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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. 270.302 Section 270.302...302 Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination...gas is occluded natural gas produced from coal seams must file an application with...

2013-04-01

2

Determination of occluded gases in mixed oxide fuel pellets using gas sampling unit and gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique for the determination of occluded gases in sintered plutonium-uranium mixed oxide (MOX) fuel pellets was developed. The gases extracted from the sample at vacuum condition were injected into a gas chromatograph through an originally developed gas sampling unit. The gases were simultaneously determined using the improved gas chromatograph equipped with several separation columns and a photoionization detector.

T. Hiyama; S. Sugaya; J. Yamamoto; K. Kamimura

1995-01-01

3

Optimized method of producing washers of titanium hydride for plasma gun using occluded hydrogen gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimized way of producing washers of titanium hydride for the application to a plasma gun using the occluded gas is presented. The amount of H2 gas (equivalently, gas pressure p) is entirely preadjusted in a gas reservoir of a simple instrument. The temperature T of a furnace is completely feedback controlled. Data show that when p is the order

H. Himura; Y. Saito; A. Sanpei; S. Masamune; N. Takeuchi; T. Shiono

2006-01-01

4

Natural gas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Natural gas is used as a means of power in households. Natural gas has no natural odor, so an odor is added to the gas. This is useful because gas leaks can be detected better and it also reduces the risk of accidents in homes.

N/A N/A (None;)

2003-07-27

5

Natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a review of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) certification or approval process for natural gas pipeline construction. Natural gas is an abundant domestic energy resource that can be substituted for imported oil, and is the most environmentally benign fossil fuel. This review describes the time it takes FERC to process pipeline construction applications; the factors affecting

Rezendes

1991-01-01

6

Optimized method of producing washers of titanium hydride for plasma gun using occluded hydrogen gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optimized way of producing washers of titanium hydride for the application to a plasma gun using the occluded gas is presented. The amount of H2 gas (equivalently, gas pressure p) is entirely preadjusted in a gas reservoir of a simple instrument. The temperature T of a furnace is completely feedback controlled. Data show that when p is the order of 1 atm, T needs to be higher than about 450 °C in order to successfully produce washers of titanium hydride. Results on compressive strength of the loaded washers suggest that an appropriate ratio of atoms of hydrogen to titanium is less than H:Ti~0.85:1.

Himura, H.; Saito, Y.; Sanpei, A.; Masamune, S.; Takeuchi, N.; Shiono, T.

2006-07-01

7

Natural gas monthly  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1998-01-01

8

Asian natural gas  

SciTech Connect

This book presents an overview of the present status and future development in Asia of domestic and export markets for natural gas and to describes gas utilization technologies that will help these markets grow. A perspective of natural gas transmission, transport, distribution, and utilization is presented. The papers in this book are organized under several topics. The topics are : Asian natural gas markets, Technology of natural gas export projects, Technology of domestic natural gas projects, and Natural gas utilization in power generation, air conditioning, and other applications.

Klass, D.L. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA)); Ohashi, T. (Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd. (Japan))

1989-01-01

9

Nature of the “occluded” low-density fraction in soil organic matter studies: A critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Density separations show great promise in elucidating the progression of organic matter decomposition and mineral association in soils. We review the literature on these separations, with a focus on the low-density material released by sonication, the so-called “occluded”, “aggregate-protected” or mineral-associated low-density fraction (m-LF). This fraction accounts for up to half of the total C in surface soils. A commonly

Rota Wagai; Lawrence M. Mayer; Kanehiro Kitayama

2009-01-01

10

Natural gas annual 1996  

SciTech Connect

This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

NONE

1997-09-01

11

Geomicrobiology and occluded O 2-CO 2-Ar gas analyses provide evidence of microbial respiration in ancient terrestrial ground ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of ancient massive ground ice and sediment-rich ice bodies not only allows an understanding of the stability of permafrost, but also offers the possibility to understand the long-term preservation and viability of microbes within these ice bodies. Although microorganisms have been identified in ancient bodies of ground ice and permafrost, there still is a lack of convincing evidence that the microbes were metabolically active within the ice. In this study, we combine geomicrobiology methods with the measurements of occluded gasses in four ancient massive ground ice bodies to provide evidence of microbial respiration. In our samples, abundant cold-adapted heterotroph microorganisms were identified using culture-dependent and -independent methods. The occluded gas measurements, with low ?(O 2/Ar) (less than - 21.4%) and ? 13C CO 2 (as low as - 25.2‰) values and high ? 18O O 2 (up to + 16.3‰) values are suggestive of in situ consumption of O 2 by heterotrophic psychrophilic bacteria living within the ice matrix. Overall, the multi-disciplinary approach provides a strong set of tools from which to infer metabolic activity within bodies of ground ice. The analysis of ?(O 2/Ar), ? 18O O 2 and ? 13C CO 2 from occluded gasses in ice are strong isotope biosignatures that could allow detecting evidence of life on other planetary icy bodies such as Mars.

Lacelle, Denis; Radtke, Kristin; Clark, Ian D.; Fisher, David; Lauriol, Bernard; Utting, Nicholas; Whyte, Lyle G.

2011-06-01

12

Natural gas annual 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

NONE

1995-11-17

13

Natural gas annual 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

NONE

1996-11-01

14

Natural Gas Annual 1996  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Natural Gas Annual_ provides information on the "supply and disposition of natural gas in the United States." It contains State level data for production, transmission, storage, deliveries, and price of natural gas. Historical data at the national level are available from the 1930's.

15

Natural gas sdtrategic plan  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy`s natural gas program is aimed at meeting simultaneously our national energy needs, reducing oil imports, protecting our environment, and improving our economy The Natural Gas Strategic Plan for 1995 represents a Department-wide effort to articulate the key issues related to the expanded development and utilization of natural gas, and defines the roles of the federal government and US industry in partnering to accomplish the strategic goals defined. The four overarching goals of the Natural Gas Strategic Plan are to: foster the development of advanced natural gas technologies; encourage the adoption of advanced natural gas technologies in new and existing markets; support the removal of policy impediments to natural gas use in new and existing markets; and foster technologies and policies to maximize the environmental benefits of natural gas use. DOE`s proposed fiscal year (FY) 1996 budget represents a commitment to natural gas research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) from reservoir to end use. DOE has redirected and increased funding for its natural gas exploration, production, delivery and storage, processing, and utilization RD&D programs, shifting funds from other energy programs to programs that will enhance efficiency and advance the role of natural gas in our domestic energy resources portfolio.

NONE

1995-06-01

16

Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It should have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The thermoacoustic natural-gas liquefier (TANGL) is based on our

G. Swift; D. Gardner; M. Hayden; R. Radebaugh; J. Wollan

1996-01-01

17

Natural gas annual 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

NONE

1998-10-01

18

NATURAL GAS COMMITTEE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government activities relating to natural gas are reported by four subcommittees covering producers, pipelines, consumers, and legislation. Each subcommittee presents a summary of regulatory actions and court decisions relating to the development of reserves and the transport and sale of natural gas. Of particular concern was the need for rate and contract reforms and offshore-leasing procedures. Major legislation was enacted

William P. Diener; Donald R. Arnett; Alfred O. Holl; Keith R. McCrea; Frederick Moring; Frederick Ritts

1978-01-01

19

Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In collaboration with Cryenco Inc. and NIST-Boulder, we intend to develop a natural gas-powered natural-gas liquefier which has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It will have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost...

G. W. Swift

1995-01-01

20

Liquefied natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book summarizes recent developments in the general area of natural gas liquefaction and use. Treatment is technical rather than theoretical and thermodynamics, economic evaluations, and statistical data are relegated to the appendixes. The main part of the review consists of an introduction dealing with the historical development of cryogenics and gas liquefaction and their application in the gas industry.

Lom

1974-01-01

21

Storage of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas provides about one-third of our energy. The primary method of storing it is in underground reservoirs, most of which are partially depleted gas pools. Storage is needed to permit high load factor operation of gas transmission lines and provide additional volumes near major markets during winter months. Geologically favorable conditions are necessary in establishing a storage facility. It

Grow; G. C. Jr

1976-01-01

22

Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It should have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The thermoacoustic natural-gas liquefier (TANGL) is based on our recent invention of the first no-moving-parts cryogenic refrigerator. In short, our invention uses acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat, with no moving parts. The required apparatus comprises nothing more than heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. Its initial experimental success in a small size lead us to propose a more ambitious application: large-energy liquefaction of natural gas, using combustion of natural gas as the energy source. TANGL was designed to be maintenance-free, inexpensive, portable, and environmentally benign.

Swift, G.; Gardner, D.; Hayden, M.; Radebaugh, R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Wollan, J. [Cryenco, Inc. (United States)

1996-07-01

23

Compressed Natural Gas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The suitability of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an automotive fuel has been conclusively demonstrated, both overseas and in New Zealand. In addition, CNG has a number of operational advantages of great social, economic and environmental benefit. The ma...

J. P. West L. G. Brown

1979-01-01

24

Natural gas monthly  

SciTech Connect

This document highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data presented include volume and price, production, consumption, underground storage, and interstate pipeline activities.

NONE

1996-05-01

25

Adsorbed Natural Gas Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status of adsorbed natural gas technology for the vehicle fueling sector is reviewed. It is shown that there are\\u000a solutions to the all of the problems associated to adsorption storage, and that it is possible to build a light, compact,\\u000a and efficient system for storage, distribution, and dispensing of natural gas. The practical achievement of this objective\\u000a is

José Paulo Mota

26

Fossil Fuels: Natural Gas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the use of natural gas as an energy source. Topics include its advantages (cleanliness, fewer carbon emissions), disadvantages (difficulty in transport and storage), sources, and usage. There is also a discussion of the creation and production of natural gas, the United States' production and reserves, and some potential new sources (coal bed methane, methane hydrates). The lesson includes an activity in which students investigate porosity and permeability in simulated sediments.

Pratte, John

27

Natural Gas Monthly, January 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribut...

2009-01-01

28

Natural Gas Monthly, January 2013.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribut...

2013-01-01

29

Natural Gas Monthly, January 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribut...

2011-01-01

30

Natural Gas Monthly, June 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribut...

2009-01-01

31

Natural Gas Monthly, February 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly contains estimates of natural gas data through November 2002 for many data series at the national level. National-level natural gas prices are available through October 2002 (electric utilities), or November (resident...

2003-01-01

32

Natural Gas Monthly, March 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribut...

2010-01-01

33

The emission of occluded gas from rocks as a function of stress: Its possible use as a tool for predicting earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occluded gases were studied from fifteen types of rock, including igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary. The specimens were stressed to a crushing failure at room temperature under a vacuum of about 10-9 torr. The more abundant gases were H2, CH4, H2O, N2, CO, O2 and CO2. However, each rock released gas with a characteristic composition. The volume of gas released was

A. A. Giardini; Gogineni V. Subbarayudu; Charles E. Melton

1976-01-01

34

Markets for Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter introduces the specific features of the natural gas market and shows why the industry has developed in a different\\u000a way than the oil industry. It then indicates the efforts being made in transforming the regional markets into a global market.\\u000a The economics of the gas market relevant to the developed and the developing countries is also presented.

Subhes C. Bhattacharyya

35

Future natural gas supplies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite recent optimism about the outlook for the future supply of domestic conventional natural gas, the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) finds insufficient evidence to clearly justify either an optimistic or a pessimistic view. In a technical memorandum entitled “U.S. Natural Gas Availability: Conventional Gas Supply Through the Year 2000,” released recently by Rep. Philip R. Sharp (D-Ind,), chairman of the Subcommittee on Fossil and Synthetic Fuels of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, OTA concluded that substantial technical uncertainties prevented a reliable estimation of the likely natural gas production rates for later in this century. Even ignoring the potential for significant changes in gas prices and technology, OTA estimated that conventional gas production by the lower 48 states in the year 2000 could range from 9 to 19 trillion cubic feet (TCF) (0.25 to 0.53 trillion cubic meters), compared to 1982 production of 17.5 TCF. Similarly, production in the year 1990 could range from 13 to 20 TCF.

36

China's expanding natural gas industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modern development of China's natural gas industry is portrayed against a background of historical information dating back to the 11th century. Modern Chinese governments have vigorously pushed the exploration and development of natural gas resources. At the same time that exploration and development of China's largest natural gas site (Szechwan Basin) has been taking place, discoveries of natural gas

1979-01-01

37

What Drives Natural Gas Prices?  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, fuel switching between natural gas and residual fuel oil kept natural gas prices closely aligned with those for crude oil. More recently, however, the number of U.S. facilities able to switch between natural gas and residual fuel oil has declined, and over the past seven years, U.S. natural gas prices have been on an upward trend with

Stephen P. A. Brown; Mine K. Yucel

2008-01-01

38

Natural Gas Expanders-Compressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas expanders-compressors serve a variety of natural gas plants, ranging from primary treatment at the well (installations for comprehensive treatment of natural gas) to liquefaction for separation, storage, and transport. Natural gas expanders-compressors take on particular importance for wells with throttling cold. The growing demand for this equipment has been satisfied by imports until recently. The most popular was

V. M. Kulakov; V. V. Kulakov; A. V. Kulakov

2002-01-01

39

Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier  

SciTech Connect

Cryenco and Los Alamos are collaborating to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that will have no moving parts and require no electrical power. It will have useful efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at only 115 Kelvin at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 invention of the thermoacoustically driven orifice pulse-tube refrigerator (TA-DOPTR) provides cryogenic refrigeration with no moving parts for the first time. In short, this invention uses acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat. The required apparatus consists of nothing more than helium-filled heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. In the Cryenco-Los Alamos collaboration, the authors are developing a version of this invention suitable for use in the natural-gas industry. The project is known as acoustic liquefier for short. The present program plans call for a two-phase development. Phase 1, with capacity of 500 gallon per day (i.e., approximately 40,000 scfd, requiring a refrigeration power of about 7 kW), is large enough to illuminate all the issues of large-scale acoustic liquefaction without undue cost, and to demonstrate the liquefaction of 60--70% of input gas, while burning 30--40%. Phase 2 will target versions of approximately 10{sup 6} scfd = 10,000 gallon per day capacity. In parallel with both, they continue fundamental research on the technology, directed toward increased efficiency, to build scientific foundations and a patent portfolio for future acoustic liquefiers.

Swift, G.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Group

1997-05-01

40

Natural gas in North Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost all natural gas produced in North Dakota is casinghead gas from oil pools in the Madison group along the Nesson anticline and from pools in Burke County. Relatively minor quantities of dry gas are produced from the gas fields of North Dakota part of the Cedar Creek anticline. Only the natural gas from these areas is used commercially; the

S. B. Anderson; W. P. Eastwood

1968-01-01

41

Natural gas monthly, April 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. There are two feature articles in this issue: Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends, Executive summary; and Special report: Natural gas 1998: A preliminary summary. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

NONE

1999-05-06

42

Building natural gas locomotives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a liquefied natural gas-fueled locomotive built by Morrison Knudsen which includes a Caterpillar 1200-horsepower V-16, a monofuel management system with double-wall super-insulated cryogenic tanks, and microprocessor-based controls. Efforts by railroad companies to reduce operating costs and meet future emissions standards have led engineers to look for innovative ways to design trains. In January, Morrison Knudsen Corp. of

OConner

1994-01-01

43

Technology Characterization: Liquified Natural Gas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technology characterization for liquefied natural gas (LNG) was made. The scope of work was confined to a literature review of LNG processes including natural gas production, liquefaction, and revaporization. The work was divided into five major categor...

1976-01-01

44

Natural Gas Monthly, November 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and ...

2002-01-01

45

Natural gas monthly, December 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report presents information of interest to organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data are presented on natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

NONE

1995-12-01

46

Natural gas monthly, September 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1993-09-27

47

Natural gas monthly, August 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1993-08-25

48

Natural gas monthly, October 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1996-10-01

49

Natural gas monthly, July 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

NONE

1997-07-01

50

Natural gas monthly, July 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1993-07-27

51

Adsorbent storage of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural-gas vehicle represents a cost-competitive, lower-emission alternative to the gasoline-fueled vehicle. The immediate challenge that confronts the natural-gas vehicle is extension of its driving range. This paper addresses the question of driving range by reviewing the storage technologies for natural gas. Technical comparisons are made between storage systems for adsorbent, liquefied and compressed natural gas, and estimates are made

M. Gurevich

1996-01-01

52

Natural gas monthly, September 1995  

SciTech Connect

The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1995-09-27

53

Natural gas monthly, June 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1993-06-22

54

Natural gas monthly, August 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1994-08-24

55

Natural gas monthly, June 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

NONE

1999-06-01

56

Natural gas monthly, July 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1994-07-20

57

Natural gas monthly, November 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1993-11-29

58

Natural gas monthly, June 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1998-06-01

59

Natural Gas Monthly, March 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1996-03-25

60

Natural gas monthly, May 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1999-05-01

61

Natural gas monthly, June 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

NONE

1997-06-01

62

Natural gas monthly, October 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1998-10-01

63

Natural gas monthly, July 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

NONE

1998-07-01

64

Natural gas monthly, November 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1995-12-05

65

Natural gas monthly: September 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

NONE

1996-09-01

66

Natural gas regulation and its effect on natural gas supply  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas is an environmentally benign, domestically abundand, and competitively priced fossil fuel. Despite these advantages, natural gas consumption in the industrial and electric-generation sectors has fallen significantly over the past two decades. The primary obstruction has been a regulatory morass that has created an atmosphere not condusive to the investment decisions necessary to expand the market for producers, transporters, and consumers of natural gas. This article discusses the following related topics: the public utility approach to implementation of regulation of natural gas pipelines; the creation of FERC; the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978; and order No. 436 by FERC in 1985.

Tyson, R. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-12-31

67

Natural gas pipeline technology overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern

S. M. Folga

2007-01-01

68

The Venezuelan natural gas industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Venezuela's consumption energy of comes from three primary sources: hydroelectricity, liquid hydrocarbons and natural gas. In 1986, the energy consumption in the internal market was 95.5 thousand cubic meters per day of oil equivalent, of which 32% was natural gas, 46% liquid hydrocarbons and 22% hydroelectricity. The Venezuelan energy policy established natural gas usage after hydroelectricity, as a substitute of

P. V. Silva; N. Hernandez

1988-01-01

69

Economics of natural gas upgrading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas could be an important alternative energy source in meeting some of the market demand presently met by liquid products from crude oil. This study was initiated to analyze three energy markets to determine if greater use could be made of natural gas or natural gas derived products and if those products could be provided on an economically competitive

J. H. Hackworth; R. W. Koch

1995-01-01

70

Natural gas monthly, November 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1998-11-01

71

Natural gas monthly, January 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

NONE

1999-02-01

72

Natural gas monthly, February 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

NONE

1999-02-01

73

World Natural Gas, 1978  

SciTech Connect

World marketed production of natural gas in 1978 totaled 51.749 trillion CF (up from 50.1 TCF in 1977); this 3.3% increase, however, was slightly lower than 1977's 3.7% rise. US production, which fell 0.3% dropped to 38.6% of the world total, while the USSR share (13.137 TCF) accounted for 25.4% (for a growth rate of 7.5%). Of the world gross production of 62.032 TCF, 69.7% came from gas wells; the remainder was associated with oil. Thirty-one percent of the 10.282 TCF difference between gross and marketed gas production was used for oil reservoir repressuring, while the balance (7.094 TCF) was vented and flared. Internationally traded gas movements rose to 11.6% of production. The Netherlands, the USSR, and Canada accounted for 30.6%, 20.1% and 14.7%, respectively, of total 1978 exports. At 0.956 TCF, LNG shipments accounted for 15.9% of world trade, a 35.2% higher share than in 1977; most of this growth was due to increased Indonesia-to-Japan volumes.

Not Available

1980-07-01

74

Natural gas monthly, May 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

NONE

1997-05-01

75

Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993  

SciTech Connect

The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

Not Available

1993-11-10

76

Natural gas monthly, December 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1997-12-01

77

Natural gas monthly, March 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas analysis and geographic information systems.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1997-03-01

78

Natural gas monthly: April 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature article focuses on preliminary highlights from the 1995 natural gas industry. 7 figs., 25 tabs.

NONE

1996-04-01

79

Natural gas monthly, October 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article in this issue is a special report, ``Comparison of Natural Gas Storage Estimates from the EIA and AGA.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

NONE

1997-10-01

80

Natural gas monthly, June 1996  

SciTech Connect

The natural gas monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article for this month is Natural Gas Industry Restructuring and EIA Data Collection.

NONE

1996-06-24

81

Natural gas monthly, April 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are present3ed each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas pipeline and system expansions.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1997-04-01

82

Natural gas monthly, August 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature article is on US Natural Gas Imports and Exports 1994.

NONE

1995-08-24

83

Natural gas monthly, June 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month feature is on the value of underground storage in today`s natural gas industry.

NONE

1995-06-21

84

Natural gas monthly, November 1996  

SciTech Connect

The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``US natural gas imports and exports-1995``. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

NONE

1996-11-01

85

Natural gas monthly, April 1998  

SciTech Connect

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Estimates extend through April 1998 for many data series. The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, feature articles are presented designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This issue contains the special report, ``Natural Gas 1997: A Preliminary Summary.`` This report provides information on natural gas supply and disposition for the year 1997, based on monthly data through December from EIA surveys. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

NONE

1998-04-01

86

Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier  

SciTech Connect

In collaboration with Cryenco Inc. and NIST-Boulder, we intend to develop a natural gas-powered natural-gas liquefier which has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It will have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. Progress on the liquefier to be constructed at Cryenco continues satisfactorily. The thermoacoustic driver is still ahead of the pulse tube refrigerator, because of NIST`s schedule. We completed the thermoacoustics design in the fall of 1994, with Los Alamos providing physics input and checks of all aspects, and Cryenco providing engineering to ASME code, drafting, etc. Completion of this design represents a significant amount of work, especially in view of the many unexpected problems encountered. Meanwhile, Cryenco and NIST have almost completed the design of the pulse tube refrigerator. At Los Alamos, we have assembled a half-size scale model of the thermoacoustic portion of the 500 gal/day TANGL. This scale model will enable easy experimentation in harmonic suppression techniques, new stack geometries, new heat-exchanger geometries, resonator coiling, and other areas. As of March 1995, the scale model is complete and we are performing routine debugging tests and modifications.

Swift, G.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-06-01

87

Natural gas monthly, September 1998  

SciTech Connect

The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1998-09-01

88

Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proven reserves of natural gas in Prudhoe Bay remain the single largest block of reserves under US control. The sponsors of the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System, including The Williams Companies, remain convinced that Alaskan gas will be increasingly important to meet future needs here in the lower 48 states. Both Canada and the US will increasingly have to

1984-01-01

89

Underground storage of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storing natural gas underground was first introduced in 1915 in Welland County, Ontario, Canada. In the US currently about 8 trillion standard cubic feet of gas is in storage in over 400 pools distributed in 26 states. The largest additional supply of natural gas for peak demands comes from these underground storage reservoirs. Details of many new operational procedures and

Tek

1987-01-01

90

Natural gas conversion process  

SciTech Connect

The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

Not Available

1992-01-01

91

Natural gas monthly, May 1995  

SciTech Connect

The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1995-05-24

92

Natural gas monthly, February 1996  

SciTech Connect

The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1996-03-01

93

Natural gas monthly, March 1998  

SciTech Connect

The March 1998 edition of the Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. This report also features an article on the correction of errors in the drilling activity estimates series, and in-depth drilling activity data. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

NONE

1998-03-01

94

Natural gas monthly, October 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary of the terms used in this report is provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. 6 figs., 30 tabs.

NONE

1995-10-23

95

Natural gas monthly, January 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured article for this month is on US coalbed methane production.

Not Available

1994-02-01

96

The Venezuelan natural gas industry  

SciTech Connect

Venezuela's consumption energy of comes from three primary sources: hydroelectricity, liquid hydrocarbons and natural gas. In 1986, the energy consumption in the internal market was 95.5 thousand cubic meters per day of oil equivalent, of which 32% was natural gas, 46% liquid hydrocarbons and 22% hydroelectricity. The Venezuelan energy policy established natural gas usage after hydroelectricity, as a substitute of liquid hydrocarbons, in order to increase exports of these. This policy permits a solid development of the natural gas industry, which is covered in this paper.

Silva, P.V.; Hernandez, N.

1988-01-01

97

Natural gas monthly, February 1998  

SciTech Connect

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through February 1998 for many data series, and through November 1997 for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the natural gas data contained in this issue are: Preliminary estimates for January and February 1998 show that dry natural gas production, net imports, and consumption are all within 1 percent of their levels in 1997. Warmer-than-normal weather in recent months has resulted in lower consumption of natural gas by the residential sector and lower net withdrawals of gas from under round storage facilities compared with a year ago. This has resulted in an estimate of the amount of working gas in storage at the end of February 1998 that is 18 percent higher than in February 1997. The national average natural gas wellhead price is estimated to be $3.05 per thousand cubic feet in November 1997, 7 percent higher than in October. The cumulative average wellhead price for January through November 1997 is estimated to be $2.42 per thousand cubic feet, 17 percent above that of the same period in 1996. This price increase is far less than 36-percent rise that occurred between 1995 and 1996. 6 figs., 26 tabs.

NONE

1998-02-01

98

Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

99

Natural Gas Industry and Markets  

EIA Publications

This special report provides an overview of the supply and disposition of natural gas in 2004 and is intended as a supplement to the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Natural Gas Annual 2004 (NGA). Unless otherwise stated, all data and figures in this report are based on summary statistics published in the NGA 2004.

Information Center

2006-03-03

100

Natural gas monthly, July 1990  

SciTech Connect

This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary is included. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

Not Available

1990-10-03

101

Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

102

Natural gas monthly, December 1996  

SciTech Connect

This document highlights activities, events, and analysis of interest to the public and private sector associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

NONE

1996-12-01

103

Natural gas today and tomorrow  

SciTech Connect

In this article the retiring chairman of the American Gas Association reflects upon the growth in the gas industry's resource base and the success of aggressive marketing programs. Improvements in resource recovery technology and moderating prices for consumers have placed natural gas in a favorable competitive position with other fuels. Such progress, he cautions, must not be jeopardized by new regulatory constraints or instability.

Reif, L.R.

