir el cambio del flujo de la estrella en el ingreso y egreso por el limbo del planeta. Con estos datos se pueden determinar parámetros físicos del planeta (radio, eccentricidad) y de su atmósfera (escala de altura, temperatura, densidad, presión) Para lograr ésto se programó la cámara CCD TH 7896 1024 x 1025 instalada en el telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre con el objetivo de lograr 2 imágenes por segundo. De esta forma se obtuvieron 2100 imágenes de la inmersión y otras tantas de la emersión. Hubo que tener grandes precauciones para evitar la saturación del CCD ya que la observación se realizó de día. En este momento las imágenes se encuentran en el Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, para su reducción.

  16. Immunogenicity studies with a genetically engineered hexavalent PorA and a wild-type meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine in infant cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rouppe van der Voort, E; Schuller, M; Holst, J; de Vries, P; van der Ley, P; van den Dobbelsteen, G; Poolman, J

    2000-01-31

    The immunogenicity of two meningococcal outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines, namely the Norwegian wild-type OMV vaccine and the Dutch hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine, were examined in infant cynomolgus monkeys. For the first time, a wild-type- and a recombinant OMV vaccine were compared. Furthermore, the induction of memory and the persistence of circulating antibodies were measured. The Norwegian vaccine contained all four classes of major outer membrane proteins (OMP) and wild-type L3/L8 lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The Dutch vaccine consisted for 90% of class 1 OMPs, had low expression of class 4 and 5 OMP, and GalE LPS. Three infant monkeys were immunised with a human dose at the age of 1.5, 2.5 and 4.5 months. Two monkeys of each group received a fourth dose at the age of 11 months. In ELISA, both OMV vaccines were immunogenic and induced booster responses, particularly after the fourth immunisation. The Norwegian vaccine mostly induced sero-subtype P1.7,16 specific serum bactericidal antibodies (SBA), although some other SBA were induced as well. The antibody responses against P1.7,16, induced by the Norwegian vaccine, were generally higher than for the Dutch vaccine. However, the Dutch vaccine induced PorA specific SBA against all six sero-subtypes included in the vaccine showing differences in the magnitude of SBA responses to the various PorAs. PMID:10618530

  17. Astronomy in the Classroom: Why? (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Clase: ¿Por Qué?) Astronomia na Sala de Aula: Por Quê?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daros Gama, Leandro; Bagdonas Henrique, Alexandre

    2010-07-01

    There are many discussions about the relevance of the topics covered in classes. One subject in particular is the focus of this essay: astronomy. In what sense and to what extent it would be worth to teach it in science or other kind of classes? In this paper we discuss some aspects of the advantages of dealing with this area of knowledge in schools, taking into account the epistemological and axiological dimensions of astronomy, in light of the vision of science as an intelligent dialogue with the world (Bachelard), in addition to the "problematization" knowledge of Paulo Freire. We propose that in fact the Astronomy does not need to be seen as just a new set of contents to be taught, but appears as a set of motivational contents for historical-philosophical discussions, and permit the discussion of concepts of other disciplines. Numerosas discusiones se están llevando a cabo acerca de la pertinencia de los temas tradicionalmente tratados en las clases. Uno de los temas, en particular, es el foco de este ensayo: la astronomía. ¿En qué sentido y en qué medida sería conveniente tratarla en clase, ya sea en clases de ciencias naturales, específicamente en las de astronomía o asignaturas afines? Elaboramos en este artículo algunos aspectos de las ventajas de tratar esta área del conocimiento en las escuelas, teniendo en cuenta las dimensiones epistemológica y axiológica de la astronomía, a la luz de la visión de la ciencia como un diálogo inteligente con el mundo (Bachelard), además de la propuesta del conocimiento "problematizador" de Paulo Freire. Proponemos que en realidad la astronomía no tiene por qué ser vista sólo como un nuevo conjunto de contenidos que se enseñan, sino que aparece como un conjunto de temas de motivación para el debate histórico-filosófico y para permitir la discusión de los conceptos típicos de otras disciplinas. Muitas discussões vêm acontecendo sobre a relevância dos temas abordados em sala de aula. Um tema, em

  18. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin

  19. [Ag20 {S2 P(OR)2 }12 ]: A Superatom Complex with a Chiral Metallic Core and High Potential for Isomerism.

    PubMed

    Dhayal, Rajendra S; Lin, Yan-Ru; Liao, Jian-Hong; Chen, Yuan-Jang; Liu, Yu-Chiao; Chiang, Ming-Hsi; Kahlal, Samia; Saillard, Jean-Yves; Liu, C W

    2016-07-11

    The synthesis and structural determination of a silver nanocluster [Ag20 {S2 P(OiPr)2 }12 ] (2), which contains an intrinsic chiral metallic core, is produced by reduction of one silver ion from the eight-electron superatom complex [Ag21 {S2 P(OiPr)2 }12 ](PF6 ) (1) by borohydrides. Single-crystal X-ray analysis displays an Ag20 core of pseudo C3 symmetry comprising a silver-centered Ag13 icosahedron capped by seven silver atoms. Its n-propyl derivative, [Ag20 {S2 P(OnPr)2 }12 ] (3), can also be prepared by the treatment of silver(I) salts and dithiophosphates in a stoichiometric ratio in the presence of excess amount of [BH4 ](-) . Crystal structure analyses reveal that the capping silver-atom positions relative to their icosahedral core are distinctly different in 2 and 3 and generate isomeric, chiral Ag20 cores. Both Ag20 clusters display an emission maximum in the near IR region. DFT calculations are consistent with a description within the superatom model of an 8-electron [Ag13 ](5+) core protected by a [Ag7 {S2 P(OR)2 }12 ](5-) external shell. Two additional structural variations are predicted by DFT, showing the potential for isomerism in such [Ag20 {S2 P(OR)2 }12 ] species. PMID:27189869

  20. A survey of homopteran species (Auchenorrhyncha) from coffee shrubs and poró and laurel trees in shaded coffee plantations, in Turrialba, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rojas, L; Godoy, C; Hanson, P; Hilje, L

    2001-01-01

    A survey of homopteran species (Auchenorryncha) was conducted in coffee plantations with no shade (C), and in those with shade of either poró (Erythrina poeppigiana) (CP) or poró plus laurel (Cordia alliodora) (CPL), in Turrialba, Costa Rica. A total of 130 species in ten families were collected, dominated by Cicadellidae (82 species). Species richness was highest in the CP system (88), followed by CPL (74) and C systems (60). Five most common species for all systems were Fusigonalia lativittata, Hebralebra nicaraguensis, Neocoelidia sp., Oliarus sp. and Clastoptera sp. Diversification of the coffee agroecosystem favors some species while limiting others, and have no effect on the majority of species. Thus, only F. lativittata, Neocoelidia sp. and Scaphytopius ca. latidens were well represented in all systems, but were more abundant in coffee shrubs. Additionally, the following were the dominant species in each system: Graphocephala sp. 1 (C), F. lativittata (CP) and H. nicaraguensis (CPL). Four species abundant on laurel trees, including H. nicaraguensis, appeared almost exclusively on these tree species. Species similarity was highest on the CP and CPL systems (51% of the species in common), followed by the C and CP (39%) and the C and CPL systems (38%). These findings show that even disturbed systems can harbor many insect species, so that they deserve attention from conservation advocates and biologists. PMID:12189787

  1. Do Meio- and Macrobenthic Nematodes Differ in Community Composition and Body Weight Trends with Depth?

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Jyotsna; Baguley, Jeffrey; Bluhm, Bodil A.; Rowe, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    Nematodes occur regularly in macrobenthic samples but are rarely identified from them and are thus considered exclusively a part of the meiobenthos. Our study compares the generic composition of nematode communities and their individual body weight trends with water depth in macrobenthic (>250/300 µm) samples from the deep Arctic (Canada Basin), Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and the Bermuda slope with meiobenthic samples (<45 µm) from GOM. The dry weight per individual (µg) of all macrobenthic nematodes combined showed an increasing trend with increasing water depth, while the dry weight per individual of the meiobenthic GOM nematodes showed a trend to decrease with increasing depth. Multivariate analyses showed that the macrobenthic nematode community in the GOM was more similar to the macrobenthic nematodes of the Canada Basin than to the GOM meiobenthic nematodes. In particular, the genera Enoploides, Crenopharynx, Micoletzkyia, Phanodermella were dominant in the macrobenthos and accounted for most of the difference. Relative abundance of non-selective deposit feeders (1B) significantly decreased with depth in macrobenthos but remained dominant in the meiobenthic community. The occurrence of a distinct assemblage of bigger nematodes of high dry weight per individual in the macrobenthos suggests the need to include nematodes in macrobenthic studies. PMID:21253595

  2. Datação do disco galáctico pela nucleocosmocronologia do [Th/Eu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Peloso, E. F.; da Silva, L.; Arany-Prado, L. I.

    2003-08-01

    A nucleocosmocronologia emprega abundâncias de nuclídeos radioativos na datação de escalas de tempo astrofísicas. O 232Th é um nuclídeo radioativo com meia-vida de 14 Gano, enquanto que os dois isótopos mais abundantes do Eu são estáveis. O decaimento radioativo do Th modifica as razões de abundâncias [Th/Eu], fornecendo assim um meio de sondar a escala de formação das populações estelares. O objetivo deste trabalho é averiguar a possibilidade de estimar uma idade para o disco Galáctico através da nucleocosmocronologia do [Th/Eu] e investigar o nível de incerteza associado a esta estimativa. Para tanto, foi selecionada uma amostra de 20 estrelas anãs ou subgigantes de tipos espectrais F5 a G9, com -1,00 £ [Fe/H] £ +0,30 e idade(Gano) £ 13. As abundâncias de Th e Eu foram obtidas por síntese espectral das linhas localizadas em 4019,1 Å e 4129,7 Å, respectivamente. Uma comparação destas abundâncias com outros resultados da literatura demonstra que nossos valores apresentam dispersão 2 a 3 vezes menor que qualquer trabalho anterior. Os parâmetros atmosféricos e abundâncias dos elementos que contaminam as regiões espectrais destas linhas foram determinados por nós, de maneira totalmente autoconsistente, através de análise espectral detalhada diferencial em relação ao Sol. As idades estelares individuais foram determinadas através de curvas isócronas teóricas no diagrama HR. Foi realizada, então, uma análise cronológica dos gráficos [Th/Eu] vs. [Fe/H] e [Th/Eu] vs. idade. Os dados estelares foram comparados a curvas calculadas para 3 idades do disco Galáctico - 9, 12, 15 Gano - e foi estudada a sensibilidade à idade assumida no cálculo do ajuste destas curvas aos dados. Estas curvas foram calculadas com base num modelo analítico de evolução química da Galáxia que leva em consideração a formação de refugos, que são compostos pelos remanescentes da evolução estelar, pelos resíduos da formação de estrelas de

  3. Estimativa de imagens solares soho através de redes neurais artificiais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M. C.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Cecatto, J. R.; Rios Neto, A.; Rosa, R. R.; Sawant, H. S.

    2003-08-01

    A Rede Neural Artificial (RNA), no âmbito da teoria computacional, constitui uma teoria emergente que, por possuir habilidade em aprender a partir de dados de entrada, encontra diferentes aplicações em diferentes áreas. Um exemplo é a utilização de RNA na caracterização de padrões associados à dinâmica de processos espaço-temporais relacionados a fenômenos físicos não-lineares. Para obter informações sobre o comportamento destes fenômenos físicos utiliza-se, em diversos casos, seqüências de imagens digitalizadas, onde a caracterização de alguns fenômenos espaço-temporais é o procedimento mais viável para descrever a dinâmica das regiões ativas do Sol. Com base em imagens observadas por telescópios a bordo de satélites, estudos de previsão de eventos solares podem ser programados, permitindo prever possíveis efeitos posteriores nas regiões mais próximas da Terra (tempestades geomagnéticas e irregularidades ionosféricas). Neste trabalho avaliamos o desempenho da RNA para estimar padrões espaço-temporais, ou seja, imagens solares em ultravioleta, obtidas através do telescópio a bordo do satélite SOHO. Os resultados mostraram que as RNA conseguem generalizar os padrões de maneira satisfatória sem perder de forma significativa os principais aspectos da configuração global da atmosfera solar, comprovando a eficácia da RNA como ferramenta para esse tipo de aplicação. Portanto, este trabalho comprova a viabilidade de uso desta ferramenta em projetos voltados ao estudo do comportamento solar, em trabalhos do grupo de Física do Meio Interplanetário (FMI) na DAS e em programas desenvolvidos pelo Núcleo de Simulação e Análise de Sistemas Complexos (NUSASC) do Laboratório Associado de Computação e Matemática Aplicada (LAC) do INPE.

  4. Detecção inesperada de efeitos de lentes fracas em grupos de galáxias pouco luminosos em raios-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, R.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Cypriano, E. S.; Lengruber, L. L.; Cuevas, H.; Ramirez, A.

    2003-08-01

    Obtivemos, como parte do programa de verificação científica do GMOS Sul, imagens profundas de três grupos de galáxias: G97 e G102 (z~0,4) e G124 (z = 0,17). Esses alvos foram selecionados a partir do catálogo de fontes extensas de Vikhlinin (1998), por terem luminosidades em raios X menores que 3´1043 ergs s-1, valor cerca de uma ou duas ordens de grandeza inferior ao de aglomerados de galáxias. O objetivo primário dessas observações é o estudo da evolução de galáxias em grupos. Grupos são ambientes menos densos que aglomerados, contêm a grande maioria das galáxias do Universo mas que, até o momento, foram estudados detalhadamente apenas no Universo local (z~0). Com esses dados efetuamos uma análise estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes gravitacionais fracas) como forma de inferir o conteúdo e a distribuição de massa nesses grupos apesar de que, em princípio, esse efeito não deveria ser detectado uma vez que os critérios de seleção adotados previlegiam sistemas de baixa massa. De fato, para G124 obtivemos apenas um limite superior para sua massa que é compatível com sua luminosidade em raios X. De modo contrário e surpreendente, os objetos G102 e G097, aparentam ter massas que resultariam em dispersões de velocidade maiores que 1000 km s-1, muito maiores do que se espera para grupos de galáxias. Com efeito, para G097 obtivemos, a partir de dados do satélite XMM, uma estimativa para a temperatura do gás intragrupo de kT = 2,6 keV, que é tipica de sistemas com dispersões de velocidade de ~ 600 km s-1, bem característica de grupos. Essas contradições aparentes entre lentes fracas e raios X podem ser explicadas de dois modos: i) a massa obtida por lentes estaria sobreestimada devido à superposição de estruturas massivas ao longo da linha de visada ou ii) a temperatura do gás do meio intra-grupo reflete o potencial gravitacional de estruturas menores que estariam se fundindo para formar uma

  5. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori1

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las

  6. A UV-vis study of the effects of alcohols on formation and stability of Mn(por)(O)(OAc) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohajer, Daryoush; Jahanbani, Maryam

    2012-06-01

    Interactions of three different (acetato) (tetraarylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(por) with tetra-n-butylammonium hydrogen monopersulfate (n-Bu4NHSO5), in the presence of excess tetra-n-butylammonium acetate (n-Bu4NOAc) and in the absence or presence of various alcohols (alcohols = CH3OH, C2H5OH, i-C3H7OH, t-C4H9OH) in CH2Cl2, were monitored by their UV-vis spectral changes, under identical conditions, at room temperature. (Acetato) (tetrakispentafluorophenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tpfpp)(OAc) and (acetato) (tetramesitylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tmp)(OAc) produced their corresponding high valent Mn(tpfpp)(O)(OAc) and Mn(tmp)(O)(OAc) both in the absence or presence of alcohols. Whereas, (acetato) (tetraphenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tpp)(OAc) only generated Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) in the presence of less bulky alcohols. In the absence of alcohols or in the presence of t-C4H9OH, the UV-vis spectra displayed a very weak sign of formation of Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) complex. It was observed that alcohols generally increased the rate of formation of Mn-oxo species in accordance with their acidity or hydrogen bonding strength, and enhanced the stability of Mn-oxo complexes, as their size increases. Attempts are made to explain these effects. A mechanistic scheme is also suggested for the decomposition of HSO5- to O2 and HSO4-, through the formation and dimerization of Mn-oxo species.

  7. Estudio teórico de la desorción de Na y K de SiO2 estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Ariza, D.; López, N.; Illas, F.; Pacchioni, G.; Madey, T. E.

    Se ha estudiado el mecanismo de generación de sodio y potasio atómico a partir de muestras de SiO2 utilizando cálculos basados tanto en la teoría del funcional de la densidad como en métodos post-Hartree Fock, así como en el método de cluster para modelar el sólido. Como consecuencia del estudio se han propuesto distintos caminos posibles para la desorción, estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones, de sodio y potasio desde el óxido de silicio, proporcionando por lo tanto una explicación a la atmósfera tenue de sodio y potasio de La Luna.

  8. La inserción en el mercado laboral de los inmigrantes latinos en España y en los Estados Unidos: Diferencias por país de origen y estatus legal

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo compara los resultados económicos entre los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España y Estados Unidos. Detectamos un efecto de selección por el que la mayoría de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España proceden de Sudamérica de un entorno de clases medias, mientras la mayoría de los inmigrantes que van a los Estados Unidos son centroamericanos de clase baja. Este efecto de selección explica las diferencias transnacionales en la probabilidad de empleo, logro ocupacional y salarios obtenidos. A pesar de las diferencias en los orígenes y las características de los latinoamericanos en ambos países, los factores demográficos, humanos y de capital social parecen operar de forma similar en ambos países; y cuando los modelos se estiman separadamente por estatus legal, descubrimos que los efectos se acentúan más entre los inmigrantes irregulares cuando se los compara con los regulares, especialmente en Estados Unidos. PMID:24532857

  9. Aquisição fonológica do português brasileiro por crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e surdas usuárias de implante coclear

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Carina Rebello; Finger, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumo O presente estudo investiga a aquisição fonológica do Português Brasileiro (PB) por 24 crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais, com acesso irrestrito à Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), e por 6 crianças surdas que utilizam implante coclear (IC), com acesso restrito ou irrestrito à Libras. Para a avaliação do sistema fonológico das crianças em PB, foi utilizada a Parte A, Prova de Nomeação, do ABFW – Teste de Linguagem Infantil (ANDRADE et al. 2004). Os resultados revelaram que as crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e a criança surda usuária de IC com acesso irrestrito à Libras apresentaram processo de aquisição fonológica esperada (normal) para a sua faixa etária. Considera-se que a aquisição precoce e o acesso irrestrito à Libras podem ter sido determinantes para o desempenho dessas crianças no teste oral utilizado. PMID:25506105

  10. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el

  11. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el

  12. Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, Sequence Type (ST), and Genomic Presence of IS1301 in Group B Meningococcal ST269 Clonal Complex Isolates from England and Wales▿

    PubMed Central

    Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J.; Kaczmarski, Edward B.; Guiver, Malcolm; Kugelberg, Elisabeth; Vallely, Pamela J.; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Tang, Christoph M.; Borrow, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Highly effective glycoconjugate vaccines exist against four of the five major pathogenic groups of meningococci: A, C, W-135, and Y. An equivalent vaccine against group B meningococci (menB) has remained elusive due to the poorly immunogenic capsular polysaccharide. A promising alternative, the investigational recombinant menB (rMenB)- outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine, contains fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), NadA, and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for 90% of meningococcal disease in England and Wales, where the multilocus sequence type (ST) 269 (ST269) clonal complex (cc269) has recently expanded to account for a third of menB cases. To assess the potential cc269 coverage of the rMenB-OMV vaccine, English and Welsh cc269 isolates from the past decade were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, and NadA. All of the isolates harbored fHbp and nhba alleles, while 98% of the cc269 isolates were devoid of nadA. Subvariant profiling of fHbp, nhba, and porA against STs revealed the presence of two broadly distinct and well-defined clusters of isolates, centered around ST269 and ST275, respectively. An additional molecular marker, insertion sequence IS1301, was found to be present in 100% and <2% of isolates of the respective clusters. On the basis of the genetic data, the potential rMenB-OMV coverage of cc269 in England and Wales is high (up to 100%) within both clusters. Expression studies and serum bactericidal antibody assays will serve to enhance predictions of coverage and will augment ongoing studies regarding the significance of IS1301 within the ST269 cluster. PMID:19759227

  13. Characterization of invasive Neisseria meningitidis from Atlantic Canada, 2009 to 2013: With special reference to the nonpolysaccharide vaccine targets (PorA, factor H binding protein, Neisseria heparin-binding antigen and Neisseria adhesin A)

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Raymond SW; Law, Dennis KS; Gad, Rita R; Mailman, Tim; German, Gregory; Needle, Robert

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) has always been a major cause of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Canada. With the successful implementation of a meningitis C conjugate vaccine, the majority of IMD in Canada is now caused by MenB. OBJECTIVE: To investigate IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada from 2009 to 2013. Data were analyzed to determine the potential coverage of the newly licensed MenB vaccine. METHODS: Serogroup, serotype and serosubtype antigens were determined from IMD case isolates. Clonal analysis was performed using multilocus sequence typing. The protein-based vaccine antigen genes were sequenced and the predicted peptides were investigated. RESULTS: The majority of the IMD isolates were MenB (82.5%, 33 of 40) and, in particular, sequence type (ST)-154 B:4:P1.4 was responsible for 47.5% (19 of 40) of all IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada. Isolates of this clone expressed the PorA antigen P1.4 and possessed the nhba genes encoding for Neisseria heparin-binding antigen peptide 2, which together matched exactly with two of the four components of the new four-component meningococcal B vaccine. Nineteen MenB isolates had two antigenic matches, another five MenB and one meningitis Y isolate had one antigenic match. This provided 75.8% (25 of 33) potential coverage for MenB, or a 62.5% (25 of 40) overall potential coverage for IMD. CONCLUSION: From 2009 to 2013, IMD in Atlantic Canada was mainly caused by MenB and, in particular, the B:4:P1.4 ST-154 clone, which accounted for 47.5% of all IMD case isolates. The new four-component meningococcal B vaccine appeared to offer adequate coverage against MenB in Atlantic Canada. PMID:26744586

  14. Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, and Sequence Type in Group B Meningococcal Case Isolates Collected in England and Wales during January 2008 and Potential Coverage of an Investigational Group B Meningococcal Vaccine▿

    PubMed Central

    Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J.; Kaczmarski, Edward B.; Guiver, Malcolm; Vallely, Pamela J.; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Borrow, Ray

    2010-01-01

    Invasive disease caused by meningococcal capsular groups A, C, W-135, and Y is now preventable by means of glycoconjugate vaccines that target their respective polysaccharide capsules. The capsule of group B meningococci (MenB) is poorly immunogenic and may induce autoimmunity. Vaccines based on the major immunodominant surface porin, PorA, are effective against clonal epidemics but, thus far, have a limited scope of coverage against the wider MenB population at large. In an alternative approach, the first-generation, investigational, recombinant MenB (rMenB) plus outer membrane vesicle (OMV) (rMenB-OMV) vaccine contains a number of relatively conserved surface proteins, fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), and NadA, alongside PorA P1.4-containing OMVs from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for approximately 90% of cases of meningococcal disease in England and Wales. To assess potential rMenB-OMV vaccine coverage of pathogenic MenB isolates within this region, all English and Welsh MenB case isolates from January 2008 (n = 87) were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, NadA, and PorA. Alleles for fHbp, nhba, and porA were identified in all of the isolates, of which 22% were also found to harbor nadA alleles. On the basis of genotypic data and predicted immunological cross-reactivity, the potential level of rMenB-OMV vaccine coverage in England and Wales ranges from 66% to 100%. PMID:20375242

  15. Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility in Barcelona: penA, ponA, mtrR, and porB mutations and NG-MAST sequence types associated with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins.

    PubMed

    Serra-Pladevall, J; Barberá, M J; Rodriguez, S; Bartolomé-Comas, R; Roig, G; Juvé, R; Andreu, A

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) in our area, to analyze the molecular mechanisms involved in cephalosporins resistance, and to undertake molecular typing of our NG strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the Etest. The genes penA, mtrR, penB, and ponA were studied. Molecular typing was performed by N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing. Of 329 strains analyzed in 2013, none showed high-level cephalosporin resistance, but 8.2 % had resistance to cefixime [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 0.125 μg/mL] and 0.6 % to ceftriaxone (MIC > 0.125 μg/mL). Azithromycin resistance was documented in 4.3 % and ciprofloxacin resistance in 49.2 %. Among 48 strains with an MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL to cefixime, 58.3 % showed the penA mosaic pattern XXXIV, 98 % a Leu → Pro substitution at position 421 of the ponA gene, 100 % amino acid changes at positions 101 and 102 of the PorB1b porin, and 87.5 % of strains an adenine deletion in the promoter region of the MtrC-D-E efflux pump. A significant difference between strains with and without decreased cephalosporin susceptibility (MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL) was observed for these four genes. Of the 48 strains with an MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL to cefixime, 43.8 % belonged to the genogroup G1407 and 27.1 % belonged to the genogroup G2400. A significant association of G1407 with decreased susceptibility (MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL) and G2992 with susceptibility was found, and also between G1407 and mosaic pattern XXXIV and between G2400 and A501T substitution in penA. The NG resistance rate in our area is higher than the median of Europe. We have detected the emergence of G2400, which may be a source of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27255221

  16. Eficacia de la detección sistemática de la gripe en las fronteras en los viajeros que llegan por vía aérea*

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Patricia C.; Jennings, Lance C.; Duncan, Alasdair R.; Brunton, Cheryl R.; Baker, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Se midieron los síntomas y la prevalencia de la gripe (también llamada influenza), así como la eficacia del mecanismo de detección sistemática basado en los síntomas y la temperatura para diagnosticar la gripe en viajeros internacionales que llegaban por vía aérea. Métodos. El presente estudio transversal recopiló datos de viajeros que llegaron al aeropuerto internacional de Christchurch (Nueva Zelandia) en el invierno del 2008 mediante un cuestionario de salud, medición de la temperatura y toma de muestras de las vías respiratorias. Resultados. De los viajeros, 15 976 (68%) entregaron los formularios completos. De ellos, 17% notificaron al menos un síntoma de gripe; los síntomas más comunes fueron rinorrea o congestión nasal (10%) y tos (8%). Se tomaron muestras de las vías respiratorias de 3 769 viajeros. La prevalencia estimada de la gripe fue de 1,1% (4% en las personas sintomáticas, 0,2% en las asintomáticas). La sensibilidad de los criterios de detección varió de 84% para “cualquier síntoma” a 3% para la fiebre de 37,8 °C o mayor. El valor predictivo positivo fue bajo para todos los criterios. Conclusiones. El método de detección sistemática en las fronteras mediante la autonotificación de síntomas y la toma de la temperatura presenta limitaciones para impedir que una gripe pandémica entre en un país. Basarse en criterios como “cualquier síntoma” o la tos haría que se investigara a varias personas no infectadas, mientras que algunas personas infectadas pasarían inadvertidas. Si se usaran criterios más específicos como la fiebre, la mayoría de las personas infectadas entrarían en el país a pesar del mecanismo de detección.

  17. Meio- and Macrofaunal Communities in Artificial Water-Filled Tree Holes: Effects of Seasonality, Physical and Chemical Parameters, and Availability of Food Resources

    PubMed Central

    Ptatscheck, Christoph; Traunspurger, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In this study we investigated the dynamics of meiofaunal and macrofaunal communities in artificial water-filled tree holes. The abundances and, for the first time, biomasses and secondary production rates of these communities were examined. The experimental set-up consisted of 300 brown plastic cups placed in temperate mixed forests and sampled five times over a period of 16 months to determine the impact of (i) seasonal events, (ii) physicochemical parameters, and (iii) food resources on the tree hole metazoans. Outcomes Metazoan organisms, especially the meiofauna (rotifers and nematodes) occupied nearly all of the cups (> 99%) throughout the year. Between 55% and 99% of the metazoan community was represented by rotifers (max. 557,000 individuals 100 cm-2) and nematodes (max. 58,000 individuals 100 cm-2). Diptera taxa, particularly Dasyhelea sp. (max. 256 individuals 100 cm-2) dominated the macrofaunal community. Macrofauna accounted for the majority of the metazoan biomass, with a mean dry weight of 5,800 μg 100 cm-2 and an annual production rate of 20,400 μg C 100 cm-2, whereas for meiofauna mean biomass and annual production were 100 μg 100 cm-2 and 5,300 μg C 100 cm-2, respectively. The macrofaunal taxa tended to show more fluctuating population dynamic while the meiofaunal dynamic was rather low with partly asynchronous development. Seasonality (average temperature and rain intervals) had a significant impact on both meiofauna and macrofauna. Furthermore, bottom-up control (chlorophyll-a and organic carbon), mainly attributable to algae, was a significant factor that shaped the metazoan communities. In contrast, physicochemical water parameters had no evident influence. 23.7% of organism density distribution was explained by redundancy analysis (RDA) indicating a high dynamic and asynchrony of the systems. PMID:26284811

  18. New halide-centered discrete Ag(I)(8) cubic clusters containing diselenophosphate ligands, [Ag(8)(X)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)](PF(6)) (X = Cl, Br; R = Et, Pr, (i)Pr): syntheses, structures, and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Liu, C W; Haia, Hsien-Chung; Hung, Chiu-Mine; Santra, Bidyut Kumar; Liaw, Ben-Jie; Lin, Zhenyang; Wang, Ju-Chun

    2004-07-12

    Six clusters Ag(8)(micro(8)-X)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)(PF(6)) (R = Et, X = Cl, 1a, X = Br, 1b; R = Pr, X = Cl, 2a, X = Br, 2b; R = (i)Pr, X = Cl, 3a, X = Br, 3b) were isolated from the reaction of [Ag(CH(3)CN)(4)](PF(6)), NH(4)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)], and Bu(4)NX in a molar ratio of 4:3:1 in CH(2)X(2). Positive FAB mass spectra show m/z peaks at 2573.2 for 1a, 2617.3 for 1b, 2740.9 for 2a, 2786.9 for 2b, 2742.3 for 3a, and 2787.0 for 3b due to respective molecular cation, (M - PF(6))(+). (31)P NMR spectra of 1a-3b display a singlet at delta 82.3, 81.5, 82.9, 81.7, 76.3, and 75.8 ppm with a set of satellites (J(PSe) = 661, 664, 652, 652, 656, and 656 Hz, respectively). The X-ray structure (1a-2b) consists of a discrete cationic cluster in which eight silver ions are linked by six diselenophosphate ligands and a central micro(8)-Cl or micro(8)-Br ion with a noncoordinating PF(6)(-) anion. The shape of the molecule is a halide-centered distorted Ag(8) cubic cluster. The dsep ligand exhibits a tetrametallic tetraconnective (micro(2), micro(2)) coordination pattern, and each caps on a square face of the cube. Each silver atom of the cube is coordinated by three selenium atoms and the central chloride or bromide ion. Additionally, molecular orbital calculations at the B3LYP level of the density functional theory have been carried out to study the Ag-micro(8)-X (X = Cl, Br) interactions for cluster cations [Ag(8)(micro(8)-X)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)](+). Calculations show very weak bonding interactions exist between micro(8)-X and Ag atoms of the cube. PMID:15236560

  19. Novel chloride-centered discrete CuI8 cubic clusters containing diselenophosphate ligands. Syntheses and structures of [Cu8(mu8-Cl)[Se2P(OR)2](6)](PF6) (R = Et, Pr, iPr)1.

    PubMed

    Liu, C W; Hung, Chiu-Mine; Santra, Bidyut Kumar; Chen, Hsiu-Chih; Hsueh, Hsin-Hsueh; Wang, Ju-Chung

    2003-05-19

    Three clusters 1-3, Cu(8)(mu8-Cl)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)(PF(6)) (R= Et, Pr, (i)Pr), were synthesized in high yield from the reaction of [Cu(CH(3)CN)(4)](PF(6)), NH(4)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)], and Bu(4)NCl in a molar ratio of 4:3:1 in diethyl ether. FAB mass spectra show m/z peaks at 2218.10 for 1, 2386.10 for 2, and 2387.34 for 3 which are due to molecular cations, [1-PF(6)]+, [2-PF(6)]+, and [3-PF(6)]+, respectively. (31)P NMR spectra of 1-3 display a singlet at delta 76.48, 76.73, and 69.32 ppm with satellites (J(PSe) = 652, 653, and 648 Hz), respectively. The (77)Se NMR spectra of 1-3 exhibit a doublet peak at -21.7, -16.42, and 2.3 ppm, respectively (J(SeP) = 652 Hz for 1, 653 Hz for 2, and 648 Hz for 3). The X-ray structure (1-3) consists of a discrete cationic cluster in which eight copper ions are linked by six diselenophosphate ligands and a central mu8-Cl ion with a noncoordinating PF(6)(-) anion. The shape of the molecule is a chloride-centered distorted Cu(8) cube in clusters 1 and 2 and a near perfect Cu(8) cube for cluster 3. The dsep ligand exhibits a tetrametallic tetraconnective (mu2, mu2)) coordination pattern, and each occupies a square face of the cube. Each copper atom of the cube is coordinated by three selenium atoms with a strong interaction with the central chloride ion. The observed Cu-Cl distances lie in the range 2.649-2.878 A. PMID:12739962

  20. Severe maternal morbidity: a case-control study in Maranhao, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    para morbidade materna grave em São Luís, capital de um dos estados mais pobres do Brasil. Método Estudo caso-controle realizado em duas maternidades públicas de alto risco e duas UTIs de referência aos casos obstétricos entre 01/03/2009 e 28/02/2010. Foram incluídas todas as pacientes internadas por complicação do período grávido-puerperal e que preenchiam os critérios de Waterstone e/ou Mantel para morbidade materna grave. Foram selecionados para cada caso, dois controles por sorteio aleatório dentre as pacientes internadas no mesmo período e mesma maternidade que o caso. As informações de domínio sociodemográfico, clínico, obstétrico, comportamental, exposição a eventos estressores na gestação, assistência ao pré-natal, intercorrências obstétricas e atenção ao parto, foram obtidas por meio de entrevista estruturada. As variáveis foram analisadas por modelo de regressão logística múltipla não condicional, baseado em modelo hierarquizado a priori. Resultados Foram identificados como fatores de risco para morbidade materna grave: idade >35 anos (OR=3,11; IC 95%:1,53-6,31), hipertensão prévia à gestação (OR=2,52; IC 95%:1,09-5,80), antecedente de aborto (OR=1,61; IC 95%:0,97-2,68), ter realizado 4–5 consultas pré-natais (OR=1,78; IC 95%:1,05-3,01) ou 1–3 consultas (OR=1,89; IC 95%:1,03-3,49). Conclusão Os resultados do estudo corroboram a importância da assistência à saúde reprodutiva e o pré-natal completo e qualificado na prevenção de eventos mórbidos graves durante o ciclo grávido-puerperal. PMID:23399443

  1. On the Use of "Por" Plus Agent with "Se" Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Mello, George

    1978-01-01

    Two explanations for the role of "se" in such constructions as "Se construyen casas" are given by grammarians; one states that it is a passive interpretation ("Houses are built"), the other advocates an impersonal interpretation ("One builds houses"). Different views are presented and analyzed. (Author/NCR)

  2. Por los Ninos (For the Children): Education of Undocumented Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Elena R.; Team, Linda B.

    Published as a special project of Texas IMPACT and the Texas Conference of Churches, this booklet outlines legal aspects of the education of undocumented children, lists moral and practical reasons for educating them, provides reasons for changing the Texas law which prohibits use of state funds for education of children who are not legally…

  3. POR FIN (Program Organizing Related Family Instruction in the Neighborhood).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    A project was undertaken in San Antonio, Texas, to develop a recruitment approach which would be more effective than the traditional mass media approach in recruiting hard-core undereducated individuals into adult education classes. An experiment was designed to test a recruiting method which would employ a personal, face-to-face interview…

  4. [The right to avoid pregnancy] [POR, ENG translation included].

    PubMed

    1981-01-21

    Signs are finally appearing in Brazil that despite the government's hesitations and the hostility of the Catholic Church the decade of the 1980s shall bring effective changes intended to restrain population growth. Now, 4 years after its inclusion in the social program of the Geisel administration in 1977, family planning will become a reality. It is certainly about time, for at the present rate of growth the Brazilian population increases by about 6 persons per minute--about 3 million a year. At this pace, only a large scale State intervention that provides the population with information, assistance and free access to contraception may decisively reverse the trend. Figueiredo's government has decided that family planning should be introduced slowly, gradually and subtly, thus avoiding specific programs and publicity campaigns through the mass communication vehicles. In an effort to get around sharper criticism from the Church and the opposition, the government intends to mobilize catholic laypersons, priests, and nuns and, if possible, bishops in a national attempt to disseminate information on natural methods of birth control. As a 1st step, the Ministry of Health will widely distribute information on human reproduction and fecundity along with explanations of artificial contraceptive methods. Subject to the couple's decision and under medical indications, the free supply of contraceptive means to low income families shall be ensured by the government. The government will also allow sterilization. Despite its cautious approach, in actuality the government's program will in many places and circumstances be a massive inducement to contraceptive use. PMID:12337558

  5. La busqueda textual por computadora (Textual Search by Computer)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Ned J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the use of the computer program EDIT for textual searches to locate a certain programmed word or word root. In the examples explained here, the vocabulary search is performed on poetry and allows examination of the metaphorical and conceptual poetic atmosphere achieved through word use. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  6. Síndrome del Outlet Torácico: ¿Una Patología Siempre Quirúrgica? Análisis de una Serie de 31 Cirugías Realizadas por Vía Supraclavicular Serie clínica

    PubMed Central

    Socolovsky, Mariano; Di Masi, Gilda; Binaghi, Daniela; Campero, Álvaro; Páez, Miguel Domínguez; Dubrovsky, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome de outlet torácico es una compresión del plexo braquial que suscita polémica. Se clasifica en Outlet Torácico Verdadero o neurogénico (OTV) y Outlet Torácico Disputado o no neurogénico (OTD). El primero presenta síntomas motores en la mano, mientras que el segundo sólo síntomas sensitivos en el miembro superior. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los resultados obtenidos en una serie de 31 cirugías. Métodos: Se analizaron las cirugías de nervios efectuadas entre 2003-2012, tomando los diagnósticos de outlet torácico cuyo período de seguimiento post-operatorio mínimo fuera de 6 meses. Se buscaron los siguientes datos: edad, sexo, presencia de síntomas sensitivos y/o motores, clasificación, resultado de los estudios neurofisiológicos y de imágenes, resultado de la cirugía, complicaciones post-operatorias y recidivas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 31 cirugías realizadas en 30 pacientes, 9 OTV (8 mujeres) de 24.3 años, y 21 con OTD (18 mujeres) de 37.4 años de edad en promedio. Un 90% presentaron alteraciones neurofisiológicas preoperatorias, y 66,6% imagenológicas. En el intraoperatorio, el 100% de los OTV presentó una alteración anatómica relacionada con la sintomatología, hecho observado sólo en el 36.7% de los OTD operados. El 87,5% de los OTV mejoraron sensitivamente, mientras que 77,7% mejoraron la atrofia. Por el contrario, 45.4% de los OTD mejoraron permanentemente, 36.3% no tuvieron cambios, 13.6% mejoraron transitoriamente y 4.5% (un caso) empeoró. Las complicaciones post-operatorias fueron más frecuentes aunque transitorias en el grupo de OTV (3 casos sobre 9 operados, 33.3%) que en los OTD (3 casos sobre 22, un 13.6%). Conclusión: El OTV suele mayormente mejorar luego de la cirugía, igual que el OTD aunque en una proporción mucho menor. Estos hallazgos coinciden con otros reportes recientes de esta patología. PMID:25165614

  7. A Comparison Between PSRK and GERG-2004 Equation of State for Simulation of Non-Isothermal Compressible Natural Gases Mixed with Hydrogen in Pipelines / Porównanie równań stanu opracowanych według metody PSRK oraz GERG-2004 wykorzystanych do symulacji zachowania ściśliwych mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach, w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uilhoorn, Frits E.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, the GERG-2004 equation of state based on a multi-fluid approximation explicit in the reduced Helmholtz energy is compared with the predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong group contribution method. In the analysis, both equations of state are compared by simulating a non-isothermal transient flow of natural gas and mixed hydrogen-natural gas in pipelines. Besides the flow conditions also linepack-energy and energy consumption of the compressor station are computed. The gas flow is described by a set of partial differential equations resulting from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. A pipeline section of the Yamal-Europe gas pipeline on Polish territory has been selected for the case study. W artykule dokonano porównania wyników uzyskanych przy wykorzystaniu równania stanu GERG- 2004 opartego na jawnym przybliżeniu wyników dla wielu cieczy w oparciu o zredukowaną energię Helmhotza oraz wyników uzyskanych w oparciu o metodę Soave-Redlich Kwonga. Obydwa równania stanu porównano poprzez przeprowadzenie symulacji stanów przejściowych przepływów gazu ziemnego oraz mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych. Oprócz warunków przepływu, określono energię w napełnionym układzie oraz zużycie energii przez stację kompresora. Przepływ gazu opisano zbiorem równań różniczkowych cząstkowych, wyprowadzonych w oparciu o prawa zachowania masy, pędu i energii. Jako studium przypadku wybrano fragment rurociągu jamalskiego (Yamal- Europa) przebiegającego przez terytorium Polski.

  8. A fonte ionizante do disco de acreção no núcleo de NGC1097

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, R. N.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.

    2003-08-01

    Observações em raios-X revelam o "coração" dos núcleos ativos de galáxias, pois esse tipo de radiação provém das suas regiões mais internas, próximas ao buraco negro central. Neste trabalho apresentamos observações em raios-X da região central da galáxia NGC1097, que hospeda um buraco negro supermassivo e um disco de acreção cuja emissão vem sendo observada há dez anos através da linha de emissão Ha larga (10000 km/s) e de duplo pico. As observações em raios-X - que foram obtidas com o Telescópio Chandra - foram combinadas com observações no ultravioleta obtidas com o Telescópio Espacial Hubble e são usadas para estudar as características da fonte central que ioniza o disco de acreção. A distribuição espectral de energia é comparada com a predita por modelos, em particular o de uma estrutura "ADAF" ("advection dominated accretion flow") na parte interna do disco. Tal estrutura produz um espectro de emissão de linhas estreitas tipo LINER, como observado em NGC1097 e em rádio-galáxias que apresentam linhas de Balmer largas de duplo pico. Apresentamos também uma comparação entre outros LINERs com linhas de emissão largas de duplo pico, disponíveis na literatura ou nos arquivos do Chandra e do Telescópio Espacial Hubble e discutimos as correspondentes implicações para modelos da fonte central.

  9. Observação do abrilhantamento de limbo solar e de estruturas filamentares em 48 ghz utilizando a técnica de regularização adaptativa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, W. R. S.; Mascarenhas, N.; Costa, J. E. R.; Silva, A. V. R.

    2003-08-01

    O radiotelescópio do Itapetinga tem sido utilizado em campanhas de observações de explosões solares gerando um grande número de mapas diários em 48 GHz como sub-produto destas observações. A resolução espacial do telescópio de 14m do Itapetinga nesta freqüência é de aproximadamente dois minutos de arco. Estruturas de interesse para análise da atmosfera solar quiescente tais como os filamentos e o anel de abrilhantamento do limbo são de dimensão angular moderada da ordem ou ligeiramente menores que a resolução do telescópio. É conhecido que a convolução da função de espalhamento do telescópio, PSF (padrão de ganho do feixe) borra as estruturas de dimensão angular abaixo do HPBW (largura a meia potência do feixe) e portanto é comum a busca por técnicas de restauração que eliminem pelo menos em parte este borramento. Estudamos a restauração destas radioimagens usando a técnica de regularização adaptativa e os resultados ressaltam estas estruturas espaciais de pequeno contraste. O algoritmo da regularização adaptativa faz uso de k imagens, chamadas protótipos, obtidas através da variação de parâmetros de um filtro de regularização. Para controle da qualidade da restauração utilizamos uma imagem de alta resolução espacial obtida na linha H-a e a PSF do Itapetinga para borrá-la. Pequenos desvios, entre a PSF utilizada para o borramento e a PSF utilizada na restauração, produziram alguns desvios notáveis na imagem restaurada porém a adição de ruído nas simulações de restauração foram mais influentes no cálculo da rugosidade da imagem e portanto mais limitante para a restauração. Apresentamos como nosso primeiro resultado uma imagem em 48 GHz com a presença clara do abrilhantamento de limbo que não estava evidente na imagem original e traços de estruturas filamentares, porém ainda sem grande evidência.

  10. Perfil de temperatura dos funis magnetosféricos de estrelas T Tauri com aquecimento alfvênico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, M. J.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas T Tauri Clássicas são objetos jovens circundados por discos de gás e poeira e que apresentam uma intensa atividade magnética. Seu espectro mostra linhas de emissão alargadas que são razoavelmente reproduzidas nos modelos de acresção magnetosférica. No entanto, o perfil de temperatura dos funis magnéticos é desconhecido. Aquecimento magnético compressional e difusão ambipolar foram considerados para estas estruturas, porém as temperaturas obtidas não são suficientes para explicar as observações. Neste trabalho, examinamos o aquecimento gerado pelo amortecimento de ondas Alfvén através de quatro mecanismos, os amortecimentos não-linear, turbulento, viscoso-resistivo e colisional como função da freqüência da onda. Inicialmente, a temperatura é ajustada para reproduzir as observações e o grau de turbulência requerido para que o mecanismo seja viável é calculado. Os resultados mostram que este é compatível com os dados observacionais. Apresentam-se, também, resultados preliminares do cálculo auto-consistente do perfil de temperatura dos funis, levando-se em conta fontes de aquecimento Alfvênica e fontes de resfriamento.

  11. See the World on the Internet: Tips for Parents of Young Readers--and "Surfers" = Vea el mundo por Internet: Ideas por padres de jovenes lectores y exploradores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jeanette

    Regardless of whether a parent has Internet access at home, it is essential that parents learn with their children and be aware of where their travels on the Internet are taking them. Many libraries have Internet workshops for parents or children or both. In the excitement of looking at sites, children may not even realize they are reading. Many…

  12. Verification and validation interim report for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This Verification and Validation (V/V) interim report summarizes to date the results of the V/V tasks performed in each of the following life cycle phases: concept, requirements, design, implementation, test, installation and checkout, and operation and maintenance. At the end of the installation and checkout phase, the V/V final report will be issued. This interim report contains or references the following for each phase: Description of V/V tasks performed; Summary of task results; Summary of anomalies and resolution; Assessment of system quality; Recommendations.

  13. On sopro do magnetar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, M. P.; Horvath, J. E.

    2003-08-01

    Magnetares sao estrelas de nêutrons com campos magnéticos acima do limiar quântico de 4,4´1013 G. Por causa desse intenso campo magnético, que exige período de rotação inicial da ordem de 1 ms, o torque eletromagnético é capaz de injetar 2´1052 erg, em menos de um dia, no Remanescente de Supernova (RSN) formado por ocasião da formação do magnetar. A energia injetada acelera a expansão do RSN, de modo que estimativas de idade do RSN feitas sem considerar a injeção de energia superestimarão a idade verdadeira. Além do cenário usual de formação de magnetares em colapsos gravitacionais de estrelas massivas, estudamos a possibilidade de formação dos mesmos através do Colapso Induzido por Acresção em anãs brancas. Estudamos, através de simulação numérica unidimensional, com diversas massas ejetadas e diversas densidades de meio interestelar local, as associações propostas entre candidatos a magnetar e RSNs, incluindo a injeção de energia. Concluímos que aproximadamente metade delas podem ser verdadeiras, e determinamos a faixa de velocidades e idades possíveis de cada associação. As incertezas observacionais a respeito do tamanho e densidade do meio interestelar local limitam a acurácia da análise.

