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1

18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. 270.302 Section 270.302...302 Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination...gas is occluded natural gas produced from coal seams must file an application with...

2012-04-01

2

18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. 270.302 Section 270.302...302 Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination...gas is occluded natural gas produced from coal seams must file an application with...

2010-04-01

3

18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. 270.302 Section 270.302...302 Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination...gas is occluded natural gas produced from coal seams must file an application with...

2013-04-01

4

18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. 270.302 Section 270.302...302 Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination...gas is occluded natural gas produced from coal seams must file an application with...

2011-04-01

5

18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.  

...false Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. 270.302 Section 270.302...302 Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination...gas is occluded natural gas produced from coal seams must file an application with...

2014-04-01

6

Optimized method of producing washers of titanium hydride for plasma gun using occluded hydrogen gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimized way of producing washers of titanium hydride for the application to a plasma gun using the occluded gas is presented. The amount of H2 gas (equivalently, gas pressure p) is entirely preadjusted in a gas reservoir of a simple instrument. The temperature T of a furnace is completely feedback controlled. Data show that when p is the order

H. Himura; Y. Saito; A. Sanpei; S. Masamune; N. Takeuchi; T. Shiono

2006-01-01

7

Natural Gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural gas is a naturally occurring mixture of simple hydrocarbons and nonhydrocarbons that exists as a gas at ordinary pressures and temperatures. In the raw state, as produced from the earth, natural gas consists principally of methane (CH4) and ethane (C2H4), with fractional amounts of propane (C3H8), butane (C4H10), and other hydrocarbons, pentane (C5H12) and heavier. Occasionally, small traces of light aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene and toluene may also be present.

Maddox, Robert N.; Moshfeghian, Mahmood; Ldol, James D.; Johannes, Arland H.

8

Pennsylvania's Natural Gas Future  

E-print Network

, President #12;UGI Propane Gas & Electric Domestic International Regulated Utilities Midstream & Marketing development (safety/regulation) · Aging and limited distribution infrastructure #12;Conclusion · Gas1 Pennsylvania's Natural Gas Future Penn State Natural Gas Utilization Workshop Bradley Hall

Lee, Dongwon

9

Natural gas annual 1996  

SciTech Connect

This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

NONE

1997-09-01

10

Natural Gas Monthly  

EIA Publications

Highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported.

2014-01-01

11

Natural gas annual 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

NONE

1996-11-01

12

Natural-gas liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Casinghead gasoline or natural gasoline, now more suitably known as natural-gas liquids (NGL), was a nuisance when first found, but was developed into a major and profitable commodity. This part of the petroleum industry began at about the turn of the century, and more than 60 yr later the petroleum industry recovers approx. one million bbl of natural-gas liquids a

W. B. Blackstock; G. W. McCullough; R. C. McCutchan

1968-01-01

13

Natural gas liquefaction processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The liquefaction of natural gas using a mixed refrigerant process was first proposed by Kleemenko in 1959 [50]. Mixed refrigerant processes were subsequently adopted for the commercial liquefaction of natural gas nearly 40 years ago. Over 95% of the base-load LNG plants operate on mixed refrigerant processes, with the remaining few operating on conventional cascade processes. The enthalpy of natural gas varies nonlinearly with temperature (at constant pressure), with points of inflection on the enthalpy temperature curve.

Venkatarathnam, Gadhiraju

14

Analysis of Kinematics and Dynamics of Butterflies in Natural F light, with Estimation of Occluded Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerospace and biology communities are increasingly interested in the flight mechanics (1) and dynamics of micro air vehicles (MAV) and natural organisms in the low Reynolds number regime. Flight measurements for biological systems are available; however, a meaningful, concise, record of existing data remains a work-in-progress. Furthermore, most data is collected in precise, experimental environments. Comprehensive data on insect

Nicholas Gans; Animesh Chakravarthy; Roberto Albertani

15

Liquefied natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Countries such as Abu Dhabi, Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Libya, Nigeria, Trinidat, and the Soviet Union have entered or are planning to enter the rapidly growing market for imported natural gas in Japan, the U.S., and Western Europe. The most economic method to transport natural gas across great ocean distances is to ship it in liquid form. Prior to 1977 the

1978-01-01

16

Fossil Fuels: Natural Gas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the use of natural gas as an energy source. Topics include its advantages (cleanliness, fewer carbon emissions), disadvantages (difficulty in transport and storage), sources, and usage. There is also a discussion of the creation and production of natural gas, the United States' production and reserves, and some potential new sources (coal bed methane, methane hydrates). The lesson includes an activity in which students investigate porosity and permeability in simulated sediments.

Pratte, John

17

Adsorbed Natural Gas Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status of adsorbed natural gas technology for the vehicle fueling sector is reviewed. It is shown that there are\\u000a solutions to the all of the problems associated to adsorption storage, and that it is possible to build a light, compact,\\u000a and efficient system for storage, distribution, and dispensing of natural gas. The practical achievement of this objective\\u000a is

Jos Paulo Mota

18

Forecasting Residential Natural Gas Demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Turkey, the major purpose of natural gas demand in residences is heating, where the residential gas usage is approximately 18% of total gas consumption. The studies on forecasting gas demand for future periods have a great importance because natural gas is an imported energy source. This article describes an approach to obtain appropriate models for forecasting residential monthly natural

HAYDAR ARAS; NIL ARAS

2004-01-01

19

Method for liquifying natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for liquefying natural gas comprises heat exchanging a pressurized natural gas with two independent coolant circuits. The first coolant circuit pre-cools the compressed natural gas. After the natural gas is pre-cooled in the first circuit, a major portion is liquefied in heat exchange with the coolant in the second circuit while the remaining minor portion is liquefied in

Forg

1980-01-01

20

Natural gas processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ortloff Corp.'s approach of processing natural gas by expansion in at least two stages through turboexpanders with interstage cooling results in a flexible combination of advantages that include (1) for constant recovery of desired liquids, significantly reduced energy requirements or (2) for a constant energy requirement, significantly improved yields. In addition, both advantages are possible under certain conditions. Furthermore,

R. E. Campbell; J. B. Lawrence; R. R. Tonne

1977-01-01

21

Natural Gas Annual  

EIA Publications

Provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas in the United States. Production, transmission, storage, deliveries, and price data are published by state for the current year. Summary data are presented for each state for the previous 5 years.

2013-01-01

22

US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves  

SciTech Connect

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1989, and production volumes for the year 1989 for the total United States and for selected states and state sub-divisions. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production reported separately. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. 28 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

Not Available

1990-10-05

23

Natural gas purchases  

SciTech Connect

In the 1970`s gas and boilers were like oil and water as far as policy makers were concerned, culminating in the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act (perhaps a more appropriate title would have been the Fuel Non-Use Act or the Gas Non-Use Act). But now, the last two Administrations have made gas the centerpiece of their energy and environmental strategies, including promotion of gas use for boilers and electric generation. The FERC`s Order 636 almost completes the Commission`s restructuring of the gas industry that began with Order 380 (eliminating commodity minimum bills) and progressed sharply with Orders 436 and 500. It is Order 636 that has transformed the interstate pipeline business into a transportation business, with the pipelines virtually out of the merchant business altogether because the Commission is not resting on its laurels after completing implementation of Order 636. Rather, it is exploring new ways to expand the growing competitive market for gas, including the possibility of using market-based rates for interstate pipeline transportation services. Methods for the procurement of natural gas supplies are discussed.

Grenier, E.J. Jr. [Partner, Sutherland, Asbill and Brennan, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-09-01

24

Method of dehydrating natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for dehydration of natural gas is provided wherein well head gas is supplied to a three-phase inlet separator, the vapor mixture of natural gas and water removed from that inlet separator means is supplied to a turboexpander, and the resulting refrigerated mixture of natural gas and condensed water vapor is supplied to a multi-phase outlet separator. The turboexpander

1985-01-01

25

Natural gas monthly, December 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report presents information of interest to organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data are presented on natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

NONE

1995-12-01

26

Natural Gas Exports from Iran  

EIA Publications

This assessment of the natural gas sector in Iran, with a focus on Irans natural gas exports, was prepared pursuant to section 505 (a) of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 (Public Law No: 112-158). As requested, it includes: (1) an assessment of exports of natural gas from Iran; (2) an identification of the countries that purchase the most natural gas from Iran; (3) an assessment of alternative supplies of natural gas available to those countries; (4) an assessment of the impact a reduction in exports of natural gas from Iran would have on global natural gas supplies and the price of natural gas, especially in countries identified under number (2); and (5) such other information as the Administrator considers appropriate.

2012-01-01

27

Natural gas monthly, March 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1994-03-22

28

Natural gas monthly, August 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1993-08-25

29

Natural gas monthly, July 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1994-07-20

30

Natural gas monthly, September 1995  

SciTech Connect

The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1995-09-27

31

Natural gas monthly, April 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

NONE

1995-04-27

32

Natural gas monthly, August 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1994-08-24

33

Natural gas monthly, July 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1993-07-27

34

Natural gas monthly, May 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1999-05-01

35

Natural gas monthly, November 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1995-12-05

36

Natural gas monthly: December 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. Articles are included which are designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1993-12-01

37

Natural gas monthly, June 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1993-06-22

38

Natural gas monthly, June 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1998-06-01

39

Natural gas vs. heat pumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spokesmen for gas and electric utilities describe the relative merits of using natural gas and electric heat pumps. Both argue that their product is more economical and operates more efficiently than its competitor. Rising natural gas prices are responsible for making costs more competitive, although rates for both gas and electricity vary by region. The utilities also describe heat pump

A. M. Verrips; W. A. Canney

2009-01-01

40

Natural gas monthly, February 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

NONE

1999-02-01

41

Natural gas monthly, November 1996  

SciTech Connect

The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``US natural gas imports and exports-1995``. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

NONE

1996-11-01

42

Natural gas monthly, May 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured articles for this month are: Opportunities with fuel cells, and revisions to monthly natural gas data.

Not Available

1994-05-25

43

Natural gas monthly, August 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature article is on US Natural Gas Imports and Exports 1994.

NONE

1995-08-24

44

Natural gas monthly, April 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are present3ed each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas pipeline and system expansions.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1997-04-01

45

Natural gas monthly, May 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

NONE

1997-05-01

46

Natural gas monthly, December 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1997-12-01

47

Natural gas monthly, June 1996  

SciTech Connect

The natural gas monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article for this month is Natural Gas Industry Restructuring and EIA Data Collection.

NONE

1996-06-24

48

Natural gas monthly, March 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas analysis and geographic information systems.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1997-03-01

49

Natural gas monthly, September 1998  

SciTech Connect

The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1998-09-01

50

Natural gas monthly, April 1994  

SciTech Connect

The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1994-04-26

51

Natural gas conversion process  

SciTech Connect

The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

Not Available

1992-01-01

52

Natural gas monthly, October 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary of the terms used in this report is provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. 6 figs., 30 tabs.

NONE

1995-10-23

53

Natural gas monthly, February 1994  

SciTech Connect

The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The NGM also features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1994-02-25

54

Natural gas monthly, February 1996  

SciTech Connect

The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1996-03-01

55

Natural gas monthly, January 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured article for this month is on US coalbed methane production.

Not Available

1994-02-01

56

Natural gas monthly, October 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. 16 figs., 33 tabs.

Not Available

1991-11-05

57

Natural gas monthly, August 1990  

SciTech Connect

This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector oganizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 33 tabs.

Not Available

1990-11-05

58

Natural gas monthly, December 1996  

SciTech Connect

This document highlights activities, events, and analysis of interest to the public and private sector associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

NONE

1996-12-01

59

Natural Gas Imports and Exports  

EIA Publications

In the face of unprecedented levels of domestic natural gas production, net imports of natural gas into the United States fell 23% in 2012. A combination of both higher exports and lower imports led to a decline in net imports. In 2012, total imports decreased by 10% to 3,135 Bcf, while total exports increased by 8% to 1,619 Bcf.

2013-01-01

60

LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN CALIFORNIA  

E-print Network

Tyler Contributors Dave Maul Manager NATURAL GAS & SPECIAL PROJECTS OFFICE Terrence O'Brien, Deputy Director SYSTEMS ASSESMENTS & FACILITIES DIVISION Robert L. Therkelsen Executive Director James D. Boyd not discuss the regulation of LNG facility operations, gas pipeline construction and operation, gas quality

61

The state of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

As global energy demand rises, natural gas now plays an important strategic role in energy supply. It is more difficult to transport and store gas than oil and consequently it lagged behind that commodity for a considerable period. Over the last couple of decades this has changed and gas markets continue to expand more rapidly than those of other fossil

Michael J. Economides; David A. Wood

2009-01-01

62

Practical natural gas engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the author, there is no fundamental difference between the behavior of wells producing liquids and the behavior of wells producing gas. This book bridges the gap between the results of empirical testing and the theory of unsteady-state flow in porous media. It strengthens the bond between conventional reservoir engineering practices and understanding gas well behavior. Problems are included

1983-01-01

63

Natural gas monthly, August 1996  

SciTech Connect

This analysis presents the most recent data on natural gas prices, supply, and consumption from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The presentation of the latest monthly data is followed by an update on natural gas markets. The markets section examines the behavior of daily spot and futures prices based on information from trade press, as well as regional, weekly data on natural gas storage from the American Gas Association (AGA). This {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} closes with a special section comparing and contrasting EIA and AGA storage data on a monthly and regional basis. The regions used are those defined by the AGA for their weekly data collection effort: the Producing Region, the Consuming Region East, and the Consuming Region West. While data on working gas levels have tracked fairly closely between the two data sources, differences have developed recently. The largest difference is in estimates of working gas levels in the East consuming region during the heating season.

NONE

1996-08-01

64

Economics of natural gas upgrading  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas could be an important alternative energy source in meeting some of the market demand presently met by liquid products from crude oil. This study was initiated to analyze three energy markets to determine if greater use could be made of natural gas or natural gas derived products and if those products could be provided on an economically competitive basis. The three markets targeted for possible increases in gas use were motor fuels, power generation, and the chemical feedstocks market. The economics of processes to convert natural gas to transportation fuels, chemical products, and power were analyzed. The economic analysis was accomplished by drawing on a variety of detailed economic studies, updating them and bringing the results to a common basis. The processes analyzed included production of methanol, MTBE, higher alcohols, gasoline, CNG, and LNG for the transportation market. Production and use of methanol and ammonia in the chemical feedstock market and use of natural gas for power generation were also assessed. Use of both high and low quality gas as a process feed stream was evaluated. The analysis also explored the impact of various gas price growth rates and process facility locations, including remote gas areas. In assessing the transportation fuels market the analysis examined production and use of both conventional and new alternative motor fuels.

Hackworth, J.H.; Koch, R.W.

1995-07-01

65

North American Natural Gas Markets  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

Not Available

1989-02-01

66

North American Natural Gas Markets  

SciTech Connect

This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

Not Available

1988-12-01

67

Method of dehydrating natural gas  

SciTech Connect

A method for dehydration of natural gas is provided wherein well head gas is supplied to a three-phase inlet separator, the vapor mixture of natural gas and water removed from that inlet separator means is supplied to a turboexpander, and the resulting refrigerated mixture of natural gas and condensed water vapor is supplied to a multi-phase outlet separator. The turboexpander may have integral means for subsequent compression of the refrigerated mixture and may be coupled through reduction gears to a means for generating electricity. A portion of the refrigerated mixture may be connected to a heat exchanger for cooling the well head natural gas prior to entry into the inlet separator. The flow of refrigerated mixture to this heat exchanger may be controlled by a temperature sensitive valve downstream of the heat exchanger. Methanol may be injected into the vapor mixture prior to entry into the turboexpander. The flow of methanol into the vapor mixture may be controlled by a valve sensitive to the flow rate of the vapor mixture and the water vapor content of the refrigerated mixture. Natural gas vapor from the outlet separator may be recirculated through the turboexpander if the output water vapor content of the natural gas vapor stream is too high.

Wells, R. E.

1985-01-01

68

Natural gas pretreatment prior to liquefaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method for pretreatment of natural gas having an elevated pressure and containing moisture and about 1.5% to 3.5% by volume of CO prior to liquefaction of the natural gas which comprises the steps of: a. dehydrating the natural gas; b. partially cooling the natural gas by heat exchange with countercurrent streams of pretreated natural gas and

S. J. Markbreiter; I. Weiss

1989-01-01

69

A natural monopoly in natural gas transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we test for subadditivity in the cost structure associated with transporting natural gas by Trans-Canada Pipelines Ltd. and measure for possible cost savings from increased competition that could be realized by removing the monopoly status granted by the National Energy Board. In measuring subadditivity, we apply both the Baumol et al. (Contestable Markets and the Theory of

D. V. Gordon; K. Gunsch; C. V. Pawluk

2003-01-01

70

Natural Gas Monthly August 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. Explanatory notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication.

NONE

1998-08-01

71

Growing a natural gas major  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses attributes needed to succeed in the natural gas industry. Attributes identified include the ability to market multiple commodities; full integration in the midstream; an opportunistic marketing culture; and a global perspective.

Galvin, R.E.

1996-12-31

72

Costs to transport natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative Economics are discussed for transporting natural gas by four ways: converting to LNG and using LNG tankers, as a gas using on-land and subsea pipelines, converting to methanol and using conventional tankers, and compressing and using tankers with pressurized containers. Distances and routes are important factors when determining cost. Specific examples are given for transportation between : Arabian Gulf

I. Leibson; S. T. Davenport; M. H. Muenzier

1987-01-01

73

Denmark prepares for natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Denmark will import natural gas from the German Ruhrgas network to reduce its dependence on oil, although oil will continue to be the major energy source. A national program of energy conservation includes conversion of oil-fired power statons to either coal or to a co-generation system with district heating and the increased use of gas to supply more of the

Jeffs

1979-01-01

74

Understanding natural gas price decontrol  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of analyses concerning the natural gas market and the economy, and their reactions to change in gas prices, have been produced by government agencies, academic researchers, and consumer and industry groups. These analyses often display conflicting results because of their choices of perspective and assumptions. In response to a request from the House Subcommittee on Fossil and Synthetic

T. J. Considine; M. D. Deich; E. M. Ehrlich; P. C. Webre; P. H. ed. Johnston

1983-01-01

75

Natural gas monthly, November 1997  

SciTech Connect

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through November for many data series, and through August for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the most recent data estimates are: (1) Preliminary estimates of dry natural gas production and total consumption available through November 1997 indicate that both series are on track to end the year at levels close to those of 1996. Cumulative dry production is one-half percent higher than in 1996 and consumption is one-half percent lower. (2) Natural gas production is estimated to be 52.6 billion cubic feet per day in November 1997, the highest rate since March 1997. (3) After falling 8 percent in July 1997, the national average wellhead price rose 10 percent in August 1997, reaching an estimated $2.21 per thousand cubic feet. (4) Milder weather in November 1997 compared to November 1996 has resulted in significantly lower levels of residential consumption of natural gas and net storage withdrawls than a year ago. The November 1997 estimates of residential consumption and net withdrawls are 9 and 20 percent lower, respectively, than in November 1996.

NONE

1997-11-01

76

Natural gas monthly, July 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Explanatory Notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided in the Data Sources section. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. All natural gas volumes are reported at a pressure base of 14.73 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) and at 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Cubic feet are converted to cubic meters by applying a factor of 0.02831685.

NONE

1995-07-21

77

Natural gas monthly, February 1993  

SciTech Connect

This issue contains monthly data for the entire year 1992 and allows comparing this year with the previous years. Marketed production of natural gas remained at approximately the same level as in 1991, 18.6 trillion cubic feet. Marketed production has changed very little in the past 3 years, with only a 3-percent difference since 1989. Consumption of natural gas has also increased each year for the past 7 years. In 1992, the level of consumption increased by approximately 4 percent from the previous years. Imports have steadily increased over the past 7 years. Imports of natural gas in 1992 are approximately 16 percent above the 1991 level. The Iroquois Gas Transmission Line, extending from the Canadian border in New York to Long Island, accounts for a large part of this increase. This pipeline went into service in December 1991.

Not Available

1993-02-26

78

Delivery of Hydrogen Produced from Natural Gas  

E-print Network

Delivery of Hydrogen Produced from Natural Gas Christopher Freitas Office of Natural Gas-derived gaseous hydrogen delivery. The focus of this presentation will be on natural gas-derived gaseous hydrogen is needed on the effects of adding hydrogen to natural gas - Feasibility of injecting hydrogen into natural

79

Natural gas monthly, March 1999  

SciTech Connect

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly contains estimates for March 1999 for many natural gas data series at the national level. Estimates of national natural gas prices are available through December 1998 for most series. Highlights of the data contained in this issue are listed below. Preliminary data indicate that the national average wellhead price for 1998 declined to 16% from the previous year ($1.96 compared to $2.32 per thousand cubic feet). At the end of March, the end of the 1998--1999 heating season, the level of working gas in underground natural gas storage facilities is estimated to be 1,354 billion cubic feet, 169 billion cubic feet higher than at the end of March 1998. Gas consumption during the first 3 months of 1999 is estimated to have been 179 billion cubic feet higher than in the same period in 1998. Most of this increase (133 billion cubic feet) occurred in the residential sector due to the cooler temperatures in January and February compared to the same months last year. According to the National Weather Service, heating degree days in January 1999 were 15% greater than the previous year while February recorded a 5% increase.

NONE

1999-03-01

80

Natural gas monthly, February 1997  

SciTech Connect

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents estimates of natural gas supply and consumption through February 1997. Estimates of natural gas prices are through November 1996 except electric utility prices that are through October 1996. Cumulatively for January through February 1997, the daily average rates for several data series remain close to those of 1996. (Comparing daily rates accounts for the fact that February 1996 had 29 days.) Daily total consumption for January through February is estimated to be 83 billion cubic feet per day, 1 percent higher than during the same period in 1996. Similarly, the estimate of average daily production of 53 billion cubic feet is 1.5 percent higher than in 1996, while daily net imports during the first 2 months of 1997 are virtually unchanged from 1996.

NONE

1997-02-01

81

Natural gas hydrates: problem or opportunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas hydrates, once viewed solely as a nuisance by the gas processing industry, are rapidly gaining favorable status as an unconventional natural gas resource. Hydrates are solids which form when gas is contacted with water, both above and below 273 Kelvin. Conditions are favorable for hydrate formation in permafrost regions and in many oceans. Natural gas hydrates are solid

1981-01-01

82

Guide to new natural gas utilization technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural gas industry in the United States is undergoing a fundamental transition as the wellhead price is decontrolled. The phased decontrol of new gas under the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA) has had a dramatic positive impact on the natural gas supply picture. For the first time in 15 years the U.S. gas industry - which accounts

Hay

1985-01-01

83

Separation of liquid hydrocarbons from natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethane and other hydrocarbons of higher boiling point are separated as a liquid from natural gas to leave a gas consisting principally of methane for delivery to a pipeline. The natural gas is passed in countercurrent heat exchange with the liquid product and with the pipeline gas to cool the natural gas to a temperature at which a major part

1977-01-01

84

Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EIA attributes a more competitive industry and increases in pipeline capacity as major factors affecting increased natural gas demand in Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends. According to this recently released report, Natural gas demand has increased in the United States by fourteen percent since 1990 and electric utility consumption of natural gas rose about seventeen percent from 1990 to 1998.

85

Nitrogen removal from natural gas  

SciTech Connect

According to a 1991 Energy Information Administration estimate, U.S. reserves of natural gas are about 165 trillion cubic feet (TCF). To meet the long-term demand for natural gas, new gas fields from these reserves will have to be developed. Gas Research Institute studies reveal that 14% (or about 19 TCF) of known reserves in the United States are subquality due to high nitrogen content. Nitrogen-contaminated natural gas has a low Btu value and must be upgraded by removing the nitrogen. In response to the problem, the Department of Energy is seeking innovative, efficient nitrogen-removal methods. Membrane processes have been considered for natural gas denitrogenation. The challenge, not yet overcome, is to develop membranes with the required nitrogen/methane separation characteristics. Our calculations show that a methane-permeable membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 4 to 6 would make denitrogenation by a membrane process viable. The objective of Phase I of this project was to show that membranes with this target selectivity can be developed, and that the economics of the process based on these membranes would be competitive. Gas permeation measurements with membranes prepared from two rubbery polymers and a superglassy polymer showed that two of these materials had the target selectivity of 4 to 6 when operated at temperatures below - 20{degrees}C. An economic analysis showed that a process based on these membranes is competitive with other technologies for small streams containing less than 10% nitrogen. Hybrid designs combining membranes with other technologies are suitable for high-flow, higher-nitrogen-content streams.

NONE

1997-04-01

86

Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

This document comprises the Department of Energy (DOE) Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan, and is a follow-up to the `Natural Gas Strategic Plan and Program Crosscut Plans,` dated July 1995. DOE`s natural gas programs are aimed at simultaneously meeting our national energy needs, reducing oil imports, protecting our environment, and improving our economy. The Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan represents a Department-wide effort on expanded development and use of natural gas and defines Federal government and US industry roles in partnering to accomplish defined strategic goals. The four overarching goals of the Natural Gas Program are to: (1) foster development of advanced natural gas technologies, (2) encourage adoption of advanced natural gas technologies in new and existing markets, (3) support removal of policy impediments to natural gas use in new and existing markets, and (4) foster technologies and policies to maximize environmental benefits of natural gas use.

NONE

1997-12-01

87

Natural gas monthly, January 1997  

SciTech Connect

This publication, the Natural Gas Monthly, presents the most recent data on natural gas supply, consumption, and prices from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Of special interest in this issue are two articles summarizing reports recently published by EIA. The articles are {open_quotes}Natural Gas Productive Capacity{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Outlook for Natural Gas Through 2015,{close_quotes} both of which precede the {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} section. With this issue, January 1997, changes have been made to the format of the Highlights section and to several of the tabular and graphical presentations throughout the publication. The changes to the Highlights affect the discussion of developments in the industry and the presentation of weekly storage data. An overview of the developments in the industry is now presented in a brief summary followed by specific discussions of supply, end-use consumption, and prices. Spot and futures prices are discussed as appropriate in the Price section, together with wellhead and consumer prices.

NONE

1997-01-01

88

GAS\\/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas\\/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas\\/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene

Howard S. Meyer

2003-01-01

89

ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORT FUELS FROM NATURAL GAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the economics of using natural gas as an alternative fuel in transport vehicles including passenger cars, taxis, buses, and trucks. It compares the cost of using conventional fuels (gasoline and diesel) in these vehicles with that of retrofitting the vehicles and using natural gas-based fuels. These fuels include compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol,

JR. R. MORENO; D. G. FALLEN BAILEY

1989-01-01

90

Natural gas vehicles: An option for Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Europe natural gas vehicles play a minor role. A decisive reason for this is the dependence of most European countries from gas imports. Except for Italy, there is no tradition to use natural gas as fuel. In addition, there is a lack of infrastructure (e.g. fuelling stations). In contrast to Europe, in Latin American and Asian countries natural gas

Hella Engerer; Manfred Horn

2010-01-01

91

Polymeric Membranes for Natural Gas Conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

All raw natural gas needs conditioning. Polymeric membrane based gas separation processes, being cost and energy effective, environmentally friendly, as well as simple and versatile, have proven their potential as better alternatives to traditional processes for natural gas over the last three decades. In this article, the polymeric membrane based separation mechanisms for natural gas are analyzed. Two major membrane-based

H. Feng; H. Zhang; L. Xu

2007-01-01

92

Compressed natural gas measurement issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition`s Measurement and Metering Task Group (MMTG) was established on July 1st, 1992 to develop suggested revisions to National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) Handbook 44-1992 (Specifications, Tolerances, and Other Technical Requirements for Weighing and Measuring Devices) and NIST Handbook 130-1991 (Uniform Laws & Regulations). Specifically, the suggested revisions will address the sale and measurement

C. F. Blazek; J. A. Kinast; P. M. Freeman

1993-01-01

93

Natural gas leakage of Mizhi gas reservoir in Ordos Basin, recorded by natural gas fluid inclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundant natural gas inclusions were found in calcite veins filled in fractures of Central Fault Belt across the centre of\\u000a Ordos Basin. Time of the calcite veins and characteristics of natural gas fluid inclusion were investigated by means of dating\\u000a of thermolum luminescence (TL) and analyzing stable isotope of fluid inclusion. Results show that natural gas inclusion formed\\u000a at 130140C

RongXi Li; LingJun Di; ShengLi Xi

2007-01-01

94

Natural gas 1995: Issues and trends  

SciTech Connect

Natural Gas 1995: Issues and Trends addresses current issues affecting the natural gas industry and markets. Highlights of recent trends include: Natural gas wellhead prices generally declined throughout 1994 and for 1995 averages 22% below the year-earlier level; Seasonal patterns of natural gas production and wellhead prices have been significantly reduced during the past three year; Natural gas production rose 15% from 1985 through 1994, reaching 18.8 trillion cubic feet; Increasing amounts of natural gas have been imported; Since 1985, lower costs of producing and transporting natural gas have benefitted consumers; Consumers may see additional benefits as States examine regulatory changes aimed at increasing efficiency; and, The electric industry is being restructured in a fashion similar to the recent restructuring of the natural gas industry.

NONE

1995-11-01

95

Natural Gas Ethanol Flex-Fuel  

E-print Network

Natural Gas Propane Electric Ethanol Flex-Fuel Biodiesel Vehicle Buyer's Guide Clean Cities 2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Propane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 All and emissions. Alternative fueling infrastructure is expanding in many regions, making natural gas, propane

96

Underground Natural Gas Working Storage Capacity  

EIA Publications

Working natural gas storage capacity increased by about 2% in the lower 48 states between November 2011 and November 2012, according to Underground Working Natural Gas Storage Capacity, released by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA).

2014-01-01

97

Gas supplies of interstate/natural gas pipeline companies 1989  

SciTech Connect

This publication provides information on the interstate pipeline companies' supply of natural gas during calendar year 1989, for use by the FERC for regulatory purposes. It also provides information to other Government agencies, the natural gas industry, as well as policy makers, analysts, and consumers interested in current levels of interstate supplies of natural gas and trends over recent years. 5 figs., 18 tabs.