1985-10-17

104

Natural gas leak mapper  

DOEpatents

A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

Reichardt, Thomas A. (Livermore, CA); Luong, Amy Khai (Dublin, CA); Kulp, Thomas J. (Livermore, CA); Devdas, Sanjay (Albany, CA)

2008-05-20

105

Natural gas monthly - January 1996  

SciTech Connect

This highlight discusses changes in natural gas supply, demand, and prices for the first three quarters of 1995 (January thru September) compared to the same periods in 1993 and 1994. Production for the first three quarters of 1995 lagged year-earlier levels while natural gas consumption has continued a steady upward movement. Total U.S. natural gas production through the first three quarters at 14.1 trillion cubic feet, was less than 1 percent below the 1994 period, but remained well ahead of the comparable 1993 period. The three leading producing States (Texas, Louisiana, and Oklahoma) contributed nearly 70 percent of the total. Natural gas consumption totaled 16.0 trillion cubic feet for the first three quarters, 4 percent above the same period in 1994. Net imports of natural gas reached 2.0 trillion cubic feet by the end of the third quarter 1995 and accounted for nearly 13 percent of total consumption during this period.

NONE

1996-01-01

106

Deaths involving natural gas inhalation.  

PubMed

Death due to gas inhalation is accidental or suicidal. Natural gas can be a cause of death as a result of oxygen replacement in the atmosphere. Three male victims who were killed from gas inhalation are described in this study. One 19-year-old man attempted suicide using a combination of plastic bag suffocation and natural gas tube in his mouth. The other victim (24 years old man) attempted suicide by natural gas inhalation, and the cause of death of the third victim was inhalation of the vapor from a furnace that contained crude oil or gasoline. Methanol was detected in blood and liver samples by headspace gas chromatography (HSGC) and headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HSGCMS). Carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) and other drugs and poisons were not detected in blood and liver samples. PMID:20430818

Maryam, Akhgari; Elham, Bazmi

2010-04-29

107

Russian Natural Gas: Regional Dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moreover, Russian natural gas is imported in large quantities by European countries and represents very high percentages of the total gas consumption of a number of them. (See Table 1 and Table 2). For example, Russia exported 1.3 tcf of natural gas to Germany, 0.9 tcf to Italy and to Ukraine, 0.7 tcf to Belarus, 0.5 tcf to Turkey, and

Bernard A. Gelb

108

Farm dependence on natural gas  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken to explore the impacts of natural gas price increases and supply contraints on agricultural production in order to indicate the types of adjustments farmers would need to make, and to provide state and federal policymakers with an awareness of the crop, state, and regional dependence on natural gas for farm production. A qualitative analysis involving collection of information, summarization and analysis of current operational use of natural gas on farms, and calculation of farm dependence on natural gas, by crop, state, and region was undertaken. An econometric anlaysis involving estimation of consumption functions for natural gas used for irrigation and crop drying was also undertaken. The econometric analysis conducted in this study was less successful than the qualitative analysis, most probably a result of data constraints leading to a very small sample size. The qualitative analysis showed that farmers in the Southern Plains region are most dependent on natural gas for irrigation, followed by farmers in the Northern Plains. Production of rice, cotton and grain sorghum is most dependent on natural gas for irrigation. Dependence on natural gas for crop drying is most marked in the Delta States and Northern Plains regions. Rice, peanuts and grain sorghum depend most heavily among crops on natural gas for drying. The variables which seem to have the greatest impact on the consumption of natural gas for irrigation based on the econometric estimation include the quality of land (represented by its market value), the price of fertilizer, and the price of diesel fuel (a substitute). The estimated crop drying equations did not provide useful results.

Devlin, P.J.

1981-01-01

109

Natural gas monthly, August 1996  

SciTech Connect

This analysis presents the most recent data on natural gas prices, supply, and consumption from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The presentation of the latest monthly data is followed by an update on natural gas markets. The markets section examines the behavior of daily spot and futures prices based on information from trade press, as well as regional, weekly data on natural gas storage from the American Gas Association (AGA). This {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} closes with a special section comparing and contrasting EIA and AGA storage data on a monthly and regional basis. The regions used are those defined by the AGA for their weekly data collection effort: the Producing Region, the Consuming Region East, and the Consuming Region West. While data on working gas levels have tracked fairly closely between the two data sources, differences have developed recently. The largest difference is in estimates of working gas levels in the East consuming region during the heating season.

NONE

1996-08-01

110

North American Natural Gas Markets  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

Not Available

1989-02-01

111

North American Natural Gas Markets  

SciTech Connect

This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

Not Available

1988-12-01

112

Natural gas hydrates – A promising source of energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas hydrates are clathrate physical compounds, in which the molecules of gas are occluded in crystalline cells, consisting of water molecules retained by the energy of hydrogen bonds. All gases can form hydrates under different pressures and temperatures. The crystalline structure of solid gas hydrate crystals has a strong dependence on gas composition, pressure, and temperature. Presently, three crystalline structures

Yuri F. Makogon

2010-01-01

113

Natural Gas Issues and Trends  

EIA Publications

Final issue of this report. Provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and financial aspects of the industry.

Information Center

1999-04-01

114

Petroleum and Natural Gas Outlook  

EIA Publications

A presentation to the National Association of State Energy Officials 2005 Energy Outlook Conference, in Washington, DC, on February 17, 2005, giving EIA's outlook for petroleum and natural gas supply, demand, and prices.

Information Center

2005-02-18

115

Russian Natural Gas: Regional Dependence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Russia is the dominant natural gas supplier to Europe and neighboring former Soviet states, as well as a major provider of oil. Some countries are entirely or largely dependent upon Russian energy supplies, particularly other Soviet successor states. As s...

B. A. Gelb

2007-01-01

116

Natural Gas Imports and Exports  

EIA Publications

In the face of unprecedented levels of domestic natural gas production, net imports of natural gas into the United States fell 23 percent in 2012. A combination of both higher exports and lower imports led to a decline in net imports. In 2012, total imports decreased by 10 percent to 3,135 Bcf, while total exports increased by 8 percent to 1,619 Bcf.

2013-07-23

117

Bilateral trade in natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a March 1984 address to the Canadian-American Committee, Schlesinger notes that the American natural gas producer has been the main beneficiary of Canadian export policy, which has impeded Canadian exports. He reviews the history of bilateral gas exchanges and the 1954 Phillips decision, which set up conditions that were the inverse of a normal competitive market that no

1985-01-01

118

Costs to transport natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative Economics are discussed for transporting natural gas by four ways: converting to LNG and using LNG tankers, as a gas using on-land and subsea pipelines, converting to methanol and using conventional tankers, and compressing and using tankers with pressurized containers. Distances and routes are important factors when determining cost. Specific examples are given for transportation between : Arabian Gulf

I. Leibson; S. T. Davenport; M. H. Muenzier

1987-01-01

119

The Liquefaction of Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history and significance of natural gas liquefaction is traced showing that the main developments have occurred since 1960. The thermodynamics of liquefaction is reviewed paying special attention to the effect of the supply pressure of the gas, and its composition, on the minimum work requirement. It is shown that liquefier design requires highly accurate thermodynamic data for the process

G. G. Haselden

1977-01-01

120

Natural gas monthly, November 1997  

SciTech Connect

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through November for many data series, and through August for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the most recent data estimates are: (1) Preliminary estimates of dry natural gas production and total consumption available through November 1997 indicate that both series are on track to end the year at levels close to those of 1996. Cumulative dry production is one-half percent higher than in 1996 and consumption is one-half percent lower. (2) Natural gas production is estimated to be 52.6 billion cubic feet per day in November 1997, the highest rate since March 1997. (3) After falling 8 percent in July 1997, the national average wellhead price rose 10 percent in August 1997, reaching an estimated $2.21 per thousand cubic feet. (4) Milder weather in November 1997 compared to November 1996 has resulted in significantly lower levels of residential consumption of natural gas and net storage withdrawls than a year ago. The November 1997 estimates of residential consumption and net withdrawls are 9 and 20 percent lower, respectively, than in November 1996.

NONE

1997-11-01

121

Natural gas monthly, July 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Explanatory Notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided in the Data Sources section. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. All natural gas volumes are reported at a pressure base of 14.73 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) and at 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Cubic feet are converted to cubic meters by applying a factor of 0.02831685.

NONE

1995-07-21

122

Natural gas production from Arctic gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural gas hydrates of the Messoyakha field in the West Siberian basin of Russia and those of the Prudhoe Bay-Kuparuk River area on the North Slope of Alaska occur within a similar series of interbedded Cretaceous and Tertiary sandstone and siltstone reservoirs. Geochemical analyses of gaseous well-cuttings and production gases suggest that these two hydrate accumulations contain a mixture

1993-01-01

123

Natural gas monthly, February 1993  

SciTech Connect

This issue contains monthly data for the entire year 1992 and allows comparing this year with the previous years. Marketed production of natural gas remained at approximately the same level as in 1991, 18.6 trillion cubic feet. Marketed production has changed very little in the past 3 years, with only a 3-percent difference since 1989. Consumption of natural gas has also increased each year for the past 7 years. In 1992, the level of consumption increased by approximately 4 percent from the previous years. Imports have steadily increased over the past 7 years. Imports of natural gas in 1992 are approximately 16 percent above the 1991 level. The Iroquois Gas Transmission Line, extending from the Canadian border in New York to Long Island, accounts for a large part of this increase. This pipeline went into service in December 1991.

Not Available

1993-02-26

124

Natural gas monthly, March 1999  

SciTech Connect

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly contains estimates for March 1999 for many natural gas data series at the national level. Estimates of national natural gas prices are available through December 1998 for most series. Highlights of the data contained in this issue are listed below. Preliminary data indicate that the national average wellhead price for 1998 declined to 16% from the previous year ($1.96 compared to $2.32 per thousand cubic feet). At the end of March, the end of the 1998--1999 heating season, the level of working gas in underground natural gas storage facilities is estimated to be 1,354 billion cubic feet, 169 billion cubic feet higher than at the end of March 1998. Gas consumption during the first 3 months of 1999 is estimated to have been 179 billion cubic feet higher than in the same period in 1998. Most of this increase (133 billion cubic feet) occurred in the residential sector due to the cooler temperatures in January and February compared to the same months last year. According to the National Weather Service, heating degree days in January 1999 were 15% greater than the previous year while February recorded a 5% increase.

NONE

1999-03-01

125

Natural gas monthly, February 1997  

SciTech Connect

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents estimates of natural gas supply and consumption through February 1997. Estimates of natural gas prices are through November 1996 except electric utility prices that are through October 1996. Cumulatively for January through February 1997, the daily average rates for several data series remain close to those of 1996. (Comparing daily rates accounts for the fact that February 1996 had 29 days.) Daily total consumption for January through February is estimated to be 83 billion cubic feet per day, 1 percent higher than during the same period in 1996. Similarly, the estimate of average daily production of 53 billion cubic feet is 1.5 percent higher than in 1996, while daily net imports during the first 2 months of 1997 are virtually unchanged from 1996.

NONE

1997-02-01

126

Guide to new natural gas utilization technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural gas industry in the United States is undergoing a fundamental transition as the wellhead price is decontrolled. The phased decontrol of new gas under the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA) has had a dramatic positive impact on the natural gas supply picture. For the first time in 15 years the U.S. gas industry - which accounts

Hay

1985-01-01

127

Alternative development strategies for natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant increases in worldwide natural-gas consumption during the last decade indicate that gas is increasingly considered a valuable and economic commodity. A summary of worldwide natural-gas reserves, production, and consumption statistics shows that worldwide gas use is not resource constrained. Only 10 percent of the gas produced is traded internationally and less than 3 percent is converted to liquefied natural

Attanasi

1993-01-01

128

Turkey's Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey's natural gas (NG) production is very small and is almost all imported. Turkish natural gas production in 2000, 23 billion cubic feet (Bcf), met around 4% of domestic natural gas consumption requirements. NG consumption is estimated at around 700 Bcf in year 2002, accounting for around 17% of Turkey's total energy consumption. Turkish natural gas demand had been projected

Mustafa Balat; Nuray Ozdemir

2005-01-01

129

Efficient use of natural gas in transportation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transp...

F. Stodolsky D. J. Santini

1992-01-01

130

Nitrogen removal from natural gas  

SciTech Connect

According to a 1991 Energy Information Administration estimate, U.S. reserves of natural gas are about 165 trillion cubic feet (TCF). To meet the long-term demand for natural gas, new gas fields from these reserves will have to be developed. Gas Research Institute studies reveal that 14% (or about 19 TCF) of known reserves in the United States are subquality due to high nitrogen content. Nitrogen-contaminated natural gas has a low Btu value and must be upgraded by removing the nitrogen. In response to the problem, the Department of Energy is seeking innovative, efficient nitrogen-removal methods. Membrane processes have been considered for natural gas denitrogenation. The challenge, not yet overcome, is to develop membranes with the required nitrogen/methane separation characteristics. Our calculations show that a methane-permeable membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 4 to 6 would make denitrogenation by a membrane process viable. The objective of Phase I of this project was to show that membranes with this target selectivity can be developed, and that the economics of the process based on these membranes would be competitive. Gas permeation measurements with membranes prepared from two rubbery polymers and a superglassy polymer showed that two of these materials had the target selectivity of 4 to 6 when operated at temperatures below - 20{degrees}C. An economic analysis showed that a process based on these membranes is competitive with other technologies for small streams containing less than 10% nitrogen. Hybrid designs combining membranes with other technologies are suitable for high-flow, higher-nitrogen-content streams.

NONE

1997-04-01

131

Arctic Oil and Natural Gas Potential.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Arctic could hold about 22 percent of the worlds undiscovered conventional oil and natural gas resources. The prospects for Arctic oil and natural gas production are discussed taking into consideration the nature of the resources, the cost of developi...

P. Budzik

2009-01-01

132

China's synthetic natural gas revolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

China has recently pushed for investments in large-scale coal-fuelled synthetic natural gas plants. The associated carbon emissions, water needs and wider environmental impacts are, however, mostly neglected and could lock the country into an unsustainable development path.

Yang, Chi-Jen; Jackson, Robert B.

2013-10-01

133

EIA's Natural Gas Production Data  

EIA Publications

This special report examines the stages of natural gas processing from the wellhead to the pipeline network through which the raw product becomes ready for transportation and eventual consumption, and how this sequence is reflected in the data published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA).

Information Center

2009-04-09

134

Natural gas monthly, January 1997  

SciTech Connect

This publication, the Natural Gas Monthly, presents the most recent data on natural gas supply, consumption, and prices from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Of special interest in this issue are two articles summarizing reports recently published by EIA. The articles are {open_quotes}Natural Gas Productive Capacity{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Outlook for Natural Gas Through 2015,{close_quotes} both of which precede the {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} section. With this issue, January 1997, changes have been made to the format of the Highlights section and to several of the tabular and graphical presentations throughout the publication. The changes to the Highlights affect the discussion of developments in the industry and the presentation of weekly storage data. An overview of the developments in the industry is now presented in a brief summary followed by specific discussions of supply, end-use consumption, and prices. Spot and futures prices are discussed as appropriate in the Price section, together with wellhead and consumer prices.

NONE

1997-01-01

135

Staff Handbook on Natural Gas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Department of Commerce created a Natural Gas Action Group early in the fall of 1975 to assist industrial firms and the communities they serve to cope with the effects of potentially severe and crippling curtailment situations. This action group was trained to assess a specific local situation, review the potential for remedial action and…

Gorges, H. A., Ed.; Raine, L. P., Ed.

136

Natural gas - a growing market  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas is taking an increasingly large share of world energy trade: it is currently equivalent to 10% of world oil trade and could be contributing 950-1350 million tons of oil equivalent by the end of the century. By year-end 1981, published proved reserves reached 2912 trillion CF. The USSR has the most (1160 TCF), followed by the Middle East (762 TCF). The US - by far the single largest producer of gas - has 198 TCF. Western Europe, whose nations collectively form the largest consumer, has 153 TCF. An overview of production and trading trends throughtout the world confirms that natural gas is firmly rooted in the plans of every significant trading nation.

Not Available

1983-01-01

137

Natural gas cavern storage regulation  

SciTech Connect

Investigation of an incident at an LPG storage facility in Texas by U.S. Department of Transportation resulted in recommendation that state regulation of natural gas cavern storage might be improved. Interstate Oil & Gas Compact Commission has established a subcommittee to analyze the benefits and risks associated with natural gas cavern storage, and to draft a regulation model which will suggest engineering and performance specifications. The resulting analysis and regulatory language will be reviewed by I.O.G.C.C., and if approved, distributed to member states (including New York) for consideration. Should the states desire assistance in modifying the language to reflect local variables, such as policy and geology, I.O.G.C.C. may offer assistance. The proposed presentation will review the I.O.G.C.C. product (if published at that date), and discuss implications of its application in New York.

Heneman, H.

1995-09-01

138

Future impact on natural gas pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future for natural gas pipelines is forecast by examining the sources and uses of energy today and projecting respective changes. No significant changes are expected over the next 20 yr in natural gas usage, but regionally, some demand shift could impact certain gas transmission facilities. The conclusion is that natural gas will continue to displace oil in some stationary

Croom

1982-01-01

139

Natural gas and electricity optimal power flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the combined natural gas and electric optimal power flow (GEOPF) problem is presented. It shows fundamental modeling of the natural gas network to be used for the GEOPF, and describes the equality constraints, which describe the energy transformation between gas and electric networks at combined nodes (i.e., generators). We also present the formulation of the natural gas

Seungwon An; Qing Li; Thomas W. Gedra

2003-01-01

140

ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORT FUELS FROM NATURAL GAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the economics of using natural gas as an alternative fuel in transport vehicles including passenger cars, taxis, buses, and trucks. It compares the cost of using conventional fuels (gasoline and diesel) in these vehicles with that of retrofitting the vehicles and using natural gas-based fuels. These fuels include compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol,

JR. R. MORENO; D. G. FALLEN BAILEY

1989-01-01

141

75 FR 70350 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [USCG-2010-0993] Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application AGENCY...received an application for the licensing of a natural gas deepwater port and the application...

2010-11-17

142

76 FR 4417 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [USCG-2010-0993] Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application AGENCY...Application. The application describes an offshore natural gas deepwater port facility that would be...

2011-01-25

143

Liquified natural gas conversion process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for the conversion of the paraffinic hydrocarbon components of Liquified Natural Gas (LNG), of carbon number 1 or 2, into an aromatics-rich liquid mixture of hydrocarbons having a number of carbon atoms greater than 3, and into a hydrogen-rich gaseous by-product is described comprising the following steps: (a) revaporization into a gaseous phase of LNG in heat exchangers

Gordonouin

1988-01-01

144

Natural gas and gas hydrate accumulations within permafrost in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudden natural gas blowouts from within the permafrost sections in West and East Siberia and some results of permafrost core samples study are presented. Topics covered include gas geochemistry, blowout intensity (gas flow rate), depth interval and permafrost rock peculiarities in places of these gas releases. Although microbial gas is widespread within permafrost, thermogenic gas can also occasionally migrate from

V. S. Yakushev; E. M. Chuvilin

2000-01-01

145

Natural gas 1995: Issues and trends  

SciTech Connect

Natural Gas 1995: Issues and Trends addresses current issues affecting the natural gas industry and markets. Highlights of recent trends include: Natural gas wellhead prices generally declined throughout 1994 and for 1995 averages 22% below the year-earlier level; Seasonal patterns of natural gas production and wellhead prices have been significantly reduced during the past three year; Natural gas production rose 15% from 1985 through 1994, reaching 18.8 trillion cubic feet; Increasing amounts of natural gas have been imported; Since 1985, lower costs of producing and transporting natural gas have benefitted consumers; Consumers may see additional benefits as States examine regulatory changes aimed at increasing efficiency; and, The electric industry is being restructured in a fashion similar to the recent restructuring of the natural gas industry.

NONE

1995-11-01

146

Method for liquefaction of natural gas  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method of altering the heating value of a liquefied natural gas by adding higher heating value components is disclosed. A portion of the liquefied natural gas is used to cool the higher heating value component stream prior to combining the higher heating value components with the liquefied natural gas to obtain a combined stream having a heating value greater than the liquefied natural gas.

Coyle; David A. (Houston, TX)

2013-02-26

147

US natural gas policy and outlook for gas imports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand for natural gas has stabilized since 1978. Government policies encourage the conservation of natural gas and restrict its use as an electric power generating fuel. The market clearing price of gas (price at which gas is at approximate Btu parity with residual fuel oil) could result in different wellhead prices for different geographic regions. Methods for determining when

Lichtblau

1982-01-01

148

Storage of natural gas in the US  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storage of natural gas can become the method of adjusting low summer demand. Natural gas has been stored in above ground holders, in high pressure spheres and pipe bottles, and in gas formations similar to those in which the gas was originally found. The porous storage rock in a geologic trap under the caprock is called a reservoir. These may

Filiatrault

1982-01-01

149

Natural gas storage in salt caverns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large differences in natural gas consumption for winter and summer together with irregularities concerning the supply with natural gas make it very important to establish gas reservoirs. It is found that an underground storage of the gas has great economic advantages compared to other types of storage and the feasibility to use in the northern part of Germany salt caverns

W. Harms

1977-01-01

150

Natural gas availability: present and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas fuel availability will be a critical factor in the ability to use gas as a motor fuel. The 1969 U.S. consumption of motor gasoline was 85.4 billion gas, equivalent to 10.6 trillion ft³ of natural gas at 1032 Btu\\/ft³, which is about 50% of the total gas consumed in 1969. Between 1950 and 1970 the demand for gas

Zareski

1972-01-01

151

Gas supplies of interstate/natural gas pipeline companies 1989  

SciTech Connect

This publication provides information on the interstate pipeline companies' supply of natural gas during calendar year 1989, for use by the FERC for regulatory purposes. It also provides information to other Government agencies, the natural gas industry, as well as policy makers, analysts, and consumers interested in current levels of interstate supplies of natural gas and trends over recent years. 5 figs., 18 tabs.

Not Available

1990-12-18

152

40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065...Calibration Standards § 1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, natural gas for testing must meet the...

2013-07-01

153

Microcontroller Based Smart Natural Gas Oven  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural gas is an important form of energy in the world. The misuse of natural gas increase day by day. In third world country the main cause of misuse is unconsciousness, unawareness e.t.c .This paper aim to show that a microcontroller based system designed to reduce the large amount of natural gas which turn into wastage material for unconsciousness of housewives.

Rahman, Mizanur; Ronee, Asraful Haque; Islam, Aminul

2012-08-01

154

EROSIVE WEAR OF NATURAL GAS PIPELINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erosive wear can be caused by a water jet burst from leaked water pipe laid side by side to natural gas pipeline. The erosive wear behavior of natural gas pipeline eroded by sand and water jetting was investigated. This work present the erosive wear analysis of API 5L X42, steel grade pipeline which normally used for distributing natural gas to

ZULKIFLI ABDUL MAJID; RAHMAT MOHSIN; FADHLI OMAR

155

Natural gas industry: evolution, structure, and economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US surpasses all other countries in natural gas production and consumption, partly because reserves in the Soviet Union and Middle East are not yet marketable commodities. Following a historical review of the natural gas industry's developing in the US and the evolution from manufactured to natural gas, subsequent chapters deal with the efforts during the 1970s to develop supplemental

A. R. Tussing; C. C. Barlow

1984-01-01

156

Analysis of industrial demand for natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several analysts have proposed the theory that there is a frustrated demand for natural gas in the United States. According to this theory, the natural gas curtailments of the 1970s have convinced industrial users that natural gas is not reliable. The users are willing to but fuel oil at a premium and store it to assure a reliable energy supply.

D Reister

1983-01-01

157

Storing natural gas as frozen hydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of natural gas hydrates is a well-known problem in the petroleum and natural gas industries. Hydrates are solid materials that form when liquid water and natural gas are brought in contact under pressure. Hydrate formation need not be a problem. On the contrary, it can be an advantage. The volume of hydrates is much less than that of

J. S. Gudmundsson; A. A. Khokhar; M. Parlaktuna

1994-01-01

158

Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas reservoirs are obvious targets for carbon sequestration by direct carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection by virtue of their proven record of gas production and integrity against gas escape. Carbon sequestration in depleted natural gas reservoirs can be coupled with enhanced gas production by injecting CO{sub 2} into the reservoir as it is being produced, a process called Carbon Sequestration with Enhanced Gas Recovery (CSEGR). In this process, supercritical CO{sub 2} is injected deep in the reservoir while methane (CH{sub 4}) is produced at wells some distance away. The active injection of CO{sub 2} causes repressurization and CH{sub 4} displacement to allow the control and enhancement of gas recovery relative to water-drive or depletion-drive reservoir operations. Carbon dioxide undergoes a large change in density as CO{sub 2} gas passes through the critical pressure at temperatures near the critical temperature. This feature makes CO{sub 2} a potentially effective cushion gas for gas storage reservoirs. Thus at the end of the CSEGR process when the reservoir is filled with CO{sub 2}, additional benefit of the reservoir may be obtained through its operation as a natural gas storage reservoir. In this paper, we present discussion and simulation results from TOUGH2/EOS7C of gas mixture property prediction, gas injection, repressurization, migration, and mixing processes that occur in gas reservoirs under active CO{sub 2} injection.

Oldenburg, Curtis M.