  14. The Escuela Moderna Movement of Francisco Ferrer: "Por la Verdad y la Justicia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Geoffrey C.

    1985-01-01

    The educational theory and practice of the Escuela Modern (Modern School) movement of the Spanish educator Francisco Ferrer, born in 1850, are discussed. Two fundamental tendencies of the movement are child-centered education and education in didactic terms. (RM)

  15. Phantom of RAMSES (POR): A new Milgromian dynamicsN-body code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüghausen, Fabian; Famaey, Benoit; Kroupa, Pavel

    2015-02-01

    Since its first formulation in 1983, Milgromian dynamics (MOND) has been very successful in predicting the gravitational potential of galaxies from the distribution of baryons alone, including general scaling relations and detailed rotation curves of large statistical samples of individual galaxies covering a large range of masses and sizes. Most predictions however rely on static models, and only a handful of N-body codes have been developed over the years to investigate the consequences of the Milgromian framework for the dynamics of complex evolving dynamical systems. In this work, we present a new Milgromian N-body code, which is a customized version of the RAMSES code (Teyssier 2002) and thus comes with all its features: it includes particles and gas dynamics, and importantly allows for high spatial resolution of complex systems due to the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) technique. It further allows the direct comparison between Milgromian simulations and standard Newtonian simulations with dark matter particles. We provide basic tests of this customized code and demonstrate its performance by presenting N-body computations of dark-matter-free spherical equilibrium models as well as dark-matter-free disk galaxies in Milgromian dynamics.

  16. Abuso sexual por parte de los empleados del colegio (Sexual Misconduct by School Employees). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goorian, Brad

    This digest in Spanish defines sexual misconduct and offers guidelines that school boards and administrators can initiate to protect students from unwanted sexual behavior. The law recognizes two types of sexual misconduct: quid pro quo, when a school employee grants a student a favor in exchange for sexual gratification, and hostile environment,…

  17. Looking for a Job: Step by Step = Buscando Trabajo: Paso por Paso.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Patricia

    This bilingual document provides guidelines and learning activities to assist migrant workers in looking for a job. The document covers the following areas: (1) a checklist providing an overview of job search skills; (2) developing a fact sheet of personal information; (3) listing good work qualities; (4) identifying references and securing…

  18. Applying Cognitive Linguistics to Teaching the Spanish Prepositions "Por" and "Para"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    L2 prepositions are traditionally taught in a non-explanatory manner by having students learn each use individually. This study examines the effectiveness of an alternative explanatory approach based on cognitive linguistics, which considers the multiple uses of a preposition as related. Consequently, learners can be shown a general schema that…

  19. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and…

  20. Teaching Probability for Conceptual Change (La Ensenanza de la Probabilidad por Cambio Conceptual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Cesar Saenz

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theoretical proposal of a methodology for the teaching of probability theory. Discusses the importance of the epistemological approach of Lakatos and the perspective of the conceptual change. Discusses research using a proposed didactic method with Spanish high school students (N=6). Concludes that significant differences on all…

  1. Neuropatía periférica inducida por quimioterapia

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre un efecto secundario de la quimioterapia que causa dolor y malestar en las manos y los pies. También incluye información sobre los esfuerzos para mejorar las opciones de detección, tratamiento y prevención.

  2. Ensenando El Espanol por Medio de Accion (Teaching Spanish through Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Bertha

    A teaching guide containing 102 elementary to intermediate level Spanish lessons is presented. The lessons are based on the Total Physical Response technique of second language teaching. They follow the stages of first language acquisition: listening, speaking, and reading. Each of the ten units contains a list of new vocabulary words, individual…

  3. El Libro de la Escritura por Pinguino Tinto (The Writing Book, by Inky Penguin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron

    Presented completely in Spanish and intended for elementary level students, this book offers 12 writing ideas and several suggestions on how students can make a book using their writing. Each writing idea is presented with a brief description (addressed to the student), several examples of student writing, and a blank page on which to write.…

  4. Producao d Dijatos por Dupla Troca de Pomeron Exclusiva no Experimento D0

    SciTech Connect

    Murilo Santana Rangel

    2008-01-01

    The first search for exclusive diffractive dijet production with invariant mass ≳ 100 GeV in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is performed. The set of data used is the Run IIa, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 30 pb-1 of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV taken with the D0 detector. At 95% CL, an upper limit for the ratio between the number of diffractive exclusive events and the number of non diffractive events is set to be 7.5 x 10-6, excluding two of the three models proposed to explain this production.

  5. The PorGrow project: overall cross-national results, comparisons and implications.

    PubMed

    Millstone, E; Lobstein, T

    2007-05-01

    European policymakers need more information on policy responses to obesity that stakeholders judge effective and acceptable. The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project gathered such intelligence by interviewing key stakeholder groups in nine countries. Interviews used an innovative multi-criteria mapping (MCM) methodology that gathers quantitative and qualitative information on the stakeholders' perceptions and judgements. Aggregating across all participants, a comprehensive portfolio of policy measures, integrated into a coherent programme, would be well-supported by broad coalitions of stakeholders. Those portfolios should include measures (i) to provide improved educations in schools and to the general adult population; (ii) measures to improve access to and incentives for physical activity; (iii) measures to improve information about both foods and physical activity and (iv) changes to the supply of and demand for foodstuffs. There was little support for fiscal measures and technological 'fixes'; they were judged ineffective and unacceptable. Significant differences were found across European regions, and across different stakeholder perspectives, but not across genders. There is a strong case for improved monitoring of body mass index levels, dietary habits and physical activity. An MCM study can effectively cover several countries, rather than being confined to just one, and generate both national and cross-national policy analyses and proposals. PMID:17371305

  6. Luchando por una educacion: A Qualitative Understanding of Undocumented Latina/o College Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Elvia Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The current qualitative study explored the factors and resources that motivate undocumented Latino/a college students to persist in higher education. Through the data obtained from the four qualitative open-ended survey questions, a content analysis revealed specific codes, themes, and subthemes addressing the factors and resources that motivate…

  7. "Por Los Ojos De Madres": Latina Mothers' Understandings of College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Laura Jean; Martinez, Melissa Ann; Sáenz, Victor B.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, data from six focus groups with 30 Latina mothers in South Texas were analyzed utilizing a "funds of knowledge" approach to uncover their understandings of college readiness and their role in ensuring their children are college ready. Findings indicate that Latina mothers perceived college readiness in a holistic fashion,…

  8. Master equipment list 500 CFM portable exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    KRISKOVICH, J.R.

    1999-07-08

    The Master Equipment List (MEL) lists all the major components of the 500 cfm exhauster PORO5. The purpose of this Master Equipment List is to provide basic information and references to other documents for the listed components.

  9. PREJUICIO Y DISTANCIA SOCIAL HACIA PERSONAS HOMOSEXUALES POR PARTE DE JÓVENES UNIVERSITARIOS

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Rodríguez, María del C.; Squiabro, José Calderón

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con el propósito de explorar actitudes de rechazo y distancia social hacia las personas gays y lesbianas (GL) en 565 universitarios. Se utilizó una escala para medir Prejuicio y otra escala para medir Distancia Social. Los participantes reflejaron niveles moderados de prejuicio y distancia social (DS) hacia las personas gays y lesbianas. Los varones (M=104.5, DT= 27.47) mostraron significativamente más prejuicio que las mujeres (M=98.8, DT= 23.41). Los hombres (M=22.7, DT= 7.00) mostraron significativamente mayor DS que las mujeres (M=21.1, DT= 5.41). Las personas que asisten con regularidad a la iglesia mostraron más prejuicio y DS que los que no asisten. Se analiza importancia de incluir el tema de la diversidad sexual a través del currículo para desmontar prejuicios hacia la comunidad homosexual. PMID:25606066

  10. Renovando la Esperanza por una Educacion sin Exclusiones (Rekindling the Hope for an Education without Exclusion).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revista Interamericana de Educacion de Adultos, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Articles in this issue, written in Spanish, focus on the following: current status and outlook of youth and adult education; opening statement of the 50th anniversary commemoration; regional framework for the education of youth and adults in Latin America and the Caribbean; interculturalism and the education of youth and adults; participation of…

  11. El Titulo IX y La Discriminacion por Sexo (Title IX and Sex Discrimination).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. This brochure outlines the responsibilities of education programs and activities covered by Title IX, the responsibilities of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in enforcing…

  12. Enfermedad diarreica aguda por Escherichia coli patógenas en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Las cepas de E. coli patógenas intestinales son causas importantes de la enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA) en niños menores de 5 años en América Latina, África y Asia y están asociadas a alta mortalidad en niños en las comunidades más pobres de África y el Sudeste Asiático. Estudios sobre el papel de las E. coli patógenas intestinales en la EDA infantil en Colombia y otros países de América Latina son limitados debido a la carencia de ensayos para detección de estos patógenos en los laboratorios clínicos de centros de salud. Estudios recientes han reportado la detección de E. coli patógenas intestinales en Colombia, siendo la E. coli enterotoxigénica la cepa más frecuentemente asociada a diarrea en niños menores de 5 años. Otros patógenos detectados en estos pacientes incluyen las E. coli enteroagregativa, enteropatógena, productora de toxina Shiga, y de adherencia difusa. Con base en estudios que reportan la presencia de E. coli productora de toxina Shiga y E. coli enteroagregativa en carnes y vegetales en supermercados, se cree que productos alimentarios contaminados contribuyen a la transmisión de estos patógenos y a la infección del huésped susceptible. Más estudios son necesarios para evaluar los mecanismos de transmisión, el impacto en la epidemiologia de la EDA, y las pautas de manejo y prevención de estos patógenos que afectan la población pediátrica en Colombia. PMID:25491457

  13. Simulação de ejeções de massa coronal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsini, M. A.; Silva, A. V. R.

    2003-08-01

    Ejeções de massa coronal (EMC) são bolhas gigantes de gás permeadas por campos magnéticos que são ejetadas do Sol durante um período de várias horas. Caso estas ejeções atinjam a Terra, geralmente, causam uma série de distúrbios às comunicações de longa distância e navegação, além de danos a satélites e transformadores. Portanto, é desejável que sejamos capazes de prever quando estas ejeções atingirão a Terra. Para tanto, é necessário um bom entendimento dos mecanismos causadores das ejeções e, principalmente, de como se dá a propagação das EMC e sua interação com o vento solar que permeia o meio interplanetário. Nesse sentido foi desenvolvido um programa computacional para resolver as equações MHD (Magneto-Hidro-Dinâmica) que regem a evolução das EMC. Primeiramente foram estabelecidas as condições necessárias para descrever o vento solar, no estado estacionário, que permeia todo o meio interplanetário. Num primeiro momento, resolveu-se o sistema de equações para o caso do vento isotérmico, conhecida como a solução de Parker, a fim de testarmos o modelo. Então, foi considerado o caso do vento solar com temperatura variável no meio interplanetário. Este resultado foi utilizado como a base de nosso sistema em seu instante inicial. Posteriormente foram feitas as considerações necessárias para descrever a propagação da Ejeção de Massa Coronal. As EMC foram simuladas como um aumento de densidade e temperatura local na coroa solar. A órbita e a posição da Terra foram incluídas no sistema. Os dados gerados possibilitaram uma análise da evolução da EMC pelo meio interplanetário até encontrar-se com a Terra. Os perfis de densidade e temperatura a 1 Unidade Astronômica são comparados com os dados de satélites reportados na literatura.

  14. Um satélite brasileiro para observação do diâmetro solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilio, M.; Leister, N. V.; Benevides Soares, P.; Teixeira, R.; Kuhn, J.

    2003-08-01

    Propomos uma missão espacial para medir a forma e o diâmetro solar com o objetivo de ajudar a determinar o potencial gravitacional do Sol e a sua rotação com precisão, testar modelos teóricos de variação de energia e pela primeira vez medir os modos g de oscilação. As observações serão obtidas através do instrumento denominado APT (Astrometric and Photometric Telescope) descrito por Kuhn(1983). A sensibilidade do instrumento é de 0,2 mas em 27 dias para as observações do diâmetro solar feitas a cada minuto. Esta é uma missão de três anos de duração e pode complementar as medidas que serão feitas pelo satélite PICARD (a ser lançado em 2007). Outros parâmetros físicos podem ser obtidos com as mesmas imagens o que certamente interessará à comunidade de física solar. Um primeiro contato foi realizado com a agência espacial brasileira que pretende lançar um satélite científico a cada dois anos.

  15. Variação temporal do gradiente radial de o/h a partir de uma amostra de nebulosas planetárias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciel, W. J.; Costa, R. D. D.; Uchida, M. M. M.

    2003-08-01

    Gradientes radiais de abundância são observados no disco de nossa Galáxia e também em outras galáxias espirais. No caso da Galáxia, o principal problema relativo aos gradientes é sua variação temporal, que constitui um dos principais vínculos aos modelos de evolução química da Galáxia. As nebulosas planetárias são particularmente interessantes no estudo dos gradientes e suas variações, tanto espaciais como temporais. São objetos brilhantes, podendo ser observadas a grandes distâncias, e têm abundâncias relativamente precisas de diversos elementos químicos. Além disso, sendo originadas de estrelas com massas entre 0.8 e 8 massas solares na sequência principal, incluem objetos com idades e populações diferentes, o que as torna especialmente interessantes ao estudo da variação temporal dos gradientes. Neste trabalho, apresentamos resultados recentes sobre a variação temporal do gradiente de O/H a partir de uma amostra contendo cerca de 200 nebulosas, para as quais obtivemos distâncias por métodos estatísticos. As abundâncias foram parcialmente obtidas a partir de observações em Itajubá e La Silla, sendo as restantes obtidas da literatura. Os resultados mostram, pela primeira vez, evidências de um achatamento do gradiente de O/H, de -0.11 dex/kpc para -0.06 dex/kpc nos últimos 9 giga-anos ou de -0.08 dex/kpc para -0.06 dex/kpc nos últimos 5 giga-anos. Esses valores apresentam um bom acordo com alguns modelos recentes para a evolução química da Galáxia. (FAPESP/CNPq)

  16. Melhoramentos no código Wilson-Devinney para binárias eclipsantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, L. A.; Vaz, L. P. R.

    2003-08-01

    A análise de curvas de luz e velocidades radiais de sistemas binários eclipsantes pode ser feita por meio de vários modelos. Um desses é o Modelo Wilson-Devinney (WD). Ao longo dos anos, esse modelo sofreu várias alterações em seus códigos principais, com a finalidade de torná-lo mais consistente tanto fíisica como numericamente. O Modelo WD tem sido melhorado de várias maneiras em seus dois códigos: um para a predição das curvas de luz teórica e de velocidade radiais e outra para as soluções destas curvas. Teoricamente, na física do modelo, nós introduzimos a possibilidade de levar em conta os efeitos do movimento apsidal. Numericamente, nós introduzimos a possibilidade de usar o Método SIMPLEX no procedimento da solução, como uma alternativa para o já implementado Método de Mínimos Quadrados (Least Squares Method). Estas modificações, juntamente com outras já introduzidas pelo nosso grupo anteriormente, tornam o código mais eficiente na solução das curvas de luz e de velocidade radiais de binárias eclipsantes. Como o modelo tem sido usado para analisar sistemas com componentes pré-sequência principal (TY CrA, Casey et al. 1998, Vaz et al. 1998), SM 790, Stassun et al. 2003), este melhoramento beneficiará estes casos também. Apresentamos os resultados obtidos com a modificação do código WD por meio do uso de dados da estrela GL Carinae, comprovando, (1) que os parâmetros orbitais calculados por nós são coerentes com os obtidos anteriormente na literatura (Giménez & Clausen, 1986) e com os obtidos por Faria (1987), e (2) que a implementação do Método SIMPLEX torna o código mais lento mas completamente consistente internamente e evita os problemas gerados pelo uso do Método de Mínimos Quadrados, tais como imprecisão no cálculo das derivadas parciais e convergência para mínimos locais.

  17. A distância e o conteúdo estelar da região HII gigante G333.1-0.4 - vínculos para a taxa de formação estelar da galáxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figuerêdo, E.; Damineli, A.; Blum, R.; Conti, P.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos imagens de alta resolução angular da região HII gigante G333.1-0.4 obtidas através dos filtros J, H e K no telescópio de 4-m do CTIO. Este trabalho faz parte de um estudo de regiões HII gigantes no infravermelho próximo que tem por objetivo estudar a natureza da formação de estrelas massivas e traçar a estrutura espiral de nossa galáxia. Nossa determinação da distância é baseada no método da paralaxe espectroscópica de estrelas OB localizadas na seqüência principal de idade zero (ZAMS) do Diagrama HR. No caso de G333.1-0.4, a magnitude aparente das estrelas localizadas na ZAMS indica que a distância não pode ser maior do que o limite inferior determinado por técnica rádio (2,8 kpc). Resultados semelhantes foram encontrados para regiões estudadas anteriormente, reforçando a idéia de que a taxa de formação estelar na Via Láctea é menor do que o determinado a partir de dados rádio. Nossos resultados mais recentes sobre o conteúdo estelar de G333.1-0.4 revelaram vários objetos que possuem cores bastante avermelhadas (H-K > 2,0). Nós identificamos estes objetos usando os diagramas cor-cor e cor-magnitude dos aglomerados. Estes objetos apresentam um forte excesso em emissão na banda K e possivelmente se tratam de estrelas do tipo OB envolvidas por um disco/envelope circumestelar espesso. O estudo da função de massa inical desta região, em conjunto com resultados de nossos trabalhos anteriores, aponta para uma IMF independente da posição galática. A contagem de estrelas nos fornece um valor para o número de fótons no contínuo de Lyman que corrobora com a afirmação de que G333.1-0.4 se encontra mais próxima da menor distância determinada por rádio.

  18. Que hay de nuevo acerca de la inmersion? Un Breve Recorrido por sus Fundamentos y por las Investigaciones Actuales (What's New in Immersion? A Brief Overview of Its Bases and Present-Day Research).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra, Josu

    This discussion briefly surveys the development of the immersion method of second language teaching, outlining the central program strategies and characteristics using Curtain's and Pesola's descriptions. An overview of recent research focuses on error correction and feedback studies as an example of pedagogical-methodological evolution in this…

  19. Group A rotavirus gastroenteritis: post-vaccine era, genotypes and zoonotic transmission.

    PubMed

    Luchs, Adriana; Timenetsky, Maria do Carmo Sampaio Tavares

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACTThis article provides a review of immunity, diagnosis, and clinical aspects of rotavirus disease. It also informs about the changes in epidemiology of diarrheal disease and genetic diversity of circulating group A rotavirus strains following the introduction of vaccines. Group A rotavirus is the major pathogen causing gastroenteritis in animals. Its segmented RNA genome can lead to the emergence of new or unusual strains in human populations via interspecies transmission and/or reassortment events.RESUMOEste artigo fornece uma revisão sobre imunidade, diagnóstico e aspectos clínicos da doença causada por rotavírus. Também aponta as principais mudanças no perfil epidemiológico da doença diarreica e na diversidade genética das cepas circulantes de rotavírus do grupo A, após a introdução vacinal. O rotavírus do grupo A é o principal patógeno associado à gastroenterite em animais. Seu genoma RNA segmentado pode levar ao surgimento de cepas novas ou incomuns na população humana, por meio de transmissão entre espécies e eventos de rearranjo. PMID:27462899

  20. Haciendo que los colegios se hagan responsables por el logro (Holding Schools Accountable for Achievement). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    This digest in Spanish describes the key features of current accountability systems and explores their implications for administrators. It discusses various aspects of accountability systems, such as rigorous content standards and the alignment of professional development with standards and test results, and how these elements work together to…

  1. Medida da razao de ramificacao do Decaimento D+ {right arrow}K- K+ K+ duplamente suprimido por cabibbo

    SciTech Connect

    da Silva Carvalho, H.

    1997-11-01

    In this thesis, we performed a study for the decay D{sup +}{yields}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup +} and D{sub s}{sup +}{yields}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup +}, using the data collected by the E791, a hadroproduction of charm experiment at Fermilab. The D{sup +}{yields}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup +} decay is doubly Cabibbo suppressed while the D{sub s}{sup +}{yields}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup +} decay is singly Cabibbo suppressed. We found 11.6{+-}3.9 events in the D{sup +} mass region and 8.9{+-}3.3 in the D{sub s}{sup +} mass region. The D{sup +}{yields}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup +} branching ratio is measured to be (3.7{+-}1.3{+-}0.6)x10{sup -4} while the D{sub s}{sup +}{yields}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup +} branching ratio relative to D{sub s}{sup +}{yields}{phi}{pi}{sup +} is measured to be (4.2{+-}1.5{+-}0.6)x10{sup -2}.

  2. Reconnaissance evaluation of Honduran geothermal sites. Una evaluacion por medio de reconocimiento de seis areas geotermicas en Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, D.; Fakundiny, R.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-12-01

    Six geothermal spring sites were selected on the basis of preliminary investigations conducted in Honduras over the last decade and were evaluated in terms of their development potential. Of the six, the Platanares and San Ignacio sites have high base temperatures and high surface fluid discharge rates and appear to have the best potential for further development as sources of electrical power. A third site, Azacualpa, has a high enough base temperature and discharge rate to be considered as a back-up, but the logistical problems involved in geophysical surveys make it less attractive than the two primary sites. Of the remaining three sites, Pavana may be a source of direct-use heat for local agricultural processing. Sambo Creek and El Olivar have either severe logistical problems that would impede further investigation and development or base temperatures and flow rates that are too low to warrant detailed investigation at this time.

  3. En otras palabras: Perfeccionamiento del espanol por medio de la traduccion (In Other Words: Perfecting Spanish Language Skills through Translation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Patricia V.; Lunsford, Ernest J.

    This publication, written primarily in Spanish, is an activity book designed to teach Spanish through translation based on the theory that, in order to produce an acceptable translation, students must focus their attention on lexical and grammatical detail. The book combines incisive grammar explanations, relevant lexical information, and a wide…

  4. Evaluacion de que consister y por que se lleva acabo? (Evaluation: What Does it Consist of, and for What Purpose?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    A guide is presented for the evaluation of the bilingual programs in the Austin, Texas, Independent School District. The reasons for an evaluation and a definition of program objectives and evaluation instruments are given. The program components, objectives and evaluation instruments for each grade level (K-4) are listed. The components involved…

  5. Como ayudar a los padres a prevenir el envenenamiento por plomo (Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. This Spanish-language Digest summarizes some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies…

  6. Monitoreo óptico de eta-Carina durante el pasaje por el periastro en 2014.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Lajús, E.; Salerno, N. E.; Scalia, M. C.; Ramos, X. S.; Giudici, F. N.; Gamen, R. C.

    2015-08-01

    We present the H light curves resulting from the 2013 and 2014 observing seasons of Car as well as its spectral evolution, including the latest ``event'' occurred in mid-2014. The direct CCD observations were made with the telescope ``VS Niemela'' the Observatory of La Plata, and spectroscopic observations were made with the telescope ``J. Sahade'' of Casleo, Argentina.

  7. Disponibilidade de nutrientes na fitomassa produzida por cultivares de milho (Zea mays L.) de diferentes niveis tecnologicos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Macronutrient uptake, accumulation, and exportation can be affected by corn genetic selection. The objectives of this study were to quantify macronutrient extraction and to evaluate C/P and C/N ratio. The experiment was established at Rolândia County, Paraná State. Ten corn varieties divided into pa...

  8. Distribución superficial de impactos en Iapetus originada por el remanente de una colisión

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppetti, F. A.; Leiva, A. M.; Briozzo, C. B.

    2015-08-01

    By means of Circular Restricted Three Body Problem Saturn--Iapetus, we analize potential impact distributions on the surface of Iapetus, originated from considering a low-energy population generated as remnants of a collisional event occurred in the past on the surface of this satellite. The results are analized in order to offer a new approach to explain the origin of the albedo dichotomy observed on Iapetus.

  9. Evolução temporal de discos circunstelares em estrelas Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, M. V. M.; Leister, N. V.; Levenhagen, R. S.

    2003-08-01

    A pesquisa do mecanismo que leva uma estrela do tipo Be a perder massa e formar um envelope circunstelar, nomeado como fenômeno Be, é uma questão em aberto, intrigante, e que adquire contornos interessantes em face às informações espectroscópicas de alta resolução. Nesta última década, consolida-se a idéia de que a forma destes envelopes é de tipo discóide, obedecendo a uma lei Kepleriana de velocidades, e mais ainda, recentemente há evidências de que a distribuição de matéria nestes discos pode assumir um caráter de anel. Medidas de algumas dimensões de discos circunstelares puderam ser obtidas pela análise de espectros de alta resolução e alta relação sinal-ruído para as estrelas Be: alpha Eri (HD 10144, B3Vpe), omicron And (HD 217675, B6IIIpe), e eta Cen (HD el972, B1.5Vne), no período dos anos de 1991 a 2001. Alguns modelos clássicos de envelope predizem uma distribuição de massa que decresce suavemente a partir da superfície estelar. Entretanto, considerando que a separação de picos de emissão em perfis de linhas do HeI e H-alpha, alargados por efeitos cinemáticos, é função do raio estelar e da velocidade rotacional projetada (vsini); nossos resultados sugerem a presença de um anel de matéria circunstelar, que aparece logo após a ejeção do material fotosférico, imediatamente acima da superfície estelar, e que se expande para raios maiores ao longo do tempo, eventualmente desconectando-se da superfície por uma região de densidade de matéria mínima. Tais interpretações revivem a idéia de que anéis de matéria circunstelar podem ser os responsáveis por algumas variabilidades em perfis de linhas de emissão, como as variações V/R.

  10. Estudo comparativo entre estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias deficientes em hidrogênio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolino, W. L. F.; de Araújo, F. X.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos neste trabalho o resultado de um estudo das principais características espectrais das estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias (ECNP) deficientes em hidrogênio. A origem e a evolução dessas estrelas ainda constitui um problema em aberto na evolução estelar. Geralmente esses objetos são divididos em [WCE], [WCL] e [WELS]. Os tipos [WCE] e [WCL] apresentam um espectro típico de uma estrela Wolf-Rayet carbonada de população I e as [WELS] apresentam linhas fracas de carbono e oxigênio em emissão. Existem evidências que apontam a seguinte sequência evolutiva : [WCL] = > [WCE] = > [WELS] = > PG 1159 (pré anã-branca). No entanto, tal cenário apresenta falhas como por exemplo a falta de ECNP entre os tipos [WCL] e [WCE]. Baseados em uma amostra de 24 objetos obtida no telescópio de 1.52m em La Silla, Chile (acordo ESO/ON), ao longo do ano 2000, apresentamos os resultados da comparação das larguras equivalentes de diversas linhas relevantes entre os tipos [WCL], [WCE] e [WELS]. Verificamos que nossos dados estão de acordo com a sequência evolutiva. Baseado nas linhas de C IV, conseguimos dividir pela primeira vez as [WELS] em dois grupos principais. Além disso, os dados reforçam a afirmação de que as [WCE] são as estrelas que possuem a maior temperatura entre as ECNP deficientes em hidrogênio. Discutimos ainda, a escassez de dados disponíveis na literatura e a necessidade da obtenção de parametros físicos para estes objetos.

  11. Projeto observatórios virtuais: educação através de telescópios robóticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, P. H. S.; Shida, R. Y.

    2003-08-01

    O principal objetivo do projeto Observatórios Virtuais é o ensino na área de ciências através de atividades práticas desenvolvidas em colaboração entre instituições de pesquisa em astronomia e escolas de ensino médio e fundamental. Este ano deverá ser concluída a implantação do programa piloto de estudos, pesquisas e observação astronômica direta, com utilização em tempo real de telescópios robóticos, que assim funcionarão como "observatórios virtuais". O objetivo pedagógico das atividades práticas baseadas nas imagens atronômicas é desenvolver as habilidades e competências dos alunos no uso do método científico. Para isso, serão realizados projetos interdisciplinares, a partir de observações astronômicas, já que a astronomia é uma área interdisciplinar por excelência. Essas atividades terão níveis diferenciados de complexidade, que podem ser adequados aos vários graus do ensino e realidades regionais. Será dada ênfase ao desenvolvimento e aplicação em São Paulo, onde atua a equipe do IAG/USP. Como resultados apresentados no presente trabalho, temos a criação de um software em português para o processamento de imagens obtidas através de CCDs e a elaboração de material para as atividades educacionais relacionadas.

  12. A teoria da percolação aplicada às galáxias aneladas peculiares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, P. C. R.; Martin, V. A. F.; de Medeiros, N. G. F.; Faúndez-Abans, M.; Oliveira-Abans, M.

    2003-08-01

    Formulado no final da década de 50, o modelo de percolação concentra-se em descrever o meio poroso, que será visto neste trabalho como uma rede de canais aleatórios, por onde escoa um fluido determinístico. Se o número de canais for suficientemente grande, então eles estarão ligados e o meio se tornará permeável à passagem do fluido. Neste caso, dizemos que houve a percolação do fluido. Reformulando o modelo acima, podemos escrever um código particularmente adaptado para simulações em Galáxias, onde iremos supor que os canais formam um reticulado, e que cada sítio da rede representa um poro que será interpretado como uma região ativa de formação estelar. Para cada elo teremos um pequeno canal ligando dois sítios vizinhos, que poderá, após um tempo "t", induzir ou não a formação de uma região ativa no poro vizinho. Para simular a passagem desta região ativa através dos poros, diremos que um elo está aberto com probabilidade p e fechado com probabilidade 1-p. Dessa forma, passamos a imaginar configurações de elos abertos e fechados, onde cada configuração ocorre com uma certa probabilidade, dada por p|A|(1-p)|F|, onde |A| é o número de elos abertos e |F| o número de elos fechados da configuração. A expressão anterior só tem importância física se |A| e |F| forem ambos finitos, pois, caso contrário, a probabilidade de ocorrência de uma dada configuração será sempre nula. Neste trabalho, foram considerados dados cinemáticos publicados na literatura bem como aqueles obtidos pelos autores a partir de observações fotométricas realizadas no Observatório de Las Campanãs, em 1994, para a Galáxia Anelada Peculiar HRG 03401. Mostraremos que para certos valores de p, situados entre 0,5 e 0,6, os clusters assim formados irão simular, de maneira coerente, o referido objeto.

  13. Proving the Orbits of the Galilean Moons Through Astrophotography. (Spanish Title: Comprobando Las Órbitas de Las Lunas Galileanas a Través de la Astrofotografía.) Evidenciando as Órbitas das Luas Galileanas Atravéd da Astrofotografia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo

    2009-12-01

    An activity related to the observation of the Galilean moons and to amateur astrophotography is presented in this work. Through the reading of excerpts of the book Sidereus Nuncius (Sidereal Messenger), by Galileo, it is possible to trace a methodology to observe the planet and its natural satellites and, with the aid of the astrophotography, to analyze the field recordings. Moreover, it is possible to compare the images obtained after plotting the relative positions of these moons to prove their orbits. This activity can be conducted by teachers, students and amateur astronomers, in order to develop their capabilities of observation of astronomical phenomena. Se presenta en este trabajo una actividad relacionada a la observación de las lunas Galileanas y a la astrofotografía amateur. A través de la lectura de tramos de la obra Sidereus Nuncius (El Mensajero Sideral) de Galileo, es posible trazar una metodología para la observación del planeta y de sus satélites naturales y, con el auxilio de la astrofotografía, analizar las anotaciones de campo. Además, es posible comparar las imágenes obtenidas con el gráfico de las posiciones relativas de estas lunas para comprobar sus órbitas. Esa actividad puede ser realizada por maestros, estudiantes y astrónomos amateurs, de forma a desarrollar sus capacidades de observación de los fenómenos astronómicos. Uma atividade relacionada à observação das luas Galileanas e à astrofotografia amadora é apresentada neste trabalho. Através da leitura de trechos da obra Sidereus Nuncius (Mensageiro Sideral), de Galileu, é possível traçar uma metodologia para a observação do planeta e de seus satélites naturais e, com o auxílio da astrofotografia, analisar as anotações de campo. Além disso, é possível comparar as imagens obtidas com o gráfico das posições relativas destas luas para evidenciar suas órbitas. Essa atividade pode ser realizada por professores, estudantes e astrônomos amadores, de forma a

  14. Correlação de longo alcance em sistemas binários de raios-x usando remoção de flutuações

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Moret, M. A.; Zebende, G. F.; Nogueira, E., Jr.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho é proposta uma metodologia de analise de series temporais de fontes astrofísicas, baseada no método proposto por Peng et al. (1994) e Liu et al. (1999), o qual consiste na idéia de que uma série temporal correlacionada pode ser mapeada por um processo de busca de auto-similaridades em diversas escalas de tempo n. Removendo as eventuais tendências e integrando o sinal observado, é obtida uma medida do desvio médio quadrático das flutuações do sinal integrado F(n)~na, onde a representa o fator de escala associado com a auto-similaridade da correlação de longo alcance do sinal. Baseado nos valores obtidos de a, é possível distinguir entre os casos de sinais não-correlacionados, tipo ruído branco (a = 0,5), sinal anti-persistentes (a < 0,5) e sinal persistente (a > 0,5). Usando esta metodologia, foram analisadas 129 curvas de luz de sistemas binários de raios-X, provenientes do banco de dados públicos de observações feitas pelo instrumento All Sky Monitor, a bordo do satélite Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (ASM-RXTE). Foram identificadas a presença de a'0,5 em mais de 90% dos sistemas estudados, implicando em dizer que as flutuações de intensidade observadas apresentam correlação de auto-similaridade, sem entretanto, indícios de apresentarem uma escala de tempo característica das flutuações de intensidade. Sistemas onde são observadas erupções (flares), apresentam sistematicamente a > 0,5, característica esta, possivelmente associada com persistência das flutuações de densidade de disco ou taxa de acréscimo de massa. Os sistemas com curvas de luz onde nao são observadas as erupções apresentam uma distribuição normal centrada em a~0,62+/-0,10. Referências ¾ Peng, C.-K., Buldyrev, S.V., Havlin, S., Simons, M., Stanley, H.E., e Goldberg, A.L., Phys. Rev. E, (49), 1685 (1994). ¾ Liu, Y., Gopikrishnan, P., Cizeau, P., Meyer, M., Peng,C.-K., e Stanley, H.E., Phys. Rev. E, (60), 1390 (1999).

  15. Discos de acresção em sistemas Be-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes de Oliveira, R.; Janot-Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    Alguns fenômenos de outbursts em Be-X sugerem a existência, mesmo que temporária, de um disco de acresção quando da passagem do objeto compacto pelo periastro orbital. Neste trabalho avaliamos a possibilidade de formação do disco de acresção em sistemas Be+estrela de neutrons e Be+anã branca, e a influência da excentricidade orbital na ocorrência deste fenômeno. Utilizamos a expressão analítica para o momento angular específico da matéria constituinte de um meio em expansão lenta, como é o caso do disco circunstelar das estrelas Be, proposta por Wang(1981), sob a condição básica de que o raio de circularização deva ser maior do que o raio de Alfvén. Concluímos que existe um limite para o período orbital do sistema acima do qual não é possível a formação do disco de acresção, e que este valor aumenta para sistemas com excentricidade orbital maior.

  16. A Visão do Universo Segundo a Concepção de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, M. A. A.; Elias, D. C. N.; Amaral, L. H.; Araújo, M. S. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2005-12-01

    Nesse trabalho foi identificada por meio de um questionário a visão de mundo sobre o Universo espaço e tempo entre 270 estudantes de Ensino Médio de três escolas de São Paulo. Constatou-se pouco conhecimento dos temas investigados sendo que apenas 20% dos alunos relacionaram as semanas com as fases da lua enquanto 28% associaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra e 23% tinham noções das distâncias entre objetos celestes próximos da Terra. Enquanto 56% conseguiram relacionar o Big Bang com a origem do Universo verificou-se que 37% reconheciam ano-luz como unidade de distância e 60% reconheciam o Sol como uma estrela. Apesar de 60% dos alunos indicarem a escola como principal fonte dos conhecimentos de astronomia seus conceitos ainda são inadequados havendo necessidade de aprimoramento da abordagem desses conteúdos pois apesar de popular a astronomia é veiculada de maneira pouco esclarecedora e com imprecissões.

  17. Precessão do jato de 3C120: simulações hidrodinâmicas 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caproni, A.; de Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.; Abraham, Z.; Raga, A. C.

    2003-08-01

    Observações com técnicas de interferometria com longa linha de base têm mostrado a existência de um jato relativístico com componentes superluminais na região central de 3C 120. Estas componentes são ejetadas em distintas direções no plano do céu e com diferentes velocidades aparentes. Estas características foram interpretadas em trabalhos anteriores como efeitos da precessão do jato relativístico. Neste trabalho, realizamos simulações tri-dimensionais do jato de 3C 120 utilizando os parâmetros de precessão determinados em trabalhos anteriores e variando as características iniciais do jato e meio ambiente, tais como densidade numérica e temperatura. Todas as simulações foram feitas com o código hidrodinâmico YGUAZÚ-A, assumindo-se um jato adiabático descrito por uma equação de estado relativística. Pelo fato de estarmos utilizando um código hidrodinâmico, nós assumimos que a intensidade do campo magnético e a distribuição de partículas, necessários para se calcular a emissão sincrotron, são proporcionais à pressão hidrodinâmica. Comparação entre dois cenários distintos, nos quais o material do jato é ejetado com velocidade constante (jato contínuo) e com velocidade modulada por um padrão sinusoidal no tempo (jato intermitente), é apresentada e discutida. Para jatos que apresentam fenômenos de precessão e intermitência, com amplitude de variação na velocidade de injeção maior que dez por cento da velocidade média de injeção, a hipótese balística, controlada pela intermitencia, é mais provável. Por outro lado, para jatos com precessão mas sem intermitência (ou com amplitude de variabilidade em velocidade mais baixa que no caso anterior), o efeito da precessão na morfologia do jato não é desprezível. Portanto, de um modo geral, ambos efeitos (precessão e movimentos balísticos) devem estar concorrendo para afetar a morfologia dos jatos superluminais.

  18. Efectos de Campos Magnéticos en las Tasas de Consumo de Madera por Coptotermes formosanus, la Termita Subterránea de Formosa.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty groups of 500 workers and 50 soldiers of Coptotermes formosanus were maintained in costume designed containers and fed with a piece of red oak wood (Quercus rubra). Twenty of these groups were exposed to permanent magnets with a flux of 800 G. Another 20 groups were exposed to a permanent mag...

  19. Realidades Suburbanas: Latinos en el Condado de Dakota. Una Investigacion Dirigida por HACER = Suburban Realities: Latinos in Dakota County. A Study Conducted by HACER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HACER: Hispanic Advocacy and Community Empowerment through Research, Minneapolis, MN.

    A research project was conducted between April and December of 1998 to learn about the experiences of the sizable numbers of Latinos who live in Dakota County (Minnesota). This diverse group was studied through examining existing demographic information, conducting interviews with 45 Latino and Anglo individuals, and conducting several focus…

  20. Effect of por-SiC buffer layer on the parameters of thin Er2O3 layers on silicon carbide substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacherikov, Yu Yu; Konakova, R. V.; Okhrimenko, O. B.; Berezovska, N. I.; Kapitanchuk, L. M.; Svetlichnyi, A. M.; Svetlichnaya, L. A.

    2015-04-01

    Using optical absorption and Auger spectrometry techniques, we studied the effect of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the properties of erbium oxide films deposited onto a porous silicon carbide buffer layer formed on 4H-SiC substrates. An analysis of atomic composition of the films under investigation as a function of RTA duration was performed. It is shown that phase composition of erbium oxide films on silicon carbide substrates with a porous SiC layer can be changed by varying RTA duration.

  1. Escucheme Por Favor/Please Listen to Me: An Analysis of the Perceptions of Latino Students and Teachers in a High School Multilingual Teacher Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacio, Peter Vincent

    2010-01-01

    This case study used photo elicitation interviewing (PEI) to analyze perceptions of Latino students and their teachers in a multilanguage high school academy. It examined student involvement in school, dropout rate, and pursuit of a college education. Ten academy teachers and 10 Latino senior students were interviewed. Observations obtained…

  2. Library Safari: Tips for Parents of Young Readers and Explorers = De safari por la biblioteca: Consejos para padres de lectores y exploradores jovenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Aedin

    Visiting the library is a great way for parents to encourage their child's imagination and learning. It gives parents the opportunity to model good reading behavior and to show their child that they value books and reading. No matter how young the child is, a trip to the library can be an enjoyable outing for parents and their children. Most…

  3. The HoMBReS and HoMBReS Por un Cambio Interventions to Reduce HIV Disparities Among Immigrant Hispanic/Latino Men.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Leichliter, Jami S; Sun, Christina J; Bloom, Fred R

    2016-02-12

    Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are affected disproportionately by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, few effective evidence-based prevention interventions for this population exist. This report describes the Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) (HoMBReS) intervention, which was developed by a community-based, participatory research partnership in North Carolina and initially implemented during 2005-2009. HoMBReS is an example of an effective intervention that uses lay health advisors (known as Navegantes [navigators]) in the context of existing social networks (i.e., recreational soccer teams) to promote consistent condom use and HIV and STD testing among Hispanic/Latino men. In 2012, HoMBReS was classified as a best-evidence community-level HIV prevention intervention (CDC. Compendium of evidence-based behavioral interventions and best practices for HIV prevention. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2015). The intervention has been implemented elsewhere, enhanced, and further evaluated in longitudinal intervention and implementation studies. HoMBReS has been adapted for other populations, including men who have sex with men and transgender persons. Additional evaluation has found that Navegantes continue in their roles as health advisors, opinion leaders, and community advocates after study support ends. Hispanic/Latino men's social networks can be leveraged to promote sexual health within the community by decreasing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States. PMID:26916740

  4. "Pig in a poke (gato por liebre)": the "mota" (Calophysus macropterus) fishery, molecular evidence of commercialization in Colombia and toxicological analyses.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Cristian; Cubillos, Juan Camilo; Gómez, Rigoberto; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Overfishing has affected the population abundance trends of many commercial fish species. In the Amazon, the fishery of a catfish commonly known as "mota" or "piracatinga" (Calophysus macropterus) has become an important economic activity in the region as this species has replaced a number of other overexploited great catfish species in the markets. Due to this high exploitation, ways in which to increase captures have been identified. One strategy is to use decomposing animal carcasses as bait. Such strategy has increased the hunting pressure on endangered species such as caimans and river dolphins. We investigated which catfish species are currently commercialized in Colombian fish markets using DNA barcoding, and measured mercury concentration in the tissues of fish molecularly identified as C. macropterus. We collected 86 fish samples in markets of four Colombian cities. Sixty-eight of these were identified molecularly as C.macropterus. The mercury concentration of 29 such samples was analyzed. Samples presented total Hg concentrations higher than the limit for human consumption established by the WHO (0.5 μg/g). These results are worrisome and suggest that (1) C. macropterus is a widely used fish species for human consumption in Colombia and (2) C. macropterus has high concentrations of total Hg, making its consumption a public health risk. Results presented here suggest that C. macropterus has replaced capaz in most Colombian markets. This fishery threatens wild species of river dolphins and caimans, and is also a public health risk given the high mercury levels we found in a subsample of these fishes. PMID:24419666

  5. Communicating with Mexican Americans: Por Su Buena Salud = Communicando Con Mexico Americanos: For Their Good Health. Proceedings of the Conference (Houston, TX, September 13-14, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas J., Ed.; And Others

    The conference focused on the role of the Mexican American's cultural language, tradition, life style, health practices, and media utilization in the design of effective health education and information programs. Representing various local, state, and national health, education, and media organizations, the 108 participants attended sessions on…

  6. Comienza la construcción de instalación patrocinada por el NCI en Puerto Rico para realizar estudios

    Cancer.gov

    El gobierno de Puerto Rico ha destinado $196 millones de dólares para construir un hospital oncológico de 287 000 pies cuadrados en San Juan, que contará con 96 camas. El nuevo hospital es el primero en su clase en la región caribeña y en él se llevarán a

  7. Adolescentes que no habrían fumado pueden ser atraídos por los cigarrillos electrónicos

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo del blog Temas y relatos sobre un estudio reciente que sugiere que los adolescentes están usando cigarrillos electrónicos no solo como sustituto de cigarrillos convencionales sino cigarrillos electrónicos están atrayendo nuevos usuarios de tabaco

  8. Comparacion de Modelos de Educacion Sexual en El Conocimiento y Cambio de Actitudes en Practicas Sexuales por Alumnos de Nivel Superior en La Region De Caguas, Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    2012-01-01

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of…

  9. Stakeholder views on policy options for responding to the growing challenge from obesity in France: findings from the PorGrow project.

    PubMed

    Holdsworth, M; Kameli, Y; Delpeuch, F

    2007-05-01

    To explore the perspectives of key stakeholders towards a range of policy options to prevent obesity in France, a multi-criteria mapping method was used to gather quantitative and qualitative data from 21 types of stakeholder groups. During structured interviews, stakeholders appraised a set of pre-defined options by reference to criteria of their own choosing and provided relative weights to their criteria, and overall rankings of the policy options. Efficacy, feasibility and societal benefits were the groups of criteria given most importance by stakeholders. There was most consensus and preference for options related to health education, particularly in schools, compared with options that aimed at changing the environment to prevent obesity, i.e. options around physical activity; options that modified food supply and demand; and information-related options. There was little support for technological solutions or institutional reforms. While there was broad interest in a range of different options, those related to behaviour change through education were the most valued by stakeholders. Raising awareness among policymakers about the convincing scientific evidence for the effectiveness of environmental level policy options will be a crucial first step. PMID:17371308

  10. Ameiridae Boeck and Argestidae Por revisited, with establishment of Parameiropsidae, a new family of Harpacticoida (Crustacea, Copepoda) from deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corgosinho, P. H. C.; Martínez Arbizu, P.

    2010-09-01

    Four new species of Parameiropsis are described from Angola and Guinea Basins and the Arctic Laptev Sea. The male of Parameiropsis poseidonicus sp. n. differs from that of P. neptuni sp. n. and P. senckenbergi sp. n. in antennule segmentation, length of the proximal aesthetasc, length of the outermost seta of the antennary endopod, degree of reduction of the mouthparts, relative length of the inner spine of the basis of thoracopod 1, shape of the furca and body length. The female of P. amphitriteae sp. n. differs from previously described females of other species in the smaller exopod and endpod of thoracopod 1, reduced armature of thoracopods 1-6, length of the outer setae of exopods and endopods of thoracopods 2-4, and mandible exopod weakly developed and fused to the basis. Parameiropsis is redefined by the following autapomorphies: presence of aesthetasc on 3rd segment of female antennule; antenna strong, with endopod curved upwardly, and shape of the outermost (strongly ornamented) spine; triangular labrum; elongated corpus mandibularis, gnathobasis very long; basis of mandibular palp unarmed; elongated maxillule, with long and flexible setae on praecoxal arthrite; basis of the maxilla with strongly modified claw. To discuss the phylogenetic position of Parameiropsis, we revaluated the subfamilies of Ameiridae (viz. Ameirinae and Stenocopiinae) and the family Argestidae. Anoplosomella and Malacopsyllus revealed to be not closely related to Ameiridae and are transferred to Argestidae, sharing with other members of this family the morphology of the mandible gnathobasis, armature of maxilla and armature and length of the first segment of the antennule. Argestoides prehensilis does not show any of the characters that we consider autapomorphic for Argestidae. Instead, it shows many characters in common with several Ameiridae species. Parameiropsis does not have any character that could justify its inclusion within Ameiridae or even within Podogennonta. It also cannot be included satisfactorily within Argestidae nor Exanechentera. Therefore, we here propose a new family for Parameiropsis, with unclear relationships within Harpacticoida. After these taxonomic rearrangements, Ameiridae and Argestidae are considered monophyletic based on certain maxilla characters that we consider autapomorphic for each group. A key to the identification of the known species of Parameiropsis is added at the end.