Not Available

1990-12-18

98

Turbo expanders in natural gas applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turboexpanders are proven, reliable and used widely in such natural gas applications as: ethane and propane extraction; natural gas (NG) dewpoint control; production of liquefied natural gas (LNG); flashing hydrocarbon liquids; NG pressure letdown energy recovery; and oilfield cogeneration. These applications are each discussed in this article as well as the design of a turboexpander and the various loading devices

Holm

1984-01-01

99

Natural gas depressurization power recovery and reheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for reduction in pressure of natural gas with the recovery of net power and the control of the temperature of the low pressure natural gas product by heat exchange with ambient atmosphere comprising the step of: (a) introducing high pressure natural gas at a pressure in the range of 100 to 2000 psia into an expansion

T. A. Shenoy; J. C. Tao

1987-01-01

100

Refueling stations for natural gas vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unavailability of natural gas vehicle (NGV) refueling stations constitutes one of the major barriers to the wide spread utilization of natural gas in the transportation market. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate the current technical and economic status of compressed natural gas vehicle refueling stations and to identify the components or design features that offer

C. F. Blazek; J. A. Kinast; R. T. Biederman; W. Jasionowski

1991-01-01

101

Compressed natural gas (CNG) measurement  

SciTech Connect

The increased level of environmental awareness has raised concerns about pollution. One area of high attention is the internal combustion engine. The internal combustion engine in and of itself is not a major pollution threat. However, the vast number of motor vehicles in use release large quantities of pollutants. Recent technological advances in ignition and engine controls coupled with unleaded fuels and catalytic converters have reduced vehicular emissions significantly. Alternate fuels have the potential to produce even greater reductions in emissions. The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) has been a significant alternative to accomplish the goal of cleaner combustion. Of the many alternative fuels under investigation, compressed natural gas (CNG) has demonstrated the lowest levels of emission. The only vehicle certified by the State of California as an Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) was powered by CNG. The California emissions tests of the ULEV-CNG vehicle revealed the following concentrations: Non-Methane Hydrocarbons 0.005 grams/mile Carbon Monoxide 0.300 grams/mile Nitrogen Oxides 0.040 grams/mile. Unfortunately, CNG vehicles will not gain significant popularity until compressed natural gas is readily available in convenient locations in urban areas and in proximity to the Interstate highway system. Approximately 150,000 gasoline filling stations exist in the United States while number of CNG stations is about 1000 and many of those CNG stations are limited to fleet service only. Discussion in this paper concentrates on CNG flow measurement for fuel dispensers. Since the regulatory changes and market demands affect the flow metering and dispenser station design those aspects are discussed. The CNG industry faces a number of challenges.

Husain, Z.D.; Goodson, F.D. [Daniel Flow Products, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-01

102

Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas reservoirs are obvious targets for carbon sequestration by direct carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection by virtue of their proven record of gas production and integrity against gas escape. Carbon sequestration in depleted natural gas reservoirs can be coupled with enhanced gas production by injecting CO{sub 2} into the reservoir as it is being produced, a process called Carbon Sequestration with Enhanced Gas Recovery (CSEGR). In this process, supercritical CO{sub 2} is injected deep in the reservoir while methane (CH{sub 4}) is produced at wells some distance away. The active injection of CO{sub 2} causes repressurization and CH{sub 4} displacement to allow the control and enhancement of gas recovery relative to water-drive or depletion-drive reservoir operations. Carbon dioxide undergoes a large change in density as CO{sub 2} gas passes through the critical pressure at temperatures near the critical temperature. This feature makes CO{sub 2} a potentially effective cushion gas for gas storage reservoirs. Thus at the end of the CSEGR process when the reservoir is filled with CO{sub 2}, additional benefit of the reservoir may be obtained through its operation as a natural gas storage reservoir. In this paper, we present discussion and simulation results from TOUGH2/EOS7C of gas mixture property prediction, gas injection, repressurization, migration, and mixing processes that occur in gas reservoirs under active CO{sub 2} injection.

Oldenburg, Curtis M.

2003-04-08

103

NITROGEN REMOVAL FROM NATURAL GAS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process for the denitrogenation of natural gas. Large proven reserves in the Lower-48 states cannot be produced because of the presence of nitrogen. To exploit these reserves, cost-effective, simple technology able to reduce the nitrogen content of the gas to 4-5% is required. Technology applicable to treatment of small gas streams (below 10 MMscfd) is particularly needed. In this project membranes that selectively permeate methane and reject nitrogen in the gas were developed. Preliminary calculations show that a membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 3 to 5 is required to make the process economically viable. A number of polymer materials likely to have the required selectivities were evaluated as composite membranes. Polyacetylenes such as poly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) [PTMSP] and poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) [PMP] had high selectivities and fluxes, but membranes prepared from these polymers were not stable, showing decreasing flux and selectivity during tests lasting only a few hours. Parel, a poly(propylene oxide allyl glycidyl ether) had a selectivity of 3 at ambient temperatures and 4 or more at temperatures of {minus}20 C. However, Parel is no longer commercially available, and we were unable to find an equivalent material in the time available. Therefore, most of our experimental work focused on silicone rubber membranes, which have a selectivity of 2.5 at ambient temperatures, increasing to 3-4 at low temperatures. Silicone rubber composite membranes were evaluated in bench-scale module tests and with commercial-scale, 4-inch-diameter modules in a small pilot plant. Over six days of continuous operation at a feed gas temperature of {minus}5 to {minus}10 C, the membrane maintained a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 3.3. Based on the pilot plant performance data, an analysis of the economic potential of the process was prepared. We conclude that a stand-alone membrane process is the lowest-cost technology for small gas streams containing less than 10% nitrogen. The membrane process can recover more than 60-70% of the hydrocarbon content of the gas at a cost of $0.60-0.70/Mscfd. The capital cost of the process is about $100-200/Mscf. A number of small operators appear to be ready to use the technology if these costs can be demonstrated in the field. A second, and perhaps better, application of the technology is to combine the membrane process with a cryogenic process to treat large gas streams containing 10-20% nitrogen. The combination process achieves significant synergies. The membrane process performs a bulk separation of the gas, after which the cryogenic process treats the membrane residue (nitrogen-enriched) gas to recover more methane. Overall, hydrocarbon recoveries are greater than 95%. The capital cost of the combination process is lower than that of either process used alone and the processing costs are in the range $0.30-0.40/Mscf. This operating cost would be attractive to many gas producers. MTR is collaborating with a producer of cryogenic systems to further develop the combination process. A number of innovations in membrane process designs were made during the project; four U.S. patents covering various aspects of the technology were filed and issued.

K.A. Lokhandwala; M.B. Ringer; T.T. Su; Z. He; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans; A. Morisato; K. Amo; A. DaCosta; R.W. Baker; R. Olsen; H. Hassani; T. Rathkamp

1999-12-31

104

Large scale high pressure jet fires involving natural gas and natural gas\\/hydrogen mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of six large scale high pressure jet fires were conducted using natural gas and natural gas\\/hydrogen mixtures. Three tests involved natural gas and three involved a mixture of natural gas and hydrogen containing approximately 24% by volume hydrogen. For each fuel, the three tests involved horizontal releases from 20, 35 and 50mm diameter holes at a gauge pressure

B. J. Lowesmith; G. Hankinson

105

Natural gas applications in waste management  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is engaged in several projects related to the use of natural gas for waste management. These projects can be classified into four categories: cyclonic incineration of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes; fluidized-bed reclamation of solid wastes; two-stage incineration of liquid and solid wastes; natural gas injection for emissions control. 5 refs., 8 figs.

Tarman, P.B.

1991-01-01

106

Controversial natural gas and oil issues tackled  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on recent activities regarding controversial natural gas and oil issues including the strategic oil reserve, expanded access to drilling in the outer continental shelf and authorization of oil and gas leasing in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, reestablishing regulation of the natural gas industry and budgeting for research and development.

Rodgers, L.M.

1991-04-15

107

Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy,

M. Rood Werpy; D. Santini; A. Burnham; M. Mintz

2010-01-01

108

Deviation of natural gas from Boyle's law  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for determining the deviation of natural gas from Boyle's law. The method consists primarily of accurate measurement by water displacement of the volume of gas at approximately atmospheric pressure which resulted from the expansion of a known volume of gas under high pressure. The measured gas volume is compared to that calculated by Boyle's law to

T. W. Johnson; W. B. Berwald

1932-01-01

109

Is natural gas injurious to flowering plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made to determine the effect of natural gas upon some common greenhouse and home plants. The plants were exposed to the natural gas in an air mixture under bell jars. The natural gas was composed of 74.6% methane, 14.2% ethane, 10.9% nitrogen, 0.2% oxygen and 0.1% carbon dioxide. Results indicate that even though some plants were more

F. G. Gustafson

1944-01-01

110

Natural gas hydrates: problem or opportunity  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas hydrates, once viewed solely as a nuisance by the gas processing industry, are rapidly gaining favorable status as an unconventional natural gas resource. Hydrates are solids which form when gas is contacted with water, both above and below 273 Kelvin. Conditions are favorable for hydrate formation in permafrost regions and in many oceans. Natural gas hydrates are solid crystalline compounds composed of cavities, formed by water molecules, which contain a natural gas guest. Hydrates are more properly called clathrates, after a general class of inclusion compounds, because they do not contain the fixed chemical formula characteristics of normal hydrates. These compounds represent a condensed form of natural gas, and each volume of the solid may contain as much as 170 volumes of gas at standard conditions. During the last decade, significant amounts of in situ hydrates have been found in permafrost regions of the earth and in deep oceans in warmer climates. Of the mechanisms proposed for recovery of gas from hydrates, all involve at least one of four principles: (1) pressure reduction; (2) thermal injection; (3) reservoir fracture; or (4) inhibitor injection, to break the hydrogen bonds of the water in the hydrate. Calculations by researchers in the United States indicate that thermal stimulation with a hot fluid, perhaps combined with reservoir fracture is energy efficient when the reservoir contains excess free gas. The question of definite reserve identification and commercialization of gas recovery is still a major challenge for this unconventional natural gas resource.

Sloan, E.D.

1981-11-01

111

Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends  

SciTech Connect

Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the US natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and the financial and environmental aspects of the industry. The report consists of seven chapters and five appendices. Chapter 1 presents a summary of various data trends and key issues in today`s natural gas industry and examines some of the emerging trends. Chapters 2 through 7 focus on specific areas or segments of the industry, highlighting some of the issues associated with the impact of natural gas operations on the environment. 57 figs., 18 tabs.

NONE

1999-06-01

112

U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report  

SciTech Connect

The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

NONE

1996-11-01

113

US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report  

SciTech Connect

The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

NONE

1997-12-01

114

Natural gas annual 1993 supplement: Company profiles  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1993 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of 45 selected companies in the natural gas industry. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the companies profiled. The companies in this report are interstate pipeline companies or local distribution companies (LDC`s). Interstate pipeline companies acquire gas supplies from company owned production, purchases from producers, and receipts for transportation for account of others. Pipeline systems, service area maps, company supply and disposition data are presented.

Not Available

1995-02-01

115

Natural Gas Monthly, March 1985. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

Current data on natrual and supplemental gas consumption, disposition, production, prices, storage, imports, and exports in the US are provided for each year from 1978 through 1985 with monthly data for the most recent 3 years. Some data are also given by state or city; some data are also given for previous years. Operating and financial data for major interstate natural gas pipeline companies, as well as data on filings, ceiling prices, and transportation under the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978, are also included. Explanatory notes, a discussion of data sources, and a glossary are included. Three reports previously published as separate annuals are now published in this report. The three are: ''Underground Natural Gas Storage in the United States'' (DOE/EIA-0239); ''US Imports and Exports of Natural Gas'' (DOE/EIA-0188); and ''Main Line Sales of Natural Gas to Industrial Users'' (DOE/EIA-0129). 5 figs., 23 tabs.

Not Available

1985-05-01

116

Underground natural gas storage reservoir management  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to research technologies and methodologies that will reduce the costs associated with the operation and maintenance of underground natural gas storage. This effort will include a survey of public information to determine the amount of natural gas lost from underground storage fields, determine the causes of this lost gas, and develop strategies and remedial designs to reduce or stop the gas loss from selected fields. Phase I includes a detailed survey of US natural gas storage reservoirs to determine the actual amount of natural gas annually lost from underground storage fields. These reservoirs will be ranked, the resultant will include the amount of gas and revenue annually lost. The results will be analyzed in conjunction with the type (geologic) of storage reservoirs to determine the significance and impact of the gas loss. A report of the work accomplished will be prepared. The report will include: (1) a summary list by geologic type of US gas storage reservoirs and their annual underground gas storage losses in ft{sup 3}; (2) a rank by geologic classifications as to the amount of gas lost and the resultant lost revenue; and (3) show the level of significance and impact of the losses by geologic type. Concurrently, the amount of storage activity has increased in conjunction with the net increase of natural gas imports as shown on Figure No. 3. Storage is playing an ever increasing importance in supplying the domestic energy requirements.

Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.

1995-06-01

117

Natural gas monthly, October 1990. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 34 tabs.

Not Available

1990-12-28

118

Natural gas monthly, September 1990. [Contains Glossary  

SciTech Connect

This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

Not Available

1990-11-30

119

Optimizing Natural Gas Use: A Case Study  

E-print Network

OPTIMIZING NATURAL GAS USE: A CASE STUDY VEN V. VENKATESAN, PATRICK SCHWEIKERT, General Manager, Senior Manager (Maintenance), VGA Engineering Consultants, Inc. Baker Petrolite 8030 Sandberry Blvd. 9100 W, 21st Street...OPTIMIZING NATURAL GAS USE: A CASE STUDY VEN V. VENKATESAN, PATRICK SCHWEIKERT, General Manager, Senior Manager (Maintenance), VGA Engineering Consultants, Inc. Baker Petrolite 8030 Sandberry Blvd. 9100 W, 21st Street...

Venkatesan, V. V.; Schweikert, P.

2007-01-01

120

Monthly Natural Gas Gross Production Report  

EIA Publications

Monthly natural gas gross withdrawals estimated from data collected on Form EIA-914 (Monthly Natural Gas Production Report) for Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico, Texas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, Wyoming, other states and lower 48 states. Alaska data are from the Alaska state government and included to obtain a U.S. total.

2014-01-01

121

Natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient method of producing hydrogen by high temperature steam electrolysis that will lower the electricity consumption to an estimated 65% lower than has been achievable with previous steam electrolyzer systems is described. This is accomplished with a natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer, which significantly reduces the electricity consumption. Since this natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer replaces one unit of electrical energy

A. Q. Pham; P. H. Wallman; R. S. Glass

2000-01-01

122

Natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient method of producing hydrogen by high temperature steam electrolysis that will lower the electricity consumption to an estimated 65 percent lower than has been achievable with previous steam electrolyzer systems. This is accomplished with a natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer, which significantly reduces the electricity consumption. Since this natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer replaces one unit of electrical energy by

Ai-Quoc Pham; P. Henrik Wallman; Robert S. Glass

2000-01-01

123

ELECTRICITY AND NATURAL GAS DATA COLLECTION  

E-print Network

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION HISTORICAL ELECTRICITY AND NATURAL GAS DATA COLLECTION Formsand CEC-1304 Sch 2 Generation and Fuel Use by Generator Quarterly Report .............. 13 CEC-1304 Sch 3 of Power Plants Semi-Annual Report ..................................... 44 CEC-1306D UDC Natural Gas

124

cleanenergyfuels.com Natural Gas Solutions  

E-print Network

Rollout #12;16 cleanenergyfuels.com America's Natural Gas Highway Las Vegas http://www.cleanenergyfuels.com/products Knoxville, TN #12;18 cleanenergyfuels.com 18 cleanenergyfuels.com 55 ANGH Sites Hope Hull, AL Latta, SC LCNG Station Design Industry's First #12;30 cleanenergyfuels.com Natural Gas Heavy Duty Market

Minnesota, University of

125

Natural gas annual 1994: Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data fro the Nation from 1930 to 1994, and by State from 1967 to 1994.

NONE

1995-11-01

126

Nitrogen Removal From Low Quality Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas provides more than one-fifth of all the primary energy used in the United States. It is especially important in the residential sector, where it supplies nearly half of all the energy consumed in U.S. homes. However, significant quantities of natural gas cannot be produced economically because its quality is too low to enter the pipeline transportation system without

D. B. Alvarado; M. F. Asaro; J. L. Bomben; A. S. Damle; A. S. Bhown

1997-01-01

127

Development of a thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Praxair, in conjunction with the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is developing a new technology, thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators, for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons\\/day, has been built and tested. The power

John J. Wollan; Gregory W. Swift; S. N. Backhaus; D. L. Gardner

2002-01-01

128

Conversion of natural gas to transport fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology for the conversion of natural gas to liquid transport fuels continues to develop. Some options are already available for commercial application and more will be available by the early to mid-1990's. All of these involve the conversion of natural gas into syngas. Further processing involves either the Fischer-Tropsch or methanol conversion options. Both can be selective for gasoline or

N. W. Green; R. V. Ramanathan

1988-01-01

129

Turbo expanders in natural gas applications  

SciTech Connect

Turboexpanders are proven, reliable and used widely in such natural gas applications as: ethane and propane extraction; natural gas (NG) dewpoint control; production of liquefied natural gas (LNG); flashing hydrocarbon liquids; NG pressure letdown energy recovery; and oilfield cogeneration. These applications are each discussed in this article as well as the design of a turboexpander and the various loading devices available. Mechanical designs of low temperature, high speed machinery are routine. Stiff designs have eliminated shaft and bearing criticals in the entire operating range. Rotor resonance problems are almost totally eliminated. Thrust bearing problems can be accurately monitored and controlled. Condensing streams and some dust in gas can be handled without erosion.

Holm, J

1984-09-01

130

Natural gas 1994: Issues and trends  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an overview of the natural gas industry in 1993 and early 1994 (Chapter 1), focusing on the overall ability to deliver gas under the new regulatory mandates of Order 636. In addition, the report highlights a range of issues affecting the industry, including: restructuring under Order 636 (Chapter 2); adjustments in natural gas contracting (Chapter 3); increased use of underground storage (Chapter 4); effects of the new market on the financial performance of the industry (Chapter 5); continued impacts of major regulatory and legislative changes on the natural gas market (Appendix A).

Not Available

1994-07-01

131

Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves  

E-print Network

current and projected U.S. energy demands. Shale gas development in Louisiana, Arkansas, Texas, Oklahoma at the end of 2008. This underscores the role of more efficient and effective shale gas explorationSummary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves 2009 November 2010 U

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

132

SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY  

SciTech Connect

The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports provide both the backdrop and the impetus for this study.

COOK,Z.

1999-02-01

133

Natural gas monthly, September 1991. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production distribution consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

Not Available

1991-10-18

134

Process for the liquefaction of natural gas  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is a process for the liquefaction of high pressure natural gas. The natural gas is expanded through a turboexpander to reduce its pressure and thereby cool it. The natural gas is then passed through a demethanizer to remove the heavier components therefrom. The natural gas is then precooled, before substantial warming occurs, by heat exchange with a C/sub 2/ hydrocarbon refrigerant, either ethane or ethylene, contained in a single refrigerant system. The precooled natural gas is liquefied by heat exchange with a mixed refrigerant contained in a mixed refrigerant system. The mixed refrigerant consists essentially of nitrogen, methane and a C/sub 2/ hydrocarbon, either ethane or ethylene. The mixed refrigerant contained in the mixed refrigerant system is cooled by heat exchange with the C/sub 2/ hydrocarbon refrigerant contained in the single refrigerant system.

Chiu, C.

1985-10-22

135

IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.

Jason M. Keith

2005-02-01

136

Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities.  

SciTech Connect

In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions that reduce petroleum use in the transportation sector - we have examined the state of natural gas vehicle technology, current market status, energy and environmental benefits, implications regarding advancements in European natural gas vehicle technologies, research and development efforts, and current market barriers and opportunities for greater market penetration. The authors contend that commercial intracity trucks are a prime area for advancement of this fuel. Therefore, we examined an aggressive future market penetration of natural gas heavy-duty vehicles that could be seen as a long-term goal. Under this scenario using Energy Information Administration projections and GREET life-cycle modeling of U.S. on-road heavy-duty use, natural gas vehicles would reduce petroleum consumption by approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil per day, while another 400,000 barrels of oil per day reduction could be achieved with significant use of natural gas off-road vehicles. This scenario would reduce daily oil consumption in the United States by about 8%.

Rood Werpy, M.; Santini, D.; Burnham, A.; Mintz, M.; Energy Systems

2010-11-29

137

High-sulfur natural gas project opens  

SciTech Connect

The Astrakhan' high-sulfur natural gas project, under development since 1981, yielded its first natural gas, gas liquids and recovered sulfur in late December 1986 and early January 1987. The gas project, in the desert north of Astrakhan', is being developed from the base settlement of Aksarayskiy, a railroad junction north of Astrakhan'. The initial stage now in operation has a throughput capacity of three billion cubic meters of natural gas; it is to be doubled later in 1987, to six billion m/sup 3/. Astrakhan's is the third major sour gas project to be developed in the Soviet Union; the others are at Orenburg, in the southern Urals, and at Mubarek, in the Uzbek SSR of Central Asia.

Shabad, T.

1986-07-01

138

Natural gas contracts in efficient portfolios  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the {open_quotes}contracts portfolio{close_quotes} issue of natural gas contracts in support of the Domestic Natural Gas and Oil Initiative (DGOI) published by the U.S. Department of Energy in 1994. The analysis is a result of a collaborative effort with the Public Service Commission of the State of Maryland to consider {open_quotes}reforms that enhance the industry`s competitiveness{close_quotes}. The initial focus of our collaborative effort was on gas purchasing and contract portfolios; however, it became apparent that efficient contracting to purchase and use gas requires a broader consideration of regulatory reform. Efficient portfolios are obtained when the holder of the portfolio is affected by and is responsible for the performance of the portfolio. Natural gas distribution companies may prefer a diversity of contracts, but the efficient use of gas requires that the local distribution company be held accountable for its own purchases. Ultimate customers are affected by their own portfolios, which they manage efficiently by making their own choices. The objectives of the DGOI, particularly the efficient use of gas, can be achieved when customers have access to suppliers of gas and energy services under an improved regulatory framework. The evolution of the natural gas market during the last 15 years is described to account for the changing preferences toward gas contracts. Long-term contracts for natural gas were prevalent before the early 1980s, primarily because gas producers had few options other than to sell to a single pipeline company, and this pipeline company, in turn, was the only seller to a gas distribution company.

Sutherland, R.J.

1994-12-01

139

North American Natural Gas Markets. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group`s findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

Not Available

1989-02-01

140

North American Natural Gas Markets. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group`s findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

Not Available

1988-12-01

141

Natural gas annual 1992: Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. The 1992 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production top its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1988 to 1992 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. Volume 2 of this report presents State-level historical data.

Not Available

1993-11-22

142

An occluded coastal oceanic front  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field observations, including hydrographic, microwave imaging radar, and HF radar measurements, reveal the evolution of a complicated frontal interaction between three water masses on the continental shelf near Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, during a period of incursion of water from the Gulf Stream. The water masses were found to be separated by intersecting frontal lines configured in a manner analogous to an occluded atmospheric front. The densest water lay between inshore and offshore fronts that gradually merged or occluded in the generally downstream direction, leaving a single surface front. The overall frontal structure appeared as a distinct Y-shaped feature in the radar imagery, similar to historical imagery of the study area. The interpretation of the observations is aided by the use of a two-dimensional numerical model. The model is initialized with two fronts idealized from the ocean measurements. The model fronts quickly sharpen and begin to move together, eventually occluding into a single surface front. As a result of the occlusion, the water mass having intermediate density subducts and intrudes under the most buoyant water, carrying with it strong horizontal and vertical shears, and a frontal band of diverging currents is created in the densest water mass. The model thus suggests that in the ocean there will be an increase in hydrographic and velocity fine structure downstream of the frontal occlusion point.

Marmorino, G. O.; Shen, C. Y.; Allan, N.; Askari, F.; Trizna, D. B.; Trump, C. L.; Shay, L. K.

1998-09-01

143

Incremental natural gas resources through infield reserve growth/secondary natural gas recovery. [Compartmented natural gas reservoir  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the Infield Growth/Secondary Natural Gas Recovery project have been: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities in reservoirs of conventional permeability cause reservoir compartmentalization and, hence, incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document practical, field-oriented examples of reserve growth from fluvial and deltaic sandstones of the Texas gulf coast basin and to use these gas reservoirs as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications of both tools and techniques to find secondary gas. To demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields. To transfer project results to natural gas producers, not just as field case studies, but as conceptual models of how heterogeneities determine natural gas flow and how to recognize the geologic and engineering clues that operators can use in a cost-effective manner to identify secondary gas. Accomplishments are presented for: reservoir characterization; integrated formation evaluation and engineering testing; compartmented reservoir simulator; and reservoir geophysics.

Finley, R.J.; Levey, R.A.

1992-01-01

144

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

A new project was initiated this quarter to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading. Efforts have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project.

Howard S. Meyer

2002-06-01

145

Research and Application of the Natural Gas Heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural gas heater is an indispensable piece of equipment in natural gas production, transmission, and application systems and is widely used in gas wellhead, metering station, transfer station and gas power plant etc. As a special type of furnace, the natural gas heater adopts indirect heating through heat-transfer medium and is the important energy consumption equipment in natural gas

Guo Yun; Cao Wei-wu

2009-01-01

146

Natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer  

SciTech Connect

An efficient method of producing hydrogen by high temperature steam electrolysis that will lower the electricity consumption to an estimated 65% lower than has been achievable with previous steam electrolyzer systems is described. This is accomplished with a natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer, which significantly reduces the electricity consumption. Since this natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer replaces one unit of electrical energy by one unit of energy content in natural gas at one-quarter the cost, the hydrogen production cost will be significantly reduced. Also, it is possible to vary the ratio between the electricity and the natural gas supplied to the system in response to fluctuations in relative prices for these two energy sources. In one approach an appropriate catalyst on the anode side of the electrolyzer will promote the partial oxidation of natural gas to CO and hydrogen, called Syn-Gas, and the CO can also be shifted to CO{sub 2} to give additional hydrogen. In another approach the natural gas is used in the anode side of the electrolyzer to burn out the oxygen resulting from electrolysis, thus reducing or eliminating the potential difference across the electrolyzer membrane.

Pham, A.Q.; Wallman, P.H.; Glass, R.S.

2000-04-18

147

Natural gas contracting in the '80s  

SciTech Connect

As the casinghead gas became recognized by state regulatory agencies as a valuable natural resource, they began issuing no-flare orders. This had the effect of forcing producers to shut in oil production until they made arrangements for using or marketing the gas. Low pressure gathering systems were built into the oil fields. Most of the casinghead gas produced in this country is now processed for the extraction of liquefiable hydrocarbons, and the residue gas sold to pipeline compaines. Regulations concerning casinghead gas are discussed.

La Grone, J.C.

1981-01-01

148

Natural gas flow through critical nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Empirical method for calculating both the mass flow rate and upstream volume flow rate through critical flow nozzles is determined. Method requires knowledge of the composition of natural gas, and of the upstream pressure and temperature.

Johnson, R. C.

1969-01-01

149

Method for dismantling a natural gas holder  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of dismantling a natural gas holder. The holder has vertical support columns disposed around the periphery of the holder to which the enclosure shell of the holder is attached.

Settlemier, B.R.; Bone, S.R.; Tolivaisa, J.; Nugent, J.E.

1990-10-30

150

STAFF REPORT 2012 NATURAL GAS RESEARCH,  

E-print Network

STAFF REPORT 2012 NATURAL GAS RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION REPORT CALIFORNIA Manager Energy Systems Research Office Mike Gravely Deputy Division Chief Energy Research and Development Division Laurie ten Hope Deputy Director Energy Research and Development Division Robert P. Oglesby

151

Natural gas 1996 - issues and trends  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents a summary of the latest data and information relating to the U.S. natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and financial aspects of the industry.

NONE

1996-12-01

152

Natural gas annual 1992: Supplement: Company profiles  

SciTech Connect

The data for the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement : Company Profiles are taken from Form EIA-176, (open quotes) Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition (close quotes). Other sources include industry literature and corporate annual reports to shareholders. The companies appearing in this report are major interstate natural gas pipeline companies, large distribution companies, or combination companies with both pipeline and distribution operations. The report contains profiles of 45 corporate families. The profiles describe briefly each company, where it operates, and any important issues that the company faces. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the 45 large companies profiled.

Not Available

1994-01-01

153

Nitrogen Removal From Low Quality Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas provides more than one-fifth of all the primary energy used in the United States. It is especially important in the residential sector, where it supplies nearly half of all the energy consumed in U.S. homes. However, significant quantities of natural gas cannot be produced economically because its quality is too low to enter the pipeline transportation system without some type of processing, other than dehydration, to remove the undesired gas fraction. Such low-quality natural gas (LQNG) contains significant concentration or quantities of gas other than methane. These non- hydrocarbons are predominantly nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide, but may also include other gaseous components. The nitrogen concentrations usually exceeds 4%. Nitrogen rejection is presently an expensive operation which can present uneconomic scenarios in the potential development of natural gas fields containing high nitrogen concentrations. The most reliable and widely used process for nitrogen rejection from natural gas consists of liquefying the feed stream using temperatures in the order of - 300{degrees}F and separating the nitrogen via fractionation. In order to reduce the gas temperature to this level, the gas is compressed, cooled by mullet-stream heat exchangers, and expanded to low pressure. Significant energy for compression and expensive materials of construction are required. Water and carbon dioxide concentrations must be reduced to levels required to prevent freezing. SRI`s proposed research involves screening new nitrogen selective absorbents and developing a more cost effective nitrogen removal process from natural gas using those compounds. The long-term objective of this project is to determine the technical and economical feasibility of a N{sub 2}2 removal concept based on complexation of molecular N{sub 2} with novel complexing agents. Successful development of a selective, reversible, and stable reagent with an appropriate combination of capacity and N{sub 2} absorption/desorption characteristics will allow selective separation of N{sub 2} from LQNG.

Alvarado, D.B.; Asaro, M.F.; Bomben, J.L.; Damle, A.S.; Bhown, A.S.

1997-10-01

154

Natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium. Implications for the origin of natural gas.  