2003-04-08

159

NITROGEN REMOVAL FROM NATURAL GAS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process for the denitrogenation of natural gas. Large proven reserves in the Lower-48 states cannot be produced because of the presence of nitrogen. To exploit these reserves, cost-effective, simple technology able to reduce the nitrogen content of the gas to 4-5% is required. Technology applicable to treatment of small gas streams (below 10 MMscfd) is particularly needed. In this project membranes that selectively permeate methane and reject nitrogen in the gas were developed. Preliminary calculations show that a membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 3 to 5 is required to make the process economically viable. A number of polymer materials likely to have the required selectivities were evaluated as composite membranes. Polyacetylenes such as poly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) [PTMSP] and poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) [PMP] had high selectivities and fluxes, but membranes prepared from these polymers were not stable, showing decreasing flux and selectivity during tests lasting only a few hours. Parel, a poly(propylene oxide allyl glycidyl ether) had a selectivity of 3 at ambient temperatures and 4 or more at temperatures of {minus}20 C. However, Parel is no longer commercially available, and we were unable to find an equivalent material in the time available. Therefore, most of our experimental work focused on silicone rubber membranes, which have a selectivity of 2.5 at ambient temperatures, increasing to 3-4 at low temperatures. Silicone rubber composite membranes were evaluated in bench-scale module tests and with commercial-scale, 4-inch-diameter modules in a small pilot plant. Over six days of continuous operation at a feed gas temperature of {minus}5 to {minus}10 C, the membrane maintained a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 3.3. Based on the pilot plant performance data, an analysis of the economic potential of the process was prepared. We conclude that a stand-alone membrane process is the lowest-cost technology for small gas streams containing less than 10% nitrogen. The membrane process can recover more than 60-70% of the hydrocarbon content of the gas at a cost of $0.60-0.70/Mscfd. The capital cost of the process is about $100-200/Mscf. A number of small operators appear to be ready to use the technology if these costs can be demonstrated in the field. A second, and perhaps better, application of the technology is to combine the membrane process with a cryogenic process to treat large gas streams containing 10-20% nitrogen. The combination process achieves significant synergies. The membrane process performs a bulk separation of the gas, after which the cryogenic process treats the membrane residue (nitrogen-enriched) gas to recover more methane. Overall, hydrocarbon recoveries are greater than 95%. The capital cost of the combination process is lower than that of either process used alone and the processing costs are in the range $0.30-0.40/Mscf. This operating cost would be attractive to many gas producers. MTR is collaborating with a producer of cryogenic systems to further develop the combination process. A number of innovations in membrane process designs were made during the project; four U.S. patents covering various aspects of the technology were filed and issued.

K.A. Lokhandwala; M.B. Ringer; T.T. Su; Z. He; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans; A. Morisato; K. Amo; A. DaCosta; R.W. Baker; R. Olsen; H. Hassani; T. Rathkamp

1999-12-31

160

Impact of gas composition on natural gas storage by adsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption storage is the most promising low-pressure alternative for storing natural gas, but some operational difficulties hinder the success of this technology. From a modeling perspective, this article addresses the impact of gas composition on the cyclic behavior of adsorptive natural gas storage systems. The cyclic operation of an onboard storage reservoir is modeled as a series of consecutive two-step

José P. B. Mota

1999-01-01

161

Controversial natural gas and oil issues tackled  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on recent activities regarding controversial natural gas and oil issues including the strategic oil reserve, expanded access to drilling in the outer continental shelf and authorization of oil and gas leasing in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, reestablishing regulation of the natural gas industry and budgeting for research and development.

Rodgers, L.M.

1991-04-15

162

Adsorbed natural gas storage and transportation vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) storage and transportation technology recently became competitive to compressed natural gas (CNG) method due to a high energy density capability achievements. New adsorbents such as monolithic carbons and recently compressed active carbon fibers used in noncylindrical vessels have made possible to store the same capacity of gas as CNG tanks, but at much lower pressure. New

L. L. Vasiliev; L. E. Kanonchik; D. A. Mishkinis; M. I. Rabetsky

2000-01-01

163

PLASMA CATALYTIC REFORMING OF NATURAL GAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, recent results of plasma processing of natural gas are described. The use of a plasma reformer for the generation of hydrogen rich gas from natural gas has been investigated. In an accompanying paper, progress in plasma reforming of diesel fuel is described. The reformate composition has been investigated as a function of the initial mixture of air

L. Bromberg; A. Rabinovich; N. Alexeev; D. R. Cohn

164

Analysis of Restricted Natural Gas Supply Cases  

EIA Publications

The four cases examined in this study have progressively greater impacts on overall natural gas consumption, prices, and supply. Compared to the Annual Energy Outlook 2004 reference case, the no Alaska pipeline case has the least impact; the low liquefied natural gas case has more impact; the low unconventional gas recovery case has even more impact; and the combined case has the most impact.

James Kendell

2004-03-01

165

Natural gas safety: How sure are we  

SciTech Connect

This article examines natural gas distribution system safety and the public's response to natural gas disasters. Topics include cases of disaster, public and media response, the commission's actions and response, investigation and emergency actions to assure public safety, safety regulations, cathodic protection, and new gas safety rules developed.

Steinmeier, W.D. (Missouri Public Service Commission, Jefferson City (United States))

1991-08-01

166

Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy,

M. Rood Werpy; D. Santini; A. Burnham; M. Mintz

2010-01-01

167

Economics of natural gas conversion processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industry and academia have been pursuing the conversion of natural gas to higher valued products. Potential process routes include the manufacture of olefins and chemical intermediates, gasoline, and distillate fuels. All indirect manufacturing routes start with a synthesis gas step, which requires expensive steam reforming or partial oxidation of the natural gas feed. The direct routes to conversion seek to

Michael J. Gradassi; N. Wayne Green

1995-01-01

168

Global Natural Gas Market Trends, 2. edition  

SciTech Connect

The report provides an overview of major trends occurring in the natural gas industry and includes a concise look at the drivers behind recent rapid growth in gas usage and the challenges faced in meeting that growth. Topics covered include: an overview of Natural Gas including its history, the current market environment, and its future market potential; an analysis of the overarching trends that are driving a need for change in the Natural Gas industry; a description of new technologies being developed to increase production of Natural Gas; an evaluation of the potential of unconventional Natural Gas sources to supply the market; a review of new transportation methods to get Natural Gas from producing to consuming countries; a description of new storage technologies to support the increasing demand for peak gas; an analysis of the coming changes in global Natural Gas flows; an evaluation of new applications for Natural Gas and their impact on market sectors; and, an overview of Natural Gas trading concepts and recent changes in financial markets.

NONE

2007-07-15

169

DEVELOPMENT OF NATURAL GAS OCEAN TRANSPORTATION CHAIN BY MEANS OF NATURAL GAS HYDRATE (NGH)  

Microsoft Academic Search

While alternative natural gas transportation technologies against currently available pipeline or liquefied natural gas (LNG) are expected to develop to be suitable for small and medium or remote gas fields, Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. (MES) has been studying natural gas hydrate (NGH) transportation chain and advocated at ICGH2005 the NGH chain was economical compared with conventional LNG system

Tomonori Nogami; Nobutaka Oya; Hiroshige Ishida; Hitoshi Matsumoto

170

Gas to Liquids Industry and Natural Gas Markets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Technological improvements and investment commitments from the world's largest oil companies suggest the gas to liquids (GTL) industry is likely to expand rapidly over the next decade. GTL uses large quantities of natural gas to produce liquid petroleum p...

R. Pirog

2007-01-01

171

Electricity and Heat Production Using Natural Gas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to describe technique, production costs and competitiveness for the production of electricity and heat from natural gas. The report deals with the production of electricity using gas turbines, conventional power plants fuelle...

E. Hakkarainen B. Olsson M. Borchers

1987-01-01

172

Troubleshooting natural gas processing: Wellhead to transmission  

SciTech Connect

This book describes practical, day-to-day problems of natural gas handling. This book combines field experience with technical principles on natural gas production treating and transmission. This volume is dominated by illustrative case histories and rules of thumb. The book also provides a checklist of distillation problems which is a summary of causes and cures of the problems encountered in the fractionation of propane, butane and natural gasoline. A glossary of terms used in natural gas transmission is another good part of this book. The author has avoided complex mechanical details in favor of simple line drawings. Among the topics discussed are; wellhead pressure and gas flow, vapor-liquid separation at the wellhead, wellhead compression, corrosion in gathering systems, gas sweetening using amines, sulfur recovery, dehydration, centrifugal gas compression, reciprocal gas compression, hydrates, gas cooling and condensate recovery.

Lieberman, N.

1987-01-01

173

Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.  

SciTech Connect

The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

2012-01-27

174

North American Natural Gas Demand — Outlook 2020  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis paper analyses natural gas demand in the United States of America, Canada and Mexico for the period 1980–2001. Visual inspections of the historical trends for natural gas demand, GDP and natural gas prices provide an initial assessment of the relationship between these variables.The paper then estimates various regressions, using the Almon polynomial distributed lag model. Several regressions, utilizing different

Salman Saif Ghouri

2004-01-01

175

Optimization Models in the Natural Gas Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a With the surge of the global energy demand, natural gas plays an increasingly important role in the global energy market.\\u000a To meet the demand, optimization techniques have been widely used in the natural gas industry, and has yielded a lot of promising\\u000a results. In this chapter, we give a detailed discussion of optimization models in the natural gas industry, with

Qipeng P. Zheng; Steffen Rebennack; Niko A. Iliadis; Panos M. Pardalos

176

78 FR 46581 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import Liquefied Natural Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import Liquefied Natural Gas During June 2013 FE Docket Nos. CONOCOPHILLIPS...orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and to import liquefied natural gas....

2013-08-01

177

Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends  

SciTech Connect

Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the US natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and the financial and environmental aspects of the industry. The report consists of seven chapters and five appendices. Chapter 1 presents a summary of various data trends and key issues in today`s natural gas industry and examines some of the emerging trends. Chapters 2 through 7 focus on specific areas or segments of the industry, highlighting some of the issues associated with the impact of natural gas operations on the environment. 57 figs., 18 tabs.

NONE

1999-06-01

178

U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report  

SciTech Connect

The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

NONE

1996-11-01

179

Efficient electricity generation with natural gas  

SciTech Connect

In November of 9187 two hundred representatives of the natural gas and electric utility industries, as well as various interested outside parties for governmental, engineering and environmental organizations, met to discuss the challenges and opportunities offered by a variety of innovative natural gas-based electricity generating options. This conference was the first jointly sponsored meeting of the two industries to address a host of complex, yet exciting issues{emdash}combined cycle power generation, using natural gas for environmental compliance, natural gas supplies and regional pipeline capacity, and the outlook for gas pricing and contracting. The papers presented in this volume are representative of a first step taken by the natural gas and electric utility industries to meet these challenges.

Not Available

1987-01-01

180

Natural gas annual 1993 supplement: Company profiles  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1993 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of 45 selected companies in the natural gas industry. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the companies profiled. The companies in this report are interstate pipeline companies or local distribution companies (LDC`s). Interstate pipeline companies acquire gas supplies from company owned production, purchases from producers, and receipts for transportation for account of others. Pipeline systems, service area maps, company supply and disposition data are presented.

Not Available

1995-02-01

181

Changing nature of investment risk in the natural gas industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In terms of variability in earnings, gas distribution and transmission companies have exhibited a substantially greater degree of risk over the past five years than during the preceding five-year period. Most importantly, the regulated gas industries have exhibited a greater degree of risk than many nonregulated industries. The author concludes that those regulating the natural gas industry must recognize this

Copan

1983-01-01

182

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2006 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2004, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 2006

Information Center

2007-12-31

183

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2003 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2003, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 2003.

Rafi Zeinalpour

2004-11-01

184

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 1994 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1994, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1994.

Rafi Zeinalpour

1995-10-01

185

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 1996 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996.

Rafi Zeinalpour

1997-11-01

186

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2002 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2002, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 2002.

Rafi Zeinalpour

2003-12-01

187

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 1999 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1999, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1999.

Rafi Zeinalpour

2000-12-01

188

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 1993 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1993, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1993.

Rafi Zeinalpour

1994-11-01

189

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2004 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2004, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 2004.

Rafi Zeinalpour

2005-11-30

190

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 1998 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1998, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1998.

Rafi Zeinalpour

1999-12-01

191

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 1997 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997.

Rafi Zeinalpour

1998-12-01

192

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2007 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2004, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 2007

Information Center

2009-02-10

193

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2005 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2004, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 2005

Rafi Zeinalpour

2006-12-05

194

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2000 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2000, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 2000.

Rafi Zeinalpour

2001-12-01

195

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2001 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2001, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 2001.

Rafi Zeinalpour

2002-11-01

196

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 1995 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995.

Rafi Zeinalpour

1996-11-01

197

Tackling with Natural Monopoly in Electricity and Natural Gas Industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter attempts to provide a theoretical work on natural monopoly versus perfect markets through concentrating on the\\u000a energy sector. In specific we discuss the natural monopolistic structure of Turkish natural gas and electricity markets by\\u000a comparing those of various countries in Europe. In this vein, our chapter starts with the introduction of natural monopoly\\u000a in both electricity and natural

Özgür Arslan; Hasan Kazdagùli

198

Natural gas monthly, October 1990. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 34 tabs.

Not Available

1990-12-28

199

Development of a thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Praxair, in conjunction with the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is developing a new technology, thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators, for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons\\/day, has been built and tested. The power

John J. Wollan; Gregory W. Swift; S. N. Backhaus; D. L. Gardner

2002-01-01

200

Natural gas annual 1994: Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data fro the Nation from 1930 to 1994, and by State from 1967 to 1994.

NONE

1995-11-01

201

Liquified Natural Gas—Overview of Prospectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an overview of different prospectives regarding manufacturing, handling, distribution, regulation, and investing in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. As sources of energy are in increased demand, LNG becomes more and more important part of the natural gas supply in the world. Its main advantage is its ability to be converted into liquid form by cooling to

Dejan Ristic

2008-01-01

202

Natural gas depressurization power recovery and reheat  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for reduction in pressure of natural gas with the recovery of net power and the control of the temperature of the low pressure natural gas product by heat exchange with ambient atmosphere comprising the step of: (a) introducing high pressure natural gas at a pressure in the range of 100 to 2000 psia into an expansion turbine; (b) expanding the natural gas to a low pressure in the range of 40 to 100 psia and a resulting low temperature in the expansion turbine and recovering power from the turbine; (c) rewarming the low pressure, low temperature natural gas in at least two stages by heat exchange with an ambient atmosphere comprising: (1) indirect heat exchange of the natural gas with a refrigerant in a thermosiphon cycle which indirectly heat exchanges with the ambient atmosphere; (2) indirect heat exchange of the natural gas of substep (1) with a refrigerant in a heat pump cycle which indirectly heat exchanges with the ambient atmosphere; (d) recovering the natural gas at a low pressure and at a relatively warm temperature of at least 35/sup 0/F.

Shenoy, T.A.; Tao, J.C.

1987-07-07

203

Natural Gas in the Swedish Energy Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of natural gas in Sweden has been discussed for about ten years in Sweden. This report will give a summary of questions which are important in the energy policy when determining if natural gas ought to be introduced in Sweden as a fuel. (ERA citat...

L. Hjort

1978-01-01

204

Monthly Natural Gas Gross Production Report  

EIA Publications

Monthly natural gas gross withdrawals estimated from data collected on Form EIA-914 (Monthly Natural Gas Production Report) for Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico, Texas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, Wyoming, Other States and Lower 48 States. Alaska data are from the State of Alaska and included to obtain a U.S. Total.

Information Center

2013-08-30

205

Majors' Shift to Natural Gas, The  

EIA Publications

The Majors' Shift to Natural Gas investigates the factors that have guided the United States' major energy producers' growth in U.S. natural gas production relative to oil production. The analysis draws heavily on financial and operating data from the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS)

Bruce Bawks

2001-09-01

206

Potential Futures for Russian Natural Gas Exports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia is a dominant supplier of natural gas, especially to Europe, and has the resources to become even more dominant in the future. Nevertheless, we show that RussiaÕs ability to influence the world natural gas market is limited in the longer term by competition from alternative suppliers.

2009-01-01

207

Natural gas monthly, September 1990. [Contains Glossary  

SciTech Connect

This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

Not Available

1990-11-30

208

Nitrogen Removal From Low Quality Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas provides more than one-fifth of all the primary energy used in the United States. It is especially important in the residential sector, where it supplies nearly half of all the energy consumed in U.S. homes. However, significant quantities of natural gas cannot be produced economically because its quality is too low to enter the pipeline transportation system without

D. B. Alvarado; M. F. Asaro; J. L. Bomben; A. S. Damle; A. S. Bhown

1997-01-01

209

Natural Gas Policy Act: a strange history  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author outlines many of the complexities of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978, legislation that will require extensive accounting and staffing to implement and will be costly to both the public and the natural gas industry. Among the complexities noted are 30 price categories with varying counts due to different ways of computing prices. The Federal Energy Regulatory

1978-01-01

210

Short term storage of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linde AG developed a method to reduce the energy losses occurring during natural gas cooling, liquefaction, and storage by providing a cryophore to absorb and emit the heat as needed. Such a system is particularly suited for short-term fluctuations in demand. In such an application, excess natural gas is liquefied at night by heat exchange with the cold cryophore, and

1973-01-01

211

Liberalising the European natural gas market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Europe's natural gas market is changing radically. The several national markets dominated by monopolistic suppliers are integrating into one European market in which production and trade are subject to competition, while transport through the networks will be unbundled and placed under regulatory influence. What will be the consequences of these changes on natural gas prices, supply security and the environment?

Machiel Mulder

212

Throttleless Otto-cycle natural gas engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results are presented of exploratory research on establishing the feasibility of using preheated intake air for power and torque control in place of conventional throttling. The Throttleless Otto Cycle Natural Gas Engine (TONE) concept was proposed as a way to make vehicular use of natural gas fueled engines more competitive. It was shown that it is possible to increase

M. Shoda; P. D. Ronney; E. J. Durbin

1992-01-01

213

Natural gas 1994: Issues and trends  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an overview of the natural gas industry in 1993 and early 1994 (Chapter 1), focusing on the overall ability to deliver gas under the new regulatory mandates of Order 636. In addition, the report highlights a range of issues affecting the industry, including: restructuring under Order 636 (Chapter 2); adjustments in natural gas contracting (Chapter 3); increased use of underground storage (Chapter 4); effects of the new market on the financial performance of the industry (Chapter 5); continued impacts of major regulatory and legislative changes on the natural gas market (Appendix A).

Not Available

1994-07-01

214

65 FR 18121 - South Baggs Area Natural Gas Development Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1310] South Baggs Area Natural Gas Development Project AGENCY...for the South Baggs Area Natural Gas Project (Project...fifty (50) additional natural gas wells in the Project area...Office. Approximately 43 oil and gas wells have...

2000-04-06

215

Catalytic decomposition of petroleum into natural gas  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum is believed to be unstable in the earth, decomposing to lighter hydrocarbons at temperatures > 150{degrees}C. Oil and gas deposits support this view: gas/oil ratios and methane concentrations tend to increase with depth above 150{degrees}C. Although oil cracking is suggested and receives wide support, laboratory pyrolysis does not give products resembling natural gas. Moreover, it is doubtful that the light hydrocarbons in wet gas (C{sub 2}-C{sub 4}) could decompose over geologic time to dry gas (>95% methane) without catalytic assistance. We now report the catalytic decomposition of crude oil to a gas indistinguishable from natural gas. Like natural gas in deep basins, it becomes progressively enriched in methane: initially 90% (wet gas) to a final composition of 100% methane (dry gas). To our knowledge, the reaction is unprecedented and unexpectedly robust (conversion of oil to gas is 100% in days, 175{degrees}C) with significant implications regarding the stability of petroleum in sedimentary basins. The existence or nonexistence of oil in the deep subsurface may not depend on the thermal stability of hydrocarbons as currently thought. The critical factor could be the presence of transition metal catalysts which destabilize hydrocarbons and promote their decomposition to natural gas.

Mango, F.D.; Hightower, J. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

1997-12-01

216

Analyses of natural gas in Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

For nearly 50 years the Illinois State Geological Survey has been involved in the study of the geology and chemistry of natural gas in Illinois. By the end of 1979, samples from 2321 sources had been analyzed. Major sources of gas samples and the number of samples from those sources have included the following: solution gas from water wells (1402),

Meents

1981-01-01

217

Natural gas demand surges among European customers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Europe's view of natural gas as a clean fuel is driving demand faster than European producers can supply the fuel. By 2010 European gas demand is expected to rise by 50%, so imports will need to rise in step. There are plenty of gas reserves within and in reach of the European market to meet increasing needs. But current low

1993-01-01

218

Environmental benefits of natural gas for buses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a life cycle assessment comparing diesel buses with buses fueled by natural gas. The data for the emission of pollutants are based on the MEET Project of the European Commission (EC), supplemented by data measured for diesel and gas buses in Paris. The benefits of the gas fueled bus are then quantified using the damage cost estimates

Ari Rabl

2002-01-01

219

The Natural Gas Industry in Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

After 25 years of field price regulation, the U.S. natural gas industry is moving to a deregulated field market. This transition period has been made more difficult because of the international recession, depressed oil prices, and statutory restraints on gas use that were originally designed under assumptions of declining gas supply.

George H. Lawrence; Michael I. German

1983-01-01

220

Carbonyl sulfide hydrolysis in natural gas  

SciTech Connect

Carbonyl sulfide may naturally occur in high H/sub 2/S - CO/sub 2/ content sour natural gases. Furthermore part of the H/sub 2/S present in natural gases may be converted into COS if molecular sieves are used as H/sub 2/S removal substances in natural gas desulphurization plants. Carbonyl sulfide might then hydrolize to H/sub 2/S in the gas storage fields and transmission lines. This paper illustrates experimental data relevant to the kinetics and thermodynamics of the reaction between carbonyl sulfide and water both at gas and gas/liquid phases. Results may suggest whether carbonyl sulfide should be included in natural gas quality specifications.

Russo, F.; Caribotti, P.; Garofalo, N.

1988-01-01

221

Natural gas monthly, September 1991. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production distribution consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

Not Available

1991-10-18

222

Natural gas exports and macroeconomic performance  

SciTech Connect

Alberta, in volumetric terms, is Canada`s leading exporter of natural gas, crude oil, bitumen, and coal. Alberta natural gas shipments to other Canadian provinces and exports to the United States have developed into an increasingly important component of Alberta economy. This article attempts to measure the impact of gas production and exports on different sectors of the Alberta economy as the energy producing province of Canada.

Naini, A. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Economics and Policy Development

1998-08-01

223

Mechanochemical transformations of natural gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical transformations of hydrates of natural gas from the Irelyakh gas and oil field of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)\\u000a upon vigorous mechanical treatment were studied. It was found that a general feature of mechanochemical transformations of\\u000a natural gas hydrates is an increase in the carbon chain length of hydrocarbons forming the hydrates. It was shown that the\\u000a constitution of

L. P. Kalacheva; E. Yu. Shits; A. F. Fedorova

2009-01-01

224

SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY  

SciTech Connect

The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports provide both the backdrop and the impetus for this study.

COOK,Z.

1999-02-01

225

Liquefied Natural Gas for Trucks and Buses  

SciTech Connect

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being developed as a heavy vehicle fuel. The reason for developing LNG is to reduce our dependency on imported oil by eliminating technical and costs barriers associated with its usage. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a program, currently in its third year, to develop and advance cost-effective technologies for operating and refueling natural gas-fueled heavy vehicles (Class 7-8 trucks). The objectives of the DOE Natural Gas Vehicle Systems Program are to achieve market penetration by reducing vehicle conversion and fuel costs, to increase consumer acceptance by improving the reliability and efficiency, and to improve air quality by reducing tailpipe emissions. One way to reduce fuel costs is to develop new supplies of cheap natural gas. Significant progress is being made towards developing more energy-efficient, low-cost, small-scale natural gas liquefiers for exploiting alternative sources of natural gas such as from landfill and remote gas sites. In particular, the DOE program provides funds for research and development in the areas of; natural gas clean up, LNG production, advanced vehicle onboard storage tanks, improved fuel delivery systems and LNG market strategies. In general, the program seeks to integrate the individual components being developed into complete systems, and then demonstrate the technology to establish technical and economic feasibility. The paper also reviews the importance of cryogenics in designing LNG fuel delivery systems.

James Wegrzyn; Michael Gurevich

2000-06-19

226

Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities.  

SciTech Connect

In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions that reduce petroleum use in the transportation sector - we have examined the state of natural gas vehicle technology, current market status, energy and environmental benefits, implications regarding advancements in European natural gas vehicle technologies, research and development efforts, and current market barriers and opportunities for greater market penetration. The authors contend that commercial intracity trucks are a prime area for advancement of this fuel. Therefore, we examined an aggressive future market penetration of natural gas heavy-duty vehicles that could be seen as a long-term goal. Under this scenario using Energy Information Administration projections and GREET life-cycle modeling of U.S. on-road heavy-duty use, natural gas vehicles would reduce petroleum consumption by approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil per day, while another 400,000 barrels of oil per day reduction could be achieved with significant use of natural gas off-road vehicles. This scenario would reduce daily oil consumption in the United States by about 8%.

Rood Werpy, M.; Santini, D.; Burnham, A.; Mintz, M.; Energy Systems

2010-11-29

227

Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies, 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report on the gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies for caldendar year 1978 is the fifteenth report on the gas supplies of these companies. Total dedicated domestic gas reserves owned and controlled by interstate pipeline companies increased in 1978 by 1.1 trillion cubic feet, or 1.2 percent, from 92.9 trillion cubic feet at the beginning of the

1980-01-01

228

Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for

C. E. Clark; J. Han; A. Burnham; J. B. Dunn; M. Wang

2012-01-01

229

Natural gas: key to refining future  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. Refinery capacity and product mix requirements depend largely on what happens in the natural gas industry. Potential changes in gas prices could cause large portions of the fuels market to switch between gas and fuel oil, upsetting refinery process schemes and demands for amount and type of crude. Almost one-third of current U.S. gas demand potentially is switchable to

M. Kelly; J. N. McCutchen

1984-01-01

230

US Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2001 Annual Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A newly updated publication is available from the US Energy Information Administration. The report, entitled "US Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2001 Annual Report," contains national and state estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids in the United States. The over 170-page document has chapters with titles such as National Summaries, New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields, Large Reservoir Declines, Natural Gas Plant Liquids, and Top 100 Oil Fields for 2001. Those interested can download the entire report, individual chapters, appendices, a glossary, and even previous reports for links offered by on the site.

2002-01-01

231

Compressed natural gas dispensing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system and method for dispensing compressed gas from a storage tank is disclosed in which the temperature and pressure in the tank is measured before and after the dispensing cycle and electric signals representative of these values are applied to a processor\\/computer which is programmed to compute from these signals the volume of gas dispensed.

H. W. Fisher; E. E. Hrivnak

1985-01-01

232

Natural gas industry in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

AT the end of March 2007, the remaining quantity of recoverable gas reserves in the country has been in excess of 28.3 trillion cubic meters that is the second gas rich country in the word. While the geological studies in certain geographical regions of the country have not been thoroughly conducted yet. it is likely to explore further reserves of

H. Omidvar

2008-01-01

233

High-sulfur natural gas project opens  

SciTech Connect

The Astrakhan' high-sulfur natural gas project, under development since 1981, yielded its first natural gas, gas liquids and recovered sulfur in late December 1986 and early January 1987. The gas project, in the desert north of Astrakhan', is being developed from the base settlement of Aksarayskiy, a railroad junction north of Astrakhan'. The initial stage now in operation has a throughput capacity of three billion cubic meters of natural gas; it is to be doubled later in 1987, to six billion m/sup 3/. Astrakhan's is the third major sour gas project to be developed in the Soviet Union; the others are at Orenburg, in the southern Urals, and at Mubarek, in the Uzbek SSR of Central Asia.