  11. Comparacion de modelos de Educacion Sexual en el conocimiento y cambio de actitudes en practicas sexuales por alumnos de nivel superior en la region de Caguas, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of the Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD). In addition, it provides activities to increase the self-esteem, the communication and the decision making. This investigation had the intention to compare the SETM and the HBM in the increase of knowledge and change of attitudes of high risk of propagation of the STD using a validated questionnaire (Agency of the United States for the International-USAID Development), named "Endesa 2007" and, adapted to Puerto Rico by the Dra.Marta Collazo to a sample of students between the 17 and 19 years of 2 state schools of San Lorenzo, as a pretest, and, selected by convenience. Then, a 10 hours training was administered to half of the students using the SETM to STD and condom use lessons. The other half of the students received additional lessons using the HBM. Finally, both groups took the questionnaire again as a posttest. The sample of students, in average, did not reach the knowledge and basic levels of attitudes towards the STD in the pretest. This reflected 2 possible implications on the SETM. In first place, that the way in which the STD is implemented as part of the Sexual Education curriculum is inefficient. Secondly, the possibility that the acquired information or attitudes does not have permanence. Culminated the questionnaire, the HBM increase the knowledge of the STD in 0.41 points (average) over the SETM. There was not a significant difference between both models, in attitudes, implying that both models are equally effective. The findings suggests that the HBM is more effective increasing the knowledge on the STD, but equally effective than the SETM in attitude change for the Puerto Rican youth.

  12. The effects of the porous buffer layer and doping with dysprosium on internal stresses in the GaInP:Dy/por-GaAs/GaAs(100) heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Seredin, P. V.; Gordienko, N. N.; Glotov, A. V.; Zhurbina, I. A.; Domashevskaya, E. P.; Arsent'ev, I. N. Shishkov, M. V.

    2009-08-15

    In structures with a porous buffer layer, residual internal stresses caused by a mismatch between the crystal-lattice parameters of the epitaxial GaInP alloy and the GaAs substrate are redistributed to the porous layer that acts as a buffer and is conducive to disappearance of internal stresses. Doping of the epitaxial layer with dysprosium exerts a similar effect on the internal stresses in the film-substrate structure.

  13. Unanswered Questions in Colombia's Foreign Language Education Policy (Preguntas por responder en la política educativa de lenguas extranjeras en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla Carvajal, Camilo Andrés; Tejada-Sánchez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Following the trend of much of the Western, non-English speaking world, Colombia has tirelessly strived for spreading English education in an effort to augment economic benefits. This paper aims at providing a critical account of foreign language education policy in Colombia, with special attention to English. It outlines the impact of its…

  14. "¿Por qué leemos esto en la clase de español?": The Politics of Teaching Literature in Spanglish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postma, Regan L.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses what is at stake in teaching works written in "Spanglish" in Spanish departments and what teaching such works might mean for students and the scholarly community at large. This article primarily comes out of the author's experiences teaching "Spanglish" works in Spanish courses at a major research…

  15. Beneficios y riesgos de la terapia estrogénica en la menopausia varían por edad, de acuerdo con el e

    Cancer.gov

    Los datos de seguimiento a largo plazo del estudio Iniciativa para la Salud de la Mujer (WHI) proporcionan información nueva e importante sobre los posibles riesgos y beneficios de la terapia hormonal para tratar síntomas relacionadas con la menopausia.

  16. Espectroscopia de candidatos a remanescentes de aglomerados abertos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavani, D. B.; Bica, E.; Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.

    2003-08-01

    A pesquisa sobre remanescentes de aglomerados abertos tem despertado grande interesse. Seguindo esta tendência encontramos estudos teóricos e observacionais. Os primeiros baseiam-se em simulações numéricas buscando determinar fração de binárias e distâncias galatocêntricas, tempo de vida e conteúdo estelar. Estes estão relacionados à função inicial de massa e densidade de estrelas, ou seja, se ricos ou pobremente povoados, compactos ou esparsos. No caso observacional procuram-se identificar os remanescentes considerando-se que trazem estas assinaturas de seus percursores. No presente estudo empregamos espectroscopia para analisar oito concentrações pobremente povoadas, previamente classificadas como aglomerados abertos, sendo sete compactas e uma esparsa. As observações foram obtidas através do telescópio de 2,15 m do CASLEO em San Juan, Argentina, em turnos entre 2001 e 2003. Utilizamos uma câmara CCD contendo um chip Tektronics de 1024X1024 pixeis aliado a um espectrógrafo REOSC. O domínio espectral vai de 3700 a 7000 Å. As reduções foram realizadas no Observatório Astronômico de Córdoba (Argentina) usando pacotes IRAF padrões. Determinamos idades, avermelhamentos e tipos espectrais através de comparações com biblioteca de estrelas e de aglomerados. Em alguns casos nossos espectros estavam dominados por estrelas individuais às quais determinamos seus tipos espectrais. Aos oito objetos adicionamos mais cinco da literatura recente analisados via espectro ou diagrama cor-magnitude. O histograma resultante contém idades típicas entre 0.5 e 3 Ganos. Considerando que predominantemente estes objetos encontram-se na vizinhança solar e, portanto, não cruzaram muitas vezes o plano Galático esperamos que a diferença no tempo necessário para dissolução destes prováveis remanescentes seja em função de diferentes massas iniciais.

  17. Ensino de Astronomia no Ensino Médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    O presente trabalho de intervenção foi realizado junto a Escola Estadual Colônia dos Pescadores na cidade de Caraguatatuba, com três turmas do terceiro ano do Ensino Médio, envolvendo 119 alunos, 40 na turma A, 40 na turma B e 39 na turma C. A fase inicial foi composta de um questionário de vinte questões dissertativas e objetivas para diagnosticar nos educandos os conceitos prévios sobre Astronomia e, partindo destes realizar uma interferência nas classes envolvidas utilizando metodologias diferentes sendo elas: a tradicional, onde o professor é um repassador de informações, fazendo uso exclusivo de lousa e giz; a segunda também de forma tradicional, porém com auxílio de multimídia para desenvolvimento das aulas e a terceira sob forma de seminários, elaborados e apresentados pelos educandos, no qual o educador faz apenas as intervenções necessárias. Ao final do trabalho as mesmas turmas da fase inicial orientadas pelo mesmo professor responderam novamente ao questionário proposto para diagnosticar dentre as três metodologias utilizadas qual apresentou melhores resultados, sendo os iniciais comparados com os finais. Quando questionados a respeito do significado de Astronomia observou-se inicialmente que os acertos na turma A foram de 100%,turma B: 64%, turma C: 84%, após a intervenção os acertos foram: 100%, 97% e 85% respectivamente, demonstrando claramente uma absorção de conhecimentos. Quando interrogados sobre quantos planetas você acha que existem em nosso Sistema Solar? os acertos foram: turma A: 39%, turma B: 48% e turma C: 46%, após o desenvolvimento do trabalho os acertos foram 94%, 97% e 90% respectivamente.Dentro das respostas obtidas observa-se que a metodologia tradicional com o auxílio de multimeios, aplicada na turma B, demonstrou melhores resultados, foi a mais significativa.

  18. Diferentes metodologias aplicadas ao ensino de astronomia no Ensino Médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-03-01

    O presente trabalho de intervenção foi realizado junto à Escola Estadual Colònia dos Pescadores na cidade de Caraguatatuba, com très turmas do terceiro ano do Ensino Médio, envolvendo 119 alunos com idades entre 16 e 19 anos. A fase inicial foi composta de um questionário de vinte questíes dissertativas e objetivas, aplicado pelo professor titular da sala, que era o mesmo nas très turmas, para diagnosticar nos educandos os conceitos prévios sobre Astronomia e, partindo destes realizar um trabalho de intervenção nas classes envolvidas utilizando, em cada uma, metodologias diferentes: (A) sob forma de seminários, elaborados e apresentados pelos educandos, no qual o educador faz apenas as intervençíes necessárias; (B) de forma tradicional, com auxílio de multimídias para desenvolvimento das aulas e a terceira (C) tradicional, fazendo uso exclusivo de lousa e giz. Ao final do trabalho os alunos responderam novamente o questionário inicial para diagnosticar dentre as très metodologias utilizadas qual apresentou melhores aplicaçíes, os resultados iniciais foram comparados com os finais. Quando questionados a respeito do significado de Astronomia observou-se inicialmente que os acertos na turma A foram de 100%, turma B: 64%, turma C: 84%, após a intervenção os acertos foram: 100%, 97% e 85% respectivamente, demonstrando que houve um avanço significativo na turma B, a turma A manteve seu índice e a turma C evoluiu, porém não tanto quanto a B. Quando interrogados sobre quantos planetas vocè acha que existem em nosso Sistema Solar? os acertos foram: turma A: 39%, turma B: 48% e turma C: 46%, após o desenvolvimento do trabalho os acertos foram 94%, 97% e 90% respectivamente. Dentro das respostas obtidas observa-se que a metodologia tradicional com o auxílio de multimeios, aplicada na turma B, demonstrou melhores resultados, sendo a mais significativa. Outra conclusão muito importante é que apesar de o tema Astronomia ser amplamente

  19. BUDDA (Bulge/Disk Decomposition Analysis) - um novo programa para análise estrutural de galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.; Dos Anjos, S.

    2003-08-01

    Tem sido prática comum nos últimos anos estudar a distribuição de luminosidade em galáxias fazendo uso da informação contida em toda a imagem da galáxia, já que esta técnica tem se mostrado muito mais confiável do que o simples ajuste de perfis radiais de luminosidade. Através destes estudos bidimensionais, melhores resultados tem sido obtidos na análise e.g. do Plano Fundamental, de correlações entre os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias, de sub-estruturas como barras e anéis nucleares etc. Apresentamos um novo código bidimensional, o BUDDA, de análise estrutural de galáxias, que será disponibilizado para a comunidade. Desenvolvido por nós, o código determina os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias de forma prática e robusta, e pode ser aplicado genericamente em qualquer estudo sobre a formação, evolução e estrutura de galáxias. O programa ainda permite a avaliação direta de sub-estruturas, através de imagens residuais que são obtidas ao se subtrair, das imagens originais, bojo e disco sintéticos que melhor representam essas componentes da galáxia sob consideração. Será apresentada a forma de utilização do código, bem como séries de testes que atestam a sua funcionalidade. Além disso, os resultados da aplicação do código em uma amostra de 51 galáxias serão expostos como exemplo prático, e do seu enorme potencial de uso.

  20. Propriedades de estruturas temporais rápidas submilimétricas durante uma grande explosão solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, J.-P.; Kaufmann, P.; Gimenez de Castro, C. G.; Pacini, A. A.; Makhmutov, V.; Levato, H.; Rovira, M.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos novas propriedades de variações rápidas da emissão submilimétrica durante uma das maiores explosões solares do ciclo solar 23. Os dados analisados neste estudo foram obtidos com o Telescópio Solar Submilimétrico (SST), que observa o Sol em 212 GHz e 405 GHz, e comparados com emissões em Raios-X duros e Raios-gama (fótons de energia > 10 MeV), que foram obtidas pelo experimento GRS do Yohkoh. Aplicamos diferentes metodologias para detectar e caracterizar, ao longo do evento, os pulsos submilimétricos (duração de 50-300 ms) detectados acima de uma componente mais lenta (alguns minutos). Os resultados mostram que durante a fase impulsiva, num instante próximo ao tempo do máximo do evento, houve um aumento da ocorrência de maiores e de mais rápidas estruturas temporais. Também identificamos uma boa correlação com as emissões em raios-X e raios-gama (até a faixa de energia 10-100 MeV), indicando que os pulsos rápidos submilimétricos refletiram injeções primárias de energia durante o evento.O espectro do fluxo desses pulsos é crescente com a freqüência entre 212 and 405 GHz, na maioria dos casos, ao contrário do observado para a componente gradual. As posições calculadas para as estruturas rápidas são discretas, compactas e localizadas em toda a área da região ativa, o que é previsto nos modelos de explosões solares decorrentes de instabilidades múltiplas em diferentes pequenas regiões. Por outro lado, a posição calculada para a componente lenta é estável durante a fase impulsiva. Assim, a comparação entre as características do espectro de fluxo e da localização da emissão, para os pulsos rápidos e para a componente gradual, sugere que as respectivas emissões são de natureza diferente.

  1. Determinação da massa de júpiter a partir das órbitas de seus satélites: um experimento didático

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlickmann, M. S.; Saito, R. K.; Becker, D. A.; Rezende, M. F., Jr.; Cid Fernandes, R.

    2003-08-01

    Este trabalho apresenta o roteiro piloto de uma prática observacional em astronomia, junto com os primeiros resultados obtidos nesta fase de implementacão. O projeto, que será executado em duas etapas, visa introduzir noções de Astronomia a alunos do Ensino Médio e iniciantes nos cursos de Física. O experimento consiste em medir as órbitas dos satélites Galileanos e, a partir da análise dos dados coletados, verificar a validade da Lei das órbitas de Kepler, determinando a massa do planeta Júpiter. Em uma primeira etapa, as observações serão feitas utilizando um telescópio Meade LX200 10" e câmera CCD para obter uma seqüência de imagens do planeta, que possibilitará medir o movimento de seus satélites. A segunda etapa terá início a partir do funcionamento do telescópio em modo robótico, com a possibilidade de observações via internet por instituições de ensino. Para o desenvolvimento deste experimento foram inicialmente coletadas várias imagens de Júpiter obtidas com os instrumentos citados acima. Estas imagens serviram como base para confecção dos roteiros para a experiência no nível médio e superior. Os roteiros serão inicialmente apresentados em uma home-page. Nela também se buscará uma contextualização histórica da experiência bem como o estabelecimento de relações com professores e alunos, propostas metodológicas e a disponibilização dos programas computacionais necessários para a utilização "on-line" pelos usuários. O projeto conta com apoio da Fundação VITAE.

  2. Análise Temporal da Coma de CO+ no Cometa P/Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Schlosser, W.; Schmidt-Kaler, Th.

    1995-08-01

    Observações fotográficas e fotoelétricas da coma de gás ionizado do cometa P/Halley a nível de CO+ em 4250 angstroms fizeram parte do programa de Monitoramento do Halley desenvolvido pela Universidade de Bochum (Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum) na Alemanha, realizado de 17 de fevereiro a 17 de abril de 1986 no European Southern Observatory (ESO) em La Silla (Chile). Nesta faixa espectral é possível observar a contínua formação, bem como o movimento e expansão das estruturas de plasma. Para observar a morfologia destas estruturas foram analisadas 32 placas fotográficas de CO+ (placas de vidro) do cometa P/Halley. Tais placas possuem um campo de visão de 28,6 por 28,6 graus sendo obtidas entre 29 de março e 17 de abril de 1986 com tempos de exposição entre 20 e 120 minutos. Todas as placas foram digitadas com o auxílio de um microdensitômetro PDS 2020 GM (Photometric Data System) do Instituto Astronómico da Westfaelischen Wilhelms-Universitaet em Muenster, Alemanha (um pixel = 25 por 25 micrômetros correspondendo aproximadamente a 46,88 por 46,88 segundos de arco). Após a digitação os dados foram reduzidos à intensidades relativas, sendo que os posssíveis de calibração também foram reduzidos à intensidades absolutas, expressas em termos de densidade colunar utilizando-se dos sistemas de tratamento de imagens MIDAS (Munich Image Data Analysis System; ESO - Image Processing Group, 1988) e IHAP (Image Handling And Processing; Middleburg, 1983). Com o auxílio do método de teta mínimo de Stellingwerf (Stellingwerf, 1978) obteve-se um período de 2,22 +/- 0,09 dias a partir da análise de estruturas na coma de plasma através da subtração de imagens subsequentes. Este método foi comparado com o método de Fourier. Provavelmente exista um segundo ciclo com período aproximado de 3,6 dias. A idéia de subtrair imagens subsequentes é devido ao fato de que os efeitos de rotação são apenas 10% dos fenômenos de distribuição gasosa. Portanto as

  3. Incorporando a variabilidade no processo de identificação do modelo de máximo global no Grade of Membership (GoM): considerações metodológicas

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Siviero, Pamila Cristina Lima; Caetano, André Junqueira; Machado, Carla Jorge; Brondízio, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    A disponibilidade de bases de dados cada vez mais complexas e multidimensionais é um dos principais motivadores para o aumento do número de estudos que utilizam análises multivariadas baseadas em lógica de conjuntos nebulosos. Apesar da disseminação do método Grade of Membership nos trabalhos empíricos brasileiros da área de ciências sociais e saúde, questões relativas à identificabilidade e estabilidade dos parâmetros finais estimados pelo programa GoM 3.4 não foram suficientemente aprofundadas. Dada a relevância de se obterem parâmetros únicos e estáveis, Guedes et al. (2010) propuseram um procedimento empírico para localizar um modelo de máximo global (MG) com parâmetros estáveis. Entretanto, seu localizador de MG não incorpora qualquer medida de variabilidade. Neste artigo, tal limitação é contornada por meio da utilização de uma estatística de ponderação – Máximo Global Ponderado (MGP) – semelhante ao coeficiente de variação. Esse indicador busca não penalizar de forma desproporcional situações nas quais os desvios médios, apesar de diferentes de zero, são muito pequenos. Apresentam-se evidências de que o localizador MGP reduz a distância do modelo identificado à real estrutura latente dos dados em análise, quando comparados ao modelo identificado pelo localizador não ponderado, MG. PMID:23293402

  4. The history of the parathyroid surgery.

    PubMed

    Toneto, Marcelo Garcia; Prill, Shandi; Debon, Leticia Manoel; Furlan, Fernando Zucuni; Steffen, Nedio

    2016-01-01

    The authors conducted a review of the major aspects of progression of knowledge about the surgical treatment of hyperparathyroidism. Through literature review, we analyzed articles on the history of the evolution of anatomical, physiological, pathological and surgical knowledge of the parathyroid glands. Because of their unique anatomical features, the parathyroid glands were the last of the endocrine glands to be discovered, which greatly hindered proper treatment until the first decades of the twentieth century. Technological developments in the last 30 years greatly facilitated the location of the glands and hyperparathyroidism surgery. However, an experienced and dedicated surgeon is still essential to the excellence of treatment. RESUMO Os autores fizeram uma revisão dos principais aspectos históricos da progressão do conhecimento sobre o tratamento cirúrgico do hiperparatireoidismo. Por meio de revisão bibliográfica, foram analisados artigos selecionados sobre a história da evolução do conhecimento anatômico, fisiológico, patológico e cirúrgico das glândulas paratireoides. Devido às suas características anatômicas peculiares, as paratireoides foram as últimas das glândulas endócrinas a serem descobertas, o que dificultou sobremaneira seu tratamento adequado até as primeiras décadas do Século XX. A evolução tecnológica ocorrida nos últimos 30 anos facilitou sobremaneira a localização das glândulas e a cirurgia do hiperparatireoidismo. Contudo, um cirurgião experiente e dedicado ao tratamento dessa enfermidade ainda é fundamental para a excelência do tratamento. PMID:27556546

  5. A Concepção de Universo entre Alunos do Ensino Médio de São Paulo e suas Fontes de Aquisição

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, M. A. A.; Elias, D. C. N.; Amaral, L. H.; Araújo, M. S. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2006-08-01

    Nesse trabalho procurou-se identificar por meio de um questionário as concepções de Universo, de espaço e tempo que sustentam a visão de mundo de um grupo de 270 estudantes de Ensino Médio, pertencentes a três escolas de São Paulo. As questões relacionadas aos conhecimentos prévios dos estudantes permitiram constatar que há pouco conhecimento acerca dos temas investigados, destacando-se que apenas 20% dos alunos foram capazes de relacionar as semanas com as fases da lua, enquanto 28% associaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra e 23% tinham noções das distâncias entre objetos celestes próximos da Terra. Enquanto 56% conseguiram relacionar o Big Bang com a origem do Universo, verificou-se que 37% reconheciam ano-luz como unidade de distância e 60% concebiam o Sol como uma estrela. No que se refere às fontes de aquisição que proporcionaram esses conhecimentos, apesar de 60% dos alunos indicarem a escola como principal fonte dos conhecimentos de Ast! ronomia, verificou-se claramente que para a maioria dos alunos seus conceitos ainda são inadequados, havendo necessidade de aprimoramento da abordagem desses conteúdos, pois apesar de popular, a Astronomia ainda é veiculada de maneira pouco esclarecedora e com imprecisões. Nesse contexto, são discutidas algumas possíveis contribuições que podem ser dadas para o ensino de Astronomia pelo uso das ferramentas computacionais nas escolas.

  6. Populações estelares do bojo galáctico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, A. V.; Costa, R. D. D.; Maciel, W. J.

    2003-08-01

    Os estudos mais recentes do bojo galáctico têm enfocado essencialmente as abundâncias químicas de elementos pesados, como o ferro, obtidos a partir das estrelas nas regiões centrais da galáxia. Elementos leves, como hélio, nitrogênio, oxigênio e argônio ainda são pouco estudados nestas regiões, devido à difícil determinação de suas abundâncias a partir de estrelas. Nestas condições as nebulosas planetárias desempenham um importante papel, pois permitem a determinação de abundâncias destes elementos usando técnicas de espectroscopia nebular. Neste trabalho, reportamos a análise das abundâncias químicas de uma nova amostra de nebulosas planetárias do bojo, bem como os resultados preliminares de um código numérico destinado a modelar a evolução química desta região. Usamos como vínculos observacionais os resultados obtidos das nebulosas planetárias, bem como de abundâncias estelares da região do bojo, obtidas da literatura. A partir deste modelo da evolução química e dos vínculos observacionais foi possível fazer um diagnóstico mais preciso das populações que constituem o bojo galáctico. O estudo destas populações que compõem a região central de nossa galáxia é de extrema importância para o maior entendimento da evolução química e dinâmica da galáxia como um todo. Por isto, verificamos a importância dos modelos de formação simples e mista utilizados para explicar características da população da região central da galáxia. Algumas destas características são: uma grande dispersão nos valores das abundâncias químicas e um grande espalhamento nas correlações entre as abundâcias de nitrogênio e oxigênio. Estas peculiaridades são dificilmente reproduzidas por modelos de formação simples, e portanto são importantes indícios da validade dos modelos de formação mista, tais como um rápido colapso do bojo seguido de uma evolução secular. (FAPESP, CNPq)

  7. A causa das estações do ano: modelos mentais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Campos, J. A. S.; de Araujo, J. F. S.

    2003-08-01

    A década de 70 do século passado foi marcada pelo estudo das concepções alternativas que os alunos trazem para a sala de aula. A identificação destas concepções foi o ponto de partida para promover a mudança conceitual, onde as pré-concepções seriam trocadas pelas concepções científicas. Na década seguinte, surgiram muitas propostas de estratégias educacionais para facilitar esta troca, na sua maioria baseadas na idéia do conflito cognitivo, proposta por Piaget. Entretanto, os resultados pouco animadores conduziram à percepção de que a mudança conceitual é um processo mais complexo. Pelas idéias da Ciência Cognitiva, a mudança conceitual é uma mudança progressiva dos modelos mentais que o aluno tem sobre o mundo físico, através de enriquecimento e revisão. A causa das Estações do Ano é um tópico sobre o qual a maioria dos estudantes apresenta concepções alternativas. Os autores fizeram um levantamento sobre as pré-concepções encontradas em trabalhos sobre o tema (16 referências), procurando encontrar elementos comuns que indicassem a presença de modelos mentais específicos. As pré-concepções encontradas na literatura foram obtidas usando-se diversas metodologias (desde entrevistas clínicas até questionários de múltipla escolha) e envolvendo alunos e professores de diferentes regiões geográficas. A partir de uma análise aprofundada de cada trabalho, e utilizando-se a técnica das Redes Sistêmicas, chegou-se a conclusão que as diversas pré-concepções identificadas (em torno de 50), poderiam ser representadas por 6 modelos mentais, onde a explicação da causa das estações do ano tem um mecanismo causal responsável. Os mecanismos causais identificados foram: a dependência da distância, a dependência da orientação, a dependência conjunta da distância e orientação, a dependência da obstrução, a dependência da velocidade e a dependência da inclinação dos raios solares. Foram ainda identificadas

  8. Abundância química de simbióticas na direção do bojo galáctico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, G. J. M.; Costa, R. D. D.

    2003-08-01

    O estudo da distribuição de metalicidades de gigantes K no Bojo indica um largo intervalo com valores entre 0.1 a 10 vezes o valor solar. As razões elementais Ca/Fe, Si/Fe, Mg/Fe são típicas de estrelas do halo, apontando para um processo rápido de enriquecimento, via estrelas masssivas (SN's tipo II). No entanto, este cenário não combina com os resultados derivados de nebulosas planetárias do bojo tais como os de Ratag et al. (1992, A&A,255,270), Cuisinier et al.(2000, A&A,353, 543), Escudero e Costa (2001, A&A,380, 300),que obtêm abundâncias análogas às do disco. Neste cenário, o estudo de estrelas simbióticas possibilita uma abordagem particularmente apropriada para o problema das abundâncias químicas de estrelas de massa intermediária em estágios avançados da evoluçao estelar. Apresentamos aqui os resultados da determinacão das abundâncias do grupo do CNO numa extensa amostra de simbióticas do bojo. Aliás, com a disponibilidade de espectros no visível determinamos também abundâncias de Ar, Ne, S e He, fundamentais para analisar os processos de enriquecimento químico ocorridos ao longo da evolução estelar, bem como a evolução química do meio interestelar. Com os espectros UV do satelite IUE obtivemos abundâncias de C, necessárias no estudo da evolução dos sistemas. As relaçoes C/N-O/N mostram que o material nebular é produto do vento da componente gigante e não dos eventos de nova que às vezes acontecem nestes sistemas, como foi mostrado por Nussbaumer et al (1988,A&A,198,179). As abundâncias de Ar, S, Ne e O são compativeis com resultados de fontes no disco e bojo, seguindo o gradiente proposto por muitos autores na literatura a partir de diferentes objetos como cefeidas, nebulosas planetárias e anãs G. (CAPES,FAPESP,CNPq)

  9. Abundâncias em estrelas de Bário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. M.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas de Bário apresentam linhas intensas de elementos produzidos pelo processos (ex: Ba, Y, Sr, Zr) e bandas intensas de CN, C2 e CH. A hipótese mais aceita sobre a origem deste grupo peculiar é a de que essas estrelas façam parte de sistemas binários, tendo recebido material enriquecido em elementos pesados da companheira mais evoluída. Apresentamos neste trabalho uma análise detalhada de uma amostra de estrelas desta classe, incluindo determinação de parâmetros atmosféricos e cálculo de abundâncias. As temperaturas efetivas foram determinadas a partir de dados fotométricos obtidos com o Fotrap instalado no telescópio Zeiss do LNA (Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica) (B-V, V-I, R-I, V-R), e coletados na literatura nos catálogos Hipparcos (B-V), 2MASS (Two Micron All Sky Survey) (V-K) e The General Catalogue Photometric Data (sistema Geneva). Obtivemos uma faixa de temperaturas de 4400 £ Tef £ 6500. As metalicidades foram determinadas a partir de linhas de Fe I e Fe II, estando os resultados no intervalo -1 £ [Fe/H] £ +0.1. O log g foi determinado pelo equilíbrio de ionização e pela relação com a magnitude bolométrica, a temperatura e a massa, sendo os resultados na faixa 1.5 £ log g £ 4.5. As distâncias utilizadas foram determinadas com o auxílio das paralaxes Hipparcos, e as massas determinadas por modelos de isócronas. Os espectros utilizados foram obtidos com o espectrógrafo FEROS no Telescópio de 1,5m do ESO (European Southern Observatory). As abundâncias foram calculadas por meio de síntese espectral de linhas individuais incluindo elementos alfa, pico do Fe, s e r. Encontramos um excesso de elementos pesados em relação ao Fe, como esperado para estrelas de Bário.

  10. TECNOLOGÍAS DE INFORMACIÓN Y COMUNICACIÓN PARA LA PREVENCIÓN Y CONTROL DE LA INFECCIÓN POR EL VIH Y OTRAS ITS*

    PubMed Central

    Curioso, Walter H.; Blas, Magaly M.; Kurth, Ann E.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Avances tecnológicos innovadores como Internet, computadoras personales de bolsillo, teléfonos celulares y otros equipos son un arsenal en crecimiento en el esfuerzo de impedir y controlar el VIH y otras infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS). A pesar que existe una diversidad de tecnologías de información y comunicación en diferentes etapas de desarrollo para la prevención del VIH e ITS, la investigación en esta área se encuentra aún en crecimiento, y el impacto en la incidencia de enfermedad, las evaluaciones con diseños rigurosos y los estudios económicos todavía son muy limitados. Sin embargo, algunas de estas evidencias son prometedoras y poseen un gran potencial para su uso en nuestro medio. En este artículo hemos realizado una revisión sistemática de la literatura relacionada con el uso de la tecnología aplicada a la prevención y control del VIH e ITS. De ser usada apropiadamente, esta tecnología podría mejorar la vigilancia del VIH y otras ITS, diagnóstico, notificación de parejas, prevención, manejo clínico, y capacitación de profesionales de la salud. PMID:26339254

  11. Encouraging Students to Enhance Their Listening Performance (Cómo animar a los estudiantes para que mejoren su desempeño en comprensión oral por sí mismos)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández-Ocampo, Sonia Patricia; Vargas, Sonia Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Spanish-speaking students constantly complain about the difficulty they have comprehending spoken English. It seems teachers do not often provide them with strategies to alleviate that. This article reports on a pedagogical experience carried out at a Colombian university to help pre-service teachers at an intermediate level of English to improve…

  12. About to Graduate from High School? Consider Career Education Opportunities. EdSource Student/Parent Guide = Estas por graduarte de la escuela preparatoria? Considera oportunidades para seguir tu educacion de carrera. EdSource guia de estudiantes y padres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Getting a sound education is important to a student's ability to make a good living in a field they will enjoy. For many students graduating from high school, that includes high quality career technical (or vocational) education tailored to a specific job. In California, such programs are available in a wide range of fields, from healthcare to the…

  13. Fields without Borders: An Anthology of Documentary Writing and Photography by Student Action with Farmworkers' Interns = Campos sin Fronteras: Una Antologia de Obras Escritas y Fotografia por Estudiantes Internos de Accion Estudiantil con Trabajadores Agricolas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manly, Libby, Ed.; Okie, Alejandra, Ed.; Wiggins, Melinda, Ed.

    In this booklet, essays and poems, presented both in English and in Spanish, portray the feelings, conditions, and economic plight of migrant and seasonal farmworkers in North and South Carolina, often in their own words. A preface describes Student Action with Farmworkers summer internships in which college students spend 10 weeks working with…

  14. The Latinas' Guide to the Information Superhighway: A Bilingual Guide for Latinas by Latinas = Guia para Mujeres Latinas sobre la Supercarretera de la Informacion: Una Guia Bilingue para Latinas por medio de Latinas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANA, A National Latina Organization, Washington, DC.

    This guide to the Internet is designed to give Latinas basic information on computers and the information superhighway. Written in both Spanish and English, the guide begins by defining the Internet and making some suggestions about acquiring access to a computer. Among the topics discussed are how to choose an Internet service provider, how to…

  15. Por Que Rosa No Es Valiente? Cuarto Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental (Why Isn't Rosie Brave? Fourth Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide in English and Spanish provides teachers with methods for identifying textbook bias and stereotyping. A pre-test and post-test designed to measure awareness of textbook stereotypes are included. Four object lessons discuss the function of repetition, cumulative effect, omission, and distortion in reinforcing stereotypes, especially…

  16. Por Que Mami No Puede Cambiar una Goma? Tercer Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental. (Why Can't Mommy Change a Flat Tire? Third Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide for teachers, in English and Spanish, examines the role parents play in the socialization of sex roles. A pre-test and post test are included to measure the user's awareness of sexual stereotyping. Five object lessons cover the following topics: (1) stereotypes which exist prior to a baby's birth; (2) behavioral standards on which…

  17. Viajando por la Carretera de la Educacion Especial: Una Guia para los Padres para Tener un Viaje Feliz y Seguro (Traveling the Special Education Highway: A Parent's Guide to a Safe and Happy Journey).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Maria, Karen

    Designed for Spanish-speaking parents, this brochure, written in Spanish, uses a car-trip analogy to describe special education services for students with disabilities. It addresses: (1) child find; (2) initial evaluation and eligibility determination; (3) categories of students who receive special education services and related services; (4)…

  18. Guiandose por la Intrincada Senda de la Educacion Especial: Una Guia para Padres y Maestros. Tercera Edicion. (Negotiating the Special Education Maze: A Guide for Parents & Teachers. Third Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Winifred; Chitwood, Stephen; Hayden, Deidre

    Designed to assist Spanish-speaking parents and teachers in understanding special education procedures, this book describes the process for obtaining school services for children with disabilities. An introduction reviews six major provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that relate to children's rights to a free,…

  19. Less and Less for More and More. Economic Organization Booklet 1. Teacher's Edition=Menos y menos por mas y mas. Organizacion economica libro 1. Manual para El Maestro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. National Dissemination and Assessment Center.

    The booklet is part of a grade 10-12 social studies series produced for bilingual education. The series consists of six major thematic modules, with four to five booklets in each. The interdisciplinary modules are based on major ideas and are designed to help students understand some major human problems and make sound, responsive decisions to…

  20. VISIÓN GENERAL DE LA EVALUACIÓN DEL RIESGO EN SALUD INFANTIL EMPLEANDO UN ENFOQUE POR ETAPAS DE DESARROLLO (American translation is: Overview of a Life Stage Approach to Children's Health Risk Assessment)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  1. Ingestion Reiterada de Cuerpos Extranos. Forma Inusual de Presentacion del Sindrome de Munchausen por Poderes (Reiterated Ingestion of Foreign Bodies. Unusual Form of Presentation of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terreros, I. Gomez de; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An unusual case of Munchausen syndrome by proxy is reported. A mother with a psychiatric record of behavior disorders and family dysfunction perpetrated the ingestion of foreign bodies (for example, earrings, a screw, sewing needles) on a 10-month-old infant with a history of prematurity, repeated visits to emergency rooms, and nonjustified…

  2. John Tracy Clinic: Programa de Ensenanza por Correspondencia para Los Padres de Ninos Sordo-Ciegos de Edad Preescolar (John Tracy Clinic Correspondence Learning Program for Parents of Preschool Deaf-Blind Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thielman, Virginia B.; And Others

    Written in Spanish, the document contains a correspondence learning program for parents of deaf blind preschoolers. An introductory section gives preliminary instructions, an introduction to sign language, and a list of resources for deaf blind children. Twelve lessons follow with information on: the parent's role in teaching the child, visual…

  3. The comparison of algorithms for key points extraction in simplification of hybrid digital terrain models. (Polish Title: Porównanie algorytmów ekstrakcji punktów istotnych w upraszczaniu numerycznych modeli terenu o strukturze hybrydowej)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakuła, K.

    2014-12-01

    The presented research concerns methods related to reduction of elevation data contained in digital terrain model (DTM) from airborne laser scanning (ALS) in hydraulic modelling. The reduction is necessary in the preparation of large datasets of geospatial data describing terrain re lief. Its course should not be associated with regular data filtering, which o ften occurs in practice. Such a method leads to a number of important forms important for hydraulic modeling being missed. One of the proposed solutions for the reduction of elevation data contained in DTM is to change the regular grid into the hybrid structure with regularly distributed points and irregularly located critical points. The purpose of this paper is to compare algorithms for extracting these key points from DTM. They are used in hybrid mod el generation as a part of elevation data reduction process that retains DTM accuracy and reduces the size of output files. In experiments, the following algorithms were tested: Topographic Position Index (TPI), Very Important Points (VIP) and Z - tolerance. Their effectiveness in reduction (maintaining the accuracy and reducing datasets) was evaluated in respect to input DTM from ALS. The best results were obtained for the Z - tolerance algorithm, but they do not diminish the capabilities of the other two algorithms: VIP and TPI which can generalize DTM quite well. The results confirm the possibility of obtaining a high degree of reduction reaching only a few percent of the input data with a relatively low decrease of vertical DTM accuracy to a few centimetres.

  4. Engaging Foreign Language Learners in a Web 2.0-Mediated Collaborative Learning Process (Inclusión de estudiantes de lenguas extranjeras en procesos colaborativos de aprendizaje mediados por la web 2.0)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote Parra, Gabriel Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this action research was to explore the types of interactions that foreign language learners experience while using a wiki as a supporting tool for a face-to-face research course. This design allowed me to play a dual role: first, I studied my own classroom setting and students. Second, I implemented a pedagogical intervention based…

  5. 30 years later: Social Representations about AIDS and sexual practices of rural towns residents.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Francisca Marina de Souza Freire; Santos, José Anderson Galdino; Loredanna, Stedile; Araújo, Eunice; Saldanha, Ana Alayde Werba; Silva, Josevânia da

    2016-06-01

    no estado da Paraíba/Brasil. Os dados foram coletados por um meio de um questionário e o teste de associação livre de palavras. Os resultados mostraram baixa preocupação com doença, percepção de invulnerabilidade à contaminação pelo HIV e o não uso do preservativo nas relações sexuais, sendo a confiança no parceiro o principal motivo relacionado. Também mostraram perdurar representações de natureza pejorativa e estereotipada, revelando que ainda perduram, no meio rural, crenças e representações referentes ao início da epidemia. A partir de tais achados, é possível apontar deficiências em termos de cuidados oferecidos pelos serviços de saúde nestas localidades, o que pode resultar em maiores vulnerabilidades dessa população ao adoecimento, havendo assim a necessidade da intensificação de campanhas de informação e intervenção. PMID:27384279

  6. Education Through Aerospace Components. (Spanish Title: Educación Através de Elementos Aeroespaciales.) Educação Através de Elementos Aeroespaciais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa Loureda, Oswaldo; Sobral de Araújo, Jéssyca B.

    2008-12-01

    tal, dispõe-se de diversos métodos e meios que vêm implantar idéias em prol do avanço do povo brasileiro nos aspectos pedagógicos, psicológicos e culturais. Alfabetizar é um ato que exige muito cuidado e responsabilidade; o comportamento e desempenho de um indivíduo na sociedade é resultado da maneira com que ele foi instruído. Contudo, a área de exatas exige especial atenção, pois os conhecimentos adquiridos são imprescindíveis para o desenvolvimento pessoal do individuo, assim como para o futuro tecnológico do País. Como meio alternativo ou complementar de ensino é sugerido o uso de elementos aeroespaciais, devido ao fato de comportar uma vasta quantidade e qualidade de disciplinas envolvidas respectivamente com competências de grande importância para sua vida profissional futura. Uma nova Corrida acontece, porém dessa vez a meta não é a Lua e sim o conhecimento.

  7. Fotometria diferencial de estrelas T Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P. C. R.; Santos-Júnior, J. M.; Cruz, W. S.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados preliminares de um monitoramento de estrelas jovens, que pretende ser de longa duração. As estrelas estão em sua maioria localizadas no complexo Lupus-Scorpius. Nosso objetivo principal é o estudo da variabilidade em escalas de tempo de minutos até vários dias para estrelas cujos períodos não estão determinados ou apresentam discrepâncias entre diferentes publicações. A técnica utilizada foi a fotometria diferencial, com exposições de 60s e 90s, com as câmaras CCD SBIG ST7E e ST8E acopladas aos telescópios Schmidt-Cassegrain LX200 (10 e 12 polegadas), instalados na Fundação Planetário da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Os primeiros resultados indicam que a técnica é bastante sólida com relação à instabilidade na transparência do céu, mesmo com o uso de telescópios de pequeno porte. Objetos de magnitude 14, no telescópio de 10 polegadas, apresentam dispersões na diferença de magnitudes das comparações, em torno de 0,008mag nas exposições de 60s. Note-se, ainda, que a dispersão pode ser melhorada utilizando-se a técnica de soma de imagens. Destacamos AK Sco, GW Lup, GQ Lup e TW Hya. AK Sco é uma binária que, apesar de ter a sua órbita e período cobertos espectroscopicamente (13,6dias), nunca teve seus eclipses estudados por meio de fotometria. GW Lup não tem período determinado na literatura. Temos acompanhado este objeto há alguns anos, e sugestões de períodos entre 5 e 6 dias têm sido encontradas. O objeto que mereceu maior atenção foi TW Hya por apresentar vários trabalhos fotométricos e espectroscópicos com resultados discrepantes quanto ao período rotacional, que varia de 1,8 a 4,4 dias (Rucinsky & Krautter 1983, A&A 121, 217; Herbst & Koret 1988, AJ 96, 1949; Mekkaden 1988, A&A 340, 135; Batalha et al. 2002, ApJ 580, 343). Dedicamos 13 noites para essa estrela, totalizando cerca de 2.000 pontos na curva de luz. Nossos dados indicam a presença de uma modulação com dois

  8. Evolution of the Astronomy Concepts Along Basic Education Cycle. (Breton Title: Evolução dos Conceitos de Astronomia no Decorrer da Educação Básica.) La Evolución de los Conceptos de Astronomía Durante la Educación Básica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Becker da Rosa, Álvaro; Samudio Pèrez, Carlos Ariel

    2014-07-01

    learning of astronomy in basic education. Embora a astronomia seja considerada uma das ciências mais antigas da humanidade e ainda que a compreensão de seus conceitos tenha trazido enormes avanços para a Ciência e, consequentemente, para a sociedade, observa-se que uma parcela significativa de pessoas encontra-se à margem desses conhecimentos. De acordo com os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Básica, cabe à escola a difusão dos conceitos cientificamente corretos, entre eles os relacionados à área de astronomia. Pertinente a essa questão, apresenta-se uma pesquisa realizada com 140 estudantes do nono ano do ensino fundamental e com 120 estudantes da terceira série do ensino médio de quatro escolas da região de Passo Fundo/RS. Buscou-se averiguar, por meio de um questionário composto de questões abertas e de múltipla escolha, o conhecimento desse grupo de estudantes acerca de termos e fenômenos astronômicos básicos e, também, verificar se o índice de acertos cresce à medida que eles avançam nas diferentes e gradativas séries dos ensinos fundamental e médio. De modo geral, os resultados apresentados demonstram que o ensino de astronomia na educação básica enfrenta deficiências. Das 20 questões investigadas, em 17 os índices de acertos são semelhantes nas respostas dadas por estudantes de nível fundamental e médio, revelando que muitas concepções equivocadas permanecem ao longo da educação básica. Isso evidencia que tais temas não são - ou são pouco - abordados durante esses dois níveis de escolarização. Assim, conclui-se que a discussão dos conceitos relacionados com a astronomia deve receber maior ênfase na abordagem dos diferentes conteúdos, sendo necessária uma ação nacional em prol do seu ensino. Acredita-se que essa ação nacional deve estar apoiada em um pilar triplo de atores coletivos: comunidade científica, comunidade astronômica semiprofissional e comunidade escolar. Por fim, esse pilar seria

  9. Física e Arte nas Estações do Ano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessôa Queiroz, Glória; da Conceição Barbosa Lima, Maria; Navarro Vasconcellos das Mercês, Maria

    2004-12-01

    The paper deals with the subject of the Four Seasons, exploring elements of Science and the Art in order to motivate students or public of museums of science and technology to understand it from their current cultural experiences and of old times. Physics joins to Astronomy to explain the phenomenon, while the use of Music and Painting make possible the immersion in the subject in way to many trips to the imagination capable to awake emotions.A proposal didactic is presented and justified for some consensus of the research in the area of teaching-learning of science, since that related to the persistent alternative conceptions concerning the causes of the changes observed at the different times of the year until the qualitative modelling of phenomena that appeals three-dimensional pedagogical models. Such proposal was developed in the activity named " Hiper interesting Talk: The Four Seasons, Science and Art" in the first Sunday of August/2003 in the Museum of Astronomy, MAST. O artigo trata do tema das Estações do Ano, explorando elementos da Ciência e da Arte como forma de motivar estudantes ou público de museus de ciência e tecnologia a compreendê-lo a partir de vivências culturais atuais e de outras épocas. A Física se junta à Astronomia para explicar o fenômeno, enquanto a Música e a Pintura possibilitam a imersão no tema em meio a muitas viagens à imaginação capazes de despertar emoções.Uma proposta didática é apresentada e justificada por consensos das muitas pesquisas na área de ensino-aprendizagem de ciências, desde os que se referem às persistentes concepções alternativas acerca das causas das mudanças observadas nas diferentes épocas do ano até à modelagem qualitativa de fenômenos que recorre a modelos pedagógicos tridimensionais. Tal proposta foi desenvolvida na atividade "Bate papo Hiperinteressante: As Quatro Estações, Ciência e Arte" realizada no primeiro domingo do mês de agosto de 2003 no Museu de Astronomia.

  10. Cosmoeducação: uma proposta para o ensino de astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, L. A. L.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Entende-se por cosmoeducação o desenvolvimento vivencial da unidade homem-cosmo. Este conceito é norteado pela psicologia transpessoal, que estuda o ser humano em sua totalidade, onde suas relações ecológicas e cósmicas são de grande importância. Constata-se uma necessidade latente no ser humano moderno em resgatar uma relação holística com o Universo. Neste trabalho exploramos meios de cultivar a consciência de que o ser humano constitui parte integrante do cosmo e se relaciona com este com o objetivo de promover em si uma percepção ambiental mais ampla. Nossa hipótese de trabalho inicial foi que o ensino de conteúdos básicos em astronomia realizado através de uma abordagem holística, que incorpore práticas vivenciais correlacionadas àqueles conteúdos, pode despertar no indivíduo sua identidade cósmica. O método que utilizamos é o fenomenológico e o universo desta pesquisa é um grupo de estudantes da disciplina de Astronomia (Curso de Licenciatura em Geografia/UFRN), onde realizamos observação participante, entrevistas, depoimentos e as práticas vivenciais mencionadas. Neste caso estamos desenvolvendo e adaptando exercícios de algumas técnicas terapêuticas de psicologia transpessoal, que um de nós (LALM) tem aplicado no contexto clínico, para trabalhar aspectos cognitivos envolvidos naquele processo de conscientização cósmica. Resultados parciais claramente referendam a hipótese inicial. Um resultado a destacar é fruto de uma dinâmica de representação corporal interiorizada do eclipse lunar, envolvendo um pequeno grupo daqueles estudantes, na qual conteúdos míticos afloraram de maneira espontânea e contundente para todos, sugerindo ressonância, ou pelo menos isomorfismo, entre o macro e o microcosmo. Este e outros resultados são discutidos em detalhe neste trabalho. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP).

  11. Análise sobre o Conhecimento de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo sobre Termos e Fenômenos Astronômicos do Cotidiano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    Embora os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCN-EM) e as orientações complementares a esses Parâmetros (PCN+) apontem a importância de uma abordagem significativa de conceitos relacionados à astronomia nas aulas de Física, muitos estudantes terminam o Ensino Médio (EM) sem compreender a razão de certos acontecimentos de origem celeste, ainda que estes façam parte de seu cotidiano. Este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar os conhecimentos básicos em astronomia dos alunos de EM da escola estadual Batista Renzi, bem como investigar os meios através dos quais estes conhecimentos foram adquiridos. Para tanto foi elaborado um questionário de múltipla escolha aplicado a 310 alunos distribuídos entre as três séries do EM dos períodos matutino e noturno. Dessa forma, observou-se que apenas 34,5% relacionaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra, 21,3% indicaram a influência gravitacional da Lua e do Sol como responsáveis pelo fenômeno das marés, 24,5% indicaram corretamente quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, 36,1% identificaram ano-luz como uma medida de distância e 34,2% reconheceram uma estrela cadente como meteoro. Em contrapartida, 67,1% compreendiam a sucessão entre dia e noite, 73,9% identificaram o Sol como estrela e 52,3% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo. Além disso, foram comparadas as respostas de alunos de diferentes séries e períodos, observando-se, dentre outras coisas, que os estudantes do terceiro ano apresentam um percentual de acertos semelhante ao dos alunos do primeiro, caracterizando que a abordagem de tópicos relacionados à astronomia no EM não tem contribuído para uma maior compreensão dos fenômenos e conceitos.