PubMed

It is broadly accepted that so-called 'thermal' gas is the product of thermal cracking, 'primary' thermal gas from kerogen cracking, and 'secondary' thermal gas from oil cracking. Since thermal cracking of hydrocarbons does not generate products at equilibrium and thermal stress should not bring them to equilibrium over geologic time, we would not expect methane, ethane, and propane to be at equilibrium in subsurface deposits. Here we report compelling evidence of natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium. Molecular compositions are constrained to equilibrium, [Formula in text] and isotopic compositions are also under equilibrium constraints: [Formula in text].The functions [(CH4)*(C3H8)] and [(C2H6)2] exhibit a strong nonlinear correlation (R2 = 0.84) in which the quotient Q progresses to K as wet gas progresses to dry gas. There are striking similarities between natural gas and catalytic gas generated from marine shales. A Devonian/Mississippian New Albany shale generates gas with Q converging on K over time as wet gas progresses to dry gas at 200 degrees C. The position that thermal cracking is the primary source of natural gas is no longer tenable. It is challenged by its inability to explain the composition of natural gas, natural gases at thermodynamic equilibrium, and by the existence of a catalytic path to gas that better explains gas compositions. PMID:19531233

Mango, Frank D; Jarvie, Daniel; Herriman, Eleanor

2009-01-01

155

Calculation of natural gas isentropic exponent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed numerical procedure for the calculation of the isentropic exponent of a natural gas is derived. The procedure follows the RedlichKwong solution using the AGA8\\/1992 extended virial-type characterization equation (AGA8-92DC equation) for the determination of the compression factor. The AIChE generic ideal heat capacity equations are used to derive the molar heat capacities of the natural gas mixture. The

Ivan Mari?; Antun Galovi?; Tomislav muc

2005-01-01

156

About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines  

EIA Publications

This information product provides the interested reader with a broad and non-technical overview of how the U.S. natural gas pipeline network operates, along with some insights into the many individual pipeline systems that make up the network. While the focus of the presentation is the transportation of natural gas over the interstate and intrastate pipeline systems, information on subjects related to pipeline development, such as system design and pipeline expansion, are also included.

2007-01-01

157

Practical natural gas engineering, 2nd edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book reports on remedial measures for gas wells and new methods for calculating the position of the stabilized performance curves for gas wells as well as the heating value for natural gases from compositional analyses. In addition, the author includes problem solutions in an appendix and a section showing the relation between the conventional empirical equation and the theoretical

1990-01-01

158

METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a project to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. his study will measure or calculate all gas industry CH4 emissions--from production at the wellhead, through the system, to the customer's meter. missions downstream of the consu...

159

Natural gas density calculator. Technical memo  

Microsoft Academic Search

A calculation procedure suitable for determining the thermodynamic properties of natural gas at cryogenic conditions is required for detailed modeling on a digital computer of oil slurry in LNG. An existing procedure developed for the American Gas Association, Inc. was programmed for testing with a desktop calculator, the HP9810A. The memorandum describes the use of that program.

Rennert

1975-01-01

160

What natural gas decontrol means this winter  

SciTech Connect

Using data from pipeline Purchase Gas Adjustment (PGA) filings and the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) of 1978, this analysis argues that gas prices to consumers will be relatively flat this winter heating season. Both federal regulation and the operation of pipeline/producer contracts will delay price increases until the spring of 1985, and market forces and renegotiated contracts could keep that relatively unchanged. The key uncertainty is whether contract renegotiation occurs. 1 figure, 1 table.

Not Available

1984-01-01

161

The role of natural gas as a vehicle transportation fuel  

E-print Network

This thesis analyzes pathways to directly use natural gas, as compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG), in the transportation sector. The thesis focuses on identifying opportunities to reduce market ...

Murphy, Paul Jarod

2010-01-01

162

Natural gas hydrates: myths, facts and issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas hydrates are solid-like substances naturally occurring beneath the oceans and in polar regions. They contain vast, and potentially unstable, reserves of methane and other natural gases. Many believe that, if released in the environment, the methane from hydrates would be a considerable hazard to marine ecosystems, coastal populations and infrastructures, or worse, that it would dangerously contribute to global

2004-01-01

163

Performance study using natural gas, hydrogen-supplemented natural gas and hydrogen in AVL research engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance tests with natural gas, hydrogen-supplemented CH4, and H2-fueled configurations of the AVL research engine are reported. A comparison is made of the properties of H2 and natural gas, noting that natural gas benefits such as heating value, higher ignition energy, and narrow ignition limits are at least partially offset by H2 wide ignition limits which allow elimination of throttling,

F. Duebel; K. Schmillen; B. Nagalingam

1983-01-01

164

Natural gas monthly, February 1993. [Contains Glossary  

SciTech Connect

This issue contains monthly data for the entire year 1992 and allows comparing this year with the previous years. Marketed production of natural gas remained at approximately the same level as in 1991, 18.6 trillion cubic feet. Marketed production has changed very little in the past 3 years, with only a 3-percent difference since 1989. Consumption of natural gas has also increased each year for the past 7 years. In 1992, the level of consumption increased by approximately 4 percent from the previous years. Imports have steadily increased over the past 7 years. Imports of natural gas in 1992 are approximately 16 percent above the 1991 level. The Iroquois Gas Transmission Line, extending from the Canadian border in New York to Long Island, accounts for a large part of this increase. This pipeline went into service in December 1991.

Not Available

1993-02-26

165

NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS  

SciTech Connect

From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations using laboratory pyrolysis methods have provided much information on the origins of deep gas. Technologic problems are one of the greatest challenges to deep drilling. Problems associated with overcoming hostile drilling environments (e.g. high temperatures and pressures, and acid gases such as CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) for successful well completion, present the greatest obstacles to drilling, evaluating, and developing deep gas fields. Even though the overall success ratio for deep wells is about 50 percent, a lack of geological and geophysical information such as reservoir quality, trap development, and gas composition continues to be a major barrier to deep gas exploration. Results of recent finding-cost studies by depth interval for the onshore U.S. indicate that, on average, deep wells cost nearly 10 times more to drill than shallow wells, but well costs and gas recoveries vary widely among different gas plays in different basins. Based on an analysis of natural gas assessments, many topical areas hold significant promise for future exploration and development. One such area involves re-evaluating and assessing hypothetical unconventional basin-center gas plays. Poorly-understood basin-center gas plays could contain significant deep undiscovered technically-recoverable gas resources.

Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

2002-02-05

166

How Regulators Should Use Natural Gas Price Forecasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas prices are critical to a range of regulatory decisions covering both electric and gas utilities. Natural gas prices are often a crucial variable in electric generation capacity planning and in the benefit-cost relationship for energy-efficiency programs. High natural gas prices can make coal generation the most economical new source, while low prices can make natural gas generation the

Ken Costello

2010-01-01

167

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment has been initiated. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50--70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project.

Howard S. Meyer

2002-06-01

168

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50--70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project.

Howard S. Meyer

2002-06-30

169

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. KPS and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues.

Howard S. Meyer

2002-10-01

170

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues.

Howard S. Meyer

2003-01-01

171

Natural gas hydrates: myths, facts and issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas hydrates are solid-like substances naturally occurring beneath the oceans and in polar regions. They contain vast, and potentially unstable, reserves of methane and other natural gases. Many believe that, if released in the environment, the methane from hydrates would be a considerable hazard to marine ecosystems, coastal populations and infrastructures, or worse, that it would dangerously contribute to global warming. On the other hand, hydrates may contain enough natural gas to provide an energy supply assurance for the 21st century. This paper attempts to separate the myths, the facts and the issues that relate to natural gas hydrates beyond the doomsday environmental scenarios and overly optimistic estimates. To cite this article: B. Beauchamp, C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

Beauchamp, Beno??t

2004-07-01

172

Social costs of natural gas market rigidities  

SciTech Connect

To the extent that there are market imperfections and other constraints limiting consumption of gas to levels significantly below those dictated by underlying economic factors of cost and producibility, society bears the cost resulting from misallocation of resources and avoidable environmental deterioration. Given the regulatory and institutional setting within which the natural gas industry has been forced to operate, there is a strong presumption that such inhibitions on gas use may in fact exist. Some rigidities stem undoubtedly from characteristics unique to gas as a natural-resource commodity. This report presents a framework for reviewing potential sources of constraints, rigidities, and distortions in the functioning of natural gas markets under the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA) and other legislation. The organizing principle and primary focus of the paper are the sequence of transactions between wellhead and point of consumption, with major attention to industrial and power plant use. The transactions in question are between: producers and pipelines; pipelines and distributors; distributors and end users; and pipelines and industrial end users (mainline sales). In addition to these vertical transactions, there are horizontal transactions between pipelines (off-system sales) and between distributors. 22 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

Broadman, H.G.; Darmstadter, J.; Montgomery, W.D.

1983-01-01

173

Economic evaluation of natural gas hydrate as an alternative for natural gas transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a proposed process for conversion of natural gas to natural gas hydrate, NGH, the amortized total capital investment, operation and maintenance costs and total cost for production of NGH have been obtained. The effects of different operational conditions such as seawater temperature as cooling media and hydrate storage temperature have been investigated. The economic parameters for marine transportation

J. Javanmardi; Kh. Nasrifar; S. H. Najibi; M. Moshfeghian

2005-01-01

174

The solar thermal decarbonization of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endothermic decomposition of natural gas into a carbon-rich condensed phase and a hydrogen-rich gas phase, using concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat, is considered as a model reaction for conducting a 2nd-law analysis of a solar decarbonization process in which carbon is removed from fossil fuels prior to their use for power generation. The theoretical

D. Hirsch; M. Epstein; A. Steinfeld

2001-01-01

175

The efficient use of natural gas in transportation  

SciTech Connect

Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

1992-04-01

176

The efficient use of natural gas in transportation  

SciTech Connect

Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

1992-01-01

177

Implications of Disruption to Natural Gas Deliverability  

SciTech Connect

This project was sponsored by Department of Energy/Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability and managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The primary purpose of the project was to analyze the capability of the natural gas production, transmission and supply systems to continue to provide service in the event of a major disruption in capacity of one or more natural gas transmission pipelines. The project was specifically designed to detail the ability of natural gas market to absorb facility losses and efficiently reallocate gas supplies during a significant pipeline capacity disruption in terms that allowed federal and state agencies and interests to develop effective policies and action plans to prioritize natural gas deliveries from a regional and national perspective. The analyses for each regional study were based on four primary considerations: (1) operating conditions (pipeline capacity, storage capacity, local production, power dispatch decision making and end user options); (2) weather; (3) magnitude and location of the disruption; and, (4) normal versus emergency situation. The detailed information contained in the region reports as generated from this project are Unclassified Controlled Information; and as such are subject to disclosure in accordance with the Freedom of Information Act. Therefore, this report defines the regions that were analyzed and the basic methodologies and assumptions used to completing the analysis.

Science Applications International

2008-09-30

178

Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbon  

SciTech Connect

Despite technical advances to reduce air pollution emissions, motor vehicles still account for 30 to 70% emissions of all urban air pollutants. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require 100 cities in the United States to reduce the amount of their smog within 5 to 15 years. Hence, auto emissions, the major cause of smog, must be reduced 30 to 60% by 1998. Natural gas con be combusted with less pollutant emissions. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) uses adsorbents and operates with a low storage pressure which results in lower capital costs and maintenance. This paper describes the production of an activated carbon adsorbent produced from an Illinois coal for ANG.

Sun, Jian; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

179

Development of a thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier.  

SciTech Connect

Praxair, in conjunction with the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is developing a new technology, thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators, for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons/day, has been built and tested. The power source is a natural gas burner. Systems will be developed with liquefaction capacities up to 10,000 to 20,000 gallons per day. The technology, the development project, accomplishments and applications are discussed. In February 2001 Praxair, Inc. purchased the acoustic heat engine and refrigeration development program from Chart Industries. Chart (formerly Cryenco, which Chart purchased in 1997) and Los Alamos had been working on the technology development program since 1994. The purchase included assets and intellectual property rights for thermoacoustically driven orifice pulse tube refrigerators (TADOPTR), a new and revolutionary Thermoacoustic Stirling Heat Engine (TASHE) technology, aspects of Orifice Pulse Tube Refrigeration (OPTR) and linear motor compressors as OPTR drivers. Praxair, in cooperation with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the licensor of the TADOPTR and TASHE patents, is continuing the development of TASHE-OPTR natural gas powered, natural gas liquefiers. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at -161 C (-259 F) at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 TADOPTR invention by Drs. Greg Swift (LANL) and Ray Radebaugh (NIST) demonstrated the first technology to produce cryogenic refrigeration with no moving parts. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators use acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat. The basic driver and refrigerator consist of nothing more than helium-filled heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. The liquefier development program is divided into two components: Thermoacoustically driven refrigerators and linear motor driven refrigerators (LOPTRs). LOPTR technology will, for the foreseeable future, be limited to natural gas liquefaction capacities on the order of hundreds of gallons per day. TASHE-OPTR technology is expected to achieve liquefaction capacities of tens of thousands of gallons per day. This paper will focus on the TASHE-OPTR technology because its natural gas liquefaction capacity has greater market opportunity. LOPTR development will be mentioned briefly. The thermoacoustically driven refrigerator development program is now in the process of demonstrating the technology at a capacity of about 500 gallon/day (gpd) i.e., approximately 42,000 standard cubic feet/day, which requires about 7 kW of refrigeration power. This capacity is big enough to illuminate the issues of large-scale acoustic liquefaction at reasonable cost and to demonstrate the liquefaction of about 70% of an input gas stream, while burning about 30%. Subsequent to this demonstration a system with a capacity of approximately 10{sup 6} standard cubic feet/day (scfd) = 10,000 gpd with a projected liquefaction rate of about 85% of the input gas stream will be developed. When commercialized, the TASHE-OPTRs will be a totally new type of heat-driven cryogenic refrigerator, with projected low manufacturing cost, high reliability, long life, and low maintenance. A TASHE-OPTR will be able to liquefy a broad range of gases, one of the most important being natural gas (NG). Potential NG applications range from distributed liquefaction of pipeline gas as fuel for heavy-duty fleet and long haul vehicles to large-scale liquefaction at on-shore and offshore gas wellheads. An alternative to the thermoacoustic driver, but with many similar technical and market advantages, is the linear motor compressor. Linear motors convert electrical power directly into oscillating linear, or axial, motion. Attachment of a piston to the oscillator results in a direct drive compressor. Such a compressor

Wollan, J. J. (John J.); Swift, G. W. (Gregory W.); Backhaus, S. N. (Scott N.); Gardner, D. L. (David L.)

2002-01-01

180

Method and apparatus for the cooling of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is claimed for cooling natural gas in a system in which the natural gas contains components other than methane which are separable by dewpoint condensation and the natural gas is available from a source, e.g. a well, at an elevated pressure. In accordance with the present invention, the natural gas is initially expanded in a work-producing expansion turbine

Strass

1982-01-01

181

A Critical Evaluation of Iranian Natural Gas Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, the world energy focus is shifting towards natural gas for power and heat generation as a substitute for coal and oil. Approximately 60% of world natural gas reserves are mainly concentrated in Russia, Iran, and Qatar. Iran will play a main role in the supply of world natural gas demand, if its natural gas fields can be developed effectively.

R. E. Osgouei; M. Sorgun

2012-01-01

182

Natural gas pipeline leaks across Washington, DC.  

PubMed

Pipeline safety in the United States has increased in recent decades, but incidents involving natural gas pipelines still cause an average of 17 fatalities and $133 M in property damage annually. Natural gas leaks are also the largest anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the U.S. To reduce pipeline leakage and increase consumer safety, we deployed a Picarro G2301 Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer in a car, mapping 5893 natural gas leaks (2.5 to 88.6 ppm CH4) across 1500 road miles of Washington, DC. The ?(13)C-isotopic signatures of the methane (-38.2 3.9 s.d.) and ethane (-36.5 1.1 s.d.) and the CH4:C2H6 ratios (25.5 8.9 s.d.) closely matched the pipeline gas (-39.0 and -36.2 for methane and ethane; 19.0 for CH4/C2H6). Emissions from four street leaks ranged from 9200 to 38,200 L CH4 day(-1) each, comparable to natural gas used by 1.7 to 7.0 homes, respectively. At 19 tested locations, 12 potentially explosive (Grade 1) methane concentrations of 50,000 to 500,000 ppm were detected in manholes. Financial incentives and targeted programs among companies, public utility commissions, and scientists to reduce leaks and replace old cast-iron pipes will improve consumer safety and air quality, save money, and lower greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:24432903

Jackson, Robert B; Down, Adrian; Phillips, Nathan G; Ackley, Robert C; Cook, Charles W; Plata, Desiree L; Zhao, Kaiguang

2014-02-01

183

Russias Natural Gas Export Potential up to 2050  

E-print Network

Recent increases in natural gas reserve estimates and advances in shale gas technology make natural gas a fuel with good prospects to serve a bridge to a low-carbon world. Russia is an important energy supplier as it holds ...

Paltsev, Sergey

184

Oil & Natural Gas Technology DOE Award No.: FWP 49462  

E-print Network

Used by Marcellus Shale Gas Producers Submitted by: John A. Veil Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, and gas shales. Figure 1 shows EIA projections of the source of natural gas supplies through 2030 productive oil and gas activities in the country today are shale gas plays. Figure 1 ­ U.S. Natural Gas

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

185

Rapidly Estimating Natural Gas Compressibility Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gases containing sour components exhibit different gas compressibility factor (Z) behavior than do sweet gases. Therefore, a new accurate method should be developed to account for these differences. Several methods are available today for calculating the Z-factor from an equation of state. However, these equations are more complex than the foregoing correlations, involving a large number of parameters, which

Alireza Bahadori; Saeid Mokhatab; Brian F. Towler

2007-01-01

186

Liquefied natural gas safety research overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is a growing factor in the United States energy supply situation, both for periods of high demand, peak shaving, and for daily supply (base load). Safety has been a major issue in its acceptance by the public, the government, and industry. Perhaps because of this, industry and government have undertaken programs of research, development, testing, and

A. L. Schneider

1978-01-01

187

Hydrogen-Enhanced Natural Gas Vehicle Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of HCNG fuel (30 to 50% hydrogen by volume and the remainder natural gas) to reduce emissions from light-duty on-road vehicles with no loss in performance or efficiency. The City of Las Vegas has an interest in alternative fuels and already has an existing hydrogen refueling station. Collier Technologies Inc (CT) supplied

Dan Hyde; Kirk Collier

2009-01-01

188

Natural gas annual 1992. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data for the Nation from 1930 to 1992, and by State from 1967 to 1992. The Supplement of this report presents profiles of selected companies.

Not Available

1993-11-22

189

Combined natural gas and electricity network pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of competition to electricity generation and commercialization has been the main focus of many restructuring experiences around the world. The open access to the transmission network and a fair regulated tariff have been the keystones for the development of the electricity market. Parallel to the electricity industry, the natural gas business has great interaction with the electricity market

M. S. Morais; J. W. Marangon Lima

2007-01-01

190

Natural Gas Moves Little Tykes in Hudson  

SciTech Connect

This 2-page Clean Cities fact sheet describes the use of natural gas power in buses by Hudson City Schools, located in Hudson, OH. It includes information on the history of the program, along with contact information for the local Clean Cities Coordinator and Hudson City Schools.

Not Available

2004-04-01

191

Bibliography on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximately 600 citations concerning safety of liquefied natural gas and liquid methane are presented. Each entry includes the title, author, abstract, source, description of figures, key references, and major descriptors for retrieving the document. An author index is provided as well as an index of descriptors.

Ordin, P. M.

1976-01-01

192

Effective kinetic inhibitors for natural gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetic inhibition is a new means of preventing flow channel blockage by natural gas hydrates. In kinetic inhibition the system is allowed to exist within the hydrate thermodynamic stability zone, so that small crystals are stabilized without agglomerating to larger hydrate masses which plug pipelines. A hydrate formation mechanism is reviewed to suggest the new inhibition method. Macroscopic experiments on

J. P. Lederhos; J. P. Long; A. Sum; R. L. Christiansen; E. D. Sloan

1996-01-01

193

Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization  

SciTech Connect

Building upon the partitioning of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) that was conducted last quarter, the goal of the work this quarter has been to conclude evaluation of the Stratos well and the prototypical Green River Deep partition, and perform the fill resource evaluation of the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play, with the goal of defining target areas of enhanced natural fracturing. The work plan for the quarter of November 1-December 31, 1998 comprised four tasks: (1) Evaluation of the Green River Deep partition and the Stratos well and examination of potential opportunity for expanding the use of E and P technology to low permeability, naturally fractured gas reservoirs, (2) Gas field studies, and (3) Resource analysis of the balance of the partitions.

NONE

1999-06-01

194

A natural gas feed preheater fire  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines an incident in an ammonia plant which began when a leakage in the radiant section tube of a natural gas preheater ignited a small fire. The small fire ultimately developed into a major blaze which caused the leaky tube to burst resulting in the plant shutdown. A subsequent investigation revealed inadequate equipment safety procedures. These faulty measures included the bypassing of an instrument interlock system provided for the gas feed preheater. The bypass caused operational problems because two plants were operating from a single natural gas supply header. In the aftermath of the incident, the instrument interlock system of equipment was modified to handle an emergency shutdown in the affected plant safely and, in the process, avoid hampering other ammonia plants.

Singh, J.; Joshi, M.D.; Desai, U.R.

2000-03-31

195

Remote sensing of gas emissions on natural gas flares  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions from operational natural gas flares are examined by a remote sensing technique using a commercial moderate-resolution Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer. The thermal radiation emitted by the post-combustion gas is analysed to determine plume temperatures and concentrations of 0963-9659\\/7\\/4\\/020\\/img5 and 0963-9659\\/7\\/4\\/020\\/img6. The multicomponent air pollution software (MAPS) is applied which is based on radiative transfer line-by-line calculations and least-squares fit procedures.

Rainer Haus; Rob Wilkinson; Jrg Heland; Klaus Schfer

1998-01-01

196

Occluded object imaging via optimal camera selection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High performance occluded object imaging in cluttered scenes is a significant challenging task for many computer vision applications. Recently the camera array synthetic aperture imaging is proved to be an effective way to seeing object through occlusion. However, the imaging quality of occluded object is often significantly decreased by the shadows of the foreground occluder. Although some works have been presented to label the foreground occluder via object segmentation or 3D reconstruction, these methods will fail in the case of complicated occluder and severe occlusion. In this paper, we present a novel optimal camera selection algorithm to solve the above problem. The main characteristics of this algorithm include: (1) Instead of synthetic aperture imaging, we formulate the occluded object imaging problem as an optimal camera selection and mosaicking problem. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed method is the first one for occluded object mosaicing. (2) A greedy optimization framework is presented to propagate the visibility information among various depth focus planes. (3) A multiple label energy minimization formulation is designed in each plane to select the optimal camera. The energy is estimated in the synthetic aperture image volume and integrates the multi-view intensity consistency, previous visibility property and camera view smoothness, which is minimized via Graph cuts. We compare our method with the state-of-the-art synthetic aperture imaging algorithms, and extensive experimental results with qualitative and quantitative analysis demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of our approach.

Yang, Tao; Zhang, Yanning; Tong, Xiaomin; Ma, Wenguang; Yu, Rui

2013-12-01

197

Natural gas cleanup by means of membranes.  

PubMed

This paper deals with the use of membranes for hydrocarbon dewpointing and dehydration of natural gas. Based on experience gained from membrane applications in separating organic vapors from off-gas and process streams, as well as the dehydration of compressed air, membranes have been developed and tested for use in high pressure applications. Membranes and membrane modules have been modified to withstand the high operating pressure. Calculation programs were developed to understand the separation performance and to provide the necessary information for optimizing membrane design. A real challenge was the introduction of the vacuum mode dehydration operation in order to achieve the highest possible dewpoint reduction with minimum methane loss. PMID:12783826

Ohlrogge, Klaus; Brinkmann, Torsten

2003-03-01

198

Alternative transport fuels from natural gas. Technical paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report examines the economics of using natural gas as an alternative fuel in transport vehicles including passenger cars, taxis, buses, and trucks. It compares the cost of using conventional fuels (gasoline and diesel) in these vehicles with that of retrofitting the vehicles and using natural gas-based fuels. These fuels include compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol,

R. Moreno; D. G. F. Bailey

1989-01-01

199

Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough

Gruy

1998-01-01

200

Conditions for Fromation of Oceanic Natural Gas Hydrate Deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the widespread nature of oceanic natural gas hydrate and associated gas concentrations on continental margins, natural gas hydrate has yet to be proven to be an economically viable unconventional gas resource. In part, this is because unequivocal models for the formation of economic hydrate deposits do not yet exist and there is no exploration methodology for identifying the high-grade

M. M. Max

2005-01-01

201

Acoustic sensor for determining combustion properties of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since natural gas is not refined its composition depends on when and where it is recovered. This variation in composition results in problems in the optimal performance of combustion systems using natural gas as a fuel. The speed of sound in natural gas can be used to measure the fuel quality, since the speed of sound in a gas changes

R. M. Lueptow; S. Phillips

1994-01-01

202

Application and Research Progress of Heater in Natural Gas Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

With high-speed development, the natural gas industry will lead and promote the development of related techniques and equipments. This article studies the application of the heater in the gas industry, and indicates that it is an indispensable piece of equipment in natural gas application systems. As a special furnace type, the natural gas heater is the main energy consumer for

Yun Guo; Wei-Wu Cao; Ping Yan; Cai-Xia Yu; Shang-Yuan Qian

2011-01-01

203

Natural gas I. C. engine-driven heat pumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural gas heat pump concept offers significant advantages in efficiency over any other natural gas heating\\/cooling system. Compared to current high efficiency condensing furnaces, gas heat pumps offer practical savings on the order of 50%. The most mature concept available to achieve this high efficiency is the natural gas I.C. engine heat pump system. Several hundred of these systems

1987-01-01

204

How regulators should use natural gas price forecasts  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas prices are critical to a range of regulatory decisions covering both electric and gas utilities. Natural gas prices are often a crucial variable in electric generation capacity planning and in the benefit-cost relationship for energy-efficiency programs. High natural gas prices can make coal generation the most economical new source, while low prices can make natural gas generation the most economical. (author)

Costello, Ken

2010-08-15

205

Incremental natural gas resources through infield reserve growth/secondary natural gas recovery  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the Infield Growth/Secondary Natural Gas Recovery project have been: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities in reservoirs of conventional permeability cause reservoir compartmentalization and, hence, incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document practical, field-oriented examples of reserve growth from fluvial and deltaic sandstones of the Texas gulf coast basin and to use these gas reservoirs as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications of both tools and techniques to find secondary gas. To demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields. To transfer project results to natural gas producers, not just as field case studies, but as conceptual models of how heterogeneities determine natural gas flow and how to recognize the geologic and engineering clues that operators can use in a cost-effective manner to identify secondary gas. Accomplishments are presented for: reservoir characterization; integrated formation evaluation and engineering testing; compartmented reservoir simulator; and reservoir geophysics.

Finley, R.J.; Levey, R.A.

1992-08-01

206

Incremental natural gas resources through infield reserve growth/secondary natural gas recovery  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the Infield Reserve Growth/Secondary Natural Gas Recovery (SGR) project is to develop, test, and verify technologies and methodologies with near- to midterm potential for maximizing the recovery of natural gasfrom conventional reservoirs in known fields. Additional technical and technology transfer objectives of the SGR project include: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities in reservoirs of conventional permeability cause reservoir compartmentalization and, hence, incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document examples of reserve growth occurrence and potential from fluvial and deltaic sandstones of the Texas gulf coast basin as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications to find secondary gas. To demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields. To transfer project results to a wide array of natural gas producers, not just as field case studies, but as conceptual models of how heterogeneities determine natural gas flow units and how to recognize the geologic and engineering clues that operators can use in a cost-effective manner to identify incremental, or secondary, gas.

Finley, R.J.; Levey, R.A.; Hardage, B.A.

1993-12-31

207

Evaluation of Natural Gas Systems: A Comparison Study for Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

With global warming, natural gas is becoming one of the critical energy sources in the world due to low-level emission of greenhouse gases. For that reason, natural gas consumption is increasing rapidly in the world. Turkey, which is a natural bridge between Europe and the Middle East, is a developing country in the world. The demand for natural gas has

F. E. Boran; K. Boran

2012-01-01

208

Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The SWC represents a partnership between U.S. petroleum and natural gas producers, trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the NETL. This document serves as the twelfth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period included: (1) Drafting and releasing the 2007 Request for Proposals; (2) Securing a meeting facility, scheduling and drafting plans for the 2007 Spring Proposal Meeting; (3) Conducting elections and announcing representatives for the four 2007-2008 Executive Council seats; (4) 2005 Final Project Reports; (5) Personal Digital Assistant Workshops scheduled; and (6) Communications and outreach.

Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

2007-03-31

209

Public acceptance of natural gas infrastructure development in the UK  

E-print Network

........................................................................................................5 2.2.1 Underground Natural Gas Storage ......................................................5 2.....................................................................................7 2.5 Infrastructure Planning Commission.......................................................................................................9 3.1 Underground Gas Storage - Cheshire .........................................................10

210

Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the work this quarter has been to partition and high-grade the Greater Green River basin for exploration efforts in the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play and to initiate resource assessment of the basin. The work plan for the quarter of July 1-September 30, 1998 comprised three tasks: (1) Refining the exploration process for deep, naturally fractured gas reservoirs; (2) Partitioning of the basin based on structure and areas of overpressure; (3) Examination of the Kinney and Canyon Creek fields with respect to the Cretaceous tight gas play and initiation of the resource assessment of the Vermilion sub-basin partition (which contains these two fields); and (4) Initiation analysis of the Deep Green River Partition with respect to the Stratos well and assessment of the resource in the partition.

NONE

1998-11-30

211

Natural Gas Regulatory Policy: Current Issues  

E-print Network

the options of industrial energy consumers for purchasing and moving natural gas. This panel viII discuss important developments in federal and state regulatory arenas and their impacts on purchasing options. Among the issues discussed viII be: 1.... Federal Regulation a. Self-implementing transportation b. Service obligation c. Pipeline capacity brokering d. Non-regulated and partially regulated sales e. FERC Order No. 500 f. Rate treatments impacts 2. State Regulation a...

Watkins, G.

212

Performance testing of natural gas plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance testing of natural-gas-extraction plants has become a valuable tool for improving recovery of plants operating below their optimum capabilities or maintaining the optimum recovery once it has been achieved. Many plants, whether turbo-expander, lean oil absorption, or straight refrigeration type, can drift from optimum recovery for one or several of many reasons. Sometimes this drift occurs without the plant

Herrin

1983-01-01

213

LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS  

SciTech Connect

This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

VANDOR,D.