Shabad, T.

1986-07-01

234

Energy resource potential of natural gas hydrates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The discovery of large gas hydrate accumulations in terrestrial permafrost regions of the Arctic and beneath the sea along the outer continental margins of the world's oceans has heightened interest in gas hydrates as a possible energy resource. However, significant to potentially insurmountable technical issues must be resolved before gas hydrates can be considered a viable option for affordable supplies of natural gas. The combined information from Arctic gas hydrate studies shows that, in permafrost regions, gas hydrates may exist at subsurface depths ranging from about 130 to 2000 m. The presence of gas hydrates in offshore continental margins has been inferred mainly from anomalous seismic reflectors, known as bottom-simulating reflectors, that have been mapped at depths below the sea floor ranging from about 100 to 1100 m. Current estimates of the amount of gas in the world's marine and permafrost gas hydrate accumulations are in rough accord at about 20,000 trillion m3. Disagreements over fundamental issues such as the volume of gas stored within delineated gas hydrate accumulations and the concentration of gas hydrates within hydrate-bearing strata have demonstrated that we know little about gas hydrates. Recently, however, several countries, including Japan, India, and the United States, have launched ambitious national projects to further examine the resource potential of gas hydrates. These projects may help answer key questions dealing with the properties of gas hydrate reservoirs, the design of production systems, and, most important, the costs and economics of gas hydrate production.

Collett, T. S.

2002-01-01

235

Assessment of future natural gas vehicle concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of Natural Gas Vehicles is progressing rapidly under the stimulus of recent vehicle emission regulations. The development is following what can be viewed as a three step progression. In the first step, contemporary gasoline or diesel fueled automobiles are retrofitted with equipment enabling the vehicle to operate on either natural gas or standard liquid fuels. The second step is the development of vehicles which utilize traditional internal combustion engines that have been modified to operate exclusively on natural gas. These dedicated natural gas vehicles operate more efficiently and have lower emissions than the dual fueled vehicles. The third step is the redesigning, from the ground up, of a vehicle aimed at exploiting the advantages of natural gas as an automotive fuel while minimizing its disadvantages. The current report is aimed at identifying the R&D needs in various fuel storage and engine combinations which have potential for providing increased efficiency, reduced emissions, and reductions in vehicle weight and size. Fuel suppliers, automobile and engine manufacturers, many segments of the natural gas and other industries, and regulatory authorities will influence or be affected by the development of such a third generation vehicle, and it is recommended that GRI act to bring these groups together in the near future to begin, developing the focus on a 'designed-for-natural-gas' vehicle.

Groten, B.; Arrigotti, S.

1992-10-01

236

North American Natural Gas Markets. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group`s findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

Not Available

1989-02-01

237

North American Natural Gas Markets. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group`s findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

Not Available

1988-12-01

238

The gas gap: Uncertainty in the supply of natural gas  

SciTech Connect

Despite numerous attempts to predict future trends, uncertainty exists in the supply of natural gas. Forecasts of natural-gas resources have been made by many people, from scientists to economists, on the basis of historical trends, trade deficits, domestic economies, environmental concerns, and the pace of technology. Comparison of past forecasts with present trends, however, shows the difficulty in hitting the mark, in properly pinning down the fluctuations inherent in a multifaceted field. Nonetheless, optimism prevails in many of the forecasts. A guarded appreciation of what these forecasts really tell us can help us develop wise energy policies and constructively influence the future of natural gas. 9 refs., 5 figs.

Howell, D.G.; Wiese, K. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Swinchatt, J. (Earth Vision, Inc., Cheshire, CT (United States))

1993-01-01

239

Refueling stations for natural gas vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The unavailability of natural gas vehicle (NGV) refueling stations constitutes one of the major barriers to the wide spread utilization of natural gas in the transportation market. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate the current technical and economic status of compressed natural gas vehicle refueling stations and to identify the components or design features that offer the greatest potential for performance improvements and/or cost reductions. Both fast-fill- and slow-fill-type refueling systems will be discussed. 4 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

Blazek, C.F.; Kinast, J.A.; Biederman, R.T.; Jasionowski, W.

1991-01-01

240

Natural gas annual 1992: Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. The 1992 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production top its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1988 to 1992 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. Volume 2 of this report presents State-level historical data.

Not Available

1993-11-22

241

Natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer  

DOEpatents

An efficient method of producing hydrogen by high temperature steam electrolysis that will lower the electricity consumption to an estimated 65 percent lower than has been achievable with previous steam electrolyzer systems. This is accomplished with a natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer, which significantly reduces the electricity consumption. Since this natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer replaces one unit of electrical energy by one unit of energy content in natural gas at one-quarter the cost, the hydrogen production cost will be significantly reduced. Also, it is possible to vary the ratio between the electricity and the natural gas supplied to the system in response to fluctuations in relative prices for these two energy sources. In one approach an appropriate catalyst on the anode side of the electrolyzer will promote the partial oxidation of natural gas to CO and hydrogen, called Syn-Gas, and the CO can also be shifted to CO.sub.2 to give additional hydrogen. In another approach the natural gas is used in the anode side of the electrolyzer to burn out the oxygen resulting from electrolysis, thus reducing or eliminating the potential difference across the electrolyzer membrane.

Pham, Ai-Quoc (San Jose, CA); Wallman, P. Henrik (Berkeley, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01

242

Natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer  

SciTech Connect

An efficient method of producing hydrogen by high temperature steam electrolysis that will lower the electricity consumption to an estimated 65% lower than has been achievable with previous steam electrolyzer systems is described. This is accomplished with a natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer, which significantly reduces the electricity consumption. Since this natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer replaces one unit of electrical energy by one unit of energy content in natural gas at one-quarter the cost, the hydrogen production cost will be significantly reduced. Also, it is possible to vary the ratio between the electricity and the natural gas supplied to the system in response to fluctuations in relative prices for these two energy sources. In one approach an appropriate catalyst on the anode side of the electrolyzer will promote the partial oxidation of natural gas to CO and hydrogen, called Syn-Gas, and the CO can also be shifted to CO{sub 2} to give additional hydrogen. In another approach the natural gas is used in the anode side of the electrolyzer to burn out the oxygen resulting from electrolysis, thus reducing or eliminating the potential difference across the electrolyzer membrane.

Pham, A.Q.; Wallman, P.H.; Glass, R.S.

2000-04-18

243

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

A new project was initiated this quarter to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading. Efforts have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project.

Howard S. Meyer

2002-06-01

244

Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates  

SciTech Connect

Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common in nature. The amount of methane sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are speculative and range over three orders of magnitude from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet. The amount of gas in the hydrate reservoirs of the world greedy exceeds the volume of known conventional gas reserves. Gas hydrates also represent a significant drilling and production hazard. A fundamental question linking gas hydrate resource and hazard issues is: What is the volume of gas hydrates and included gas within a given gas hydrate occurrence? Most published gas hydrate resource estimates have, of necessity, been made by broad extrapolation of only general knowledge of local geologic conditions. Gas volumes that may be attributed to gas hydrates are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters, including the areal extent ofthe gas-hydrate occurrence, reservoir thickness, hydrate number, reservoir porosity, and the degree of gas-hydrate saturation. Two of the most difficult reservoir parameters to determine are porosity and degreeof gas hydrate saturation. Well logs often serve as a source of porosity and hydrocarbon saturation data; however, well-log calculations within gas-hydrate-bearing intervals are subject to error. The primary reason for this difficulty is the lack of quantitative laboratory and field studies. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the response of well logs to the presence of gas hydrates.

Collett, T.S.

1992-10-01

245

Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates  

SciTech Connect

Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common in nature. The amount of methane sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are speculative and range over three orders of magnitude from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet. The amount of gas in the hydrate reservoirs of the world greedy exceeds the volume of known conventional gas reserves. Gas hydrates also represent a significant drilling and production hazard. A fundamental question linking gas hydrate resource and hazard issues is: What is the volume of gas hydrates and included gas within a given gas hydrate occurrence Most published gas hydrate resource estimates have, of necessity, been made by broad extrapolation of only general knowledge of local geologic conditions. Gas volumes that may be attributed to gas hydrates are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters, including the areal extent ofthe gas-hydrate occurrence, reservoir thickness, hydrate number, reservoir porosity, and the degree of gas-hydrate saturation. Two of the most difficult reservoir parameters to determine are porosity and degreeof gas hydrate saturation. Well logs often serve as a source of porosity and hydrocarbon saturation data; however, well-log calculations within gas-hydrate-bearing intervals are subject to error. The primary reason for this difficulty is the lack of quantitative laboratory and field studies. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the response of well logs to the presence of gas hydrates.

Collett, T.S.

1992-10-01

246

A Novel Process for Natural Gas Liquids Recovery from Oil Field Associated Gas with Liquefied Natural Gas Cryogenic Energy Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel process to recovery natural gas liquids from oil field associated gas with liquefied natural gas (LNG) cryogenic energy utilization is proposed. Compared to the current electric refrigeration process, the proposed process uses the cryogenic energy of LNG and saves 62.6% of electricity. The proposed process recovers ethane, liquid petroleum gas (propane and butane) and heavier hydrocarbons, with total

Haijun BIAN; Wendong XU; Xiuxi LI; Yu QIAN

2011-01-01

247

Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication provides information on the interstate pipeline companies' supply of natural gas in the United States during calendar year 1990, for use by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for regulatory purposes. It also provides information to ...

1992-01-01

248

Natural gas 1996 - issues and trends  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents a summary of the latest data and information relating to the U.S. natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and financial aspects of the industry.

NONE

1996-12-01

249

Natural gas annual 1992: Supplement: Company profiles  

SciTech Connect

The data for the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement : Company Profiles are taken from Form EIA-176, (open quotes) Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition (close quotes). Other sources include industry literature and corporate annual reports to shareholders. The companies appearing in this report are major interstate natural gas pipeline companies, large distribution companies, or combination companies with both pipeline and distribution operations. The report contains profiles of 45 corporate families. The profiles describe briefly each company, where it operates, and any important issues that the company faces. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the 45 large companies profiled.

Not Available

1994-01-01

250

Natural Gas Liquefier for Vehicle Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project was a continuation and refinement of a feasibility prototype natural gas liquefier that had been designed, fabricated, and tested under a U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. Extensive performanc...

E. C. Owens K. R. Kohuth

1995-01-01

251

Competitive Position of Natural Gas: Industrial Baking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To quantify the competitive position of natural gas in industrial baking, market profiles were developed to define current technologies (single lap, tunnel, and Lanham ovens are predominant) and to characterize the applications and use of each technology ...

B. S. Minsker S. Y. Salama

1988-01-01

252

Physical Properties of Natural Gas Hydrate Deposits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Natural gas hydrates form in polar regions and in ocean bottom sediments and they may represent a considerable energy resource. Unfortunately, so little is known about the physical properties of hydrate deposits that it is difficult to develop geophysical...

C. Pearson

1982-01-01

253

Audit Program for Natural Gas Companies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this publication is to provide the field auditor with a set of audit guidelines for use in the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's financial/compliance examinations of jurisdictional natural gas companies. The specific audit procedures s...

1981-01-01

254

FSU's natural gas liquids business needs investment  

SciTech Connect

Production of natural gas liquids has fallen seriously behind its potential in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Restoration of the gas liquids business thus represents a rich investment opportunity. Capital, however, must come from international sources, which remain uncertain about the FSU's legal, commercial, and political systems. If these hurdles can be overcome, FSU output of liquid petroleum gas alone might double between 1990 and 2010. In the FSU, LPG is produced from associated and nonassociated natural gas, condensate, and refinery streams. It also comes from what is known in the FSU as ShFLU--a mixture of propane, butane, pentane, and hexane produced at gas processing plants in Western Siberia and fractionated elsewhere. The paper reviews FSU production of gas liquids focusing on West Siberia, gives a production outlook, and describes LPG use and business development.

Plotnikov, V.S.; Berman, M.; Angerinos, G.F. (Poten and Partners Inc., New York, NY (United States))

1995-03-13

255

UPGRADING NATURAL GAS VIA MEMBRANE SEPARATION PROCESSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study is to assess the potential usefulness of membrane separation processes for removing COâ and HâS from low-quality natural gas containing substantial amounts of both these ''acid'' gases, e.g., up to 40 mole-% COâ and 10 mole-% HâS. The membrane processes must be capable of upgrading the crude natural gas to pipeline specifications (⤠2

S. A. Stern; P. A. Rice; J. Hao

2000-01-01

256

USSR: development of its natural gas industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas production in Russia currently stands at 13 tcf compared to US production of 20 tcf. Russian production is expected to increase to 15.4 tcf in 1980 and will surpass the US production total by 1985 (estimated 24.72 tcf). Natural gas reserves in the USSR are estimated at 990 tcf, amounting to a 72-yr life index at the 1976

Lippitt; H. F. II

1979-01-01

257

About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines  

EIA Publications

This information product provides the interested reader with a broad and non-technical overview of how the U.S. natural gas pipeline network operates, along with some insights into the many individual pipeline systems that make up the network. While the focus of the presentation is the transportation of natural gas over the interstate and intrastate pipeline systems, information on subjects related to pipeline development, such as system design and pipeline expansion, are also included.

Information Center

2007-06-01

258

18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 ...Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resourcesânatural gas. (a)(1) The national...

2009-04-01

259

18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 ...Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resourcesânatural gas. (a)(1) The national...

2010-04-01

260

Ideal-gas thermodynamic properties for natural-gas applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculating caloric properties from a thermal equation of state requires information such as isobaric heat capacities in the ideal-gas state as a function of temperature. In this work, values for the parameters of thecp0 correlation proposed by Aly and Lee were newly determined for 21 pure gases which are compounds of natural gas mixtures. The values of the parameters were

M. Jaeschke; P. Schley

1995-01-01

261

Oil and natural gas prices and greenhouse gas emission mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hikes in hydrocarbon prices during the last years have lead to concern about investment choices in the energy system and uncertainty about the costs for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. On the one hand, high prices of oil and natural gas increase the use of coal; on the other hand, the cost difference between fossil-based energy and non-carbon energy

Bas van Ruijven; Detlef P. van Vuuren

2009-01-01

262

Conversion of a Waste Gas to Liquid Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choice of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a heavy-duty vehicular fuel is growing rapidly due to improved LNG economics, diesel price uncertainties caused by the dependence on imported crude oil, liabilities associated with environmental and health concerns, and governmental programs related to concerns over greenhouse gas emissions. However, vehicle owners who wish to use LNG are impeded by a

D. F. Gongaware; M. A. Barclay; J. A. Barclay; M. P. Skrzypkowski

2004-01-01

263

Natural gas\\/diesel conversions - the outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

High conversion costs and technical inadequacies of available equipment have limited diesel to compressed natural gas (CNG) conversions, a process which can use either fumigation, pilot oil injection, or spark-ignition for vehicle ignition. An overview of Gas Research Institute conversion research projects includes a summary of major problems associated with performance, cost, and reliability of the systems. A summary table

V. B. Fiore; T. J. Joyce

1986-01-01

264

Analyses of natural gas in Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

For nearly 50 years the Illinois State Geological Survey has been involved in the study of the geology and chemistry of natural gas in Illinois. By the end of 1979, samples from 2321 sources had been analyzed. This report contains the results of analyses of these samples. Major sources of gas samples and the number of samples from those sources

Meents

1981-01-01

265

Dual mixed refrigerant natural gas liquefaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process and apparatus is described for liquefying natural gas using two closed cycle, multicomponent refrigerants wherein a low level refrigerant cools and liquefies the gas by indirect heat exchange and a high level refrigerant cools and partially liquefies the low level refrigerant by indirect multistage heat exchange. The high level refrigerant is phase separated in order to use lighter

Y.-N. Liu; J. W. Pervier

1985-01-01

266

METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a project to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. his study will measure or calculate all gas industry CH4 emissions--from production at the wellhead, through the system, to the customer's meter. missions downstream of the consu...

267

Challenges and opportunities await natural gas industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last two decades, the natural gas industry has gone through drastic changes. On one hand, deregulation and customer choice have been introduced to the industry. On the other hand, technological advances have resulted in substantial growth of available gas resources. In short, deregulation coupled with increased availability of supply has changed the way market participants interact with each

Mohasseb

1998-01-01

268

Natural gas from geopressured zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geopressured methane could yield large quantities of gas to help meet increasing US energy demands. Significant uncertainties must be addressed in well-conceived and coordinated research and development programs. Economic, institutional, and environmental constraints must be addressed and overcome. Specific questions that must be answered include the type and size of the resource, the long-term production rates, the impact on production

R. B. Rosenberg; J. C. Sharer

1980-01-01

269

77 FR 51795 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets Supplemental Notice of Technical...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No. AD12-12-000...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No....

2012-08-27

270

49 CFR 393.68 - Compressed natural gas fuel containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Compressed natural gas fuel containers. 393.68 ...Systems § 393.68 Compressed natural gas fuel containers. (a) Applicability...this section apply to compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel containers...

2012-10-01

271

49 CFR 393.68 - Compressed natural gas fuel containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Compressed natural gas fuel containers. 393.68 ...Systems § 393.68 Compressed natural gas fuel containers. (a) Applicability...this section apply to compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel containers...

2011-10-01

272

7 CFR 2900.4 - Natural gas requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Natural gas requirements. 2900.4 Section 2900...AGRICULTURAL USES AND VOLUMETRIC REQUIREMENTS-NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT § 2900.4 Natural gas requirements. For purposes of Section...

2013-01-01

273

18 CFR 157.210 - Mainline natural gas facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Mainline natural gas facilities. 157.210 Section...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES...ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline...

2013-04-01

274

26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21 Section... § 48.4041-21 Compressed natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of...imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel...

2013-04-01

275

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. KPS and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on field site selection. ChevronTexaco has nominated their Headlee Gas Plant in Odessa, TX for a commercial-scale dehydration test. Potting and module materials testing were initiated. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues.

Howard S. Meyer

2003-04-01

276

Natural gas use is taking off  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes an infrared radiant heat process to de-ice aircraft. A typical 727 aircraft de-icing costs $2000--3000 using the current glycol method. The natural gas powered heater would only cost $400 per aircraft and would not pose the environmental problems that the glycol does. It is estimated that one Infratek system could consume 3.8 million cubic feet of natural gas each year during the de-icing season. Large airports might have as many as 10 units. 3.8 million cu. ft. of gas is equal to about 40 New York residential customers or eight New York commercial customers.

Kauffmann, B.G.

1995-07-01

277

Performance study using natural gas, hydrogen-supplemented natural gas and hydrogen in AVL research engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance tests with natural gas, hydrogen-supplemented CH4, and H2-fueled configurations of the AVL research engine are reported. A comparison is made of the properties of H2 and natural gas, noting that natural gas benefits such as heating value, higher ignition energy, and narrow ignition limits are at least partially offset by H2 wide ignition limits which allow elimination of throttling,

F. Duebel; K. Schmillen; B. Nagalingam

1983-01-01

278

Liquefied Natural Gas for Trucks and Buses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being developed as a heavy vehicle fuel. The reason for developing LNG is to reduce our dependency on imported oil by eliminating technical and costs barriers associated with its usage. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a program, currently in its third year, to develop and advance cost-effective technologies for operating and refueling natural

James Wegrzyn; Michael Gurevich

2000-01-01

279

Natural gas hydrates: myths, facts and issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas hydrates are solid-like substances naturally occurring beneath the oceans and in polar regions. They contain vast, and potentially unstable, reserves of methane and other natural gases. Many believe that, if released in the environment, the methane from hydrates would be a considerable hazard to marine ecosystems, coastal populations and infrastructures, or worse, that it would dangerously contribute to global

2004-01-01

280

U. S. natural gas demand through the year 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on predictions by the U.S. Gas Association, the demand for natural gas (PG) in the country may rise by 1.5 times from 1980 to the year 2000. This prediction counts on an increase in the extraction of natural gas in Alaska and on the import of natural gas from Canada and Mexico and in some variants, liquified natural gas

Itteilag

1983-01-01

281

Russia’s Natural Gas Export Potential up to 2050  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent increases in natural gas reserve estimates and advances in shale gas technology make natural gas a fuel with good prospects to serve a bridge to a low-carbon world. Russia is an important energy supplier as it holds the world largest natural gas reserves and it is the world’s largest exporter of natural gas. Energy was one of the driving

Sergey Paltsev

2011-01-01

282

Natural gas for utility use appears unstoppable  

SciTech Connect

Electric demand probably will grow rapidly through 1995, which will force utilities to quickly build substantial new generating capacities, predicted the National Economic Research Associates Inc. (NERA) in December 1992. NERA, a market research firm based in White Plains, NY, also noted this growth would require an increase in coal and hydrogeneration capacities, electrical generation by natural gas. NERA feels environmental pressures, economics and short lead times for gas electric generation plants point to surging consumption during the late 90s into the early 21st century. NERA estimates utilities will burn 200 percent more natural gas by 2005, or up to 7.5-trillion cubic feet (7.5 Tef) in that year. The increased consumption would raise natural-gas-fired electrical capacity to 145 GW by year-end 1995 and 160 GW by 2000. NERA bases its estimate on the price of natural gas at the wellhead remaining below $3/Mcf ($3 per thousand cubic feet in 1991 dollars). NERA and the high growth in electric utility usage would put extreme pressure on the natural gas industry.

Stein, H.

1993-04-01

283

Alternative transport fuels from natural gas  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the economics of using natural gas as an alternative fuel in transport vehicles including passenger cars, taxis, buses, and trucks. It compares the cost of using conventional fuels (gasoline and diesel) in these vehicles with that of retrofitting the vehicles and using natural gas-based fuels. These fuels include compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol, and synthetic gasoline and diesel. The analysis includes various scenarios to establish break-even these competing fuels under different assumptions. The study concludes that slow-fill (also known as trickle-fill) CNG is the most economic of the natural gas based fuels. The vehicles most suited for the economic use of these fuels are captive vehicle fleets with relatively high mileage and a restricted range of operation, such as buses and taxis. However, to make the transition economically viable, oil prices would have to increase significantly from their present level and remain there long enough to make the investment in the transition worth while. At present levels of crude oil prices (about US $18 per barrel), little opportunity exists for the economic substitution of natural gas based fuels for gasoline and diesel. These conclusions are based on the economic factors considered. Environmental factors, which are both difficult to measure and of increasing importance, could, however, mitigate these results.

Moreno, R. Jr.; Bailey, D.G.F.

1989-01-01

284

Natural gas monthly, February 1993. [Contains Glossary  

SciTech Connect

This issue contains monthly data for the entire year 1992 and allows comparing this year with the previous years. Marketed production of natural gas remained at approximately the same level as in 1991, 18.6 trillion cubic feet. Marketed production has changed very little in the past 3 years, with only a 3-percent difference since 1989. Consumption of natural gas has also increased each year for the past 7 years. In 1992, the level of consumption increased by approximately 4 percent from the previous years. Imports have steadily increased over the past 7 years. Imports of natural gas in 1992 are approximately 16 percent above the 1991 level. The Iroquois Gas Transmission Line, extending from the Canadian border in New York to Long Island, accounts for a large part of this increase. This pipeline went into service in December 1991.

Not Available

1993-02-26

285

NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS  

SciTech Connect

From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations using laboratory pyrolysis methods have provided much information on the origins of deep gas. Technologic problems are one of the greatest challenges to deep drilling. Problems associated with overcoming hostile drilling environments (e.g. high temperatures and pressures, and acid gases such as CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) for successful well completion, present the greatest obstacles to drilling, evaluating, and developing deep gas fields. Even though the overall success ratio for deep wells is about 50 percent, a lack of geological and geophysical information such as reservoir quality, trap development, and gas composition continues to be a major barrier to deep gas exploration. Results of recent finding-cost studies by depth interval for the onshore U.S. indicate that, on average, deep wells cost nearly 10 times more to drill than shallow wells, but well costs and gas recoveries vary widely among different gas plays in different basins. Based on an analysis of natural gas assessments, many topical areas hold significant promise for future exploration and development. One such area involves re-evaluating and assessing hypothetical unconventional basin-center gas plays. Poorly-understood basin-center gas plays could contain significant deep undiscovered technically-recoverable gas resources.

Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

2002-02-05

286

78 FR 21349 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, To Export Compressed Natural Gas, Vacating Prior Authority and Denying Request for Rehearing During January...

2013-04-10

287

77 FR 31838 - Notice of Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During April 2012 AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy...12-34-NG Northwest Natural Gas Company............ 12-41-NG...

2012-05-30

288

Natural gas outstrips oil as energy source  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas (all of it domestically produced) was the largest single source of Pakistan's 1980 energy supply, contributing 40.1% of the total, compared with 37.4% for oil, 16.6% for hydroelectricity, 5.6% for coal, and 0.3% for LP-gas, plus a very small amount of nuclear power. In 1979, gas accounted for 37.6% of the total and oil for 38.9%. Eighty percent of Pakistan's total natural gas production of nearly 300 billion CF came from the Sui field in central Pakistan, which is being developed by Pakistan Petroleum Ltd. The balance was produced in Esso's Mari field and the Oil and Gas Development Commission's Sari and Hundi fields.

Not Available

1981-06-01

289

Natural gas hydrates: myths, facts and issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas hydrates are solid-like substances naturally occurring beneath the oceans and in polar regions. They contain vast, and potentially unstable, reserves of methane and other natural gases. Many believe that, if released in the environment, the methane from hydrates would be a considerable hazard to marine ecosystems, coastal populations and infrastructures, or worse, that it would dangerously contribute to global warming. On the other hand, hydrates may contain enough natural gas to provide an energy supply assurance for the 21st century. This paper attempts to separate the myths, the facts and the issues that relate to natural gas hydrates beyond the doomsday environmental scenarios and overly optimistic estimates. To cite this article: B. Beauchamp, C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

Beauchamp, Beno??t

2004-07-01

290

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues.

Howard S. Meyer

2003-01-01

291

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50--70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project.