  12. Uma Visão do Universo Segundo um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, D. S.; Araújo, M.; Amaral, L. H.; Voelzke, M. R.; Araújo, M.

    2005-08-01

    A astronomia, embora seja uma ciência popular, com inúmeras descobertas de interesse público, ainda é apresentada desconsiderando-se os aspectos históricos e científicos relacionados ao seu desenvolvimento, sendo geralmente veiculada nos meios de comunicação de maneira pouco esclarecedora e não raro com imprecisões. Neste trabalho analisou-se a concepção de um grupo de estudantes de Ensino Médio sobre conceitos de astronomia, visando identificar sua visão de mundo a respeito do Universo, envolvendo idéias sobre espaço e tempo. Para issso, foi aplicado um questionário em três escolas da grande São Paulo em um espaço amostral de 270 alunos. Constatou-se que, embora o ensino de astronomia esteja previsto nos PCNEM, os resultados obtidos na pesquisa mostram que há grande deficiência no conhecimento dos temas investigados. Nesse sentido, verificou-se que apenas 20% dos alunos eram capazes de relacionar a sucessão das semanas com as fases da lua, enquanto 28% associaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra. Por outro lado, somente 23% dos alunos tinham noções das distâncias entre os objetos celestes próximos da Terra e 56% conseguiram relacionar o Big Bang com a origem do Universo. Finalmente, constatou-se que 37% reconheciam o ano-luz como uma unidade de distância e 60% reconheciam o Sol como sendo uma estrela. Apesar de 60% dos alunos indicarem que a escola é a principal fonte para aquisição dos conhecimentos de astronomia, conclui-se que seus conceitos nessa área ainda são inadequados, havendo necessidade de ampliação e aprimoramento da abordagem desses conteúdos nos ambientes escolares.

  13. Changing dietary habits among Akwen Xerente.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Tatiana Evangelista da Silva; Silva, Reijane Pinheiro da; Nascimento, Maira Messias do

    2016-06-01

    The research aimed to identify the current feed of Xerente people in Indian villages Porteira and Funil in the city of Tocantinia / TO. It was used a qualitative ethnographic approach. Conducted from September 2013 to August 2014. The data were presented in a diary, through participant observation of food practices with the guidance of a script. A process of dietary change that permeates the culture of this people is taking place. Factors such as the deficit in the planting gardens, the recent arrival of energy, and therefore the technology has allowed access to processed foods. But some families still maintain the farming of cassava, yam, and beans. The main animals that are hunted in the village are peccary, deer and armadillo. It was possible to point which foods are inserted in the Xerente feed and factors related to this situation. A pesquisa objetivou identificar a alimentação atual do povo Xerente, nas aldeias indígenas Porteira e Funil, no município de Tocantínia / TO. Utilizou-se uma abordagem etnográfica qualitativa. Realizada entre setembro de 2013 a agosto de 2014. Os dados foram descritos através de um diário de campo, por meio da observação das práticas alimentares com a orientação de um roteiro. Está ocorrendo um processo de mudança alimentar na cultura deste povo. Fatores como o déficit no plantio das roças, a chegada da energia, e consequentemente a tecnologia, permitiu o acesso a alimentos industrializados. Mas algumas famílias ainda mantem o cultivo de mandioca, inhame, feijão andu. Os principais animais que são caçados na aldeia são caititu, veado e tatu. Foi possível encontrar a presença de alimentos industrializados inseridos na alimentação do Xerente e isso tem provocado alterações nos hábitos desse povo. PMID:27384282

  14. Forms of Appropriation of Tools for the Astronomy Education in Continuous Training of Teachers. (Spanish Title: Formas de Apropriación de Herramientas Para la Enseñanza de la Astronomía en la Formación Docente Continua.) Formas de Apropriação de Instrumentos Para o Ensino de Astronomia na Formação Continuada de Professores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques Soares, Leonardo; Sousa Nascimento, Silvania

    2012-07-01

    siete relatos. O objetivo principal desse artigo é apresentar algumas reflexões sobre a maneira como um grupo de professores se apropriaram dos instrumentos do KIT PARA O ENSINO DE ASTRONOMIA (KITPEA). Os sujeitos dessa pesquisa participaram do curso de especialização em ensino de astronomia oferecido pelo Projeto de Formação Continuada (Foco) no Centro de Ensino de Ciências e Matemática (CECIMIG) da Faculdade de Educação da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (FaE/UFMG). Coletamos as informações por meio de um questionário e de uma entrevista, aplicados a esses professores. Estruturamos a análise dessas informações com a ajuda da Teoria da Atividade e da Teoria da Ação Mediada. Interpretamos as falas dos professores usando como dispositivo analítico os elementos constituintes do sistema de atividade e os conceitos de apropriação e domínio. Dentre os 11 sujeitos que participaram da pesquisa, foi possível identificar a apropriação dos instrumentos em 7 narrativas.

  15. Qual o Papel da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    É amplamente reconhecido que as pessoas em geral têm grande fascínio e interesse pela Astronomia. Por outro lado, o conteúdo dessa área incluído no ensino formal está longe de ser abrangente e suficiente para suprir a demanda. Esse interesse permite aperfeiçoar a divulgação e o ensino não formal de Astronomia através da mídia aliando a adequação do conteúdo à expectativa das pessoas. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros tem introduzido Astronomia desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1180 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um formulário contendo questões que abordavam conhecimentos básicos em Astronomia, como foram adquiridos tais conhecimentos e à infra-estrutura da escola. Para 66,1% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de Astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 54,4% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 18,4% através da televisão e 27,1% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, livros didáticos, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio no meio em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia busca não somente sua difusão, mas a disponibilização desse conhecimento de maneira correta, que às vezes, não é atingido, apresentando conceitos sem fundamentação e incorretos. Por outro lado, no dia-a-dia escolar, é comum encontrar professores que vêm para as aulas com concepções prévias, que podem diferir substancialmente das idéias a serem ensinadas, dificultando o aprendizado de futuros conceitos científicos. Uma avaliação criteriosa, avaliando as dificuldades dos professores em determinar o sentido correto dos conceitos e observando a metodologia que utilizam no ensino, poderá proporcionar uma melhor

  16. Value of the Qrs-T Angle in Predicting the Induction of Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias in Patients with Chagas Disease.

    PubMed

    Zampa, Hugo Bizetto; Moreira, Dalmo Ar; Ferreira Filho, Carlos Alberto Brandão; Souza, Charles Rios; Menezes, Camila Caldas; Hirata, Henrique Seichii; Armaganijan, Luciana Vidal

    2014-10-28

    .95; CI 0.99-15.82; p = 0.052). The EF also emerged as a predictor of induction of VT / VF: for each point increase in EF, there was a 4% reduction in the rate of sustained ventricular arrhythmia on EPS. Conclusions: Changes in the QRS-T angle and decreases in EF were associated with an increased risk of induction of VT / VF on EPS.Fundamento: O ângulo QRS-T mostra correlação com prognóstico em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca e doença coronariana, traduzido por um aumento na mortalidade proporcional ao aumento na diferença entre os eixos do complexo QRS e da onda T no plano frontal. Até hoje, nenhuma informação a este respeito foi obtida em pacientes com cardiopatia chagásica. Objetivo: Correlacionar o ângulo QRS-T com a indução de taquicardia ventricular / fibrilação ventricular (TV / FV) em chagásicos durante estudo eletrofisiológico (EEF). Métodos: Estudo caso-controle em centro terciário. Pacientes sem indução de TV / FV ao EEF foram utilizados como controles. O ângulo QRS-T foi categorizado como normal (0-105º), limítrofe (105-135º) e anormal (135-180º). As diferenças entre os grupos foram analisadas pelo teste t ou teste de Mann-Whitney para variáveis contínuas, e teste exato de Fisher ou qui-quadrado para variáveis categóricas. Valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados significativos. Resultados: De 116 pacientes submetidos ao EEF, 37,9% foram excluídos por estarem com dados incompletos / prontuários inativos ou pela impossibilidade de se calcular corretamente o ângulo QRS-T (presença de bloqueio de ramo esquerdo e fibrilação atrial). De 72 pacientes incluídos, 31 induziram TV / FV ao EEF. Destes, o ângulo QRS-T se encontrava normal em 41,9%, limítrofe em 12,9% e anormal em 45,2%. No grupo de pacientes sem indução de TV / FV, o ângulo QRS-T se encontrava normal em 63,4%, limítrofe em 14,6% e anormal em 17,1% (p = 0,04). Quando comparados aos pacientes com ângulo QRS-T normal, o risco de indução de TV / FV nos

  17. A protein secretion system linked to bacteroidete gliding motility and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Naito, Mariko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shoji, Mikio; McBride, Mark J; Rhodes, Ryan G; Nakayama, Koji

    2010-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes strong proteases called gingipains that are implicated in periodontal pathogenesis. Protein secretion systems common to other Gram-negative bacteria are lacking in P. gingivalis, but several proteins, including PorT, have been linked to gingipain secretion. Comparative genome analysis and genetic experiments revealed 11 additional proteins involved in gingipain secretion. Six of these (PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorW, and Sov) were similar in sequence to Flavobacterium johnsoniae gliding motility proteins, and two others (PorX and PorY) were putative two-component system regulatory proteins. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that porK, porL, porM, porN, porP, porT, and sov were down-regulated in P. gingivalis porX and porY mutants. Disruption of the F. johnsoniae porT ortholog resulted in defects in motility, chitinase secretion, and translocation of a gliding motility protein, SprB adhesin, to the cell surface, providing a link between a unique protein translocation system and a motility apparatus in members of the Bacteroidetes phylum. PMID:19966289

  18. A protein secretion system linked to bacteroidete gliding motility and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Keiko; Naito, Mariko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shoji, Mikio; McBride, Mark J.; Rhodes, Ryan G.; Nakayama, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes strong proteases called gingipains that are implicated in periodontal pathogenesis. Protein secretion systems common to other Gram-negative bacteria are lacking in P. gingivalis, but several proteins, including PorT, have been linked to gingipain secretion. Comparative genome analysis and genetic experiments revealed 11 additional proteins involved in gingipain secretion. Six of these (PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorW, and Sov) were similar in sequence to Flavobacterium johnsoniae gliding motility proteins, and two others (PorX and PorY) were putative two-component system regulatory proteins. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that porK, porL, porM, porN, porP, porT, and sov were down-regulated in P. gingivalis porX and porY mutants. Disruption of the F. johnsoniae porT ortholog resulted in defects in motility, chitinase secretion, and translocation of a gliding motility protein, SprB adhesin, to the cell surface, providing a link between a unique protein translocation system and a motility apparatus in members of the Bacteroidetes phylum. PMID:19966289

  19. Differential Regulation of Duplicate Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductases in the Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    PubMed Central

    Hunsperger, Heather M.; Cattolico, Rose Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background Diatoms (Bacilliariophyceae) encode two light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (POR1 and POR2) that catalyze the penultimate step of chlorophyll biosynthesis in the light. Algae live in dynamic environments whose changing light levels induce photoacclimative metabolic shifts, including altered cellular chlorophyll levels. We hypothesized that the two POR proteins may be differentially adaptive under varying light conditions. Using the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a test system, differences in POR protein abundance and por gene expression were examined when this organism was grown on an alternating light:dark cycles at different irradiances; exposed to continuous light; and challenged by a significant decrease in light availability. Results For cultures maintained on a 12h light: 12h dark photoperiod at 200μE m−2 s−1 (200L/D), both por genes were up-regulated during the light and down-regulated in the dark, though por1 transcript abundance rose and fell earlier than that of por2. Little concordance occurred between por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance. In contrast, por2 mRNA and POR2 protein abundances followed similar diurnal patterns. When 200L/D P. tricornutum cultures were transferred to continuous light (200L/L), the diurnal regulatory pattern of por1 mRNA abundance but not of por2 was disrupted, and POR1 but not POR2 protein abundance dropped steeply. Under 1200μE m−2 s−1 (1200L/D), both por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance displayed diurnal oscillations. A compromised diel por2 mRNA response under 1200L/D did not impact the oscillation in POR2 abundance. When cells grown at 1200L/D were then shifted to 50μE m−2 s−1 (50L/D), por1 and por2 mRNA levels decreased swiftly but briefly upon light reduction. Thereafter, POR1 but not POR2 protein levels rose significantly in response to this light stepdown. Conclusion Given the sensitivity of diatom por1/POR1 to real-time light cues and adherence of por2/POR2 regulation to

  20. Bispecific Antibody Conjugated Manganese-Based Magnetic Engineered Iron Oxide for Imaging of HER2/neu- and EGFR-Expressing Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shou-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Jen; Wang, Hsiang-Ching; Chou, Min-Yuan; Chang, Teng-Yuan; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou; Chen, Chiao-Yun; Hou, Ming-Feng; Hsu, John Tsu-An; Wang, Yun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The overexpression of HER2/neu and EGFR receptors plays important roles in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Targeting these two receptors simultaneously can have a more widespread application in early diagnosis of cancers. In this study, a new multifunctional nanoparticles (MnMEIO-CyTE777-(Bis)-mPEG NPs) comprising a manganese-doped iron oxide nanoparticle core (MnMEIO), a silane-amino functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer shell, a near infrared fluorescence dye (CyTE777), and a covalently conjugated anti-HER2/neu and anti-EGFR receptors bispecific antibody (Bis) were successfully developed. In vitro T2-weighted MR imaging studies in SKBR-3 and A431 tumor cells incubated with MnMEIO-CyTE777-(Bis)-mPEG NPs showed - 94.8 ± 3.8 and - 84.1 ± 2.8% negative contrast enhancement, respectively. Pharmacokinetics study showed that MnMEIO-CyTE777-(Bis)-mPEG NPs were eliminated from serum with the half-life of 21.3 mins. In vivo MR imaging showed that MnMEIO-CyTE777-(Bis)-mPEG NPs could specifically and effectively target to HER2/neu- and EGFR-expressing tumors in mice; the relative contrast enhancements were 11.8 (at 2 hrs post-injection) and 61.5 (at 24 hrs post-injection) fold higher in SKBR-3 tumors as compared to Colo-205 tumors. T2-weighted MR and optical imaging studies revealed that the new contrast agent (MnMEIO-CyTE777-(Bis)-mPEG NPs) could specifically and effectively target to HER2/neu- and/or EGFR-expressing tumors. Our results demonstrate that MnMEIO-CyTE777-(Bis)-mPEG NPs are able to recognize the tumors expressing both HER2/neu and/or EGFR, and may provide a novel molecular imaging tool for early diagnosis of cancers expressing HER2/neu and/or EGFR. PMID:26722378

  1. The Practice of Research of a Basic Education Teacher Involving Mental Models of the Phases of the Moon and Eclipses. (Spanish Title: La Práctica de Investigación de un Maestro de Educación BÁsica con El Uso de los Modelos Mentales de Las Fases de la Luna Y Eclipses.) A Prática de Pesquisa de um Professor do Ensino Fundamental Envolvendo Modelos Mentais de Fases da Lua e Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessôa Queiroz, Glória; Jubitipan Borges de Sousa, Carlos; Auxiliadora Delgado Machado, Maria

    2009-12-01

    docente. La formación de grupos interinstitucionales para la planificación de la acción y la investigación ha resultado productiva para el trabajo de construcción de conocimiento de apoyo a los procesos educativos en la escuela, mientras que la universidad enriquece su colección de experiencias validadas, considerando los resultados de la educación inicial y continua de maestros. La participación activa del maestro en un grupo de investigación en la universidad lo llevó a reflexiones sobre los posibles caminos didácticos que pueden ser descriptos, analizados y comunicados a los demás docentes. La construcción de una pedagogía propia, que tuvo en cuenta los modelos mentales de los estudiantes sobre los temas básicos de astronomía, y los cambios desarrollados a partir de las lecciones que enseñó, trajeron consecuencias de largo alcance sobre la pedagogía adoptada por el maestro, que ahora incorpora una nueva visión de la ciencia y formas alternativas al diálogo con los estudiantes, los componentes esenciales para un investigador en Educaciónen Ciencias. A inclusão do professor da escola básica no universo da pesquisa é questão controvertida e em pleno debate no meio acadêmico. A oportunidade de trabalho coletivo que incorporou professores de uma escola municipal no Rio de Janeiro a um grupo de ensino de Física da universidade nos possibilitou vislumbrar a ressignificação da função de um professor de Ciências (co-autor deste trabalho) por ele próprio, agora passando a incluir a pesquisa sobre a construção de conhecimento pelos alunos em sua prática como docente. A formação de grupos interinstitucionais para o planejamento de ações e de pesquisas tem-se mostrado produtiva para um trabalho de construção de conhecimentos a fim de subsidiar processos educativos na escola, ao mesmo tempo em que a universidade enriquece seu acervo de experiências validadas criticamente, podendo considerar seus resultados na formação inicial e

  2. The Practice of Research of a Basic Education Teacher Involving Mental Models of the Phases of the Moon and Eclipses. (Spanish Title: La Práctica de Investigación de un Maestro de Educación BÁsica con El Uso de los Modelos Mentales de Las Fases de la Luna Y Eclipses.) A Prática de Pesquisa de um Professor do Ensino Fundamental Envolvendo Modelos Mentais de Fases da Lua e Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessôa Queiroz, Glória; Jubitipan Borges de Sousa, Carlos; Auxiliadora Delgado Machado, Maria

    2009-12-01

    docente. La formación de grupos interinstitucionales para la planificación de la acción y la investigación ha resultado productiva para el trabajo de construcción de conocimiento de apoyo a los procesos educativos en la escuela, mientras que la universidad enriquece su colección de experiencias validadas, considerando los resultados de la educación inicial y continua de maestros. La participación activa del maestro en un grupo de investigación en la universidad lo llevó a reflexiones sobre los posibles caminos didácticos que pueden ser descriptos, analizados y comunicados a los demás docentes. La construcción de una pedagogía propia, que tuvo en cuenta los modelos mentales de los estudiantes sobre los temas básicos de astronomía, y los cambios desarrollados a partir de las lecciones que enseñó, trajeron consecuencias de largo alcance sobre la pedagogía adoptada por el maestro, que ahora incorpora una nueva visión de la ciencia y formas alternativas al diálogo con los estudiantes, los componentes esenciales para un investigador en Educaciónen Ciencias. A inclusão do professor da escola básica no universo da pesquisa é questão controvertida e em pleno debate no meio acadêmico. A oportunidade de trabalho coletivo que incorporou professores de uma escola municipal no Rio de Janeiro a um grupo de ensino de Física da universidade nos possibilitou vislumbrar a ressignificação da função de um professor de Ciências (co-autor deste trabalho) por ele próprio, agora passando a incluir a pesquisa sobre a construção de conhecimento pelos alunos em sua prática como docente. A formação de grupos interinstitucionais para o planejamento de ações e de pesquisas tem-se mostrado produtiva para um trabalho de construção de conhecimentos a fim de subsidiar processos educativos na escola, ao mesmo tempo em que a universidade enriquece seu acervo de experiências validadas criticamente, podendo considerar seus resultados na formação inicial e

  3. Talking, Singing, Rhyming: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Hablar, cantar, recitar: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  4. Words All around Us: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Palabras y palabras a nuestro alrededor: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  5. Reading with Children: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = La lectura con los ninos: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  6. Lo que los educadores necesitan saber sobre...El agrupamiento por habilidad [y] La compactacion del curriculum [y] Los alumnos dotados y el aprendizaje cooperativo [y] La actividad tutoral. Guias practica (What Educators Need To Know about...Ability Grouping [and] Curriculum Compacting [and] Gifted Students and Cooperative Learning [and] Mentoring. Practitioners' Guides).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del, Ed.

    These four pamphlets in Spanish offer guidelines supported by theory-driven quality research that is problem-based, practice-relevant, and consumer-oriented. Each pamphlet has a section summarizing research from the literature or topic notes as well as implications for the classroom. The first guide offers principles for teachers concerning the…

  7. Palabras del Secretario de Educacion Publica en la reunion anual de directores de education federal e inspectores generales en los estados que se rigen por el calendario "A". (Address by the Minister of Education at the Annual Meeting of Directors of Federal Education and Inspectors General in Calendar "A" States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanez, Agustin

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a speech by the Mexican Minister of Education at an annual educators meeting. The Minister dealt with the administration and quality of education, the role of the directors and the duties towards them of the inspectors, and the main features of the reform of national…

  8. Mitigation of Disagreement in Peer Review among L2 Learners and Native Speakers in a College Writing Class (Mitigación del Impacto de las Opiniones de Desacuerdo en el Proceso de Revisión por Pares entre Estudiantes de una Segunda Lengua y Hablantes Nativos en una Clase de Escritura a Nivel Universitario)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christoffersen, Katherine O'Donnell

    2015-01-01

    Peer review is now a commonplace practice in process-oriented writing instruction. A crucial aspect of peer review is assessing another classmate's work, which encompasses the act of disagreement. Given its prevalence in the classroom, it is necessary to analyze how L2 learners mitigate disagreement in the context of peer review with other L2…

  9. Exploring with Technology: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Exploremos con tecnologia: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides computer literacy activities for…

  10. Comparison of point clouds derived from aerial image matching with data from airborne laser scanning. (Polish Title: Porównanie wóaściwości chmury punktów wygenerowanej metodą dopasowania obrazów zdjęć lotniczych z danymi z lotniczego skanowania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominik, W.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the properties of point clouds derived from aerial image matching and to compare them with point clouds from airborne laser scanning. A set of aerial images acquired in years 2010-2013 over the city of Elblag were used for the analysis. Images were acquired with the use of three digital cameras: DMC II 230, DMC I and DigiCAM60 with a GSD varying from 4.5 cm to 15 cm. Eight sets of images that were used in the study were acquired at different stages of the growing season - from March to December. Two LiDAR point clouds were used for the comparison - one with a density of 1.3 p/m2 and a second with a density of 10 p/m2. Based on the input images point clouds were created with the use of the semi-global matching method. The properties of the obtained point clouds were analyzed in three ways: - by the comparison of the vertical accuracy of point clouds with reference to a terrain profile surveyed on bare ground with GPS-RTK method - by visual assessment of point cloud profiles generated both from SGM and LiDAR point clouds - by visual assessment of a digital surface model generated from a SGM point cloud with reference to a digital surface model generated from a LiDAR point cloud. The conducted studies allowed a number of observations about the quality of SGM point clouds to be formulated with respect to different factors. The main factors having influence on the quality of SGM point clouds are GSD and base/height ratio. The essential problem related to SGM point clouds are areas covered with vegetation where SGM point clouds are visibly worse in terms of both accuracy and the representation of terrain surface. It is difficult to expect that in these areas SGM point clouds could replace LiDAR point clouds. This leads to a general conclusion that SGM point clouds are less reliable, more unpredictable and are dependent on more factors than LiDAR point clouds. Nevertheless, SGM point clouds generated with appropriate parameters can have better accuracy than LiDAR point clouds and present more detailed information about the terrain surface.

  11. Evaluation de la qualité de modèles numériques de terrain dérivés par interférométrieEvaluación de la calidad de modelos digitales de elevación derivados por interferometría

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gens, Rüdiger

    One of the most important uses of SAR interferometry is in the generation of digital elevation models (DEMs). However, a standard procedure for quality estimation of DEMs does not exist. This paper proposes a method of quality estimation using an adapted Monte Carlo simulation, which has the advantage that it could be used in areas where appropriate reference DEMs are not available. This paper also addresses interferometric processing, with special emphasis on the influence of the input parameters. Practical implementation of the proposed technique is shown on a data set from Lower Saxony in Germany. The error map generated, which is a measure of the quality of the DEM, is also presented. For further analysis of the critical aspects of quality, a reference DEM has also been used.

  12. Por que no dejar a los estudiantes con habilidad superior comenzar la escuela en enero? Estudio de la Compactaction del Curriculum. Monografia Investigativa 94401 (Why Not Let High Ability Students Start School in January? The Curriculum Compacting Study. Research Monograph 94401).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Sally M.; And Others

    This report presents an executive summary, in Spanish, of a study which examined the effects of curriculum compacting, a curriculum modification technique for gifted and talented students. The study involved approximately 436 elementary teachers and 783 students in 27 school districts throughout the United States. The study was designed to…

  13. Measurement of the branching ratio for the doubly cabibbo suppressed decay D++ K-K+K+; Medida da razao de ramificacao do Decaimento D++ K-K+K+ duplamente suprimido por cabibbo

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Carvalho, Hendly da

    1997-07-01

    In this thesis, we performed a study for the decay modes D++ K-K+K+ and D+s+ K-K+K+, using the data collected by the E791, a hadroproduction of charm experiment at Fermilab. The D++ K-K+K+ decay is doubly Cabibbo suppressed while the D+s+ K-K+K+ decay is singly Cabibbo suppressed. We found 11.6 +- 3.9 events in the D+ mass region and 8.9 +- 3.3 in the D+s mass region. The D++ K-K+K+ branching ratio is measured to be (3.7 +- 1.3 +- 0.6) x 10-4 while the D++ K-K+K+ branching ratio relative to D+s+ K-K+K+ is measured to be (4.2 +- 1.5 +- 0.6) x 10-2.

  14. A Visit to the Library: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Una visita a la biblioteca: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides suggestions for parents of 3- to…

  15. (2.2.2-Cryptand)potassium bis­(cyanato-κN)(5,10,15,20-tetra­phenyl­por­phy­rin­ato-κ4 N)cobaltate(III) chloro­benzene hemisolvate

    PubMed Central

    Belhaj Ali, Bader; Belkhiria, Mohamed Salah; Daran, Jean-Claude; Nasri, Habib

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, [K(C18H36N2O6)][Co(NCO)2(C44H28N4)]·0.5C6H5Cl or [K(2,2,2-crypt)+][CoIII(NCO)2(TPP)−]·0.5C6H5Cl, the CoIII ion is octa­hedrally coordin­ated by two axial N-bonded NCO− anions and four pyrrole N atoms of the porphyrin. There is a major ruffling distortion of the porphyrin: the dihedral angles between trans pyrrole rings are 34.32 (14) and 34.72 (14)°. The potassium ion is coordinated by the six O atoms and two N atoms of the cryptand-222 mol­ecule and a weak K—O [3.407 (3) Å] bond to one of the cyanate O atoms also occurs. The packing also features weak C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π inter­actions. The contribution to the scattering of the disordered chloro­benzene solvent mol­ecules was removed with the SQUEEZE function in PLATON [Spek (2009 ▶). Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]. PMID:23125591

  16. Art and Writing: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Arte y escritura: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  17. For a Child, Life is a Creative Adventure: Supporting Development and Learning through Art, Music, Movement, and Dialogue. A Guide for Parents and Professionals. = Para los ninos, la vida es una aventura creativa: Como estimular el desarrollo y el aprendizaje por medio de las artes visuales, la musica, el movimiento y el dialogo. Guia para padres de familia y profesionales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elena

    Recognizing that creativity facilitates children's learning and development, the Head Start Program Performance Standards require Head Start programs to include opportunities for creative self-expression. This guide with accompanying videotape, both in English- and Spanish- language versions, encourages and assists adults to support children's…

  18. The Impact of Regional Differences on Elementary School Teachers' Attitudes towards Their Students' Use of Code Switching in a South Texas School District (El impacto de las diferencias regionales en las actitudes de docentes de primaria respecto a la alternancia de códigos por parte de los estudiantes en un distrito escolar del sur de Texas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nava Gómez, Guadalupe Nancy; García, Hilda

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on investigating whether the teachers' geographical distribution influences their attitudes towards their students' use of code switching. The study was guided by the following research question: Are there differences between teachers' opinions of the north elementary schools and teachers' opinions of the…

  19. Análise de Associação por Todo o Genoma para Identificar Locos Relacionados ao Lucro Líquido, à Vida Produtiva e ao Escore de Células Somáticas na raça Jersey1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome scan was conducted in the US Jersey population to identify QTL affecting net merit, productive life, and somatic cell score. Data used at this study were DHI records from the national database of the Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory, USDA (Beltsville, MD). DNA was acquired for 2,380 a...

  20. Los Hispanos: Problemas y Oportunidades. Resumen de la Actual Situacion Demografica, Economica, Social y Politica de los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos y de las Iniciativas Tomadas por la Fundacion Ford Para Hacer Frente a las Necesidades de esta Poblacion en Aumento y Determinar sus Efectos Sobre la Sociedad Estadounidense. Documento de Trabajo de la Fundacion Ford, No. 436.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The Hispanic population's growing impact on American society has caused the Ford Foundation to explore new Foundation initiatives. The 1980 census revealed 14.6 million Hispanics: 60% Mexican American; 14% Puerto Rican; 6% Cuban, and 20% Other. The Hispanic population in the United States is growing and is characterized by diversity; rapid growth…

  1. A study on the stability of O{sub 2} on oxometalloporphyrins by the first principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, Yoshiyuki; Escano, Mary Clare Sison; Dy, Eben Sy; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Kasai, Hideaki

    2007-05-21

    The authors investigated the interaction of oxometalloporphyrins (MO(por))--specifically, MoO(por), WO(por), TiO(por), VO(por), and CrO(por)--with O{sub 2} by using first principles calculations. MoO(por) and WO(por) undergo reactions with O{sub 2}; on the other hand, TiO(por), VO(por), and CrO(por) do not. Next, they compared the interaction of MoO(por) and WO(por) with O{sub 2}. Activation barriers for the reactions of MoO(por) and WO(por) with a side-on O{sub 2} are small. For MoO(por)(O{sub 2}), the activation barrier for the reverse reaction that liberates O{sub 2} is also small; however, that for WO(por)(O{sub 2}) is large. The experimental results that photoirradiation with visible light or heating of Mo {sup VI}O(tmp)(O{sub 2}) regenerates Mo {sup VI}O(tmp) by liberating O{sub 2} while W {sup VI}O(tmp)(O{sub 2}) does not [J. Tachibana, T. Imamura, and Y. Sasaki, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 71, 363 (1998)] are explained by the difference in activation barriers of the reverse reactions. This means that bonds formed between the W atom and O{sub 2} are stronger than those between the Mo atom and O{sub 2}. The bond strengths can be explained by differences in the energy levels between the highest occupied molecular orbital of MoO(por) and WO(por), which are mainly formed from the a orbitals of the central metal atom and {pi}{sup *} orbitals of O{sub 2}.

  2. Percepção Astronômica de Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2005-08-01

    Embora a astronomia seja uma das ciências mais antigas da humanidade e muitos dos conceitos astronômicos serem populares, principalmente nesta época de alta globalização do conhecimento por intermédio de eficientes meios de comunicação e de obtenção da informação, notadamente através da internet, observa-se que uma parcela significativa dos estudantes encontra-se à margem dessas informações. O presente trabalho visa analisar o nível de conhecimento básico dos alunos de Ensino Médio da rede estadual da cidade de Suzano quanto aos fenômenos astronômicos que os rodeiam, tais como a sucessão dos dias e das estações do ano, além de questioná-los sobre fatos genéricos tais como: quais são os astros que se encontram mais próximos do planeta Terra, o que vem a ser o Sol, o Big Bang, um ano-luz, uma estrela cadente, a estrela de Bélem e o que ocasionou a extinção dos dinossauros. Para tanto foi elaborado um formulário constando de questões de múltipla escolha, o qual foi aplicado no primeiro colegial noturno da Escola Estadual Batista Renzi. Num espaço amostral de 34 alunos constatou-se que apenas 29,4% compreendiam a sucessão dos dias da semana, que apenas 20,6% explicaram corretamente as estações do ano, que apenas 20,6% tinham idéia de quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, em contraposição 67,6% sabiam classificar corretamente o Sol como estrela, 55,9% relacionavam o Big Bang à origem do universo, apenas 20,6% identificavam um ano-luz como unidade de distância, 32,4% reconheciam uma estrela cadente como meteoro, 41,2% consideravam a estrela de Belém como um cometa e 50,0% explicaram corretamente a extinção dos dinossauros. A presente análise será expandida para as demais classes de primeiro colegial, não somente do período noturno, mas também do diurno da Escola Estadual Batista Renzi, bem como o formulário será devidamente ampliado. Já nesta primeira fase nota-se claramente o pequeno discernimento

  3. População nuclear e extranuclear em rádio-galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimann, D. I.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Quintana, H.; Alloin, D.; Hunstead, R.; Wisotzki, L.

    2003-08-01

    A natureza do contínuo UV/ótico em rádio-galáxias é muito importante para o seu entendimento. Em baixos redshifts existem evidências de que muitas delas são dominadas no ótico por luz de estrelas velhas, características de galáxias early-type e em altos redshifts a característica dominante é um excesso de luz no UV, freqüentemente associado com estruturas que estão alinhadas aos eixos das estruturas rádio em grande escala. Inicialmente esse excesso foi interpretado como devido a episódios intensos de formação estelar nas galáxias hospedeiras. Entretanto, as descobertas dos alinhamentos entre as estruturas UV e rádio modificaram essa idéia. Foi proposto que a formação estelar é iniciada pela passagem do jato rádio através do meio interestelar das galáxias hospedeiras. A natureza do excesso UV começou a ser compreendida em um estudo detalhado do continuo ótico da 3C321, onde se concluiu que o contínuo desta galáxia tem origem multicomponente, com contribuições de populações velhas e intermediárias, de luz espalhada oriunda de um quasar obscurecido e do contínuo nebular. No presente trabalho estudamos a população nuclear e extranuclear de uma amostra de 24 rádio-galáxias, utilizando espectros óticos de fenda longa, com alta razão sinal/ruído. Através do método de síntese espectral de populações estelares, foram estimadas as contribuições de populações estelares de diferentes idades (e de um contínuo tipo lei de potência devido a um AGN, FC) para a luz integrada das galáxias, em 4020Å. As principais conclusões deste trabalho são: apenas quatro dos objetos estudados têm contribuições significativas (maiores do que 10%) das populações de 100 milhões de anos ou mais jovens (ou de FC) ao longo da região espacial estudada (6 kpc centrais); nenhuma das rádio-galáxias de tipo FRI estudadas tem contribuição significativa destas populações ao longo desta região; duas (de oito) de tipo FRII tem contribui

  4. Identification of NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases A and B: a branched pathway for light-dependent chlorophyll biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, G A; Runge, S; Frick, G; Sperling, U; Apel, K

    1995-01-01

    Illumination releases the arrest in chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis in etiolated angiosperm seedlings through the enzymatic photoreduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide), the first light-dependent step in chloroplast biogenesis. NADPH: Pchlide oxidoreductase (POR, EC 1.3.1.33), a nuclear-encoded plastid-localized enzyme, mediates this unique photoreduction. Paradoxically, light also triggers a drastic decrease in the amounts of POR activity and protein before the Chl accumulation rate reaches its maximum during greening. While investigating this seeming contradiction, we identified two distinct Arabidopsis thaliana genes encoding POR, in contrast to previous reports of only one gene in angiosperms. The genes, designated PorA and PorB, by analogy to the principal members of the phytochrome photoreceptor gene family, display dramatically different patterns of light and developmental regulation. PorA mRNA disappears within the first 4 h of greening, whereas PorB mRNA persists even after 16 h of illumination, mirroring the behavior of two distinct POR protein species. Experiments designed to help define the functions of POR A and POR B demonstrate exclusive expression of PorA in young seedlings and of PorB both in seedlings and in adult plants. Accordingly, we propose the existence of a branched light-dependent Chl biosynthesis pathway in which POR A performs a specialized function restricted to the initial stages of greening and POR B maintains Chl levels throughout angiosperm development. PMID:7659751

  5. Differential regulation of duplicate light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hunsperger, Heather M.; Ford, Christopher J.; Miller, James S.; Cattolico, Rose Ann; Ianora, Adrianna

    2016-07-01

    Diatoms (Bacilliariophyceae) encode two light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (POR1 and POR2) that catalyze the penultimate step of chlorophyll biosynthesis in the light. Algae live in dynamic environments whose changing light levels induce photoacclimative metabolic shifts, including altered cellular chlorophyll levels. We hypothesized that the two POR proteins may be differentially adaptive under varying light conditions. Using the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a test system, differences in POR protein abundance and por gene expression were examined when this organism was grown on an alternating light:dark cycles at different irradiances; exposed to continuous light; and challenged by a significant decrease in light availability.more » As a result, for cultures maintained on a 12h light: 12h dark photoperiod at 200μEm–2 s–1 (200L/D), both por genes were up-regulated during the light and down-regulated in the dark, though por1 transcript abundance rose and fell earlier than that of por2. Little concordance occurred between por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance. In contrast, por2 mRNA and POR2 protein abundances followed similar diurnal patterns. When 200L/D P. tricornutum cultures were transferred to continuous light (200L/L), the diurnal regulatory pattern of por1 mRNA abundance but not of por2 was disrupted, and POR1 but not POR2 protein abundance dropped steeply. Under 1200μEm–2 s–1 (1200L/D), both por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance displayed diurnal oscillations. A compromised diel por2 mRNA response under 1200L/D did not impact the oscillation in POR2 abundance. When cells grown at 1200L/D were then shifted to 50μEm–2 s–1 (50L/D), por1 and por2 mRNA levels decreased swiftly but briefly upon light reduction. Thereafter, POR1 but not POR2 protein levels rose significantly in response to this light stepdown.« less

  6. Correlation of Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase Expression with the Expression of 10 Isoforms of Cytochrome P450 in Human Liver

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Li, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Jia-Yu; Liu, Ting-Ting; Wang, Ping; Fang, Yan; Zhou, Jun; Cui, Ming-Zhu; Gao, Na; Tian, Xin; Gao, Jie; Wen, Qiang; Jia, Lin-Jing

    2016-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) provides electrons for all microsomal cytochromes P450 (P450s) and plays an indispensable role in drug metabolism catalyzed by this family of enzymes. We evaluated 100 human liver samples and found that POR protein content varied 12.8-fold, from 12.59 to 160.97 pmol/mg, with a median value of 67.99 pmol/mg; POR mRNA expression varied by 26.4-fold. POR activity was less variable with a median value of 56.05 nmol/min per milligram. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption clearly influenced POR activity. Liver samples with a 2286822 TT genotype had significantly higher POR mRNA expression than samples with CT genotype. Homozygous carriers of POR2286822C>T, 2286823G>A, and 3823884A>C had significantly lower POR protein levels compared with the corresponding heterozygous carriers. Liver samples from individuals homozygous at 286823G>A, 1135612A>G, and 10954732G>A generally had lower POR activity levels than those from heterozygous or wild-type samples, whereas the common variant POR*28 significantly increased POR activity. There was a strong association between POR and the expression of P450 isoforms at the mRNA and protein level, whereas the relationship at the activity level, as well as the effect of POR protein content on P450 activity, was less pronounced. POR transcription was strongly correlated with both hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha and pregnane X receptor mRNA levels. In conclusion, we have elucidated some potentially important correlations between POR single-nucleotide polymorphisms and POR expression in the Chinese population and have developed a database that correlates POR expression with the expression and activity of 10 P450s important in drug metabolism. PMID:27271371

  7. Correlation of Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase Expression with the Expression of 10 Isoforms of Cytochrome P450 in Human Liver.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Li, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Jia-Yu; Liu, Ting-Ting; Wang, Ping; Fang, Yan; Zhou, Jun; Cui, Ming-Zhu; Gao, Na; Tian, Xin; Gao, Jie; Wen, Qiang; Jia, Lin-Jing; Qiao, Hai-Ling

    2016-08-01

    Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) provides electrons for all microsomal cytochromes P450 (P450s) and plays an indispensable role in drug metabolism catalyzed by this family of enzymes. We evaluated 100 human liver samples and found that POR protein content varied 12.8-fold, from 12.59 to 160.97 pmol/mg, with a median value of 67.99 pmol/mg; POR mRNA expression varied by 26.4-fold. POR activity was less variable with a median value of 56.05 nmol/min per milligram. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption clearly influenced POR activity. Liver samples with a 2286822 TT genotype had significantly higher POR mRNA expression than samples with CT genotype. Homozygous carriers of POR2286822C>T, 2286823G>A, and 3823884A>C had significantly lower POR protein levels compared with the corresponding heterozygous carriers. Liver samples from individuals homozygous at 286823G>A, 1135612A>G, and 10954732G>A generally had lower POR activity levels than those from heterozygous or wild-type samples, whereas the common variant POR*28 significantly increased POR activity. There was a strong association between POR and the expression of P450 isoforms at the mRNA and protein level, whereas the relationship at the activity level, as well as the effect of POR protein content on P450 activity, was less pronounced. POR transcription was strongly correlated with both hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha and pregnane X receptor mRNA levels. In conclusion, we have elucidated some potentially important correlations between POR single-nucleotide polymorphisms and POR expression in the Chinese population and have developed a database that correlates POR expression with the expression and activity of 10 P450s important in drug metabolism. PMID:27271371

  8. 26 CFR 31.6402(a)-2 - Credit or refund of tax under Federal Insurance Contributions Act or Railroad Retirement Tax Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... social security tax due to having received wages or compensation from multiple employers, the employee... Contribución Federal sobre el Trabajo por Cuenta Propia (Incluyendo el Crédito Tributario Adicional por...

  9. Composição química, evolução e cinemática de estrelas de tipo solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, R. O.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; Milone, A. C.

    2003-08-01

    A composição química das estrelas de tipo solar é um diagnóstico extremamente valioso da evolução química do disco da Galáxia. Existe alguma evidência de que tal evolução tem sido heterogênea no espaço e ao longo do tempo e que a composição química do Sol pode não ser um padrão representativo de abundâncias. Neste trabalho, foram obtidas as abundâncias dos elementos químicos C, N, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd e Sm em uma amostra de estrelas de tipo solar na vizinhança solar (distâncias £ 25 pc). A técnica empregada foi a análise espectroscópica diferencial em relação ao Sol, baseando-se em dados de alta resolução (R ~ 46.000) e alta razão sinal/ruído (S/R > 300), obtidos com o espectrógrafo échelle de bancada do telescópio de 1,5 m do CTIO. Adicionalmente, abundâncias de C e N foram obtidas através de síntese de bandas moleculares dos Sistemas Eletrônicos Swan do C2 e Vermelho do CN utilizando-se um programa de síntese espectral. Os parâmetros atmosféricos foram estabelecidos usando cores fotométricas, o equilíbrio de excitação e ionização de linhas do Fe e a análise da temperatura e da luminosidade estelares no diagrama HR. Os resultados de abundâncias químicas obtidos proporcionam uma melhor compreensão da relação das abundâncias conhecidas para o Sol com a das estrelas anãs de tipo G da população local, uma vez que as razões de abundâncias de diversos elementos (em relação ao ferro) obtidas para estrelas de metalicidade semelhante à solar diferem daquelas obtidas para o Sol. Tais resultados também contribuem para um melhor entendimento do processo de evolução química da vizinhança solar e do enriquecimento nucleossintético do disco galáctico.

  10. Descoberta de um aglomerado estelar massivo associado a fonte IRAS 16177-5018

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman Lopes, A.; Abraham, Z.; Lépine, J. R. D.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos a descoberta de um aglomerado de estrelas jovens e massivas embebido em uma região HII extensa associado com a fonte IRAS 16177-5018, que se apresenta invisível na faixa óptica do espectro eletromagnético, onde a extinção é da ordem de AV = 26 magnitudes. As observações foram feitas com a camera infravermelha (CamIV) do Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brasil, equipada com um detector Hawaii de HgCdTe de 1024´1024 pixel acoplada ao telescópio de 60 cm Boller & Chivens do IAG. A fotometria obtida a partir das imagens nas bandas J, H e K (filtro estreito) mostrou a presença de fontes com excesso de emissão no infravermelho em 2.2 mm, concentradas em uma área de aproximadamente um minuto de arco quadrado em torno da nebulosa na qual esta embebido o objeto identificado como a fonte IRAS. A fonte IRAS apresenta um índice espectral (entre 2.2 21.3 mm) a = d log(l Fl) / d log l = 4.78, característico de um objeto extremamente jovem com luminosidade bolométrica (obtida da integral da densidade de fluxo entre o infravermelho próximo (1.25mm) e o infravermelho distante (100mm)) de 2.8´105L¤, o qual corresponde a uma estrela da sequência principal de idade zero de cerca de 42 M¤. A partir do diagrama cor-magnitude foi possível classificar a maioria dos membros do aglomerado como estrelas massivas mais luminosas que tipo espectral B5.

  11. 25 CFR 900.117 - Do these “construction contract” regulations apply to planning services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and approval the POR documents produced as a part of a model contract under section 108 of the Act or under a construction contract under this subpart. (i) Within 60 days after receipt of the POR from the..., the Secretary shall: (A) Approve the POR; (B) Notify the Indian tribe or tribal organization of...

  12. 25 CFR 900.117 - Do these “construction contract” regulations apply to planning services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and approval the POR documents produced as a part of a model contract under section 108 of the Act or under a construction contract under this subpart. (i) Within 60 days after receipt of the POR from the..., the Secretary shall: (A) Approve the POR; (B) Notify the Indian tribe or tribal organization of...

  13. 25 CFR 900.117 - Do these “construction contract” regulations apply to planning services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and approval the POR documents produced as a part of a model contract under section 108 of the Act or under a construction contract under this subpart. (i) Within 60 days after receipt of the POR from the..., the Secretary shall: (A) Approve the POR; (B) Notify the Indian tribe or tribal organization of...

  14. Program of Requirements Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Columbus, OH.

    These guidelines describe both the role and preparation of a Program of Requirements (POR) in the planning and design of capital improvements projects. The purpose of POR is to define very clearly facility needs and objectives to the designer. The POR consists of five parts: (l) the title page; (2) part A, a summary of the project and general…

  15. 25 CFR 900.117 - Do these “construction contract” regulations apply to planning services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and approval the POR documents produced as a part of a model contract under section 108 of the Act or under a construction contract under this subpart. (i) Within 60 days after receipt of the POR from the..., the Secretary shall: (A) Approve the POR; (B) Notify the Indian tribe or tribal organization of...

  16. 25 CFR 900.117 - Do these “construction contract” regulations apply to planning services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and approval the POR documents produced as a part of a model contract under section 108 of the Act or under a construction contract under this subpart. (i) Within 60 days after receipt of the POR from the..., the Secretary shall: (A) Approve the POR; (B) Notify the Indian tribe or tribal organization of...

  17. Fatiga (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la fatiga, una afección caracterizada por extremo cansancio e incapacidad para funcionar por la falta de energía, que a menudo se observa como una complicación del cáncer y su tratamiento.

  18. Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase: Phylogeny, Regulation, and Catalytic Properties.

    PubMed

    Gabruk, Michal; Mysliwa-Kurdziel, Beata

    2015-09-01

    This Current Topic focuses on light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR, EC 1.3.1.33). POR catalyzes the penultimate reaction of chlorophyll biosynthesis, i.e., the light-triggered reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide. In this reaction, the chlorin ring of the chlorophyll molecule is formed, which is crucial for photosynthesis. POR is one of very few enzymes that are driven by light; however, it is unique in the need for its substrate to absorb photons to induce the conformational changes in the enzyme, which are required for its catalytic activation. Moreover, the enzyme is also involved in the negative feedback of the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway and controls chlorophyll content via its light-dependent activity. Even though it has been almost 70 years since the first isolation of active POR complexes, our knowledge of them has markedly advanced in recent years. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge of POR, including the phylogenetic roots of POR, the mechanisms of the regulation of POR genes expression, the regulation of POR activity, the import of POR into plastids, the role of POR in PLB formation, and the molecular mechanism of protochlorophyllide reduction by POR. To the best of our knowledge, no previous review has compiled such a broad set of recent findings about POR. PMID:26230427

  19. Fatiga (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la fatiga, una afección caracterizada por extremo cansancio e incapacidad para funcionar por la falta de energía, que a menudo se observa como una complicación del cáncer y su tratamiento.