1999-03-01

214

Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas producers, trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the tenth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period include: {lg_bullet} 2004 SWC Final Project Reports distribution; {lg_bullet} Exhibit and present at the Midcontinent Oil and Gas Prospect Fair, Great Bend, KS, September 12, 2006; {lg_bullet} Participate and showcase current and past projects at the 2006 Oklahoma Oil and Gas Trade Expo, Oklahoma City, OK, October 26, 2006; {lg_bullet} Finalize agenda and identify exhibitors for the northeastern US, Fall SWC Technical Transfer Workshop, Pittsburghhh, PA, November 9, 2006; {lg_bullet} Continue distribution of the public broadcast documentary, ''Independent Oil: Rediscovering American's Forgotten Wells''; {lg_bullet} Communications/outreach; and {lg_bullet} New members update.

Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

2006-09-30

215

Reduced Nitrogen and Natural Gas Consumption at Deepwell Flare  

E-print Network

Facing both an economic downturn and the liklihood of steep natural gas price increases, company plants were challenged to identify and quickly implement energy saving projects that would reduce natural gas usage. Unit operating personnel...

Williams, C.

2004-01-01

216

Natural gas pricing in the Northeastern U.S.  

E-print Network

This paper examines natural gas pricing at five citygate locations in the northeastern United States using daily and weekly price series for the years 1994-97. In particular, the effects of the natural gas price at Henry ...

Gunnarshaug, Jasmin

1998-01-01

217

Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status and Outlook, The  

EIA Publications

The Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status & Outlook was undertaken to characterize the global liquefied natural gas (LNG) market and to examine recent trends and future prospects in the LNG market.

2003-01-01

218

Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The SWC represents a partnership between U.S. petroleum and natural gas producers, trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the NETL. This document serves as the eleventh quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the Fall SWC Technology Transfer Workshop for the northeastern U.S., in Pittsburgh, PA, on November 9, 2006, and organizing and identifying projects to exhibit during the SWC/Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) joint reception on November 8, 2006; (2) Distributing a paper copy of the Texas Tech 2004 Final Report and a revised, complete compact disc of all 2004 final reports; (3) Invoicing current and potential members for FY2007; (4) Soliciting nominations for the 2007-2008 Executive Council seats; and (5) Communications and outreach.

Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

2006-12-31

219

PROGRAM OPPORTUNITY NOTICE Building Natural Gas Technology (BNGT) Grant  

E-print Network

PROGRAM OPPORTUNITY NOTICE Building Natural Gas Technology (BNGT) Grant Program PON-13-503 http ....................................................................................................................................6 KEY ACTIVITIES AND DATES

220

Assessment of the possibility of forecasting future natural gas curtailments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides a preliminary assessment of the potential for determining probabilities of future natural-gas-supply interruptions by combining long-range weather forecasts and natural-gas supply\\/demand projections. An illustrative example which measures the probability of occurrence of heating-season natural-gas curtailments for industrial users in the southeastern US is analyzed. Based on the information on existing long-range weather forecasting techniques and natural gas

Lemont

1980-01-01

221

Samson Sherman President Obama's Energy Plan & Natural Gas  

E-print Network

period. Natural Gas Natural gas is considered the cleanest of all fossil fuels. Mostly comprised of methane, releases lower emissions of CO2, NOx, and SO2 (Shown in Fossil Fuel Emission Levels table to eliminate 822 Billion cubic feet (Bcf) of methane emissions. We currently sit on 100 years of natural gas

Toohey, Darin W.

222

Measurements of Methane Emissions at Natural Gas Production Sites  

E-print Network

· Sponsors were an environmental group and nine natural gas producers ­ Environmental Defense Fund (EDFMeasurements of Methane Emissions at Natural Gas Production Sites in the United States #12;Why = 21 #12;Need for Study · Estimates of methane emissions from natural gas production , from academic

Lightsey, Glenn

223

Methodology for estimating volumes of flared and vented natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common perception in the United States that natural gas produced with oil is a valuable commodity probably dates from the 1940's. Before that time, most operators regarded natural gas associated with or dissolved in oil as a nuisance. Indeed, most associated\\/dissolved natural gas produced in the United States before World War II probably was flared or vented to the

T. R. Klett; D. L. Gautier

1993-01-01

224

Simulation and integration of liquefied natural gas (lng) processes  

E-print Network

natural gas is the form (phase) at which it should be delivered. Natural gas may be supplied to the consumers as a compressed gas through pipelines. Another common form is to be compressed, refrigerated and supplied as a liquid known as liquefied natural...

Al-Sobhi, Saad Ali

2009-05-15

225

Natural Gas Pipeline Leaks Across Washington, DC Robert B. Jackson,,,  

E-print Network

safety, we deployed a Picarro G2301 Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer in a car, mapping 5893 natural gasNatural Gas Pipeline Leaks Across Washington, DC Robert B. Jackson,,, * Adrian Down, Nathan G increased in recent decades, but incidents involving natural gas pipelines still cause an average of 17

Jackson, Robert B.

226

West Virginia University 1 Department of Petroleum and Natural Gas  

E-print Network

) Intelligent Systems #12;2 Department of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering Associate Professor · H. IlkinWest Virginia University 1 Department of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering Degrees Offered · Master of science in petroleum and natural gas engineering · Master of science in engineering

Mohaghegh, Shahab

227

Cost of Natural Gas Used in Manufacturing Sector Has Fallen  

EIA Publications

Natural gas has been an important exception to the trend of rising prices for energy sources used by manufacturers. Production of natural gas in the United States increased rapidly beginning in 2007 as a result of resources found in shale formations. That increase in supply has in turn lowered the price of natural gas to manufacturers

2013-01-01

228

Environmental data energy technology characterizations: natural gas  

SciTech Connect

Environmental Data Energy Technology Characterizations are publications which are intended to provide policy analysts and technical analysts with basic environmental data associated with key energy technologies. This publication provides backup documentation on natural gas. The transformation of the energy in gas into a more useful form is described in this document in terms of major activity areas in the gas cycle; that is, in terms of activities which produce either an energy product or a fuel leading to the production of an energy product in a different form. The activities discussed in this document are exploration, extraction, purification, power-plants, storage and transportation of natural gas. These activities represent both well-documented and non-documented activity areas. The former activities are characterized in terms of actual operating data with allowance for future modification where appropriate. Emissions are assumed to conform to environmental standards. The other activity areas examined are those like exploration and extraction, where reliance on engineering studies provided the data. The organization of the chapters in this volume is designed to support the tabular presentation in the summary. Each chapter begins with a brief description of the activity under consideration. The standard characteristics, size, availability, mode of functioning, and place in the fuel cycle are presented. Next, major legislative and/or technological factors influencing the commercial operation of the activity are offered. Discussions of resources consumed, residuals produced, and economics follow. To aid in comparing and linking the different activity areas, data for each area are normalized to 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy output from the activity.

Not Available

1980-04-01

229

75 FR 13524 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC, Enterprise Field...Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC, and Enterprise Field...with the Commission and open to public inspection. The filing is available for review...

2010-03-22

230

The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology  

SciTech Connect

An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6--11, 1191, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Davies, J. (General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)); Zammit, M. (AC Rochester, NY (United States)); Patterson, P. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-01-01

231

The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology  

SciTech Connect

An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6--11, 1191, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Davies, J. [General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Zammit, M. [AC Rochester, NY (United States); Patterson, P. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-02-01

232

Fuel tank for liquefied natural gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A storage tank is provided for storing liquefied natural gas on, for example, a motor vehicle such as a bus or truck. The storage tank includes a metal liner vessel encapsulated by a resin-fiber composite layer. A foam insulating layer, including an outer protective layer of epoxy or of a truck liner material, covers the composite layer. A non-conducting protective coating may be painted on the vessel between the composite layer and the vessel so as to inhibit galvanic corrosion.

DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

233

Outlook bright for U.S. natural gas resources  

SciTech Connect

This series of articles by Advanced Resources International (ARI) and the US Geological Survey (USGS) provides a fresh look at new technologies and emerging natural gas plays. It begins, in this article, with three topics: (1) an overview of the controversy surrounding the adequacy of domestic natural gas resources; (2) a look at emerging gas resources in light of advances in technology; and (3) a review of the most frequently referenced natural gas assessments. Future articles in this series will address emerging natural gas resources that may add to the US resource base: deep gas resources (two parts); Barnett shale gas resources; moving into the resource pyramid, a summary of poorly understood but potentially significant emerging gas plays--such as sub-basalt gas plays, deep coalbed methane, and new shale gas resources--not yet included in resource assessments; and gas hydrates.

Kuuskraa, V.A. [Advanced Resources International Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

1998-04-13

234

Drawing the line on natural gas regulation: The Harvard study on the future of natural gas  

SciTech Connect

The Harvard Study on the Future of Natural Gas Policy reflects the ideas, discussions, and debates of nine authors and more than seventy experts from business, government, and academia. These study participants constituted the Executive Working Group, which met in three sessions during 1984-1985. The executive sessions provided forums for the authors to present versions of their chapters at progressive stages of development. The results were invaluable insights and perspectives from parties directly involved in the ongoing debates over the reform of natural gas policy. In addition, a number of participants have contributed written comments on the various chapters of this book.

Kalt, J.P.; Schuller, F.C. (eds.)

1987-01-01

235

Natural gas pyrolysis in the regenerative gas heaterPart i: Natural gas thermal decomposition at a hot matrix in a regenerative gas heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of natural gas pyrolysis at a hot matrix in a high temperature regenerative gas heater. It was demonstrated that formation of pyrocarbon during thermal decomposition of natural gas significantly influences upon the process efficiency. Burn out of the carbon deposits from the matrix during the matrix heating up stage produces components

R. G Popov; E. E Shprilrain; V. M Zaytchenko

1999-01-01

236

Burn Biofuels in Gas Turbines with Improved Heat Rate and Natural Gas Level Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Lean, Premixed, Prevaporized (LPP) combustion technology has been developed that converts liquid biofuels, such as biodiesel or ethanol, into a substitute for natural gas, called LPP Gas. This LPP Gas can then be burned with low emissions in virtually any combustion device in place of natural gas, providing users substantial fuel flexibility. A gas turbine utilizing LPP combustion technology

Michael J. Ramotowski; Michael S. Klassen; Leo D. Eskin; Richard J. Roby

237

Natural and artificial nobel gas hydrologic tracers  

SciTech Connect

Noble gas isotopes provide opportunities for ground water tracing. Both naturally occurring tracers and artificially injected tracers can be used. The equilibration of water with the earth`s atmosphere records the temperature and atmospheric pressure during ground water recharge. This temperature/pressure record can be used to distinguish cold recharge from warmer recharge with a resolution of 1-2 C temperature and 500m in altitude. The radioactive decay of U and Th produce large concentrations of 4He in old ground water and this 4He signature can be useful in tracing the small addition of old water (>10,000 yr.) to young water (<100 yr.). The decay of 3H present either form nuclear testing or cosmic ray interactions leads to detectable amounts of 3He in young ground water (<50 yr.). By measuring both 3H and 3He, the mean age of the 3H in the water can be calculated. In addition to these natural tracers, isotopically enriched noble gas isotopes are readily available at low cost and can be used an non-hazardous water tracers. This inert, persistent, and harmless tracing technique can used in many situations at a cost of about one dollar per million gallons of water traced.

Hudson, G.B.

1994-06-01

238

Liquefied natural gas: safety issues, public concerns, and decision making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas is an important, widely used fossil fuel which is convenient and relatively non-polluting. Because U.S. domestic suppliers have been declining since 1972, suppliers have sought to import additional gas in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG), which is 1\\/600 the volume of natural gas and is therefore convenient for transportation and storage. If present plans and proposals

A. J. Van Horn; R. Wilson

1976-01-01

239

Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization  

SciTech Connect

The work plan for October 1, 1997 to September 30, 1998 consisted of investigation of a number of topical areas. These topical areas were reported in four quarterly status reports, which were submitted to DOE earlier. These topical areas are reviewed in this volume. The topical areas covered during the year were: (1) Development of preliminary tests of a production method for determining areas of natural fracturing. Advanced Resources has demonstrated that such a relationship exists in the southern Piceance basin tight gas play. Natural fracture clusters are genetically related to stress concentrations (also called stress perturbations) associated with local deformation such a faulting. The mechanical explanation of this phenomenon is that deformation generally initiates at regions where the local stress field is elevated beyond the regional. (2) Regional structural and geologic analysis of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). Application of techniques developed and demonstrated during earlier phases of the project for sweet-spot delineation were demonstrated in a relatively new and underexplored play: tight gas from continuous-typeUpper Cretaceous reservoirs of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). The effort included data acquisition/processing, base map generation, geophysical and remote sensing analysis and the integration of these data and analyses. (3) Examination of the Table Rock field area in the northern Washakie Basin of the Greater Green River Basin. This effort was performed in support of Union Pacific Resources- and DOE-planned horizontal drilling efforts. The effort comprised acquisition of necessary seismic data and depth-conversion, mapping of major fault geometry, and analysis of displacement vectors, and the development of the natural fracture prediction. (4) Greater Green River Basin Partitioning. Building on fundamental fracture characterization work and prior work performed under this contract, namely structural analysis using satellite and potential field data, the GGRB was divided into partitions that will be used to analyze the resource potential of the Frontier and Mesaverde Upper Cretaceous tight gas play. A total of 20 partitions were developed, which will be instrumental for examining the Upper Cretaceous play potential. (5) Partition Analysis. Resource assessment associated with individual partitions was initiated starting with the Vermilion Sub-basin and the Green River Deep (which include the Stratos well) partitions (see Chapter 5). (6) Technology Transfer. Tech transfer was achieved by documenting our research and presenting it at various conferences.

NONE

1998-11-30

240

Restricted Natural Gas Supply Case (released in AEO2005)  

EIA Publications

The restricted natural gas supply case provides an analysis of the energy-economic implications of a scenario in which future gas supply is significantly more constrained than assumed in the reference case. Future natural gas supply conditions could be constrained because of problems with the construction and operation of large new energy projects, and because the future rate of technological progress could be significantly lower than the historical rate. Although the restricted natural gas supply case represents a plausible set of constraints on future natural gas supply, it is not intended to represent what is likely to happen in the future.

2005-01-01

241

Economic evaluation of natural gas transportation from Irans South-Pars gas field to market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worldwide consumption of natural gas is rapidly increasing. To satisfy such a demand, there are some plans to transport natural gas from South-Pars gas field, the largest natural gas field of Iran, to some energy consuming countries. There are several possible technologies for transporting gas from production fields to consuming markets as gas, including PNG (pipeline natural gas), LNG

H. Najibi; R. Rezaei; J. Javanmardi; Kh. Nasrifar; M. Moshfeghian

2009-01-01

242

Development of the Natural Gas Resources in the Marcellus Shale  

E-print Network

Development of the Natural Gas Resources in the Marcellus Shale New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia for informational purposes only and does not support or oppose development of the Marcellus Shale natural gas information regarding shale gas well development, ancillary facilities asso- ciated with that development

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

243

Renewable Natural Gas Clean-upp Challenges and Applications  

E-print Network

history > Facilities 18 Chi 18 acre campus near Chicago 200,000 ft2, 28 specialized labs $60 illi residues and agricultural wastes. RENEWABLE NATURAL GAS CAN BE CLEANED- UP AND PLACED IN THE NATURAL GAS--Anaerobic digestion of agricultural waste for on-site electricity generation Altamont Landfill--Landfill gas (LFG

244

Natural gas availability and the residential demand for energy  

SciTech Connect

The fact that not all US households have access to pipeline-delivered natural gas affects not only the demand for gas but also the demand for electricity and fuel oil. The existence of such constraints on natural gas availability has several implications for the econometric modeling of residential energy consumption. In particular, the

Blattenberger, G.R.; Taylor, L.D.; Rennhack, R.K.

1983-01-01

245

DIRECT USE OF NATURAL GAS: ANALYSIS AND POLICY OPTIONS  

E-print Network

-uses, such as space and water heating, than to burn natural gas to generate electricity to serve the end-use energy energy efficient to burn natural gas directly for space or water heating than it is to generate heating systems. #12;2 Figure 1 shows a comparison of the total gas requirements for space and water

246

Natural Gas Hydrates and their Potential for Future Energy Supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years the topic of naturally occurring gas hydrates have attracted major interest worldwide due to the fact that they may play a dominant role as possible energy resources in the future. Prior to this natural gas hydrates were mainly viewed at as a source of operational problems in gas processing and transportation equipment. The historical background and development

L. R. Oellrich

247

Promising technology for recovery and use of liquefied natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of liquefied natural gas is proposed as an alternative to motor fuel. Technology for recovering liquid natural gas based\\u000a on the principle of internal gas cooling in a turbo-expander, and the equipment required for its use in internal combustion\\u000a engines are considered.

E. B. Fedorova; V. V. Fedorov; A. D. Shakhov

2009-01-01

248

INVENTORY OF METHANE LOSSES FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives the second year's results of an ongoing 4-year program undertaken jointly by the Gas Research Institute and the U.S. EPA to assess the methane (CH4) losses from the U.S. natural gas industry. he program's objective is to assess the acceptability of natural gas as ...

249

The cost of natural gas shortages in Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the economic implications of disruptions of one to ninety days to the supply of natural gas in Ireland. We assess the impact of a hypothetical gas supply disruption in both winter and summer in 2008 (with observed market characteristics) and in 2020 (with projected market characteristics). The cost of a natural gas outage includes the cost of

Eimear Leahy; Conor Devitt; Richard S. J. Tol

2012-01-01

250

The Cost of Natural Gas Shortages in Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the economic implications of disruptions of one to ninety days to the supply of natural gas in Ireland. We assess the impact of a hypothetical gas supply disruption in both winter and summer in 2008 (with observed market characteristics) and in 2020 (with projected market characteristics). The cost of a natural gas outage includes the cost of

Eimear Leahy; Conor Devitt; Sen Lyons; Richard S. J. Tol

2011-01-01

251

Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure  

PubMed Central

Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH4 leakage were capped at a level 4570% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH4 losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

Alvarez, Ramon A.; Pacala, Stephen W.; Winebrake, James J.; Chameides, William L.; Hamburg, Steven P.

2012-01-01

252

Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure.  

PubMed

Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH(4) leakage were capped at a level 45-70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH(4) losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

Alvarez, Ramn A; Pacala, Stephen W; Winebrake, James J; Chameides, William L; Hamburg, Steven P

2012-04-24

253

Performance testing of natural gas plants  

SciTech Connect

Performance testing of natural-gas-extraction plants has become a valuable tool for improving recovery of plants operating below their optimum capabilities or maintaining the optimum recovery once it has been achieved. Many plants, whether turbo-expander, lean oil absorption, or straight refrigeration type, can drift from optimum recovery for one or several of many reasons. Sometimes this drift occurs without the plant operators being aware, or the reduction in recovery may be caused by operating problems of which the operator is aware but feels cannot be solved with the equipment available. A plant performance test may find the unknown problem or the test will show the problem can be solved and recoveries improved with existing equipment. Sometimes a computer simulation of the plant, using the test data, may be required to find or solve the problem.

Herrin, J.P.

1983-01-01

254

Natural gas conversion process. Sixth quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

Not Available

1992-12-01

255

Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

Andrew Lucero

2009-01-31

256

Performance study using natural gas, hydrogen-supplemented natural gas and hydrogen in AVL research engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance tests with natural gas, hydrogen-supplemented CH4, and H2-fueled configurations of the AVL research engine are reported. A comparison is made of the properties of H2 and natural gas, noting that natural gas benefits such as heating value, higher ignition energy, and narrow ignition limits are at least partially offset by H2 wide ignition limits which allow elimination of throttling, a higher flame velocity, and few harmful emissions. The trials were performed on a single cylinder, four-stroke, spark ignition engine with two intake and two exhaust valves. Varying gas/air ratios were explored, and 80:20 and 50:50 CH4:H2 mixtures were tested. The engine was 23 percent less efficient when burning H2, which also displayed a 12 percent decrement in thermal efficiency. However, H2 was usable over a wider range of operating ratios of air mixtures. Finally, water introduced into the intake manifold was more effective at high speeds in lowering NO emissions with the H2-fueled engine.

Duebel, F.; Schmillen, K.; Nagalingam, B.

257

Shale Gas Opportunities It's no secret that petroleum and natural gas engineers are currently in great  

E-print Network

Shale Gas Opportunities It's no secret that petroleum and natural gas engineers are currently in great demand, thanks in large part to the discovery of shale gas plays in the United States. Petroleum's Department of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering is competitive, with qualified applicants receiving

Mohaghegh, Shahab

258

Greenhouse gas and energy analysis of substitute natural gas from biomass for space heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the greenhouse gas and energy balances of the production and use for space heating of substitute natural gas from biomass (bio-SNG) for space heat are analysed. These balances are compared to the use of natural gas and solid biomass as wood chips to provide the same service. The reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions (CO2-eq.) carbon

Johanna Pucker; Robin Zwart; Gerfried Jungmeier

259

An internal seal for repairing natural gas mains  

E-print Network

Joint leakage from low pressure natural gas distribution mains (typical value: 0.25 ft[superscript 3] at 6 inwg gas pressure) is a persistent source of maintenance problems for utitlites. External encapsulation is the usual ...

Cooper, Samuel A.

1984-01-01

260

Creation of axial expanders on magnetic supports for natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural features and properties are provided for turboexpander units created by Turbokholod company for cooling natural\\u000a gas in main and line stations for gas recovery (Yamal, Yamburg, Shtokman fields).

V. A. Khetagurov; K. K. Sokolov

2009-01-01

261

Alaskan Natural Gas Pipeline Developments (released in AEO2007)  

EIA Publications

The Annual Energy Outlook 2007 reference case projects that an Alaska natural gas pipeline will go into operation in 2018, based on the Energy Information Administration's current understanding of the projects time line and economics. There is continuing debate, however, about the physical configuration and the ownership of the pipeline. In addition, the issue of Alaskas oil and natural gas production taxes has been raised, in the context of a current market environment characterized by rising construction costs and falling natural gas prices. If rates of return on investment by producers are reduced to unacceptable levels, or if the project faces significant delays, other sources of natural gas, such as unconventional natural gas production and liquefied natural gas imports, could fulfill the demand that otherwise would be served by an Alaska pipeline.

2007-01-01

262

Experimental densities and enthalpies for water-natural gas systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Burnett apparatus was used to obtain accurate P-rho-T data of water-natural gas systems over a pressure range of 5 to 2450 psia. Experimental data were obtained for three wet, sweet natural gas mixtures containing 1.85%, 5.0%, and 10.0%, water over a temperature range of 50° to 210°C. In addition, data were procured for three water and sour natural gas

Scheloske

1981-01-01

263

Natural Gas Liquefaction Process for Small-scale LNG Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of natural gas liquefaction, the small-scale natural gas liquefier has been attracting more and more attentions home and abroad, thanks to its small volume, mobile transportation, easy start-up and shut-down, as well as skid-mounted package. A study was made to choose the optimum liquefaction process to improve the economy of small-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant. The

Cao Wensheng

2012-01-01

264

Natural Gas Processing Plants in the United States: 2010 Update  

EIA Publications

This special report presents an analysis of natural gas processing plants in the United States as of 2009 and highlights characteristics of this segment of the industry. The purpose of the paper is to examine the role of natural gas processing plants in the natural gas supply chain and to provide an overview and summary of processing plant characteristics in the United States, such as locations, capacities, and operations.

2011-01-01

265

Methanol from coal and natural gas  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is directed to a process which uses the methanol synthesis gas from steam reforming in a first methanol plant and effectively integrates a second methanol plant which uses as the methanol synthesis gas (a) the purge gas from the first methanol plant and (b) the clean syn-gas produced by partial oxidation.

Van Dijk, C.P.; Rovner, J.M.; Solbakken, A.

1983-10-04

266

Methanol from coal and natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention is directed to a process which uses the methanol synthesis gas from steam reforming in a first methanol plant and effectively integrates a second methanol plant which uses as the methanol synthesis gas (a) the purge gas from the first methanol plant and (b) the clean syn-gas produced by partial oxidation.

C. P. Van Dijk; J. M. Rovner; A. Solbakken

1983-01-01

267

Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer cont...

T. S. Collett

1992-01-01

268

Computer program for natural gas flow through nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Subroutines, FORTRAN 4 type, were developed for calculating isentropic natural gas mass flow rate through nozzle. Thermodynamic functions covering compressibility, entropy, enthalpy, and specific heat are included.

Johnson, R. C.

1972-01-01

269

A study of natural gas extraction in Marcellus shale  

E-print Network

With the dramatic increases in crude oil prices there has been a need to find reliable energy substitutions. One substitution that has been used in the United States is natural gas. However, with the increased use of natural ...

Boswell, Zachary (Zachary Karol)

2011-01-01

270

Compressed natural gas--the world scene  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Zealand has set the pattern for tranport CNG use. The Wellington Gas Company developed a package that embodies hydraulic gas compression principles coupled to a minimum volume of gas storage. The facility is completely installed. Cost\\/benefit and return on investment studies are made. A new code of practice (NZS 5425) has been developed to revise Dangerous Goods Regulations with

1982-01-01

271

Isotope fractionation during natural gas hydrate formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the task of pursuing the origin of hydrate-bound gas, isotope analysis is a well established tool of prediction. The carbon isotope values of methane, ethane, propane and i-butane will strongly indicate the source to either be microbial, thermogenic or of mixed origin. This is due to kinetic fractionation during microbial activity. In microbial CO2 reduction, the microbes tend to reduce ?12C molecules preferentially to ?13C. This leads to light methane and ethane in the gas from microbial activity compared to methane and ethane of thermogenic origin. Recently, isotopically light methane and ethane from hydrate-bond gas from the pockmark field of Nyegga (Norwegian Sea) has been reported. The gas has migrated from a free gas system beneath the base of gas hydrate stability and reached the seafloor through a chimney structured migration feature. The free gas layer is thought to be supported by deeper sources, and polygonal faulting that is known to lay on top of petroleum reservoirs supports speculations that the free gas layer contains thermogenic gas. The isotopic evidence classifies the hydrate gas as fractionated by microbial activity, while the composition and geological setting tell tales of a thermogenic source. This conundrum has led to the speculation upon a fractionation of carbon isotope through hydrate formation. With an experimental setup consisting of a cooling incubator and a pressure cell with controlled torque stirring, hydrates can form under controlled pressure and temperature conditions. The gas hydrates are formed with excess of gas making it possible to sample both the excess gas and hydrate gas. The gas is 99.5 % methane,

Nesheim Vaular, Espen; Corak, Djurdjica; Barth, Tanja

2010-05-01

272

Methodology for estimating volumes of flared and vented natural gas  

SciTech Connect

The common perception in the United States that natural gas produced with oil is a valuable commodity probably dates from the 1940's. Before that time, most operators regarded natural gas associated with or dissolved in oil as a nuisance. Indeed, most associated/dissolved natural gas produced in the United States before World War II probably was flared or vented to the atmosphere. This situation has changed in the United States, where flaring and venting have decreased dramatically in recent years, in part because of environmental concerns, but also because of the changing view of the value of natural gas. The idea that gas is a nuisance is beginning to change almost everywhere, as markets for gas have developed in Europe, Japan, and elsewhere, and as operators have increasingly utilized or reinjected associated-dissolved gas in their oil-production activities. Nevertheless, in some areas natural gas continues to be flared or vented to the atmosphere. Gas flares in Russia, the Niger Delta, and the Middle East are some of the brightest lights on the nighttime Earth. As we increasingly consider the global availability and utility of natural gas, and the environmental impacts of the consumption of carbon-based fuels, it is important to know how much gas has been flared or vented, how much gas is currently being flared or vented, and the distribution of flaring or venting through time. Unfortunately, estimates of the volumes of flared and vented gas are generally not available. Despite the inconsistency and inavailability of data, the extrapolation method outlined provides a reliable technique for estimating amounts of natural gas flared and vented through time. 36 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

Klett, T.R.; Gautier, D.L. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

1993-01-01

273

Probabilistic analysis of a liquefied natural gas storage tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied Natural Gas transport and storage has become very important due to its ability to occupy 1\\/600th of the volume that compressed natural gas would occupy at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. In the present work, an LNG storage tank has been computationally simulated and probabilistically evaluated in view of the several uncertainties in the fluid, structural, material and thermal

Rama Subba Reddy Gorla

2010-01-01

274

Natural gas imports and exports. Second quarter report  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the second quarter of 1997 (April through June).

NONE

1997-12-31

275

Advantages of natural gas as a vehicular fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages of natural gas vehicles can be broken down into four major categories: social\\/political, technical, economic, and environmental. The social\\/political advantages of natural gas as a vehicular fuel lie predominantly in its ability to substitute for petroleum fuels. This frees petroleum reserves for other uses or, in areas with dwindling reserves, it reduces the dependence on imported oil and

R. J. Remick; C. F. Blazek

1992-01-01

276

A hybrid economicengineering model for natural gas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimal control model which generalizes the traditional economic theory of exhaustible resource production is developed and applied to natural gas wells. These generalizations, which are empirically relevant for the natural gas resources we analyze, allow (1) decreasing marginal production costs, (2) physical bounds on periodic production and (3) interdependencies between the stock of the resource, the periodic production bounds,

Janie M. Chermak; James Crafton; Suzanne M. Norquist; Robert H. Patrick

1999-01-01

277

Theories and Conflict: The Origins of Natural Gas. Instructional Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit explores a recent and controversial theory of the origin of much of the Earth's natural gas and oil. The materials provided will give students the opportunity to: (1) gain an understanding of science and what is involved in the acceptance or rejection of theories; (2) learn about fossil fuels, especially natural gas; (3) learn the

Anderson, Susan

278

State-of-the-art Natural Gas Pipe Inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The safety of the Unites States' natural gas supply is of prime importance since 30% of the energy produced in the country is derived from it. Natural gas is supplied through a million miles of vast pipeline network (1). Pipeline companies have an impressive safety record due to the proactive role of standards and inspection of pipelines. Since the

Venugopal K. Varma

279

A Large Potential Methane SourceNatural Gas Hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas, essentially methane, can be obtained from natural gas hydrate (NGH). NGH reserves are difficult to pinpoint in the subsurface, but large sources have been identified by seismic reflection. This is particularly so below the sea floor near continental shelf plates in the oceans deeper than 300 m as NGH is stable at 4C and 50 bar pressure. When

R. A. Dawe; S. Thomas

2007-01-01

280

Natural gas vehicles stall on way to market  

SciTech Connect

The outlook for increased use of natural gas for fueling autos depends primarily on comparative fuel prices and comparative vehicle prices, according to David E. Gushee, a senior fellow in environmental policy at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. Compressed natural gas may be a more efficient fuel than gasoline, but costs of fuel distribution and engine design can add significantly to its total price. Currently, natural gas is less expensive than gasoline at the retail level, but this price advantage depends on government and industry subsidies. For natural gas to stay competitive in the future, these subsidies likely will have to continue, says Gushee. The pump price of natural gas will have to remain low if natural gas-powered vehicles are to succeed in the market place, because such vehicles currently cost about $2,500 to $5,000 more than a comparable gasoline-powered car. Gushee says that even with mass production, the projected price difference will be about $800 per car. The challenges facing compressed natural gas are daunting, especially considering that even in nations where natural gas receives significant tax advantages, its penetration has not exceeded 15 percent.