Howard S. Meyer

2002-06-30

292

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment has been initiated. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50--70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project.

Howard S. Meyer

2002-06-01

293

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. KPS and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues.

Howard S. Meyer

2002-10-01

294

Impact of globalization of the natural gas market on natural gas prices in power generation and energy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of liquefied natural gas (LNG) infrastructure that allows natural gas to be exported from gas producing regions to gas consuming regions is transforming previously regional gas markets into a global market. The panel will address the impacts of this globalization on the power generation industry that has been increasingly turning to natural gas fueled plants. Panelists from major

Tom Hammons; R. Johnson; B. Blyden

2008-01-01

295

Geologic studies of deep natural gas resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1995, the USGS estimated a mean resource of 114 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered technically recoverable natural gas in plays deeper than 15,000 feet/4,572 meters in onshore regions of the United States. This volume summarizes major conclusions of ongoing work. Chapters A and B address the areal extent of drilling and distribution of deep basins in the U.S. Chapter C summarizes distribution of deep sedimentary basins and potential for deep gas in the former Soviet Union. Chapters D and E are geochemical papers addressing source-rock issues and deep gas generation. Chapter F develops a probabilistic method for subdividing gas resources into depth slices, and chapter G analyzes the relative uncertainty of estimates of deep gas in plays in the Gulf Coast Region. Chapter H evaluates the mechanism of hydrogenation of deep, high-rank spent kerogen by water, with subsequent generation of methane-rich HC gas.

edited by Dyman, T. S.; Kuuskraa, V. A.

2001-01-01

296

High Natural Gas Prices Need Not Cook California's Economy: The Case for Liquefied Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

California is in the paradoxical position of being more economically dependent on natural gas than virtually any other state or nation, yet it faces limitations on available imports (restricted by transmission infrastructure capacity). The gap between growing demand and constrained supply has led to escalating prices. Since natural gas is fundamental to the production process of many products, these price

Philip J. Romero

297

Significances of studies on natural gas geology and geochemistry for natural gas industry in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent decade, great development has been made in the natural gas industry. By the end of 2007, the total proved geological reserves of natural gas were 6 × 1012 m3. At the same time, the increase rate of annual production has been greater and greater. From the 100 × 108 m3\\/year in 1976 to 500 × 108 m3\\/year

Jin-xing DAI; Yun-yan NI; Qing-hua ZHOU; Chun YANG; An-ping HU

2008-01-01

298

Economic evaluation of natural gas hydrate as an alternative for natural gas transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a proposed process for conversion of natural gas to natural gas hydrate, NGH, the amortized total capital investment, operation and maintenance costs and total cost for production of NGH have been obtained. The effects of different operational conditions such as seawater temperature as cooling media and hydrate storage temperature have been investigated. The economic parameters for marine transportation

J. Javanmardi; Kh. Nasrifar; S. H. Najibi; M. Moshfeghian

2005-01-01

299

The efficient use of natural gas in transportation  

SciTech Connect

Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

1992-04-01

300

The efficient use of natural gas in transportation  

SciTech Connect

Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

1992-01-01

301

Natural Gas Prices Forecast Comparison--AEO vs. Natural Gas Markets  

SciTech Connect

This paper evaluates the accuracy of two methods to forecast natural gas prices: using the Energy Information Administration's ''Annual Energy Outlook'' forecasted price (AEO) and the ''Henry Hub'' compared to U.S. Wellhead futures price. A statistical analysis is performed to determine the relative accuracy of the two measures in the recent past. A statistical analysis suggests that the Henry Hub futures price provides a more accurate average forecast of natural gas prices than the AEO. For example, the Henry Hub futures price underestimated the natural gas price by 35 cents per thousand cubic feet (11.5 percent) between 1996 and 2003 and the AEO underestimated by 71 cents per thousand cubic feet (23.4 percent). Upon closer inspection, a liner regression analysis reveals that two distinct time periods exist, the period between 1996 to 1999 and the period between 2000 to 2003. For the time period between 1996 to 1999, AEO showed a weak negative correlation (R-square = 0.19) between forecast price by actual U.S. Wellhead natural gas price versus the Henry Hub with a weak positive correlation (R-square = 0.20) between forecasted price and U.S. Wellhead natural gas price. During the time period between 2000 to 2003, AEO shows a moderate positive correlation (R-square = 0.37) between forecasted natural gas price and U.S. Wellhead natural gas price versus the Henry Hub that show a moderate positive correlation (R-square = 0.36) between forecast price and U.S. Wellhead natural gas price. These results suggest that agencies forecasting natural gas prices should consider incorporating the Henry Hub natural gas futures price into their forecasting models along with the AEO forecast. Our analysis is very preliminary and is based on a very small data set. Naturally the results of the analysis may change, as more data is made available.

Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Lekov, Alex; Dale, Larry

2005-02-09

302

UPGRADING NATURAL GAS VIA MEMBRANE SEPARATION PROCESSES  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the present study is to assess the potential usefulness of membrane separation processes for removing CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S from low-quality natural gas containing substantial amounts of both these ''acid'' gases, e.g., up to 40 mole-% CO{sub 2} and 10 mole-% H{sub 2}S. The membrane processes must be capable of upgrading the crude natural gas to pipeline specifications ({le} 2 mole-% CO{sub 2}, {le} 4 ppm H{sub 2}S). Moreover, these processes must also be economically competitive with the conventional separation techniques, such as gas absorption, utilized for this purpose by the gas industry.

S.A.Stern; P.A. Rice; J. Hao

2000-03-01

303

Natural gas requirements for electricity generation through 2000: Can the natural gas industry meet them  

SciTech Connect

Because the electric power industry is planning on a major expansion in natural gas generation, an understanding of planning and investment issues is necessary if utilities are to manage this transition successfully. This report focuses on the future supply, pricing, and risks of gas supply for power generation and the growing interdependence of the electricity and gas industries. 9 figs., 26 tabs.

Jensen, J. (Jensen Associates, Inc., Boston, MA (USA))

1990-05-01

304

The solar thermal decarbonization of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endothermic decomposition of natural gas into a carbon-rich condensed phase and a hydrogen-rich gas phase, using concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat, is considered as a model reaction for conducting a 2nd-law analysis of a solar decarbonization process in which carbon is removed from fossil fuels prior to their use for power generation. The theoretical

D. Hirsch; M. Epstein; A. Steinfeld

2001-01-01

305

Implications of Disruption to Natural Gas Deliverability  

SciTech Connect

This project was sponsored by Department of Energy/Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability and managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The primary purpose of the project was to analyze the capability of the natural gas production, transmission and supply systems to continue to provide service in the event of a major disruption in capacity of one or more natural gas transmission pipelines. The project was specifically designed to detail the ability of natural gas market to absorb facility losses and efficiently reallocate gas supplies during a significant pipeline capacity disruption in terms that allowed federal and state agencies and interests to develop effective policies and action plans to prioritize natural gas deliveries from a regional and national perspective. The analyses for each regional study were based on four primary considerations: (1) operating conditions (pipeline capacity, storage capacity, local production, power dispatch decision making and end user options); (2) weather; (3) magnitude and location of the disruption; and, (4) normal versus emergency situation. The detailed information contained in the region reports as generated from this project are Unclassified Controlled Information; and as such are subject to disclosure in accordance with the Freedom of Information Act. Therefore, this report defines the regions that were analyzed and the basic methodologies and assumptions used to completing the analysis.

Science Applications International

2008-09-30

306

Throttleless Otto-cycle natural gas engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results are presented of exploratory research on establishing the feasibility of using preheated intake air for power and torque control in place of conventional throttling. The Throttleless Otto Cycle Natural Gas Engine (TONE) concept was proposed as a way to make vehicular use of natural gas fueled engines more competitive. It was shown that it is possible to increase operating efficiency, and therefore fuel efficiency and range using the TONE concept. In addition, and perhaps more importantly, TONE operation is accompanied by a substantial reduction in NOx emissions. This result was not predicted, and makes the TONE concept attractive beyond the potential for increased operating efficiency.

Shoda, M.; Ronney, P. D.; Durbin, E. J.

1992-01-01

307

Northeast Natural Gas Market in 2030  

EIA Publications

LNG imports have grown substantially in recent years and they are expected to grow sevenfold by 2030. A review of the industry and infrastructure in the Northeast shows a region with limited indigenous production, so the region relies on flows into the area for most of the natural gas it consumes. A key source of supply is the LNG import terminal located in Everett, Massachusetts, which provides about 20 percent of regional supply. The United States needs additional LNG imports to meet future natural gas demand, however, building new LNG terminals in the Northeast or elsewhere involves a number of tradeoffs that will depend on energy markets and local acceptance.

Information Center

2006-09-27

308

Natural gas strategic plan and program crosscut plans  

SciTech Connect

The natural gas strategic plan recognizes the challenges and opportunities facing increased U.S. natural gas use. Focus areas of research include natural gas supply, delivery, and storage, power generation, industrial, residential and commercial, natural gas vehicles, and the environment. Historical aspects, mission, situation analysis, technology trends, strategic issues, performance indicators, technology program overviews, and forecasting in the above areas are described.

NONE

1995-06-01

309

Does Increased Extraction of Natural Gas Reduce Carbon Emissions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without an international climate agreement, extraction of more natural gas could reduce emissions of CO2 as more “clean” natural gas may drive out “dirty” coal and oil. Using a computable equilibrium model for the Western European electricity and natural gas markets, we examine whether increased extraction of natural gas in Norway reduces global emissions of CO2. We find that both

Finn Roar Aune; Rolf Golombek; Sverre A. C. Kittelsen

2004-01-01

310

US imports and exports of natural gas, 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas imports accounted for approximately 4% of the total estimated US natural gas supply in 1981. Imports of natural gas (as a percent of total supply) were at the lowest level in a decade. The combined volume of natural gas imports by pipeline and by LNG shipment in 1981 amounted to 904.0 billion cubic feet. This represented a decrease

Dillard

1982-01-01

311

The European Natural Gas Market: Imports to Rise Considerably  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the late 1990s, natural gas has been the second most important source of energy in the European Union after oil. Current forecasts predict that the demand for natural gas will continue to rise over the long term. As the production of natural gas in the EU has already passed its peak and will drop in coming years, natural gas

Hella Engerer; Manfred Horn

2009-01-01

312

A Critical Evaluation of Iranian Natural Gas Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, the world energy focus is shifting towards natural gas for power and heat generation as a substitute for coal and oil. Approximately 60% of world natural gas reserves are mainly concentrated in Russia, Iran, and Qatar. Iran will play a main role in the supply of world natural gas demand, if its natural gas fields can be developed effectively.

R. E. Osgouei; M. Sorgun

2012-01-01

313

Evaluation Of Empirical Correlations For Natural Gas Hydrate Predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great number of petroleum engineering calculations require knowledge of natural gas hydrate formation conditions. Ideally, natural gas hydrate formation conditions are determined experimentally in the laboratory, but these data are not always available. Correlations are consequently used to determine values for natural gas hydrate formation conditions. In this research, the correlations of natural gas hydrate formation conditions determined by

Khaled Ahmed

2004-01-01

314

Natural Gas requirement by fertilizer sector in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural Gas is one of the important fossil fuel energy resources in India. Anchor customers of natural gas are the power sector and nitrogenous fertilizer. It is the cleanest form of energy derived from the fossil fuel basket. Because of clean combustion characteristics, natural gas is the fuel choice for many sections of Indian industry. The demand for natural gas

Jyoti Parikh; C. R. Dutta Biswas; Chandrashekhar Singh; Vivek Singh

2009-01-01

315

Assessing the greenhouse impact of natural gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global warming impact of substituting natural gas for coal and oil is currently in debate. We address this question here by comparing the reduction of greenhouse warming that would result from substituting gas for coal and some oil to the reduction which could be achieved by instead substituting zero carbon energy sources. We show that substitution of natural gas reduces global warming by 40% of that which could be attained by the substitution of zero carbon energy sources. At methane leakage rates that are ˜1% of production, which is similar to today's probable leakage rate of ˜1.5% of production, the 40% benefit is realized as gas substitution occurs. For short transitions the leakage rate must be more than 10 to 15% of production for gas substitution not to reduce warming, and for longer transitions the leakage must be much greater. But even if the leakage was so high that the substitution was not of immediate benefit, the 40%-of-zero-carbon benefit would be realized shortly after methane emissions ceased because methane is removed quickly from the atmosphere whereas CO2 is not. The benefits of substitution are unaffected by heat exchange to the ocean. CO2 emissions are the key to anthropogenic climate change, and substituting gas reduces them by 40% of that possible by conversion to zero carbon energy sources. Gas substitution also reduces the rate at which zero carbon energy sources must eventually be introduced.

Cathles, L. M.

2012-06-01

316

Development of a thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier.  

SciTech Connect

Praxair, in conjunction with the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is developing a new technology, thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators, for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons/day, has been built and tested. The power source is a natural gas burner. Systems will be developed with liquefaction capacities up to 10,000 to 20,000 gallons per day. The technology, the development project, accomplishments and applications are discussed. In February 2001 Praxair, Inc. purchased the acoustic heat engine and refrigeration development program from Chart Industries. Chart (formerly Cryenco, which Chart purchased in 1997) and Los Alamos had been working on the technology development program since 1994. The purchase included assets and intellectual property rights for thermoacoustically driven orifice pulse tube refrigerators (TADOPTR), a new and revolutionary Thermoacoustic Stirling Heat Engine (TASHE) technology, aspects of Orifice Pulse Tube Refrigeration (OPTR) and linear motor compressors as OPTR drivers. Praxair, in cooperation with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the licensor of the TADOPTR and TASHE patents, is continuing the development of TASHE-OPTR natural gas powered, natural gas liquefiers. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at -161 C (-259 F) at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 TADOPTR invention by Drs. Greg Swift (LANL) and Ray Radebaugh (NIST) demonstrated the first technology to produce cryogenic refrigeration with no moving parts. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators use acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat. The basic driver and refrigerator consist of nothing more than helium-filled heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. The liquefier development program is divided into two components: Thermoacoustically driven refrigerators and linear motor driven refrigerators (LOPTRs). LOPTR technology will, for the foreseeable future, be limited to natural gas liquefaction capacities on the order of hundreds of gallons per day. TASHE-OPTR technology is expected to achieve liquefaction capacities of tens of thousands of gallons per day. This paper will focus on the TASHE-OPTR technology because its natural gas liquefaction capacity has greater market opportunity. LOPTR development will be mentioned briefly. The thermoacoustically driven refrigerator development program is now in the process of demonstrating the technology at a capacity of about 500 gallon/day (gpd) i.e., approximately 42,000 standard cubic feet/day, which requires about 7 kW of refrigeration power. This capacity is big enough to illuminate the issues of large-scale acoustic liquefaction at reasonable cost and to demonstrate the liquefaction of about 70% of an input gas stream, while burning about 30%. Subsequent to this demonstration a system with a capacity of approximately 10{sup 6} standard cubic feet/day (scfd) = 10,000 gpd with a projected liquefaction rate of about 85% of the input gas stream will be developed. When commercialized, the TASHE-OPTRs will be a totally new type of heat-driven cryogenic refrigerator, with projected low manufacturing cost, high reliability, long life, and low maintenance. A TASHE-OPTR will be able to liquefy a broad range of gases, one of the most important being natural gas (NG). Potential NG applications range from distributed liquefaction of pipeline gas as fuel for heavy-duty fleet and long haul vehicles to large-scale liquefaction at on-shore and offshore gas wellheads. An alternative to the thermoacoustic driver, but with many similar technical and market advantages, is the linear motor compressor. Linear motors convert electrical power directly into oscillating linear, or axial, motion. Attachment of a piston to the oscillator results in a direct drive compressor. Such a compressor

Wollan, J. J. (John J.); Swift, G. W. (Gregory W.); Backhaus, S. N. (Scott N.); Gardner, D. L. (David L.)

2002-01-01

317

Hydrogen production from natural gas, sequestration of recovered CO 2 in depleted gas wells and enhanced natural gas recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

If fuel cells are introduced for vehicular applications, hydrogen might become an energy carrier for transport applications. Manufacture via steam-reforming of natural gas is a low-cost option for hydrogen production. This study deals with the feasibility of combining the production of hydrogen from natural gas with CO2 removal. When hydrogen is produced from natural gas, a concentrated stream of CO2

K. Blok; R. H. Williams; R. E. Katofsky; C. A. Hendriks

1997-01-01

318

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on field site selection. ChevronTexaco has nominated their Headlee Gas Plant in Odessa, TX for a commercial-scale dehydration test. Design and cost estimation for this new site are underway. A HazOp review was conducted. Potting and module materials testing continued. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues. A status meeting was held in Morgantown, WV with the DOE Project Manager.

Howard S. Meyer

2003-10-01

319

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on field site selection. ChevronTexaco has nominated their Headlee Gas Plant in Odessa, TX for a commercial-scale dehydration test. Design and cost estimation for this new site are underway. Potting and module materials testing continued. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues.

Howard S. Meyer

2003-07-01

320

Natural gas for utility use appears unstoppable  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric demand probably will grow rapidly through 1995, which will force utilities to quickly build substantial new generating capacities, predicted the National Economic Research Associates Inc. (NERA) in December 1992. NERA, a market research firm based in White Plains, NY, also noted this growth would require an increase in coal and hydrogeneration capacities, electrical generation by natural gas. NERA feels

1993-01-01

321

Teaching about Natural Gas and the Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article contains a foldout entitled Natural Gas and the Environment for use in helping students become more aware of the relationships that exist between humans and the environment. Suggestions for classroom integration of this subject into your curriculum are also provided. (ZWH)

Shewell, John

1994-01-01

322

Natural gas: oversupply is still a problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prices for natural gas at the wellhead, city gate and burner tip peaked in 1984-1985. Market softness and surplus capability (the bubble) were the contributing factors. This year, it is expected that these same factors, plus the pressure of increased imports from Canada, will drive marginal prices down even further, to below $1.75 per MCF before the market finally finds

1986-01-01

323

Stirling engine natural gas combustion demonstration program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fueled on natural gas, the Stirling engine is an inherently clean, quiet, and efficient engine. With increasing environmental concern for air quality and the increasingly more stringent requirements for low engine exhaust emissions, the Stirling may be an attractive alternative to internal combustion (IC) engines. The study has demonstrated that ultra low emissions can be attained with a Stirling-engine-driven electric

W. Ernst; J. Moryl; G. Riecke

1991-01-01

324

Natural gas conversion process. Third quarterly report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main objective is to design and operate a laboratory apparatus for the catalytic reforming of natural gas in order to provide data for a large-scale process. To accelerate the assembly and calibration of this equipment, a request has been made to the ...

1991-01-01

325

Natural Gas Potential in the Middle East  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to investigate potential of natural gas (NG) in the Middle East. NG is one of the most widely used forms of energy today. NG uses industrial, residential, electric generation, commercial, and transportation sectors. Proved world NG reserves were estimated at 6,076 trillion cubic feet (Tcf). The largest NG reserves are located in the Middle

M. Balat

2007-01-01

326

IMPROVED NATURAL GAS STORAGE WELL REMEDIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the research conducted during Budget Period One on the project ''Improved Natural Gas Storage Well Remediation''. The project team consisted of Furness-Newburge, Inc., the technology developer; TechSavants, Inc., the technology validator; and Nicor Technologies, Inc., the technology user. The overall objectives for the project were: (1) To develop, fabricate and test prototype laboratory devices using sonication and

James C. Furness; Donald O. Johnson; Michael L. Wilkey; Lynn Furness; Keith Vanderlee; P. David Paulsen

2001-01-01

327

Nitrogen content monitor for liquified natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monitoring system is described for determining the volumetric percentage of liquid nitrogen in a quantity of liquified natural gas (LNG) whose composition of liquified hydrocarbon gases is known, and which is stored at atmospheric pressure. The system includes a device, such as a temperature-dependent resistor connected to a power source, for producing an electric signal proportional to the temperature

D. A. Lamphere; P. G. Jr. Weitz

1977-01-01

328

Natural Gas Hydrates in the Alaskan Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of in-situ natural gas hydrates in the arctic North Slope of Alaska is governed by several thermodynamic and geologic parameters, such as mean annual surface temperature, geothermal gradients above and below the base of the permafrost, pore-fluid salinity, permafrost base depth and temperature, subsurface pressure, and composition. Accurate knowledge of these parameters is necessary to determine the depths

S. P. Godbole; V. A. Kamath; C. Ehlig-Economides

1988-01-01

329

Effective kinetic inhibitors for natural gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetic inhibition is a new means of preventing flow channel blockage by natural gas hydrates. In kinetic inhibition the system is allowed to exist within the hydrate thermodynamic stability zone, so that small crystals are stabilized without agglomerating to larger hydrate masses which plug pipelines. A hydrate formation mechanism is reviewed to suggest the new inhibition method. Macroscopic experiments on

J. P. Lederhos; J. P. Long; A. Sum; R. L. Christiansen; E. D. Sloan

1996-01-01

330

Combined natural gas and electricity network pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of competition to electricity generation and commercialization has been the main focus of many restructuring experiences around the world. The open access to the transmission network and a fair regulated tariff have been the keystones for the development of the electricity market. Parallel to the electricity industry, the natural gas business has great interaction with the electricity market

M. S. Morais; J. W. Marangon Lima

2007-01-01

331

Rapidly Estimating Natural Gas Compressibility Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gases containing sour components exhibit different gas compressibility factor (Z) behavior than do sweet gases. Therefore, a new accurate method should be developed to account for these differences. Several methods are available today for calculating the Z-factor from an equation of state. However, these equations are more complex than the foregoing correlations, involving a large number of parameters, which

Alireza Bahadori; Saeid Mokhatab; Brian F. Towler

2007-01-01

332

New Methodology for Natural Gas Production Estimates  

EIA Publications

A new methodology is implemented with the monthly natural gas production estimates from the EIA-914 survey this month. The estimates, to be released April 29, 2010, include revisions for all of 2009. The fundamental changes in the new process include the timeliness of the historical data used for estimation and the frequency of sample updates, both of which are improved.

Information Center

2010-04-26

333

Agricultural demands for natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study endeavors to determine whether farmers adjust their consumption of natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas in response to changes in the unit price of energy. A demand model is specified and estimated. The conclusions suggest that the unit price of natural gas (liquefied petroleum gas) is a factor impacting the quantity of natural gas (liquefied petroleum gas) demanded

Noel D. Uri; Mohinder Gill

1992-01-01

334

Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization  

SciTech Connect

Building upon the partitioning of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) that was conducted last quarter, the goal of the work this quarter has been to conclude evaluation of the Stratos well and the prototypical Green River Deep partition, and perform the fill resource evaluation of the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play, with the goal of defining target areas of enhanced natural fracturing. The work plan for the quarter of November 1-December 31, 1998 comprised four tasks: (1) Evaluation of the Green River Deep partition and the Stratos well and examination of potential opportunity for expanding the use of E and P technology to low permeability, naturally fractured gas reservoirs, (2) Gas field studies, and (3) Resource analysis of the balance of the partitions.

NONE

1999-06-01

335

Effects of natural gas contaminants on corrosion in compressed natural gas storage cylinders  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes work being performed to define natural gas contaminant concentration levels necessary to insure that internal corrosion of compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders does not constitute a hazard over the lifetimes of the cylinders. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) tests have been performed on typical steel and aluminum CNG cylinder materials using representative natural gases collected from three wells in New York and from an interstate gas transmission pipeline. Also, metallurgical analyses of six used steel CNG cylinders have been performed. No environmentally-induced cracking nor significant corrosion was found in the six cylinders examined.

Lyle, F.F. Jr.; Burghard, H.C. Jr.

1986-01-01

336

Northern gas fields and NGH technology. A feasibility study to develop natural gas hydrate technology for the international gas markets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two natural gas fields have been studied for three different technological solutions using two different economic theories. The aim was to examine whether a new technology for transporting natural gas, Natural Gas Hydrates (NGH), can compete with the exis...

T. R. Ramsland E. F. Loy S. Doesen

1997-01-01

337

Optimize control of natural gas plants  

SciTech Connect

Multivariable constraint control (MCS) has a very beneficial and profitable impact on the operation of natural gas plants. The applications described operate completely within a distributed control system (DCS) or programmable logic controllers (PLCs). That makes MCS accessible to almost all gas plant operators. The technology's relative ease of use, low maintenance effort and software sensor,'' make it possible to operate these control applications without increasing technical support staff. MCS improves not only profitability but also regulatory compliance of gas plants. It has been applied to fractionation units, cryogenic units, amine treaters, sulfur recovery units and utilities. The application typically pay for the cost of software and engineering in less than one month. If a DCS is installed within such a project the advanced control applications can generate a payout in less than one year. In the case here (an application on the deethanizers of a 500 MMscfd gas plant) product revenue increased by over $2 million/yr.

Treiber, S.; Walker, J.; Tremblay, M. de (Treiber Controls Inc., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Delgadillo, R.L.; Velasquez, R.N.; Valarde, M.J.G. (PEMEX, Villahermosa (Mexico))

1994-04-01

338

Natural gas legislation: a consumer's perspective  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates three major legislative proposals: accelerated decontrol of both old and new wellhead prices as proposed by the Reagan administration (S.615, H.R. 1760); imposition of new natural gas price controls at lower levels as proposed by Congressman Gephardt (H.R. 2154); and conversion of interstate gas pipelines to common carriage as proposed by Senators Dixon and Percy and by Congressman Corcoran (S. 1119, H.R. 2565). The reference or base case scenario used in the evaluation is a continuation of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA) with no legislative modifications. First, projections of wellhead and burner-tip natural gas prices are presented for the period 1983-1990, and then consumer benefits under the different scenarios are estimated. All projections presented assume that legislation takes effect as of January 1, 1983 and that normal weather patterns are experienced. All prices identified in the report are given in 1982 dollars unless otherwise indicated. 5 figs., 1 tab.

Lemon, J.R.

1983-08-01

339

An Evaluation of Options for Prudhoe Bay Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates some of the reasons why the natural gas which is produced along with the oil at Prudhoe Bay is not being delivered to a market and three of the possible methods of delivering this gas energy to a market. These three alternatives include a proposal to build a natural gas pipeline through Canada, a liquefied natural gas

D. I. Corley; S. S. Marsden

1984-01-01

340

64 FR 26435 - South Baggs Area Natural Gas Development Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...WY-030-1310-00] South Baggs Area Natural Gas Development Project AGENCY...for the South Baggs Area Natural Gas Project. The DEIS analyzes...50) additional natural gas wells in the project area...Office. Approximately 43 oil and gas wells have...