  20. Differences in recovery between deep-sea hydrothermal vent and vent-proximate communities after a volcanic eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollner, Sabine; Govenar, Breea; Arbizu, Pedro Martinez; Mills, Susan; Le Bris, Nadine; Weinbauer, Markus; Shank, Timothy M.; Bright, Monika

    2015-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents and the surrounding basalt seafloor are subject to major natural disturbance events such as volcanic eruptions. In the near future, anthropogenic disturbance in the form of deep-sea mining could also significantly affect the faunal communities of hydrothermal vents. In this study, we monitor and compare the recovery of insular, highly productive vent communities and vent-proximate basalt communities following a volcanic eruption that destroyed almost all existing communities at the East Pacific Rise, 9°50‧N in 2006. To study the recovery patterns of the benthic communities, we placed settlement substrates at vent sites and their proximate basalt areas and measured the prokaryotic abundance and compared the meio- and macrofaunal species richness and composition at one, two and four years after the eruption. In addition, we collected samples from the overlying water column with a pelagic pump, at one and two years after the volcanic eruption, to determine the abundance of potential meiofauna colonisers. One year after eruption, mean meio- and macrofaunal abundances were not significantly different from pre-eruption values in vent habitats (meio: 8-1838 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2006; 3-6246 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2001/02; macro: 95-1600 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2006; 205-4577 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2001/02) and on non-vent basalt habitats (meio: 10-1922 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2006; 8-328 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2003/04; macro: 14-3351 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2006; 2-63 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2003/04), but species recovery patterns differed between the two habitat types. In the vent habitat, the initial community recovery was relatively quick but incomplete four years after eruption, which may be due to the good dispersal capabilities of vent endemic macrofauna and vent endemic dirivultid copepods. At vents, 42% of the pre-eruption meio- and 39% of macrofaunal species had returned. In addition, some new species not evident prior to the eruption were found. At the tubeworm site Tica, a total of 26

  1. A two-component system regulates gene expression of the type IX secretion component proteins via an ECF sigma factor

    PubMed Central

    Kadowaki, Tomoko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Naito, Mariko; Sato, Keiko; Kikuchi, Yuichiro; Kondo, Yoshio; Shoji, Mikio; Nakayama, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes potent pathogenic proteases, gingipains, via the type IX secretion system (T9SS). This system comprises at least 11 components; however, the regulatory mechanism of their expression has not yet been elucidated. Here, we found that the PorY (PGN_2001)-PorX (PGN_1019)-SigP (PGN_0274) cascade is involved in the regulation of T9SS. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis revealed a direct interaction between a recombinant PorY (rPorY) and a recombinant PorX (rPorX). rPorY autophosphorylated and transferred a phosphoryl group to rPorX in the presence of Mn2+. These results demonstrate that PorX and PorY act as a response regulator and a histidine kinase, respectively, of a two component system (TCS), although they are separately encoded on the chromosome. T9SS component-encoding genes were down-regulated in a mutant deficient in a putative extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor, PGN_0274 (SigP), similar to the porX mutant. Electrophoretic gel shift assays showed that rSigP bound to the putative promoter regions of T9SS component-encoding genes. The SigP protein was lacking in the porX mutant. Co-immunoprecipitation and SPR analysis revealed the direct interaction between SigP and PorX. Together, these results indicate that the PorXY TCS regulates T9SS-mediated protein secretion via the SigP ECF sigma factor. PMID:26996145

  2. Altered heme catabolism by heme oxygenase-1 caused by mutations in human NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Amit V.; Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E.

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Mutations in POR identified from patients lead to reduced HO-1 activities. {yields} POR mutation Y181D affecting FMN binding results in total loss of HO-1 activity. {yields} POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F, lost 50-70% activity. {yields} Mutations in FAD binding domain, R457H, Y459H and V492E lost all HO-1 activity. {yields} POR polymorphisms P228L, R316W, G413S, A503V and G504R have normal activity. -- Abstract: Human heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) carries out heme catabolism supported by electrons supplied from the NADPH through NADPH P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Previously we have shown that mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of mutations in POR on HO-1 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified HO-1 to measure heme degradation in a coupled assay using biliverdin reductase. Here we show that mutations in POR found in patients may reduce HO-1 activity, potentially influencing heme catabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had total loss of HO-1 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 50-70% activity. The POR variants P228L, R316W and G413S, A503V and G504R identified as polymorphs had close to WT activity. Loss of HO-1 activity may result in increased oxidative neurotoxicity, anemia, growth retardation and iron deposition. Further examination of patients affected with POR deficiency will be required to assess the metabolic effects of reduced HO-1 activity in affected individuals.

  3. A two-component system regulates gene expression of the type IX secretion component proteins via an ECF sigma factor.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Tomoko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Naito, Mariko; Sato, Keiko; Kikuchi, Yuichiro; Kondo, Yoshio; Shoji, Mikio; Nakayama, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes potent pathogenic proteases, gingipains, via the type IX secretion system (T9SS). This system comprises at least 11 components; however, the regulatory mechanism of their expression has not yet been elucidated. Here, we found that the PorY (PGN_2001)-PorX (PGN_1019)-SigP (PGN_0274) cascade is involved in the regulation of T9SS. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis revealed a direct interaction between a recombinant PorY (rPorY) and a recombinant PorX (rPorX). rPorY autophosphorylated and transferred a phosphoryl group to rPorX in the presence of Mn(2+). These results demonstrate that PorX and PorY act as a response regulator and a histidine kinase, respectively, of a two component system (TCS), although they are separately encoded on the chromosome. T9SS component-encoding genes were down-regulated in a mutant deficient in a putative extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor, PGN_0274 (SigP), similar to the porX mutant. Electrophoretic gel shift assays showed that rSigP bound to the putative promoter regions of T9SS component-encoding genes. The SigP protein was lacking in the porX mutant. Co-immunoprecipitation and SPR analysis revealed the direct interaction between SigP and PorX. Together, these results indicate that the PorXY TCS regulates T9SS-mediated protein secretion via the SigP ECF sigma factor. PMID:26996145

  4. Preclinical studies of porfiromycin as an adjunct to radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, S; Keyes, S R; Sartorelli, A C

    1988-10-01

    The bioreductive alkylating agent porfiromycin (POR) is more toxic to EMT6 cells that are hypoxic at the time of treatment than to aerobic cells. The toxicity of POR to hypoxic EMT6 cells in vitro was similar to that of mitomycin C (MC): the aerobic toxicity of POR was considerably less than that of MC. Treatment of cells in vitro with POR before and during irradiation did not sensitize either hypoxic or aerobic cells to X rays; instead, only additive cytotoxicity was produced. In contrast, treatment of solid EMT6 tumors in vivo with POR plus radiation produced supra-additive cytotoxicity, as assessed by analyses of the complete dose-response curves for the killing of tumor cells by radiation alone or by POR alone. The supra-additivity of the combination regimens appeared to reflect the preferential killing by each agent of those tumor cells which were in an environment conferring resistance to the other agent. In contrast, combinations of POR and X rays produced only additive cytotoxicities to marrow CFU-GM. Supra-additive antineoplastic effects were obtained at doses of POR which produced little hematologic or other host toxicity. The complementary cytotoxicities of radiation and POR to cells in different microenvironments in solid tumors and the absence of a similar effect in normal tissue make optimized regimens combining radiotherapy and POR unusually promising for the treatment of solid tumors. PMID:3186923

  5. Efficient anti-tumor effect of photodynamic treatment with polymeric nanoparticles composed of polyethylene glycol and polylactic acid block copolymer encapsulating hydrophobic porphyrin derivative.

    PubMed

    Ogawara, Ken-ichi; Shiraishi, Taro; Araki, Tomoya; Watanabe, Taka-ichi; Ono, Tsutomu; Higaki, Kazutaka

    2016-01-20

    To develop potent and safer formulation of photosensitizer for cancer photodynamic therapy (PDT), we tried to formulate hydrophobic porphyrin derivative, photoprotoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester (PppIX-DME), into polymeric nanoparticles composed of polyethylene glycol and polylactic acid block copolymer (PN-Por). The mean particle size of PN-Por prepared was around 80nm and the zeta potential was determined to be weakly negative. In vitro phototoxicity study for PN-Por clearly indicated the significant phototoxicity of PN-Por for three types of tumor cells tested (Colon-26 carcinoma (C26), B16BL6 melanoma and Lewis lung cancer cells) in the PppIX-DME concentration-dependent fashion. Furthermore, it was suggested that the release of PppIX-DME from PN-Por would gradually occur to provide the sustained release of PppIX-DME. In vivo pharmacokinetics of PN-Por after intravenous administration was evaluated in C26 tumor-bearing mice, and PN-Por exhibited low affinity to the liver and spleen and was therefore retained in the blood circulation for a long time, leading to the efficient tumor disposition of PN-Por. Furthermore, significant and highly effective anti-tumor effect was confirmed in C26 tumor-bearing mice with the local light irradiation onto C26 tumor tissues after PN-Por injection. These findings indicate the potency of PN-Por for the development of more efficient PDT-based cancer treatments. PMID:26593985

  6. Perceptions of risks to children's health from indoor air pollution and an investigation of respiratory illness symptoms from indoor heating with a woodburning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, J.S. III

    1986-01-01

    This study explores perceptions of risks to health (POR), risk taking behavior (RTB), and associated illness from the perspectives of medical anthropology and epidemiology. Specific objectives included investigation of the following: (1) general POR: (2) POR from indoor air pollution (IAP) and parental usage of IAP sources; (3) the relationship between POR and RTB; factors affecting POR and RTB; (4) the construction of risk domains; (5) sources of intracultural variation in POR, RTB, and the partitioning of risk domains; (6) patterns of indoor heating in central Michigan; and (7) respiratory illness symptoms (RIS) in children from exposure to indoor heating with a woodburning stove (WBS). POR and RTB were investigated in random and ethnographic samples, RIS in a random sample with an internal comparison group, and indoor heating in a random sample. Interview schedules were developed for each phase of inquiry. The instrument used to investigate POR and RTB includes both qualitative and quantitative scales for POR assessment. Findings of this study provide an ethnography of risk, an inferential analysis of POR/RTB, and a preliminary assessment of risks of RIS from heating with WBS.

  7. Patterns of coral disease across the Hawaiian archipelago: relating disease to environment.

    PubMed

    Aeby, Greta S; Williams, Gareth J; Franklin, Erik C; Kenyon, Jean; Cox, Evelyn F; Coles, Steve; Work, Thierry M

    2011-01-01

    In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance), climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies) and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora) with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs) were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm) was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS) was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral). All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS) we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic). All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and PorTrm showing

  8. Patterns of coral disease across the Hawaiian Archipelago: Relating disease to environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aeby, G.S.; Williams, G.J.; Franklin, E.C.; Kenyon, J.; Cox, E.F.; Coles, S.; Work, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance), climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies) and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora) with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs) were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm) was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS) was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral). All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS) we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic). All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and PorTrm showing

  9. Patterns of Coral Disease across the Hawaiian Archipelago: Relating Disease to Environment

    PubMed Central

    Aeby, Greta S.; Williams, Gareth J.; Franklin, Erik C.; Kenyon, Jean; Cox, Evelyn F.; Coles, Steve; Work, Thierry M.

    2011-01-01

    In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance), climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies) and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora) with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs) were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm) was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS) was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral). All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS) we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic). All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and PorTrm showing

  10. High-Yield Expression of a Catalytically Active Membrane-Bound Protein: Human P450 Oxidoreductase

    PubMed Central

    Sandee, Duanpen

    2011-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is a two-flavin protein that reduces microsomal P450 enzymes and some other proteins. Preparation of active bacterially expressed human POR for biochemical studies has been difficult because membrane-bound proteins tend to interact with column matrices. To reduce column-protein interactions and permit more vigorous washing, human POR lacking 27 N-terminal residues (N-27 POR) was modified to carry a C-terminal Gly3His6-tag (N-27 POR-G3H6). When expressed in Escherichia coli, N-27 POR-G3H6 could be purified to apparent homogeneity by a modified, single-step nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography, yielding 31 mg POR per liter of culture, whereas standard purification of native N-27 POR required multiple steps, yielding 5 mg POR per liter. Both POR proteins had absorption maxima at 375 and 453 nm and both reduced cytochrome c with indistinguishable specific activities. Using progesterone as substrate for bacterially expressed purified human P450c17, the Michaelis constant for 17α-hydroxylase activity supported by N-27 POR or N-27 POR-G3H6 were 1.73 or 1.49 μm, and the maximal velocity was 0.029 or 0.026 pmol steroids per picomole P450 per minute, respectively. Using 17-hydroxypregnenolone as the P450c17 substrate, the Michaelis constant for 17,20 lyase activity using N-27 POR or N-27 POR-G3H6 was 1.92 or 1.89 μm and the maximal velocity was 0.041 or 0.042 pmol steroid per picomole P450 per minute, respectively. Thus, N-27 POR-G3H6 is equally active as native N-27 POR. This expression and purification system permits the rapid preparation of large amounts of highly pure, biologically active POR and may be generally applicable for the preparation of membrane-bound proteins. PMID:21586563

  11. Modulation of the cytotoxicity of porfiromycin by dicoumarol in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, S; Keyes, S R; Sartorelli, A C

    1989-01-01

    The effects of dicoumarol (DIC) on the cytotoxicity of porfiromycin (POR) were studied in vitro using EMT6 mammary tumor cells in monolayer cultures and in vivo using solid EMT6 tumors and bone marrow stem cells. In vitro, POR was more toxic to hypoxic EMT6 cells than to aerobic cells. Exposure of aerobic cultures to DIC protected against POR; in contrast, DIC sensitized hypoxic cells to POR. Treatment of mice with DIC produced a slight increase in the toxicity of POR to cells in solid tumors. The toxicity of POR to marrow stem cells (CFU-GM and CFU-MK) was not altered by DIC. Pretreatment of mice with DIC therefore produced a small improvement in the therapeutic ratio. PMID:2479329

  12. The interactions of superoxide ion(O2-.) with metallo-porphyrins [(C1(8)TPP)M, M = Fe,Mn,Co Zn]; models for biological systems and superoxide dismutases.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, D T; Tsang, P K

    1991-01-01

    In dimethylformamide superoxide ion forms a 1:1 adduct with tetrakis (2,6-dichlorophenyl) porphinato-iron, (C1(8)TPP)FeOO-, as well as with its manganese analogue, (C1(8)TPP)MnOO-. On the basis of their electrochemical, spectroscopic, and magnetic properties these adducts have a metal-oxygen covalent bond (PorM-OO-), oxygen-centered redox chemistry, and reactivities that are similar to the hydroperoxide ion (HOO-). Addition of -OH to a solution of PorFe and O2 results in the formation of PorFe(OH)(OO-), which can be electrochemically oxidized to PorFeOH plus O2 (-0.2 V vs SCE). Addition of protons to the PorM-OO- adducts promotes their rapid decomposition to PorM, HOOH, and O2. This chemistry provides insight to the reactions of biological superoxide and superoxide dismutases. PMID:1649106

  13. [Marcus Barros talks about the environment and tropical diseases in the Amazon. Interview by Stella Oswaldo Cruz Penido. Introduction by Ruth B. Martins].

    PubMed

    Barros, Marcus

    2007-12-01

    Marcus Barros talks about how tropical diseases influenced his decision to study medicine. He tells a number of stories about his family, which moved from Alto Juruá to Manaus to escape malaria and other fevers. He says it is essential to adopt homeopathy, acupuncture, and other indigenous knowledge and practices in treating disease. Barros also talks about measures taken when he was president of Brazil's national environmental institute, Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis (Ibama)--all part of an effort to prevent and combat these diseases and halt deforestation and burn-offs. PMID:18783153

  14. Assessment of liquid disposal originated by uranium enrichment at Aramar Experimental Center São Paulo--Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gerenutti, Marli; Gonçalves, Marcos Moisés; Rissato, Sandra Regina; de Oliveira, José Martins; dos Santos Reigota, Marco Antonio; Galhiane, Mário Sergio

    2012-07-01

    This work presents a liquid disposal monitoring originated from uranium enrichment process at Aramar Experimental Center from 1990 to 1998. Assessment of uranium, fluorides, ammoniacal nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand, and pH measurements were made in water samples and compared with results achieved in other countries, as North America and India. The liquid disposal evaluation, generated by uranium enrichment process, showed low levels, considering most parameters established by Federal and State Legislation, aiming environmental pollution control. However, uranium levels were above the limits established by Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente, Environment Protection Agency and mainly by the World Health Organization. PMID:21814717

  15. Different Cultures in Astronomy Education and Their Meanings in the Classroom. (Spanish Title: Las Diferentes Culturas en la Educación en Astronomía y Sus Significados EN EL Aula. ) As Diferentes Culturas na Educação em Astronomia E Seus Significados em Sala de Aula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira de Barros, Vicente; Bovolenta Ovigli, Daniel Fernando

    2014-12-01

    el trabajo con Astronomía(s) en la clase. Se observó que los participantes todavía no habían presentado estos temas en sus clases y tampoco habían participado en cursos de formación que abordaran estos temas. O presente trabalho apresenta uma reflexão acerca da utilização da História da Ciência no currículo da educação formal, por meio da discussão relativa ao emprego de elementos culturais de grupos étnicos em ações voltadas à educação em Astronomia. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no âmbito de um curso de extensão e a análise aqui empreendida refere-se a um encontro que abordou sequências didáticas relativas àquele tema, com fundamento na lei 11.645/2008 e a obrigatoriedade de abordagem da temática "História e Cultura Afro-Brasileira e Indígena" no currículo oficial. A ação de extensão ocorreu junto a professores que ensinam Ciências da Natureza, no interior do estado de São Paulo, discutindo-se temas relativos ao uso de História da Ciência e o relacionamento com cosmogonias oriundas dos povos Iorubá e Tupi, evidenciando como podem enriquecer o trabalho com a(s) Astronomia(s) em sala de aula. Observou-se que os participantes ainda não haviam apresentado estes temas em suas aulas e, igualmente, não participaram de cursos de formação que contemplassem a referida temática.

  16. The Astronomy Club of Araranguá: Educating Science Teachers as Science Communicators. (Breton Title: Clube de Astronomia de AraranguÁ: a Formação de Professores de Ciências Como Divulgadores Científicos. ) Club de Astronomía de Araranguá: la Formación del Profesorado Como Comunicadores de la Ciencia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damasio, Felipe; Allain, Olivier; Antunes Rodrigues, Adriano

    2013-07-01

    The study reported in this work takes place since 2009 at the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Santa Catarina, Campus Araranguá. Our main goal is to help form teachers, training undergraduate students in Natural Sciences with specialization in Physics as science communicators, as well as to promote actions of broader scientific popularization in the region of the town of Araranguá through an Astronomy Club called CA2. Among the actions of scientific popularization that the students promote are: video production, radio broadcasts, lectures, nightly observations, preparation and exhibition of posters, physics teaching for children, continuing education activities for teachers and regular physics teaching using Astronomy as a theme. The Club's teacher education and scientific dissemination work is based on the Theory of Meaningful Learning, always trying to reach the student's predisposition to learn and produce potentially meaningful material, the two essential conditions for meaningful learning to occur. O estudo que este trabalho relata ocorre desde 2009 no Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Santa Catarina, campus Araranguá. Nele procura-se formar divulgadores científicos durante a formação inicial de docentes do curso de Licenciatura em Ciências da Natureza com habilitação em Física, além de promover ações de divulgação científica para o público geral da região da cidade de Araranguá por meio de um Clube de Astronomia chamado CA² (Clube de Astronomia de Araranguá). Entre as ações de divulgação científica que os licenciandos promovem estão: produção de vídeos, programas de rádio, palestras, observações noturnas, confecção e exposição de pôsteres, ensino de física para crianças, formação continuada de professores em atividades e ensino de Física regular utilizando a Astronomia como tema gerador. O trabalho de formação docente e divulgação científica do Clube fundamenta

  17. Análise de Estruturas Morfológicas da Cauda de Plasma do Cometa P/Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Matsuura, O. T.

    1997-08-01

    531 imagens contidas no The International Halley Watch Atlas of Large-Scale Phenomena (Brandt et al., 1992) cobrindo o período de setembro de 1985 a julho de 1986 foram analisadas visando identificar, caracterizar as propriedades e correlacionar estruturas morfológicas da cauda de plasma do cometa P/Halley. A análise revelou 151 estruturas ondulatórias, 146 ondas solitárias (sólitons), 12 caudas do tipo Swan (Hyder et al., 1974; Niedner & Brandt, 1980; Jockers, 1985), 47 eventos de desconexão (D.E.'s) (Niedner & Brandt, 1979; Jockers, 1985; Celnik et al., 1988; Delva et al., 1991) e 23 regiões de adensamento ("knots") (Matsuura & Voelzke, 1990; Voelzke, 1996). - feita uma análise comparativa com outros trabalhos similares objetivando disciplinar a nomenclatura das estruturas morfológicas e a sua classificação. As estruturas ondulatórias correspondem a ondulaçóes ou trens de onda, enquanto que os sólitons referem-se a estruturas morfológicas usualmente denominadas "kinks" (Tomita et al., 1987). O valor médio do comprimento de onda, corrigido dos efeitos de projeção, Lc medido em 16 estruturas ondulatórias distintas corresponde a (2,2 +- 0,2) x 10^6 km. O valor médio da velocidade de fase cometocêntrica, corrigida dos efeitos de projeção, Vfc é igual a (114 +- 31) km/s e a amplitude média A da onda corresponde a (2,8 +- 0,5) x 10^5 km. Lc e A tendem a aumentar com o incremento da distància cometocêntrica. As ondas são claramente não-lineares e é discutido o local de sua excitação. A distribuição dos D.E.'s na distància heliocêntrica apresenta um caráter bimodal possivelmente associado com a distribuição espacial das fronteiras de setor magnético do meio interplanetário. Em geral, pode-se associar a ocorrência de um "knot" e/ou de uma cauda do tipo Swan com a ocorrência de um D.E., mas este último pode ocorrer independentemente. Os 47 D.E.'s em diferentes fases de evolução foram fotografados em 47 imagens distintas que

  18. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    %. Entre as misturas 1 e 2, foi melhor a 2. (80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado, 10% esterco de curral). Examinando-se 15 fatores, entre 11 casos afirmou-se a mistura como para melhor que a mistura 1. (70% latossolo vermelho novo, 20% palha de arroz queimado, 10% esterco de curral). Em caso de número de tuberculos 0-20 mm com a mistura 2. foi possivel aumentar geralmente os números de tuberculos em 77% que a mistura padrão. Efeitos de adubação 1. Área da folhas por planta entre manejo foi melhor de modo significativo a doságem de 3.6 grama vaso-1 adubo complexo (3103 cm2 plantas-1). 2. Peso fresco da folhas e de hastes por plantas as tendencias foram parecidos com o da área de folhas. 3. Peso fresco de raizis por planta até 7.2 grama vaso-1 diminuiu depois aumentou. 4. Peso fresco total de tuberculos por planta as crescentes doságens de um modo forte diminuiram a produção de tuberculos de 0 e 18.0 grama vaso-1 em 160% em os dois caso da mistura. 5. Peso de fitomassa fresco por planta foi melhor a 3.6 g vaso-1 (239 grama planta-1 em médio da dois mistura), depois os dados diminuirám. 6. Produção de biomassa fresco por planta a maxima produção (188 grama planta-1) foi obtida com 3.6 grama vaso-1. Deste ponto de modo forte caiu a produção. 7. Peso da matéria seca de folhas, hastes e raizis por planta somente em caso de mistura padrão o resultado foi significativo em relação aos outros tratamentos. 8. Péso da matéria seca de tuberculos total por planta modo significativo diminuiu a produção (0 e 18.0 grama vaso-1 = 360%) em médio da duas misturas. 9. Biomassa produção de materia seca por planta modo significativo diminuiu para efeito de alta dosagens de adubo complexo (0 e 18.0 grama vaso-1 = 158%) em médio da duas misturas. 10. Peso fresco de tuberculos com 0-20 mm as crescentes dosagens de 0 e 18.0 grama vaso-1 diminuiram a produção em 213% em médio da duas misturas. 11. Peso fresco de tuberculos com 20 mm-1 as

  19. Isolation, identification, and assay of [3H]-porfiromycin adducts of EMT6 mouse mammary tumor cell DNA: effects of hypoxia and dicumarol on adduct patterns.

    PubMed

    Tomasz, M; Hughes, C S; Chowdary, D; Keyes, S R; Lipman, R; Sartorelli, A C; Rockwell, S

    1991-07-01

    [3H]-(N-la-methyl) Porfiromycin (POR) was employed to detect and identify the radiolabeled mono- and bis-adducts formed in living EMT6 mouse mammary tumor cells under different conditions. To provide authentic standard adducts, calf-thymus DNA was treated with POR under reductive activation, then digested to nucleosides and POR-nucleoside adducts. The three major adducts formed were isolated by HPLC and authenticated. Two were mono-adducts, composed of deoxyguanosine linked at its N2-position to C-1 of POR and of 10-decarbamoyl POR. The third was a bis-adduct, in which POR was crosslinked to two deoxyguanosines at their N2-positions. DNA from [3H]-POR treated EMT6 cells was digested an analyzed by HPLC. DNA-associated label was located in thymidine and in two mono-adducts and one bis-adduct identical to those described above. Label in thymidine resulted from N-demethylation of POR and reincorporation of label into new thymidylate residues. Adducts were formed more abundantly in hypoxia than in air. In addition, the mono-adduct to crosslink ratios were different, approximately 1:1 and 2:1 for hypoxic and aerobic cells, respectively. The different patterns of alkylation in air and hypoxia may be related to the greater toxicity of POR in hypoxia. When cells were treated simultaneously with POR and dicumarol, adduct levels were lower, and a new, unknown adduct was observed primarily under hypoxia; these changes may be related to the altered toxicity of POR in the presence of dicumarol. The HPLC assay detected simultaneously the full array of stable mono- and bis-adducts in DNA with good sensitivity (greater than or equal to 2 x 10(6) adducts/nucleotide) and excellent reproducibility. This assay should be generally applicable to all cells and tissues when MC or POR with high specific radioactivity can be employed. PMID:1714285

  20. Development of novel cell surface display in Corynebacterium glutamicum using porin.

    PubMed

    Tateno, Toshihiro; Hatada, Kazuki; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2009-09-01

    We have developed a novel cell surface display in Corynebacterium glutamicum using porin proteins as anchor proteins. Porins are localized at C. glutamicum mycolic acid layer and exist as a hexamer. We used alpha-amylase from Streptococcus bovis 148 (AmyA) as a model protein to be displayed on the C. glutamicum cell surface. AmyA was fused to the C terminus of the porins PorB, PorC, or PorH. Expression vectors using fused proteins under the control of the cspB promoter were constructed and introduced into the C. glutamicum Cm strain. Immunostaining microscopy and flow cytometric analysis revealed that PorB-AmyA, PorC-AmyA, and PorH-AmyA were displayed on the C. glutamicum cell surface. AmyA activity was only detected in the cell fraction of C. glutamicum cells that displayed AmyA fused to PorB, PorC or PorH and AmyA activity was not detected in the supernatants of C. glutamicum culture broths after 72 h cultivation. Thus, we have demonstrated that C. glutamicum porins are very efficient anchor proteins for protein display in C. glutamicum. PMID:19430772

  1. Inhibition of the alternative pathway of nonhuman infant complement by porin B2 contributes to virulence of Neisseria meningitidis in the infant rat model.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Lisa A; Vu, David M; Granoff, Dan M; Ram, Sanjay

    2014-06-01

    Neisseria meningitidis utilizes capsular polysaccharide, lipooligosaccharide (LOS) sialic acid, factor H binding protein (fHbp), and neisserial surface protein A (NspA) to regulate the alternative pathway (AP) of complement. Using meningococcal mutants that lacked all four of the above-mentioned molecules (quadruple mutants), we recently identified a role for PorB2 in attenuating the human AP; inhibition was mediated by human fH, a key downregulatory protein of the AP. Previous studies showed that fH downregulation of the AP via fHbp or NspA is specific for human fH. Here, we report that PorB2-expressing quadruple mutants also regulate the AP of baby rabbit and infant rat complement. Blocking a human fH binding region on PorB2 of the quadruple mutant of strain 4243 with a chimeric protein that comprised human fH domains 6 and 7 fused to murine IgG Fc enhanced AP-mediated baby rabbit C3 deposition, which provided evidence for an fH-dependent mechanism of nonhuman AP regulation by PorB2. Using isogenic mutants of strain H44/76 that differed only in their PorB molecules, we confirmed a role for PorB2 in resistance to killing by infant rat serum. The PorB2-expressing strain also caused higher levels of bacteremia in infant rats than its isogenic PorB3-expressing counterpart, thus providing a molecular basis for increased survival of PorB2 isolates in this model. These studies link PorB2 expression with infection of infant rats, which could inform the choice of meningococcal strains for use in animal models, and reveals, for the first time, that PorB2-expressing strains of N. meningitidis regulate the AP of baby rabbits and rats. PMID:24686052

  2. Inhibition of the Alternative Pathway of Nonhuman Infant Complement by Porin B2 Contributes to Virulence of Neisseria meningitidis in the Infant Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Vu, David M.; Granoff, Dan M.; Ram, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis utilizes capsular polysaccharide, lipooligosaccharide (LOS) sialic acid, factor H binding protein (fHbp), and neisserial surface protein A (NspA) to regulate the alternative pathway (AP) of complement. Using meningococcal mutants that lacked all four of the above-mentioned molecules (quadruple mutants), we recently identified a role for PorB2 in attenuating the human AP; inhibition was mediated by human fH, a key downregulatory protein of the AP. Previous studies showed that fH downregulation of the AP via fHbp or NspA is specific for human fH. Here, we report that PorB2-expressing quadruple mutants also regulate the AP of baby rabbit and infant rat complement. Blocking a human fH binding region on PorB2 of the quadruple mutant of strain 4243 with a chimeric protein that comprised human fH domains 6 and 7 fused to murine IgG Fc enhanced AP-mediated baby rabbit C3 deposition, which provided evidence for an fH-dependent mechanism of nonhuman AP regulation by PorB2. Using isogenic mutants of strain H44/76 that differed only in their PorB molecules, we confirmed a role for PorB2 in resistance to killing by infant rat serum. The PorB2-expressing strain also caused higher levels of bacteremia in infant rats than its isogenic PorB3-expressing counterpart, thus providing a molecular basis for increased survival of PorB2 isolates in this model. These studies link PorB2 expression with infection of infant rats, which could inform the choice of meningococcal strains for use in animal models, and reveals, for the first time, that PorB2-expressing strains of N. meningitidis regulate the AP of baby rabbits and rats. PMID:24686052

  3. Cross-Species Analysis of Protein Dynamics Associated with Hydride and Proton Transfer in the Catalytic Cycle of the Light-Driven Enzyme Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Hoeven, Robin; Hardman, Samantha J O; Heyes, Derren J; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2016-02-16

    Experimental interrogation of the relationship between protein dynamics and enzyme catalysis is challenging. Light-activated protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) is an excellent model for investigating this relationship because photoinitiation of the reaction cycle enables coordinated turnover in a "dark-assembled" ternary enzyme-substrate complex. The catalytic cycle involves sequential hydride and proton transfers (from NADPH and an active site tyrosine residue, respectively) to the substrate protochlorophyllide. Studies with a limited cross-species subset of POR enzymes (n = 4) have suggested that protein dynamics associated with hydride and proton transfer are distinct [Heyes, D. J., Levy, C., Sakuma, M., Robertson, D. L., and Scrutton, N. S. (2011) J. Biol. Chem. 286, 11849-11854]. Here, we use steady-state assays and single-turnover laser flash spectroscopy to analyze hydride and proton transfer dynamics in an extended series of POR enzymes taken from many species, including cyanobacteria, algae, embryophytes, and angiosperms. Hydride/proton transfer in all eukaryotic PORs is faster compared to prokaryotic PORs, suggesting active site architecture has been optimized in eukaryotic PORs following endosymbiosis. Visible pump-probe spectroscopy was also used to demonstrate a common photoexcitation mechanism for representative POR enzymes from different branches of the phylogenetic tree. Dynamics associated with hydride transfer are localized to the active site of all POR enzymes and are conserved. However, dynamics associated with proton transfer are variable. Protein dynamics associated with proton transfer are also coupled to solvent dynamics in cyanobacterial PORs, and these networks are likely required to optimize (shorten) the donor-acceptor distance for proton transfer. These extended networks are absent in algal and plant PORs. Our analysis suggests that extended networks of dynamics are disfavored, possibly through natural selection. Implications for

  4. Ichnological evidence of Megalosaurid Dinosaurs Crossing Middle Jurassic Tidal Flats

    PubMed Central

    Razzolini, Novella L.; Oms, Oriol; Castanera, Diego; Vila, Bernat; Santos, Vanda Faria dos; Galobart, Àngel

    2016-01-01

    A new dinosaur tracksite in the Vale de Meios quarry (Serra de Aire Formation, Bathonian, Portugal)preserves more than 700 theropod tracks. They are organized in at least 80 unidirectional trackways arranged in a bimodal orientation pattern (W/NW and E/SE). Quantitative and qualitative comparisons reveal that the large tridactyl, elongated and asymmetric tracks resemble the typical Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Megalosauripus ichnogenus in all morphometric parameters. Few of the numerous tracks are preserved as elite tracks while the rest are preserved as different gradients of modified true tracks according to water content, erosive factors, radial fractures and internal overtrack formations. Taphonomical determinations are consistent with paleoenvironmental observations that indicate an inter-tidal flat located at the margin of a coastal barrier. The Megalosauripus tracks represent the oldest occurrence of this ichnotaxon and are attributed to large megalosaurid dinosaurs. Their occurrence in Vale de Meios tidal flat represents the unique paleoethological evidence of megalosaurids moving towards the lagoon, most likley during the low tide periods with feeding purposes. PMID:27538759

  5. Ichnological evidence of Megalosaurid Dinosaurs Crossing Middle Jurassic Tidal Flats.

    PubMed

    Razzolini, Novella L; Oms, Oriol; Castanera, Diego; Vila, Bernat; Santos, Vanda Faria Dos; Galobart, Àngel

    2016-01-01

    A new dinosaur tracksite in the Vale de Meios quarry (Serra de Aire Formation, Bathonian, Portugal)preserves more than 700 theropod tracks. They are organized in at least 80 unidirectional trackways arranged in a bimodal orientation pattern (W/NW and E/SE). Quantitative and qualitative comparisons reveal that the large tridactyl, elongated and asymmetric tracks resemble the typical Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Megalosauripus ichnogenus in all morphometric parameters. Few of the numerous tracks are preserved as elite tracks while the rest are preserved as different gradients of modified true tracks according to water content, erosive factors, radial fractures and internal overtrack formations. Taphonomical determinations are consistent with paleoenvironmental observations that indicate an inter-tidal flat located at the margin of a coastal barrier. The Megalosauripus tracks represent the oldest occurrence of this ichnotaxon and are attributed to large megalosaurid dinosaurs. Their occurrence in Vale de Meios tidal flat represents the unique paleoethological evidence of megalosaurids moving towards the lagoon, most likley during the low tide periods with feeding purposes. PMID:27538759

  6. Correlation between drug uptake and selective toxicity of porfiromycin to hypoxic EMT6 cells.

    PubMed

    Keyes, S R; Rockwell, S; Sartorelli, A C

    1987-11-01

    Mitomycin C and its methylated analogue porfiromycin (Por) have significant potential as adjuncts to regimens presently used for treating solid tumors because of their preferential toxicity to cells existing in an hypoxic environment. An understanding of the factors producing the differential activity of these drugs under aerobic and hypoxic conditions would facilitate the development of new agents of this class. Previous studies have focused on the enzymes that reductively activate the mitomycins and on the interaction of these drugs with DNA; none of these studies has fully explained the differences in cytotoxicity observed under hypoxic and aerobic conditions. The present investigation demonstrates that the rate of Por uptake is directly correlated with cytotoxicity under both aerobic and hypoxic conditions. Uptake of Por into hypoxic cells is more rapid than into aerobic cells at equal drug concentrations. Hypoxic cells also accumulate drug in concentrations well in excess of those in the extracellular medium; this is apparently a reflection of drug sequestration in these cells. This sequestration of Por, which affects the rate and extent of uptake in hypoxic cells, does not take place in aerobic cells. The failure of aerobic cells to sequester drug is evidenced by the very rapid efflux of Por from these cells upon removal of extracellular Por and by the fact that aerobic cells attain a state of equilibrium between the intracellular and extracellular drug concentrations. The findings demonstrate that differences in the uptake and retention of Por are associated with the preferential toxicity of Por to hypoxic cells. PMID:3664473

  7. 78 FR 20615 - Drill Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ...: Countervailing Duty Order, 76 FR 11758 (March 3, 2011) (CVD Order), remains dispositive. A full description of...). The period of review (POR) is March 3, 2011, through December 31, 2011. We preliminary determine that... subsidies during the POR. DATES: Effective Date: April 5, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  8. 76 FR 57713 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... in Part, 76 FR 49729 (August 11, 2011) (``Final Results''). DATES: Effective Date: September 16, 2011... the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ The period of review (``POR'') is January 1, 2009... allegation on August 22, 2011, because it incorrectly identified the POR on its August 17, 2011,...

  9. 26 CFR 31.6011(a)-1 - Returns under Federal Insurance Contributions Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... or Form 1040-PR, “Planilla para la Declaración de la Contribución Federal sobre el Trabajo por Cuenta Propia (Incluyendo el Crédito Tributario Adicional por Hijos para Residentes Bona Fide de Puerto...

  10. Using MOMP typing as an epidemiological tool to investigate outbreaks caused by milkborne Campylobacter jejuni isolates in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe using major outer membrane protein (MOMP) typing as a screen to compare the C. jejuni porA gene sequences of clinical outbreak strains from human stool with the porA sequences of dairy farm strains isolated during two milkborne campylobacteriosis outbreak investigations in California. Th...

  11. 76 FR 34296 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms 1040-PR and 1040-SS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... para la Declaraci n de la Contribuci n Federal sobre el Trabajo por Cuenta Propia (Incluyendo el Cr... para la Declaraci n de la Contribuci n Federal sobre el Trabajo por Cuenta Propia (Incluyendo el Cr... collection techniques or other forms of information technology; and (e) estimates of capital or...

  12. 77 FR 72268 - Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... associated with the proposed collection of information; and Estimates of capital or start-up costs and costs... Declaraci n de la Contribuci n Federal sobre el Trabajo por Cuenta Propia (Incluyendo el Cr dito Tributario... Declaraci n de la Contribuci n Federal sobre el Trabajo por Cuenta Propia (Incluyendo el Cr dito...

  13. Estudio de NIH señala que la sigmoidoscopia reduce los índices de cáncer colorrectal

    Cancer.gov

    Estudio señala que la sigmoidoscopia flexible es efectiva para reducir los índices de casos nuevos y de muertes por cáncer colorrectal. Los investigadores encontraron que la mortalidad general por cáncer colorrectal se redujo 26% y que la incidencia se re

  14. Un estudio de los NIH indica que el consumo regular de aspirina podría reducir el riesgo de cáncer d

    Cancer.gov

    Las mujeres que toman aspirina diariamente podrían reducir el riesgo de cáncer de ovario en 20 por ciento, de acuerdo con un estudio realizado por científicos del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), el cual forma parte de los Institutos Nacionales de la

  15. Aerodinámica y béisbol

    NASA Video Gallery

    La NASA es conocida por la astronáutica y los aviones, pero ¿también por el Active béisbol? A los investigadores de la NASA les gusta resolver problemas prácticoscomo cuán lejos llegará una bola b...

  16. Comunicado de prensa del Informe Anual sobre el Estado del Cáncer 2015

    Cancer.gov

    Por primera vez, los investigadores han usado datos a nivel nacional para determinar la incidencia de los cuatro subtipos moleculares principales de cáncer de seno (mama) por edad, raza y grupo étnico, nivel de pobreza y varios otros factores. El informe

  17. Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Cáncer de 1975 a 2008: preguntas y respuestas

    Cancer.gov

    Los índices generales de mortalidad por cáncer han seguido disminuyendo desde principios de los noventa entre hombres, mujeres y niños. Los índices de mortalidad disminuyeron en promedio 1,6% por año entre 2004 y 2008.

  18. Planificar la transición a la etapa final de la vida (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre la preparación necesaria por parte de los proveedores de atención de la salud, los pacientes y sus familias para la transición a la atención del cáncer avanzado en la etapa final de la vida.

  19. Planificar la transición en la etapa final de la vida (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre la preparación necesaria por parte de los proveedores de atención de la salud, los pacientes y sus familas para la transición a la atención del cáncer avanzado en la etapa final de la vida.

  20. Estudio Nacional de Exámenes de Pulmón: preguntas y respuestas

    Cancer.gov

    El Estudio Nacional de Exámenes de Pulmón (National Lung Screening Trial, NLST) es un estudio de exámenes selectivos de detección de cáncer de pulmón patrocinado por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) y llevado a cabo por la American College of Radiol

  1. Reduction in hepatic drug metabolizing CYP3A4 activities caused by P450 oxidoreductase mutations identified in patients with disordered steroid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E.; Pandey, Amit V.

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), metabolizes 50% of drugs in clinical use and requires NADPH-P450 reductase (POR). {yields} Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. {yields} We are reporting that mutations in POR may reduce CYP3A4 activity. {yields} POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X lost 99%, while A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% CYP3A4 activity. {yields} Reduction of CYP3A4 activity may cause increased risk of drug toxicities/adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations. -- Abstract: Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the major P450 present in human liver metabolizes approximately half the drugs in clinical use and requires electrons supplied from NADPH through NADPH-P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. In this study we examined the effect of mutations in POR on CYP3A4 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified CYP3A4 to perform kinetic studies. We are reporting that mutations in POR identified in patients with disordered steroidogenesis/Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) may reduce CYP3A4 activity, potentially affecting drug metabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had more than 99% loss of CYP3A4 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% activity. Loss of CYP3A4 activity may result in increased risk of drug toxicities and adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations.

  2. Observações no infravermelho médio de objetos estelares jovens em NGC 3576

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, C.; Damineli, A.; Blum, R.; Conti, P.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos os resultados de observações no infravermelho médio de candidatos a objetos estelares jovens e massivos em NGC 3576. As imagens de alta resolução foram obtidas no observatório Gemini Sul com o uso dos filtros em 10,8, 7,9, 9,8, 12,5 e 18,2 mm. Nossas imagens mostram a fonte IRS 1 resolvida em 4 objetos pela primeira vez em 10 mm. Para cada objeto obtivemos a distribuição espectral de energia de 1.2 até 18 mm, bem como a temperatura de cor, a distribuição espacial e a profundidade óptica em 9,8 mm da poeira circunstelar. Apresentamos uma estimativa das massas dos objetos estudados, baseados na luminosidade emitida no infravermelho médio, bem como um modelo para explicar as diferentes características observadas de cada objeto. Finalmente discutimos a possível localização da(s) fonte(s) de ionização de NGC 3576.

  3. Activity of C-7 substituted cyclic acetal derivatives of mitomycin C and porfiromycin against hypoxic and oxygenated EMT6 carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, S; Keyes, S R; Loomis, R; Kelley, M; Vyas, D M; Wong, H; Doyle, T W; Sartorelli, A C

    1991-06-01

    A series of cyclic acetal derivatives of mitomycin C (MC) and porfiromycin (POR) were tested for their ability to kill hypoxic and oxygenated EMT6 tumor cells. Amino methyl acetal and thioacetal substitutions at C-7 of MC and POR dramatically increased the cytotoxicity of the compounds to hypoxic EMT6 tumor cells in vitro but had little effect on the aerobic toxicities. In contrast, a methyl substitution at N1a markedly decreased the aerobic cytotoxicities of the compounds but did not alter the hypoxic cytotoxicities. The POR acetal, BMY-42355, had the largest differential between hypoxic and aerobic cytotoxicities yet observed among MC analogs. Preliminary studies in mice showed that BMY-42355 had good antineoplastic activity when used alone or in combination with radiation and was less toxic than POR; the therapeutic ratio of this compound in these initial studies was higher than those of either MC or POR. PMID:2049227

  4. Porfiromycin as an adjunct to radiotherapy in young and old mice.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, S; Hughes, C S; Keyes, S R; Sartorelli, A C; Kennedy, K A

    1993-01-01

    Radiobiological data and measurements with O2 microelectrodes show that EMT6 tumors implanted into aged mice have a higher proportion of radioresistant, hypoxic cells than do tumors implanted into young adult animals; radiation is less effective in killing cells in tumors in old mice than in tumors in young adult mice. The studies reported here examine the effects of porfiromycin (POR), a bioreductive alkylating agent shown previously to be preferentially toxic to hypoxic EMT6 cells in vitro and in solid tumors in young adult mice. POR was effective in attacking the hypoxic cells of tumors in aged mice; regimens combining POR with x-rays overcame the radioresistance of tumors in the old animals. Comparisons of the distribution of 3H-labeled POR in young and old mice showed that tumors in aged mice had a slightly larger proportion of areas with necrotic features, which bound higher levels of tritiated POR than did healthy tumor regions without necrotic features. Studies of histology, lissamine green distributions, binding of tritiated POR, and radiation and POR cytotoxicity suggested that tumors in old mice contained a larger proportion of poorly perfused tumor cells, and that cells in these regions were resistant to radiation and sensitive to POR. Studies of the distribution of POR in normal tissues and of the toxicity of POR to bone marrow progenitor cells (CFU-GM) revealed no differences between young and old animals, showing that the differences observed in tumors reflected differences in the microenvironments within the tumors, rather than differences in the processing of drug in young and old animals. PMID:8344398

  5. Interannual variation and long-term trends in proportions of resident individuals in partially migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Meller, Kalle; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Hokkanen, Tatu; Rintala, Jukka; Piha, Markus; Lehikoinen, Aleksi

    2016-03-01

    Partial migration - a part of a population migrates and another part stays resident year-round on the breeding site - is probably the most common type of migration in the animal kingdom, yet it has only lately garnered more attention. Theoretical studies indicate that in partially migratory populations, the proportion of resident individuals (PoR) should increase in high latitudes in response to the warming climate, but empirical evidence exists for few species. We provide the first comprehensive overview of the environmental factors affecting PoR and the long-term trends in PoR by studying 27 common partially migratory bird species in Finland. The annual PoR values were calculated by dividing the winter bird abundance by the preceding breeding abundance. First, we analysed whether early-winter temperature, winter temperature year before or the abundance of tree seeds just before overwintering explains the interannual variation in PoR. Secondly, we analysed the trends in PoR between 1987 and 2011. Early-winter temperature explained the interannual variation in PoR in the waterbirds (waterfowl and gulls), most likely because the temperature affects the ice conditions and thereby the feeding opportunities for the waterbirds. In terrestrial species, the abundance of seeds was the best explanatory variable. Previous winter's temperature did not explain PoR in any species, and thus, we conclude that the variation in food availability caused the interannual variation in PoR. During the study period, PoR increased in waterbirds, but did not change in terrestrial birds. Partially migratory species living in physically contrasting habitats can differ in their annual and long-term population-level behavioural responses to warming climate, possibly because warm winter temperatures reduce ice cover and improve the feeding possibilities of waterbirds but do not directly regulate the food availability for terrestrial birds. PMID:26718017

  6. Deletion of P399{sub E}401 in NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase results in partial mixed oxidase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Flueck, Christa E.; Mallet, Delphine; Hofer, Gaby; Samara-Boustani, Dinane; Leger, Juliane; Polak, Michel; Morel, Yves; Pandey, Amit V.