Gushee, D.E. [Congressional Research Service, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-08-01

281

Natural Gas: Major Legislative and Regulatory Actions (1935 - 2008)  

EIA Publications

This special report Web-based product presents a chronology of some of the key federal legislative and regulatory actions that have helped shape the natural gas market, with particular emphasis on policy directives from 1978 to October 2008. Separate reports provide brief descriptions of specific legislation, regulations, or policies, and their impacts on the natural gas market.

2009-01-01

282

Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas  

EIA Publications

The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas report, published today, is a Congressionally-requested study examining the energy trends and developments in the Americas over the past decade. The report focuses on liquid fuels and natural gasparticularly reserves and resources, production, consumption, trade, and investmentgiven their scale and significance to the region.

2014-01-01

283

Natural Gas Utilities Options Analysis for the Hydrogen  

E-print Network

CAR and FreedomFUEL Initiatives #12;6 #12;7 Why the Study? > Premise: ­ The evolution of hydrogen energy systems> Natural Gas Utilities Options Analysis for the Hydrogen Economy Hydrogen Pipeline R&D Project > GTI focuses on energy & environmental issues ­ Specialize on natural gas & hydrogen > Our main

284

The prospects for liquefied natural gas development in the US  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of our paper is to analyze the prospects for LNG development in the US. In particular, we discuss LNG investment projects with respect to natural gas supply and demand, existing transmission infrastructure, and competing pipeline projects. At the same time potential competition between natural gas and coal in power generation is taken into account. We conclude that in

Sophia Ruester; Anne Neumann

2008-01-01

285

Natural gas receives thorough discussion at ECAFE seminar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE) held a ''Seminar on the Development and Utilization of Natural Gas Resources'' in Teheran, Iran, Dec. 1-12, 1964. It was aimed at promoting within the member countries of ECAFE an increased attention to natural gas developments, including discovery, production, storage, transportation and utilization. Nearly 80 papers were submitted to the

Heller

1965-01-01

286

An econometric analysis of the market for natural gas futures  

SciTech Connect

This research tests a form of the efficient markets hypothesis in the market for natural gas futures. Unlike other studies of future markets, the test for market efficiency is conducted at numerous locations which comprise the natural gas spot market in addition to the delivery location specified in the futures contract. Natural gas spot and futures prices are found to be nonstationary and accordingly are modeled using recently developed maximum likelihood cointegrated with nearly all of the spot market prices across the national network of gas pipelines. The hypothesis of market efficiency can be rejected in 3 of the 13 spot markets. 29 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Walls, W.D. [Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

1995-12-31

287

Commercial buildings, energy consumption, and natural gas markets  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an overview of natural gas use in the U.S. commercial energy markets. The gas industry is in the position of protecting its share in the heating market, competing vigorously for the water heating and cooking markets, and aggresively increasing its share in the space-cooling market. Energy consumption in commercial buildings in 1979 was 5.5 quads; gas provided 2.354 quads. Electricity is the largest competitor in all commercial markets. On a national basis, natural gas and electricity equally share the market for space heating and water heating applications, electricity has a stronger share of the cooking market, and the space-conditioning market is effectively all-electric. In terms of building type, office buildings consume 39% more electricity, retail buildings consume about equal amounts of electricity and natural gas, and warehouse buildings consume 26% more natural gas.

Brodrick, J.R.

1986-06-01

288

Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough localized atmospheric contamination to choke air aspirated aircraft engines. The unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft along with their crews and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle may be tied to the natural venting of gas hydrates. The paper describes what gas hydrates are, their formation and release, and their possible link to the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.

Gruy, H.J.

1998-03-01

289

Method and apparatus for processing a natural gas stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a method and apparatus for processing a natural gas stream. The apparatus consists of at least three adsorbent beds, with each bed passing consecutively through an adsorption cycle, an open-type heating cycle, and an open-type cooling cycle. The gas stream is first separated into two portions so that a stripped gas leaves the first bed. The second portion

E. L. McCarthy; R. E. McMinn; M. S. Worley

1966-01-01

290

Procedure for preparation for shipment of natural gas storage vessel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for preparing a natural gas storage vessel for shipment is presented. The gas is stored at 3,000 pounds per square inch. The safety precautions to be observed are emphasized. The equipment and process for purging the tank and sampling the exit gas flow are described. A diagram of the pressure vessel and the equipment is provided.

Amawd, A. M.

1974-01-01

291

Custody transfer of natural gas by heat content  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of pricing gas independent of pressure or temperature bases, as supported by the Natural Gas Policy Act with which the trend to price gas on the basis of heating value was accelerated. Tables with base pressure conversion factors, calculated BTU values, and BTUs transferred were presented. Using the mass derived from chromatographic analysis of a stream in mol

Kilmer

1982-01-01

292

Advanced Liquid Natural Gas Onboard Storage System  

SciTech Connect

Cummins Westport Incorporated (CWI) has designed and developed a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel system that includes a reciprocating pump with the cold end submerged in LNG contained in a vacuum-jacketed tank. This system was tested and analyzed under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced LNG Onboard Storage System (ALOSS) program. The pumped LNG fuel system developed by CWI and tested under the ALOSS program is a high-pressure system designed for application on Class 8 trucks powered by CWI's ISX G engine, which employs high-pressure direct injection (HPDI) technology. A general ALOSS program objective was to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of a pumped LNG fuel system relative to on-vehicle fuel systems that require the LNG to be ''conditioned'' to saturation pressures that exceeds the engine fuel pressure requirements. These advantages include the capability to store more fuel mass in given-size vehicle and station tanks, and simpler lower-cost LNG refueling stations that do not require conditioning equipment. Pumped LNG vehicle fuel systems are an alternative to conditioned LNG systems for spark-ignition natural gas and port-injection dual-fuel engines (which typically require about 100 psi), and they are required for HPDI engines (which require over 3,000 psi). The ALOSS program demonstrated the feasibility of a pumped LNG vehicle fuel system and the advantages of this design relative to systems that require conditioning the LNG to a saturation pressure exceeding the engine fuel pressure requirement. LNG tanks mounted on test carts and the CWI engineering truck were repeatedly filled with LNG saturated at 20 to 30 psig. More fuel mass was stored in the vehicle tanks as well as the station tank, and no conditioning equipment was required at the fueling station. The ALOSS program also demonstrated the general viability and specific performance of the CWI pumped LNG fuel system design. The system tested as part of this program is designed to be used on Class 8 trucks with CWI ISX G HPDI engines. Extensive test cart and engineering truck tests of the pump demonstrated good durability and the high-pressure performance needed for HPDI application. The LNG tanks manufactured by Taylor-Wharton passed SAE J2343 Recommended Practice drop tests and accelerated road-load vibration tests. NER and hold-time tests produced highly consistent results. Additional tests confirmed the design adequacy of the liquid level sensor, vaporizer, ullage volume, and other fuel system components. While the testing work performed under this program focused on a high-pressure pumped LNG fuel system design, the results also validate the feasibility of a low-pressure pumped fuel system. A low-pressure pumped fuel system could incorporate various design refinements including a simpler and lighter-weight pump, which would decrease costs somewhat relative to a high-pressure system.

Greg Harper; Charles Powars

2003-10-31

293

Speaker to Address Impact of Natural Gas Production on Greenhouse Gas Emissions When used for power generation, Marcellus Shale natural gas can significantly reduce carbon  

E-print Network

generation, Marcellus Shale natural gas can significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions, but questions have been raised whether development of shale gas resources results in an overall lower greenhouse gas, "Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Marcellus Shale Gas," appeared in Environmental Research Letters

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

294

Natural gas imports and exports, fourth quarter report 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

None

2000-03-01

295

Natural gas imports and exports, first quarter report 2000  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent reporting quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

None

2000-06-01

296

Natural gas imports and exports, third quarter report 2000  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

None

2000-12-01

297

System and method for producing substitute natural gas from coal  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a system and method for producing substitute natural gas and electricity, while mitigating production of any greenhouse gasses. The system includes a hydrogasification reactor, to form a gas stream including natural gas and a char stream, and an oxygen burner to combust the char material to form carbon oxides. The system also includes an algae farm to convert the carbon oxides to hydrocarbon material and oxygen.

Hobbs, Raymond (Avondale, AZ)

2012-08-07

298

Program calculates Z-factor for natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fortran program called Physic presented in this article calculates the gas deviation or compressibility factor, Z, of natural gas. The author has used the program for determining discharge-piping pressure drop. The calculated Z is within 5% accuracy for natural hydrocarbon gas with a specific gravity between 0.5 and 0.8, and at a pressure below 5,000 psia.

Coker

1993-01-01

299

Final report for the Advanced Natural Gas Vehicle Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project objective was to develop the technologies necessary to prototype a dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) powered, mid-size automobile with operational capabilities comparable to gasoline automobiles. A system approach was used to design and develop the engine, gas storage system and vehicle packaging. The 2.4-liter DOHC engine was optimized for natural gas operation with high-compression pistons, hardened exhaust valves,

John Wozniak

1999-01-01

300

77 FR 23105 - Supporting Safe and Responsible Development of Unconventional Domestic Natural Gas Resources  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...by regulating oil and gas activities on public and...greater use of natural gas in transportation, supporting...aimed at improving the safety of natural gas development and transportation...development of unconventional domestic natural gas...

2012-04-17

301

FERC's natural gas rule: adapting regulation to the post-Natural Gas Policy Act world  

SciTech Connect

The changes incorporated into Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) final rule on natural gas pipeline regulation received mixed reviews, but will avert serious legislative and legal challenges. There was some positive response to the controversial proposal. The modifications included in the final rule affect transportation, take or pay, certification procedures, and block billing. FERC is unsure of how many pipelines will participate in the voluntary open transportation program, but competitive pressure should encourage both participation and lower prices for end users. FERC thinks the changes will promote a better response to legal and technical changes in the industry, but warns that it will not resolve all the problems.

Not Available

1985-11-14

302

Plentiful natural gas headed for big growth in Mideast  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas is increasingly becoming a major contributor in the industrial development of most Middle Eastern countries. Demand there will rise steeply in coming years. This is because of the abundant and growing natural gas resources in the region, the economic benefits of using local resources, as well as increased emphasis on a cleaner environment. Today, proved reserves of natural gas in the Middle East are 45 trillion cu meters (tcm), or 1,488 trillion cu ft (tcf). This is over 30% of the world's natural gas reserves. A table presents data on reserves and production of natural gas in the region. About 20% of this gross production is rein-injecting for oil field pressure maintenance, 13% is flared or vented, and 7% is accounted as losses. The remaining 60% represents consumption in power generation, water desalination, petrochemicals and fertilizers production, aluminum and copper smelting, and fuel for refineries and other industries. The use of natural gas in these various industries is discussed. Thirteen tables present data on gas consumption by country and sector, power generation capacity, major chemicals derived from natural gas, and petrochemical plant capacities.

Hamid, S.H.; Aitani, A.M. (King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

1995-01-23

303

Conventional natural gas resource potential, Alaska North Slope  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An estimate of total natural gas resource potential of northern Alaska can be obtained by summing known gas reserves in oil and gas fields (35 TCF), mean estimates of undiscovered nonassociated (61 TCF) and associated (12 TCF) gas resources in NPRA, and mean estimates of undiscovered nonassociated (4 TCF) and associated (5 TCF) gas resources in the 1002 area of ANWR; this yields a total of 117 TCF. When estimates of undiscovered gas resources for non-Federal lands are released in 2005, that total will increase by a non-trivial amount. Thus, the conventional natural gas resource potential of onshore and State offshore areas totals well over 100 TCF. The inclusion of the MMS mean estimate (96 TCF) for undiscovered gas resources in the Beaufort and Chukchi planning areas of the Federal offshore extends that total above 200 TCF.

Houseknecht, David W.

2004-01-01

304

Uncertainty in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from United States Natural Gas and its Effects on Policy  

E-print Network

S1 Uncertainty in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from United States Natural Gas and its in the study. A higher heating value of 38 MJ/m3 (1030 BTU/cf) for natural gas was assumed, as given S 1. Summary of domestic natural gas and LNG life cycle boundary and methods DOMESTIC NATURAL GAS

Jaramillo, Paulina

305

Highly Compressed Free Gas in Deep-Water Natural Gas Hydrate Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas, predominantly methane, is stored in a highly compact form within solid gas hydrate. The large volume of free gas that can be liberated by dissociation of hydrate (at standard surface conditions) is a prominent aspect of this potential energy resource. In contrast, the highly compressed state of free gas under pressure-temperature conditions found in deep-water marine settings is

G. A. Barth

2006-01-01

306

Indriect Measurement Of Nitrogen In A Mult-Component Natural Gas By Heating The Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of indirectly measuring the nitrogen concentration in a natural gas by heating the gas. In two embodiments, the heating energy is correlated to the speed of sound in the gas, the diluent concentrations in the gas, and constant values, resulting in a model equation. Regression analysis is used to calculate the constant values, which can then be substituted into

Thomas B. Morrow; II Behring; Kendricks A

2004-01-01

307

Roadmap for Development of Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructructure and Analysis of Vehicular Natural Gas Consumption by Niche Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicular natural gas consumption is on the rise, totaling nearly 200 million GGEs in 2005, despite declines in total NGV inventory in recent years. This may be attributed to greater deployment of higher fuel use medium- and heavy-duty NGVs as compared to the low fuel use of the natural gas-powered LDVs that exited the market through attrition, many of which

Stephen C. Yborra

2007-01-01

308

Formation and decomposition of gas hydrates of natural gas components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on our theoretical and experimental work carried out during the last decade, our understanding of the thermodynamics and the kinetics of formation and decomposition of gas hydrates is presented. Hydrate formation is modelled as a crystallization process where two distinct processes (nucleation and growth) are involved. Prior to the nucleation the concentration of the gas in the liquid water

P. Englezos; N. Kalogerakis; P. R. Bishnoi

1990-01-01

309

Method of producing natural gas from a subterranean formation. [melting natural gas containing hydrates with electric currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is given of producing gas from subterranean formations characterized by the steps of drilling and completing a plurality of at least two wells in a subterranean formation that contains at least some of the gas in the form of hydrate; melting the hydrates in the subterranean formation to free natural gas in situ; and producing to the surface

Katz

1975-01-01

310

78 FR 18968 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. CP13-97-000] Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice...that on March 8, 2013, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural...Newsome, Vice President, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC, 3250...

2013-03-28

311

76 FR 48853 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. CP11-517-000] Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice...that on July 19, 2011, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural...Products and Services, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC, 3250...

2011-08-09

312

75 FR 27774 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. CP10-424-000] Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice...that on May 6, 2010, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural...Products and Services, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC, 3250...

2010-05-18

313

75 FR 24942 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. CP10-140-000] Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice...that on April 19, 2010, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural...Products and Services, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC, 3250...

2010-05-06

314

77 FR 58126 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. CP12-505-000] Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice...that on August 30, 2012, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural...Products and Services, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC, 3250...

2012-09-19

315

77 FR 37669 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. CP12-474-000] Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice...that on June 7, 2012, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural...Products and Services, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC, 3250...

2012-06-22

316

76 FR 62395 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. CP11-547-000] Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice...on September 20, 2011, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural...Newsome, Vice President, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America, LLC,...

2011-10-07

317

76 FR 51970 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. CP11-529-000] Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice...that on August 5, 2011, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural...Products and Services, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC, 3250...

2011-08-19

318

78 FR 67350 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. CP14-10-000] Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice...that on October 18, 2013 Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural...Newsome, Vice President, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC, 3250...

2013-11-12

319

Natural gas pyrolysis in the regenerative gas heater Part ii: Natural gas pyrolysis in the free volume of the regenerative gas heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the results of an experimental study of a new method of natural gas pyrolysis based on thermal decomposition in a flow of high temperature carrier gas preliminary heated in the regenerative heater matrix. It has been shown that in this case the methane carbon is almost completely converted into black carbon and no pyrocarbon is produced in

R. G Popov; E. E Shpilrain; V. M Zaytchenko

1999-01-01

320

Combustion of Illinois coals and chars with natural gas  

SciTech Connect

There are applications where the combined combustion of coal and natural gas offers potential advantages over the use of either coal or natural gas alone. For example, low volatile coals or low volatile chars derived from treatment or gasification processes can be of limited use during to their poor flammability characteristics. However, the use of natural gas in conjunction with the solid fuel can provide the necessary volatiles'' to enhance the combustion. In addition, natural gas provides a clean fuel source of fuel which, in cofiring situations, can extend the usefulness of coals with high sulfur content. The addition of natural gas may reduce SO{sub x} emission through increased sulfur retention in the ash and reduce NO{sub x} emissions by varying local stoichiometry and temperature levels. In this research program, studies of combined coal and natural gas combustion will provide particle ignition, burnout rates and ash characterization, that will help clarify the effect of coal and natural gas and identify the controlling parameters and mechanisms.

Buckius, R.O.

1991-01-01

321

40 CFR Table W - 1A of Subpart W-Default Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production W Table... MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions...Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production...

2012-07-01

322

Liquefied Natural Gas: Global Challenges (released in AEO2008)  

EIA Publications

U.S. imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in 2007 were more than triple the 2000 total, and they are expected to grow in the long term as North Americas conventional natural gas production declines. With U.S. dependence on LNG imports increasing, competitive forces in the international markets for natural gas in general and LNG in particular will play a larger role in shaping the U.S. market for LNG. Key factors currently shaping the future of the global LNG market include the evolution of project economics, worldwide demand for natural gas, government policies that affect the development and use of natural resources in countries with LNG facilities, and changes in seasonal patterns of LNG trade.

2008-01-01

323

Natural gas hydrates - issues for gas production and geomechanical stability  

E-print Network

Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Co-Chairs of Committee, Stephen A Holditch George J Moridis Committee Members, William D McCain Maria Barrufet... that the hydraulic fracture gets plugged by the formation of secondary hydrates during gas production. I used the coupled fluid flow and geomechanical model TOUGH+Hydrate- FLAC3D to model geomechanical performance during gas production from hydrates...

Grover, Tarun

2008-10-10

324

Pipeline Politics: Natural Gas in Eurasia  

E-print Network

important to US efforts to reduce its reliance on Middle Eastern energy resources. Presently, pipelines in Eurasia stretch across thousands of miles throughout unstable political regions. Disruptions in gas and oil supplies negatively affect the economies...

Landrum, William W.; Llewellyn, Benjamin B.; Limesand, Craig M.; Miller, Dante J.; Morris, James P.; Nowell, Kathleen S.; Sherman, Charlotte L.

2010-01-01

325

Major Utilization of Natural Gas for Turkey's Energy Necessity in Recent Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present article is to investigate major utilization of natural gas in Turkey and its historical development. Natural gas consumption was recently made available in Turkey, and demand has since grown quickly. Indigenous natural gas production is very small; almost all natural gas is imported. Current natural gas production in Turkey meets only 3% of indigenous consumption

M. F. Demirbas; H. Balat

2008-01-01

326

Apparatus for reliquefying boil-off natural gas from a storage tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a combination of apparatus for storing liquefied natural gas which includes an insulated separation tank in which solidified carbon dioxide is settled out of liquefied natural gas and a liquefied natural gas-solidified carbon dioxide slurry accumulates, an insulated liquefied natural gas storage tank, and a conduit for delivering liquefied natural gas from the separation tank to the storage tank,

C. C. Hanke; M. Husain; Y. A. Selcukoglu

1980-01-01

327

Natural gas hydrates on the North Slope of Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, mainly methane, in which a solid-water lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure, or clathrate. These substances often have been regarded as a potential (unconventional) source of natural gas. Significant quantities of naturally occurring gas hydrates have been detected in many regions of the Arctic including Siberia, the Mackenzie River Delta, and the North Slope of Alaska. On the North Slope, the methane-hydrate stability zone is areally extensive beneath most of the coastal plain province and has thicknesses as great as 1000 meters in the Prudhoe Bay area. Gas hydrates have been identified in 50 exploratory and production wells using well-log responses calibrated to the response of an interval in one well where gas hydrates were recovered in a core by ARCO Alaska and EXXON. Most of these gas hydrates occur in six laterally continuous Upper Cretaceous and lower Tertiary sandstone and conglomerate units; all these gas hydrates are geographically restricted to the area overlying the eastern part of the Kuparuk River Oil Field and the western part of the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field. The volume of gas within these gas hydrates is estimated to be about 1.0 {times} 10{sup 12} to 1.2 {times} 10{sup 12} cubic meters (37 to 44 trillion cubic feet), or about twice the volume of conventional gas in the Prudhoe Bay Field. Geochemical analyses of well samples suggest that the identified hydrates probably contain a mixture of deep-source thermogenic gas and shallow microbial gas that was either directly converted to gas hydrate or first concentrated in existing traps and later converted to gas hydrate. The thermogenic gas probably migrated from deeper reservoirs along the same faults thought to be migration pathways for the large volumes of shallow, heavy oil that occur in this area. 51 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Collett, T.S.

1991-01-01

328

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Efforts this quarter have concentrated on design and planning for of a 50 MM scf/d dehydration skid testing at ChevronTexaco's Headlee Gas Plant in Odessa, TX. Potting and module materials testing concluded. Construction of the bench-scale equipment continued and a pre-engineering study on a subsea application of the technology was performed cofunded contracts with Research Partnership for Secure Energy for America and Gas Research Institute. GTI has decreased the effort under this contract pending DOE's obligation of the total contract funding.

Howard S. Meyer

2004-10-01

329

Natural gas imports and exports: First quarter report 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Fuels Programs prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports with the OFP. This quarter`s focus is market penetration of gas imports into New England. Attachments show the following: % takes to maximum firm contract levels and weighted average per unit price for the long-term importers, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters, volumes and prices for gas imported on short-term or spot market basis, and gas exported short-term to Canada and Mexico.

NONE

1995-07-01

330

Natural gas odor level testing: Instruments and applications  

SciTech Connect

An odor in natural and LP gases is necessary. The statistics are overwhelming; when gas customers can smell a leak before the percentage of gas in air reaches a combustible mixture, the chances of an accident are greatly reduced. How do gas companies determine if there is sufficient odor reaching every gas customers home? Injection equipment is important. The rate and quality of odorant is important. Nevertheless, precision odorization alone does not guarantee that customers` homes always have gas with a readily detectable odor. To secure that goal, odor monitoring instruments are necessary.

Roberson, E.H. [Natural Gas Odorizing, Inc., Baytown, TX (United States)

1995-12-01

331

18 CFR 382.202 - Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...regulatory program will be assessed against each natural gas pipeline company based on the proportion of the total gas subject...the immediately preceding calendar year by all natural gas pipeline companies being assessed annual charges....

2010-04-01

332

Research of Coal Substituting Oil (Natural Gas) in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complexion that coal gives priority to others resource is decided by the energy production and consume structure. It is difficult to change in the future. With the economy growth, the energy demand is increasing, especially the oil and natural gas. But the resource condition of oil and natural gas are not optimism, domestic production is satisfy to the energy demand difficultly, the direct way is by the import. However the import is affected by the international energy subsituation, and it can affect the energy safety. Whereas the abundant coal resource, the coal can substitute the oil(natural gas).It not only cuts down the dependence on the overseas energy, but also builds up the safety. So, applying the trans-log production function, the text analyses the substitution among capital, coal, oil and natural gas in China.

Zhang, Lifeng

333

Evaluation of capacity release transactions in the natural gas industry  

E-print Network

The purpose of this thesis is to analyze capacity release transactions in the natural gas industry and to state some preliminary conclusions about how the capacity release market is functioning. Given FERC's attempt to ...

Lautzenhiser, Stephen

1994-01-01

334

Conceptual Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) terminal design for Kuwait  

E-print Network

This research study investigated a new conceptual design for a modular structural configuration incorporating storage for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) within the base of the platform structure. The structure, referred to as a modified gravity base...

Aljeeran, Fares

2006-08-16

335

10 CFR 221.11 - Natural gas and ethane.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ethane. 221.11 Section 221.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL PRIORITY SUPPLY OF CRUDE OIL AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS TO THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE UNDER THE DEFENSE PRODUCTION ACT Exclusions 221.11 Natural gas and...

2011-01-01

336

10 CFR 221.11 - Natural gas and ethane.  

...ethane. 221.11 Section 221.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL PRIORITY SUPPLY OF CRUDE OIL AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS TO THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE UNDER THE DEFENSE PRODUCTION ACT Exclusions 221.11 Natural gas and...

2014-01-01

337

10 CFR 221.11 - Natural gas and ethane.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ethane. 221.11 Section 221.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL PRIORITY SUPPLY OF CRUDE OIL AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS TO THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE UNDER THE DEFENSE PRODUCTION ACT Exclusions 221.11 Natural gas and...

2010-01-01

338

10 CFR 221.11 - Natural gas and ethane.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ethane. 221.11 Section 221.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL PRIORITY SUPPLY OF CRUDE OIL AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS TO THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE UNDER THE DEFENSE PRODUCTION ACT Exclusions 221.11 Natural gas and...

2012-01-01

339

10 CFR 221.11 - Natural gas and ethane.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ethane. 221.11 Section 221.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL PRIORITY SUPPLY OF CRUDE OIL AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS TO THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE UNDER THE DEFENSE PRODUCTION ACT Exclusions 221.11 Natural gas and...

2013-01-01

340

Power conversion system utilizing reversible energy of liquefied natural gas  

SciTech Connect

A power conversion system comprising a combination of a liquefied natural gas vaporizing plant and a fuel burning power generating facility is disclosed. The liquefied natural gas vaporizing plant utilizes the cryogenic capacity of the liquefied natural gas to produce liquid air which is pumped to a high pressure by a liquid air pump. The liquid air is then brought into a heat exchanging relationship with air drawn into the vaporizing plant so that the high pressure liquid air is converted to high pressure gaseous air. The high pressure gaseous air which represents recovered reversible energy of the liquefied natural gas is fed into a combustion chamber of the fuel burning power generating plant. Since the power generating facility requires no significant output of power to drive a compressor to compress ambient air prior to its entry into the combustion chamber, the power generating facility is operated at a high efficiency.

Hoskinson, R.L.

1982-05-18

341

Liquid absorbent solutions for separating nitrogen from natural gas  

DOEpatents

Nitrogen-absorbing and -desorbing compositions, novel ligands and transition metal complexes, and methods of using the same, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Redmond, OR); Lyon, David K. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

2000-01-01

342

77 FR 69781 - Enhanced Natural Gas Market Transparency  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...reported by Platts and the daily indices reported by Natural Gas Intelligence. Additionally, the Commission surveys publicly available...placed in the Commission's public files and may be viewed, printed, or downloaded remotely as described in the Document...

2012-11-21

343

Optimization for Design and Operation of Natural Gas Transmission Networks  

E-print Network

designing and operating the network. A well-designed network helps natural gas companies minimize the costs while increasing the customer service level. The aim of the study is to determine the optimum installation scheduling and locations of new pipelines...

Dilaveroglu, Sebnem 1986-

2012-08-22

344

Impact of Natural Gas Infrastructure on Electric Power Systems  

E-print Network

of energy such as pumped-storage units and photovoltaic/battery systems on power system security by reducing--Combined-cycle unit, electricity market, natural gas infrastructure, pipeline contingency, pumped-storage hydro, renew

Fu, Yong

345

Kinetics simulation for natural gas conversion to unsaturated C? hydrocarbons  

E-print Network

) techniques are being studied to convert natural gas to useful hydrocarbon liquids, which can be transported with far less cost. Direct pyrolysis of methane, followed by catalytic reaction, is a promising technology that can be commercialized in industry...

Yang, Li

2012-06-07

346

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Efforts this quarter have concentrated on design of and planning for a 50 MM scf/d dehydration skid testing at ChevronTexaco's Headlee Gas Plant in Odessa, TX. Potting and module materials testing concluded. Construction of the bench-scale equipment continued. GTI has decreased the effort under this contract pending DOE's obligation of the total contract funding.

Howard S. Meyer

2005-01-01

347

Catching what we can't see: manual interception of occluded fly-ball trajectories.  