1999-05-14

341

Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough

Gruy

1998-01-01

342

DEFINING A RIGHT OF ACCESS TO INTERSTATE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decontrol of the wellhead price of natural gas under the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 ended the general shortage of natural gas, which had begun in the 1960s. It also led to dislocations in gas markets because of regulatory uncertainties that created difficulties in renegotiating contracts made during the shortage period. Together, the decontrol and dislocations led to a

RODNEY T. SMITH; ARTHUR S. DE VANY; ROBERT J. MICHAELS

1990-01-01

343

Application and Research Progress of Heater in Natural Gas Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

With high-speed development, the natural gas industry will lead and promote the development of related techniques and equipments. This article studies the application of the heater in the gas industry, and indicates that it is an indispensable piece of equipment in natural gas application systems. As a special furnace type, the natural gas heater is the main energy consumer for

Yun Guo; Wei-Wu Cao; Ping Yan; Cai-Xia Yu; Shang-Yuan Qian

2011-01-01

344

Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization  

SciTech Connect

In March, work continued on characterizing probabilities for determining natural fracturing associated with the GGRB for the Upper Cretaceous tight gas plays. Structural complexity, based on potential field data and remote sensing data was completed. A resource estimate for the Frontier and Mesa Verde play was also completed. Further, work was also conducted to determine threshold economics for the play based on limited current production in the plays in the Wamsutter Ridge area. These analyses culminated in a presentation at FETC on 24 March 1999 where quantified natural fracture domains, mapped on a partition basis, which establish ''sweet spot'' probability for natural fracturing, were reviewed. That presentation is reproduced here as Appendix 1. The work plan for the quarter of January 1, 1999--March 31, 1999 comprised five tasks: (1) Evaluation of the GGRB partitions for structural complexity that can be associated with natural fractures, (2) Continued resource analysis of the balance of the partitions to determine areas with higher relative gas richness, (3) Gas field studies, (4) Threshold resource economics to determine which partitions would be the most prospective, and (5) Examination of the area around the Table Rock 4H well.

NONE

1999-04-30

345

Indicators of security of natural gas supply in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas has become an increasingly valuable resource and a global commodity. The demand for it has significantly increased. Japan, Korea and Taiwan heavily rely on liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports for their gas supplies from Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, Australia and the Middle East. On the other hand, countries like Thailand and Singapore import gas via trans-border pipelines. Gas supply

Helen Cabalu

2010-01-01

346

Natural gas hydrates on the North Slope of Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, mainly methane, in which a solid-water lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure, or clathrate. These substances often have been regarded as a potential (unconventional) source of natural gas. Significant quantities of naturally occurring gas hydrates have been detected in many regions of the Arctic including Siberia, the Mackenzie

Collett

1991-01-01

347

Gas extrusion in natural products total synthesis.  

PubMed

The thermodynamic driving force from the release of a gaseous molecule drives a broad range of synthetic transformations. This review focuses on gas expulsion in key reactions within natural products total syntheses, selected from the past two decades. The highlighted examples survey transformations that generate sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbonyl sulfide, or nitrogen through polar, radical, pericyclic, photochemical, or organometallic mechanisms. Of particular interest are applications wherein the gas extrusion enables formation of a synthetically challenging motif, such as an unusually hindered or strained bond. PMID:22940671

Jiang, Xuefeng; Shi, Lei; Liu, Hui; Khan, Akbar H; Chen, Jason S

2012-09-03

348

How regulators should use natural gas price forecasts  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas prices are critical to a range of regulatory decisions covering both electric and gas utilities. Natural gas prices are often a crucial variable in electric generation capacity planning and in the benefit-cost relationship for energy-efficiency programs. High natural gas prices can make coal generation the most economical new source, while low prices can make natural gas generation the most economical. (author)

Costello, Ken

2010-08-15

349

A Bayesian treatment of the stereo correspondence problem using half-occluded regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A half-occluded region in a stereo pair is a set of pixels in one image representing points in space visible to that camera or eye only, and not to the other. These occur typically as parts of the background immediately to the left and right sides of nearby occluding objects, and are present in most natural scenes. Previous approaches to

Peter N. Belhumeur; David Mumford

1992-01-01

350

RECOGNITION OF PARTIALLY OCCLUDED PLANT LEAVES USING A MODIFIED WATERSHED ALGORITHM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occlusion is an obstacle to twodimensional machine vision recognition of plants in natural outdoor scenes. Five modifications to the Watershed algorithm were investigated for separating occluded plant leaves, in an attempt to reduce the excessive object fragmentation associated with the original Watershed algorithm. The best modified algorithm improved the recognition of occluded tomato cotyledons and tomato true leaves improved by

W. S. Lee; D. C. Slaughter

351

Storage of natural gas in a depleted reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

El Paso Natural Gas Co. places great faith in the use of underground storage for natural gas. El Paso, because of the geological limitations within its service area, developed the storage it uses on the upstream end of its transmission system. The importance of using storage projects to conserve natural gas cannot be emphasized too strongly. It affords the natural

1967-01-01

352

Liquid natural gas regasification combined with adsorbed natural gas filling system.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article provides an introduction to innovative method of Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) physical exergy practical utilization. The energy spent to liquefy natural gas (a thermodynamic minimum is about 0.13 kWh/l of LNG depending on pressure and chemical composition) can be partly recovered in the system making use either of the LNG low temperature (111 K) or its ability to increase the pressure in a storage vessel by heat absorption from the environment. The paper presents estimation of the LNG physical exergy and its dependence on the pressure and temperature. Then description and comparison of available natural gas storage methods (liquefaction, compression, adsorption) is given, with a special attention paid to Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG) technology. Original data concerning adsorption isotherms of methane with activated carbon MaxsorbIII are presented. A concept of ANG storage technology coupled with the LNG regasification, is a promising technique of utilization of the LNG cold exergy. The energy efficient combination of ANG with LNG may help market progress of adsorption technology in natural gas storage and distribution. The ANG/LNG coupling is especially perspective in case of small capacity and distributed natural gas deposits exploitation.

Roszak, Eliza Anna; Chorowski, Maciej

2012-06-01

353

US Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves Annual Report 1996: Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EIA has published "the estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids in the United States as of December 31, 1996, compiled from EIA's oil and gas operator survey." The report shows that while reserves of natural gas have increased, crude oil reserves have declined.

354

Supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

My dissertation concentrates on several aspects of supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry, including gas pipeline transportations, ocean LNG shipping logistics, and downstream storage. Chapter 1 briefly introduces the natural gas and LNG industries, and the topics studied in this thesis. Chapter 2 studies how to value

Mulan Xiaofeng Wang

2008-01-01

355

Stirling engine natural gas combustion demonstration program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fueled on natural gas, the Stirling engine is an inherently clean, quiet, and efficient engine. With increasing environmental concern for air quality and the increasingly more stringent requirements for low engine exhaust emissions, the Stirling may be an attractive alternative to internal combustion (IC) engines. The study has demonstrated that ultra low emissions can be attained with a Stirling-engine-driven electric generator configured to burn natural gas. Combustion parameters were optimized to produce the lowest possible exhaust emissions for a flame-type combustor without compromising overall engine thermal efficiency. A market application survey and manufacturing cost analysis indicate that a market opportunity potentially exists in the volumes needed to economically manufacture a newly designed Stirling engine (Mod 3) for stationary applications and hybrid vehicles. The translation of such potential markets into actual markets does, however, pose difficult challenges as substantial investments are required. Also, the general acceptance of a new engine type by purchasers requires a considerable amount of time.

Ernst, W.; Moryl, J.; Riecke, G.

1991-02-01

356

Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The SWC represents a partnership between U.S. petroleum and natural gas producers, trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the NETL. This document serves as the twelfth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period included: (1) Drafting and releasing the 2007 Request for Proposals; (2) Securing a meeting facility, scheduling and drafting plans for the 2007 Spring Proposal Meeting; (3) Conducting elections and announcing representatives for the four 2007-2008 Executive Council seats; (4) 2005 Final Project Reports; (5) Personal Digital Assistant Workshops scheduled; and (6) Communications and outreach.

Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

2007-03-31

357

Natural gas comes to Lambeau Field  

SciTech Connect

When the snow begins to fly, Lambeau Field, the Packers` stadium, becomes known as The Frozen Tundra, even though truly knowledgeable fans are aware the field is electrically heated. Make that was electrically heated. This year, natural gas has come to Lambeau Field. The Green Bay Packers organization knew the whole field needed to be rebuilt with improved drainage and a better heating system. They chose a natural gas-fired hot-water system as the best way to heat the field. They saw this system as more energy- and cost-efficient than electric heating cables. And they liked the flexibility and control it would offer to better extend the field`s growing season. The paper discusses the new system.

Kiefer, M.; Johansson, K. [Wisconsin Public Service, Madison, WI (United States)

1997-10-01

358

Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies, 1983  

SciTech Connect

This report provides information on the total reserves, production, and deliverability capabilities of the 86 interstate pipeline companies required to file the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Form 15, Interstate Pipeline's Annual Report of Gas Supply. Total dedicated domestic gas reserves, owned by or under contract to the interstate pipeline companies, decreased in 1983 by 4.2 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), or 4.3%, from 98.7 Tcf at the beginning of the year to 94.5 Tcf at the end of the year. A 5-year tabulation shows that dedicated domestic gas reserves increased slightly from 94.0 Tcf at the beginning of 1979 to 94.5 Tcf at the end of 1983, an increase of 0.5 Tcf, or 0.5%. Total gas purchased and produced from the dedicated domestic gas reserves in 1983 was 9.5 Tcf, down 13.1% from the 10.9 Tcf reported in the preceding year. The 1983 ratio of total dedicated domestic reserves to production was 10.0, significantly above the 9.0 ratio reported for 1982. Net revisions to dedicated domestic gas reserves during 1983 are calculated at -0.5 Tcf, as compared to 1.4 Tcf in 1982. Total interstate reserve additions during 1983 are reported to be 5.8 Tcf, compared to additions of 9.9 Tcf in 1982. Total natural gas imported by interstate pipeline companies from two foreign sources, Canada and Mexico, was 0.8 Tcf, 7.4% of the total gas produced and purchased in 1983. Imports of LNG from Algeria totaled only 0.09 Tcf. Total deliveries are projected to decline from 12.9 Tcf in 1984 to 7.1 Tcf by 1988. This decline is driven by the projected decline in domestic reserve deliverability. Deliveries from foreign and other sources are expected to remain relatively constant over the 5-year period. 8 figures, 18 tables.

Pridgen, V.

1984-11-01

359

Natural Gas Year-In-Review  

EIA Publications

Natural gas production grew by 7.9 percent in 2011, with large gains in onshore production offsetting continuing declines in the Gulf of Mexico. Production grew despite a year over year decline in prices. Growth in the electric power and industrial sectors drove overall increases in total consumption. Strength in domestic supplies, as well as mild weather in the fourth quarter of the year, reduced the need for pipeline imports, while pipeline exports from the U.S. to Mexico increased substantially.

Katie Teller

2012-07-10

360

ALASKAN NATURAL GAS: WHICH ROUTE TO MARKET?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the recent problem of choosing a route for bringing Alaskan natural gas to the lower forty-eight states is used to illustrate a technique for examining the effects of adding new sections to an existing transport network. The method develops demand, supply, and pipeline-network submodels, which provide data input to a modified version of the out-of-kilter algorithm (MOKA).

Ira M. Sheskin

1978-01-01

361

Natural gas industry's response to transaction costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legislators and regulators have historically viewed the organizational features in the natural gas industry as noncompetitive. Challenging recent suggestions that the contractual arrangements in the industry are in violation of antitrust statutes, the author states that the methods of organization such as long-term contracts, take-or-pay provisions, and most-favored nation clauses are competitive responses to the costs of transacting in the

Mulherin

1985-01-01

362

New GIS tools support natural gas distribution  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the implementation and design of a Geographic Information System (GIS) recently utilized by Northwest Natural Gas. It reviews the use of the system to maintain leak inspection and planning schedules. It also provides information on network modeling and analysis along with emergency response and system planning. Such information is then used for rerouting during repairs, peak loads, or emergency by-passing.

Hecht, L. [Environmental Systems Research Inst., Inc., Redlands, CA (United States)

1996-02-01

363

Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas producers, trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the tenth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period include: {lg_bullet} 2004 SWC Final Project Reports distribution; {lg_bullet} Exhibit and present at the Midcontinent Oil and Gas Prospect Fair, Great Bend, KS, September 12, 2006; {lg_bullet} Participate and showcase current and past projects at the 2006 Oklahoma Oil and Gas Trade Expo, Oklahoma City, OK, October 26, 2006; {lg_bullet} Finalize agenda and identify exhibitors for the northeastern US, Fall SWC Technical Transfer Workshop, Pittsburghhh, PA, November 9, 2006; {lg_bullet} Continue distribution of the public broadcast documentary, ''Independent Oil: Rediscovering American's Forgotten Wells''; {lg_bullet} Communications/outreach; and {lg_bullet} New members update.

Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

2006-09-30

364

Abundant Shale Gas Resources: Long-Term Implications for U.S. Natural Gas Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to recent assessments, the United States has considerably more recoverable natural gas in shale formations than was previously thought. Such a development raises expectations that U.S. energy consumption will shift toward natural gas. To examine how the apparent abundance of natural gas and projected growth of its use might affect natural gas prices, production, and consumption, we use NEMS-RFF

Stephen P. A. Brown; Alan Krupnick

2010-01-01

365

Natural Gas Vehicle Developments--a Gas Industry And Original Equipment Manufacturer Cooperative Effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, natural gas has been used as an engine fuel in stationary prime movers driving natural gas compressors, liquid pumps, and similar equipment. However, the physical and economic barriers restricting the broad acceptance of natural gas as an alternative fuel in the transportation market have proven to be formidable. In spite of this, new opportunities for natural gas

1990-01-01

366

LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS  

SciTech Connect

This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

VANDOR,D.

1999-03-01

367

78 FR 8501 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), to amend its...operate facilities to offload liquefied natural gas (LNG) at its Garner LNG storage...will either: complete its environmental assessment (EA) and place it into...

2013-02-06

368

Statistics of Interstate Natural Gas Pipeline Companies, 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Financial and operating information are presented of all major interstate natural gas pipelines that operated in the United States during 1986. This report indicates that the 43 major interstate natural gas pipeline companies reported assets totaling $54....

1987-01-01

369

Natural Gas: Imports and Exports Third Quarter Report, 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Natural Gas & Petroleum Import & Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the t...

2007-01-01

370

75 FR 67352 - Liberty Natural Gas, LLC; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-10-000] Liberty Natural Gas, LLC; Notice of Application October 26, 2010. On October 14, 2010, Liberty Natural Gas, LLC (Liberty) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory...

2010-11-02

371

Hydrogen-Enhanced Natural Gas Vehicle Program  

SciTech Connect

The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of HCNG fuel (30 to 50% hydrogen by volume and the remainder natural gas) to reduce emissions from light-duty on-road vehicles with no loss in performance or efficiency. The City of Las Vegas has an interest in alternative fuels and already has an existing hydrogen refueling station. Collier Technologies Inc (CT) supplied the latest design retrofit kits capable of converting nine compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled, light-duty vehicles powered by the Ford 5.4L Triton engine. CT installed the kits on the first two vehicles in Las Vegas, trained personnel at the City of Las Vegas (the City) to perform the additional seven retrofits, and developed materials for allowing other entities to perform these retrofits as well. These vehicles were used in normal service by the City while driver impressions, reliability, fuel efficiency and emissions were documented for a minimum of one year after conversion. This project has shown the efficacy of operating vehicles originally designed to operate on compressed natural gas with HCNG fuel incorporating large quantities of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). There were no safety issues experienced with these vehicles. The only maintenance issue in the project was some rough idling due to problems with the EGR valve and piping parts. Once the rough idling was corrected no further maintenance issues with these vehicles were experienced. Fuel economy data showed no significant changes after conversion even with the added power provided by the superchargers that were part of the conversions. Driver feedback for the conversions was very favorable. The additional power provided by the HCNG vehicles was greatly appreciated, especially in traffic. The drivability of the HCNG vehicles was considered to be superior by the drivers. Most of the converted vehicles showed zero oxides of nitrogen throughout the life of the project using the State of Nevada emissions station.

Hyde, Dan; Collier, Kirk

2009-01-22

372

Natural-gas supply-and-demand problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

World natural-gas consumption quadrupled in the 30 years from 1966 to 1996, and natural gas now provides 22% of the total world energy demand. The security of natural-gas supply is paramount and rests with the suppliers and the consumers. This paper gives an overview of world natural-gas supply and demand and examines the main supply problems. The most important nonpredictable

Hatamian

1998-01-01

373

Effect of cycling operations on an adsorbed natural gas storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) is an interesting opportunity for developing natural gas vehicles technology. In this case, adsorbents such as activated carbons are used to store natural gas at moderate pressure, 3.5MPa, compared to the high-pressure (20MPa) required for current compressed natural gas technology. Many studies are devoted to the elaboration of suitable adsorbent materials to optimise the methane storage

O. Pupier; V. Goetz

2005-01-01

374

Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The SWC represents a partnership between U.S. petroleum and natural gas producers, trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the NETL. This document serves as the eleventh quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the Fall SWC Technology Transfer Workshop for the northeastern U.S., in Pittsburgh, PA, on November 9, 2006, and organizing and identifying projects to exhibit during the SWC/Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) joint reception on November 8, 2006; (2) Distributing a paper copy of the Texas Tech 2004 Final Report and a revised, complete compact disc of all 2004 final reports; (3) Invoicing current and potential members for FY2007; (4) Soliciting nominations for the 2007-2008 Executive Council seats; and (5) Communications and outreach.

Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

2006-12-31

375

Oil free compression on a natural gas pipeline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil entrainment in the natural gas steam together with maintenance associated with oil systems have been long standing problems in booster compressors on a natural gas pipeline system. The use of dry gas shaft seals and active magnetic bearings will effectively eliminate the use of oil systems in gas compression. The paper deals with the history of TransCanada PipeLines' past

G. F. Cataford; R. P. Lancee

1986-01-01

376

Issues in Global Natural GasA Primer and Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the rising profile of natural gas in global energy, factors constraining its further development, the gas contracting process, and the absence of a global market, which is analyzed in the context of the economic rent in the gas price and the opaque nature of gas contracts. A proposal for rationalizing the trade to ease these constraints is

Bright Okogu

2002-01-01

377

Issues in Global Natural Gas: A Primer and Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the rising profile of natural gas in global energy, factors constraining its further development, the gas contracting process, and the absence of a global market, which is analyzed in the context of the economic rent in the gas price and the opaque nature of gas contracts. A proposal for rationalizing the trade to ease these constraints is

Bright Erakpoweri Okogu

2002-01-01

378

Low-quality natural gas sulfur removal\\/recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low quality natural gas processing with the integrated CFZ\\/CNG Claus process is feasible for low quality natural gas containing 10% or more of COâ, and any amount of HâS. The CNG Claus process requires a minimum COâ partial pressure in the feed gas of about 100 psia (15% COâ for a 700 psia feed gas) and also can handle any

D. A. Damon; L. A. Siwajek; B. W. Klint

1993-01-01

379

Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies, 1978  

SciTech Connect

This report on the gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies for caldendar year 1978 is the fifteenth report on the gas supplies of these companies. Total dedicated domestic gas reserves owned and controlled by interstate pipeline companies increased in 1978 by 1.1 trillion cubic feet, or 1.2 percent, from 92.9 trillion cubic feet at the beginning of the year to 94.0 trillion cubic feet at the end of the year. Total interstate reserve additions during 1978 were nearly 8.4 trillion cubic feet, compared with additions at 5.8 trillion cubic feet for 1977. The total net additions and revisions to reserves during 1978 was 12.0 trillion cubic feet. In this report this figure is also referred to as gross change in reserves. Only when the total net of additions and revisions is greater than production is the volume of reserves increased. This is the first time that the total of additions and revisions is greater than the production since 1967 and is also the largest positive change since that year. Total gas purchased and produced from the dedicated domestic gas reserves is approximately the same as in 1977, 10.9 trillio cubic feet. The 1978 R/P ratio for the total domestic reserves and production was 8.7 as compared with the 1977 ratio of 8.5. This ratio has been declining throughout the fifteen year history of Form 15 reports. The ratio of gross change in reserves (revisions and additions) to production for 1978 was 1.10. For 1977 the comparable ratio was 0.51. When this ratio is less than unity, year-end reserves for that year will be less than the previous year. This ratio has exceeded unity for the first time since 1967.

Pappas, T.A.

1980-04-01

380

Multi-criteria evaluation of natural gas resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geologically estimated natural gas resources are 500Tcm. With the advance in geological science increase of estimated resources is expected. Natural gas reserves in 2000 have been proved to be around 165Tcm. As it is known the reserves are subject to two constraints, namely: capital invested in the exploration and drilling technologies used to discover new reserves. The natural gas scarcity

Naim H. Afgan; Petros A. Pilavachi; Maria G. Carvalho

2007-01-01

381

U.S. Natural Gas Imports and Exports, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the face of unprecedented levels of domestic natural gas production, net imports of natural gas into the United States fell 25 percent in 2011. Net imports as a percentage of total natural gas delivered to consumers decreased to around 9 percent in 201...

2012-01-01

382

U. S. natural-gas markets are primed for growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas as a source of fuel is currently the best bargain in the land. Excess supplies and competition among natural gas pipelines have made it one of the cheapest fuels on a price\\/performance basis. In some instances, natural gas prices were low enough in summer 1987 to beat out coal in northern Michigan and other areas. A primary fuel

Freedenthal

1987-01-01

383

Turkey's natural gas necessity, consumption and future perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey is an important candidate to be the “energy corridor” in the transmission of the abundant oil and natural gas resources of the Middle East and Middle Asia countries to the Western market. Furthermore, Turkey is planning to increase its oil and gas pipeline infrastructure to accommodate its increased energy consumption. Naturally, Turkish natural gas usage is projected to increase

A. M. Kiliç

2006-01-01

384

61 FR 60138 - Natural Gas as Fuel in Marine Applications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION [CGD 96-062] Natural Gas as Fuel in Marine Applications...studying the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) as fuel aboard commercial...and reduce the potential for oil spills. DATES: A public...

1996-11-26

385

10 CFR 221.11 - Natural gas and ethane.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Natural gas and ethane. 221.11 Section 221.11...PRODUCTION ACT Exclusions § 221.11 Natural gas and ethane. The supply of natural gas and ethane are excluded from this...

2013-01-01

386

Perspectives of the European Natural Gas Markets Until 2025  

Microsoft Academic Search

We apply the EMF 23 study design to simulate the effects of the reference case and the scenarios to European natural gas supplies to 2025. We use GASMOD, a strategic several-layer model of European natural gas supply, consisting of upstream natural gas producers, traders in each consuming European country (or region), and final demand. Our model results suggest rather modest

Christian von Hirschhausen; Claudia Kemfert

2009-01-01

387

The Market Structure and Pricing of China's Natural Gas Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the pricing mechanism for natural gas prevailing in China being not conform to the development of natural gas market, a systematical analysis is employed in the study in term of the present situations and disadvantages on the market characteristics and the pricing mode. On the basis to the comparison with the rules of the pricing mechanism for natural gas

Xueyan Tan; Anyou Wang; Jiayu Li

2009-01-01

388

Problems in the Natural Gas Industry Causes and Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is general agreement that the natural gas industry currently faces serious problems. Historically, this is not surprising. Natural gas has long been the subject of regulatory and legislative adjusting, fixing and tinkering. The current public debate over natural gas, however, is distinguished by much disagreement as to just what problems the industry faces and, not surprisingly, what the appropriate

May H. S; C. D. Mathews

1983-01-01

389

Energy conservation in a natural gas liquids processing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Natural Gas Processing Industry has been gaining in growth since the first discovery that some of the components in a natural gas could be separated, liquefied, and stored under pressure, to offer a very convenient, clean burning, self propelled fuel. For the past several years, liquefied petroleum components have included ethane, the lightest component of natural gas except methane

D. W. Kemp; D. L. Rook

1976-01-01

390

Method and apparatus for producing natural gas from tight formations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas wells in a tight formation area are drilled and completed with piping, the piping being capped with a Christmas tree. The piping is then utilized as a reservoir to collect natural gas from the tight formation over a prolonged time period. Mobile pressure vessel units are employed periodically to recover the collected natural gas, on a schedule designed

D. A. Bresie; J. M. Burns; D. W. Fowler

1984-01-01

391

10 CFR 221.11 - Natural gas and ethane.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Natural gas and ethane. 221.11 Section 221...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE UNDER THE DEFENSE PRODUCTION ACT Exclusions § 221.11 Natural gas and ethane. The supply of natural gas and ethane are excluded from this...

2009-01-01

392

10 CFR 221.11 - Natural gas and ethane.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Natural gas and ethane. 221.11 Section 221...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE UNDER THE DEFENSE PRODUCTION ACT Exclusions § 221.11 Natural gas and ethane. The supply of natural gas and ethane are excluded from this...

2010-01-01

393

Expansion of the U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Network  

EIA Publications

Additions in 2008 and Projects through 2011 - This report examines new natural gas pipeline capacity added to the U.S. natural gas pipeline system during 2008. In addition, it discusses and analyzes proposed natural gas pipeline projects that may be developed between 2009 and 2011, and the market factors supporting these initiatives.

Information Center

2009-09-30

394

Gas exchange measurements in natural systems  

SciTech Connect

Direct knowledge of the rates of gas exchange in lakes and the ocean is based almost entirely on measurements of the isotopes /sup 14/C, /sup 222/Rn and /sup 3/He. The distribution of natural radiocarbon has yielded the average rate of CO/sub 2/ exchange for the ocean and for several closed basin lakes. That of bomb produced radiocarbon has been used in the same systems. The /sup 222/Rn to /sup 226/Ra ratio in open ocean surface water has been used to give local short term gas exchange rates. The radon method generally cannot be used in lakes, rivers, estuaries or shelf areas because of the input of radon from sediments. A few attempts have been made to use the excess /sup 3/He produced by decay of bomb produced tritium in lakes to give gas transfer rates. The uncertainty in the molecular diffusivity of helium and in the diffusivity dependence of the rate of gas transfer holds back the application of this method. A few attempts have been made to enrich the surface waters of small lakes with /sup 226/Ra and /sup 3/H in order to allow the use of the /sup 222/Rn and /sup 3/He methods. While these studies give broadly concordant results, many questions remain unanswered. The wind velocity dependence of gas exchange rate has yet to be established in field studies. The dependence of gas exchange rate on molecular diffusivity also remains in limbo. Finally, the degree of enhancement of CO/sub 2/ exchange through chemical reactions has been only partially explored. 49 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

Broecker, W.S.; Peng, T.H.