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia. {yields} We are reporting a novel 3 amino acid deletion mutation in POR P399{sub E}401del. {yields} POR mutation P399{sub E}401del decreased P450 activities by 60-85%. {yields} Impairment of steroid metabolism may be caused by multiple hits. {yields} Severity of aromatase inhibition is related to degree of in utero virilization. -- Abstract: P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the electron donor for all microsomal P450s including steroidogenic enzymes CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and CYP21A2. We found a novel POR mutation P399{sub E}401del in two unrelated Turkish patients with 46,XX disorder of sexual development. Recombinant POR proteins were produced in yeast and tested for their ability to support steroid metabolizing P450 activities. In comparison to wild-type POR, the P399{sub E}401del protein was found to decrease catalytic efficiency of 21-hydroxylation of progesterone by 68%, 17{alpha}-hydroxylation of progesterone by 76%, 17,20-lyase action on 17OH-pregnenolone by 69%, aromatization of androstenedione by 85% and cytochrome c reduction activity by 80%. Protein structure analysis of the three amino acid deletion P399{sub E}401 revealed reduced stability and flexibility of the mutant. In conclusion, P399{sub E}401del is a novel mutation in POR that provides valuable genotype-phenotype and structure-function correlation for mutations in a different region of POR compared to previous studies. Characterization of P399{sub E}401del provides further insight into specificity of different P450s for interaction with POR as well as nature of metabolic disruptions caused by more pronounced effect on specific P450s like CYP17A1 and aromatase.

  7. Bacterial porin disrupts mitochondrial membrane potential and sensitizes host cells to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Dian-Lothrop, Elke A; Meinecke, Michael; Kepp, Oliver; Ross, Katharina; Rajalingam, Krishnaraj; Harsman, Anke; Hauf, Eva; Brinkmann, Volker; Günther, Dirk; Herrmann, Ines; Hurwitz, Robert; Rassow, Joachim; Wagner, Richard; Rudel, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    The bacterial PorB porin, an ATP-binding beta-barrel protein of pathogenic Neisseria gonorrhoeae, triggers host cell apoptosis by an unknown mechanism. PorB is targeted to and imported by host cell mitochondria, causing the breakdown of the mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)). Here, we show that PorB induces the condensation of the mitochondrial matrix and the loss of cristae structures, sensitizing cells to the induction of apoptosis via signaling pathways activated by BH3-only proteins. PorB is imported into mitochondria through the general translocase TOM but, unexpectedly, is not recognized by the SAM sorting machinery, usually required for the assembly of beta-barrel proteins in the mitochondrial outer membrane. PorB integrates into the mitochondrial inner membrane, leading to the breakdown of DeltaPsi(m). The PorB channel is regulated by nucleotides and an isogenic PorB mutant defective in ATP-binding failed to induce DeltaPsi(m) loss and apoptosis, demonstrating that dissipation of DeltaPsi(m) is a requirement for cell death caused by neisserial infection. PMID:19851451

  8. Porin polypeptide contributes to surface charge of gonococci.

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, J; Dorward, D; Lubke, L; Kao, D

    1997-01-01

    Each strain of Neisseria gonorrhoeae elaborates a single porin polypeptide, with the porins expressed by different strains comprising two general classes, Por1A and Por1B. In the outer membrane, each porin molecule folds into 16 membrane-spanning beta-strands joined by top- and bottom-loop domains. Por1A and Por1B have similar membrane-spanning regions, but the eight surface-exposed top loops (I to VIII) differ in length and sequence. To determine whether porins, and especially their top loop domains, contribute to bacterial cell surface charge, strain MS11 gonococci that were identical except for expressing a recombinant Por1A, Por1B, or mosaic Por1A-1B polypeptide were compared by whole-cell electrophoresis. These porin variants displayed different electrophoretic mobilities that correlated with the net numbers of charged amino acids within surface-exposed loops of their respective porin polypeptides. The susceptibilities of porin variants to polyanionic sulfated polymers correlated roughly with gonococcal surface charge; those porin variants with diminished surface negativity showed increased sensitivity to the polyanionic sulfated compounds. These observations indicate that porin polypeptides in situ contribute to the surface charge of gonococci, and they suggest that the bacterium's interactions with large sulfated compounds are thereby affected. PMID:9171398

  9. An ortholog of farA of Aspergillus nidulans is implicated in the transcriptional activation of genes involved in fatty acid utilization in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica

    SciTech Connect

    Poopanitpan, Napapol; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Akinori

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} POR1 is a Yarrowia lipolytica ortholog of farA involved in fatty acid response in A. nidulans. {yields} Deletion of POR1 caused growth defects on fatty acids. {yields} {Delta}por1 strain exhibited defects in the induction of genes involved in fatty acid utilization. -- Abstract: The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica effectively utilizes hydrophobic substrates such as fatty acids and n-alkanes. To identify a gene(s) regulating fatty acid utilization in Y. lipolytica, we first studied homologous genes to OAF1 and PIP2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but their disruption did not change growth on oleic acid at all. We next characterized a Y. lipolytica gene, POR1 (primary oleate regulator 1), an ortholog of farA encoding a transcriptional activator that regulates fatty acid utilization in Aspergillus nidulans. The deletion mutant of POR1 was defective in the growth on various fatty acids, but not on glucose, glycerol, or n-hexadecane. It exhibited slight defect on n-decane. The transcriptional induction of genes involved in {beta}-oxidation and peroxisome proliferation by oleate was distinctly diminished in the {Delta}por1 strains. These data suggest that POR1 encodes a transcriptional activator widely regulating fatty acid metabolism in Y. lipolytica.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and molecular structures of six-coordinate manganese nitrosyl porphyrins†

    PubMed Central

    Zahran, Zaki N.; Lee, Jonghyuk; Alguindigue, Susan S.; Khan, Masood A.; Richter-Addo*, George B.

    2005-01-01

    Manganese(II) porphyrins are isoelectronic with iron(III) porphyrins, and previously reported work suggests that manganese nitrosyl porphyrins are good structural models for their kinetically unstable and biologically relevant ferric–NO analogues. We have prepared a new set of six-coordinate manganese nitrosyl porphyrins of the general form (por)Mn(NO)(L) (por = TTP, T(p-OCH3)PP; L = piperidine, methanol, 1-methylimidazole) in moderate to high yields. The (por)Mn(NO)(pip) complexes were prepared from the reductive nitrosylation of the (por)MnCl compounds with NO in the presence of piperidine. The IR spectra of the (por)Mn(NO)(pip) compounds as KBr pellets show new strong bands at 1746 cm−1 (for TTP) and 1748 cm−1 (for (T(p-OCH3)PP) due to the NO ligands. Attempted crystallization of one of these compounds (por = TTP) from dichloromethane–methanol resulted in the generation of the methanol complex (TTP)Mn(NO)(CH3OH). Reaction of the (por)Mn(NO)(pip) compounds with excess 1-methylimidazole gave the (por)Mn(NO)(1-MeIm) derivatives in good yields. The IR spectra of these compounds show νNO bands that are ~12 cm−1 lower than those of the (por)Mn(NO)(pip) precursors, indicative of greater Mn→NO π-backdonation in the 1-MeIm derivatives. X-Ray crystal structures of three of these compounds, namely (TTP)Mn(NO)(CH3OH), (TTP)Mn(NO)(1-MeIm) and (T(p-OCH3)PP)Mn(NO)(1-MeIm) were obtained, and reveal that the NO ligands in these complexes are linear. PMID:15356740

  11. "Spider"-shaped porphyrins with conjugated pyridyl anchoring groups as efficient sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Stangel, Christina; Bagaki, Anthi; Angaridis, Panagiotis A; Charalambidis, Georgios; Sharma, Ganesh D; Coutsolelos, Athanasios G

    2014-11-17

    Two novel "spider-shaped" porphyrins, meso-tetraaryl-substituted 1PV-Por and zinc-metalated 1PV-Zn-Por, bearing four oligo(p-phenylenevinylene) (oPPV) pyridyl groups with long dodecyloxy chains on the phenyl groups, have been synthesized. The presence of four pyridyl groups in both porphyrins, which allow them to act as anchoring groups upon coordination to various Lewis acid sites, the conjugated oPPV bridges, which offer the possibility of electronic communication between the porphyrin core and the pyridyl groups, and the dodecyloxy groups, which offer the advantage of high solubility in a variety of organic solvents of different polarities and could prevent porphyrin aggregation, renders porphyrins 1PV-Por and 1PV-Zn-Por very promising sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Photophysical measurements, together with electrochemistry experiments and density functional theory calculations, suggest that both porphyrins have frontier molecular orbital energy levels that favor electron injection and dye regeneration in DSSCs. Solar cells sensitized by 1PV-Por and 1PV-Zn-Por were fabricated, and it was found that they show power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 3.28 and 5.12%, respectively. Photovoltaic measurements (J-V curves) together with incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency spectra of the two cells reveal that the higher PCE value of the DSSC based on 1PV-Zn-Por is ascribed to higher short-circuit current (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (Voc), and dye loading values. Emission spectra and electrochemistry experiments suggest a greater driving force for injection of the photogenerated electrons into the TiO2 conduction band for 1PV-Zn-Por rather than its free-base analogue. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements prove that the utilization of 1PV-Zn-Por as a sensitizer offers a high charge recombination resistance and, therefore, leads to a longer electron lifetime. PMID:25365138

  12. Characterisation of porin genes from Mycobacterium fortuitum and their impact on growth

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Highly pathogenic mycobacteria like Mycobacterium tuberculosis are characterised by their slow growth and their ability to reside and multiply in the very hostile phagosomal environment and a correlation between the growth rate of mycobacteria and their pathogenicity has been hypothesised. Here, porin genes from M. fortuitum were cloned and characterised to address their impact on the growth rate of fast-growing and pathogenic mycobacteria. Results Two genes encoding porins orthologous to MspA from M. smegmatis, porM1 and porM2, were cloned from M. fortuitum strains, which were originally isolated from human patients. Both porin genes were at least partially able to complement the mutations of a M. smegmatis mutant strain lacking the genes mspA and mspC with respect to the growth rate. PorM1 and porM2 were present in different strains of M. fortuitum including the type strain. Comparative expression analysis of porM genes revealed divergent porin expression among analysed M. fortuitum strains. Repression of the expression of porins by antisense technique decreased the growth rates of different M. fortuitum. The effects of over-expression of porM1 as well as porM2 varied depending on the strain and the concentration of antibiotic added to the medium and indicated that PorM1 and PorM2 enhance the growth of M. fortuitum strains, but also the diffusion of the antibiotic kanamycin into the cells. Conclusion This study demonstrates the important role of porin expression in growth as well as antibiotic susceptibility of the opportunistic bacterium M. fortuitum. PMID:19203364

  13. Transcriptional Regulation of the Human P450 Oxidoreductase Gene: Hormonal Regulation and Influence of Promoter Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Damm, Izabella

    2011-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the flavoprotein that acts as the obligatory electron donor to all microsomal P450 enzymes, including those involved in hepatic drug metabolism as well as three steroidogenic P450 enzymes. The untranslated first exon of human POR was located recently, permitting analysis of human POR transcription. Expression of deletional mutants containing up to 3193 bp of the human POR promoter in human adrenal NCI-H295A and liver Hep-G2 cells located the proximal promoter at −325/−1 bp from the untranslated exon. Common human POR polymorphisms at −208 and −173 had little influence on transcription, but the polymorphism at −152 reduced transcription significantly in both cell lines. EMSA and supershift assays identified binding of Smad3/Smad4 between −249 and −261 and binding of thyroid hormone receptor-β (TRβ) at −240/−245. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that Smad3, Smad4, TRα, TRβ, and estrogen receptor-α were bound between −374 and −149. Cotransfection of vectors for these transcription factors and POR promoter-reporter constructs into both cell types followed by hormonal treatment showed that T3 exerts major tropic effects via TRβ, with TRα, estrogen receptor-α, Smad3, and Smad4 exerting lesser, modulatory effects. T3 also increased POR mRNA in both cell lines. Thyroid hormone also is essential for rat liver POR expression but acts via different transcription factor complexes. These are the first data on human POR gene transcription, establishing roles for TRβ and Smad3/4 in its expression and indicating that the common polymorphism at −152 may play a role in genetic variation in steroid biosynthesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21393444

  14. Electrochemical studies of protonated and deprotonated forms of heteroleptic and homoleptic europium{sup (III)} and dysprosium{sup (III)} porphyrin double-deckers

    SciTech Connect

    Spyroulias, G.A.; Coutsolelos, A.G.; Montauzon, D. de; Poilblanc, R.

    1996-12-31

    Lanthanide {open_quotes}sandwich{close_quotes}-type porphyrins are those with double-decker or triple-decker structures of the form M(por){sub 2} or M{sub 2}(por){sub 3} where (por) is the dianion of the porphyrin ring. The cyclic voltammetric oxidation, of heteroleptic and homoleptic lanthanide porphyrin double-deckers demonstrates the presence of equilibrium protonated/deprotonated species present in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, DMF, and THF. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Bersano Benavides, Gonzalo; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Tumi Figueroa, Ernesto Nayer; Urra Albornoz, Camilo; Sulla-Torres, Jose; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: validar un cuestionario para medir la preocupación por la alimentación de los adolescentes, verificar la fiabilidad y desarrollar valores normativos en función de la edad, sexo y categoría. Metodología: se estudió a 3.121 (1.645 hombres y 1.476 mujeres) adolescentes de 11,0 a 18,9 años de cinco establecimientos municipales de la región del Maule, Chile. Se evaluó el peso, estatura y se calculó el índice de masa corporal. Se aplicó un cuestionario que mide la preocupación por la alimentación de adolescentes escolares. Se validó por análisis confirmatorio y la fiabilidad se determinó por consistencia interna. Resultados: el análisis factorial confirmó la presencia de cuatro factores (preocupación por la restricción de la comida, preocupación por el consumo de comida, preocupación por la forma de comer y preocupación por el peso corporal). Se eliminaron 5 preguntas que mostraron saturaciones inferiores a 0,39. El instrumento quedó conformado con 24 preguntas que explican 51,8% de la varianza. El alpha de Cronbach mostró valores entre 0,85 y 0,88. Se construyeron percentiles (p15, p50 y p85) a partir del método LMS para valorar la preocupación por la alimentación por categoría, edad y sexo. Conclusión: el instrumento desarrollado es válido y confiable y sirve para valorar el nivel de preocupación por la alimentación de adolescentes escolares. Además, las normas propuestas podrían servir a los profesionales del sistema educativo para llevar a cabo tareas de prevención con los jóvenes que evidencien bajos niveles de preocupación por su alimentación. PMID:27238796

  16. Metalloporphyrin-Nitroxyl Interactions: The Low-Energy States of Reduced Manganese, Iron, and Cobalt Porphyrin Nitrosyls.

    PubMed

    Conradie, Jeanet; Ghosh, Abhik

    2016-06-01

    DFT calculations employing the OLYP and B3LYP functionals have been used to map out the low energy states of the metalloporphyrin-nitroxyl adducts "M(Por) + NO(-)" and "M(Por) + HNO", where M = Fe, Co, and Mn and Por(2-) is the dianion of unsubstituted porphyrin. For [Fe(Por)(NO)](-), the calculations yield two low-energy solutions, with MS = 0 and 1. The MS = 0 solution is thought to represent the experimentally observed diamagnetic ground states of {FeNO}(8) porphyrins, and both functionals yield FeNO geometrical parameters in excellent agreement with a recent crystal structure. For [Co(Por)(NO)](-), the lowest-energy solution for both OLYP and B3LYP is a true {CoNO}(9) state that appears to be best described as a high-spin Co(II) center with a dxy(2)dxz(1)dyz(1)dz2(2)dx2-y2(1) configuration antiferromagnetically coupled to a NO(-) diradical. Such an electronic configuration is expected to lead to diagnostic structural features, including long equatorial Co-N distances (∼2.1 Å), a strong displacement (∼0.4 Å) of the metal from the mean plane of the equatorial nitrogens, and a relatively short Co-N(O) distance (1.8 Å), which should all be experimentally observable. The dx2-y2(1) electronic configuration should also lead to characteristic EPR hyperfine parameters. The calculations also indicate a number of other low-energy states for [Co(Por)(NO)](-), including multiple {CoNO}(8) porphyrin anion radical states. For [Mn(Por)(NO)](-), both functionals indicate a rather complex electronic state landscape, including multiple {MnNO}(6) porphyrin anion radical states as well as a high-spin S = 3/2 {MnNO}(7) state. Both functionals clearly indicate a low-spin Fe(II) state for [Fe(Por)(HNO)]. On the other hand, two comparably low-energy states are predicted for both [Co(Por)(HNO)] and [Mn(Por)(HNO)]. For [Co(Por)(HNO)], the two states are a low-spin Co(II) state with a dxy(2)dxz(2)dyz(2)dz2(1) configuration and a low-spin Co(III)(HNO)(•-) state. For [Mn(Por

  17. Meiofauna increases bacterial denitrification in marine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Bonaglia, S.; Nascimento, F. J. A; Bartoli, M.; Klawonn, I.; Brüchert, V.

    2014-01-01

    Denitrification is a critical process that can alleviate the effects of excessive nitrogen availability in aquatic ecosystems subject to eutrophication. An important part of denitrification occurs in benthic systems where bioturbation by meiofauna (invertebrates <1 mm) and its effect on element cycling are still not well understood. Here we study the quantitative impact of meiofauna populations of different abundance and diversity, in the presence and absence of macrofauna, on nitrate reduction, carbon mineralization and methane fluxes. In sediments with abundant and diverse meiofauna, denitrification is double that in sediments with low meiofauna, suggesting that meiofauna bioturbation has a stimulating effect on nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. However, high meiofauna densities in the presence of bivalves do not stimulate denitrification, while dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium rate and methane efflux are significantly enhanced. We demonstrate that the ecological interactions between meio-, macrofauna and bacteria are important in regulating nitrogen cycling in soft-sediment ecosystems. PMID:25318852

  18. Meiofauna increases bacterial denitrification in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Bonaglia, S; Nascimento, F J A; Bartoli, M; Klawonn, I; Brüchert, V

    2014-01-01

    Denitrification is a critical process that can alleviate the effects of excessive nitrogen availability in aquatic ecosystems subject to eutrophication. An important part of denitrification occurs in benthic systems where bioturbation by meiofauna (invertebrates <1 mm) and its effect on element cycling are still not well understood. Here we study the quantitative impact of meiofauna populations of different abundance and diversity, in the presence and absence of macrofauna, on nitrate reduction, carbon mineralization and methane fluxes. In sediments with abundant and diverse meiofauna, denitrification is double that in sediments with low meiofauna, suggesting that meiofauna bioturbation has a stimulating effect on nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. However, high meiofauna densities in the presence of bivalves do not stimulate denitrification, while dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium rate and methane efflux are significantly enhanced. We demonstrate that the ecological interactions between meio-, macrofauna and bacteria are important in regulating nitrogen cycling in soft-sediment ecosystems. PMID:25318852

  19. Benthic biomass size spectra in shelf and deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly-Gerreyn, B. A.; Martin, A. P.; Bett, B. J.; Anderson, T. R.; Kaariainen, J. I.; Main, C. E.; Marcinko, C. J.; Yool, A.

    2014-11-01

    The biomass distributions of marine benthic metazoans (meio- to macro-fauna, 1 μg-32 mg wet weight) across three contrasting sites were investigated to test the hypothesis that allometry can consistently explain observed trends in biomass spectra. Biomass (and abundance) size spectra were determined from observations made at the Faroe-Shetland Channel (FSC) in the Northeast Atlantic (water depth 1600 m), the Fladen Ground (FG) in the North Sea (150 m), and the hypoxic Oman Margin (OM) in the Arabian Sea (500 m). Observed biomass increased with body size as a power law at FG (scaling exponent, b = 0.16) and FSC (b = 0.32), but less convincingly at OM (b = 0.12 but not significantly different from 0). A simple model was constructed to represent the same 16 metazoan size classes used for the observed spectra, all reliant on a common detrital food pool, and allowing the three key processes of ingestion, respiration and mortality to scale with body size. A micro-genetic algorithm was used to fit the model to observations at the sites. The model accurately reproduces the observed scaling without needing to include the effects of local influences such as hypoxia. Our results suggest that the size-scaling of mortality and ingestion are dominant factors determining the distribution of biomass across the meio- to macrofaunal size range in contrasting marine sediment communities. Both the observations and the model results are broadly in agreement with the "metabolic theory of ecology" in predicting a quarter power scaling of biomass across geometric body size classes.

  20. Benthic biomass size spectra in shelf and deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly-Gerreyn, B. A.; Martin, A. P.; Bett, B. J.; Anderson, T. R.; Kaariainen, J. I.; Main, C. E.; Marcinko, C. J.; Yool, A.

    2014-01-01

    The biomass distributions of marine benthic organisms (meio- to macro-fauna, 1 μg-32 mg wet weight) across three contrasting sites were investigated to test the hypothesis that allometry can consistently explain observed trends in biomass spectra. Biomass (and abundance) size spectra were determined from observations made at the Faroe-Shetland Channel in the north-east Atlantic (water depth 1600 m), the Fladen Ground in the North Sea (150 m), and the hypoxic Oman Margin (500 m) in the Arabian Sea. Observed biomass increased with body size as a power law at FG (scaling exponent, b = 0.16) and FSC (b = 0.32), but less convincingly at OM (b = 0.12 but not significantly different from 0). A simple model was constructed to represent the same 16 metazoan size classes used for the observed spectra, all reliant on a common detrital food pool, and allowing the three key processes of ingestion, respiration and mortality to scale with body size. A micro-genetic algorithm was used to fit the model to observations at the sites. The model accurately reproduces the observed scaling without recourse to including the effects of local influences such as hypoxia. Our results suggest that the size-scaling of mortality and ingestion are dominant factors determining the distribution of biomass across the meio- to macrofaunal size range in contrasting marine sediment communities. Both the observations and the model results are broadly in agreement with the "Metabolic Theory of Ecology" in predicting a quarter power scaling of biomass across geometric body size classes.

  1. Prevención del cáncer de cavidad oral y orofaringe (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario de información revisada por expertos sobre factores que pueden influir en el riesgo de presentar cáncer de labio, cavidad oral y orofaringe, y sobre las investigaciones dirigidas a prevenir esta enfermedad.

  2. Back Cover: NIH MedlinePlus Salud

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues NIH MedlinePlus Salud Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. ¡A su salud! Los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH, por ...

  3. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bureau, a U.S. government agency that makes sure banks, lenders, and other financial companies treat you fairly. ... en secreto por los empleados de Wells Fargo Bank resultan en una multa histórica de $100 millones ...

  4. Light-harvesting ytterbium(III)-porphyrinate-BODIPY conjugates: synthesis, excitation-energy transfer, and two-photon-induced near-infrared-emission studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Zhu, Xunjin; Wong, Wai-Kwok; Tam, Hoi-Lam; Wong, Wai-Yeung

    2013-01-01

    Based on a donor-acceptor framework, several conjugates have been designed and prepared in which an electron-donor moiety, ytterbium(III) porphyrinate (YbPor), was linked through an ethynyl bridge to an electron-acceptor moiety, boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY). Photoluminescence studies demonstrated efficient energy transfer from the BODIPY moiety to the YbPor counterpart. When conjugated with the YbPor moiety, the BODIPY moiety served as an antenna to harvest the lower-energy visible light, subsequently transferring its energy to the YbPor counterpart, and, consequently, sensitizing the Yb(III) emission in the near-infrared (NIR) region with a quantum efficiency of up to 0.73% and a lifetime of around 40 μs. Moreover, these conjugates exhibited large two-photon-absorption cross-sections that ranged from 1048-2226 GM and strong two-photon-induced NIR emission. PMID:23165692

  5. Ten Ways Hispanics and Latinos Can Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... los alimentos que come y en la actividad física que hace. Estos son algunos consejos que le ... de peso comiendo alimentos saludables y haciendo actividad física. Trate de bajar de peso haciendo por lo ...

  6. Bladder Control: What Men Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... fuerte urgencia de orinar. • El escape puede ser un goteo constante. Los hombres con este problema por ... hombres mayores, puede oprimir la uretra y producir un chorro de orina débil, una necesidad urgente de ...

  7. Nuevos sistemas de frecuencia intermedia para el IAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalde, J. C.; Perilli, D.; Larrarte, J. J.

    Se presenta el diagrama en bloques de los nuevos sistemas de Frecuencia Intermedia para los dos radiómetros instalados en el IAR. Entre las características más importantes del sistema podemos mencionar la posibilidad de conectar cualquiera de las dos antenas a los ``backend" disponibles: analizador espectral de alta resolución (META II) de 0,05 Hz, autocorrelador de 1008 canales y contínuo. Se incorporan al sistema nuevos sintetizadores de frecuencia implementados con PLL y la moderna técnica de síntesis digital directa. Por último, el conjunto del sistema es susceptible de ser configurado por las computadoras de adquisición de datos, supervisadas por otra, que entrega el estado de funcionamiento actual y evita la selección de configuraciones incorrectas por parte del usuario.

  8. Back Cover: NIH MedlinePlus Salud

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues NIH MedlinePlus Salud Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of ... su salud! Los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH, por sus siglas en inglés), la Sociedad de ...

  9. 76 FR 73017 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Return; Form 1040-PR, Planilla Para La Declaracion De La Contribucion Federal Sobre El Trabajo Por Cuenta..., and provide credit to the taxpayer's social security account. Anejo H-PR is used to compute...

  10. Las características más fascinantes del nuevo Robot

    NASA Video Gallery

    impresionante es la palabra que describe perfectamente al nuevo robot Curiosity por su tamaño, sus instrumentos científicos y la manera en que la NASA planifica hacerlo aterrizar en Marte de forma ...

  11. Evidence for the bacterial origin of genes encoding fermentation enzymes of the amitochondriate protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, B; Mai, Z; Caplivski, D; Ghosh, S; de la Vega, H; Graf, T; Samuelson, J

    1997-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is an amitochondriate protozoan parasite with numerous bacterium-like fermentation enzymes including the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR), ferredoxin (FD), and alcohol dehydrogenase E (ADHE). The goal of this study was to determine whether the genes encoding these cytosolic E. histolytica fermentation enzymes might derive from a bacterium by horizontal transfer, as has previously been suggested for E. histolytica genes encoding heat shock protein 60, nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase, and superoxide dismutase. In this study, the E. histolytica por gene and the adhE gene of a second amitochondriate protozoan parasite, Giardia lamblia, were sequenced, and their phylogenetic positions were estimated in relation to POR, ADHE, and FD cloned from eukaryotic and eubacterial organisms. The E. histolytica por gene encodes a 1,620-amino-acid peptide that contained conserved iron-sulfur- and thiamine pyrophosphate-binding sites. The predicted E. histolytica POR showed fewer positional identities to the POR of G. lamblia (34%) than to the POR of the enterobacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae (49%), the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. (44%), and the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis (46%), which targets its POR to anaerobic organelles called hydrogenosomes. Maximum-likelihood, neighbor-joining, and parsimony analyses also suggested as less likely E. histolytica POR sharing more recent common ancestry with G. lamblia POR than with POR of bacteria and the T. vaginalis hydrogenosome. The G. lamblia adhE encodes an 888-amino-acid fusion peptide with an aldehyde dehydrogenase at its amino half and an iron-dependent (class 3) ADH at its carboxy half. The predicted G. lamblia ADHE showed extensive positional identities to ADHE of Escherichia coli (49%), Clostridium acetobutylicum (44%), and E. histolytica (43%) and lesser identities to the class 3 ADH of eubacteria and yeast (19 to 36%). Phylogenetic analyses inferred a closer relationship of the E

  12. Calibração do sistema imageador do telescópio MASCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejía, J.; D'Amico, F.; Villela, T.; Braga, J.

    2003-08-01

    O MASCO (MÁScara COdificada) é um telescópio imageador de raios-X e gama atualmente configurado para operar na faixa de 50 a 600 keV com uma resolução angular de 14 minutos de arco num campo de visada total circular de 23,5° de diâmetro. O MASCO está totalmente operacional e deverá ser lançado em um balão estratosférico no segundo semestre de 2003 para realizar observações durante ~20 horas a ~40 km de altitude. O telescópio utiliza uma máscara codificada de padrão uniformemente redundante modificado (MURA) de dimensões 19 ´ 19. Esse padrão pertence a uma subclasse de MURAs que apresenta anti-simetria de 90° e conseqüentemente permite a utilização da técnica de subtração de variações sistemáticas de ruído de fundo através de utilização da configuração anti-máscara, obtida com uma simples rotação da máscara. Neste trabalho apresentamos resultados de calibrações em laboratório que tiveram como objetivo testar o sistema imageador. Imagens de fontes radioativas foram obtidas com o telescópio em configuração de vôo, com a máscara girando. Serão discutidos os resultados desses testes e as técnicas desenvolvidas para eliminar ambigüidades de posição de fontes, otimização da relação sinal-ruído e observação de fontes fora do campo totalmente codificado. O sistema de máscara/antimáscara mostrou-se capaz de aumentar a relação sinal-ruído de ~60% para fontes intensas (100 s). Com a máscara girando, a técnica de reconstrução de imagens desenvolvida identificou a posição exata da fonte e não introduziu perda de sensibilidade. Imagens de uma fonte colocada a 8,3° - fora do campo totalmente codificado do telescópio -, mostraram uma diminuição de ~40% na relação sinal/ruído em relação ao centro do campo de visada, o que se deve à codificação incompleta pela máscara e à absorção parcial do fluxo pelos detectores de blindagem.

  13. Molecular characterization of Neisseria meningitidis isolates using a resequencing DNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Corless, Caroline E; Kaczmarski, Edward; Borrow, Ray; Guiver, Malcolm

    2008-05-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major cause of both meningitis and septicemia. Typically, isolates are characterized by using a combination of immunological phenotyping, using monoclonal and polyclonal antisera, and Sanger nucleotide sequencing of epitope-encoding variable regions, although these methods can be both time-consuming and limited by reagent availability. Herein, we describe and evaluate a novel microarray to define the porB and porA serotypes of N. meningitidis by the resequencing of variable regions in a single hybridization reaction. PCR products for each gene were amplified, pooled in equimolar concentrations, hybridized to the microarray, and analyzed using Affymetrix GeneChip DNA Analysis Software. Resequencing of the microarray data was then validated by comparison with sequencing data. Molecular profiles were generated for 50 isolates that were combinations of phenotypically typeable (ie, PorA and PorB) and non-typeable (PorB only) isolates. Microarray-generated profiles from isolates with a PorB phenotype were concordant with predicted profiles compared with a previously described typing scheme. In addition, 42% (8 of 19) of previously non-typeable samples were assigned a PorB type when tested using the microarray. The remaining isolates were novel types for which no typing antisera are currently available. The porA data were 97% concordant with Sanger nucleotide sequencing. These results suggest that that microarray resequencing may be a useful tool for the characterization of meningococci, particularly for those isolates that cannot be phenotyped, offering an alternative to conventional sequencing methods. PMID:18372424

  14. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the U.S. working population: an analysis of data from the 1997-2004 National Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Bang, Ki Moon; Syamlal, Girija; Mazurek, Jacek M

    2009-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence and the population attributable fraction of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the U.S. adult workers, we analyzed data obtained from the National Health Interview Surveys for the period 1997-2004. The overall COPD prevalence was 4.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.9-4.1%). The prevalence was higher in females (5.4%, 95% CI 5.3-5.6%) than in males (2.8%, 95% CI 2.7-2.9%); in Whites (4.2%, 95% CI 4.1-4.3%) than in Blacks (3.4%, 95% CI 3.1-3.7%) and other races (2.4%, 95% CI 2.1-2.8%). Compared with insurance, real estate and other finance industry, the top three industries associated with significantly higher prevalence odds ratios (PORs) (adjusted for age, sex, race, and smoking) were other educational services (POR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.3); transportation equipment (POR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8); and social services, religious and membership organizations (POR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7). Compared with managers and administrators, except public administration occupation, the top three occupations with significantly higher PORs were health service (1.8, 95% CI 1.5-2.1), other protective service (POR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.2), and material moving equipment operators (POR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.3). The overall population attributable fraction for association of COPD with employment was 12.2% for industry and 17.4% for occupation. Further studies are needed to determine specific risk factors associated with COPD in industries and occupations with elevated prevalence and POR. PMID:19863367

  15. Se calcula que los costos del cáncer ascenderán po

    Cancer.gov

    Con base en el crecimiento y en el avance de edad de la población de EE. UU., se proyecta que los gastos médicos por cáncer en el año 2020 ascenderán por lo menos a $158.000 millones (en dólares de 2010); lo que significa un aumento de 27% sobre 2010. Si

  16. Synthesis and solvent-dependent photochromic reactions of porphyrin-spiropyran hybrid compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Dae Young; Park, Tae Jong; Shin, Eun Ju

    2014-01-01

    Porphyrin(Por)-spiropyran(SP) hybrid compounds, including Por-SP dyad, Por-SP2 triad, and Por-SP4 pentad, were prepared and characterized by 1H NMR, MALDI-TOF MS and UV-Vis spectroscopies. Upon 350 nm UV irradiation of Por-SPn (n = 1, 2, 4) in dichloromethane, unusual red-shifted absorption spectra were observed with the colour change from pink into green. Probably due to the protonation of core nitrogens in porphyrin ring, their absorption maxima in dichloromethane were shifted from 418 (Soret band), 515, 550, 590, 645 (four Q bands) nm into 450 and 665 nm. Also, fluorescence maxima were also shifted from 650 and 715 nm to 692 nm. In the other hands, upon irradiation with 350 nm UV light in THF, the colour changed from pink into violet and absorption band at 590 nm increased and the fluorescence spectra showed the decrease of 650 and 715 nm bands and increase of 600-640 nm band, due to the normal ring-opening reaction of spiropyran moiety into merocyanine. In the dark, original absorption and fluorescence spectra were recovered very slowly in dichloromethane, but quickly in THF. The reversible photochromic reactions of Por-SPn (n = 1, 2, 4) in dichloromethane and THF were investigated by observing absorption and fluorescence spectral changes during UV irradiation or standing in the dark.

  17. Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antiulcer properties of Porphyra vietnamensis

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Saurabh; Sharma, Kiran; Sharma, Ajay; Nagpal, Kalpana; Bera, Tanmoy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Aim of the present work was to investigate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antiulcer effects of red seaweed Porphyra vietnamensis (P. vietnamenis). Materials and Methods: Aqueous (POR) and alcoholic (PE) fractions were successfully isolated from P. vietnamenis. Further biological investigations were performed using a classic test of paw edema induced by carrageenan, writhing induced by acetic acid, hot plate method and naproxen induced gastro-duodenal ulcer. Results: Among the fractions POR showed better activity. POR and PE significantly (p < 0.05) reduced carrageenan induced paw edema in a dose dependent manner. In the writhing test POR significantly (p < 0.05) reduced abdominal writhes than PE. In hot plate method POR showed better analgesic activity than PE. POR showed comparable ulcers reducing potential (p<0.01) to that of omeprazole, and has more ulcer reducing potential then PE. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated that P. vietnamenis aqueous fraction possesses biological activity that is close to the standards taken for the treatment of peripheral painful or/and inflammatory and ulcer conditions. PMID:25767759

  18. Lack of a surface layer in Tannerella forsythia mutants deficient in the type IX secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Yuka; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Shoji, Mikio; Nakane, Daisuke; Nagano, Keiji; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Naito, Mariko

    2014-01-01

    Tannerella forsythia, a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, is an important pathogen in periodontal disease. This bacterium possesses genes encoding all known components of the type IX secretion system (T9SS). T. forsythia mutants deficient in genes orthologous to the T9SS-encoding genes porK, porT and sov were constructed. All porK, porT and sov single mutants lacked the surface layer (S-layer) and expressed less-glycosylated versions of the S-layer glycoproteins TfsA and TfsB. In addition, these mutants exhibited decreased haemagglutination and increased biofilm formation. Comparison of the proteins secreted by the porK and WT strains revealed that the secretion of several proteins containing C-terminal domain (CTD)-like sequences is dependent on the porK gene. These results indicate that the T9SS is functional in T. forsythia and contributes to the translocation of CTD proteins to the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu. PMID:25023245

  19. Photoactive protochlorophyllide-enzyme complexes reconstituted with PORA, PORB and PORC proteins of A. thaliana: fluorescence and catalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Gabruk, Michał; Stecka, Anna; Strzałka, Wojciech; Kruk, Jerzy; Strzałka, Kazimierz; Mysliwa-Kurdziel, Beata

    2015-01-01

    Photoactive Pchlide-POR-NADPH complexes were reconstituted using protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) and recombinant light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) proteins, His₆-PORA, His₆-PORB and His₆-PORC, from Arabidopsis thaliana. We did not observe any differences in the kinetics of the protochlorophyllide photoreduction at room temperature among the PORA, PORB and PORC proteins. In contrast, the PORC protein showed lower yield of Chlide formation than PORA and PORB when preincubated in the dark for 30 min and then illuminated for a short time. The most significant observation was that reconstituted Pchlide-POR-NADPH complexes showed fluorescence maxima at 77 K similar to those observed for highly aggregated Pchlide-POR-NADPH complexes in prolamellar bodies (PLBs) in vivo. Homology models of PORA, PORB and PORC of Arabidopsis thaliana were developed to compare predicted structures of POR isoforms. There were only slight structural differences, mainly in the organisation of helices and loops, but not in the shape of whole molecules. This is the first comparative analysis of all POR isoforms functioning at different stages of A. thaliana development. PMID:25659137

  20. Photoactive Protochlorophyllide-Enzyme Complexes Reconstituted with PORA, PORB and PORC Proteins of A. thaliana: Fluorescence and Catalytic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Gabruk, Michał; Stecka, Anna; Strzałka, Wojciech; Kruk, Jerzy; Strzałka, Kazimierz; Mysliwa-Kurdziel, Beata

    2015-01-01

    Photoactive Pchlide-POR-NADPH complexes were reconstituted using protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) and recombinant light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) proteins, His₆-PORA, His₆-PORB and His₆-PORC, from Arabidopsis thaliana. We did not observe any differences in the kinetics of the protochlorophyllide photoreduction at room temperature among the PORA, PORB and PORC proteins. In contrast, the PORC protein showed lower yield of Chlide formation than PORA and PORB when preincubated in the dark for 30 min and then illuminated for a short time. The most significant observation was that reconstituted Pchlide-POR-NADPH complexes showed fluorescence maxima at 77 K similar to those observed for highly aggregated Pchlide-POR-NADPH complexes in prolamellar bodies (PLBs) in vivo. Homology models of PORA, PORB and PORC of Arabidopsis thaliana were developed to compare predicted structures of POR isoforms. There were only slight structural differences, mainly in the organisation of helices and loops, but not in the shape of whole molecules. This is the first comparative analysis of all POR isoforms functioning at different stages of A. thaliana development. PMID:25659137

  1. Electron transfer by human wild-type and A287P mutant P450 oxidoreductase assessed by transient kinetics: functional basis of P450 oxidoreductase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yi; Chen, Mo; Penning, Trevor M.; Miller, Walter L.

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is a 2-flavin protein that transfers electrons from NADPH via its FAD and FMN moieties to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic and drug-metabolizing P450s. Defects in the POR gene can cause POR deficiency (PORD), manifested clinically by disordered steroidogenesis, genital anomalies and skeletal malformations. We examined the POR mutant A287P, which is the most frequent cause of PORD in patients of European ancestry and partially disrupts most P450 activities in vitro. Flavin content analysis showed that A287P is deficient in FAD and FMN binding, although the mutation site is distant from the binding sites of both flavins. Externally added flavin partially restored the cytochrome c reductase activity of A287P, suggesting that flavin therapy may be useful for this frequent form of PORD. Transient kinetic dissection of the reaction of POR with NADPH and the reduction in cytochrome c by POR using stopped-flow techniques revealed defects in individual electron transfer steps mediated by A287P. A287P had impaired ability to accept electrons from NADPH, but was capable of a fast FMN ➔ cytochrome c electron donation reaction. Thus the reduced rates of P450 activities with A287P may be due to deficient flavin and impaired electron transfer from NADPH. PMID:25728647

  2. First example of a modular porphyrinoid assembly capable of stabilizing different metal ions in a single molecular scaffold.

    PubMed

    Murugavel, Muthuchamy; Reddy, R V Ramana; Dey, Dhananjay; Sankar, Jeyaraman

    2015-10-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of porphyrin-corrole-porphyrin (Por-Cor-Por) hybrids directly linked at the meso-meso positions for the first time. The stability and solubility of the trimer are carefully balanced by adding electron-withdrawing substituents to the corrole ring and sterically bulky groups on the porphyrins. The new hybrids are capable of stabilizing more than one metal ion in a single molecular scaffold. The versatility of the triad has been demonstrated by successfully stabilizing homo- (Ni) and heterotrinuclear (Ni-Cu-Ni) coordination motifs. The solid-state structure of the NiPor-CuCor-PorNi hybrid was revealed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The Ni(II) porphyrins are significantly ruffled and tilted by 83° from the plane of corrole. The robustness of the synthesized hybrids was reflected in the electrochemical investigations and the redox behaviour of the hybrids show that the oxidation processes are mostly corrole-centred. In particular it is worth noting that the Por-Cor-Por hybrid can further be manipulated due to the presence of substituent-free meso-positions on both the terminals. PMID:26242294

  3. Studies on the mechanism of the cytotoxic action of the mitomycin antibiotics in hypoxic and oxygenated EMT6 cells.

    PubMed

    Sartorelli, A C; Tomasz, M; Rockwell, S

    1993-01-01

    The mitomycin antibiotics, because of their preferential toxicities for hypoxic cells, have significant potential as adjuncts to ionizing radiation in the treatment of solid tumors. To gain information on the mechanism by which these agents exert their cytotoxicities to hypoxic and aerobic cells, the effects of MC, POR and several of their analogs were studied in EMT6 mammary carcinoma cells. The rate of uptake of POR by these cells was directly correlated with the cytotoxicity produced by this agent under both hypoxia and aeration. At equivalent concentrations, uptake of POR into hypoxic cells was more rapid than into aerobic cells. Hypoxic cells also accumulated the antibiotic in concentrations well in excess of that present in the extracellular medium, presumably as a result of reductive activation and covalent binding of POR to cellular structures. Such activation and binding occur to a much lesser degree in aerated cells, resulting in the rapid efflux of POR from these cells when the antibiotic is removed from the extracellular environment. To gain information on the reaction of POR with DNA, mono- and bis-adducts formed in EMT6 cells exposed to this agent were measured. Three major adducts were formed. Two were mono-adducts consisting of deoxyguanosine linked at its N2-position to the C-1 of POR and of 10-decarbamoyl POR. The third was a bis-adduct in which POR was cross-linked to two deoxyguanosines at their N2-positions. More adducts were formed in hypoxia than in air, and more bis-adducts were present in hypoxic cells. Simultaneous exposure of cells to both POR and DIC reduced the total adduct level and a new unknown adduct was formed, primarily under hypoxia. Several mitomycins were evaluated for their capacity to kill EMT6 cells and to produce DNA cross-links in both hypoxia and aeration. The number of cross-links required to produce a given amount of cell kill was similar, regardless of the mitomycin employed or the degree of oxygenation. The findings

  4. Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase Influences CYP2B6 Activity in Cyclophosphamide Bioactivation

    PubMed Central

    El-Serafi, Ibrahim; Afsharian, Parvaneh; Moshfegh, Ali; Hassan, Moustapha; Terelius, Ylva

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cyclophosphamide is commonly used as an important component in conditioning prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, a curative treatment for several hematological diseases. Cyclophosphamide is a prodrug activated mainly by cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) in the liver. A high degree of inter- and intra-individual variation in cyclophosphamide kinetics has been reported in several studies. Materials and Methods Hydroxylation of cyclophosphamide was investigated in vitro using three microsomal batches of CYP2B6*1 with different ratios of POR/CYP expression levels. Twenty patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were also included in the study. All patients received an i.v. infusion of cyclophosphamide (60 mg/kg/day, for two days) as a part of their conditioning. Blood samples were collected from each patient before cyclophosphamide infusion, 6 h after the first dose and before and 6 h after the second dose. POR gene expression was measured by mRNA analysis and the pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and its active metabolite were determined. Results A strong correlation between the in vitro intrinsic clearance of cyclophosphamide and the POR/CYP ratio was found. The apparent Km for CYP2B6.1 was almost constant (3-4 mM), while the CLint values were proportional to the POR/CYP ratio (3-34 μL/min/nmol CYP). In patients, the average expression of the POR gene in blood was significantly (P <0.001) up-regulated after cyclophosphamide infusion, with high inter-individual variations and significant correlation with the concentration ratio of the active metabolite 4-hydroxy-cyclophosphamide/cyclophosphamide. Nine patients were carriers for POR*28; four patients had relatively high POR expression. Conclusions This investigation shows for the first time that POR besides CYP2B6 can influence cyclophosphamide metabolism. Our results indicate that not only CYPs are important, but also POR expression and/or activity may influence

  5. FetA Antibodies Induced by an Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccine Derived from a Serogroup B Meningococcal Isolate with Constitutive FetA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Holly; Norheim, Gunnstein; Chan, Hannah; Dold, Christina; Vipond, Caroline; Derrick, Jeremy P.; Pollard, Andrew J.; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Feavers, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive meningococcal disease causes over 3500 cases each year in Europe, with particularly high incidence among young children. Among serogroup B meningococci, which cause most of the cases, high diversity in the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) is observed in endemic situations; however, comprehensive molecular epidemiological data are available for the diversity and distribution of the OMPs PorA and FetA and these can be used to rationally design a vaccine with high coverage of the case isolates. The aim of this study was to determine whether outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) derived from an isolate with constitutive FetA expression (MenPF-1 vaccine) could be used to induce antibodies against both the PorA and FetA antigens. The immunogenicity of various dose levels and number of doses was evaluated in mice and rabbits, and IgG antibody responses tested against OMVs and recombinant PorA and FetA proteins. A panel of four isogenic mutants was generated and used to evaluate the relative ability of the vaccine to induce serum bactericidal activity (SBA) against FetA and PorA. Sera from mice were tested in SBA against the four target strains. Results demonstrated that the MenPF-1 OMVs were immunogenic against PorA and FetA in both animal models. Furthermore, the murine antibodies induced were bactericidal against isogenic mutant strains, suggesting that antibodies to both PorA and FetA were functional. The data presented indicate that the MenPF-1 vaccine is a suitable formulation for presenting PorA and FetA OMPs in order to induce bactericidal antibodies, and that proceeding to a Phase I clinical trial with this vaccine candidate is justified. PMID:26466091

  6. Predictive modeling of coral disease distribution within a reef system.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gareth J; Aeby, Greta S; Cowie, Rebecca O M; Davy, Simon K

    2010-01-01

    Diseases often display complex and distinct associations with their environment due to differences in etiology, modes of transmission between hosts, and the shifting balance between pathogen virulence and host resistance. Statistical modeling has been underutilized in coral disease research to explore the spatial patterns that result from this triad of interactions. We tested the hypotheses that: 1) coral diseases show distinct associations with multiple environmental factors, 2) incorporating interactions (synergistic collinearities) among environmental variables is important when predicting coral disease spatial patterns, and 3) modeling overall coral disease prevalence (the prevalence of multiple diseases as a single proportion value) will increase predictive error relative to modeling the same diseases independently. Four coral diseases: Porites growth anomalies (PorGA), Porites tissue loss (PorTL), Porites trematodiasis (PorTrem), and Montipora white syndrome (MWS), and their interactions with 17 predictor variables were modeled using boosted regression trees (BRT) within a reef system in Hawaii. Each disease showed distinct associations with the predictors. Environmental predictors showing the strongest overall associations with the coral diseases were both biotic and abiotic. PorGA was optimally predicted by a negative association with turbidity, PorTL and MWS by declines in butterflyfish and juvenile parrotfish abundance respectively, and PorTrem by a modal relationship with Porites host cover. Incorporating interactions among predictor variables contributed to the predictive power of our models, particularly for PorTrem. Combining diseases (using overall disease prevalence as the model response), led to an average six-fold increase in cross-validation predictive deviance over modeling the diseases individually. We therefore recommend coral diseases to be modeled separately, unless known to have etiologies that respond in a similar manner to particular