PubMed

Control of interceptive actions may involve fine interplay between feedback-based and predictive mechanisms. These processes rely heavily on target motion information available when the target is visible. However, short-term visual memory signals as well as implicit knowledge about the environment may also contribute to elaborate a predictive representation of the target trajectory, especially when visual feedback is partially unavailable because other objects occlude the visual target. To determine how different processes and information sources are integrated in the control of the interceptive action, we manipulated a computer-generated visual environment representing a baseball game. Twenty-four subjects intercepted fly-ball trajectories by moving a mouse cursor and by indicating the interception with a button press. In two separate sessions, fly-ball trajectories were either fully visible or occluded for 750, 1000 or 1250 ms before ball landing. Natural ball motion was perturbed during the descending trajectory with effects of either weightlessness (0 g) or increased gravity (2 g) at times such that, for occluded trajectories, 500 ms of perturbed motion were visible before ball disappearance. To examine the contribution of previous visual experience with the perturbed trajectories to the interception of invisible targets, the order of visible and occluded sessions was permuted among subjects. Under these experimental conditions, we showed that, with fully visible targets, subjects combined servo-control and predictive strategies. Instead, when intercepting occluded targets, subjects relied mostly on predictive mechanisms based, however, on different type of information depending on previous visual experience. In fact, subjects without prior experience of the perturbed trajectories showed interceptive errors consistent with predictive estimates of the ball trajectory based on a-priori knowledge of gravity. Conversely, the interceptive responses of subjects previously exposed to fully visible trajectories were compatible with the fact that implicit knowledge of the perturbed motion was also taken into account for the extrapolation of occluded trajectories. PMID:23166653

Bosco, Gianfranco; Delle Monache, Sergio; Lacquaniti, Francesco

2012-01-01

348

Catching What We Can't See: Manual Interception of Occluded Fly-Ball Trajectories  

PubMed Central

Control of interceptive actions may involve fine interplay between feedback-based and predictive mechanisms. These processes rely heavily on target motion information available when the target is visible. However, short-term visual memory signals as well as implicit knowledge about the environment may also contribute to elaborate a predictive representation of the target trajectory, especially when visual feedback is partially unavailable because other objects occlude the visual target. To determine how different processes and information sources are integrated in the control of the interceptive action, we manipulated a computer-generated visual environment representing a baseball game. Twenty-four subjects intercepted fly-ball trajectories by moving a mouse cursor and by indicating the interception with a button press. In two separate sessions, fly-ball trajectories were either fully visible or occluded for 750, 1000 or 1250 ms before ball landing. Natural ball motion was perturbed during the descending trajectory with effects of either weightlessness (0 g) or increased gravity (2 g) at times such that, for occluded trajectories, 500 ms of perturbed motion were visible before ball disappearance. To examine the contribution of previous visual experience with the perturbed trajectories to the interception of invisible targets, the order of visible and occluded sessions was permuted among subjects. Under these experimental conditions, we showed that, with fully visible targets, subjects combined servo-control and predictive strategies. Instead, when intercepting occluded targets, subjects relied mostly on predictive mechanisms based, however, on different type of information depending on previous visual experience. In fact, subjects without prior experience of the perturbed trajectories showed interceptive errors consistent with predictive estimates of the ball trajectory based on a-priori knowledge of gravity. Conversely, the interceptive responses of subjects previously exposed to fully visible trajectories were compatible with the fact that implicit knowledge of the perturbed motion was also taken into account for the extrapolation of occluded trajectories. PMID:23166653

Bosco, Gianfranco; Delle Monache, Sergio; Lacquaniti, Francesco

2012-01-01

349

Mergers and acquisitions in the natural gas industry  

SciTech Connect

Three examples of natural gas distribution companies involved in merger activity illustrate how the distribution as well as the transmission side of the industry may be attractive to potential acquiring companies seeking diversification. Although the mergers are a new phenonmenon, the acquiring firms are attracted by the overlapping service areas and the operating efficiency of the regulated distributors. They also see a possible outlet for surplus natural gas. 1 table.

Burkhardt, D.A.; Brown, M.L.

1984-04-26

350

Convergence and Divergence of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Prices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research investigates the possibility that WTI crude oil and Henry Hub natural gas prices share a stable link. Economic theory suggests that the two commodities are linked by both supply and demand given that the commodities can be coproduced and many consumers have the ability to switch between the fuels. In general, it would appear that the two commodities support this theory with natural gas prices tracking crude oil prices fairly well until late 2008. However, since the end of 2008 the two price series have diverged and appear to move independently of each other. Reduced fuel switching capabilities in U.S. industry and electric power generation coupled with increased technology and production from shale formations have potentially changed the driving force behind natural gas prices. However, a severe recession has impacted world economies over the same time period making the cause of the disparity between crude oil and natural gas prices unclear. Therefore, this research analyzed the possible long-term link between the two commodities over two timeframes. Using an error correction model that includes exogenous factors affecting the short-run dynamics of natural gas prices over the period January 1999 through September 2008, I find evidence of a long-run cointegrating relationship between natural gas and crude oil prices. Additionally, crude oil prices are found to be weakly exogenous to the system, suggesting causality runs from crude oil to natural gas prices. Extending this series through February 2012 yields much weaker evidence of a cointegrating relationship and provides evidence for the decoupling crude oil and natural gas prices.

Romagus, George M.

351

TurboExpander Applications in Natural Gas Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages of low-temperature, low-pressure separation of natural gas liquids are presented, including a definition of situations in which only a combination of low temperature and low pressure can be applied. The effectiveness of choke and expander processing of a typical natural gas stream are compared. The paper shows that turbo-expander processing is a better method than choke expansion for

R. N. Maddox; K. E. Bretz

1976-01-01

352

Effect of Increased Natural Gas Exports on Domestic Energy Markets  

EIA Publications

This report responds to an August 2011 request from the Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (DOE\\/FE) for an analysis of "the impact of increased domestic natural gas demand, as exports." Appendix A provides a copy of the DOE\\/FE request letter. Specifically, DOE\\/FE asked the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) to assess how specified scenarios of increased natural gas exports could affect domestic energy markets, focusing on consumption, production, and prices.

2012-01-01

353

Natural gas injection at 9200 psig  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 9200-psig discharge pressure of 2 reinjection compressors installed on the Ekofisk Phillips Norway Group gas separation plant in the North Sea represents a new record high for centrifugal compressors. The 2 reinjection compressors are part of the 6 specially designed multistage centrifugal compressors totaling 110,000 hp installed in the 2nd half of 1973 on offshore platforms to recover condensate

1973-01-01

354

Rotary heat pump driven by natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of an efficient cycle based upon the rotation of a hybrid absorption\\/recompression arrangement. This novel refrigeneration cycle combines a mechanical compressor and absorption system, together with process intensification which exploits radial flow driven by centrifugal force. The system is driven by a gas-engine, in order to utilise the waste heat produced by the engine. The

S. B. Riffat; A. P. Warren; R. A. Webb

1995-01-01

355

NATURAL GAS ADVISORY COMMITTEE Name Affiliation Sector  

E-print Network

/Gas Utility Ruben Tavares CEC Public Staple, Greg Spectra Energy Pipeline Van Vactor, Sam Economic Insight)TBD Northwest Energy Coalition Public Bennett, David FortisBC Distribution Bridges, John TransCanada Pipeline Pipeline-Williams Pipeline Morlan, Terry NWPCC Council Nothstein, Greg Washington State Energy Office

356

Natural gas imports and exports. Fourth quarter report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Data includes volume and price for long term and short term, and gas exported to Canada and Mexico on a short term or spot market basis.

NONE

1995-12-31

357

Natural Gas Flaring Affects Microclimate and Reduces Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a common saying by farmers in the oil producing area of Niger Delta that gas flaring is a major reason for low maize yield. This paper reports the impact of natural gas flaring on microclimate and maize yield in the Niger Delta, using Ovade flare site as a case study. Experimental sites were located at 500 m, 1

P. A. O. ODJUGO; E. J. OSEMWENKHAE

358

Benefit assessment of solar-augmented natural gas systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report details how solar-energy-augmented system can reduce natural gas consumption by 40% to 70%. Applications discussed include: domestic hot water system, solar-assisted gas heat pumps, direct heating from storage tank. Industrial uses, solar-assisted appliances, and economic factors are discussed.

Davis, E. S.; French, R. L.; Sohn, R. L.

1980-01-01

359

Easing the natural gas crisis: Reducing natural gas prices through increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Heightened natural gas prices have emerged as a key energy-policy challenge for at least the early part of the 21st century. With the recent run-up in gas prices and the expected continuation of volatile and high prices in the near future, a growing number of voices are calling for increased diversification of energy supplies. Proponents of renewable energy and energy efficiency identify these clean energy sources as an important part of the solution. Increased deployment of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) can hedge natural gas price risk in more than one way, but this paper touches on just one potential benefit: displacement of gas-fired electricity generation, which reduces natural gas demand and thus puts downward pressure on gas prices. Many recent modeling studies of increased RE and EE deployment have demonstrated that this ''secondary'' effect of lowering natural gas prices could be significant; as a result, this effect is increasingly cited as justification for policies promoting RE and EE. This paper summarizes recent studies that have evaluated the gas-price-reduction effect of RE and EE deployment, analyzes the results of these studies in light of economic theory and other research, reviews the reasonableness of the effect as portrayed in modeling studies, and develops a simple tool that can be used to evaluate the impact of RE and EE on gas prices without relying on a complex national energy model. Key findings are summarized.

Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; St. Clair, Matt

2004-12-21

360

Correlation between gas molecular weight, heating value and sonic speed under variable compositions of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation study of likely uncertainties in molecular weight and heating value of the gas mixture as predicted from measured or calculated sonic speed. The sonic speed, molecular weight and heating value of natural gas were studied as a function of random fluctuation of the gas fractions. A method of sonic speed prediction was developed and used for over 50,000

L. Burstein; D. Ingman; Y. Michlin

1999-01-01

361

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Efforts this quarter have concentrated on design and planning for of a 50 MM scf/d dehydration skid testing at ChevronTexaco's Headlee Gas Plant in Odessa, TX. Potting and module materials testing continued. Construction of the bench-scale equipment continued. Additional funding to support the test was obtained through a contract with Research Partnership for Secure Energy for America. GTI has decreased the effort under this contract pending DOE's obligation of the total contract funding.

Howard S. Meyer

2004-07-01

362

78 FR 36014 - Deepwater Port License Application: Liberty Natural Gas, LLC, Port Ambrose Deepwater Port  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of oil or natural gas for transportation...of oil and natural gas from domestic sources within the...areas; maritime safety and security requirements...and compliance with domestic and international...Application Liberty Natural Gas, LLC is...

2013-06-14

363

Pennsylvania Energy Impacts Assessment Report 1: Marcellus Shale Natural Gas and Wind  

E-print Network

Pennsylvania Energy Impacts Assessment Report 1: Marcellus Shale Natural Gas and Wind #12;1 Pennsylvania Energy Impacts Assessment Report 1: Marcellus Shale Natural Gas and Wind November 15, 2010 Author.....................................................................................................................3 Marcellus Shale Natural Gas

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

364

Short-term supply chain management in upstream natural gas systems  

E-print Network

Natural gas supply chain planning and optimization is important to ensure security and reliability of natural gas supply. However, it is challenging due to the distinctive features of natural gas supply chains. These ...

Selot, Ajay

2009-01-01

365

77 FR 15990 - Proposed Confidentiality Determinations for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Source Category...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Confidentiality Determinations for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Source Category...Confidentiality Determinations for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Source Category...Confidentiality Determinations for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Source...

2012-03-19

366

The characteristics of gas hydrates occurring in natural environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past few years, extensive analyses have been carried out for characterizing the natural gas hydrate samples from Cascadia, offshore Vancouver Island; Mallik, Mackenzie Delta; Mount Elbert, Alaska North Slope; Nankai Trough, offshore Japan; Japan Sea and offshore India. With the results obtained, it is possible to give a general picture of the characteristics of gas hydrates occurring in natural environment. Gas hydrate can occur in sediments of various types, from sands to clay, although it is preferentially enriched in sediments of certain types, for example coarse sands and fine volcanic ash. Most of the gas hydrates in sediments are invisible, occurring in the pores of the sediments, while some hydrates are visible, appearing as massive, nodular, planar, vein-like forms and occurring around the seafloor, in the fractures related to fault systems, or any other large spaces available in sediments. Although methane is the main component of most of the natural gas hydrates, C2 to C7 hydrocarbons have been recognized in hydrates, sometimes even in significant amounts. Shallow marine gas hydrates have been found generally to contain minor amounts of hydrogen sulfide. Gas hydrate samples with complex gas compositions have been found to have heterogeneous distributions in composition, which might reflect changes in the composition of the available gas in the surrounding environment. Depending on the gas compositions, the structure type of a natural gas hydrate can be structure I, II or H. For structure I methane hydrate, the large cages are almost fully occupied by methane molecules, while the small cages are only partly occupied. Methane hydrates occurring in different environments have been identified with almost the same crystallographic parameters.

Lu, H.; Moudrakovski, I.; Udachin, K.; Enright, G.; Ratcliffe, C.; Ripmeester, J.

2009-12-01

367

Recovering low-level heat via expansion of natural gas  

SciTech Connect

In most large chemical-processing plants and petroleum refineries, fuel-gas pressure is controlled by the natural-gas makeup. The supply pressure is reduced across control valves while enroute to the fuel-gas blend tank. A pressure drop of 220 psi is available for performing mechanical work. The first law of thermodynamics requires that heat be added to the gas to keep the enthalpy constant. Without this heat, fuel users would consume more gas, due to lower energy content per unit mass. As the gas passes through a control valve, no work is done and no enthalpy change occurs; in the turboexpander, work is done and the enthalpy decreases. The low temperature of the natural gas line makes it an ideal sink for a low-level waste-heat stream. However, heating the gas is not of itself a practical means of energy conservation. Fuel-gas distribution systems are normally complex and insulation is impractical. Any heat that would be put into the fuel gas would be lost to the ambient air. Salvaging energy from a waste-heat stream thus requires the addition of heat and mechanical work.

Doane, R.C.

1984-04-02

368

Extended corresponding states equation of state for natural gas systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an extended corresponded states model for the prediction of thermodynamic properties of natural gas systems. This model is based on shape factors expressed as generalised functions of the reduced temperature and density, the acentric factor and the critical compression factor. A single set of coefficients was optimised for 12 major components of natural gases. The extension to multicomponent

J. F. Estela-Uribe; J. P. M. Trusler

2001-01-01

369

Natural gas infrastructure investment, regulation and ownership: the Australian case  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study looks at the natural gas industry, with particular reference to recent Australian developments. It connects with the issues of ownership and regulation within the global financial system, using the Australian experience to show how these issues are playing out in this industry. Whether the interaction of independent regulation and competition has attracted more non-government investment in natural

Jos Alberto Hernndez Ibarzbal

2011-01-01

370

Natural Gas Pipeline Research: Best Practices in Monitoring Technology  

E-print Network

Natural Gas Pipeline Research: Best Practices in Monitoring Technology Energy Systems Research Office Energy Technology Systems Integration http://www.energy.ca.gov/research/integratio n research is needed to explore opportunities and apply new and emerging technologies related to natural

371

The Extraction of Gasoline from Natural Gas  

E-print Network

Eeoovered - 24 3aaple Ko. 35. Volunc of naturel Cas - - - 41.2 ce Vcluae of Gasoline Vppor - - 5.0 oc Volunc Absorbed - - - - 3.2 cc Volume liooovered - - 045$ Kerosene as Solvent. Snmple Ho. 37. Volunc of natural Cas - - - 40^1 oc Volune...

Schroeder, J. P.

1914-05-15

372

Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization  

SciTech Connect

The previous report provided a detailed summary of the work data on the project at the Rulison field. Key to this report was the finding that the regions where wells showed good EURs were spatially associated with faulting. Specifically, areas considered more permeable due to the presence of natural fractures are generally located in the high-side (footwall) of reverse faults. While this association seems to hold in the Rulison seismic data coverage, this association requires corroboration. Thus the work plan for the quarter of July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997 consisted of three tasks: (1) perform detailed fault mapping of Rulison 3-D seismic data with Barrett Resources; (2) review SOCO 2-D seismic fault mapping and structural interpretations; and (3) initial work into developing a predictive method for locating fault-related natural fractures. The first two tasks were initiated and completed during this reporting period. The work involved required at the collaborative effort between the field operators and ARI staff. The third task marks the beginning of quantitative fracture mechanics analysis of the geologic processes that are involved for the development of fault-related natural fractures. The goal of this work is to develop a predictive capability of locating natural fractures prior to drilling.

NONE

1998-02-06

373

Green Engines Development Using Compressed Natural Gas as an Alternative Fuel: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: The Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a gaseous form of natural gas, it have been recognized as one of the promising alternative fuel due to its substantial benefits compared to gasoli ne and diesel. Natural gas is produced from gas wells or tied in w ith crude oil production. Approach: Natural gas is promising alternative fuel to meet

R. A. Bakar; A. R. Ismail

2009-01-01

374

Low-quality natural gas sulfur removal/recovery  

SciTech Connect

Low quality natural gas processing with the integrated CFZ/CNG Claus process is feasible for low quality natural gas containing 10% or more of CO{sub 2}, and any amount of H{sub 2}S. The CNG Claus process requires a minimum CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the feed gas of about 100 psia (15% CO{sub 2} for a 700 psia feed gas) and also can handle any amount of H{sub 2}S. The process is well suited for handling a variety of trace contaminants usually associated with low quality natural gas and Claus sulfur recovery. The integrated process can produce high pressure carbon dioxide at purities required by end use markets, including food grade CO{sub 2}. The ability to economically co-produce high pressure CO{sub 2} as a commodity with significant revenue potential frees process economic viability from total reliance on pipeline gas, and extends the range of process applicability to low quality gases with relatively low methane content. Gases with high acid gas content and high CO{sub 2} to H{sub 2}S ratios can be economically processed by the CFZ/CNG Claus and CNG Claus processes. The large energy requirements for regeneration make chemical solvent processing prohibitive. The cost of Selexol physical solvent processing of the LaBarge gas is significantly greater than the CNG/CNG Claus and CNG Claus processes.

Damon, D.A. [CNG Research Co., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Siwajek, L.A. [Acrion Technologies, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Klint, B.W. [BOVAR Inc., AB (Canada). Western Research

1993-12-31

375

Natural gas imports and exports. First quarter report 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico. 14 figs., 9 tabs.

NONE

1997-09-01

376

Natural gas imports and exports. First quarter report, 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the first quarter of 1998 (January through March). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

NONE

1998-08-01

377

Natural gas imports and exports. Second quarter report, 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepared quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the second quarter of 1998 (April through June). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

NONE

1998-11-01

378

Natural gas imports and exports. Fourth quarter report, 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the fourth quarter of 1998 (October through December). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

NONE

1998-12-31

379

Natural gas imports and exports. Third quarter report 1997  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report, prepared by The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities, summarizes the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Numerical data are presented in four attachments, each of which is comprised of a series of tables. Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent calendar quarters. Volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past year are given in Attachment B. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D lists gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico. Highlights of the report are very briefly summarized.

NONE

1998-01-01

380

Autothermal Reforming of Natural Gas to Synthesis Gas  

SciTech Connect

This Project Final Report serves to document the project structure and technical results achieved during the 3-year project titled Advanced Autothermal Reformer for US Dept of Energy Office of Industrial Technology. The project was initiated in December 2001 and was completed March 2005. It was a joint effort between Sandia National Laboratories (Livermore, CA), Kellogg Brown & Root LLC (KBR) (Houston, TX) and Sd-Chemie (Louisville, KY). The purpose of the project was to develop an experimental capability that could be used to examine the propensity for soot production in an Autothermal Reformer (ATR) during the production of hydrogen-carbon monoxide synthesis gas intended for Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) applications including ammonia, methanol, and higher hydrocarbons. The project consisted of an initial phase that was focused on developing a laboratory-scale ATR capable of reproducing conditions very similar to a plant scale unit. Due to budget constraints this effort was stopped at the advanced design stages, yielding a careful and detailed design for such a system including ATR vessel design, design of ancillary feed and let down units as well as a PI&D for laboratory installation. The experimental effort was then focused on a series of measurements to evaluate rich, high-pressure burner behavior at pressures as high as 500 psi. The soot formation measurements were based on laser attenuation at a view port downstream of the burner. The results of these experiments and accompanying calculations show that soot formation is primarily dependent on oxidation stoichiometry. However, steam to carbon ratio was found to impact soot production as well as burner stability. The data also showed that raising the operating pressure while holding mass flow rates constant results in considerable soot formation at desirable feed ratios. Elementary reaction modeling designed to illuminate the role of CO2 in the burner feed showed that the conditions in the burner allow for the direct participation of CO2 in the oxidation chemistry.

Steven F. Rice; David P. Mann

2007-04-13

381

Natural gas: Hearing before the committee on energy and natural resources, United States Senate  

SciTech Connect

This hearing will be on whether the US has the natural gas supply and the infrastructure necessary to meet the projected demand. Energy information says that there will be a need for 30 trillion cubic feet per year of natural gas by the year 2010 if the US is able to meet the proposed Clinton-Gore global warming targets. The question for today's hearing is can this level of gas demand be met. That is about a 50% increase. Will the gas be there both on-shore and off-shore? Will producers be given access to Federal lands? Those of us out West have had a little experience in that regard, and the Secretary of the Interior has not exactly opened up the wide-open spaces. Will there be interstate pipeline which is needed to move the gas from the producing fields to the cities? According to industry, why the FERC has not been particularly interested in allowing new gas lines to be built. Will there be local distribution facilities which will be necessary to get the gas from the pipeline to the consumers? The Committee heard from the following: representatives from the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America, Energy Information Agency, Independent Petroleum Association of America, Latin American Petroleum Intelligence Service, Natural Gas Supply Association, and Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, and senators from the states of New Mexico, Montana, and Alaska.

NONE

1999-07-01

382

Analysis of natural gas supply strategies at Fort Drum  

SciTech Connect

This analysis investigates strategies for Fort Drum to acquire a reliable natural gas supply while reducing its gas supply costs. The purpose of this study is to recommend an optimal supply mix based on the life-cycle costs of each strategy analyzed. In particular, this study is intended to provide initial guidance as to whether or not the building and operating of a propane-air mixing station is a feasible alternative to the current gas acquisition strategy. The analysis proceeded by defining the components of supply (gas purchase, gas transport, supplemental fuel supply); identifying alternative options for each supply component; constructing gas supply strategies from different combinations of the options available for each supply component and calculating the life-cycle costs of each supply strategy under a set of different scenarios reflecting the uncertainty of future events.

Stucky, D.J.; Shankle, S.A.; Anderson, D.M.

1992-07-01

383

Asian natural gas pipeline proposed for easing energy, feedstock strains  

SciTech Connect

Nearly every country on the program at the recent Asian Natural Gas 5 Conference in Singapore reported on attempts to maximize the use of natural gas as a fuel and a feedstock. But no one made a more startling presentation than Masaru Hirata, chairman of the National Pipeline Research Society of Japan. His proposal: construct an international trunk pipeline network linking natural gas fields in Central Asia, Southeast Asia, Siberia, and North America with the main markets of Asia, primarily Japan and China. Total length -- 25,500 miles. He cites International Energy Agency data projecting a 70% increase in energy demand in the Pacific region between 1989 and 2000. Natural gas will be expected to satisfy anticipated energy needs into the next century. An important element in Hirata's thinking is the promotion of international cooperation among the beneficiaries of the network. In the Asia-Pacific region, natural gas is more plentiful than oil. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) plants have been built in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Australia. All of them sell LNG to Japan (the world's largest importer of LNG), South Korea, and Taiwan. Additional vast reserves are known to exist in Siberia, near Sakhalin Island, and in the western regions of China. Hirata's network is aimed at bringing the gas from these distant deposits to consumers in the coastal regions of Asia. There are six major parts to the proposed network: Turkmenistan-West China-Japan; Yakutsk-China-Korea-Japan; Alaska-Sakhalin Island-Japan; ASEAN-South China; Within ASEAN; and Australia-ASEAN. The estimated cost of the project is about $66 billion in current dollars.

Haggin, J. (C and EN, Chicago, IL (United States))

1994-06-06

384

Natural gas prime movers: A prime income opportunity?  

SciTech Connect

Although almost every factory, for example, uses compressed air to operate and control equipment--from power tools to packaging machinery--most air compressors are driven by electric motors. Similarly, although industry uses refrigeration for everything from freezing food to chilling warehouses to making chemicals and ice to operating skating rinks, natural gas powers only about 100 industrial refrigeration units in North America. But several factors are beginning to make natural gas more attractive as a prime mover. For one thing, the rising cost of electricity, with its demand or time-of-day and summer on-peak charges, has everyone looking for ways to cut their electric bills. At the same time, in the wake of deregulation of the nation`s electric industry, customers can build on-site power plants that use natural gas to generate their own electricity, or have outside power suppliers or energy service companies (ESCOs) do it for them. Waste and exhaust heat, which can represent up to 60% of the total energy supplied from both engines and turbines, can be captured and used. Finally, growing concern over electric power outages has made natural gas more attractive for mission-critical operations, while new financing options let people buy and install natural gas prime movers more easily.

Katz, M.G.

1997-03-01

385

Bioconversion of natural gas to liquid fuel: opportunities and challenges.  

PubMed

Natural gas is a mixture of low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases that can be generated from either fossil or anthropogenic resources. Although natural gas is used as a transportation fuel, constraints in storage, relatively low energy content (MJ/L), and delivery have limited widespread adoption. Advanced utilization of natural gas has been explored for biofuel production by microorganisms. In recent years, the aerobic bioconversion of natural gas (or primarily the methane content of natural gas) into liquid fuels (Bio-GTL) by biocatalysts (methanotrophs) has gained increasing attention as a promising alternative for drop-in biofuel production. Methanotrophic bacteria are capable of converting methane into microbial lipids, which can in turn be converted into renewable diesel via a hydrotreating process. In this paper, biodiversity, catalytic properties and key enzymes and pathways of these microbes are summarized. Bioprocess technologies are discussed based upon existing literature, including cultivation conditions, fermentation modes, bioreactor design, and lipid extraction and upgrading. This review also outlines the potential of Bio-GTL using methane as an alternative carbon source as well as the major challenges and future research needs of microbial lipid accumulation derived from methane, key performance index, and techno-economic analysis. An analysis of raw material costs suggests that methane-derived diesel fuel has the potential to be competitive with petroleum-derived diesel. PMID:24726715

Fei, Qiang; Guarnieri, Michael T; Tao, Ling; Laurens, Lieve M L; Dowe, Nancy; Pienkos, Philip T

2014-01-01

386

Better discrimination for illusory than for occluded perceptual completions  

E-print Network

can perceive a white square against black background, when only the corners of the square are visible through four holes in a white occluding plane. Because this amodal percept is harder to achieve than its, subjective, or modal. When perceived as seen through four holes, it is called occluded or amodal. One common

Zhou, Yi-Feng

387

Apparatus for reliquefying boil-off natural gas from a storage tank  

SciTech Connect

In a combination of apparatus for storing liquefied natural gas which includes an insulated separation tank in which solidified carbon dioxide is settled out of liquefied natural gas and a liquefied natural gas-solidified carbon dioxide slurry accumulates, an insulated liquefied natural gas storage tank, and a conduit for delivering liquefied natural gas from the separation tank to the storage tank, the improvement comprising a conduit for withdrawing natural gas boil-off from the storage tank and feeding it to a compressor, a conduit for feeding compressed natural gas boil-off from the compressor to a heat exchanger for indirect heat exchange with a liquefied natural gas -solidified carbon dioxide slurry in the separation tank to cool the compressed natural gas to reliquefied natural gas, and a conduit to feed the reliquefied natural gas from the heat exchanger to the storage tank.

Hanke, C.C.; Husain, M.; Selcukoglu, Y.A.

1980-02-12

388

Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions  

SciTech Connect

U.S. natural gas composition is expected to be more variable in the future. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Unconventional gas supplies, like coal-bed methane, are also expected to grow. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from existing domestic natural gas supplies. To allow the greatest use of gas supplies, end-use equipment should be able to accommodate the widest possible gas composition. For this reason, the effect of gas composition on combustion behavior is of interest. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 589K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx emissions. These results vary from data reported in the literature for some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences are discussed.

D. Straub; D. Ferguson; K. Casleton; G. Richards

2006-03-01

389

Liquefaction of remote sources of natural gas. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective was to determine the technical and financial feasibility of liquefying remote reserves of natural gas and transporting the liquefied product to users. The proposed methodology included efforts to (1) identify any prohibitive or limiting laws and/or regulations; (2) identify sufficient unutilized reserves in remote areas to justify further investigation; (3) identify existing portable liquefaction equipment (or an interested manufacturer that could supply the needed equipment) to obtain cost and performance data; (4) determine site preparation, supply and production costs for use in assessing economic feasibility; and (5) identify potential users. The conclusion is that the liquefaction of natural gas in remote areas of Appalachia is not economically feasible as long as an adequate and reliable supply of pipeline gas is perceived to be available for the forseable future and the price per Btu of pipeline gas remains so far below other fuels. 3 tables.

Rogers, D.W.

1981-12-01

390

Systems for delivering liquified natural gas to an engine  

DOEpatents

A fuel delivery system includes a fuel tank configured to receive liquid natural gas. A first conduit extends from a vapor holding portion of the fuel tank to an economizer valve. A second conduit extends from a liquid holding portion of the fuel tank to the economizer valve. Fluid coupled to the economizer valve is a vaporizer which is heated by coolant from the engine and is positioned below the fuel tank. The economizer valve selectively withdraws either liquid natural gas or vaporized natural gas from the fuel tank depending on the pressure within the vapor holding portion of the fuel tank. A delivery conduit extends from the vaporizer to the engine. A return conduit having a check valve formed therein extends from the delivery conduit to the vapor holding portion of the fuel tank for pressurizing the fuel tank.

Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); O'Brien, James E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Siahpush, Ali S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Brown, Kevin B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2000-01-01

391

Unconventional methods in exploration for petroleum and natural gas IV  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a symposium on geophysical and geochemical surveys for petroleum and natural gas deposits. Topics considered at the symposium included seismic surveys, electrical techniques in mapping hydrocarbons, hydrocarbon leakage, magnetoelectic exploration, the measurement of rock magnetic susceptibility of drill cuttings, vitrinite reflectance, remote detection, soil concentrations, carbonate prospecting, and the near-surface hydrocarbon gas measurement of vertical migration.

Davidson, M.J.

1986-01-01

392

Natural gas liquifier based on an EGD-generator-expander  

Microsoft Academic Search

Versions are considered for preparing liquefied natural gas (LNG) in liquefiers with different cold producing units; with\\u000a a throttle valve, a vortex tube, a turbo-expander. A short analysis is given for their efficiency, and disadvantages and advantages\\u000a are noted. It is proposed to use as a cold producing unit in liquid gas liquefiers an electrogasdynamic (EGD) generator-expander\\u000a (G-E) using (utilization)

G. I. Bumagin; D. V. Borodin; A. G. Lapkova; A. E. Rakhanskii; E. I. Rogalskii

2007-01-01

393

Rapid carburizing with natural gas in a fluidized bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Carburizing with combustion of natural gas in a fluidized bed with a stationary catalyst and air input coefficient a<0.25 is not possible because the GIAP-3 catalyst is deactivated by soot.When a=0.260.29 the carburizing capacity of the atmosphere is insufficient to carburize carbon and alloy steels.2.In order to increase the carbon potential of the atmosphere with a=0.260.29, 1525% gas-carburizer must be

T. A. Pumpyanskaya; V. A. Vinokurov; A. P. Baskakov

1972-01-01

394

Replacing coal with natural gas would reduce warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A debate has raged in the past couple of years as to whether natural gas is better or worse overall than coal and oil from a global warming perspective. The back-and-forth findings have been due to the timelines taken into consideration, the details of natural gas extraction, and the electricity-generating efficiency of various fuels. An analysis by Cathles, which focuses exclusively on potential warming and ignores secondary considerations, such as economic, political, or other environmental concerns, finds that natural gas is better for electricity generation than coal and oil under all realistic circumstances. To come to this conclusion, the author considered three different future fuel consumption scenarios: (1) a business-as-usual case, which sees energy generation capacity continue at its current pace with its current energy mix until the middle of the century, at which point the implementation of low-carbon energy sources dominates and fossil fuel-derived energy production declines; (2) a gas substitution scenario, where natural gas replaces all coal power production and any new oil-powered facilities, with the same midcentury shift; and (3) a low-carbon scenario, where all electricity generation is immediately and aggressively switched to non-fossil fuel sources such as solar, wind, and nuclear.

Schultz, Colin

2012-08-01

395

Natural gas imports and exports. Second quarter report 1995  

SciTech Connect

This quarter`s feature report focuses on natural gas exports to Mexico. OFP invites ideas from the public on future topics dealing with North American natural gas import/export trade. Such suggestions should be left on OFP`s electronic bulletin board. Natural Gas exports to Mexico continued to grow and reached an historic high for the month of June (7.8 Bcf). Two new long-term contracts were activated; Pennsylvania Gas & Water Company began importing 14.7 MMcf per day from TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., and Renaissance Energy (U.S.) Inc. began importing 2.8 MMcf per day from Renaissance Energy Ltd. for resale to Delmarva Power & Light Company. Algerian LNG imports remained stagnant with only one tanker being imported by Pan National Gas Sales, Inc. (Pan National). During the first six months of 1995, data indicates gas imports increased by about 10 percent over the 1994 level (1,418 vs. 1,285 Bcf), with Canadian imports increasing by 14 percent and Algerian imports decreasing by 81 percent. During the same time period, exports increased by 18 percent (83 vs. 70.1 Bcf).

NONE

1995-12-31

396

Fuels Containing Methane of Natural Gas in Solution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While exploring ways of producing better fuels for propulsion of a spacecraft on the Mars sample return mission, a researcher at Johnson Space Center (JSC) devised a way of blending fuel by combining methane or natural gas with a second fuel to produce a fuel that can be maintained in liquid form at ambient temperature and under moderate pressure. The use of such a blended fuel would be a departure for both spacecraft engines and terrestrial internal combustion engines. For spacecraft, it would enable reduction of weights on long flights. For the automotive industry on Earth, such a fuel could be easily distributed and could be a less expensive, more efficient, and cleaner-burning alternative to conventional fossil fuels. The concept of blending fuels is not new: for example, the production of gasoline includes the addition of liquid octane enhancers. For the future, it has been commonly suggested to substitute methane or compressed natural gas for octane-enhanced gasoline as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Unfortunately, methane or natural gas must be stored either as a compressed gas (if kept at ambient temperature) or as a cryogenic liquid. The ranges of automobiles would be reduced from their present values because of limitations on the capacities for storage of these fuels. Moreover, technical challenges are posed by the need to develop equipment to handle these fuels and, especially, to fill tanks acceptably rapidly. The JSC alternative to provide a blended fuel that can be maintained in liquid form at moderate pressure at ambient temperature has not been previously tried. A blended automotive fuel according to this approach would be made by dissolving natural gas in gasoline. The autogenous pressure of this fuel would eliminate the need for a vehicle fuel pump, but a pressure and/or flow regulator would be needed to moderate the effects of temperature and to respond to changing engine power demands. Because the fuel would flash as it entered engine cylinders, relative to gasoline, it would disperse more readily and therefore would mix with air more nearly completely. As a consequence, this fuel would burn more nearly completely (and, hence, more cleanly) than gasoline does. The storage density of this fuel would be similar to that of gasoline, but its energy density would be such that the mileage (more precisely, the distance traveled per unit volume of fuel) would be greater than that of either gasoline or compressed natural gas. Because the pressure needed to maintain the fuel in liquid form would be more nearly constant and generally lower than that needed to maintain compressed natural gas in liquid form, the pressure rating of a tank used to hold this fuel could be lower than that of a tank used to hold compressed natural gas. A mixture of natural gas and gasoline could be distributed more easily than could some alternative fuels. A massive investment in new equipment would not be necessary: One could utilize the present fuel-distribution infrastructure and could blend the gasoline and natural gas at almost any place in the production or distribution process - perhaps even at the retail fuel pump. Yet another advantage afforded by use of a blend of gasoline and natural gas would be a reduction in the amount of gasoline consumed. Because natural gas costs less than gasoline does and is in abundant supply in the United States, the cost of automotive fuel and the demand for imported oil could be reduced.

Sullivan, Thomas A.

2004-01-01

397

Exploring Occupations for Electronics Technicians in the Natural Gas Industry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher's guide presents a lesson on the electronics technician career path in the natural gas industry. Students will answer the question: "Is a career as an electronics technician in the natural gas industry a good choice for me?" The class will write a one-page paper on this topic. The unit is intended for grades 7-9 and would take three to four 45 minute class periods to complete in full. This document may be downloaded in Microsoft Word file format.

2012-10-16

398

Effects of gas composition on the performance and emissions of compressed natural gas engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas is considered to be a promising alternative fuel for passenger cars, truck transportation and stationary engines\\u000a providing positive effects both on the environment and energy security. However, since the composition of natural gas fuel\\u000a varies with location, climate and other factors, it is anticipated that such changes in fuel properties will affect emission\\u000a characteristics and performance of CNG

Byung Hyouk Min; Jin Taek Chung; Ho Young Kim

2002-01-01

399

Natural Gas Procurement Challenges for a Project Financed Cogeneration Facility  

E-print Network

inte~est, while competitive fuel cost g~eetly conce~ed Union Ca~bide. In addition, the natu~al gas contract had to be in place prio~ to construction financing finalization. This pape~ will eKplo~e the thought p~ocess that went into evaluating... the lending institution was fo~ced to step in and operate the facility. Since the lender had no eKpe~tise in natural gas procu~ement. it ~equi~ed the gas contract be executed up f~ont so that terms and conditions would be known before construction...

Good, R. L.; Calvert, T. B.; Pavlish, B. A.

400

Natural gas development and utilisation pattern in India  

SciTech Connect

In this era of energy consciousness, Natural Gas is destined to play an important role in the economic life of India. The luxury of flaring into atmosphere is over. Rather stocks are being assessed and capital investments are planned for the optimum development and utilisation of gas. In this paper, authors have attempted to tie up various data on different aspects of gas business such as supply, source, production, utilisation pattern and its share in energy and economy. The optimal utilisation plan as discussed here could be of some value to the planners.

Mulchandani, H.K.; Balakrishnan, M.

1984-02-01

401

Supplemental sources of natural gas: an economic comparison  

SciTech Connect

Economic comparisons of Alaska, Canada, and Mexico evaluate each as a natural-gas source under a range of cost and price assumptions, supply security, and balance-of-trade impacts. The projections indicate that these supplemental sources will be necessary and adequate for the U.S. to supply gas demand. This would allow the U.S. to reduce its dependence on Mid-East oil. The relative advantages and disadvantages of tapping Alaskan, Canadian, and Mexican gas make it desirable to develop markets for all three. 11 references, 11 tables. (DCK)

Kaufman, A. (Congressional Research Service, Washington, DC); Bodilly, S.J.

1981-10-01

402

The Oil and Natural Gas Knowledge Management Database from NETL  

DOE Data Explorer

The Knowledge Management Database (KMD) Portal provides four options for searching the documents and data that NETL-managed oil and gas research has produced over the years for DOEs Office of Fossil Energy. Information includes R&D carried out under both historical and ongoing DOE oil and gas research and development (R&D). The Document Repository, the CD/DVD Library, the Project Summaries from 1990 to the present, and the Oil and Natural Gas Program Reference Shelf provide a wide range of flexibility and coverage.

403

Analysis of natural gas: the necessity of multiple standards for calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of natural gas as an international trading commodity and the cost to consumers has made the accuracy of determinations for the components of natural gas very important. Pricing of natural gas is based on the heating value of the gas determined from either calorimetry measurements or calculations based on individual component concentrations determined by gas chromatography (GC). Due

George C Rhoderick

2003-01-01

404

Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues  

SciTech Connect

The United States has 11 distinct natural gas pipeline corridors: five originate in the Southwest, four deliver natural gas from Canada, and two extend from the Rocky Mountain region. This study assesses the potential to deliver hydrogen through the existing natural gas pipeline network as a hydrogen and natural gas mixture to defray the cost of building dedicated hydrogen pipelines.

Melaina, M. W.; Antonia, O.; Penev, M.

2013-03-01

405

Analysis of regional demand for natural gas by black and nonblack families  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines long-term implications of a hypothetical 20% increase in the price of natural gas for black and nonblack families, by household, in the continental United States. The analysis focuses on four specific effects of such an increase: demand for natural gas, expenditure for natural gas, natural gas expenditure as a share of family income, and consumer surplus. Data

Poyer

1984-01-01

406

Utilization of natural gas in large-scale separation processes. Final report, September 1987August 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several industrial separation processes were identified which could be operated in a cost-effective manner utilizing pipeline natural gas as a processing fluid. In one such process, natural gas stripping, hazardous materials are transferred from hazardous water to the natural gas phase. When the natural gas phase is later burned as fuel, the heating value is realized and hazardous materials are

1989-01-01

407

Virial equation of state for natural gas systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new virial equation of state for natural gas systems under custody transfer conditions, defined at 270?T(K)?330 and P?12MPa. This model predicts compression factors of natural gases with at least the same accuracy as the well-known GERG virial equation of state. However, the model is devised in such a way that the prediction of caloric properties, particularly the

J. F. Estela-Uribe; J. Jaramillo; M. A. Salazar; J. P. M. Trusler

2003-01-01

408

NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES AND PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

In the second phase of this project, the newly developed membrane module for natural gas dehydration was tested and evaluated in a pilot plant located at a commercial natural gas treatment site. This phase was undertaken jointly with UOP LLC, our commercialization partner. The field test demonstrated that a commercial-size membrane module for natural gas dehydration was successfully manufactured. The membrane module operated reliably over 1000 psi differential pressure across the membrane in the field test. The effects of feed gas pressure, permeate gas pressure, feed flow rate, purge ratio (flow rate ratio of permeate outlet to feed), and feed gas dew point on the membrane module performance were determined and found to meet the design expectations. Although water vapor permeance was lower than expected, substantial natural gas dehydration was demonstrated with low purge ratio. For example, dew point was suppressed by as much as 30 F with only about 2 {approx} 3% purge ratio. However the bore side pressure drops were significantly higher than the projected value from the fluid dynamic calculation. It is likely that not all the fibers were open in either the sweep or the permeate tube sheet end. This could help to explain the relatively low water vapor permeances that were measured in the field. An economic evaluation of the membrane process and the traditional Triethylene Glycol (TEG) process to dehydrate natural gas was performed and the economics of the two processes were compared. Two sets of membrane module performance properties were used in the economic analysis of the membrane process. One was from the results of this field test and the other from the results of the previous small-scale test with a medium pressure membrane variant conducted at 750 psig. The membrane process was competitive with the TEG process for the natural gas feed flow rate below 10 MMSCFD for the membrane with previously measured water vapor permeance. The membrane process was competitive for the feed flow rate below 1 MMSCFD even for the membrane with the water vapor permeance of this field test.

Ben Bikson; Sal Giglia; Jibin Hao

2003-03-01

409

Preliminary report on the commercial viability of gas production from natural gas hydrates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Economic studies on simulated gas hydrate reservoirs have been compiled to estimate the price of natural gas that may lead to economically viable production from the most promising gas hydrate accumulations. As a first estimate, $CDN2005 12/Mscf is the lowest gas price that would allow economically viable production from gas hydrates in the absence of associated free gas, while an underlying gas deposit will reduce the viability price estimate to $CDN2005 7.50/Mscf. Results from a recent analysis of the simulated production of natural gas from marine hydrate deposits are also considered in this report; on an IROR basis, it is $US2008 3.50-4.00/Mscf more expensive to produce marine hydrates than conventional marine gas assuming the existence of sufficiently large marine hydrate accumulations. While these prices represent the best available estimates, the economic evaluation of a specific project is highly dependent on the producibility of the target zone, the amount of gas in place, the associated geologic and depositional environment, existing pipeline infrastructure, and local tariffs and taxes. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Walsh, M. R.; Hancock, S. H.; Wilson, S. J.; Patil, S. L.; Moridis, G. J.; Boswell, R.; Collett, T. S.; Koh, C. A.; Sloan, E. D.

2009-01-01

410

Generalised virial equation of state for natural gas systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we present a generalised virial equation of state for natural gas systems under custody transfer conditions. The model is based on corresponding states expressions for the second and third virial coefficients with argon as the reference fluid. These functional forms involve 12 adjustable coefficients. For the extension to mixtures we propose a one-fluid mixture model with binary

J. F. Estela-Uribe; J. Jaramillo

2005-01-01

411

Natural gas prime movers: A prime income opportunity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although almost every factory, for example, uses compressed air to operate and control equipment--from power tools to packaging machinery--most air compressors are driven by electric motors. Similarly, although industry uses refrigeration for everything from freezing food to chilling warehouses to making chemicals and ice to operating skating rinks, natural gas powers only about 100 industrial refrigeration units in North America.

Katz

1997-01-01

412

Combustion stabilization of a spark ignition natural gas engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas is very different from liquid fuels, such as gasoline and diesel fuel, in ignition characteristics, mixture formation process, combustion speed and so on. These characteristics greatly influence the cycle variation in the engine. The influence on lean-burn combustion is larger than that on stoichiometric combustion and the influence has not yet been sufficiently studied. In this paper, several

Yuichi Goto; Kazuyuki Narusawa

1996-01-01

413

Conflicting Stakeholder Interests and Natural Gas: A Macromarketing Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creation of a less expensive, domestically sourced, and more environmentally neutral energy grid is becoming a global imperative and natural gas (NG) is seen as a crucial component of this impetus. But expansion of NG production is fraught with significant macromarketing challenges; especially in light of recent discoveries of substantial NG reserves beneath heavily populated metropolitan areas. To understand certain

Jeffrey E. Lewin; David Strutton; Audhesh K. Paswan

2011-01-01

414

Storage of fuel in hydrates for natural gas vehicles (NGVs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for alternative fuels to replace liquid petroleum-based fuels has been accelerated in recent years by environmental concerns, concerns of shortage of imported liquid hydrocarbon, and congressional prompting. The fact is accepted that natural gas is the cheapest, most domestically abundant, and cleanest burning of fossil fuels. However, socio-economical and technical handicaps associated with the safety and efficiency of

G. Y. Yevi; R. E. Rogers

1996-01-01

415

Natural Gas-optimized Advanced Heavy-duty Engine  

E-print Network

Research www.energy.ca.gov/research/ transportation/ August 2011 The Issue Particulate matter emissionsNatural Gas-optimized Advanced Heavy-duty Engine Transportation Research PIER Transportation operation at partload. Research is needed to overcome barriers to increase engine displacement size while

416

Multidisciplinary Academic Demonstration of a Biomass Alliance with Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent increases in prices and imports of natural gas are posing threats to university budgets as well as to the U.S. economy and trade balance. In the near term, biomass in various forms is the most available renewable energy source in the USA, particularly in the wild land - urban interface. The possibili ty of gasifying biomass and developing a

Alex E. S. Green; Jie Feng; Mathew Langholtz; Ulas Toros

417

Producing H2 From Methanol and Natural Gas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference sheet provides some information on the process of producing hydrogen from methanol and natural gas. The chemistry involved is described. This document may be useful in support of curriculum on hydrogen as a fuel source or fuel cell technology. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

2012-07-19

418

Natural gas pricing policies: implications for the federal budget  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the request of the Senate Budget Committee, this paper analyzes the macroeconomic and budgetary effects of alternative natural gas wellhead pricing policies. The report discusses three approaches to wellhead price decontrol, including complete decontrol on January 1, 1984, advancing the partial decontrol found in the NGPA by one year to January 1, 1984, and administrative decontrol in which prices

T. Considine; P. H. Johnston

1983-01-01

419

Strategic Eurasian Natural Gas Model for Energy Security  

E-print Network

fossil fuels (such as coal or oil).4 In 2009, natural gas consumption in the EU totalled 503 billion cubic metres (bcm) (or about a quarter of total primary energy consumption) (IEA, 2010). By 2030, consumption was projected to grow at an average...

Chyong, Chi-Kong; Hobbs, Benjamin F.

2011-04-06

420

Development status of liquefied natural gas industry in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the significant economic growth in China, energy related environmental issues become more and more serious. Most of air pollutants are produced by burning coal. In order to achieve a sustainable balance between economic growth and environmental protection, China has been taking measures to expand the role played by natural gas, especially since the beginning of the 21st century. As

Guo-Hua Shi; You-Yin Jing; Song-Ling Wang; Xu-Tao Zhang

2010-01-01

421

Is there hope for natural gas distribution companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

An appraisal of current conditions in the US natural gas market points out opportunities for renewed growth and profitability for distribution companies as a result of restructuring within the industry. After reviewing the history and effects of these changes, the author concludes that distribution utilities must shift from followers to decision makers as they evolve from junior to senior member

Pierce

1985-01-01

422

A procedure to design the mainline system in natural gas networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the start up of WestEast Natural Gas Transmission Project, the construction of natural gas-pipeline will enter on a new era in China. The development tendency will be towards large-diameter, high-pressure and long-distance for natural gas-pipelines. Correspondingly, the life cycle cost of natural gas-pipeline networks is increasing gradually. The mainline system is a vital part of natural gas network systems.

Yingjun Ruan; Qingrong Liu; Weiguo Zhou; Bill Batty; Weijun Gao; Jianxin Ren; Toshiyuki Watanabe

2009-01-01

423

Pouring CREAM into natural gas: the introduction of Common Performance Conditions into the safety management of gas networks  

E-print Network

: gas network management, human and organisational factors, CREAM, common performance conditions1 Pouring CREAM into natural gas: the introduction of Common Performance Conditions into the safety management of gas networks Guillaume Desmorata, b , Franck Guarnierib , Denis Besnardb , Pierre Desideria

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

424

Natural Gas - Microbe Interactions in Southern California Bight Seep Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microbial consumption of methane (C1), ethane (C2), propane (C3) and n-butane (nC4) was investigated by quantifying the distributions of these gases and other related chemicals in marine gas seeps, and through laboratory incubations of seep sediment. In-situ porewater samplers (peepers) were deployed in the sediments surrounding hydrocarbon seeps at Santa Monica Basin, Santa Barbara Basin and Coal Oil Point and were used along with traditional coring techniques to quantify the natural distributions of C1-C4 hydrocarbons. Chemical distributions display major distinctions based upon the distance to a gas vent, even over distances of only 30 cm. This data and preliminary methane oxidation rate measurements suggest high rates of methane oxidation in close proximity to natural gas vents and the possible preferential degradation of higher hydrocarbons at shallower depths. Additional sediment incubation experiments are underway, and results will be presented.

Kinnaman, F. S.; Valentine, D. L.

2007-12-01

425

Organic acids emissions from natural-gas-fed engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A natural-gas-fed spark-ignition engine, operating under lean conditions, is used for the study of the organic acids exhaust emissions. These pollutants are collected by passing a sample of exhaust gas into deionised water. The final solution is directly analysed by HPLC/UV at 204 nm. Only formic acid is emitted in detectable concentration under the experimental conditions used. Its concentration decreases with the three engine operating parameters studied: spark advance, volumetric efficiency and fuel/air equivalence ratio. Exhaust formic acid concentration is also linked with exhaust oxygen concentration and exhaust temperature. A comparison with other engines (SI engines fed with gasoline and compression ignition engines) from bibliographic data proves that natural-gas-fed engines emit less organic acids than the other two types of engines.

Zervas, Efthimios; Tazerout, Mohand

426

CO 2 abatement by co-firing of natural gas and biomass-derived gas in a gas turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a possible way for partial CO2 emissions reduction from gas turbine exhausts by co-firing with biomass is investigated. The basic principle is the recirculation of a fraction of the exhausts (still rich in oxygen) to a gasifier, in order to produce syngas to mix with natural gas fuel. As biomass is a CO2 neutral fuel, the fraction

Daniele Fiaschi; Riccardo Carta

2007-01-01

427

Natural Gas Imports and Exports. Third Quarter Report 1999  

SciTech Connect

The second quarter 1997 Quarterly Report of Natural Gas Imports and Exports featured a Quarterly Focus report on cross-border natural gas trade between the United States and Mexico. This Quarterly Focus article is a follow-up to the 1997 report. This report revisits and updates the status of some of the pipeline projects discussed in 1997, and examines a number of other planned cross-border pipeline facilities which were proposed subsequent to our 1997 report. A few of the existing and proposed pipelines are bidirectional and thus have the capability of serving either Mexico, or the United States, depending on market conditions and gas supply availability. These new projects, if completed, would greatly enhance the pipeline infrastructure on the U.S.-Mexico border and would increase gas pipeline throughput capacity for cross-border trade by more than 1 billion cubic feet (Bcf) per day. The Quarterly Focus is comprised of five sections. Section I includes the introduction as well as a brief historic overview of U.S./Mexican natural gas trade; a discussion of Mexico's energy regulatory structure; and a review of trade agreements and a 1992 legislative change which allows for her cross-border gas trade in North America. Section II looks at initiatives that have been taken by the Mexican Government since 1995to open its energy markets to greater competition and privatization. Section III reviews Mexican gas demand forecasts and looks at future opportunities for U.S. gas producers to supplement Mexico's indigenous supplies in order to meet the anticipated rapid growth in demand. Section IV examines the U.S.-Mexico natural gas trade in recent years. It also looks specifically at monthly import and export volumes and prices and identifies short-term trends in this trade. Finally, Section V reviews the existing and planned cross-border gas pipeline infrastructure. The section also specifically describes six planned pipelines intended to expand this pipeline network and their planned in-service dates.

none

1999-10-01

428

Deliverability on the interstate natural gas pipeline system  

SciTech Connect

Deliverability on the Interstate Natural Gas Pipeline System examines the capability of the national pipeline grid to transport natural gas to various US markets. The report quantifies the capacity levels and utilization rates of major interstate pipeline companies in 1996 and the changes since 1990, as well as changes in markets and end-use consumption patterns. It also discusses the effects of proposed capacity expansions on capacity levels. The report consists of five chapters, several appendices, and a glossary. Chapter 1 discusses some of the operational and regulatory features of the US interstate pipeline system and how they affect overall system design, system utilization, and capacity expansions. Chapter 2 looks at how the exploration, development, and production of natural gas within North America is linked to the national pipeline grid. Chapter 3 examines the capability of the interstate natural gas pipeline network to link production areas to market areas, on the basis of capacity and usage levels along 10 corridors. The chapter also examines capacity expansions that have occurred since 1990 along each corridor and the potential impact of proposed new capacity. Chapter 4 discusses the last step in the transportation chain, that is, deliverability to the ultimate end user. Flow patterns into and out of each market region are discussed, as well as the movement of natural gas between States in each region. Chapter 5 examines how shippers reserve interstate pipeline capacity in the current transportation marketplace and how pipeline companies are handling the secondary market for short-term unused capacity. Four appendices provide supporting data and additional detail on the methodology used to estimate capacity. 32 figs., 15 tabs.

NONE

1998-05-01

429

Sampling and analysis of natural gas trace constituents  

SciTech Connect

Major and minor components of natural gas are routinely analyzed by gas chromatography (GC), using a thermal conductivity (TC). The best results obtained by these methods can report no better than 0.01 mole percent of each measured component. Even the extended method of analysis by flame ionization detector (FID) can only improve on the detection limit of hydrocarbons. The gas industry needs better information on all trace constituents of natural gas, whether native or inadvertently added during gas processing that may adversely influence the operation of equipment or the safety of the consumer. The presence of arsenic and mercury in some gas deposits have now been documented in international literature as causing not only human toxicity but also damaging to the field equipment. Yet, no standard methods of sampling and analysis exist to provide this much needed information. In this paper the authors report the results of a three-year program to develop an extensive array of sampling and analysis methods for speciation and measurement of trace constituents of natural gas. A cryogenic sampler operating at near 200 K ({minus}99 F) and at pipeline pressures up to 12.4 {times} 10{sup 6}Pa (1800 psig) has been developed to preconcentrate and recover all trace constituents with boiling points above butanes. Specific analytical methods have been developed for speciating and measurement of many trace components (corresponding to US EPA air toxics) by GC-AED and GC-MS, and for determining various target compounds by other techniques. Moisture, oxygen and sulfur contents are measured on site using dedicated field instruments. Arsenic, mercury and radon are sampled by specific solid sorbents for subsequent laboratory analysis.

Attari, A.; Chao, S.

1993-09-01

430

Natural Gas as a Boiler Fuel of Choice in Texas  

E-print Network

cubic feet (Tcf) of natural gas to price. FIGURE 1 1990 Texas Fuel Mix [From PUCT Fuel Efficiency Report) Coal 24,3'1> Nalural Gas 38,7'1> , Nalural Gas 63,1'1> H yd ro 0.1 'I> Cogenerallon 8.6'1> L1gnlle 12,7'1> Nuclear 8,6'1> Lignite 19... for Completed Gas WellsI II 8 Cc, ChJngc In Proven Rc.~t'~_, _ ~> i (Right Sc3lt.-) -5 -5 \\I \\ I I' -10 --+-- Cosl/fool ...-......_ Ft'd!W... 1I Sourcl". OOEIEIA Annual Energy Review 1990 (pp 67. 99-101) ? Proven reserve increases and decreases...

Kmetz, W. J.

431

Fundamental principles and applications of natural gas hydrates.  

PubMed

Natural gas hydrates are solid, non-stoichiometric compounds of small gas molecules and water. They form when the constituents come into contact at low temperature and high pressure. The physical properties of these compounds, most notably that they are non-flowing crystalline solids that are denser than typical fluid hydrocarbons and that the gas molecules they contain are effectively compressed, give rise to numerous applications in the broad areas of energy and climate effects. In particular, they have an important bearing on flow assurance and safety issues in oil and gas pipelines, they offer a largely unexploited means of energy recovery and transportation, and they could play a significant role in past and future climate change. PMID:14628065

Sloan, E Dendy

2003-11-20

432

Low-quality natural gas sulfur removal/recovery  

SciTech Connect

A significant fraction of U.S. natural gas reserves are subquality due to the presence of acid gases and nitrogen; 13% of existing reserves (19 trillion cubic feed) may be contaminated with hydrogen sulfide. For natural gas to be useful as fuel and feedstock, this hydrogen sulfide has to be removed to the pipeline specification of 4 ppm. The technology used to achieve these specifications has been amine, or similar chemical or physical solvent, absorption. Although mature and widely used in the gas industry, absorption processes are capital and energy-intensive and require constant supervision for proper operation. This makes these processes unsuitable for treating gas at low throughput, in remote locations, or with a high concentration of acid gases. The U.S. Department of Energy, recognizes that exploitation of smaller, more sub-quality resources will be necessary to meet demand as the large gas fields in the U.S. are depleted. In response to this need, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has developed membranes and a membrane process for removing hydrogen sulfide from natural gas. During this project, high-performance polymeric thin-film composite membranes were brought from the research stage to field testing. The membranes have hydrogen sulfide/methane selectivities in the range 35 to 60, depending on the feed conditions, and have been scaled up to commercial-scale production. A large number of spiral-wound modules were manufactured, tested and optimized during this project, which culminated in a field test at a Shell facility in East Texas. The short field test showed that membrane module performance on an actual natural gas stream was close to that observed in the laboratory tests with cleaner streams. An extensive technical and economic analysis was performed to determine the best applications for the membrane process. Two areas were identified: the low-flow-rate, high-hydrogen-sulfide-content region and the high-flow-rate, high-hydrogen-sulfide-content region. In both regions the MTR membrane process will be combined with another process to provide the necessary hydrogen sulfide removal from the natural gas. In the first region the membrane process will be combined with the SulfaTreat fixed-bed absorption process, and in the second region the membrane process will be combined with a conventional absorption process. Economic analyses indicate that these hybrid processes provide 20-40% cost savings over stand-alone absorption technologies.

K. Amo; R.W. Baker; V.D. Helm; T. Hofmann; K.A. Lokhandwala; I. Pinnau; M.B. Ringer; T.T. Su; L. Toy; J.G. Wijmans

1998-01-29

433

SAFE OPERATION OF NATURAL GAS APPLIANCES FUELED WITH HYDROGEN\\/NATURAL GAS MIXTURES (PROGRESS OBTAINED IN THE NATURALHY-PROJECT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the transition towards the hydrogen economy, dependent on hydrogen penetration scenario, the cost of a new hydrogen pipeline infrastructure in Europe may amount to several thousands of billions of EURO's. Therefore, the examination of the potential contribution of the existing natural gas assets is a practical and logical first step. As the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen differ

De Vries; O. Florisson; G. C. Tiekstra

434

METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 10: METERING AND PRESSURE REGULATING STATIONS IN NATURAL GAS TRANSMISSIONS AND DISTRIBUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

435

Apparatus and method to control process to replace natural gas with fuel oil in a natural gas burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method whereby fuel oil is mixed with a gaseous diluent and partially vaporized, liquids separated out, superheated and burned in a natural gas burner without major modification to the burner is disclosed. The control system is: (1) a liquid level controller sensing the liquid level in the separator to automatically control the flow of the fuel oil to the

W. W. Hoehing; J. M. Jackson; E. R. Johnson

1979-01-01

436

Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Likewise, it is expected that changes to the domestic gas supply may also introduce changes in natural gas composition. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from conventional domestic natural gas supplies. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 588 K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx or CO emissions. These results are different from data collected on some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences will be described.

Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Casleton, K.H.; Richards, G.A.

2007-03-01

437

A Low-Cost Natural Gas/Freshwater Aerial Pipeline  

E-print Network

Offered is a new type of low-cost aerial pipeline for delivery of natural gas, an important industrial and residential fuel, and freshwater as well as other payloads over long distances. The offered pipeline dramatically decreases the construction and operation costs and the time necessary for pipeline construction. A dual-use type of freight pipeline can improve an arid rural environment landscape and provide a reliable energy supply for cities. Our aerial pipeline is a large, self-lofting flexible tube disposed at high altitude. Presently, the term "natural gas" lacks a precise technical definition, but the main components of natural gas are methane, which has a specific weight less than air. A lift force of one cubic meter of methane equals approximately 0.5 kg. The lightweight film flexible pipeline can be located in the Earth-atmosphere at high altitude and poses no threat to airplanes or the local environment. The authors also suggest using lift force of this pipeline in tandem with wing devices for cheap shipment of a various payloads (oil, coal and water) over long distances. The article contains a computed macroproject in northwest China for delivery of 24 billion cubic meter of gas and 23 millions tonnes of water annually.

Alexander Bolonkin; Richard Cathcart

2007-01-05

438

Disconnection of natural gas service to residential customers  

SciTech Connect

Information is given on: states' approaches to regulating disconnections of residential natural gas customers; residential gas service disconnections and reconnectons; and the use of heating assistance and weatherization programs by states to help avert residential natural gas disconnections. In summary, 31 of the 33 states reviewed had some type of year-round rules governing utility disconnections, and during the 1982 to 1983 winter season, 23 had additional rules providing a variety of restrictions against the disconnection of natural gas customers. With respect to disconnections and reconnections, the data obtained from the 13 utilities was inadequate to assess the extent of disconnections or reconnections. Utilities could not eliminate from the data customers who were countered as being disconnected more than once during the year, and their reconnection statistics did not reflect all households restored to service. All of the five states we visited had programs for assisting low-income households in paying fuel bills, providing both basic benefits and emergency assistance benefits for households facing disconnection.

Not Available

1983-11-15

439

[Natural gas industry survey of households] And the survey says  

SciTech Connect

The concerns of the nation are also concerns of the gas industry, which is why A.G.A.'s consumer-attitudes survey is an important marketing tool. That crime has edged out both the economy and the environment is just one of the intriguing findings of the survey. The research has been conducted every two years for more than a decade to help guide A.G.A.'s national advertising and marketing plans, and to help member companies as they devise their own. The 30-minute telephone survey of more than 1,600 randomly sampled households in the continental US examined the attitudes of Americans about a range of issues, and the report outlining its results draws some sometimes surprising conclusions. Seventy percent of the people surveyed live in areas where natural gas is immediately available, while 30 percent live in areas where it is not, meaning that the sample is a wide one that reaches into areas not often probed by the industry. The image of the natural gas industry remains strongly favorable. Natural gas companies are viewed with as much approval as electric utilities, major appliance manufacturers and telephone companies. The paper discusses survey findings.

Crawford, A.P. (Martin Public Relations, Richmond, VA (United States))

1994-10-01

440

Amodal completion is not completed only behind the occluder.  

PubMed

We investigated amodal completion with changes in two parameters: figure orientation, and the shape of the occluding and occluded figures. First, Markovich's [2002, Visual Mathematics 4(1); http://www.mi.sanu.ac.rs/vismath/fila] figure was presented in vertical, horizontal, and diagonal orientations. The results supported Markovich's finding of amodal completion by smooth continuity and symmetry. Amodal completion was also affected by orientation: symmetrical shape tended to appear when the pattern had vertical axis whilst smooth continuity appeared in diagonal orientation. Next, the shape of the exposed side of the occluded figure was changed from straight to curved. Finally, the shape of the grey occluder was changed from a disk to a half-disk or a quarter-disk. The results then showed the influence of the visible contour on amodal completion. This shows that the contextual relation of the whole figure is significant in amodal completion. PMID:19911637

Takashima, Midori; Fujii, Teruo; Shiina, Ken

2009-01-01

441

Production of bio-synthetic natural gas in Canada.  

PubMed

Large-scale production of renewable synthetic natural gas from biomass (bioSNG) in Canada was assessed for its ability to mitigate energy security and climate change risks. The land area within 100 km of Canada's network of natural gas pipelines was estimated to be capable of producing 67-210 Mt of dry lignocellulosic biomass per year with minimal adverse impacts on food and fiber production. Biomass gasification and subsequent methanation and upgrading were estimated to yield 16,000-61,000 Mm(3) of pipeline-quality gas (equivalent to 16-63% of Canada's current gas use). Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of bioSNG-based electricity were calculated to be only 8.2-10% of the emissions from coal-fired power. Although predicted production costs ($17-21 GJ(-1)) were much higher than current energy prices, a value for low-carbon energy would narrow the price differential. A bioSNG sector could infuse Canada's rural economy with $41-130 billion of investments and create 410,000-1,300,000 jobs while developing a nation-wide low-carbon energy system. PMID:20175525

Hacatoglu, Kevork; McLellan, P James; Layzell, David B

2010-03-15

442

HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

This first quarter report of 2001 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf{trademark} (service mark of Gas Research Institute) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. During this reporting periods new catalyst formulations were tested. The experiments showed that the newest catalyst has slightly better performance, but catalyst TDA No.2 is still superior overall for use with the hybrid CrystaSulf process due to lower costs. Plans for catalyst pelletization and continued testing are described.

Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

2001-05-01

443

Highly Compressed Free Gas in Deep-Water Natural Gas Hydrate Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural gas, predominantly methane, is stored in a highly compact form within solid gas hydrate. The large volume of free gas that can be liberated by dissociation of hydrate (at standard surface conditions) is a prominent aspect of this potential energy resource. In contrast, the highly compressed state of free gas under pressure-temperature conditions found in deep-water marine settings is rarely noted. To facilitate comparison of gas quantities present within and below the hydrate stability zone in marine gas hydrate systems, particularly those in the deep-water Bering Sea basins, a suite of volume expansion ratios for 100% methane gas have been calculated. These ratios relate free gas volume under in-situ pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions to free gas volume at standard surface conditions. The volume calculation is routine, using the Peng-Robinson equation of state (Peng and Robinson, 1976). Because most geophysical field studies aim to resolve the quantities of solid hydrate or free gas as a volume fraction of bulk rock in-situ, whereas gas resource volumes are reported as volume of free gas at STP, results here are presented as free gas volume ratios describing expansion between depth and surface conditions. This presentation also allows direct comparison with free gas yield of solid hydrate. Volume expansion ratio is presented for general reference for the pressure range 1 to 60 MPa and temperature range 0 to 80C. (See USGS Open File Report 05-1451 online.) For pressures in the range 30 to 52 MPa and temperatures from 4 to 80C, a more detailed evaluation of the P (water depth) and T (geotherm) effects on gas volumes has been undertaken. Ideal gas deviation factors, or z-factors, are also included. For free methane gas near the base of the hydrate stability zone at 360 m below seafloor in the Bering Sea, under conditions of 3,600 m water depth, 4C seafloor temperature and 60C/km geothermal gradient, the ratio of gas volume at standard conditions to gas volume in-situ is ~365. By comparison, natural gas hydrate has an expected free gas yield of ~164 volumes at standard conditions per volume of solid hydrate dissociated (Collett, 2000). This means that a given volume of free gas immediately below the base of hydrate stability contains more than twice the number of molecules of methane as an equal volume of the overlying natural gas hydrate. In the temperature range 0 to 80C, the cross-over point where free gas and solid gas hydrate will contain an equal number of molecules of methane per unit volume occurs at pressures between 12 and 20 MPa as an increasing function of temperature. This is equivalent to the hydrostatic load ~1.2 to 2 km depth below the sea surface.

Barth, G. A.

2006-12-01

444

Modeling natural gas demand at the state level  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses preliminary results for a model of residential natural gas demand at the state level. The model consists of two stages. The first determines the number of gas customers; the second stage estimates consumption per customer. The primary data source is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) State Energy Data System (SEDS). The SEDS data are annual observations from 1960 through 1981 and include consumption and revenue data for the primary residential fuels. These data have been augmented with population, disposable personal income, number of customers, weather and climate data. 12 references.

Wade, S.H.; Minasi, M.J.; Carr, K.

1984-05-01

445

Residential Feedback Devices and Programs: Opportunities for Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect

Behavior-based approaches have been a growing interest in the energy efficiency field over recent years and the use of residential energy feedback has garnered particular interest. By providing an increased level of detail, feedback can greatly increase a consumer's understanding of how energy is used in their home. This project reviewed the existing body of research on electricity feedback to identify parallel lessons for gas, discussed the benefits and challenges of different types of feedback, and identifying three feedback options that show strong potential for natural gas savings.

Kerr, R.; Tondro, M.

2012-12-01

446

The Process of Natural Gas Extraction From the Marcellus Shale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan from the Pennsylvania Geological Survey provides an overview of the processes used to extract natural gas from shale gas reservoirs like the Marcellus shale. A detailed outline is provided for instructors to structure a lecture with. Some of the specific topic areas covered include the Marcellus drilling process, Marcellus well completions and water management. This material is intended for high-school age and older students, and the lecture should take one 45 minute class period to complete. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Bennett, N. S.; Carter, Kristin M.

2012-12-05

447

New Natural Gas Storage and Transportation Capabilities Utilizing Rapid Methane Hydrate Formation Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas (methane as the major component) is a vital fossil fuel for the United States and around the world. One of the problems with some of this natural gas is that it is in remote areas where there is little or no local use for the gas. Nearly 50 percent worldwide natural gas reserves of ~6,254.4 trillion ft3 (tcf)

T. D. Brown; C. E. Taylor; M. Bernardo

2010-01-01

448

Short-Term Operation Planning of Integrated Hydrothermal and Natural Gas Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper integrates the natural gas and hydrothermal systems in terms of power and gas optimal short- term operations planning and unit commitment. In this paper, the natural gas network model including storages and pipelines are integrated with hydrothermal systems to optimize short-term operation of both systems simultaneously. The proposed model considers the constraints at the hydrothermal system, natural gas

Clodomiro Unsihuay; J. W. Marangon-Lima; A. C. Zambroni de Souza

2007-01-01

449

Apparatus For The Liquefaaction Of Natural Gas And Methods Relating To Same  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating

Bruce M. Wilding; Dennis N. Bingham; Michael G. McKellar; Terry D. Turner; Kevin T. Raterman; Gary L. Palmer; Kerry M. Klingler; John J. Vranicar

2005-01-01

450

Apparatus for the liquefaction of natural gas and methods relating to same  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating

Bruce M. Wilding; Dennis N. Bingham; Michael G. McKellar; Terry D. Turner; Kevin T. Raterman; Gary L. Palmer; Kerry M. Klingler; John J. Vranicar

2007-01-01

451

Apparatus For The Liquefaaction Of Natural Gas And Methods Relating To Same  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating

Bruce M. Wilding; Dennis N. Bingham; Michael G. McKellar; Terry D. Turner; Kevin T. Raterman; Gary L. Palmer; Kerry M. Klingler; John J. Vranicar

2003-01-01

452

Investigation on the Heat Flow Field in the Cylinder Type Natural Gas Heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas heaters are widely used in gas-fired power plants to meet the combustion needs and to improve the combustion efficiency. The present paper explores the structural characteristics and basic principle of the cylindrical natural gas heaters and the approximate modeling conditions in the natural gas heater according to the heat transfer and flow characteristics of the intermediate heating medium

Guo Yun; Cao Wei-wu; Qian Shang-yuan; Yan Pin

2010-01-01

453

Assessing the promise of natural gas hydrates as an unconventional source of energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas hydrates are a naturally occurring ``ice-like'' combination of natural gas and water that have the potential to provide an immense resource of natural gas from the world's oceans and polar regions. The amount of natural gas contained in the world's gas hydrate accumulations is enormous, but these estimates are speculative and range over three orders-of-magnitude from about 2,800 to

Timothy Collett

2007-01-01

454

NATURAL GAS FOR TRANSPORTATION OR ELECTRICITY? CLIMATE CHANGE IMPLICATIONS Date: 27-Oct-11  

E-print Network

failure: The use of compressed natural gas (CNG) instead of gasoline in cars and instead of dieselNATURAL GAS FOR TRANSPORTATION OR ELECTRICITY? CLIMATE CHANGE IMPLICATIONS Date: 27-Oct-11 Natural reliance on foreign oil, and low environmental impacts are supporting the increased use of natural gas

McGaughey, Alan

455

Thermodynamic design of natural gas liquefaction cycles for offshore application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermodynamic study is carried out for natural gas liquefaction cycles applicable to offshore floating plants, as partial efforts of an ongoing governmental project in Korea. For offshore liquefaction, the most suitable cycle may be different from the on-land LNG processes under operation, because compactness and simple operation are important as well as thermodynamic efficiency. As a turbine-based cycle, closed Claude cycle is proposed to use NG (natural gas) itself as refrigerant. The optimal condition for NG Claude cycle is determined with a process simulator (Aspen HYSYS), and the results are compared with fully-developed C3-MR (propane pre-cooled mixed refrigerant) JT cycles and various N2 (nitrogen) Brayton cycles in terms of efficiency and compactness. The newly proposed NG Claude cycle could be a good candidate for offshore LNG processes.

Chang, Ho-Myung; Lim, Hye Su; Choe, Kun Hyung

2014-09-01

456

Enhanced Prognosis for Abiotic Natural Gas and Petroleum Resources  

E-print Network

The prognosis for potential resources of abiotic natural gas and petroleum depends critically upon the nature and circumstances of Earth formation. Until recently, that prognosis has been considered solely within the framework of the so-called "standard model of solar system formation", which is incorrect and leads to the contradiction of terrestrial planets having insufficiently massive cores. By contrast, that prognosis is considerably enhanced (i) by the new vision I have disclosed of Earth formation as a Jupiter-like gas giant; (ii) by core formation contemporaneous with raining out from within a giant gaseous protoplanet rather than through subsequent whole-Earth re-melting after loss of gases; (iii) by the consequences of whole-Earth decompression dynamics, which obviates the unfounded assumption of mantle convection, and; (iv) by the process of mantle decompression thermal-tsunami. The latter, in addition to accounting for much of the heat leaving the Earth's surface, for the geothermal gradient observ...

Herndon, J M

2006-01-01

457

Remote laser detection of natural gas leakages from pipelines  

SciTech Connect

A differential absorption lidar based on a tunable TEA CO{sub 2} laser emitting at 42 lines of the 'hot' 01{sup 1}1 - 11{sup 1}0 band in the range from 10.9 to 11.4 {mu}m is developed for detecting natural gas leakages from oil pipelines by measuring the ethane content in the atmosphere. The ethane detection sensitivity is 0.9 ppm km. The presence of methane does not distort the measurement results. The developed lidar can detect the natural gas leakage from kilometre heights at the flying velocities up to 200 km h{sup -1} and a probe pulse repetition rate of 5 Hz. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

Petukhov, V O; Gorobets, V A [B.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus); Andreev, Yu M [Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Lanskii, G V

2010-02-28

458

Virtual Instrumentation Corrosion Controller for Natural Gas Pipelines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion is an electrochemical process. Corrosion in natural gas (methane) pipelines leads to leakages. Corrosion occurs when anode and cathode are connected through electrolyte. Rate of corrosion in metallic pipeline can be controlled by impressing current to it and thereby making it to act as cathode of corrosion cell. Technologically advanced and energy efficient corrosion controller is required to protect natural gas pipelines. Proposed virtual instrumentation (VI) based corrosion controller precisely controls the external corrosion in underground metallic pipelines, enhances its life and ensures safety. Designing and development of proportional-integral-differential (PID) corrosion controller using VI (LabVIEW) is carried out. When the designed controller is deployed at field, it maintains the pipe to soil potential (PSP) within safe operating limit and not entering into over/under protection zone. Horizontal deployment of this technique can be done to protect all metallic structure, oil pipelines, which need corrosion protection.

Gopalakrishnan, J.; Agnihotri, G.; Deshpande, D. M.

2012-12-01

459

Natural gas operations: considerations on process transients, design, and control.  

PubMed

This manuscript highlights tangible benefits deriving from the dynamic simulation and control of operational transients of natural gas processing plants. Relevant improvements in safety, controllability, operability, and flexibility are obtained not only within the traditional applications, i.e.plant start-up and shutdown, but also in certain fields apparently time-independent such as the feasibility studies of gas processing plant layout and the process design of processes. Specifically, this paper enhances the myopic steady-state approach and its main shortcomings with respect to the more detailed studies that take into consideration the non-steady state behaviors. A portion of a gas processing facility is considered as case study. Process transients, design, and control solutions apparently more appealing from a steady-state approach are compared to the corresponding dynamic simulation solutions. PMID:22056010

Manenti, Flavio

2012-03-01

460

Natural gas `96: Foretelling the FERC: Experts weigh the issues  

SciTech Connect

Should the FERC lift the cap on secondary rates from its July 31 notice of proposed rulemaking (NOPR) on capacity release? Shifting to the FERC`s alternative ratemaking policy statement: Is a negotiated rate with a default rate fallback (or recourse rate fallback) the way to go? To get a sense of attitudes toward Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) initiatives, Public Utilities Fortnightly interviewed two natural gas attorneys as well as a representative from a major pipeline.

Edwards, K.B. [Grammer, Kissel, Robbins & Skancke, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-10-15

461

Tax revenue and innovations in natural gas supply: New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

This paper develops an econometric model of natural gas supply at the state-level using New Mexico as a case study. The supply model is estimated using annual time series observations on production levels, delivered prices, proved reserves, existing wells, and extraction costs. The authors validate the model against historical data and then use it to consider the fiscal impacts on state tax revenue from innovations in extraction technologies.

Ulibarri, C.A.; Marsh, T.L.

1994-10-01

462

Infrared multiphoton ignition and combustion enhancement of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unique chemistry of methane combustion, including strong C-H bond energy, leads to difficulties in use of natural gas as an engine fuel. Problems include low combustion efficiency, knocking, unreliable ignition (misfiring), and NOx emission. It is well established that improvement of the above-mentioned combustion phenomena requires the presence of high concentration of chain-initiating and chain-branching reactive radicals. This project

Moshe Lavid; Arthur T. Poulos; Suresh K. Gulati

1993-01-01

463

10 Myths and Realities of Natural Gas and Electricity Purchasing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In deregulated natural gas and electricity markets, many traditional purchasing practices brought from other businesses or even taken from energy's past may not serve end-users well. While there is no one right way to manage purchases in these deregulated markets, there are many important facts and trends that can be helpful in guiding decision-making.This article uses the framework of myths

Craig Schultz

2010-01-01

464

CO2 Capture from Natural Gas Combined Cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of three near-term plant configurations for CO2 capture from natural gas-fired power plants based on combined cycle: (i) amine post- combustion separation, (ii) syngas decarbonization, (iii) oxy-combustion. We address them as 'near-term' because they do not involve the development of components requiring unproven technology. All configurations are based on a common set of assumptions,

G. Lozza; P. Chiesa; M. Romano; G. Valenti

465

A Low-Cost Natural Gas/Freshwater Aerial Pipeline  

E-print Network

Offered is a new type of low-cost aerial pipeline for delivery of natural gas, an important industrial and residential fuel, and freshwater as well as other payloads over long distances. The offered pipeline dramatically decreases the construction and operation costs and the time necessary for pipeline construction. A dual-use type of freight pipeline can improve an arid rural environment landscape and provide a reliable energy supply for cities. Our aerial pipeline is a large, self-lofting flexible tube disposed at high altitude. Presently, the term "natural gas" lacks a precise technical definition, but the main components of natural gas are methane, which has a specific weight less than air. A lift force of one cubic meter of methane equals approximately 0.5 kg. The lightweight film flexible pipeline can be located in the Earth-atmosphere at high altitude and poses no threat to airplanes or the local environment. The authors also suggest using lift force of this pipeline in tandem with wing devices for che...

Bolonkin, A; Bolonkin, Alexander; Cathcart, Richard

2007-01-01

466

Ozone impacts of natural gas development in the Haynesville Shale.  

PubMed

The Haynesville Shale is a subsurface rock formation located beneath the Northeast Texas/Northwest Louisiana border near Shreveport. This formation is estimated to contain very large recoverable reserves of natural gas, and during the two years since the drilling of the first highly productive wells in 2008, has been the focus of intensive leasing and exploration activity. The development of natural gas resources within the Haynesville Shale is likely to be economically important but may also generate significant emissions of ozone precursors. Using well production data from state regulatory agencies and a review of the available literature, projections of future year Haynesville Shale natural gas production were derived for 2009-2020 for three scenarios corresponding to limited, moderate, and aggressive development. These production estimates were then used to develop an emission inventory for each of the three scenarios. Photochemical modeling of the year 2012 showed increases in 2012 8-h ozone design values of up to 5 ppb within Northeast Texas and Northwest Louisiana resulting from development in the Haynesville Shale. Ozone increases due to Haynesville Shale emissions can affect regions outside Northeast Texas and Northwest Louisiana due to ozone transport. This study evaluates only near-term ozone impacts, but the emission inventory projections indicate that Haynesville emissions may be expected to increase through 2020. PMID:21086985

Kemball-Cook, Susan; Bar-Ilan, Amnon; Grant, John; Parker, Lynsey; Jung, Jaegun; Santamaria, Wilson; Mathews, Jim; Yarwood, Greg

2010-12-15

467

A Comparison Between the Combustion of Natural Gas and Partially Reformed Natural Gas in an Atmospheric Lean Premixed Turbine-Type Combustor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small-scale combustor was set up to analyze the combustion of natural gas and two mixtures of partially reformed natural gas. The partially reformed mixtures can be formed using biomass to feed the endothermic reforming reactions. Before combusting these mixtures in a gas turbine, experimental work was done on a primary zone combustion chamber to examine the combustor behavior when

Frank Delattin; Abderahman Rabhiou; Svend Bram; Jacques De Ruyck; Raik Orbay; Jens Klingmann; Alexander A. Konnov

2008-01-01

468

Origin of natural gas from the Ordovician paleo-weathering crust and gas-filling model in Jingbian gas field, Ordos basin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ordos basin, the second largest natural gas producing basin in China, is one of the most tectonically stable sedimentary basins favorable to natural gas generation and preservation. The origin and potential source of the Jingbian gas field, one of the five giant gas fields in the basin containing the Ordovician paleo-weathering crust as reservoir strata, remains unclear. The question

Quanyou Liu; Mengjin Chen; Wenhui Liu; Jian Li; Pinlong Han; Yanru Guo

2009-01-01

469

Effect of Energy Efficiency Standards on Natural Gas Prices  

SciTech Connect

A primary justification for the establishment of energy efficiency standards for home appliances is the existence of information deficiencies and externalities in the market for appliances. For example, when a long-term homeowner purchases a new gas-fired water heater, she will maximize the value of her purchase by comparing the life-cycle cost of ownership of available units, including both total installed cost - purchase price plus installation costs - and operating cost in the calculus. Choice of the appliance with the lowest life-cycle costs leads to the most economically efficient balance between capital cost and fuel cost. However, if the purchaser's expected period of ownership is shorter than the useful life of the appliance, or the purchaser does not pay for the fuel used by the appliance, as is often the case with rental property, fuel cost will be external to her costs, biasing her decision toward spending less on fuel efficiency and resulting in the purchase of an appliance with greater than optimal fuel usage. By imposing an efficiency standard on appliances, less efficient appliances are made unavailable, precluding less efficient purchases and reducing fuel usage. The reduction in fuel demanded by residential users affects the total demand for such fuels as natural gas, for example. Reduced demand implies that residential customers are willing to purchase less gas at each price level. That is, the demand curve, labeled D{sub 0} in Figure 1, shifts to the left to D{sub 1}. If there is no change in the supply function, the supply curve will intersect the demand curve at a lower price. Residential demand is only one component of the total demand for natural gas. It is possible that total demand will decline very little if demand in other sectors increases substantially in response to a decline in the price. If demand does decrease, modeling studies generally confirm the intuition that reductions in demand for natural gas will result in reductions in its price as seen at the wellhead (Wiser 2007). The magnitude of the effect on price relative to the demand reduction, and the mechanism through which it occurs, is less well established. This report attempts to quantify the potential effects of reduced demand for natural gas in the residential sector, in response to the implementation of an energy efficiency standard for water heaters.

Carnall, Michael; Dale, Larry; Lekov, Alex

2011-07-26

470

Natural gas imports and exports. First quarter report 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Fuels Programs Prepares quarterly reports Summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports with the OFP. This report is for the first quarter of 1994 (January--March). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past twelve months. Attachment C shows volume and price information for gas imported on a short-term basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term basis to Canada and Mexico. During the first three months of 1994, data indicates that gas imports grew by about 14 percent over the level of the first quarter of 1993 (668 vs. 586 Bcf), with Canadian and Algerian imports increasing by 12 and 53 percent, respectively. During the same time period, exports declined by 15 percent (41 vs. 48 Bcf). Exports to Canada increased by 10 percent from the 1993 level (22 vs. 20 Bcf) and exports to Mexico decreased by 64 percent (5 vs. 14 Bcf).

Not Available

1994-08-01

471

Natural gas imports and exports; Fourth quarterly report, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Fuels Programs prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports with the OFP. This report is for the fourth quarter of 1993 (October--December). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information for gas imported on a short-term basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term basis to Canada and Mexico. During 1993, data indicates gas imports grew by about 10 percent over the 1992 level (2328 vs. 2122 Bcf), with Canadian and Algerian imports increasing by 8 and 82 percent, respectively. During the same time period, exports declined by 41 percent (144 vs. 243 Bcf). Exports to Canada decreased 47 percent from the 1992 level (50 vs. 95 Bcf) and exports to Mexico decreased by 60 percent (38 vs. 95 Bcf).

NONE

1993-12-31

472

The photometric detection of known sun occluding orbital debris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, discrete, digital, Sun transit images are used for the photometric detection of the shadows of Sun occluding satellites. A theoretical pixel occlusion ratio is developed for use in the detection and the occluding area determination of satellites and orbital debris, traveling over known, or predicted, spatial temporal paths during transit. To verify the occluding area determination of a large satellite, a recorded transit of the International Space Station is analyzed. Also an experimental system, funded by a Beverly Sears Grant and a Sigma-Xi Grant-In-Aid of Research, consisting of a Meade ETX-90 telescope, and a Lumenera LU-075 camera is constructed to detect satellites and orbital debris in solar transits. The photometrically measured total occluding area of the Terra EOS-AM1 satellite, recorded in two separate transits, is shown to be consistent with the predicted occluding area of the satellite shadow. Further investigated is the theoretical resolution limit of this detection, as the occluding shadow becomes much smaller than a pixel area. The central limit theorem is used to approximate the maximum detection statistic, which can be achieved when integrating a matched spatial temporal path, containing the moving shadow. This detection statistic is predicted to be a function of the pixel occlusion ratio, the design parameters of the spatial temporal path, and the approximated Poisson variance of the photon count in each pixel. When the measured detection statistics of the two recorded transits are compared with the prediction model, the measurements agree with half the predicted value. This experimental error is largely attributed to filter mismatch in the spatial temporal path, and a spatial temporal variance in the recorded Sun transit images, which is larger than predicted by theory. These experimental verifications of the proposed theory are used to extrapolate the general limitations and capabilities of a system designed to detect Sun occluding orbital debris. In particular, the potential resolution capability of a system designed to detect smaller orbital debris is theorized.

Poller, Brian J.

2009-06-01

473

Natural gas network pricing and its influence on electricity and gas markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of competition at the electricity generation and commercialization has been the main focus of many restructuring experiences around the world. The open access to the transmission network and a fair regulated tariff are the keystones of the development of the electricity market. The natural gas business has a great interaction with the electricity market in terms of fuel

M. S. Morals; J. W. Marangon Lima

2003-01-01

474

METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 15: GAS-ASSISTED GLYCOL PUMPS  

EPA Science Inventory

The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

475

Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This DOE-funded research into seismic detection of natural fractures is one of six projects within the DOE`s Detection and Analysis of Naturally Fractured Gas Reservoirs Program, a multidisciplinary research initiative to develop technology for prediction, detection, and mapping of naturally fractured gas reservoirs. The demonstration of successful seismic techniques to locate subsurface zones of high fracture density and to guide drilling orientation for enhanced fracture permeability will enable better returns on investments in the development of the vast gas reserves held in tight formations beneath the Rocky Mountains. The seismic techniques used in this project were designed to capture the azimuthal anisotropy within the seismic response. This seismic anisotropy is the result of the symmetry in the rock fabric created by aligned fractures and/or unequal horizontal stresses. These results may be compared and related to other lines of evidence to provide cross-validation. The authors undertook investigations along the following lines: Characterization of the seismic anisotropy in three-dimensional, P-wave seismic data; Characterization of the seismic anisotropy in a nine-component (P- and S-sources, three-component receivers) vertical seismic profile; Characterization of the seismic anisotropy in three-dimensional, P-to-S converted wave seismic data (P-wave source, three-component receivers); and Description of geological and reservoir-engineering data that corroborate the anisotropy: natural fractures observed at the target level and at the surface, estimation of the maximum horizontal stress in situ, and examination of the flow characteristics of the reservoir.

NONE

1997-11-19

476

75 FR 15426 - East Tennessee Natural Gas, LLC; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Natural Gas, LLC (East Tennessee), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056-5310...application may be directed to Lisa A. Moore, General Manager, Rates and Certificates, East Tennessee Natural Gas, LLC, 5400 Westheimer Court, PO Box 1642,...

2010-03-29

477

76 FR 34071 - Secretary of Energy Advisory Board, Natural Gas Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Secretary. The Natural Gas Subcommittee was established...on how to improve the safety and environmental performance of natural gas hydraulic fracturing...thereby harnessing a vital domestic energy resource while ensuring the safety of citizen's...

2011-06-10

478

76 FR 31318 - Secretary of Energy Advisory Board Natural Gas Subcommittee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Secretary. The Natural Gas Subcommittee was established...on how to improve the safety and environmental performance of natural gas hydraulic fracturing...thereby harnessing a vital domestic energy resource while ensuring the safety of citizen's...

2011-05-31

479

76 FR 63613 - Secretary of Energy Advisory Board Natural Gas Subcommittee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Board (SEAB) Natural Gas Subcommittee. SEAB...on how to improve the safety and environmental performance of natural gas hydraulic fracturing...thereby harnessing a vital domestic energy resource while ensuring the safety of citizen's...

2011-10-13

480

76 FR 34070 - Secretary of Energy Advisory Board, Natural Gas Subcommittee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Secretary. The Natural Gas Subcommittee was established...on how to improve the safety and environmental performance of natural gas hydraulic fracturing...thereby harnessing a vital domestic energy resource while ensuring the safety of citizen's...

2011-06-10