1983-01-01

395

Evaluation of the Effects of Natural Gas Contaminants on Corrosion in Compressed Natural Gas Storage Systems: Phase 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a research program that was conducted to define natural gas contaminant levels necessary to insure that internal corrosion of compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders does not constitute a hazard over the lifetimes of the cylinders. A ...

F. F. Lyle

1989-01-01

396

Durability of natural gas fueled rotary engines  

SciTech Connect

Durability of a current production rotary engine was evaluated while operating on natural gas. Through regular scheduled teardown inspections, wear data was gathered on critical engine components and used to develop component wear trends. Wear trends were used to predict the usable life of the engine before requiring a major rebuild. Preliminary results indicate apex seal wear rates and trochoid wear rates low enough to achieve 20,000 hours of engine operation. Areas requiring further durability improvement include the ignition system and optimization of the oil injection. Advanced knowledge of current engine component durability will be used to accelerate the development of novel gas fueled rotary engines currently under development in the United States.

King, S.R.

1987-01-01

397

Soluble surfactants favorably modify fluid structure and wall shear stress profiles during near-occluding bubble motion in a computational model of intravascular gas embolism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finite sized gas bubble motion in a blood vessel causes temporal and spatial gradients of shear stress at the endothelial cell surface lining the vessel wall as the bubble approaches the cell, moves over it and passes it by. Rapid reversals occur in the sign of the shear stress imparted to the cell surface during this motion. The sign-reversing shear is a potently coupled source of cell surface mechanical stretch, potentiating cell injury. The presence of a suitable soluble surfactant in the bulk medium considerably reduces the level of the shear stress gradients imparted to the cell surface as compared to an equivalent surfactant-free system. The bubble shape and the film thickness between the bubble and the vessel wall are also different. Furthermore, the bubble residence time near the proximity of a cell surface changes in comparison. These results based on our modeling may help explain several phenomena observed in experimental studies related to gas embolism, a significant problem in cardiac surgery and decompression sickness.

Swaminathan, T. N.; Ayyaswamy, P. S.; Eckmann, D. M.

2009-11-01

398

Changes in Natural Gas Prices and Supplies Since Passage of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Through the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978, the Congress intended to stimulate production and exploration for reserves by permitting producers higher prices for gas from areas where production was previously not economic and for gas produced from new well...

1981-01-01

399

Environmental data energy technology characterizations: natural gas  

SciTech Connect

Environmental Data Energy Technology Characterizations are publications which are intended to provide policy analysts and technical analysts with basic environmental data associated with key energy technologies. This publication provides backup documentation on natural gas. The transformation of the energy in gas into a more useful form is described in this document in terms of major activity areas in the gas cycle; that is, in terms of activities which produce either an energy product or a fuel leading to the production of an energy product in a different form. The activities discussed in this document are exploration, extraction, purification, power-plants, storage and transportation of natural gas. These activities represent both well-documented and non-documented activity areas. The former activities are characterized in terms of actual operating data with allowance for future modification where appropriate. Emissions are assumed to conform to environmental standards. The other activity areas examined are those like exploration and extraction, where reliance on engineering studies provided the data. The organization of the chapters in this volume is designed to support the tabular presentation in the summary. Each chapter begins with a brief description of the activity under consideration. The standard characteristics, size, availability, mode of functioning, and place in the fuel cycle are presented. Next, major legislative and/or technological factors influencing the commercial operation of the activity are offered. Discussions of resources consumed, residuals produced, and economics follow. To aid in comparing and linking the different activity areas, data for each area are normalized to 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy output from the activity.

Not Available

1980-04-01

400

The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology  

SciTech Connect

An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6--11, 1191, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Davies, J. [General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Zammit, M. [AC Rochester, NY (United States); Patterson, P. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-02-01

401

The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology  

SciTech Connect

An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6--11, 1191, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Davies, J. (General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)); Zammit, M. (AC Rochester, NY (United States)); Patterson, P. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-01-01

402

The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6-11, 1991, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control was included in the performance testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W.; Davies, J.; Zammit, M.; Patterson, P.

1992-02-01

403

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) dispenser verification device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition of working principle and calibration status of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) dispenser in China are introduced. According to the defect of weighing method in the calibration of LNG dispenser, LNG dispenser verification device has been researched. The verification device bases on the master meter method to verify LNG dispenser in the field. The experimental results of the device indicate it has steady performance, high accuracy level and flexible construction, and it reaches the international advanced level. Then LNG dispenser verification device will promote the development of LNG dispenser industry in China and to improve the technical level of LNG dispenser manufacture.

Xiong, Maotao; Yang, Jie-bin; Zhao, Pu-jun; Yu, Bo; Deng, Wan-quan

2013-01-01

404

Natural gas markets and the creation of an export gas pipeline system in Eastern Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world natural gas markets are analysed, with a special focus on the countries of Northeast Asia (NEA). The natural gas demands of China, Japan and South Korea, until the year 2020, is projected, considering a possible share of Russian gas. The resource potential of natural gas from the Siberian platform and the Sakhalin shelf is given as a sound

B. G. Saneev; A. D. Sokolov; S. P. Popov

2003-01-01

405

64 FR 32610 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Oil and Natural Gas Production and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Oil and Natural Gas Production and Natural Gas...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Oil and Natural Gas Production and National...of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) from oil and natural gas production and natural...

1999-06-17

406

78 FR 21351 - Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...13-10-NG PLANET ENERGY CORP...13-13-NG STATOIL NATURAL GAS LLC...Office of Fossil Energy, Office of Natural Gas Regulatory Activities...granting blanket Energy Inc. authority to import/export natural gas from/to...

2013-04-10

407

Drawing the line on natural gas regulation: The Harvard study on the future of natural gas  

SciTech Connect

The Harvard Study on the Future of Natural Gas Policy reflects the ideas, discussions, and debates of nine authors and more than seventy experts from business, government, and academia. These study participants constituted the Executive Working Group, which met in three sessions during 1984-1985. The executive sessions provided forums for the authors to present versions of their chapters at progressive stages of development. The results were invaluable insights and perspectives from parties directly involved in the ongoing debates over the reform of natural gas policy. In addition, a number of participants have contributed written comments on the various chapters of this book.

Kalt, J.P.; Schuller, F.C. (eds.)

1987-01-01

408

Environmental effects of submarine seeping natural gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is suspected that most shallow reservoirs of natural gas vent to the surface to some degree. This seeping may be through diffusion of dissolved gas or by a flow of gas bubbles which entrain interstitial water during the rise through the sediments to the surface. Methane bubbles dissolved other gases, notably hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide, during their ascent. Under suitable temperature-pressure conditions gas hydrates may be formed close to or at the seabed Black suphide-rich sediments and mats of sulphur oxidizing bacteria are frequently observed close to the sediments surface at seep sites, including a sharp oxic/anoxic boundary. Animal species associated with these gas seeps include both species which obtain nutrition from symbiotic methane-oxidizing bacteria and species with symbolic sulphur-oxidizing bacteria. It is suspected that at some microseepage an enhanced biomass of meiofauna and macrofauna is supported by a food chain based on free-living and symbiotic sulphur-oxidizing and methane-oxidizing bacteria. The most common seep-related features of sea floor topography are local depressions including pockmark craters. Winnowing of the sediment during their creation leads to an accumulation of larger detritis in the depressions. Where the deprssions overlies salt diapirs they may be filled with hypersaline solutions. In some areas dome-shaped features are associated with seepage and these may be colonized by coral reefs. Other reefs, “hard-grounds”, columnar and disc-shaped protrusions, all formed of carbonate-cemented sediments, are common on the sea floor in seep areas. Much of the carbonate appears to be derived from carbon dioxide formed as a result of methane oxidation. The resulting hard-bottoms on the sea floor are often colonized by species not found on the neighboring soft-bottoms. As a result seep areas may be characterized by the presence of a rich epifauna.

Dando, P. R.; Hovland, M.

1992-10-01

409

Method for producing natural gas from a coal seam  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of producing natural gas from a coal seam, comprising: (a) producing natural gas and liquid from a coal seam through at least one well; (b) ceasing the production of natural gas and liquid from the coal seam and injecting natural gas into the coal seam through at least one well at a pressure higher than coal seam pressure but lower than fracture pressures of immediately adjacent formations above or below the coal seam; and (c) subsequently producing natural gas and liquid from the coal seam through at least one well.

Puri, R.; Yee, D.; Seidle, J.P.

1988-07-12

410

Asian natural gas--For a brighter '90s  

SciTech Connect

The seminar was designed to focus on the business aspects of developing Asian natural gas resources by inclusion of papers on natural gas markets, the role of banks, and financial case histories of existing projects, and papers on commercial and industrial natural gas utilization. The utilization of natural gas was addressed by papers that targeted small-scale, industrial and utility usage of natural gas in electric power production, and by papers on air conditioning and other applications. Each of these topics is important to the development of the Asian natural gas industry. Together, they formed a balanced program when combined with the opening keynote addresses from Tokyo Gas Company, Ltd., and PETRONAS and a panel discussion on gas pricing. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Klass, D.L. (ed.) (Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Ohashi, Tadahiko (ed.) (Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan))

1991-01-01

411

Competitive position of natural gas: Industrial baking  

SciTech Connect

Industrial baking is one of the largest natural gas consumers in the food industry. In 1985, bread, rolls, cookies, and crackers accounted for over 82 percent of all baked goods production. Bread accounting for 46 percent of all production. The baking industry consumed approximately 16 trillion Btu in 1985. About 93 percent was natural gas, while distillate fuel oil accounted for seven percent, and electricity accounted for much less than one percent. The three main types of baking ovens are the single lap, tunnel, and Lanham ovens. In the single lap oven, trays carry the product back and forth through the baking chamber once. The single lap oven is the most common type of oven and is popular due to its long horizontal runs, extensive steam zone, and simple construction. The tunnel oven is slightly more efficient and more expensive that the single lap oven. IN the tunnel oven, the hearth is a motorized conveyor which passes in a straight line through a series of heating zones, with loading and unloading occurring at opposite ends of the oven. The advantages of the tunnel oven include flexibility with respect to pan size and simple, accurate top and bottom heat control. The tunnel oven is used exclusively in the cookie and cracker baking, with the product being deposited directly on the oven band. The most recently developed type of oven is the Lanham oven. The Lanham oven is the most efficient type of oven, with a per pound energy consumption approaching the practical minimum for baking bread. Between one--half and two--thirds of all new industrial baking ovens are Lanham ovens. In the Lanham oven, the product enters the oven near the top of the chamber, spirals down through a series of heating zones, and exits near the bottom of the oven. The oven is gas--fired directly by ribbon burners. 31 refs.

Minsker, B.S.; Salama, S.Y.

1988-01-01

412

Characterization and utilization of natural gas in Alaska: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The natural gas in the Alaskan arctic represents a truly significant resource; a resource which should be exploited in the most appropriate manner. Currently, the proven reserves of natural gas in Alaska are estimated to be 19.7% (36.7 TSCF) of the total US reserves (186.7 TSCF). In addition, the undiscovered recoverable natural gas resources of Alaska are about 89 TSCF compared to 610 TSCF in the lower 48 states. Furthermore, the Alaskan unconventional gas resources are more than 500 TCF. The purpose is to review the potential of natural gas resources in Alaska and to address various important issues related to utilization of natural gas. This report provides a brief summary of various gas fields and their geologic settings. The different options for utilization of natural gas to lower 48 states via gas pipeline, conversion to liquefied natural gas and transport, conversion to fuel grade methanol and/or gasoline, natural gas for enhanced oil recovery, gas based petrochemical complex, gas utilization in the form of utilities are critically reviewed with respect to merits and demerits addressing engineering, economic, environmental, supply/demand, market and political aspects. 22 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Sharma, G.D.

1989-03-01

413

Integrating climate forecasts and natural gas supply information into a natural gas purchasing decision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper illustrates a key lesson related to most uses of long-range climate forecast information, namely that effective weather-related decision-making requires understanding and integration of weather information with other, often complex factors. Northern Illinois University's heating plant manager and staff meteorologist, along with a group of meteorology students, worked together to assess different types of available information that could be used in an autumn natural gas purchasing decision. Weather information assessed included the impact of ENSO events on winters in northern Illinois and the Climate Prediction Center's (CPC) long-range climate outlooks. Non-weather factors, such as the cost and available supplies of natural gas prior to the heating season, contribute to the complexity of the natural gas purchase decision. A decision tree was developed and it incorporated three parts: (a) natural gas supply levels, (b) the CPC long-lead climate outlooks for the region, and (c) an ENSO model developed for DeKalb. The results were used to decide in autumn whether to lock in a price or ride the market each winter. The decision tree was tested for the period 1995-99, and returned a cost-effective decision in three of the four winters.

Changnon, David; Ritsche, Michael; Elyea, Karen; Shelton, Steve; Schramm, Kevin

2000-09-01

414

Development of a liquid natural gas pump and its application to directinjection liquid natural gas engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct injection gas engines operated with liquid natural gas (LNG)\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009look promising because the energy density-volume ratio of LNG is\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009three times higher than that of compressed natural gas (CNG) and\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009pressurization of LNG to injection pressures is much easier and expends\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009less energy. Based on these considerations, a prototype of an LNG\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009high-pressure pump, which can achieve a pressure

Y Goto

2002-01-01

415

Preliminary report on the commercial viability of gas production from natural gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic studies on simulated gas hydrate reservoirs have been compiled to estimate the price of natural gas that may lead to economically viable production from the most promising gas hydrate accumulations. As a first estimate, $CDN2005 12\\/Mscf is the lowest gas price that would allow economically viable production from gas hydrates in the absence of associated free gas, while an

Matthew R. Walsh; Steve H. Hancock; Scott J. Wilson; Shirish L. Patil; George J. Moridis; Ray Boswell; Timothy S. Collett; Carolyn A. Koh; E. Dendy Sloan

2009-01-01

416

Economic evaluation of natural gas transportation from Iran’s South-Pars gas field to market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worldwide consumption of natural gas is rapidly increasing. To satisfy such a demand, there are some plans to transport natural gas from South-Pars gas field, the largest natural gas field of Iran, to some energy consuming countries. There are several possible technologies for transporting gas from production fields to consuming markets as gas, including PNG (pipeline natural gas), LNG

H. Najibi; R. Rezaei; J. Javanmardi; Kh. Nasrifar; M. Moshfeghian

2009-01-01

417

Restricted Natural Gas Supply Case (released in AEO2005)  

EIA Publications

The restricted natural gas supply case provides an analysis of the energy-economic implications of a scenario in which future gas supply is significantly more constrained than assumed in the reference case. Future natural gas supply conditions could be constrained because of problems with the construction and operation of large new energy projects, and because the future rate of technological progress could be significantly lower than the historical rate. Although the restricted natural gas supply case represents a plausible set of constraints on future natural gas supply, it is not intended to represent what is likely to happen in the future.

Information Center

2005-02-01

418

Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization  

SciTech Connect

The work plan for October 1, 1997 to September 30, 1998 consisted of investigation of a number of topical areas. These topical areas were reported in four quarterly status reports, which were submitted to DOE earlier. These topical areas are reviewed in this volume. The topical areas covered during the year were: (1) Development of preliminary tests of a production method for determining areas of natural fracturing. Advanced Resources has demonstrated that such a relationship exists in the southern Piceance basin tight gas play. Natural fracture clusters are genetically related to stress concentrations (also called stress perturbations) associated with local deformation such a faulting. The mechanical explanation of this phenomenon is that deformation generally initiates at regions where the local stress field is elevated beyond the regional. (2) Regional structural and geologic analysis of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). Application of techniques developed and demonstrated during earlier phases of the project for sweet-spot delineation were demonstrated in a relatively new and underexplored play: tight gas from continuous-typeUpper Cretaceous reservoirs of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). The effort included data acquisition/processing, base map generation, geophysical and remote sensing analysis and the integration of these data and analyses. (3) Examination of the Table Rock field area in the northern Washakie Basin of the Greater Green River Basin. This effort was performed in support of Union Pacific Resources- and DOE-planned horizontal drilling efforts. The effort comprised acquisition of necessary seismic data and depth-conversion, mapping of major fault geometry, and analysis of displacement vectors, and the development of the natural fracture prediction. (4) Greater Green River Basin Partitioning. Building on fundamental fracture characterization work and prior work performed under this contract, namely structural analysis using satellite and potential field data, the GGRB was divided into partitions that will be used to analyze the resource potential of the Frontier and Mesaverde Upper Cretaceous tight gas play. A total of 20 partitions were developed, which will be instrumental for examining the Upper Cretaceous play potential. (5) Partition Analysis. Resource assessment associated with individual partitions was initiated starting with the Vermilion Sub-basin and the Green River Deep (which include the Stratos well) partitions (see Chapter 5). (6) Technology Transfer. Tech transfer was achieved by documenting our research and presenting it at various conferences.

NONE

1998-11-30

419

Assessment of world trade in liquefied natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for international trade in liquefied natural gas through the late 1980's is examined in terms of the natural gas reserves in the exporting and importing countries, gas supply forecasts for importing countries, LNG price, political and commercial constraints, and specifically proposed LNG trades. Source material for this assessment is drawn in large measure from reference presentations. It is

1975-01-01

420

Systems analysis of hydrogen supplementation in natural gas pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for hydrogen supplementation in natural gas pipelines is analyzed for a specific site from both mid-term (1985) and long-term perspectives. The concept of supplementing natural gas with the addition of hydrogen in the existing gas pipeline system serves to provide a transport and storage medium for hydrogen while eliminating the high investment costs associated with constructing separate hydrogen

A. Hermelee; M. Beller; J. DAcierno

1981-01-01

421

Impact of Natural Gas Infrastructure on Electric Power Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The restructuring of electricity has introduced new risks associated with the security of natural gas infrastructure on a significantly large scale, which entails changes in physical capabilities of pipelines, operational procedures, sensors and communications, contracting (supply and transportation), and tariffs. This paper will discuss the essence of the natural gas infrastructure for supplying the ever-increasing number of gas-powered units and

MOHAMMAD SHAHIDEHPOUR; Yong Fu; THOMAS WIEDMAN

2005-01-01

422

Perspectives of the European Natural Gas Markets until 2025  

Microsoft Academic Search

We apply the EMF 23 study design to simulate the effects of the reference case and the scenarios to European natural gas supplies to 2025. We use GASMOD, a strategic severallayer model of European gas supply, consisting of upstream natural gas producers, traders in each consuming European country (or region), and final demand. Our model results suggest rather modest changes

Franziska Holz; Christian von Hirschhausen; Claudia Kemfert

2008-01-01

423

Natural gas industry. Monopoly and competition in field markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of studies are presented conducted to provide factual analytical materials needed for a rational policy decision and to offer a policy judgement on the monopoly issue in natural gas production. Chapters are included containing information on market, the natural gas industry, gas supply areas, and monopolies. (JRD)

Neuner

1960-01-01

424

The Diminishing Role of Regulation in the Natural Gas Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural gas industry grew to maturity under a system of strong monopoly power of pipelines and local distribution companies (LDCs) and balkanized markets at wellheads and burnertips. Recent developments in the industry, especially phased deregulation of wellhead prices implemented by the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA) and competition induced by the gas bubble since 1982, have somewhat

Charles G. Stalon

1986-01-01

425

Analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) release prevention systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is playing an important role in meeting the energy needs of the U.S. and other countries. Since one unit volume of LNG is equivalent to 600 unit volumes of natural gas, liquefaction permits large volumes of gas to be economically stored and transported. In the United States, LNG has a twenty-year record of safe handling and

P. J. Pelto; E. G. Baker

1984-01-01

426

INVENTORY OF METHANE LOSSES FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives the second year's results of an ongoing 4-year program undertaken jointly by the Gas Research Institute and the U.S. EPA to assess the methane (CH4) losses from the U.S. natural gas industry. he program's objective is to assess the acceptability of natural gas as ...

427

Resolving Multiple Occluded Layers in Augmented Reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

A useful function of augmented reality (AR) systems is their ability to visualize occluded infrastructure directly in a user's view of the environment. This is especially impor- tant for our application context, which utilizes mobile AR for navigation and other operations in an urban environ- ment. A key problem in the AR field is how to best depict occluded objects

Mark A. Livingston; J. Edward Swan II; Joseph L. Gabbard; Tobias Höllerer; Deborah Hix; Simon Julier; Yohan Baillot; Dennis Brown

2003-01-01

428

Numerical Shape from Shading and Occluding Boundaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

An iterative method for computing shape from shading using occluding boundary information is proposed. Some applications of this method are shown. We employ the stereographic plane to express the orientations of surface patches, rather than the more commonly .used gradient space. Use of the stereographic plane makes it possible to incorporate occluding boundary information, but forces us to employ a

Katsushi Ikeuchi; Berthold K. P. Horn

1981-01-01

429

61 FR 11218 - Cave Gulch-Bullfrog-Waltman Natural Gas Development Project, WY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Gulch-Bullfrog-Waltman Natural Gas Development Project...Gulch-Bullfrog-Waltman Natural Gas Development Project...Corporation, Prima Oil & Gas Company, Goldmark...Inc.,) operate oil and gas leases in...Cave Gulch Area Natural Gas Development...

1996-03-19

430

75 FR 71733 - Requirements for Measurement Facilities Used for the Royalty Valuation of Processed Natural Gas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Valuation of Processed Natural Gas AGENCY: Bureau...gas, condensate, natural gas liquids, or any other products recovered from Federal...and all gas plant products resulting from processing...lessees who process natural gas extracted...

2010-11-24

431

Study on gas hydrates for the solid transportation of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas hydrate typically contains 85 wt.% water and 15 wt.% natural gas, and commonly belongs to cubic structure I and\\u000a II. When referred to standard conditions, 1 m3 solid hydrate contains up to 200 m3 of natural gas depending on pressure and temperature. Such the large volume of natural gas hydrate can be utilized to store\\u000a and transport a

Nam-Jin Kim; Chong-Bo Kim

2004-01-01

432

Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

Andrew Lucero

2009-01-31

433

Natural gas conversion process. Sixth quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

Not Available

1992-12-01

434

Carbon dioxid sequestration in natural gas hydrates: Thermodynamic considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the increasing energy demands natural gas hydrates become more and more of interest. The huge amount of hydrocarbons - mainly CH4 - stored in natural hydrate reservoirs suggest the use of natural gas hydrates as an energy resource. However, the combustion of this fossil fuel results in an undesired increase of CO2 in the atmosphere. Therefore, a combination

J. M. Schicks; B. Beeskow-Strauch; M. Luzi; M. Girod; J. Erzinger

2009-01-01

435

18 CFR 284.3 - Jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act. 284.3 Section 284...ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED...CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY...

2010-04-01

436

18 CFR 284.3 - Jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act. 284.3 Section 284...ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED...CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY...

2013-04-01

437

18 CFR 284.3 - Jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act. 284.3 Section 284...ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED...CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY...

2009-04-01

438

78 FR 19409 - Annual Charge Filing Procedures for Natural Gas Pipelines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...program'' as the Commission's regulation of the natural gas industry under the Natural Gas Act; Natural Gas Policy...reduce the burden imposed by the Commission on the natural gas industry. The Commission has assured itself, by means of...

2013-04-01

439

77 FR 65508 - Annual Charge Filing Procedures for Natural Gas Pipelines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...program'' as the Commission's regulation of the natural gas industry under the Natural Gas Act; Natural Gas Policy...reduce the burden imposed by the Commission on the natural gas industry. The Commission has assured itself, by means of...

2012-10-29

440

Natural gas: the search goes on. [Six unconventional sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bryan Hodgson of the Senior Editorial Staff surveys the natural-gas industry, with surprising results. Expecting a shortage situation, Hodgson traveled the country--and kept finding people who are finding gas, with promise of great quantities, and using unusual means to obtain that gas. A story of possible crisis became one of probable opportunity. Included in his discussion are six ''unconventional'' gas

1978-01-01

441

Natural gas from shale: Texas revolution goes global  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Texas experiment in extracting natural gas from the Barnett Shale proved the technical feasibility of shale gas development and brought costs within bounds that promise to give shale gas an important role in global energy supplies for decades to come. ; Shale gas cost estimates vary widely, partly because of limited experience in a few basins and partly because

Robert W. Gilmer; Emily Kerr

2010-01-01

442

World Demand for Natural Gas: History and Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly surveys the history of natural gas use and describes the main features of current gas consumption. The share of gas in total energy consumption, and the sectoral distribution of its use in major consuming regions are discussed. The main changes in the pattern of gas consumption since 1980 are reviewed and explained. I analyze the likely implications

Marian Radetzki

1994-01-01

443

60 FR 16469 - Wasatch Oil & Gas Corporation; Order Granting Blanket Authorization To Import Natural Gas From...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...95-05-NG] Wasatch Oil & Gas Corporation; Order...Authorization To Import Natural Gas From Canada AGENCY: Office...order granting Wasatch Oil & Gas Corporation authorization...to import up to 5 Bcf of natural gas from Canada over a...

1995-03-30

444

60 FR 19576 - Cabot Oil & Gas Trading Corporation; Order Granting Blanket Authorization to Import Natural Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...95-21-NG] Cabot Oil & Gas Trading Corporation...Authorization to Import Natural Gas From Canada AGENCY: Office...an order granting Cabot Oil & Gas Trading Corporation...to import up to 5 Bcf of natural gas from Canada over a...

1995-04-19

445

Greenhouse gas and energy analysis of substitute natural gas from biomass for space heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the greenhouse gas and energy balances of the production and use for space heating of substitute natural gas from biomass (bio-SNG) for space heat are analysed. These balances are compared to the use of natural gas and solid biomass as wood chips to provide the same service. The reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions (CO2-eq.) – carbon

Johanna Pucker; Robin Zwart; Gerfried Jungmeier

446

The Future European Natural Gas Market - are lower gas prices attainable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyse effects of various natural gas supply scenarios in a liberalised Western European energy market in 2010. Our starting point is the uncertainties about future natural gas exports from Russia and LNG-producing countries. Our results indicate that the average natural gas producer price in Western Europe is likely to be higher in 2010 than the average historical price the

2004-01-01

447

Feed gas drier precooling in mixed refrigerant natural gas liquefaction processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for the liquefaction of a natural gas feedstream using two closed cycle, multicomponent refrigerants wherein a high level refrigerant cools a low level refrigerant and the low level refrigerant cools and liquefies the natural gas feedstream which includes: cooling and liquefying a natural gas stream by heat exchange with a low level multicomponent refrigerant in a

Y. N. Liu; C. L. Newton

1988-01-01

448

Environmental consequences of increased natural-gas usage  

SciTech Connect

Energy use is the primary cause of many environmental problems in the United States and around the world. Fossil fuels, including coal, oil, and natural gas, supply roughly 90 percent of our energy needs in the United States, and they are directly responsible for urban and industrial air pollution and acid rain. Combustion emissions from fossil fuels also contribute to the Earth's greenhouse effect, and they may play an important role in ozone depletion in the stratosphere, and oxidant depletion in the troposphere. Natural gas, which is mostly methane, is the least polluting of the fossil fuels. Upon combustion, natural gas produces lower CO[sub 2], CO, NO[sub x], SO[sub 2], and particulate emissions than either oil or coal. This means that substitution of natural gas for oil and coal can help mitigate air pollution and the human contribution to the greenhouse effect. However, methane is itself a potent greenhouse gas, and increased production and consumption of natural gas must be conducted in such a way that gas leakages are minimized. Natural gas compares well to the other fossil fuels in terms of water quality, preservation of natural ecosystems, and safety. These combined advantages may give natural gas a more prominent role in the US energy mix. Like other fossil fuels though, natural gas is nonrenewable and, therefore, not a permanent solution to our energy needs. 40 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

Cole, F. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States))

1993-01-01

449

Simulation and economic evaluation of natural gas hydrates [NGH] as an alternative to liquefied natural gas [LNG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fact that relatively little is known about the ultimate resource potential of natural gas hydrates, it is certain that gas hydrates are a vast storehouse of natural gas and significant technical challenges need to be met before this enormous resource can be considered an economically producible reserve. In this theoretical study, a simulation scheme was suggested to produce

Babiker K. Abdalla; Nayef A. Abdullatef

2005-01-01

450

IMPROVED NATURAL GAS STORAGE WELL REMEDIATION  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the research conducted during Budget Period One on the project ''Improved Natural Gas Storage Well Remediation''. The project team consisted of Furness-Newburge, Inc., the technology developer; TechSavants, Inc., the technology validator; and Nicor Technologies, Inc., the technology user. The overall objectives for the project were: (1) To develop, fabricate and test prototype laboratory devices using sonication and underwater plasma to remove scale from natural gas storage well piping and perforations; (2) To modify the laboratory devices into units capable of being used downhole; (3) To test the capability of the downhole units to remove scale in an observation well at a natural gas storage field; (4) To modify (if necessary) and field harden the units and then test the units in two pressurized injection/withdrawal gas storage wells; and (5) To prepare the project's final report. This report covers activities addressing objectives 1-3. Prototype laboratory units were developed, fabricated, and tested. Laboratory testing of the sonication technology indicated that low-frequency sonication was more effective than high-frequency (ultrasonication) at removing scale and rust from pipe sections and tubing. Use of a finned horn instead of a smooth horn improves energy dispersal and increases the efficiency of removal. The chemical data confirmed that rust and scale were removed from the pipe. The sonication technology showed significant potential and technical maturity to warrant a field test. The underwater plasma technology showed a potential for more effective scale and rust removal than the sonication technology. Chemical data from these tests also confirmed the removal of rust and scale from pipe sections and tubing. Focusing of the underwater plasma's energy field through the design and fabrication of a parabolic shield will increase the technology's efficiency. Power delivered to the underwater plasma unit by a sparkplug repeatedly was interrupted by sparkplug failure. The lifecycle for the plugs was less than 10 hours. An electrode feed system for delivering continuous power needs to be designed and developed. As a result, further work on the underwater plasma technology was terminated. It needs development of a new sparking system and a redesign of the pulsed power supply system to enable the unit to operate within a well diameter of less than three inches. Both of these needs were beyond the scope of the project. Meanwhile, the laboratory sonication unit was waterproofed and hardened, enabling the unit to be used as a field prototype, operating at temperatures to 350 F and depths of 15,000 feet. The field prototype was extensively tested at a field service company's test facility before taking it to the field site. The field test was run in August 2001 in a Nicor Gas storage field observation well at Pontiac, Illinois. Segmented bond logs, gamma ray neutron logs, water level measurements and water chemistry samples were obtained before and after the downhole demonstration. Fifteen tests were completed in the field. Results from the water chemistry analysis showed an increase in the range of calcium from 1755-1984 mg/l before testing to 3400-4028 mg/l after testing. For magnesium, the range increased from 285-296 mg/l to 461-480 mg/l. The change in pH from a range of 3.11-3.25 to 8.23-8.45 indicated a buffering of the acidic well water, probably due to the increased calcium available for buffering. The segmented bond logs showed no damage to the cement bond in the well and the gamma ray neutron log showed no increase in the amount of hydrocarbons present in the formation where the testing took place. Thus, the gas storage bubble in the aquifer was not compromised. A review of all the field test data collected documents the fact that the application of low-frequency sonication technology definitely removes scale from well pipe. Phase One of this project took sonication technology from the concept stage through a successful ''proof-of-concept'' downhole application in a natural gas storage field

James C. Furness; Donald O. Johnson; Michael L. Wilkey; Lynn Furness; Keith Vanderlee; P. David Paulsen

2001-12-01

451

Natural Gas Liquefaction Process for Small-scale LNG Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of natural gas liquefaction, the small-scale natural gas liquefier has been attracting more and more attentions home and abroad, thanks to its small volume, mobile transportation, easy start-up and shut-down, as well as skid-mounted package. A study was made to choose the optimum liquefaction process to improve the economy of small-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant. The

Cao Wensheng

2012-01-01

452

Characterization and utilization of natural gas in Alaska: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural gas in the Alaskan arctic represents a truly significant resource; a resource which should be exploited in the most appropriate manner. Currently, the proven reserves of natural gas in Alaska are estimated to be 19.7% (36.7 TSCF) of the total US reserves (186.7 TSCF). In addition, the undiscovered recoverable natural gas resources of Alaska are about 89 TSCF

1989-01-01

453

Optimization of natural-gas pipeline systems via dynamic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity and expense of operating natural-gas pipeline systems have made optimum operation and planning of increased interest to the natural-gas pipeline industries. Since the operations of natural-gas pipeline sytems are characterized by inherent nonlinearities and numerous constraints, dynamic programming provides an extremely powerful method for optimizing such systems. This paper summarizes the application of dynamic programming techniques to solve

P. Wong; R. Larson

1968-01-01

454

Natural Gas Industry Restructuring and EIA Data Collection  

EIA Publications

EIA's Reserves and Natural Gas Division has undertaken an in-depth reevaluation of its programs in an effort to improve the focus and quality of the natural gas data that it gathers and reports. This article is to inform natural gas data users of proposed changes and of the opportunity to provide comments and input on the direction that EIA is taking to improve its data.

Information Center

1996-06-01

455

Africa's natural gas: potentialities and letdowns  

SciTech Connect

Although Africa has experienced 10 times less hydrocarbon exploration than Western Europe, its proved gas reserves already amount to 220-223 trillion CF or 7% of world reserves, while Europe holds 6% or 167 TCF. Yet Africa marketed only 1.3 TCF in 1982 against Europe's 6.5 TCF. Because of the lack of domestic demand for gas, Africa flares up to 21% of its gas output. Algeria is the continent's primary gas consumer, with Egypt, Libya, and Nigeria trying to expand local gas markets. The vast majority of marketed African gas goes to Europe, either as gas sent through the Trans-Med pipeline or as LNG via tanker.

Baladian, K.

1983-11-01

456

Future development of the upstream greenhouse gas emissions from natural gas industry, focussing on Russian gas fields and export pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas makes an increasing contribution to the European Union's energy supply. Due to its efficiency and low level of combustion emissions this reduces greenhouse gas emissions compared to the use of other fossil fuels. However, being itself a potent greenhouse gas, a high level of direct losses of natural gas in its process chain could neutralise these advantages. Which

S. Lechtenböhmer; C. Dienst

2010-01-01

457

Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This DOE-funded research into seismic detection of natural fractures is one of six projects within the DOE's Detection and Analysis of Naturally Fractured Gas Reservoirs Program, a multidisciplinary research initiative to develop technology for prediction...

1997-01-01

458

Underground storage of natural gas in Illinois1973  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas is stored in underground reservoirs at 37 locations in Illinois. These reservoirs contain more than 580 billion cu ft of gas, about one-third of which is working gas and two-thirds is cushion gas. Potential usable capacity of these reservoirs is estimated to be 1.2 trillion cu ft. At 11 of the storage projects, gas is stored in depleted,

T. C. Buschbach; D. C. Bond

1974-01-01

459

Underground storage of natural gas in Illinois1973  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas is stored in underground reservoirs at 37 locations in Illinois. These reservoirs contain more than 580 billion cu ft of gas, about one-third of which is working gas and two-thirds is cushion gas. Potential usuable capacity of these reservoirs is estimated to be 1.2 trillion cu ft. At 11 of the storage projects, gas is stored in depleted,

T. C. Buschbach; D. C. Bond

1974-01-01

460

Methane hydrates and the future of natural gas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For decades, gas hydrates have been discussed as a potential resource, particularly for countries with limited access to conventional hydrocarbons or a strategic interest in establishing alternative, unconventional gas reserves. Methane has never been produced from gas hydrates at a commercial scale and, barring major changes in the economics of natural gas supply and demand, commercial production at a large scale is considered unlikely to commence within the next 15 years. Given the overall uncertainty still associated with gas hydrates as a potential resource, they have not been included in the EPPA model in MITEI’s Future of Natural Gas report. Still, gas hydrates remain a potentially large methane resource and must necessarily be included in any consideration of the natural gas supply beyond two decades from now.

Ruppel, Carolyn

2011-01-01

461

Stability of natural gas in the deep subsurface  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas is becoming increasingly important as a fuel because of its widespread occurrence and because it has a less significant environmental impact than oil. Many of the known gas accumulations were discovered by accident during exploration for oil, but with increasing demand for gas, successful exploration will require a clearer understanding of the factors that control gas distribution and gas composition. Natural gas is generated by three main processes. In oxygen-deficient, sulfate-free, shallow (few thousand feet) environments bacteria generate biogenic gas that is essentially pure methane with no higher hydrocarbons ({open_quotes}dry gas{close_quotes}). Gas is also formed from organic matter ({open_quotes}kerogen{close_quotes}), either as the initial product from the thermal breakdown of Type III, woody kerogens, or as the final hydrocarbon product from all kerogen types. In addition, gas can be formed by the thermal cracking of crude oil in the deep subsurface. The generation of gas from kerogen requires higher temperatures than the generation of oil. Also, the cracking of oil to gas requires high temperatures, so that there is a general trend from oil to gas with increasing depth. This produces a well-defined {open_quotes}floor for oil{close_quotes}, below which crude oil is not thermally stable. The possibility of a {open_quotes}floor for gas{close_quotes} is less well documented and understanding the limits on natural gas occurrence was one of the main objectives of this research.

Barker, C.

1996-07-01

462

Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common

Collett

1992-01-01

463

New roles for natural gas in the 1990s  

SciTech Connect

A probable increase in the use of natural gas is predicted to occur over the next decade because heightened concerns by the public over air quality are likely to place severe constraints on increased use of coal and petroleum as primary fuels. Congress and the states appear to be preparing to legislate new clean air standards that will be difficult to achieve under present economic conditions using the current mix of hydrocarbon fuels. Natural gas is a favorable fuel for several reasons. Because it has a high hydrogen-to-carbon ratio, it produces the least amount of carbon dioxide per calorie of any of the hydrocarbon fuels. Combustion of gas in modern burners does not produce significant CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, or any of the complex photochemicals responsible for smog and ozone pollution. Supplies of gas are plentiful, with a total domestic recoverable resource base of over 980 tcf estimated by the Potential Gas Agency. Additional gas, not counted in reserve estimates, is present in abandoned fields, where secondary recovery techniques may produce significant quantities. A promising area for increased natural gas usage in the next decade is electrical power generation, either by substituting gas for oil and coal as a boiler fuel or by generating electricity directly using chemical fuel cells powered by natural gas and air. Natural gas-fueled vehicles are another favored technology, due to very low emission levels and because natural gas can be run in a standard automotive engine with only minor mechanical modifications. Vehicles must carry compressed natural gas in high-pressure cylinders, but adsorptive materials are being developed to transport significant quantities at reduced pressure. Current technology can pack a 2,400-psi volume-equivalent of natural gas onto adsorptive material in the same space at only 500 psi.

Soeder, D.J. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA))

1990-05-01

464

Undiscovered natural gas resources of Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses data from the Resource Appraisal Group of the U.S. Geological Survey and shows that, in addition to approximately 930 billion cubic feet (BCF) of proved gas reserves in Montana (1975 AGA), there are at least two trillion cubic feet of gas in the undiscovered and inferred resource categories. This amount of gas would provide Montana an equivalent

1976-01-01

465

Supply of liquefied natural gas to the Northeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following aspects of the supply of liquefied natural gas to the northeastern part of the U.S. are discussed: major facilities and equipment, institutional considerations and environmental impacts, site selection criteria, time required to implement an LNG (liquefied natural gas) project, projected availability and reliability of supply, projection of future imports to the northeast region, cost projections, and secondary benefits.

G. R. Bray; S. K. Julin; J. A. Simmons

1976-01-01

466

Twenty percent hydrogen-enriched natural gas transient performance research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to increase engine transient performance of 20% hydrogen-enriched natural gas, research including the comparing of ETC cycle emissions in different catalysts, different enrichment rates, and data was taken for both 20% HCNG and pure natural gas. The exhaust composition and efficiency was tested using three different oxidization catalysts: ECOCAT type I, a Domestic catalysts, and ECOCAT typeII. Using

Fanhua Ma; Yefu Wang; Shangfen Ding; Long Jiang

2009-01-01

467

Environmental impacts of natural gas distribution networks within urban neighborhoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses the life cycle assessment methodology to analyze the type and origin of environmental impacts related to natural gas distribution networks in high and low density neighborhoods, and compares the environmental performance of two infrastructures in low density neighborhoods: a standard natural gas grid and a discontinuous system based on propane tanks. The results show that the impact

Jordi Oliver-Solà; Xavier Gabarrell; Joan Rieradevall

2009-01-01

468

Coastal state taxation of OCS-produced natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Louisiana is attempting to preserve its coastline through the use of an earmarked tax levied on natural gas entering its borders from Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) waters. A survey of the environmental impacts of transporting natural gas through the coastal ecosystem is presented. Then, evaluation of the first-use tax proceeds along two lines: it is critiqued as a viable mechanism

1981-01-01

469

Characterization and Utilization of Natural Gas in Alaska: Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The natural gas in the Alaskan arctic represents a truly significant resource; a resource which should be exploited in the most appropriate manner. Currently, the proven reserves of natural gas in Alaska are estimated to be 19.7% (36.7 TSCF) of the total ...

G. D. Sharma

1989-01-01

470

On the Pricing of Natural Gas Pipeline Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pipelines play a critical role in matching the supply and demand of natural gas. The pricing of their capacity is an important problem in practice, both for pipeline companies and shippers, the users of this capacity, including natural gas merchants, producers, and local distribution companies. This paper conducts a normative analysis of how pipeline capacity should be priced by each

Nicola Secomandi

2010-01-01

471

Asian natural gas pipeline proposed for easing energy, feedstock strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly every country on the program at the recent Asian Natural Gas 5 Conference in Singapore reported on attempts to maximize the use of natural gas as a fuel and a feedstock. But no one made a more startling presentation than Masaru Hirata, chairman of the National Pipeline Research Society of Japan. His proposal: construct an international trunk pipeline network

Haggin

1994-01-01

472

Theories and Conflict: The Origins of Natural Gas. Instructional Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit explores a recent and controversial theory of the origin of much of the Earth's natural gas and oil. The materials provided will give students the opportunity to: (1) gain an understanding of science and what is involved in the acceptance or rejection of theories; (2) learn about fossil fuels, especially natural gas; (3) learn the…

Anderson, Susan

473

26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 true Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21 Section 48.4041-21 Internal...Fuels § 48.4041-21 Compressed natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of CNG into the fuel supply tank of a motor vehicle or...

2010-04-01

474

26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 false Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21 Section 48.4041-21 Internal...Fuels § 48.4041-21 Compressed natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of CNG into the fuel supply tank of a motor vehicle or...

2009-04-01

475

Price dynamics of natural gas and the regional methanol markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ‘methanol economy’ based mainly on natural gas as a feedstock has a lot of potential to cope with the current and ongoing concerns for energy security along with the reduction of CO-2 emissions. It is, therefore, important to examine the price dynamics of methanol in order to ascertain whether the price of methanol is mainly natural-gas-cost driven or demand

A. Mansur M. Masih; Khaled Albinali; Lurion DeMello

2010-01-01

476

Probabilistic analysis of a liquefied natural gas storage tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied Natural Gas transport and storage has become very important due to its ability to occupy 1\\/600th of the volume that compressed natural gas would occupy at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. In the present work, an LNG storage tank has been computationally simulated and probabilistically evaluated in view of the several uncertainties in the fluid, structural, material and thermal

Rama Subba Reddy Gorla

2010-01-01

477

Evaluation of Methods for Predictions Natural Gas Liquid Density  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the importance of liquid density in process design, this study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of available correlations, equations of state, and process simulation programs. The study covers natural gas liquid (NGL), liquefied natural gas (LNG) and light hydrocarbons mixtures containing nitrogen. More than 25 binary and multicomponent systems were studies. The accuracy of several correlations, EoSs,

Hameeda Dashti; Ali Moshfeghian; Mahmood Moshfeghian

478

Microbial activities in soil near natural gas leaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the present experiments it may be concluded that in the surroundings of natural gas leaks, methane, ethane and possibly some other components of the natural gas are oxidized by microbial activities as long as oxygen is available. This is demonstrated by an increased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production, as well as by increased numbers of different types of

A. D. Adamse; J. Hoeks; J. A. M. Bont; J. F. Kessel

1972-01-01

479

Natural Gas Corridors in Southeastern Europe and European Energy Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The question of European energy security has brought attention to the strategic significance of Southeastern Europe as a transport hub of natural gas and a key region for European energy security. The questions how to secure natural gas quantities sufficient for increasing European needs and how to reduce energy dependency on Russia led to pipeline projects aiming to provide

Ioannis N. Grigoriadis

480

Low-quality natural gas sulfur removal\\/recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant fraction of U.S. natural gas reserves are subquality due to the presence of acid gases and nitrogen; 13% of existing reserves (19 trillion cubic feed) may be contaminated with hydrogen sulfide. For natural gas to be useful as fuel and feedstock, this hydrogen sulfide has to be removed to the pipeline specification of 4 ppm. The technology used

K. Amo; R. W. Baker; V. D. Helm; T. Hofmann; K. A. Lokhandwala; I. Pinnau; M. B. Ringer; T. T. Su; L. Toy; J. G. Wijmans

1998-01-01

481

Semiconductor laser source for natural gas leak detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using semiconductor lasers as infrared sources for handheld natural gas leak detectors was assessed. The detection system was assumed to be based on the differential absorption (DIAL) technique and to operate at ambient temperatures. The absorption spectra of the major components of natural gas, methane and ethane, were measured in the spectral range from 1.2 to 2.0

R. A. Elliott

1985-01-01

482

PROJECTIONS OF REGIONAL FUEL OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents delivered regional oil and natural gas price forecasts for the industrial and electric utility sectors. Delivered energy price projections by Federal region through the year 2045 are provided for distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, and natural gas. Methodo...

483

Order 636 and the U.S. natural gas industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intent of the U.S. Federal Regulatory Commission's Order 636, promulgated in April 1992, was to promote competition and efficiency in the transportation sector of the natural gas industry. Additionally, the Order altered the roles of the traditional players in the industry by increasing not only their options for purchase and sale of natural gas, but also their risks. Increased

Janie M. Chermak

1998-01-01

484

Natural Gas Value Chain. Topical Report, August 1995-February 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study is reported which developed a representation of the natural gas value chain depicting all key activities of the industry in the finding and production of natural gas. The data provides the basis for quantifying and reporting revenues, expenses, an...

D. C. Roussel

1996-01-01

485

Natural gas imports and exports. Second quarter report  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the second quarter of 1997 (April through June).

NONE

1997-12-31

486

Volatility transmission in the oil and natural gas markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research looks at how volatility in the oil and natural gas sectors changes over time and across markets. We empirically examine the univariate and bivariate time-series properties of oil and natural gas index returns, allowing for non-linearity in the variance of each series, as well as for the possibility that changes in volatility in one market may spill over

Bradley T. Ewing; Farooq Malik; Ozkan Ozfidan

2002-01-01

487

Natural Gas Transportation - Infrastructure Issues and Operational Trends  

EIA Publications

This report examines how well the current national natural gas pipeline network has been able to handle today's market demand for natural gas. In addition, it identifies those areas of the country where pipeline utilization is continuing to grow rapidly and where new pipeline capacity is needed or is planned over the next several years.

Information Center

2001-10-01

488

59 FR- Standards for Emissions From Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Motor...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Gaseous fuel means natural gas or liquefied petroleum...1 atm), excluding natural gas. Multi-fuel means capable...separately or simultaneously. Natural gas means a fuel whose primary...normally derived from crude oil, excluding...

1994-09-21

489

An econometric analysis of the market for natural gas futures  

SciTech Connect

This research tests a form of the efficient markets hypothesis in the market for natural gas futures. Unlike other studies of future markets, the test for market efficiency is conducted at numerous locations which comprise the natural gas spot market in addition to the delivery location specified in the futures contract. Natural gas spot and futures prices are found to be nonstationary and accordingly are modeled using recently developed maximum likelihood cointegrated with nearly all of the spot market prices across the national network of gas pipelines. The hypothesis of market efficiency can be rejected in 3 of the 13 spot markets. 29 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Walls, W.D. [Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

1995-12-31

490

Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough localized atmospheric contamination to choke air aspirated aircraft engines. The unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft along with their crews and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle may be tied to the natural venting of gas hydrates. The paper describes what gas hydrates are, their formation and release, and their possible link to the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.

Gruy, H.J.

1998-03-01

491

64 FR 23349 - Continental Divide/Wamsutter II Natural Gas Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Wamsutter II (CD/WII) Natural Gas Project Draft Environmental...the CD/WII proposed natural gas development and production operation. Expansion of natural gas exploration and development...and adjacent to other oil and gas developments...

1999-04-30

492

67 FR 8202 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from Natural Gas Transmission and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...pollutants (NESHAP) from Oil and Natural Gas Production Facilities...air pollutants from Natural Gas Transmission and Storage Facilities (Oil and Gas NESHAP). On...publication containing the Oil and Natural Gas Production final...

2002-02-22

493

60 FR 52960 - Filing and Reporting Requirements for Interstate Natural Gas Company Rate Schedules and Tariffs  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...18 CFR Part 154, et al. Natural Gas Companies (Natural Gas Act): Rate Schedule and Tariff...of products extracted from natural gas and other activities reported...others, incidental gasoline and oil sales, rents from gas...

1995-10-11

494

72 FR 54860 - Revisions to Forms, Statements, and Reporting Requirements for Natural Gas Pipelines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the electric utility, natural gas, and oil pipeline industries...Burlington Resources Oil & Gas Co. v. FERC...Policy Statement); Natural Gas Pipelines Negotiated...utilities and licensees, natural gas and oil pipeline...

2007-09-27

495

Review of State Oil and Natural Gas Environmental Regulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The State Review Process is a multi-stakeholder process administered by the State Review of Oil and Natural Gas Environmental Regulations (STRONGER), Inc. and is a continuation of work initiated by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) in 1989. The goal of the process is to assist oil and gas producing states in identifying innovative regulatory approaches to reducing

Steve Souders

2005-01-01

496

The catalytic decomposition of petroleum into natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum is believed to be unstable in the earth, decomposing to lighter hydrocarbons at temperatures > 150°C. Oil and gas deposits support this view: gas\\/oil ratios and methane concentrations tend to increase with depth above 150°C. Although oil cracking is suggested and receives wide support, laboratory pyrolysis does not give products resembling natural gas. Moreover, it is doubtful that the

Frank D. Mango; Joe Hightower

1997-01-01

497

European energy security: The future of Norwegian natural gas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union (EU) is expected to meet its future growing demand for natural gas by increased imports. In 2006, Norway had a 21% share of EU gas imports. The Norwegian government has on several occasions communicated that Norwegian gas production will continue to increase within the next decade by 25-40% from today's level of about 99 billion cubic meters

Bengt Söderbergh; Kristofer Jakobsson; Kjell Aleklett

498

Catalytic partial oxidation of natural gas to syngas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We trace the development of catalytic partial oxidation technology for the conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas (CO + H2) from steam reforming to autothermal reforming to direct oxidation. Synthesis gas which has applications in methanol, ammonia and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis has been conventionally produced by endothermic steam reforming processes in fired tube furnaces. Catalytic partial oxidation is much faster,

S. S. Bharadwaj; L. D. Schmidt

1995-01-01

499

Fundamental principles and applications of natural gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas hydrates are solid, non-stoichiometric compounds of small gas molecules and water. They form when the constituents come into contact at low temperature and high pressure. The physical properties of these compounds, most notably that they are non-flowing crystalline solids that are denser than typical fluid hydrocarbons and that the gas molecules they contain are effectively compressed, give rise

E. Dendy Sloan

2003-01-01

500

Potential for Natural Gas Use in the Advanced Ceramics Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Natural gas fulfills slightly more than 50% of the total energy needs of the advanced ceramics industry. Gas is prevented from further market penetration primarily due to the inadequacies of gas-based firing technology relative to firing/sintering in low ...

M. Rossetti V. R. Vejins

1986-01-01