  7. Toll-Like Receptors Expression in Follicular Cells of Patients with Poor Ovarian Response

    PubMed Central

    Taghavi, Seyed Abdolvahab; Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi; Karimian, Leili; Joghataie, Mohammad Taghi; Aflatoonian, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background Poor ovarian response (POR) to gonadotropin stimulation has led to a significant decline in success rate of fertility treatment. The immune system may play an important role in pathophysiology of POR by dysfunctions of cytokines and the growth factor network, and the presence of ovarian auto-antibodies. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of toll-like receptors (TLR) 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and cyclooxygenase (COX) 2 genes in follicular cells and concentration of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), as major parts of innate immunity, in follicular fluid (FF) obtained from POR women in comparison with normal women. Materials and Methods In this case-control study, 20 infertile POR patients and 20 normal women took part in this study and underwent controlled ovarian stimulation. The FF was obtained from the largest follicle (>18 mm). The FF was centrifuged and cellular pellet was then used for evaluation of expression of TLRs and COX2 genes by real-time PCR. FF was used for quantitative analysis for IL-6, IL-8 and MIF by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results TLR1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and COX2 gene expression were significantly higher in POR (p<0.05). Concentration of IL-6, IL-8 and MIF proteins was significantly increased in POR compared with normal women (p<0.05). Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that the immune system may be involved in pathophysiology of POR through TLRs. PMID:25083184

  8. Addressing Health Disparities among Men: Demographic, Behavioral and Clinical Characteristics of Men who have Sex with Men Living in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Colón-López, Vivian; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos; Suárez, Erick L.; Pérez, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics associated with HIV among Men who have sex with Men (MSM) and men who have sex with women (MSW) in Puerto Rico. Data from a population-based cross-sectional study in PR (2005–2008) was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study sample and bivariate analyses were performed to identify differences of sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics between MSM and MSW. Exact logistic regression models adjusting for age were constructed for each risk behavior associated to MSM in bivariate analysis. Of the 674 men interviewed, 6.1% (n=41) reported ever having sex with men. Age-adjusted logistic regression models indicated that MSM were significantly more likely than MSW to have first sexual intercourse before the age of 15 (POR=2.6; 95%CI= 1.3, 5.3) and have at least 10 lifetime sex partners (POR=2.8; 95%CI= 1.4,5.9). Also, MSM were significantly more likely to report lifetime use of marihuana (POR=2.7; 95%CI= 1.3,5.8), cocaine (POR=2.5; 95%CI= 1.2,5.0), amphetamines (POR=3.8; 95%CI= 1.4,9.2) and sedatives or tranquilizers (POR=3.3; 95%CI= 1.4,7.2). Also, MSM were 13 times more likely to be HIV seropositive as compared to MSW (POR=13.3; 95%CI=1.7,102.0). In this population-based sample of men living in Puerto Rico, self-reported same-sex behavior is strongly associated with HIV, and other behavioral factors associated with HIV. Future targeted research is still necessary for the development of intervention programs among MSM in Puerto Rico. PMID:24288521

  9. Protein-induced excited-state dynamics of protochlorophyllide.

    PubMed

    Hanf, Robert; Fey, Sonja; Dietzek, Benjamin; Schmitt, Michael; Reinbothe, Christiane; Reinbothe, Steffen; Hermann, Gudrun; Popp, Jürgen

    2011-07-14

    The light-driven NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) is a key enzyme of chlorophyll biosynthesis in angiosperms. POR's unique requirement for light to become catalytically active makes the enzyme an attractive model to study the dynamics of enzymatic reactions in real time. Here, we use picosecond time-resolved fluorescence and femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy to examine the influence of the protein environment on the excited-state dynamics of the substrate, protochlorophyllide (PChlide), in the enzyme/substrate (PChlide/POR) and pseudoternary complex including the nucleotide cofactor NADP(+) (PChlide/NADP(+)/ POR). In comparison with the excited-state processes of unbound PChlide, the lifetime of the thermally equilibrated S(1) excited state is lengthened from 3.4 to 4.4 and 5.4 ns in the PChlide/POR and PChlide/NADP(+)/POR complex, whereas the nonradiative rates are decreased by ∼30 and 40%, respectively. This effect is most likely due to the reduced probability of nonradiative decay into the triplet excited state, thus keeping the risk of photosensitized side reactions in the enzyme low. Further, the initial reaction path involves the formation of an intramolecular charge-transfer state (S(ICT)) as an intermediate product. From a strong blue shift in the excited-state absorption, it is concluded that the S(ICT) state is stabilized by local interactions with specific protein sites in the catalytic pocket. The possible relevance of this result for the catalytic reaction in the enzyme POR is discussed. PMID:21678944

  10. Prevalence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Ospina, Maria B; Voaklander, Donald C; Stickland, Michael K; King, Malcolm; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Rowe, Brian H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have considerable potential for inequities in diagnosis and treatment, thereby affecting vulnerable groups. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in asthma and COPD prevalence between adult Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, specialized databases and the grey literature up to October 2011 were searched to identify epidemiological studies comparing asthma and COPD prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal adult populations. Prevalence ORs (PORs) and 95% CIs were calculated in a random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Of 132 studies, eight contained relevant data. Aboriginal populations included Native Americans, Canadian Aboriginals, Australian Aboriginals and New Zealand Maori. Overall, Aboriginals were more likely to report having asthma than non-Aboriginals (POR 1.41 [95% CI 1.23 to 1.60]), particularly among Canadian Aboriginals (POR 1.80 [95% CI 1.68 to 1.93]), Native Americans (POR 1.41 [95% CI 1.13 to 1.76]) and Maori (POR 1.64 [95% CI 1.40 to 1.91]). Australian Aboriginals were less likely to report asthma (POR 0.49 [95% CI 0.28 to 0.86]). Sex differences in asthma prevalence between Aboriginals and their non-Aboriginal counterparts were not identified. One study compared COPD prevalence between Native and non-Native Americans, with similar rates in both groups (POR 1.08 [95% CI 0.81 to 1.44]). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in asthma prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations exist in a variety of countries. Studies comparing COPD prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations are scarce. Further investigation is needed to identify and account for factors associated with respiratory health inequalities among Aboriginal peoples. PMID:23248798

  11. Moléculas orgánicas obtenidas en simulaciones experimentales del medio interestelar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Caro, Guillermo Manuel

    Las nubes moleculares son regiones de formación de estrellas, con temperaturas cinéticas entre 10-50 K y densidades de 103-106 átomos cm-3. Su materia está formada por gas y polvo interestelar. Estas partículas de polvo están cubiertas por una fina capa de hielo, de unos 0.01 μm, que contiene H2O y a menudo CO, CO2, CH3OH y NH3. El hielo es presumiblemente irradiado por fotones ultravioleta y rayos cósmicos en las zonas poco profundas de las nubes moleculares y las regiones circunestelares. En un sistema de vacío, P ˜ 10-7 mbar, simulamos la deposición de hielo a partir de 10 K y la irradiación ultravioleta por medio de una lámpara de descarga de hidrógeno activada con microondas. La evolución del hielo se observa por medio de un espectrómetro infrarrojo. De este modo es posible determinar la composición del hielo observado en el medio interestelar y predecir la presencia de moléculas aún no detectadas en el espacio, que han sido producto del procesamiento del hielo en nuestros experimentos. También es posible calentar el sistema hasta temperatura ambiente para sublimar el hielo depositado. Cuando el hielo ha sido previamente irradiado, se observa un residuo compuesto por moléculas orgánicas complejas, algunas prebióticas, como varios ácidos carboxílicos, aminas, amidas, ésteres y en menor proporción moléculas heterocíclicas y aminoácidos. Algunas de estas moléculas podrían detectarse en estado gaseoso por medio de observaciones milimétricas y de radio. También podrían estar presentes en el polvo cometario, cuyo análisis químico está planeado por las misiones Stardust y Rosetta. Mientras tanto, nuestro grupo está llevando a cabo el análisis de partículas de polvo interplanetario (IDPs), algunas de las cuales pueden ser de origen cometario. Al igual que ocurre con los productos obtenidos por irradiación del hielo en nuestros experimentos, algunas IDPs son ricas en material orgánico que contiene oxígeno.

  12. Co-infection of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus in pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Benitez, José Francisco; De la Luz-Armendáriz, Jazmín; Saavedra-Montañez, Manuel; Jasso-Escutia, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez-Betancourt, Ivan; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Hernández, Jesús; Martínez-Lara, Atalo; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto

    2016-02-29

    Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) and swine influenza virus infection causes respiratory disease in pigs. PorPV persistent infection could facilitate the establishment of secondary infections. The aim of this study was to analyse the pathogenicity of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus (swH1N1) in growing pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus. Conventional six-week-old pigs were intranasally inoculated with PorPV, swH1N1, or PorPV/swH1N1. A mock-infected group was included. The co-infection with swH1N1 was at 44 days post-infection (DPI), right after clinical signs of PorPV infection had stopped. The pigs of the co-infection group presented an increase of clinical signs compared to the simple infection groups. In all infected groups, the most recurrent lung lesion was hyperplasia of the bronchiolar-associated lymphoid tissue and interstitial pneumonia. By means of immunohistochemical evaluation it was possible to demonstrate the presence of the two viral agents infecting simultaneously the bronchiolar epithelium. Viral excretion of PorPV in nasal and oral fluid was recorded at 28 and 52 DPI, respectively. PorPV persisted in several samples from respiratory tissues (RT), secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). For swH1N1, the viral excretion in nasal fluids was significantly higher in single-infected swH1N1 pigs than in the co-infected group. However, the co-infection group exhibited an increase in the presence of swH1N1 in RT, SLO, and BALF at two days after co-infection. In conclusion, the results obtained confirm an increase in the clinical signs of infection, and PorPV was observed to impact the spread of swH1N1 in analysed tissues in the early stage of co-infection, although viral shedding was not enhanced. In the present study, the interaction of swH1N1 infection is demonstrated in pigs persistently infected with PorPV. PMID:26854342

  13. Recombinant Salivary Proteins of Phlebotomus orientalis are Suitable Antigens to Measure Exposure of Domestic Animals to Sand Fly Bites

    PubMed Central

    Sima, Michal; Ferencova, Blanka; Warburg, Alon; Rohousova, Iva; Volf, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Background Certain salivary proteins of phlebotomine sand flies injected into the host skin during blood-feeding are highly antigenic and elicit strong antibody-mediated immune responses in repeatedly-exposed hosts. These antibodies can be measured by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assays (ELISAs) using salivary gland homogenates (SGHs) as the source of antigens and serve as a markers for exposure to biting sand flies. Large-scale screening for anti-sand fly saliva antibodies requires replacement of SGH with recombinant salivary proteins. In East Africa, Phlebotomus orientalis is the main vector of Leishmania donovani, a trypanosomatid parasite causing visceral leishmaniasis. We tested recombinant salivary proteins derived from Ph. orientalis saliva to study exposure of domestic animals to this sand fly species. Methodology/Principal Findings Antigenic salivary proteins from Ph. orientalis were identified by immunoblot and mass spectrometry. Recombinant apyrase rPorSP15, yellow-related protein rPorSP24, ParSP25-like protein rPorSP65, D7-related protein rPorSP67, and antigen 5-related protein rPorSP76 were tested using ELISA with sera of domestic animals from L. donovani foci in Ethiopia where Ph. orientalis is present. Our results highlighted recombinant yellow-related protein rPorSP24 as the most promising antigen, displaying a high positive correlation coefficient as well as good sensitivity and specificity when compared to SGH. This recombinant protein was the most suitable one for testing sera of dogs, sheep, and goats. In addition, a different antigen, rPorSP65 was found efficacious for testing canine sera. Conclusions/Significance Recombinant salivary proteins of Ph. orientalis, specifically rPorSP24, were shown to successfully substitute SGH in serological experiments to measure exposure of domestic animals to Ph. orientalis, the vector of L. donovani. The results suggest that rPorSP24 might be a suitable antigen for detecting anti-Ph. orientalis antibody

  14. Simultaneous Measurements of Solvent Dynamics and Functional Kinetics in a Light-Activated Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Durin, Guillaume; Delaunay, Aude; Darnault, Claudine; Heyes, Derren J.; Royant, Antoine; Vernede, Xavier; Hunter, C. Neil; Weik, Martin; Bourgeois, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Solvent fluctuations play a key role in controlling protein motions and biological function. Here, we have studied how individual steps of the reaction catalyzed by the light-activated enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) couple with solvent dynamics. To simultaneously monitor the catalytic cycle of the enzyme and the dynamical behavior of the solvent, we designed temperature-dependent UV-visible microspectrophotometry experiments, using flash-cooled nanodroplets of POR to which an exogenous soluble fluorophore was added. The formation and decay of the first two intermediates in the POR-catalyzed reaction were measured, together with the solvent glass transition and the buildup of crystalline ice at cryogenic temperatures. We find that formation of the first intermediate occurs below the glass transition temperature (Tg), and is not affected by changes in solvent dynamics induced by modifying the glycerol content. In contrast, formation of the second intermediate occurs above Tg and is influenced by changes in glycerol concentration in a manner remarkably similar to the buildup of crystalline ice. These results suggest that internal, nonslaved protein motions drive the first step of the POR-catalyzed reaction whereas solvent-slaved motions control the second step. We propose that the concept of solvent slaving applies to complex enzymes such as POR. PMID:19254549

  15. Sensitivity of the cortical pitch onset response to height, time-variance, and directionality of dynamic pitch.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M

    2015-08-31

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) demonstrate that human auditory cortical responses are sensitive to changes in static pitch as indexed by the pitch onset response (POR), a negativity generated at the initiation of acoustic periodicity. Yet, it is still unclear if this brain signature is sensitive to dynamic, time-varying properties of pitch more characteristic of those found in naturalistic speech and music. Neuroelectric PORs were recorded in response to contrastive pitch patterns differing in their pitch height, time-variance, and directionality (i.e., rise vs. fall). Broadband noise followed by contiguous iterated rippled noise (producing salient pitch sweeps) was used to temporally separate neural activity coding the onset of acoustic energy from the onset of time-varying pitch. Analysis of PORs revealed distinct modulations in response latency that distinguished static from time-varying pitch contours (steady-statePORs were insensitive to the direction of pitch sweeps (rise=fall). Our findings suggest that the POR signature provides a useful neural index of auditory cortical pitch processing for some, but not all pitch-evoking stimuli. PMID:26200250

  16. A comparative study of the interaction of platinum with group 4A (germanium, tin and lead) porphyrins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dy, E. S.; Kasai, H.

    2007-09-01

    Because of its vast number of applications and high price many studies have been made on how to reduce the amount of platinum in catalysts. One method includes dispersing platinum nanoparticles in porous support materials. But electrically conductive carbon-based support materials—needed for fuel cell electrodes—permit nanoparticles to migrate and form larger clusters, leading to reduced catalytic activity over time. To find a solution to this problem, we modelled the interaction of group 4A metal porphyrins (germanium (II) porphyrin (GePor), tin (II) porphyrin (SnPor) and lead (II) porphyrin (PbPor)) with platinum (Pt) using density functional theory. We showed that platinum can bond strongly on both germanium porphyrin and tin porphyrin. More importantly, valence Pt d-orbital characteristics dominate their HOMO and HOMO-1. Our study indicates that dispersing Pt as individual atoms on a SnPor and GePor surface is a good way to minimize platinum load in carbon-based reduction catalysts for reactions involving mainly the HOMO and HOMO-1 of Pt, of which the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells is an example.

  17. Relationships among plant available phosphorus, fertilizer sales, and water quality in northwestern Ohio.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Frank G; Bigham, Jerry M; Slater, Brian K

    2002-01-01

    Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) in northwestern Ohio river water has declined over the past 20 yr in response to decreased applications of fertilizer P. Our objective was to evaluate changes in soluble P (Bray-1 P) levels in the soil over time as influenced by fertilizer P management, cultivation practice, soil properties, and landscape factors. Because soil is the intermediary between added P and SRP measured in river water, we examined the relationship between fertilizer P, soluble soil P, and SRP. Using historical soil survey sample sites as a baseline for original soluble P concentrations (Por), we resampled Ap horizons to establish current levels of soluble P (Pcu). The Por baseline extended from 1953-1982 and Pcu from 1996-1998. Thirty percent of the Pcu values and 17% of the Por values were > or = 40 mg kg(-1). Log-transformed means for Pcu were significantly higher than for Por. The principal determining factors for Por were physiography, soil texture, and soil series. Current P is affected by present tillage practice and drainage class. Change in soluble P in the soil is not as responsive to fertilizer P sales as is SRP in river water. This suggests that as fertilizer P sales decline, a declining percentage of P added as fertilizer is annually dissolved and transported into the drainage system. Soluble P in soil is governed by a combination of fertilizer and tillage management, soil properties, and landscape factors interacting over time. PMID:11837442

  18. Completing the surrogate motherhood process: parental order reporters' attitudes towards surrogacy arrangements, role ambiguity and role conflict.

    PubMed

    Purewal, Satvinder; Crawshaw, Marilyn; van den Akker, Olga

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of parental order reporters (PORs) towards their work with surrogacy arrangements and their experiences of role conflict and role ambiguity. A questionnaire was used to assess PORs' perceptions of their role in parental order [PO] applications, attitudes towards surrogacy arrangements and the legal process and the influence of role ambiguity or conflict. Questionnaires were distributed to all PORs employed by the Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service in England. Thirty-three PORs participated (response rate 46%) who, on average, had each completed five PO applications (range 1-40). Positive attitudes towards surrogacy and the child's needs for openness about origins were found. Concerns about the inadequacy of preparation and assessment arrangements, overseas arrangements and non-regulation of surrogacy agencies were evident. PORs with high-role ambiguity were more likely to report less positive attitudes towards the emotional consequence of surrogacy on offspring. High scores on role ambiguity and role conflict were reflected in less positive attitudes towards the parties' preparation towards parenthood. These results have implications for training, policy and practice in this area. PMID:22458916

  19. Novel porphyrin-daunomycin hybrids: Synthesis and preferential binding to G-quadruplexes over i-motif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ping; Jin, Shu-fang; Lu, Jia-Zheng; Lv, Jun-liang; Wu, Gong-qing; Chen, Pan-Pan; Tan, Cai-Lian; Chen, Dian-Wen

    2015-02-01

    Encouraged by the enormous importance attributed to the structure and function of human telomeric DNA, herein we focused our attention on the interaction of a serious of newly prepared porphyrin-daunomycin (Por-DNR) hybrids with the guanine-rich single-strand oligomer (G4) and the complementary cytosine-rich strand (i-motif). Various spectral methods such as absorption and fluorescence titration, surface-enhanced Raman and circular dichroism spectrum were integrated in the experiment and it was found that these Por-DNR hybrids could serve as prominent molecules to recognize G4 and i-motif. What is more, interesting results were obtained that the hybrids with longer flexible links are more favorable in binding with both G4 and i-motif than the hybrid with shorter linkage. These Por-DNR hybrids may help to develop new ideas in the research of human telomeric DNA with small molecules.

  20. A variable-temperature direct electrochemical study of metalloproteins from hyperthermophilic microorganisms involves in hydrogen production from pyruvate

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.T.; Blamey, J.; Zhou, Z.Z.; Adams, M.W.W.

    1995-05-30

    The hyperthomophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima and the hyperthermolic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus grow optimally at 80{degrees} and 100{degrees}C, respectively, by the fermentation of carbohydrates to organic acids, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}. Pyruvate is a major source of reductant for H{sub 2} production during fermentation, and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR), a 4Fe-type ferredoxin, and hydrogenase have been previously purified from both species. P. furiosus utilizes copper-iron-containing POR and a nickel-iron-containing hydrogenase, whereas the POR of T. maritima lacks copper and its hydrogenase lacks nickel. For all four enzymes and for the two ferredoxins, we have determined their reproduction potentials (E{degrees}` and, where possible, thermodynamic parameters associated with electron transfer {Delta}S{degrees} and {Delta}H{degrees}), using differential pulse voltammetry at temperatures ranging from 25 to 95{degrees}C. 55 refs., 7 fig., 2 tabs.

  1. The chemistry of rhenium and tungsten porphyrin complexes in low oxidation states. Synthesis and characterization of rhenium and tungsten porphyrin dimers containing metal-metal multiple bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Collmann, J.P.; Garner, J.M.; Woo, L.K. )

    1989-10-11

    The coordination chemistry of rhenium and tungsten porphyrin complexes in low oxidation states is presented. W{sup IV}(Por)(Cl){sub 2}, W{sup II}(Por)(H{sub 5}C{sub 6}C{identical to}CC{sub 6}H{sub 5}) and W{sup II}(OEP)(PEt{sub 3}){sub 2} complexes (Por = 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-tolyl)porphyrin (TTP) or 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethylporphyrin (OEP) dianions) were found to be similar to the analogous molybdenum porphyrin complexes by spectroscopic and magnetic measurements. UV-visible and vibrational spectroscopies indicate that these oxidations occur at the metal-metal bond rather than the porphyrin ligand.

  2. Fluorescent nanogel based on four-arm PEG-PCL copolymer with porphyrin core for bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xia; Wei, Chang; Lu, Li; Liu, Tianjun; Lv, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Four-arm PEG-PCL copolymer with porphyrin core (POR-PEG-PCL) exhibits beneficial fluorescence ability in vivo. To further develop an application of thermosensitive porphyrin hydrogel based on four-arm PEG-PCL copolymer as a drug carrier, a POR-PEG-PCL nanogel was tracked and located to tumor tissue with porphyrin as a fluorescence tag via intravenous injection. The structure and function of the nanogel were evaluated by TEM, DLS, H-NMR, UV-vis and fluorescence spectra. The fluorescent nanogel was monitored by an in vivo imaging system with hepatoma tumor-bearing mice. Good biocompatibility and safety in vitro and in vivo show that the POR-PEG-PCL nanogel is a potential drug carrier that targets tumor tissues with fluorescence bioimaging. PMID:26838843

  3. Heteroleptic Tetrapyrrole-Fused Dimeric and Trimeric Skeletons with Unusual Non-Frustrated Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuehong; Oh, Juwon; Wang, Kang; Chen, Chao; Cao, Wei; Park, Kyu Hyung; Kim, Dongho; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2016-03-18

    Phthalocyanine (Pc) and porphyrin (Por) chromophores have been fused through the benzo[α]pyrazine moiety, resulting in unprecedented heteroleptic tetrapyrrole-fused dimers and trimers. The heteroleptic tetrapyrrole nature has been clearly revealed based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of the zinc dimer. Electrochemical analysis, theoretical calculations, and time-resolved spectroscopic results disclose that the two/three-tetrapyrrole-fused skeletons behave as one totally π-conjugated system as a result of the strong conjugative interaction between/among the tetrapyrrole chromophores. In particular, the effectively extended π-electron system through the fused-bridge induced strong electronic communication between the Pc and Por moieties and large transition dipole moments in the Pc-Por-fused systems, providing high fluorescence quantum yields (>0.13) and relatively long excited state lifetimes (>1.3 ns) in comparison with their homo-tetrapyrrole-fused analogues. PMID:26879243

  4. Resonancias en la región trans-neptuniana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, T.; Ferraz-Mello, S.

    La expansión de la órbita del planeta Neptuno en la etapa de acreción del Sistema Solar exterior (Fernández e Ip 1984, 1996) parece ser un mecanismo eficiente para la captura de planetesimales en las resonancias exteriores con Neptuno (Malhotra 1995). Por otro lado, los estudios dinámicos realizados por varios autores indican que las resonancias son regiones de evolución estable, en contraste con el comportamiento caótico del resto de la región trans-neptuniana. Por estas razones, y si bien los datos observacionales son todavía muy limitados, se supone que los objetos descubiertos se encuentran en alguna de esas resonancias. En esta comunicación presentamos un estudio analítico y numérico de las principales resonancias exteriores con Neptuno.

  5. Structural domains in NADPH: Protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases involved in catalysis and substrate binding. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Timko, Michael P.

    1999-09-24

    Until recently little direct information was available about specific structural determinants within the light-dependent NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (PORs) required for substrate and cofactor binding, catalytic activity, and thylakoid membrane localization. Based on our previous DOE-funded studies, during the past year we brought to fruition a number of ongoing experiments, initiated several new avenues of investigations, and overall have made considerable progress towards establishing the basic structural parameters governing POR function. Our studies to date have defined residues and domains involved in substrate and cofactor binding and catalysis, and elaborated on the mechanism for membrane localization of POR in developing plastids. Our results and their significance, as well as our work in progress, are detailed.

  6. Human VDAC isoforms differ in their capability to interact with minocycline and to contribute to its cytoprotective activity.

    PubMed

    Karachitos, Andonis; Grobys, Daria; Antoniewicz, Monika; Jedut, Sylwia; Jordan, Joaquin; Kmita, Hanna

    2016-05-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that cytoprotective activity displayed by minocycline in the case of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells pretreated with H2O2 requires the presence of functional VDAC (YVDAC1). Thus, we decided to transform YVDAC1-depleted yeast cells (Δpor1 cells) with plasmids expressing human VDAC isoforms (HVDAC1, HVDAC2, HVDAC3) to estimate their involvement in the minocycline cytoprotective effect. We observed that only expression of HVDAC3 in Δpor1 cells provided minocycline-mediated cytoprotection against H2O2 although all human isoforms are functional in Δpor1 cells. The observation appears to be important for on-going discussion concerning VDAC isoform roles in mitochondria and cell functioning. PMID:26994639

  7. Buracos negros primordiais e astrofísica observacional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custódio, P. S.; Horvath, J. E.

    2003-02-01

    A história da física contemporânea é pródiga em grandes descobertas (a Relatividade e a Mecânica Quântica entre as mais importantes) até meados dos anos '30. O peso destes desenvolvimentos é tão grande que outros feitos de grande porte (por exemplo, a teoria da nucleossíntese nas estrelas) são geralmente considerados como "filhotes" dos primeiros, ao menos na imaginação popular. Porém, algumas exceções à regra não-escrita são dignas de menção. Entre estas últimas está a descoberta por S.W.Hawking e colaboradores das propriedades de emissão dos buracos negros, trabalho que iniciou uma disciplina com vida própria denominada Termodinâmica de Buracos Negros.

  8. Como Lo Hago Yo: Anomalías del Tubo Neural en Guatemala — Mielomeningocele Unidad de Espina Bífida e Hidrocefalia

    PubMed Central

    Manucci, Graciela; von Quednow, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    En Guatemala nacen por añ 786 niños con defectos de tubo neural. Operamos 65 a 70 niños con mielomenigocele por año. Tenemos equipo multidisciplinario. Recomendamos parto por cesárea. Infección antes de la cirugía es un problema mayor. Derivación tardía es un problema. Disecamos la plaqueta con la técnica clásica. Suturamos la plaqueta para restituir la forma de la médula. Corpectomía en casos de cifósis. Hidrocefalía: Operamos el 80% de los niños. Chiari II: Operamos basados en los síntomas, primero nos aseguramos que la válvula funciona bien. Médula anclada: Operamos basados en los síntomas. PMID:24791216

  9. NADPH: Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase-Structure, Catalytic Function, and Role in Prolamellar Body Formation and Morphogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Timko, Michael P

    2013-02-01

    The biosynthesis of chlorophyll is a critical biochemical step in the development of photosynthetic vascular plants and green algae. From photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria) to algae, non-vascular plants, gymnosperms and vascular plants, mechanisms have evolved for protochlorophyllide reduction a key step in chlorophyll synthesis. Protochlorophyllide reduction is carried out by both a light-dependent (POR) and light-independent (LIPOR) mechanisms. NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (EC 1.3.1.33, abbreviated POR) catalyzes the light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide (PChlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide). In contrast, a light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase (LIPOR) involves three plastid gene products (chlL, chlN, and chlB) and several nuclear factors. Our work focused on characterization of both the POR and LIPOR catalyzed processes.

  10. Molecular and epidemiological studies of Porcine rubulavirus infection – an overview

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas-Romero, Julieta Sandra; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Berg, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Porcine rubulavirus-La Piedad-Michoacan-Mexico virus (PorPV-LPMV) was identified as the causative agent of a viral disease that emerged spontaneously in Mexican swine in the 1980s. Since the report of the initial outbreak of the disease, only one full-length genome from a strain isolated in 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been sequenced; sequence data are scarce from other isolates. The genetic variation of this virus that has spread throughout the main endemic region of Mexico is almost a complete mystery. The development of molecular techniques for improved diagnostics and to investigate the persistence, molecular epidemiology, and the possible reservoirs of PorPV are needed. Together, this will provide greater knowledge regarding the molecular genetic changes and useful data to establish new strategies in the control of this virus in Mexico. PMID:26584829

  11. Formation of the seed layers for layer-transfer process silicon solar cells by zone-heating recrystallization of porous silicon structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukianov, A.; Murakami, K.; Takazawa, C.; Ihara, M.

    2016-05-01

    Thin-film crystalline silicon is promising for photovoltaic application to reduce the cost of photovoltaic energy. Porous silicon structures have been intensively studied as a seed layer for epitaxial growth of thin Si film and layer-transfer process (LTP). In this article, another approach for LTP has been proposed. The seed layers for epitaxial silicon growth have been formed by zone-heating recrystallization of double-layer por-Si structures. The influence of annealing parameters on porous silicon structures was studied. The transformation of por-Si layer to crystalline Si was observed with the formation of smooth continuous surface with the roughness 0.3 nm, peak-to-valley distance around 3.5 nm, and reduced density of pores. The mechanism of the transformation of por-Si surface due to the action of hydrogen in the passivated pores with preventing surface oxidation was proposed.

  12. Partitioning the contributions of mega-, macro- and meiofauna to benthic metabolism on the upper continental slope of New Zealand: Potential links with environmental factors and trawling intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, Daniel; Pilditch, Conrad A.; Nodder, Scott D.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding and predicting change in deep-sea benthic ecosystem function remains a major challenge. Here, we conducted analyses combining data on the abundance and biomass of benthic fauna and sediment community oxygen consumption (SCOC) on New Zealand's continental margin to estimate and compare the contributions of meio-, macro-, and megafauna to total benthic metabolism and identify potential links with environmental factors and trawling intensity. We focussed on two regions in close proximity-the high surface primary productivity Chatham Rise and low surface productivity Challenger Plateau. Mean megafauna biomass was twenty times greater on Chatham Rise than Challenger Plateau, likely reflecting differences in food supply between the two regions; this contrast in megafaunal biomass was mainly due to differences in mean body weight rather than abundance. Meio- and macrofauna made similar contributions to SCOC and together accounted for 12% of benthic metabolism on average. In contrast, the estimated contribution of megafauna never exceeded 1.5%. Significant positive correlations between faunal respiration and food availability indicate a link between food supply and benthic community function. Our analyses also show that fauna made a greater contribution to SCOC in conditions of high food availability, and that microorganisms (i.e., the proportion of SCOC not accounted for by the fauna) tended to be more dominant at sites with low food availability. These findings provide support for the concept that large organisms are more strongly affected by a reduction in food resources than small organisms, which in turn underlies one of the most widely described patterns in the deep-sea benthos, i.e., the reduction in organism body size with depth. Because metabolism in deep-sea sediments is typically dominated by microorganisms and small fauna, the absence of a relationship between bottom trawling intensity and the respiration of benthic fauna in the present study may

  13. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel; Martínez-López, Emilio José; Ruiz-Ariza, Alberto; Izquierdo-Rus, Tomás; Salas-Sánchez, Jesús; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: el objetivo de este estudio es evaluar las propiedades psicométricas del cuestionario de disfrute por el ejercicio físico (PACES) en adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad.Métodos: participaron 139 adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad: 91 niñas (edad = 13,85 ± 1,92 años; índice de masa corporal [IMC] = 26,83 ± 3,16 kg/m2) y 48 niños (edad = 14,29 ± 1,62 años; IMC = 28,31 ± 3,74 kg/m2). Para analizar el disfrute por la actividad física se empleó el cuestionario Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES).Resultados: los resultados del análisis factorial exploratorio y confirmatorio han mostrado una estructura de dos factores; a su vez el PACES presenta una consistencia interna muy alta (alfa de Cronbach = 0,908). La fiabilidad test-retest indica una buena concordancia temporal (Spearman rho = 0,815, p < 0,001). Por último, el PACES en adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad manifiesta una validez convergente adecuada con la intencionalidad de ser activo (MIFA), la atracción por la actividad física (CAPA), la resistencia cardiorrespiratoria y los pliegues suprailiacoy subescapular.Conclusión: los resultados confirman que el PACES es una medida válida y fiable del disfrute por la actividad física en adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad. El disfrute por la actividad física puede ser relevante en la participación de los adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad en estas actividades. PMID:27513493

  14. Subcortical connections of the perirhinal, postrhinal, and entorhinal cortices of the rat. I. afferents.

    PubMed

    Tomás Pereira, Inês; Agster, Kara L; Burwell, Rebecca D

    2016-09-01

    In this study the subcortical afferents for the rat PER areas 35 and 36, POR, and the lateral and medial entorhinal areas (LEA and MEA) were characterized. We analyzed 33 retrograde tract-tracing experiments distributed across the five regions. For each experiment, we estimated the total numbers, percentages, and densities of labeled cells in 36 subcortical structures and nuclei distributed across septum, basal ganglia, claustrum, amygdala, olfactory structures, thalamus, and hypothalamus. We found that the complement of subcortical inputs differs across the five regions, especially the PER and POR. The PER receives input from the reuniens, suprageniculate, and medial geniculate thalamic nuclei as well as the amygdala. Overall, the subcortical inputs to the PER were consistent with a role in perception, multimodal processing, and the formation of associations that include the motivational significance of individual items and objects. Subcortical inputs to the POR were dominated by the dorsal thalamus, particularly the lateral posterior nucleus, a region implicated in visuospatial attention. The complement of subcortical inputs to the POR is consistent with a role in representing and monitoring the local spatial context. We also report that, in addition to the PER, the LEA and the medial band of the MEA also receive strong amygdala input. In contrast, subcortical input to the POR and the MEA lateral band includes much less amygdala input and is dominated by dorsal thalamic nuclei, particularly nuclei involved in spatial information processing. Thus, some subcortical inputs are consistent with the view that there is functional differentiation along the septotemporal axis of the hippocampus, but others provide considerable integration. Overall, we conclude that the patterns of subcortical inputs to the PER, POR, and the entorhinal LEA and MEA provide further evidence for functional differentiation in the medial temporal lobe. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID

  15. Imaging features of HER2 overexpression in breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Elias, Sjoerd G; Adams, Arthur; Wisner, Dorota J; Esserman, Laura J; van't Veer, Laura J; Mali, Willem P Th M; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G A; Hylton, Nola M

    2014-08-01

    Breast cancer imaging phenotype is diverse and may relate to molecular alterations driving cancer behavior. We systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed relations between breast cancer imaging features and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) overexpression as a marker of breast cancer aggressiveness. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for mammography, breast ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and/or [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography studies through February 2013. Of 68 imaging features that could be pooled (85 articles, 23,255 cancers; random-effects meta-analysis), 11 significantly related to HER2 overexpression. Results based on five or more studies and robustness in subgroup analyses were as follows: the presence of microcalcifications on mammography [pooled odds ratio (pOR), 3.14; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.46-4.00] or ultrasound (mass-associated pOR, 2.95; 95% CI, 2.34-3.71), branching or fine linear microcalcifications (pOR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.07-4.14) or extremely dense breasts on mammography (pOR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.07-1.76), and washout (pOR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.11-2.21) or fast initial kinetics (pOR, 2.60; 95% CI, 1.43-4.73) on MRI all increased the chance of HER2 overexpression. Maximum [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was higher upon HER2 overexpression (pooled mean difference, +0.76; 95% CI, 0.10-1.42). These results show that several imaging features relate to HER2 overexpression, lending credibility to the hypothesis that imaging phenotype reflects cancer behavior. This implies prognostic relevance, which is especially relevant as imaging is readily available during diagnostic work-up. PMID:24807204

  16. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Calleja Fernández, Alicia; Vidal Casariego, Alfonso; Cano Rodríguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros Pomar, María D

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la cuantificación y registro de la ingesta alimentaria del paciente hospitalizado es clave dentro del plan de cuidado nutricional. Objetivo: evaluar la validez de un cuestionario semicuantitativo de valoración del consumo comparado con una técnica de registro de alimentos por observación y pesada de los platos incluidos en la dieta hospitalaria. Métodos: estudio transversal realizado en condiciones de práctica clínica habitual. Las técnicas de valoración del consumo que se compararon fueron un registro por doble pesada y un cuestionario semicuantitativo por observación de la ingesta de cinco categorías (todo [> 80%], casi todo [80-60%], la mitad [60-40%], casi nada [40-20%] o nada [< 20%]), ambas realizadas por un dietista-nutricionista. La comparación entre ambas herramientas fue realizada con el índice kappa con ponderación cuadrática e intervalo de confianza del 95%. Resultados: fueron realizadas un total de 1.980 valoraciones. Se observó con el cuestionario semicuantitativo que en el 50% de los casos se ingirió todo, en el 19% casi todo, en el 13% la mitad, en el 9% menos de la mitad y en el 9% nada. La mediana de la ingesta por doble pesada de alimentos fue de 76,8 (RIC 45,8)%. Se observó que existió un acuerdo satisfactorio entre la técnica de doble pesada y la valoración visual del consumo con un valor κ = 0,907 (IC 95% 0,894-0,925). Conclusión: la escala visual empleada en este estudio permite cuantificar la ingesta real del paciente de forma precisa y adecuada por personal cualificado. PMID:27238794

  17. A novel meningococcal outer membrane vesicle vaccine with constitutive expression of FetA: A phase I clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Marsay, L.; Dold, C.; Green, C.A.; Rollier, C.S.; Norheim, G.; Sadarangani, M.; Shanyinde, M.; Brehony, C.; Thompson, A.J.; Sanders, H.; Chan, H.; Haworth, K.; Derrick, J.P.; Feavers, I.M.; Maiden, M.C.; Pollard, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives Outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines are used against outbreaks of capsular group B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) caused by strains expressing particular PorA outer membrane proteins (OMPs). Ferric enterobactin receptor (FetA) is another variable OMP that induces type-specific bactericidal antibodies, and the combination of judiciously chosen PorA and FetA variants in vaccine formulations is a potential approach to broaden protection of such vaccines. Methods The OMV vaccine MenPF-1 was generated by genetically modifying N. meningitidis strain 44/76 to constitutively express FetA. Three doses of 25 μg or 50 μg of MenPF-1 were delivered intra-muscularly to 52 healthy adults. Results MenPF-1 was safe and well tolerated. Immunogenicity was measured by serum bactericidal assay (SBA) against wild-type and isogenic mutant strains. After 3 doses, the proportion of volunteers with SBA titres ≥1:4 (the putative protective titre) was 98% for the wild-type strain, and 77% for the strain 44/76 FetAonPorAoff compared to 51% in the strain 44/76 FetAoffPorAoff, demonstrating that vaccination with MenPF-1 simultaneously induced FetA and PorA bactericidal antibodies. Conclusion This study provides a proof-of-concept for generating bactericidal antibodies against FetA after OMV vaccination in humans. Prevalence-based choice of PorA and FetA types can be used to formulate a vaccine for broad protection against MenB disease. PMID:25982025

  18. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    San Mauro Martin, Ismael; Mendive Dubourdieu, Paula; Paredes Barato, Víctor; Garicano Vilar, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la tradición de la comida picante desempeña un papel muy importante en el gusto por este tipo de comida y su tolerancia. Las preferencias alimentarias muestran influencia genética y ambiental.Objetivos: estudiar la tolerancia y el gusto por el picante de tres poblaciones, y la influencia hereditaria y del ambiente.Métodos:se realizó una encuesta a 522 sujetos, de tres continentes (Asia, Europa y Latinoamérica) en tres idiomas (español, inglés y chino) a través de Internet. Se realizaron preguntas acerca de la tolerancia al picante, el gusto por los alimentos picantes, su uso, la edad de comienzo de consumo, el gusto del padre y de la madre y si ella lo consumía durante el embarazo y/o lactancia.Resultados: existe diferencia entre el gusto por el picante del hijo y el sexo (p < 0,001), la tolerancia (p < 0,001) y, solo en el sexo femenino, el gusto de la madre por el picante (p < 0,001), su consumo durante el embarazo (p < 0,001) y la lactancia (p = 0,005) y el gusto del padre por el picante (p = 0,003). Existe correlación entre el continente de residencia (p = 0,007) y de nacimiento (p = 0,012) y la tolerancia a los alimentos picantes.Conclusión: la influencia de los progenitores, el género y la composición corporal se relacionaron con gustos y tolerancias diferentes. PMID:27571668

  19. What Number of Oocytes Is Appropriate for Defining Poor Ovarian Response?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seul Ki; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study attempted to derive an objective and sophisticated definition of poor ovarian response (POR). Materials and Methods A total of 176 consecutive in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles (137 patients) with conventional ovarian stimulation during 2009 to 2012 were studied by retrospective analysis. Optimal oocyte number (total or mature) was determined by statistics-based (distribution of oocyte number) and prognosis-based approaches (prediction for IVF outcome). Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was used to show what number of oocytes could predict IVF pregnancy and whether clinical and laboratory variables could predict newly defined POR. Results The 25th percentile of the distribution corresponded to total oocytes ≤2 and mature oocyte ≤1. The cut-off values for the prediction of IVF outcomes were total oocytes >5 and mature oocyte >1. Considering the incidence of POR (34.1%), a reasonable definition of POR was decided as total oocytes ≤2 or mature oocyte ≤1. For the prediction of this new definition, the extreme cut-off value (by setting a false positive rate of 5%) of serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) was ≤0.76 ng/mL, which was better than serum follicle stimulating hormone or age. A new simple definition of POR was derived as total oocytes ≤2 or mature oocyte ≤1 in a previous cycle or a serum AMH level of ≤0.76 ng/mL. When this simple criterion was re-applied to our data, the predictive performance was similar to the Bologna criteria. Conclusion We here propose a new definition of POR, which is simple and supported by statistical and prognostic analyses. PMID:25683999

  20. Association of Low Dietary Intake of Fiber and Liquids with Constipation: Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Markland, Alayne D.; Palsson, Olafur; Goode, Patricia S.; Burgio, Kathryn L.; Busby-Whitehead, Jan; Whitehead, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Epidemiological studies support an association of self-defined constipation with fiber and physical activity, but not liquid intake. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence and associations of dietary fiber and liquid intake to constipation. Methods Analyses were based on data from 10,914 adults (≥20 years) from the 2005-2008 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). Constipation was defined as hard or lumpy stools (Bristol Stool Scale types 1 or 2) as the “usual or most common stool type.” Dietary fiber and liquid intake from total moisture content were obtained from dietary recall. Co-variables included: age, race, education, poverty income ratio, body mass index, self-reported general health status, chronic illnesses, and physical activity. Prevalence estimates and prevalence odds ratios (POR) were analyzed in adjusted multivariable models using appropriate sampling weights. Results Overall, 9,373 (85.9%) adults (4,787 women and 4,586 men) had complete stool consistency and dietary data. Constipation rates were 10.2% (95% CI: 9.6,10.9) for women and 4.0 (95% CI: 3.2,5.0) for men (p<.001). After multivariable adjustment, low liquid consumption remained a predictor of constipation among women (POR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0,1.6) and men (POR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.5,3.9); however, dietary fiber was not a predictor. Among women, African-American race/ethnicity (POR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0,1.9), being obese (POR: 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5,0.9), and having a higher education level (POR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.7,0.9) were significantly associated with constipation. Conclusions The findings support clinical recommendations to treat constipation with increased liquid, but not fiber or exercise. PMID:23567352

  1. ?Cuales son las amenazas o peligros volcanicos?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Bobbie; Brantley, Steven R.; Stauffer, Peter; Hendley, James W., II

    2000-01-01

    Los volcanes son capaces de producir numerosos peligros geologicos e hidrologicos. Los cientificos del Servicio Geologico de los EE. UU. (USGS, por sus siglas en ingles) y de otras instituciones alrededor del mundo estan estudiando los peligros de muchos de los centenares de volcanes activos y potencialmente activos del mundo. Estos cientificos vigilan muy de cerca la actividad de algunos de los volcanes mas peligrosos, por lo que estan preparados para alertar a las autoridades y/o a la poblacion en caso de que aumente sustancialmente la probabilidad de que ocurra una erupcion u otro evento peligroso.

  2. Baseline Comorbidities in a Skin Cancer Prevention Trial in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Argos, Maria; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Parvez, Faruque; Dignam, James; Islam, Tariqul; Quasem, Iftekhar; Hore, Samar Kumar; Haider, Ahmed Talat; Hossain, Zahid; Patwary, Tazul Islam; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Sarwar, Golam; La Porte, Paul; Harjes, Judith; Anton, Kristen; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Jasmine, Farzana; Khan, Rashed; Kamal, Mohammed; Shea, Christopher R.; Yunus, Muhammad; Baron, John A.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic research suggests that increased cancer risk due to chronic arsenic exposure persists for several decades even after the exposure has terminated. Observational studies suggest antioxidants exert a protective effect on arsenical skin lesions and cancers among those chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water. This study reports on the design, methods, and baseline analyses from the Bangladesh Vitamin E and Selenium Trial (BEST), a population based chemoprevention study conducted among adults in Bangladesh with visible arsenic toxicity. Materials and methods BEST is a 2×2 full factorial double-blind randomized controlled trial of 7,000 adults having manifest arsenical skin lesions evaluating the efficacy of 6-year supplementation with alpha-tocopherol (100 mg daily) and L-selenomethionine (200 μg daily) for the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer. Results In cross-sectional analyses, we observed significant associations of skin lesion severity with male sex (female prevalence odds ratio (POR)=0.87; 95% CI=0.79–0.96), older age (aged 36–45 POR=1.27; 95% CI=1.13–1.42; aged 46–55 POR=1.44; 95% CI=1.27–1.64; and aged 56–65 POR=1.50; 95% CI=1.26–1.78 compared to aged 25–35), hypertension (POR=1.29; 95% CI=1.08–1.55), diabetes (POR=2.13; 95% CI=1.32–3.46), asthma (POR=1.55; 95% CI=1.03–2.32), and peptic ulcer disease (POR=1.20; 95% CI=1.07–1.35). Conclusions We report novel associations between arsenical skin lesions with several common chronic diseases. With the rapidly increasing burden of preventable cancers in developing countries, efficient and feasible chemoprevention study designs and approaches, such as employed in BEST, may prove both timely and potentially beneficial in conceiving cancer chemoprevention trials in Bangladesh and beyond. PMID:23590571

  3. Aplicación del Teorema de Nekhorochev para tiempos de estabilidad en Mecánica Celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O.; Núñez, J.; Brunini, A.

    En Mecánica Celeste, uno de los problemas centrales consiste en la determinación de los tiempos de estabilidad. El teorema de Nekhorochev proporciona un método para dicho estudio, para un sistema determinado por un hamiltoniano descripto en las variables acción-ángulo. El trabajo consiste en la acotación tanto del potencial perturbador y de la matriz hessiana del hamiltoniano integrable para determinar luego el tiempo de estabilidad de dicho sistema, donde por estabilidad se entiende la separación en norma infinito en el espacio de las acciones.

  4. La energia geotermica en la actualidad: Geothermal Today (Spanish version - 2003)

    SciTech Connect

    2003-09-01

    Por encargo del Secretario Abraham, la Oficina de Eficiencia Energética y Energía Renovable suministra el liderazgo a nivel nacional para impulsar las tecnologías de eficiencia energética y energía renovables, para saltar por encima de las limitaciones del status quo, y para alcanzar beneficios ambientales notables. El Programa de Tecnologías Geotérmicas, parte crítica de nuestro esfuerzo conjunto, está avanzando a grandes zancadas para aumentar la viabilidad y el despliegue de electricidad ...

  5. Pasado, presente y futuro de la epidemiología. Una perspective latinoamericana

    PubMed Central

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo intenta contestar tres preguntas. Sobre el pasado: ¿Por qué no existió una epidemiología precolombina? Sobre el presente: ¿Cuáles son los orígenes de la epidemiología moderna, incluyendo sus raíces sudamericanas? Y sobre el futuro, escogí un título surrealista para enfatizar el hecho que estoy consciente de que es siempre delicado hacer predicciones: ¿Por qué fenómenos complejos son los “objetos oscuros del deseo” epidemiológico? PMID:25124247

  6. Fluctuaciones cuánticas y cosmología

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetta, E.

    El objetivo de la charla es repasar 1) los motivos para creer que el Universo pasó por una etapa inflacionaria antes del período dominado por la radiación, durante la cual se habrían formado las fluctuaciones primordiales en la densidad de energía que luego colapsaron para formar estructuras cosmológicas 2) los mecanismos que crearon dichas fluctuaciones a partir de fluctuaciones cuánticas del campo del ``inflaton" durante dicho período y 3) los problemas abiertos en el estudio de modelos inflacionarios, especialmente respecto al inicio y final del mismo.

  7. Metabolic activities of metronidazole-sensitive and -resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori: repression of pyruvate oxidoreductase and expression of isocitrate lyase activity correlate with resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, P S; Goodwin, A; Johnsen, J; Magee, K; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S J

    1996-01-01

    In this study, we compared metronidazole (Mtz)-sensitive and -resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori for metabolic differences that might correlate with drug resistance. Included in this study was an isogenic Mtz(r) strain, HP1107, that was constructed by transforming genomic DNA from Mtz(r) strain HP439 into Mtz(s) strain HP500. Enzyme activities were also measured for Mtz(r) strains grown in the presence or absence of 18 micrograms of metronidazole per ml (ca. one-half of the MIC). These studies confirmed the presence of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas, Entner-Doudoroff, and pentose pathways. H. pylori strains expressed enzymatic activities indicative of a complete and active Krebs cycle. All strains expressed pyruvate oxidoreductase (POR) and alpha-ketoglutarate oxidoreductase (KOR) as measured with the redox-active dye benzyl viologen (30 to 96 nmol/min/mg of protein for POR and 30 nmol/min/mg of protein for KOR). When grown in the presence of Mtz at > or = 3.5 micrograms/ml, Mtz(r) strains expressed no detectable POR or KOR activity. The apparent repression of POR and KOR activities by Mtz affected bacterial growth as manifest by extended lag periods and growth yield reductions of > 30%. A dose-dependent relationship was demonstrated between the metronidazole concentration in the growth medium and the specific activity of POR measured in bacterial cell extracts. The observed repression was not due to inactivation of POR by Mtz. In addition to repression of POR and KOR activities, growth in the presence of Mtz also led to decreases in the activities of various Krebs cycle enzymes, including aconitase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase. All of the Mtz(r) strains examined expressed isocitrate lyase and malate synthase activities indicative of the glyoxylate bypass. No isocitrate lyase activity was detected in Mtz(s) strain HP500. Isocitrate lyase activity was expressed by HP500 following transformation to Mtz resistance (Mtz(r) strain HP1107) with

  8. Identificação de radiofontes puntiformes presentes na região observada pelo telescópio BEAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, M. S.; Wuensche, C. A.; Leonardi, R.; Tello, C.

    2003-08-01

    Radiofontes extragalácticas são um dos principais contaminantes nas medidas da Radiação Cósmica de Fundo (RCF) em freqüências abaixo de 200 GHz. O estudo de seu comportamento espectral permite determinar a contribuição destas fontes às anisotropias intrísincas da RCF. Um dos experimentos recentes concebidos para estudar a RCF é o BEAST (Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope), cujos primeiros resultados foram publicados em fevereiro de 2003. Nos últimos meses, geramos mapas do céu nas freqüências de 30 GHz e 41 GHz, para um total de 648 horas de observação entre julho e outubro de 2002. Identificamos 4 fontes puntiformes extragalácticas na região do céu situada entre 0h < RA < 24 h e +32° < DEC < +42°, com relação S/R > 4,3 e situadas a pelo menos 25° acima do Plano Galáctico. Suas contrapartidas em 5 GHz, segundo o catálogo GB6, são: J1613+3412, J1635+3808, J0927+3902 e J1642+3948. Estas fontes também foram identificadas pelo satélite WMAP sendo que três coincidem com as observadas pelo BEAST dentro da incerteza do feixe do telescópio e a quarta encontra-se bastante próxima (J1613+3412), embora não seja coincidente. As estimativas preliminares de fluxos obtidas para esses objetos são, respectivamente, 0,51; 0,97; 1,08 e 1,6 Jy em 41 GHz. Usando estes resultados e medidas de fluxos em outras frequências existentes na literatura, apresentamos uma estimativa dos índices espectrais destes objetos no intervalo de frequências entre 4,85 GHz e 41 GHz.

  9. A Multi Size-Level Assessment of Benthic Marine Communities in a Coastal Environment: Are They Different Sides of the Same Coin?

    PubMed Central

    Vannini, Claudia; Volpi, Marta; Lardicci, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Organism body size has been demonstrated to be a discriminating element in shaping the response of living beings to environmental factors, thus playing a fundamental role in community structuring. Despite the importance of studies elucidating relations among communities of different size levels in ecosystems, the attempts that have been made in this sense are still very scarce and a reliable approach for these research still has to be defined. We characterized the benthic communities of bacteria, microbial eukaryotes, meiofauna and macrofauna in a coastal environment, encompassing a 10000-fold gradient in body size, testing and discussing a mixed approach of molecular fingerprinting for microbes and morphological observations for meio- and macrofauna. We found no correlation among structures of the different size-level communities: this suggests that community composition at one size-level could have no (or very low) influence on the community composition at other size-levels. Moreover, each community responds in a different way to the environmental parameters and with a degree of sensitivity which seems to increase with organism size. Therefore, our data indicate that the characterization of all the different size levels is clearly a necessity in order to study the dynamics really acting in a system. PMID:26075405

  10. Characterization of Particulate Matter from a Heavily Industrial Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valarini, Simone; Ynoue, Rita Yuri

    2011-01-01

    A characterization of PM aerosols collected in Cubatão, Brazil is presented. Throughout 2009, 5 sampling campaings were carried out at CEPEMA (Centro de Capacitação e Pesquisa em Meio Ambiente da Universidade de São Paulo), in the vicinity of PETROBRAS oil refinery. Mini-vol portable air sampler was deployed to collect coarse and fine particles. Size-fractionated particle samples were collected by a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposition Impactor (MOUDI) device. Gravimetric analysis showed three peaks for mass size distributions: the After-Filter stage (cut point diameter of less than 0,1μm), stage 7A (d=0,32μm) and stage 3A (d= 3,2μm). Fine particle matter (FPM) concentrations were almost always lower than coarse particle matter (CPM) concentrations. Comparison between the PM2.5 (particulate matter lower than 2.5μg.m-3) measurements by the MOUDI and Mini-Vol sampler reveals good agreement. However, MOUDI underestimates CPM. Reflectance analysis showed that almost all the Black Carbon is found in the Mini-Vol FPM and lower stages of the MOUDI, with higher concentrations at the After-Filter. The atmospheric loading of PM 2.5 was elevated at night, mainly due to more stable atmospheric conditions. Aerosol samples were analyzed for water- soluble ions, black carbon (BC), and trace elements using a number of analytical techniques.

  11. Two-dimensional small-scale variability of pore water phosphate in freshwater lakes: results from a novel dialysis sampler.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Jorg; Rüter, Kristina; Hupfer, Michael

    2002-05-01

    Vertical concentration profiles of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) in the upper sedimentary zone of freshwater lakes are an important means for studying internal phosphorus (P) loading and to gain insight into early diagenetic processes. The interpretation of such pore water profiles generally neglects the occurrence of horizontal variability at a specific sampling site. To further examine this variability, we have designed a novel two-dimensional sampler (2D peeper) consisting of 2280 chambers at a spatial resolution of 9 mm providing a sampling area of 43 x 44 cm. This new device was deployed in three eutrophic lakes in north-eastern Germany. The resulting 2D images of the SRP concentrations, diffusive fluxes, and turnover rates revealed systematic vertical and horizontal structures with local niches of increased phosphorus release. Thus, the extrapolation of P flux calculations based on one-dimensional pore water profiles may lead to a considerable error. The observed small-scale horizontal heterogeneity, probably mainly caused by organisms, was larger in the biologically more active Lake Müllrose and Süsser See than in the deeper Arendsee where meio- and macrozoobenthos were missing. In all cases, the variability was highest at the sediment-water interface and diminished with sediment depth. PMID:12026990

  12. Meiofauna as descriptor of tourism-induced changes at sandy beaches.

    PubMed

    Gheskiere, Tom; Vincx, Magda; Weslawski, Jan Marcin; Scapini, Felicita; Degraer, Steven

    2005-08-01

    Tourism has long been considered as a 'clean industry' with almost no negative effects on the environment. This study demonstrated, in two different coastal systems (Mediterranean and Baltic), that tourism related activities are particularly affecting the sandy beach meio- and nematofauna in the upper beach zone, the specific ecotone in which many meiofauna species from both the marine and the terrestrial environment congregate. Tourist upper beaches are characterized by a lower % total organic matter (%TOM), lower densities, lower diversities (absence of Insecta, Harpacticoida, Oligochaeta, terrestrial nematodes and marine Ironidae nematodes) and higher community stress compared to nearby non-tourist locations. The %TOM was found to be the single most important factor for the observed differences in meiofauna assemblage structure at tourist versus non-tourist beaches in both the Mediterranean and the Baltic region. The free-living nematode assemblages from tourist upper zones depart significantly from expectations based on random selections from the regional nematode species pool. Furthermore upper zone assemblages are characterised by a low species diversity consisting of taxonomically closely related nematode species with r-strategist features. Generally, faunal differences between tourist and non-tourist beaches are decreasing towards the lower beach zones. PMID:15757751

  13. Potential pest transfer mediated by international ornamental plant trade

    PubMed Central

    Patoka, Jiří; Bláha, Martin; Kalous, Lukáš; Vrabec, Vladimír; Buřič, Miloš; Kouba, Antonín

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the keeping of ornamental freshwater animals and plants in garden ponds has been growing in popularity. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is one of the preferred macrophytes seasonally imported mainly from South-eastern Asia throughout the world. This constitutes a secondary introduction inasmuch as the species is native to South America. Although many assemblages of aquatic invertebrates have been described as associated with this plant in the wild, there has been no research focused on their potential introduction via the international plant trade. We examined 216 specimens of water hyacinths imported for ornamental purposes from Indonesia into the Czech Republic. Numerous meio- and macroinvertebrates belonging to at least 39 species were captured. On the total number of individuals, the highest prevalence was of Tubulinea and Rotifera. Most of these were still alive and vital, including a caterpillar of the Indo–Australian invasive moth Spodoptera litura. Water hyacinths are usually placed into outdoor ponds immediately after import, which facilitates the release of non-target alien species. The present paper aims to draw attention to “hitchhikers” associated with the ornamental trade. PMID:27221025

  14. Population structure and allometry of Podocnemis unifilis (Testudines, Podocnemididae) in a protected area upstream Belo Monte dam in Xingu River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miorando, Priscila S; Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Pezzuti, Juarez C B

    2015-01-01

    Amazon river turtles are increasingly threatened by habitat loss and alteration due to the Brazilian energy policy based on construction of hydroelectric dams, meanwhile, populational studies remain scarce. We described the population structure, and established body allometric relationships of Podocnemis unifilis in the Terra do Meio Ecological Station in the Iriri River, tributary of the Xingu River upstream the Belo Monte dam under construction Turtles were captured by hand net and diving in 2012 and 2013 dry seasons, and 2013 rainy season. A total of 728 males, 296 females and four juveniles were captured. Adult sex ratio was male-biased by 9.15 ♂:1 ♀. Females were significantly larger than males. Mean straight carapace length was 268.9 ± 46.7 mm (165 - 403) for females; and 232.7 ± 24.8 mm (167 - 303) for males. The sexes were morphologically distinct in function of a proportionally larger plastron, and higher carapace, on females. Allometric relationships between straight carapace length and other morphometric traits were strong for males (R2 range = 0.87 - 0.96 and females (R2 range =0.79 - 0.98. Exploitation of P. unifilis in biomass extirpated from the Middle Xingu River may be estimated from body parts found post-consumption by the presented regressions. PMID:26628030

  15. Impacts of discarded plastic bags on marine assemblages and ecosystem functioning.

    PubMed

    Green, Dannielle Senga; Boots, Bas; Blockley, David James; Rocha, Carlos; Thompson, Richard

    2015-05-01

    The accumulation of plastic debris is a global environmental problem due to its durability, persistence, and abundance. Although effects of plastic debris on individual marine organisms, particularly mammals and birds, have been extensively documented (e.g., entanglement and choking), very little is known about effects on assemblages and consequences for ecosystem functioning. In Europe, around 40% of the plastic items produced are utilized as single-use packaging, which rapidly accumulate in waste management facilities and as litter in the environment. A range of biodegradable plastics have been developed with the aspiration of reducing the persistence of litter; however, their impacts on marine assemblages or ecosystem functioning have never been evaluated. A field experiment was conducted to assess the impact of conventional and biodegradable plastic carrier bags as litter on benthic macro- and meio-faunal assemblages and biogeochemical processes (primary productivity, redox condition, organic matter content, and pore-water nutrients) on an intertidal shore near Dublin, Ireland. After 9 weeks, the presence of either type of bag created anoxic conditions within the sediment along with reduced primary productivity and organic matter and significantly lower abundances of infaunal invertebrates. This indicates that both conventional and biodegradable bags can rapidly alter marine assemblages and the ecosystem services they provide. PMID:25822754

  16. Moon phase effects and timing of emerging macrobenthic assemblages in a sheltered soft-bottom sublittoral habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, Aldo S.; Gómez, Gonzalo E.; Santoro, Pablo A.; Malebran, Maritza; Cortés, Cynthia; Riascos, José M.

    2014-02-01

    Several species of benthic macro and meio-invertebrates actively emerge from the seabed to the water column during the night. Such diel vertical migrations have important consequences for benthic-pelagic coupling, dispersal, connectivity and recovery after disturbance of benthic assemblages. However, this process has never been studied in the coast of the Humboldt Current ecosystem. Herein we examined the relationship between the emerging assemblage and moon phases (and co-variables) and the timing of emergence during the day/night cycle, in a sublittoral soft-bottom habitat. Sampling using emergence traps was conducted at 7 m depth in the zone of Bolsico, a sheltered cove with low bottom hydrodynamics in northern Chile. Multivariable analysis showed that changes in the dissimilarity of the emerging assemblage were related to each moon phase. The percentage of moon illumination, bottom illumination and tide amplitude explained most of the variation of the emerging assemblage. Species showed differential responses to each moon phase; some were abundant at intermediate phases (e.g., harpacticoids), or peaked at full moon (e.g. ostracods) and others such as mysids emerged in equal abundances at all moon phases. The timing of assemblage emergence followed a consecutive sequence through the night/day period. Most of the studies dealing with the emergence processes have described species-specific responses. Our research shows that the examination at assemblage level may reveal new and distinct patterns of emergence in sublittoral soft-bottom habitats.

  17. Multiple measurement of the coupling between benthic carbon fluxes and bioturbation activity during the ``spring bloom``. Progress report 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Aller, R.C.; Aller, J.J.; Cochran, J.K.; Lee, C.

    1992-12-31

    In accordance with the research plan outlined in our original proposal, we began monitoring indicators of plankton production (Chl-a, cell counts) in surface waters of Long Island Sound from the Port Jefferson / Bridgeport Ferry on Dec. 3, 1992. In contrast to past years no dramatic bloom has occurred to date although a significant pattern of increasing chl-a began during the first week of April. We anticipate that the bloom wig be complete by mid to late April. This has been a particularly cold year based on comparison of 1993 bottom water temperatures and previously reported patterns from LIS, possibly reflecting climatic conditions which delayed the bloom. Typical sampling includes: surface and bottom water sampling for suspended matter, cell counts, chlorophyll-a, nutrients; triplicate box cores for macro-, meio-, and microfauna analysis; subcores for O{sub 2} microelectrode profiles; box core for radiochemical analyses ({sup 234}Th, {sup 7}Be); box core subcores for benthic fluxes under aerated and nonaerated conditions (O{sub 2}, {Sigma}N, Mn{sup ++}, {Sigma}CO{sub 2}); Br{sup {minus}} tracer flux core incubation for biogenic irrigation rates; box core for laboratory based luminophore tracer experiments (particle mixing); box core subcores for solid phase and pore water solute profiles (carbonate system, nutrients, Ca, Mg, Sr, F, Mn, Fe) at 0.25 {minus} 1 cm intervals; and box core subcores for chloropigment profiles and reaction rate incubation experiments.

  18. Multiple measurement of the coupling between benthic carbon fluxes and bioturbation activity during the spring bloom''

    SciTech Connect

    Aller, R.C.; Aller, J.J.; Cochran, J.K.; Lee, C.

    1992-01-01

    In accordance with the research plan outlined in our original proposal, we began monitoring indicators of plankton production (Chl-a, cell counts) in surface waters of Long Island Sound from the Port Jefferson / Bridgeport Ferry on Dec. 3, 1992. In contrast to past years no dramatic bloom has occurred to date although a significant pattern of increasing chl-a began during the first week of April. We anticipate that the bloom wig be complete by mid to late April. This has been a particularly cold year based on comparison of 1993 bottom water temperatures and previously reported patterns from LIS, possibly reflecting climatic conditions which delayed the bloom. Typical sampling includes: surface and bottom water sampling for suspended matter, cell counts, chlorophyll-a, nutrients; triplicate box cores for macro-, meio-, and microfauna analysis; subcores for O[sub 2] microelectrode profiles; box core for radiochemical analyses ([sup 234]Th, [sup 7]Be); box core subcores for benthic fluxes under aerated and nonaerated conditions (O[sub 2], [Sigma]N, Mn[sup ++], [Sigma]CO[sub 2]); Br[sup [minus

  19. Potential pest transfer mediated by international ornamental plant trade.

    PubMed

    Patoka, Jiří; Bláha, Martin; Kalous, Lukáš; Vrabec, Vladimír; Buřič, Miloš; Kouba, Antonín

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the keeping of ornamental freshwater animals and plants in garden ponds has been growing in popularity. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is one of the preferred macrophytes seasonally imported mainly from South-eastern Asia throughout the world. This constitutes a secondary introduction inasmuch as the species is native to South America. Although many assemblages of aquatic invertebrates have been described as associated with this plant in the wild, there has been no research focused on their potential introduction via the international plant trade. We examined 216 specimens of water hyacinths imported for ornamental purposes from Indonesia into the Czech Republic. Numerous meio- and macroinvertebrates belonging to at least 39 species were captured. On the total number of individuals, the highest prevalence was of Tubulinea and Rotifera. Most of these were still alive and vital, including a caterpillar of the Indo-Australian invasive moth Spodoptera litura. Water hyacinths are usually placed into outdoor ponds immediately after import, which facilitates the release of non-target alien species. The present paper aims to draw attention to "hitchhikers" associated with the ornamental trade. PMID:27221025

  20. Seasonal variation in benthic community oxygen demand: A response to an ice algal bloom in the Beaufort Sea, Canadian Arctic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, Paul E.; Riedel, Andrea; Michel, Christine; Morata, Nathalie; Gosselin, Michel; Juul-Pedersen, Thomas; Chiuchiolo, Amy

    2007-08-01

    Understanding pathways of carbon cycling on Arctic shelves is critical if we are to evaluate the potential effects of climate change on these systems. We investigated the relationship between ice algal standing stock and benthic respiration between January and July 2004 at a time series station in the southeastern Beaufort Sea. Both ice algal chlorophyll a and benthic sediment oxygen demand showed > 10-fold increases from between March and April. While some of the increase in oxygen demand can be attributed to bacteria and meio-fauna, most was due to the activities of macroinfauna. We also observed a trend toward lower sediment pigment content during the pulse in benthic carbon remineralization. While chl a sedimentation also increased by a factor of 7 during this period, fluxes were not sufficient to provide for the increased carbon demand. We suggest that sedimenting ice algae provided a cue for increased benthic activity, and that direct consumption of ice algae and increased oxygen availability in the sediment due to bioturbation by epifaunal organisms led to the enhancement in respiration rates. Seasonal patterns in primary productivity and the activity of resident epifaunal and infaunal communities are, thus, important factors in determining carbon cycling patterns on Arctic shelves.

  1. El dolor y el cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del dolor como una complicación a causa del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discuten enfoques sobre el manejo y tratamiento del dolor relacionado con el cáncer.

  2. 75 FR 6627 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Mexico; Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and Intent Not To Revoke Order in Part, 74 FR 39622... Administrative Review, 74 FR 65100 (December 9, 2009). Period of Review The period of review (POR) is July 1... From Mexico; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 73 FR 45708 (August 6,...

  3. Nuevas oportunidades de inmunoterapia dirigida

    Cancer.gov

    Un equipo de investigadores del NCI ha informado que varios tipos de cánceres gastrointestinales tienen mutaciones específicas al tumor que pueden ser reconocidas por el sistema inmunitario, lo que ofrece una posible oportunidad terapéutica para pacientes

  4. Multigene predictors of tacrolimus exposure in kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Pulk, Rebecca A; Schladt, David S; Oetting, William S; Guan, Weihua; Israni, Ajay K; Matas, Arthur J; Remmel, Rory P; Jacobson, Pamala A

    2015-01-01

    Aim Determine the effect of the genetic variants beyond CYP3A5*3 on tacrolimus disposition. Patients & methods We studied genetic correlates of tacrolimus trough concentrations with POR*28, CYP3A4*22 and ABCC2 haplotypes in a large, ethnically diverse kidney transplant cohort (n = 2008). Results Subjects carrying one or more CYP3A5*1 alleles had lower tacrolimus trough concentrations (p = 9.2 × 10−75). The presence of one or two POR*28 alleles was associated with a 4.63% reduction in tacrolimus trough concentrations after adjusting for CYP3A5*1 and clinical factors (p = 0.037). In subset analyses, POR*28 was significant only in CYP3A5*3/*3 carriers (p = 0.03). The CYP3A4*22 variant and the ABBC2 haplotypes were not associated. Conclusion This study confirmed that CYP3A5*1 was associated with lower tacrolimus trough concentrations. POR*28 was associated with decreased tacrolimus trough concentrations although the effect was small possibly through enhanced CYP3A4 enzyme activity. CYP3A4*22 and ABCC2 haplotypes did not influence tacrolimus trough concentrations. PMID:26067485

  5. Prevalence case-control study of epilepsy in three Burkina Faso villages

    PubMed Central

    Nitiéma, Pascal; Carabin, Hélène; Hounton, Sennen; Cowan, Linda D; Ganaba, Rasmané; Kompaoré, C; Millogo, Athanase

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the association between the prevalence of epilepsy and potential risk factors in three Burkina Faso villages. Methods Three villages were selected based on local reports of high numbers of epilepsy cases and pig-rearing practices. One person aged 7 or older was selected at random from all households of selected concessions for epilepsy screening and blood sampling. Epilepsy was confirmed by a physician using the ILAE definition. The cross-sectional associations between epilepsy and selected factors and sero-response to the antigens of Taenia solium were estimated using a Bayesian hierarchical logistic regression. Prevalence odds ratios (POR) and their 95% Credible Intervals (95%BCI) were estimated. Results Of 888 individuals interviewed, 39 of 70 screened positive were confirmed to have epilepsy for a lifetime prevalence of 4.5% (95%CI: 3.3–6.0). The prevalence of epilepsy was associated with a positive reaction to cysticercosis Ag-ELISA serology (POR=3.1, 95% BCI= 1.0;8.3), past pork consumption (POR=9.7, 95% BCI=2.5;37.9), and being salaried or a trader compared to a farmer or housewife (POR=2.9, 95% BCI= 1.2;6.4). Discussion Several factors were associated with prevalent epilepsy, with Ag-ELISA suggesting the presence of neurocysticercosis. The association of epilepsy and some occupations may reflect differences in local attitudes toward epilepsy and should be further explored. PMID:22289127

  6. Prurito (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del prurito (picazón de la piel) como complicación a causa del cáncer y su tratamiento. Se discuten los enfoques del manejo y tratamiento del prurito.

  7. Complicaciones gastrointestinales (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del estreñimiento, impacción, obstrucción intestinal y diarrea como complicaciones del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discute el manejo de estos problemas.

  8. 78 FR 63166 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of... conducting an administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks (kitchen racks) from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The period of review (POR)...

  9. 76 FR 76948 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... Administrative Review, 76 FR 47558 (August 5, 2011) (Preliminary Results), the following events have occurred... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results... strip (PET Film) from India for Ester Industries Ltd. (Ester), covering the period of review (POR)...

  10. 78 FR 48147 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary... film, sheet and strip (PET film) from India for the period of review (POR) January 1, 2011, through... Strip from India (Preliminary Decision Memorandum), dated concurrently with these results and...

  11. 78 FR 73825 - Frontseating Service Valves From the People's Republic of China; Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ...On May 13, 2013, the Department of Commerce (``the Department'') published the preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty on frontseating service valves from the People's Republic of China.\\1\\ The period of review (``POR'') is April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012. The review covers two exporters of subject merchandise, Zhejiang DunAn Hetian Metal Co., Ltd.......

  12. Atención médica más importante que la biolo

    Cancer.gov

    Los índices más altos de incidencia y mortalidad por cáncer colorrectal que experimentan los afroamericanos pueden deberse principalmente a las diferencias en la utilización de servicios médicos y en menor proporción a la biología, según un nuevo estudio

  13. Prevención del cáncer de ovario (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario de información revisada por expertos sobre factores que pueden influir en el riesgo de presentar cáncer de ovario, de trompas de Falopio y primario de peritoneo y sobre las investigaciones dirigidas a prevenir los mismos.

  14. Los LGBT y fumar | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    En Estados Unidos, las personas lesbianas, gays, bisexuales y transexuales (LGBT) tienen el doble de probabilidades de empezar a fumar que los heterosexuales. Sepa por qué los miembros de la comunidad LGBT fuman y aprenda estrategias para dejar de fumar definitivamente.

  15. The Impact of a Death Education Program for Nurses in a Long-Term Care Hospital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Stephen; Brown, Isabel

    1983-01-01

    Assessed the impact of a death education program for nursing staff (N=130) of a long-term care institution. Analysis of nurses' chart entries (problem-oriented record format-POR) revealed a statistically significant increase from pre- to post-course in charting of patients' subjective state. (Author/JAC)

  16. Restart 68000 vector remapping

    SciTech Connect

    Gustin, J.

    1984-05-03

    The circuit described allows power-on-reset (POR) vector fetch from ROM for a 68000 microprocessor. It offers programmability of exception vectors, including the restart vector. This method eliminates the need for high-resolution, address-decoder peripheral circuitry.

  17. Aprendiendo de los errores del pasado

    NASA Video Gallery

    Fernando Abilleira, analista de trayectoria de la NASA para la Oficina de Exploración de Marte, comenta por qué el aterrizaje de una nave espacial en Marte requiere una precisión increíble y hasta ...

  18. 76 FR 48802 - Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey; Notice of Amended Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Determination To Revoke in Part, 73 FR 66218 (Nov. 7, 2008). The period of review (POR) is April 1, 2006... Countervailing Duty Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003). This clarification... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey; Notice of Amended...

  19. 75 FR 7562 - Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ..., Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review in Part, and Determination To Revoke in Part, 70 FR... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey: Notice of Court Decision... certain steel concrete reinforcing bars (rebar) from Turkey covering the period of review (POR) of April...

  20. The effects of telemedicine on racial and ethnic disparities in access to acute stroke care

    PubMed Central

    Lyerly, Michael J; Wu, Tzu-Ching; Mullen, Michael T; Albright, Karen C; Wolff, Catherine; Boehme, Amelia K; Branas, Charles C; Grotta, James C; Savitz, Sean I; Carr, Brendan G

    2016-01-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities have been previously reported in acute stroke care. We sought to determine the effect of telemedicine (TM) on access to acute stroke care for racial and ethnic minorities in the state of Texas. Data were collected from the US Census Bureau, The Joint Commission and the American Hospital Association. Access for racial and ethnic minorities was determined by summing the population that could reach a primary stroke centre (PSC) or telemedicine spoke within specified time intervals using validated models. TM extended access to stroke expertise by 1.5 million residents. The odds of providing 60-minute access via TM were similar in Blacks and Whites (prevalence odds ratios (POR) 1.000, 95% CI 1.000–1.000), even after adjustment for urbanization (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000–1.001). The odds of providing access via TM were also similar for Hispanics and non-Hispanics (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000–1.000), even after adjustment for urbanization (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000–1.000). We found that telemedicine increased access to acute stroke care for 1.5 million Texans. While racial and ethnic disparities exist in other components of stroke care, we did not find evidence of disparities in access to the acute stroke expertise afforded by telemedicine. PMID:26116854

  1. 75 FR 70908 - Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 22107 (April 27, 2010). The period of review (``POR'') is September 5... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic... of the antidumping duty order on circular welded austenitic stainless pressure pipe from the...

  2. Neoplasias mielodisplásicas o mieloproliferativas (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del tratamiento de las neoplasias mielodisplásicas o mieloproliferativas, incluso las leucemias mielomonocíticas crónicas o juveniles, y la LMC atípica.

  3. Neoplasias mielodisplásicas o mieloproliferativas (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del tratamiento de las neoplasias mielodisplásicas o mieloproliferativas, incluso las leucemias mielomonocítica crónica o juvenil y la LMC atípica.

  4. To the Barricades: The Department Head Role in Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannay, Lynne M.; Erb, Cathy Smeltzer

    This paper examines the role of individuals in positions of responsibility (POR) during the implementation of two different curriculum innovations: curriculum integration and performance-based assessment. In addition to addressing the lack of knowledge of department heads' role in implementing innovations, the report explores the effectiveness of…

  5. Cometas

    NASA Video Gallery

    ¿Sabías que los cometas que vemos por el cielo nocturno pueden haber traído hace miles de millones de años, los elementos básicos para la vida a nuestro planeta? Únete a la NASA para aprender más a...

  6. La necesidad de cohetes más veloces

    NASA Video Gallery

    Los cohetes utilizados por la NASA son excelentes, pero no nos pueden llevar muy lejos ni muy rápido a aquellos lugares a los que todavía no llegamos, como Marte, o más lejos. Una solución posible ...

  7. Aquarius: Tour de la salinidad superficial del mar

    NASA Video Gallery

    Recorrido narrado de la información sobre la salinidad superficial de los océanos recogida por el instrumento Aquarius de la NASA durante su primer año de funcionamiento. Algunas de las caracte...

  8. "The Way to a Man's Heart." Journey and War Metaphors. Metaphorical Conceptualisations of the Western Romance Model in English and Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Maria Angeles Navarrete

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines two examples of the Western model of romance in English and Spanish discourse: the English metaphor, "the (best) way to a man's heart is through his stomach" (journey metaphor) and its Spanish counterpart, "Al hombre se le conquista por el estomago" (war metaphor). Both central metaphors entail a number of perceptual,…

  9. Preguntas para hacerle al doctor acerca del cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Serie de preguntas, organizadas por tema, que los pacientes con cáncer pueden hacer al médico o a otros miembros de su equipo de atención médica para conocer más acerca de su tipo de cáncer y lo que pueden esperar.

  10. 25 CFR 900.112 - What are construction phases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... investigations and selection, developing budget cost estimates, conducting feasibility studies, and developing a... professional(s) using the POR as the basis for design of the project, prepare project plans, specifications...) Management; and (2) Environmental, archeological, cultural resource, historic preservation, and...

  11. Prurito (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del prurito (picazón de la piel) como complicación a causa del cáncer y su tratamiento. Se discuten los enfoques del manejo y tratamiento del prurito.

  12. An Analysis of Interlanguage Development over Time: Part II, "ser" and "estar."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guntermann, Gail

    1992-01-01

    Follow up to a previous study of the use of "por" and "para," this study analyzes "ser,""estar," and "haber" for lexical selection in relation to their functions and also for errors in tense, mode, aspect, agreement, and invented forms and uses of copula in simplified or reduced utterances. Data were from 20 oral examinations of Peace Corps…

  13. Fumar durante el tratamiento de cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la influencia de seguir fumando sobre el tratamiento del cáncer y el riesgo de segundos cánceres. Se mencionan las intervenciones que estimulan dejar el hábito de fumar.

  14. Adaptación al cáncer: ansiedad y sufrimiento (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de las difíciles respuestas emocionales que se presentan en muchos de los pacientes con cáncer. Este sumario se enfoca en asuntos de la adaptación normal, alteración psicosocial y trastornos de adaptación.

  15. Complicaciones gastrointestinales (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del estreñimiento, la retención fecal, la obstrucción intestinal y la diarrea como complicaciones del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discute el manejo de estos problemas.

  16. 77 FR 13534 - Silicon Metal From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ...-2011 POR.\\4\\ \\1\\ See Antidumping Duty Order: Silicon Metal from the People's Republic of China, 56 FR... Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 76 FR 31586 (June 1, 2011). \\3\\ See letter from... Reviews, 76 FR 45227 (July 28, 2011) (``Initiation Notice''). On August 2, 2011, the Department issued...

  17. 78 FR 37205 - Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Republic of China (PRC) with respect to Hubei Nature Agriculture Industry Co., Ltd. (Hubei Nature). The... Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 78 FR 24723 (April 26, 2013... the POR.\\2\\ \\2\\ See Antidumping Duties; Countervailing Duties; Final Rule, 62 FR 27296, 27319 (May...

  18. 76 FR 6603 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... Review, 72 FR 52065 (Sept. 12, 2007). The period of review (POR) is August 4, 2004, through January 31... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from Thailand. See Certain Frozen...

  19. 77 FR 14495 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... To Rescind, in Part, 76 FR 62356 (October 7, 2011) (``Preliminary Results''). We invited interested... United States during the POR. See Preliminary Results, 76 FR at 62358. The Department did not receive any... Republic of China, 56 FR 20588 (May 6, 1991), as amplified by Notice of Final Determination of Sales...

  20. Cánceres poco comunes en la niñez (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del tratamiento de los cánceres poco comunes en la niñez como los cánceres de la cabeza y el cuello, el tórax, el abdomen, el aparato reproductor, la piel y otros.

  1. 77 FR 67332 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ...On May 8, 2012, the Department of Commerce (``Department'') published in the Federal Register the Preliminary Results of the second administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain steel threaded rod from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period of review (``POR'') April 1, 2010, through March 31, 2011.\\1\\ Based upon our analysis of the comments and information......

  2. 78 FR 16651 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China; Final Results of Third Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ...The Department of Commerce (``the Department'') published its Preliminary Results of the antidumping duty order on certain steel nails from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') on September 4, 2012.\\1\\ The period of review (``POR'') is August 1, 2010, through July 31, 2011. We gave interested parties an opportunity to comment on the Preliminary Results. Based upon our analysis of the......

  3. Descargo de responsabilidad de Smokefree Español | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan español y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la División de Investigación para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer.

  4. Resultados de estudio para cáncer de pulmón indica

    Cancer.gov

    El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) da a conocer hoy resultados iniciales de un estudio de gran envergadura sobre métodos de detección para reducir el número de muertes por cáncer de pulmón al detectar cánceres en estadios relativamente iniciales.

  5. Cáncer que regresa

    Cancer.gov

    El cáncer puede regresar cuando el tratamiento no elimina o destruye por completo todas las células cancerosas. Aprenda acerca de los diferentes tipos de recurrencia -recidiva- y cómo se vuelve a asignar un estadio al cáncer y se da tratamiento.

  6. Peer Observation Reports and Student Evaluations of Teaching: Who Are the Experts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, David; Gross, Barbara L.; Vigneron, Franck

    2009-01-01

    This study is an exploratory inquiry into the perceptions of university faculty regarding two forms of teaching evaluations, student evaluations of teaching (SET), and peer observation reports (POR). Which, if either, better assesses the quality of instruction? Who are the real experts in judging teaching quality: peers who are experts in their…

  7. 78 FR 78815 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks from the People's Republic of China: Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ...The Department of Commerce (``Department'') is rescinding the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period of review (``POR'') September 1, 2012, through August 31, 2013. This rescission is based on the timely withdrawal of the request for review by the only interested party that......

  8. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Lead Poisoning KidsHealth > For Parents > Lead Poisoning Print A A ... Family en español La intoxicación por plomo About Lead Poisoning If you have young kids, it's important to ...

  9. 78 FR 79665 - Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... Administrative Review; 2011-2012, 78 FR 34340 (June 7, 2013) (Preliminary Results). \\2\\ The Department initiated... during the POR. See Preliminary Results, 78 FR at 34340 n. 4. Furthermore, as we stated in the draft cash... Results, 78 FR at 34341. The Department has conducted this administrative review in accordance...

  10. Aflatoxinas

    Cancer.gov

    Las aflatoxinas son un tipo de toxinas producidas por ciertos hongos en cultivos agrícolas como el maíz, los cacahuates o el maní, la semilla de algodón y los frutos secos (de cáscara dura como las nueces).

  11. Prevención del cáncer de estómago (gástrico) (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario de información revisada por expertos sobre factores que pueden influir en el riesgo de presentar cáncer de estómago y sobre las investigaciones dirigidas a la prevención de esta enfermedad.

  12. Complicaciones orales de la quimioterapia y la radioterapia (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de las complicaciones orales, como la mucositis y la disfunción de la glándula salival, que se presentan en pacientes de cáncer tratados con quimioterapia y radioterapia dirigida a la cabeza y el cuello.

  13. Exámenes de detección del cáncer de próstata (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de los factores que pueden influir en el desarrollo del cáncer de próstata y sobre la investigación dirigida a la prevención de esta enfermedad.

  14. Cuidados médicos de apoyo en niños (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la peculiaridad de los asuntos que surgen durante y después del tratamiento en los niños con cáncer y como sobrevivientes adultos de cáncer.

  15. Serological survey of veterinarians to assess the zoonotic potential of three emerging swine diseases in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Benitez, J F; Rosas-Estrada, K; Pulido-Camarillo, E; de la Peña-Moctezuma, A; Castillo-Juárez, H; Ramírez-Mendoza, H

    2014-03-01

    We conducted an immunological assay of blood samples taken from 85 swine-specialist veterinarians attending the Congress of the Mexican Association of Swine Specialist Veterinarians in Mexico in 2011. Serum samples were assayed for Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV), Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and Leptospira spp. antibodies. Using a hemagglutination inhibition test, we registered 2.3% and 27% seropositivity for PorPV and EMCV, respectively. Using viral neutralization tests, we registered 5.8% and 47% seropositivity for PorPV and EMCV, respectively. For Leptospira spp., we registered a seropositivity of 38.8%. The variables (sex, age, years of exposure, number of visited farms, biosecurity level and region) showed no significant effect (P > 0.05) on the seropositivity for EMCV, PorPV and Leptospira spp. except for number of visited farms on HI seropositivity for EMCV (P < 0.05; odds ratio: 1.38). The data obtained provide information on the epidemiology of emerging diseases with zoonotic potential in occupational risk groups. PMID:23734711

  16. 75 FR 42485 - Additional Designation of Entities and Individuals Pursuant to Executive Order 12978

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... (Colombia); (INDIVIDUAL) . Entities 1. BOSQUES DE AGUA SOCIEDAD POR ACCIONES SIMPLIFICADA, Carrera 43A No... significant foreign narcotics traffickers centered in Colombia and the harm that they cause in the United... trafficking centered in Colombia, or materially to assist in, or provide financial or technological...

  17. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Ortega, Rosa M

    2016-01-01

    El artículo de San Mauro y cols. profundiza en un tema de interés prioritario como es el estudio de los hábitos de ingesta de fluidos en personas de cuatro países: España, Portugal, México y Uruguay, para analizar si se cumplen (y si se conocen) las pautas de hidratación marcadas como adecuadas por organismos oficiales y, en concreto, por la EFSA. Es indudable la importancia de una correcta hidratación pues mientras que se puede vivir meses, o años, con una alimentación incorrecta, la deshidratación puede llevar a la muerte en un escaso periodo de tiempo. Por otra parte, un aporte ligeramente insuficiente de fluidos perjudica la salud, capacidad funcional y calidad de vida del individuo, por lo que debe ser evitada. Incluso algunos estudios encuentran hábitos y estilo de vida menos saludables en individuos con menor consumo de fluidos y pautas de hidratación más incorrectas. PMID:27571645

  18. Dos dosis de vacuna contra los VPH pueden proteger

    Cancer.gov

    Dos dosis de Cervarix, la vacuna contra virus del papiloma humano (VPH), fueron tan efectivas como la pauta normal actual de tres dosis después de cuatro años de seguimiento. El estudio de vacuna en Costa Rica, patrocinado por el NCI, fue diseñado para ev

  19. Deuterobiosphere the chemosynthetic second biosphere of the globe. A first review.

    PubMed

    Por, Francis D

    2008-06-01

    With the discovery of Ophel, a chemosynthesis-based continental subterranean environment (Por 2007), it became evident that such environments, previously known only from the sea, are spanning the world as a parallel biosphere, the deuterobiosphere. In this preliminary contribution the different known biomes of the deuterobiosphere are reviewed and some general and comparative features are listed. PMID:21396058

  20. A Road Map for Empowering Undergraduates to Practice Service Leadership through Service-Learning in Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Robin Stanley; Chan, Maureen Yin Lee; Ma, Carol Hok Ka; Chan, Carman Ka Man

    2015-01-01

    We present a road map for providing course-embedded service-learning team projects as opportunities for undergraduates to practice as service leaders in Asia and beyond. Basic foundations are that projects address authentic problems or needs, partner organization representatives (PORs) indicate availability for ongoing consultation, students…

  1. Estudio del NCI revela que la obesidad extrema puede acortar la esperanza de vida hasta en 14 años

    Cancer.gov

    Los adultos con obesidad extrema tienen mayor riesgo de morir a edad más joven por cáncer y muchas otras causas entre ellas, enfermedades cardíacas, accidentes cerebrovasculares, diabetes y enfermedades del hígado y los riñones, según estudio del NCI.

  2. 75 FR 76700 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... rare earth elements of more than 0.06 percent, with the balance iron. Permanent magnet iron-chromium..., 75 FR 49467 (Aug. 13, 2010) (Preliminary Results). We invited parties to comment on our preliminary... of subject merchandise during the POR. See Antidumping Duties; Countervailing Duties, 62 FR...

  3. Cannabis y canabinoides (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre el uso del Cannabis y canabinoides para el tratamiento de los efectos secundarios relacionados con el tratamiento del cáncer, como la náusea y el vómito.

  4. Cannabis y canabinoides (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre el uso del Cannabis y canabinoides para el tratamiento de los efectos secundarios relacionados con el tratamiento del cáncer como la náusea y el vómito.

  5. Náuseas y vómitos (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de las náuseas y los vómitos como complicaciones a causa del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discuten enfoques sobre el manejo de las náuseas y los vómitos.

  6. La espiritualidad en el tratamiento del cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la influencia que tiene la espiritualidad y la religión en las personas que tienen cáncer. Se discuten varios métodos sobre manejo e intervención.

  7. Prevención del cáncer de ovario, trompas y peritoneo (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario de información revisada por expertos sobre factores que influirían en el riesgo de presentar cáncer de ovario, de trompas de Falopio y primario de peritoneo y sobre las investigaciones dirigidas a la prevención de los mismos.

  8. Estudio de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud indica que quienes toman café tienen un riesgo meno

    Cancer.gov

    Los adultos mayores que tomaron café, con o sin cafeína, tuvieron un riesgo menor de muerte en general que quienes no tomaron café, según un estudio llevado a cabo por investigadores del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), parte de los Institutos Naciona

  9. Cold Water Fish Gelatin Films: Effects of Cross-linking on Thermal, Mechanical, Barrier, and Biodegradation Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gelatin was extracted from Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) and Alaska pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) skins and cast into films. The fish gelatin films’ tensile, thermal, water vapor permeability, oxygen permeability, and biodegradation properties were compared to those of bovine and por...

  10. Fumar durante el tratamiento de cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la influencia de seguir fumando sobre el tratamiento del cáncer y el riesgo de segundos cánceres. Se mencionan las intervenciones que estimulan dejar el hábito de fumar.

  11. Cat Scratch Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Cat Scratch Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Cat Scratch Disease Print A A A Text Size ... Doctor en español Enfermedad por arañazo de gato Cat scratch disease is a bacterial infection that a ...

  12. 78 FR 34986 - Aluminum Extrusions From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ...The Department of Commerce (``the Department'') is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on aluminum extrusions from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ The period of review (``POR'') is November 12, 2010, through April 30, 2012. The review covers two exporters of subject merchandise who are mandatory respondents: Kromet International, Inc. (``Kromet'');......

  13. Tensión postraumática relacionada con el cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la tensión postraumática y síntomas relacionados en los pacientes con cáncer, sobrevivientes del cáncer y miembros de la familia. Se discuten la evaluación y tratamiento de estos síntomas.

  14. 75 FR 51015 - Sorbitol From France: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ..., Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 16426 (April 1.... See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 75 FR 29976 (May 28... France, 75 FR 42380 (July 21, 2010). Consequently, the POR for the administrative review became April...

  15. 78 FR 4126 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 77 FR 55808 (September 11, 2012). ] Methodology The... Revocation in Part, and Deferral of Administrative Review, 77 FR 19179, 19182 (March 30, 2012). Cash Deposit... Yinfeng Rare Fungus Corporation Ltd. (Yinfeng) for the period of review (POR) February 1, 2011,...

  16. Estudio de NIH indica que la actividad física en tiempo libre alarga la vida tanto como 4,5 años

    Cancer.gov

    La actividad física en tiempo libre está asociada con una expectativa de vida más larga, aun en un grado de actividad relativamente bajo e independientemente del peso corporal, de acuerdo con un estudio llevado a cabo por un equipo de investigadores del I

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT PHYSICAL REMOVAL OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS AND GIARDIA CYSTS IN DRINKING WATER PALL CORPORATION WPM-1 MICROFILTRATION SYSTEM AT PITTSBURGH, PA - NSF 00/09/EPADW395

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Pall Corporation WPM-1 Microfiltration Pilot System was conducted from February 3 to March 5, 1999. The Pall WPM-1 membrane is a hollow fiber type microfiltration membrane made of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF). It has a 0.1 micrometer ( m) nominal por...

  18. Neighbors United for Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westhoff, Wayne W.; Corvin, Jaime; Virella, Irmarie

    2009-01-01

    Modeled upon the ecclesiastic community group concept of Latin America to unite and strengthen the bond between the Church and neighborhoods, a community-based organization created Vecinos Unidos por la Salud (Neighbors United for Health) to bring health messages into urban Latino neighborhoods. The model is based on five tenants, and incorporates…

  19. 78 FR 55680 - Small Diameter Graphite Electrodes From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ...On March 8, 2013, the Department of Commerce (the Department) published the preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on small diameter graphite electrodes from the People's Republic of China (the PRC). The period of review (POR) is February 1, 2011, through January 31, 2012. For the final results, we continue to find that certain companies covered by this......

  20. Accesibilidad | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan español y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la División de Investigación para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer.