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1

Natural Gas Flare  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A natural gas flare. Sometimes, often due to lack of transportation or storage capacity, natural gas that is co-produced with oil will be burned in a flare. This wellpad is in the Tuscaloosa Marine Shale....

2

Natural Gas Monthly  

EIA Publications

Highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported.

2014-01-01

3

Natural gas annual 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

NONE

1996-11-01

4

Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryenco and Los Alamos are collaborating to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that will have no moving parts and require no electrical power. It will have useful efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at only 115 Kelvin at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 invention of the thermoacoustically

1997-01-01

5

Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It should have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The thermoacoustic natural-gas liquefier (TANGL) is based on our

G. Swift; D. Gardner; M. Hayden; R. Radebaugh; J. Wollan

1996-01-01

6

Natural gas annual 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

NONE

1998-10-01

7

Natural gas industry directory  

SciTech Connect

This directory has information on the following: associations and organizations; exploration and production; gas compression; gas processors; gathering and transmission companies; liquefied natural gas; local distribution companies; marketing firms; regulatory agencies; service companies; suppliers and manufacturers; and regional buyer`s guide.

NONE

1999-11-01

8

Liquefied natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book summarizes recent developments in the general area of natural gas liquefaction and use. Treatment is technical rather than theoretical and thermodynamics, economic evaluations, and statistical data are relegated to the appendixes. The main part of the review consists of an introduction dealing with the historical development of cryogenics and gas liquefaction and their application in the gas industry.

Lom

1974-01-01

9

Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It should have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The thermoacoustic natural-gas liquefier (TANGL) is based on our recent invention of the first no-moving-parts cryogenic refrigerator. In short, our invention uses acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat, with no moving parts. The required apparatus comprises nothing more than heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. Its initial experimental success in a small size lead us to propose a more ambitious application: large-energy liquefaction of natural gas, using combustion of natural gas as the energy source. TANGL was designed to be maintenance-free, inexpensive, portable, and environmentally benign.

Swift, G.; Gardner, D.; Hayden, M.; Radebaugh, R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Wollan, J. [Cryenco, Inc. (United States)

1996-07-01

10

Natural gas liquefaction processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The liquefaction of natural gas using a mixed refrigerant process was first proposed by Kleemenko in 1959 [50]. Mixed refrigerant\\u000a processes were subsequently adopted for the commercial liquefaction of natural gas nearly 40 years ago. Over 95% of the base-load\\u000a LNG plants operate on mixed refrigerant processes, with the remaining few operating on conventional cascade processes. The\\u000a enthalpy of natural

Gadhiraju Venkatarathnam

2008-01-01

11

Fossil Fuels: Natural Gas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the use of natural gas as an energy source. Topics include its advantages (cleanliness, fewer carbon emissions), disadvantages (difficulty in transport and storage), sources, and usage. There is also a discussion of the creation and production of natural gas, the United States' production and reserves, and some potential new sources (coal bed methane, methane hydrates). The lesson includes an activity in which students investigate porosity and permeability in simulated sediments.

John Pratte

12

Building natural gas locomotives  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a liquefied natural gas-fueled locomotive built by Morrison Knudsen which includes a Caterpillar 1200-horsepower V-16, a monofuel management system with double-wall super-insulated cryogenic tanks, and microprocessor-based controls. Efforts by railroad companies to reduce operating costs and meet future emissions standards have led engineers to look for innovative ways to design trains. In January, Morrison Knudsen Corp. of Boise, Idaho, powered its way into the locomotive manufacturing business when it introduced the natural gas-fueled MK1200G, to be used mostly around railroad company yards and on trips shorter than 50 miles.

O'Conner, L.

1994-04-01

13

Natural Gas Expanders-Compressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas expanders-compressors serve a variety of natural gas plants, ranging from primary treatment at the well (installations for comprehensive treatment of natural gas) to liquefaction for separation, storage, and transport. Natural gas expanders-compressors take on particular importance for wells with throttling cold. The growing demand for this equipment has been satisfied by imports until recently. The most popular was

V. M. Kulakov; V. V. Kulakov; A. V. Kulakov

2002-01-01

14

US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves  

SciTech Connect

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1989, and production volumes for the year 1989 for the total United States and for selected states and state sub-divisions. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production reported separately. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. 28 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

Not Available

1990-10-05

15

Clean Cities Natural Gas  

E-print Network

2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide Clean Cities Natural Gas Propane Biodiesel Electric Hybrid Ethanol Flex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Plug-In Hybrid Electric . . . . . . . . . . 18 Hybrid Electric vehicles, and hybrid luxury cars are now in the marketplace. Early in the 2013 calendar year the number

16

Natural Gas Annual  

EIA Publications

Provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas in the United States. Production, transmission, storage, deliveries, and price data are published by state for the current year. Summary data are presented for each state for the previous 5 years.

2014-01-01

17

Liquefaction of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for the liquefaction of natural gas by heat exchange, initially with a first multicomponent mixture and thereafter with a second multicomponent mixture, each of these mixtures, respectively in a closed refrigeration cycle, being compressed, at least partially liquefied, and expanded, characterized in that the first multicomponent mixture, after the partial liquefaction thereof, is subjected to a

Foerg

1978-01-01

18

Natural gas purchases  

SciTech Connect

In the 1970`s gas and boilers were like oil and water as far as policy makers were concerned, culminating in the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act (perhaps a more appropriate title would have been the Fuel Non-Use Act or the Gas Non-Use Act). But now, the last two Administrations have made gas the centerpiece of their energy and environmental strategies, including promotion of gas use for boilers and electric generation. The FERC`s Order 636 almost completes the Commission`s restructuring of the gas industry that began with Order 380 (eliminating commodity minimum bills) and progressed sharply with Orders 436 and 500. It is Order 636 that has transformed the interstate pipeline business into a transportation business, with the pipelines virtually out of the merchant business altogether because the Commission is not resting on its laurels after completing implementation of Order 636. Rather, it is exploring new ways to expand the growing competitive market for gas, including the possibility of using market-based rates for interstate pipeline transportation services. Methods for the procurement of natural gas supplies are discussed.

Grenier, E.J. Jr. [Partner, Sutherland, Asbill and Brennan, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-09-01

19

Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier  

SciTech Connect

Cryenco and Los Alamos are collaborating to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that will have no moving parts and require no electrical power. It will have useful efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at only 115 Kelvin at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 invention of the thermoacoustically driven orifice pulse-tube refrigerator (TA-DOPTR) provides cryogenic refrigeration with no moving parts for the first time. In short, this invention uses acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat. The required apparatus consists of nothing more than helium-filled heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. In the Cryenco-Los Alamos collaboration, the authors are developing a version of this invention suitable for use in the natural-gas industry. The project is known as acoustic liquefier for short. The present program plans call for a two-phase development. Phase 1, with capacity of 500 gallon per day (i.e., approximately 40,000 scfd, requiring a refrigeration power of about 7 kW), is large enough to illuminate all the issues of large-scale acoustic liquefaction without undue cost, and to demonstrate the liquefaction of 60--70% of input gas, while burning 30--40%. Phase 2 will target versions of approximately 10{sup 6} scfd = 10,000 gallon per day capacity. In parallel with both, they continue fundamental research on the technology, directed toward increased efficiency, to build scientific foundations and a patent portfolio for future acoustic liquefiers.

Swift, G.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Group

1997-05-01

20

Natural Gas Exports from Iran  

EIA Publications

This assessment of the natural gas sector in Iran, with a focus on Iran’s natural gas exports, was prepared pursuant to section 505 (a) of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 (Public Law No: 112-158). As requested, it includes: (1) an assessment of exports of natural gas from Iran; (2) an identification of the countries that purchase the most natural gas from Iran; (3) an assessment of alternative supplies of natural gas available to those countries; (4) an assessment of the impact a reduction in exports of natural gas from Iran would have on global natural gas supplies and the price of natural gas, especially in countries identified under number (2); and (5) such other information as the Administrator considers appropriate.

2012-01-01

21

Natural gas monthly, September 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1993-09-27

22

Natural gas monthly, July 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1993-07-27

23

Natural gas monthly: September 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

NONE

1996-09-01

24

Natural gas monthly, July 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1994-07-20

25

Natural gas monthly, August 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1994-08-24

26

Natural gas monthly, November 1996  

SciTech Connect

The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``US natural gas imports and exports-1995``. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

NONE

1996-11-01

27

Natural gas monthly, June 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is the executive summary from Natural Gas 1994: Issues and Trends. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

Not Available

1994-06-01

28

Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993  

SciTech Connect

The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

Not Available

1993-11-10

29

Natural gas monthly, April 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are present3ed each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas pipeline and system expansions.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1997-04-01

30

Natural gas monthly, August 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature article is on US Natural Gas Imports and Exports 1994.

NONE

1995-08-24

31

Natural gas monthly, March 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas analysis and geographic information systems.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1997-03-01

32

Natural gas monthly, April 1998  

SciTech Connect

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Estimates extend through April 1998 for many data series. The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, feature articles are presented designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This issue contains the special report, ``Natural Gas 1997: A Preliminary Summary.`` This report provides information on natural gas supply and disposition for the year 1997, based on monthly data through December from EIA surveys. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

NONE

1998-04-01

33

Natural gas monthly, February 1996  

SciTech Connect

The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1996-03-01

34

Natural gas monthly, October 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary of the terms used in this report is provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. 6 figs., 30 tabs.

NONE

1995-10-23

35

Natural Gas Regulation and Its Effect on Natural Gas Supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas is an environmentally benign, domestically abundand, and competitively priced fossil fuel. Despite these advantages, natural gas consumption in the industrial and electric-generation sectors has fallen significantly over the past two decades. The primary obstruction has been a regulatory morass that has created an atmosphere not condusive to the investment decisions necessary to expand the market for producers, transporters,

Rob Tyson

1992-01-01

36

Natural gas monthly, October 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. 16 figs., 33 tabs.

Not Available

1991-11-05

37

A Texas natural gas model  

SciTech Connect

The Railroad Commission of Texas, through its Gas Services Division, is responsible for the safety and economic regulation of natural gas downstream of the wellhead, including the gathering, processing, storage, transmission and distribution of natural gas. This responsibility requires an understanding of the movement of natural gas in Texas, which was the objective of a recently completed project of the Gas Services Division. The authors goal was to trace a molecule of gas from wellhead to burner tip and identify the incremental value added by each of the components along the path. The authors developed a Texas Natural Gas Model that relates the components of the path so that flow within individual segments of the industry, or between segments of the industry, can be analyzed. The Model links information on wellhead production and prices, marketing costs (reflecting gathering, processing, and compression), transmission costs, and end user consumption and costs. End user information is presented for the primary Texas local distribution companies (LDC) and electric utilities, as well as on an aggregate basis for industrial consumption. LDC costs are further subdivided into the city gate gas costs and average delivered cost to the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. The Model also quantifies by pipeline the significant amount of gas that leaves the state through the interstate pipeline system. The Texas Natural Gas Model provides a comprehensive volume and value balance of the natural gas system within Texas, recognizing the relationship between all segments of the industry.

Nalepa, K.J.; Feng, N.

1999-07-01

38

Natural gas pipeline technology overview.  

SciTech Connect

The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by transmission companies. Compressor stations at required distances boost the pressure that is lost through friction as the gas moves through the steel pipes (EPA 2000). The natural gas system is generally described in terms of production, processing and purification, transmission and storage, and distribution (NaturalGas.org 2004b). Figure 1.1-2 shows a schematic of the system through transmission. This report focuses on the transmission pipeline, compressor stations, and city gates.

Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

2007-11-01

39

Natural gas monthly, February 1998  

SciTech Connect

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through February 1998 for many data series, and through November 1997 for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the natural gas data contained in this issue are: Preliminary estimates for January and February 1998 show that dry natural gas production, net imports, and consumption are all within 1 percent of their levels in 1997. Warmer-than-normal weather in recent months has resulted in lower consumption of natural gas by the residential sector and lower net withdrawals of gas from under round storage facilities compared with a year ago. This has resulted in an estimate of the amount of working gas in storage at the end of February 1998 that is 18 percent higher than in February 1997. The national average natural gas wellhead price is estimated to be $3.05 per thousand cubic feet in November 1997, 7 percent higher than in October. The cumulative average wellhead price for January through November 1997 is estimated to be $2.42 per thousand cubic feet, 17 percent above that of the same period in 1996. This price increase is far less than 36-percent rise that occurred between 1995 and 1996. 6 figs., 26 tabs.

NONE

1998-02-01

40

Natural gas monthly, July 1990  

SciTech Connect

This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary is included. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

Not Available

1990-10-03

41

Natural Gas Imports and Exports  

EIA Publications

In the face of unprecedented levels of domestic natural gas production, net imports of natural gas into the United States fell 23% in 2012. A combination of both higher exports and lower imports led to a decline in net imports. In 2012, total imports decreased by 10% to 3,135 Bcf, while total exports increased by 8% to 1,619 Bcf.

2013-01-01

42

Natural gas monthly, August 1990  

SciTech Connect

This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector oganizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 33 tabs.

Not Available

1990-11-05

43

Natural gas monthly, December 1996  

SciTech Connect

This document highlights activities, events, and analysis of interest to the public and private sector associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

NONE

1996-12-01

44

Natural gas industry restructuring issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of the natural gas industry appears to be evolving towards one in which transportation service will be offered separately from the gas commodity itself, which is being withdrawn from government regulation in favor of pricing competition. Industry observers disagree on how to interpret the separation of transportation service and the gas commodity. This volume presents views of several

1986-01-01

45

Natural gas monthly - January 1996  

SciTech Connect

This highlight discusses changes in natural gas supply, demand, and prices for the first three quarters of 1995 (January thru September) compared to the same periods in 1993 and 1994. Production for the first three quarters of 1995 lagged year-earlier levels while natural gas consumption has continued a steady upward movement. Total U.S. natural gas production through the first three quarters at 14.1 trillion cubic feet, was less than 1 percent below the 1994 period, but remained well ahead of the comparable 1993 period. The three leading producing States (Texas, Louisiana, and Oklahoma) contributed nearly 70 percent of the total. Natural gas consumption totaled 16.0 trillion cubic feet for the first three quarters, 4 percent above the same period in 1994. Net imports of natural gas reached 2.0 trillion cubic feet by the end of the third quarter 1995 and accounted for nearly 13 percent of total consumption during this period.

NONE

1996-01-01

46

North American Natural Gas Markets  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

Not Available

1989-02-01

47

Natural gas pretreatment prior to liquefaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method for pretreatment of natural gas having an elevated pressure and containing moisture and about 1.5% to 3.5% by volume of COâ prior to liquefaction of the natural gas which comprises the steps of: a. dehydrating the natural gas; b. partially cooling the natural gas by heat exchange with countercurrent streams of pretreated natural gas and

S. J. Markbreiter; I. Weiss

1989-01-01

48

Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect

Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a lower heat transfer rate in the internal heat exchanger than was designed. It is believed that the fins on the heat-exchanger tubes did not make proper contact with the tubes transporting the chilled glycol, and pairs of fins were too close for interior areas of fins to serve as hydrate collection sites. A correction of the fabrication fault in the heat exchanger fin attachments could be easily made to provide faster formation rates. The storage success with the POC process provides valuable information for making the process an economically viable process for safe, aboveground natural-gas storage.

Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

2006-03-31

49

Natural Gas Monthly August 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. Explanatory notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication.

NONE

1998-08-01

50

The Liquefaction of Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history and significance of natural gas liquefaction is traced showing that the main developments have occurred since 1960. The thermodynamics of liquefaction is reviewed paying special attention to the effect of the supply pressure of the gas, and its composition, on the minimum work requirement. It is shown that liquefier design requires highly accurate thermodynamic data for the process

G. G. Haselden

1977-01-01

51

Natural gas transmission pricing and investment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US natural gas industry has been restructuring for the past twenty years, since phased wellhead gas price decontrol eras prescribed in the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978. Today, natural gas production is completely deregulated, interstate pipelines are regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and local gas distribution companies are regulated by state and local utility commissions.

M. L. Barcella

1999-01-01

52

Alternative development strategies for natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant increases in worldwide natural-gas consumption during the last decade indicate that gas is increasingly considered a valuable and economic commodity. A summary of worldwide natural-gas reserves, production, and consumption statistics shows that worldwide gas use is not resource constrained. Only 10 percent of the gas produced is traded internationally and less than 3 percent is converted to liquefied natural

Attanasi

1993-01-01

53

Process for the liquefaction of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention is a process for the liquefaction of high pressure natural gas. The natural gas is expanded through a turboexpander to reduce its pressure and thereby cool it. The natural gas is then passed through a demethanizer to remove the heavier components therefrom. The natural gas is then precooled, before substantial warming occurs, by heat exchange with a

Chiu

1985-01-01

54

Natural gas treating system including mercury trap  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a system for processing natural gas and removing mercury therefrom. It comprises means for moving compounds from natural gas which interfere with liquefaction thereof; a main heat exchanger; means for conveying natural gas to the means for removing and to the main heat exchanger; means for cooling natural gas to about -10° C immediately prior to its

D. J. Gammie; T. Y. Yan

1992-01-01

55

Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EIA attributes a more competitive industry and increases in pipeline capacity as major factors affecting increased natural gas demand in Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends. According to this recently released report, Natural gas demand has increased in the United States by fourteen percent since 1990 and electric utility consumption of natural gas rose about seventeen percent from 1990 to 1998.

56

Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

This document comprises the Department of Energy (DOE) Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan, and is a follow-up to the `Natural Gas Strategic Plan and Program Crosscut Plans,` dated July 1995. DOE`s natural gas programs are aimed at simultaneously meeting our national energy needs, reducing oil imports, protecting our environment, and improving our economy. The Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan represents a Department-wide effort on expanded development and use of natural gas and defines Federal government and US industry roles in partnering to accomplish defined strategic goals. The four overarching goals of the Natural Gas Program are to: (1) foster development of advanced natural gas technologies, (2) encourage adoption of advanced natural gas technologies in new and existing markets, (3) support removal of policy impediments to natural gas use in new and existing markets, and (4) foster technologies and policies to maximize environmental benefits of natural gas use.

NONE

1997-12-01

57

Natural gas monthly, January 1997  

SciTech Connect

This publication, the Natural Gas Monthly, presents the most recent data on natural gas supply, consumption, and prices from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Of special interest in this issue are two articles summarizing reports recently published by EIA. The articles are {open_quotes}Natural Gas Productive Capacity{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Outlook for Natural Gas Through 2015,{close_quotes} both of which precede the {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} section. With this issue, January 1997, changes have been made to the format of the Highlights section and to several of the tabular and graphical presentations throughout the publication. The changes to the Highlights affect the discussion of developments in the industry and the presentation of weekly storage data. An overview of the developments in the industry is now presented in a brief summary followed by specific discussions of supply, end-use consumption, and prices. Spot and futures prices are discussed as appropriate in the Price section, together with wellhead and consumer prices.

NONE

1997-01-01

58

Floating natural gas liquefaction plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floating LNG plants offer a technically feasible and economical method to produce natural gas from marginal offshore fields and are under certain circumstances an economical alternative to land-based LNG plants. The presented floating, semisubmersible plant can keep up production under northern North Sea conditions all the year round.

Meyer-Detring

1977-01-01

59

Question & Answers Natural Gas Fueling Infrastructure Solicitation  

E-print Network

to be renewable to get the 60% award? (Answer) A minimum of 30% of compressed natural gas or liquefied naturalQuestion & Answers Natural Gas Fueling Infrastructure Solicitation PON12605 1. If you of the Solicitation which defines renewable natural gas. 3. Do the projects have to be for new stations

60

Compressed natural gas measurement issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition`s Measurement and Metering Task Group (MMTG) was established on July 1st, 1992 to develop suggested revisions to National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) Handbook 44-1992 (Specifications, Tolerances, and Other Technical Requirements for Weighing and Measuring Devices) and NIST Handbook 130-1991 (Uniform Laws & Regulations). Specifically, the suggested revisions will address the sale and measurement

C. F. Blazek; J. A. Kinast; P. M. Freeman

1993-01-01

61

Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves  

E-print Network

Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves 2009 November 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration Office of Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply Statistics U.S. Department or other Federal agencies. #12;#12;1 U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

62

78 FR 21351 - Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, and Vacating Prior Authority During February...authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas and vacating prior authority. These...

2013-04-10

63

Methods of natural gas liquefaction and natural gas liquefaction plants utilizing multiple and varying gas streams  

DOEpatents

A method of natural gas liquefaction may include cooling a gaseous NG process stream to form a liquid NG process stream. The method may further include directing the first tail gas stream out of a plant at a first pressure and directing a second tail gas stream out of the plant at a second pressure. An additional method of natural gas liquefaction may include separating CO.sub.2 from a liquid NG process stream and processing the CO.sub.2 to provide a CO.sub.2 product stream. Another method of natural gas liquefaction may include combining a marginal gaseous NG process stream with a secondary substantially pure NG stream to provide an improved gaseous NG process stream. Additionally, a NG liquefaction plant may include a first tail gas outlet, and at least a second tail gas outlet, the at least a second tail gas outlet separate from the first tail gas outlet.

Wilding, Bruce M; Turner, Terry D

2014-12-02

64

NOx Formation by Synthesis Gas - Natural Gas Co-firing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis gas from biomass gasification was examined by co-firing with natural gas. Calculations were performed to study the effect of increasing the fraction of synthesis gas in the syngas- natural gas fuel mixture on flame temperature and other combustion parameters. Combustion of this mixture was achieved in two different furnace and by two different firing method. NOx and CO2 emissions

K. Valler; Á. Wopera; Á. B. Palotás; K. J. Whitty

65

STAFF REPORT 2012 NATURAL GAS RESEARCH,  

E-print Network

STAFF REPORT 2012 NATURAL GAS RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION REPORT CALIFORNIA 854, Statutes of 1996), California's electric utility restructuring legislation. This law required Public Utilities Commission to impose a surcharge on all natural gas consumed in California to fund

66

Underground Natural Gas Working Storage Capacity  

EIA Publications

Working natural gas storage capacity increased by about 2% in the lower 48 states between November 2011 and November 2012, according to Underground Working Natural Gas Storage Capacity, released by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA).

2014-01-01

67

Natural gas 1995: Issues and trends  

SciTech Connect

Natural Gas 1995: Issues and Trends addresses current issues affecting the natural gas industry and markets. Highlights of recent trends include: Natural gas wellhead prices generally declined throughout 1994 and for 1995 averages 22% below the year-earlier level; Seasonal patterns of natural gas production and wellhead prices have been significantly reduced during the past three year; Natural gas production rose 15% from 1985 through 1994, reaching 18.8 trillion cubic feet; Increasing amounts of natural gas have been imported; Since 1985, lower costs of producing and transporting natural gas have benefitted consumers; Consumers may see additional benefits as States examine regulatory changes aimed at increasing efficiency; and, The electric industry is being restructured in a fashion similar to the recent restructuring of the natural gas industry.

NONE

1995-11-01

68

Optimizing Natural Gas Use: A Case Study  

E-print Network

Optimization of Steam & Energy systems in any continuously operating process plant results in substantial reduction in Natural gas purchases. During periods of natural gas price hikes, this would benefit the plant to control their fuel budget...

Venkatesan, V. V.; Schweikert, P.

2007-01-01

69

Gas supplies of interstate/natural gas pipeline companies 1989  

SciTech Connect

This publication provides information on the interstate pipeline companies' supply of natural gas during calendar year 1989, for use by the FERC for regulatory purposes. It also provides information to other Government agencies, the natural gas industry, as well as policy makers, analysts, and consumers interested in current levels of interstate supplies of natural gas and trends over recent years. 5 figs., 18 tabs.

Not Available

1990-12-18

70

U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

NONE

1998-12-01

71

Drying compressed natural gas with silica gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the feasibility of using the heat of compressed natural gas to regenerate the sorbent, an investigation of gas drying with silica gel at 20 MPa and regeneration of the silica gel at relatively low temperature in a pilot unit was performed. Prior to this drying method, in automotive gas-filling compressor stations, compressed natural gas was subjected

G. V. Vyalkina; Z. A. Nabutovskii; V. I. Popov; E. N. Torevskii

1986-01-01

72

40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section...Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration...1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as...Specifications for Natural Gas Item Value 1 Methane...001 mol/mol. Inert gases (sum of CO2 and...

2010-07-01

73

Evaluating metalorganic frameworks for natural gas storage  

E-print Network

suited for light-duty passenger vehicles. For instance, compressed natural gas (CNG) requires expensive of the low critical temperature of CH4 (190.6 K, Table 1), natural gas cannot be liqueed by compression aloneEvaluating metal­organic frameworks for natural gas storage Jarad A. Mason,a Mike Veenstrab

74

Efficient liquefaction cycles for natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural Gas is liquefied for storage and transportation purposes. Large quantity of Natural Gas is liquefied on a daily basis. Therefore, there is a need for efficient refrigeration cycles to liquefy natural gas. Refrigeration cycles are energy intensive processes. In such systems, the compressors are the main power consumers. A given refrigeration task can be achieved by many configurations and

Easa Ismail Al-Musleh

2010-01-01

75

40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.  

...2014-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065.715 Protection...paragraph (b) of this section, natural gas for testing must...paragraph (a) of this section. (d) At ambient conditions, natural gas must have a...

2014-07-01

76

Natural gas monthly, October 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636 prompted an increase of natural gas market centers (trading hubs) across the United States and Canada. These regulations allow customers (end users) to select services directly from producers and marketers. Pipeline companies must provide transportation unbundled from sales services, provide open access to transportation, and provide open access to storage. FERC Order 636-B also requires market centers to be fairly small, i.e., a 30-mile radius around a central point. Some market centers are designed to offer a variety of physical services, including storage, parking, wheeling, pooling, balancing, and peaking. Financial or transactional services, such as title transfers, capacity release, nomination, electronic trading, risk management, and credit are also being offered. The Electronic Bulletin Board (EBB) services through these centers will provide a variety of information on pricing; weather; cash trading to match bids; physical gas offers; as well as financial, regulatory, and industry news.

Not Available

1994-10-01

77

Safety issues relating to the liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas and liquefied natural gas  

SciTech Connect

The Railroad Commission of Texas, LP-Gas Division, is statutorily responsible for the safety aspects of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) most commonly known as LP-gas or propane, compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG). This presentation will address the safety issues relating to their use as alternative fuels. The paper discusses the safety of pressure vessels used for storage of the fuels at refueling facilities and the containers mounted in vehicles. Other topics include the lack of odorants in LNG, the use of protective clothing when handling cryogenic fluids, and where to obtain a copy of the safety regulations for handling these three fuels.

Petru, T.D. [Railroad Commission of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). LP-Gas Div.

1995-12-31

78

NITROGEN REMOVAL FROM NATURAL GAS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process for the denitrogenation of natural gas. Large proven reserves in the Lower-48 states cannot be produced because of the presence of nitrogen. To exploit these reserves, cost-effective, simple technology able to reduce the nitrogen content of the gas to 4-5% is required. Technology applicable to treatment of small gas streams (below 10 MMscfd) is particularly needed. In this project membranes that selectively permeate methane and reject nitrogen in the gas were developed. Preliminary calculations show that a membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 3 to 5 is required to make the process economically viable. A number of polymer materials likely to have the required selectivities were evaluated as composite membranes. Polyacetylenes such as poly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) [PTMSP] and poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) [PMP] had high selectivities and fluxes, but membranes prepared from these polymers were not stable, showing decreasing flux and selectivity during tests lasting only a few hours. Parel, a poly(propylene oxide allyl glycidyl ether) had a selectivity of 3 at ambient temperatures and 4 or more at temperatures of {minus}20 C. However, Parel is no longer commercially available, and we were unable to find an equivalent material in the time available. Therefore, most of our experimental work focused on silicone rubber membranes, which have a selectivity of 2.5 at ambient temperatures, increasing to 3-4 at low temperatures. Silicone rubber composite membranes were evaluated in bench-scale module tests and with commercial-scale, 4-inch-diameter modules in a small pilot plant. Over six days of continuous operation at a feed gas temperature of {minus}5 to {minus}10 C, the membrane maintained a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 3.3. Based on the pilot plant performance data, an analysis of the economic potential of the process was prepared. We conclude that a stand-alone membrane process is the lowest-cost technology for small gas streams containing less than 10% nitrogen. The membrane process can recover more than 60-70% of the hydrocarbon content of the gas at a cost of $0.60-0.70/Mscfd. The capital cost of the process is about $100-200/Mscf. A number of small operators appear to be ready to use the technology if these costs can be demonstrated in the field. A second, and perhaps better, application of the technology is to combine the membrane process with a cryogenic process to treat large gas streams containing 10-20% nitrogen. The combination process achieves significant synergies. The membrane process performs a bulk separation of the gas, after which the cryogenic process treats the membrane residue (nitrogen-enriched) gas to recover more methane. Overall, hydrocarbon recoveries are greater than 95%. The capital cost of the combination process is lower than that of either process used alone and the processing costs are in the range $0.30-0.40/Mscf. This operating cost would be attractive to many gas producers. MTR is collaborating with a producer of cryogenic systems to further develop the combination process. A number of innovations in membrane process designs were made during the project; four U.S. patents covering various aspects of the technology were filed and issued.

K.A. Lokhandwala; M.B. Ringer; T.T. Su; Z. He; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans; A. Morisato; K. Amo; A. DaCosta; R.W. Baker; R. Olsen; H. Hassani; T. Rathkamp

1999-12-31

79

US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

Not Available

1993-10-18

80

The domestic natural gas shortage in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis analyzes the domestic shortage in the Chinese natural gas market. Both the domestic supply and demand of natural gas are growing fast in China. However, the supply cannot catch up with the demand. Under the present pricing mechanism, the Chinese natural gas market cannot get the equilibrium by itself. Expensive imports are inadequate to fill the increasing gap between the domestic demand and supply. Therefore, the shortage problem occurs. Since the energy gap can result in the arrested development of economics, the shortage problem need to be solved. This thesis gives three suggestions to solve the problem: the use of Unconventional Gas, Natural Gas Storage and Pricing Reform.

Guo, Ting

81

Liquefied natural gas. operations and measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of natural gas liquefaction and measurement in custody transfer covers the four segments of a natural gas liquefaction plant, i.e., gas cleanup, liquefaction (cold box section), storage, and docking or loading facilities; processes for liquefaction and handling before and after the liquefaction treatment; required transportation functions, e.g., cargo tank cleaning before and after LNG storage; and the dependence

1974-01-01

82

Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.  

SciTech Connect

The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

2012-01-27

83

Natural gas liquefaction with nitrogen rejection stabilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a system for liquefying natural gas containing more than about 1.5 percent nitrogen in which the natural gas is cooled by refrigeration and heat exchange with initial flashing of liquid at a pressure to remove substantialy all of the container nitrogen and with additional stages of flashing of liquid with low pressure flash liquid being passed to liquid natural

D. M. Bailey; E. A. Harper

1980-01-01

84

78 FR 35014 - Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, and to Import Liquefied Natural Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, and to Import Liquefied Natural Gas During April 2013...import and export natural gas and to import liquefied natural gas. These orders are summarized in the...

2013-06-11

85

77 FR 12274 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During January 2012 AGENCY: Office of Fossil...authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas. These Orders are summarized in the...

2012-02-29

86

77 FR 19277 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During February 2012 FE Docket Nos. FREEPORT...authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas. These Orders are summarized in the...

2012-03-30

87

Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends  

SciTech Connect

Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the US natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and the financial and environmental aspects of the industry. The report consists of seven chapters and five appendices. Chapter 1 presents a summary of various data trends and key issues in today`s natural gas industry and examines some of the emerging trends. Chapters 2 through 7 focus on specific areas or segments of the industry, highlighting some of the issues associated with the impact of natural gas operations on the environment. 57 figs., 18 tabs.

NONE

1999-06-01

88

US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report  

SciTech Connect

The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

NONE

1997-12-01

89

Natural gas annual 1993 supplement: Company profiles  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1993 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of 45 selected companies in the natural gas industry. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the companies profiled. The companies in this report are interstate pipeline companies or local distribution companies (LDC`s). Interstate pipeline companies acquire gas supplies from company owned production, purchases from producers, and receipts for transportation for account of others. Pipeline systems, service area maps, company supply and disposition data are presented.

Not Available

1995-02-01

90

Oil and natural gas on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

On Earth, according to conventional theory, the largest, by mass and volume, identifiable trace of past life is subsurface oil and natural gas deposits. Nearly all coal and oil on Earth and most sedimentary source rocks associated with coal, oil, and natural gas contain molecules of biological origin and is proof of past life. If Mars possessed an Earth-like biosphere

John F. McGowan

2000-01-01

91

Monthly Natural Gas Gross Production Report  

EIA Publications

Monthly natural gas gross withdrawals estimated from data collected on Form EIA-914 (Monthly Natural Gas Production Report) for Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico, Texas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, Wyoming, other states and lower 48 states. Alaska data are from the Alaska state government and included to obtain a U.S. total.

2014-01-01

92

Development of a thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Praxair, in conjunction with the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is developing a new technology, thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators, for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons\\/day, has been built and tested. The power

John J. Wollan; Gregory W. Swift; S. N. Backhaus; D. L. Gardner

2002-01-01

93

Short term storage of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linde AG developed a method to reduce the energy losses occurring during natural gas cooling, liquefaction, and storage by providing a cryophore to absorb and emit the heat as needed. Such a system is particularly suited for short-term fluctuations in demand. In such an application, excess natural gas is liquefied at night by heat exchange with the cold cryophore, and

1973-01-01

94

Natural gas monthly, October 1990. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 34 tabs.

Not Available

1990-12-28

95

Natural gas monthly, September 1990. [Contains Glossary  

SciTech Connect

This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

Not Available

1990-11-30

96

Environmental effects of submarine seeping natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suspected that most shallow reservoirs of natural gas vent to the surface to some degree. This seeping may be through diffusion of dissolved gas or by a flow of gas bubbles which entrain interstitial water during the rise through the sediments to the surface. Methane bubbles dissolved other gases, notably hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide, during their ascent.

P. R. Dando; M. Hovland

1992-01-01

97

Defect Analysis of Vehicle Compressed Natural Gas  

E-print Network

Defect Analysis of Vehicle Compressed Natural Gas Composite Cylinder A China Paper on Type 4 during the gas compressing and releasing processes are the direct causes for liner defect - Since;Industrial Computed Tomography (CT) Examination of Composite Gas Cylinder #12;CT of 01-01 Layer at 4.8MPa

98

PARTICLE EMISSIONS FROM COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS ENGINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of measurements conducted to determine particle and gas emissions from two large compressed natural gas (CNG) spark ignition (SI) engines. Particle size distributions in the range from 0.01–30?m, and gas composition were measured for five power settings of the engines: 35, 50, 65, 80 and 100% of full power. Particle emissions in the size range

Z. D. Ristovski; L. Morawska; J. Hitchins; S. Thomas; C. Greenaway; D. Gilbert

2000-01-01

99

Tables are turned on natural gas  

SciTech Connect

Rising natural gas prices are giving fuel oil dealers a competitive edge in marketing to industrial and residential customers. Gas prices increased 18.5% vs. 9% for heating oil in 1981; in the first half of 1982, gas rose 14% while oil fell 4.8%. The Cabot Consulting Group forecasts that by 1985, the price of natural gas will exceed that of oil in traditional heating-oil regions. Gas utilities are already complaining about industrial fuel-switching in some areas. Another opportunity for oil marketers is to encourage homebuilders to put oil systems in the homes of tomorrow.

Decker, M.

1982-11-01

100

Tackling with Natural Monopoly in Electricity and Natural Gas Industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter attempts to provide a theoretical work on natural monopoly versus perfect markets through concentrating on the\\u000a energy sector. In specific we discuss the natural monopolistic structure of Turkish natural gas and electricity markets by\\u000a comparing those of various countries in Europe. In this vein, our chapter starts with the introduction of natural monopoly\\u000a in both electricity and natural

Özgür Arslan; Hasan Kazdagùli

101

IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.

Jason M. Keith

2005-02-01

102

SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY  

SciTech Connect

The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports provide both the backdrop and the impetus for this study.

COOK,Z.

1999-02-01

103

Liquefied Natural Gas for Trucks and Buses  

SciTech Connect

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being developed as a heavy vehicle fuel. The reason for developing LNG is to reduce our dependency on imported oil by eliminating technical and costs barriers associated with its usage. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a program, currently in its third year, to develop and advance cost-effective technologies for operating and refueling natural gas-fueled heavy vehicles (Class 7-8 trucks). The objectives of the DOE Natural Gas Vehicle Systems Program are to achieve market penetration by reducing vehicle conversion and fuel costs, to increase consumer acceptance by improving the reliability and efficiency, and to improve air quality by reducing tailpipe emissions. One way to reduce fuel costs is to develop new supplies of cheap natural gas. Significant progress is being made towards developing more energy-efficient, low-cost, small-scale natural gas liquefiers for exploiting alternative sources of natural gas such as from landfill and remote gas sites. In particular, the DOE program provides funds for research and development in the areas of; natural gas clean up, LNG production, advanced vehicle onboard storage tanks, improved fuel delivery systems and LNG market strategies. In general, the program seeks to integrate the individual components being developed into complete systems, and then demonstrate the technology to establish technical and economic feasibility. The paper also reviews the importance of cryogenics in designing LNG fuel delivery systems.

James Wegrzyn; Michael Gurevich

2000-06-19

104

Coordinated scheduling of electricity and natural gas infrastructures with a transient model for natural gas flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on transient characteristics of natural gas flow in the coordinated scheduling of security-constrained electricity and natural gas infrastructures. The paper takes into account the slow transient process in the natural gas transmission systems. Considering their transient characteristics, natural gas transmission systems are modeled as a set of partial differential equations (PDEs) and algebraic equations. An implicit finite difference method is applied to approximate PDEs by difference equations. The coordinated scheduling of electricity and natural gas systems is described as a bi-level programming formulation from the independent system operator's viewpoint. The objective of the upper-level problem is to minimize the operating cost of electric power systems while the natural gas scheduling optimization problem is nested within the lower-level problem. Numerical examples are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed solution and to compare the solutions for steady-state and transient models of natural gas transmission systems.

Liu, Cong; Shahidehpour, Mohammad; Wang, Jianhui

2011-06-01

105

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

A new project was initiated this quarter to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading. Efforts have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project.

Howard S. Meyer

2002-06-01

106

North American Natural Gas Markets. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group`s findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

Not Available

1989-02-01

107

The Canoe Ridge Natural Gas Storage Project  

SciTech Connect

In 1999 the Pacific Gas and Electric Gas Transmission Northwest (GTN) drilled a borehole to investigate the feasibility of developing a natural gas-storage facility in a structural dome formed in Columbia River basalts in the Columbia Basin of south-central Washington State. The proposed aquifer storage facility will be an unconventional one where natural gas will be initially injected (and later retrieved) in one or multiple previous horizons (interflow zones) that are confined between deep (>700 meters) basalt flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. This report summarizes the results of joint investigations on that feasibility study by GTN and the US Department of Energy.

Reidel, Steve P.; Spane, Frank A.; Johnson, Vernon G.

2003-06-18

108

Natural gas annual 1992: Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. The 1992 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production top its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1988 to 1992 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. Volume 2 of this report presents State-level historical data.

Not Available

1993-11-22

109

Refueling stations for natural gas vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The unavailability of natural gas vehicle (NGV) refueling stations constitutes one of the major barriers to the wide spread utilization of natural gas in the transportation market. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate the current technical and economic status of compressed natural gas vehicle refueling stations and to identify the components or design features that offer the greatest potential for performance improvements and/or cost reductions. Both fast-fill- and slow-fill-type refueling systems will be discussed. 4 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

Blazek, C.F.; Kinast, J.A.; Biederman, R.T.; Jasionowski, W.

1991-01-01

110

Natural Gas Engine Development Gaps (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

A review of current natural gas vehicle offerings is presented for both light-duty and medium- and heavy-duty applications. Recent gaps in the marketplace are discussed, along with how they have been or may be addressed. The stakeholder input process for guiding research and development needs via the Natural Gas Vehicle Technology Forum (NGVTF) to the U.S. Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission is reviewed. Current high-level natural gas engine development gap areas are highlighted, including efficiency, emissions, and the certification process.

Zigler, B.T.

2014-03-01

111

Natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer  

SciTech Connect

An efficient method of producing hydrogen by high temperature steam electrolysis that will lower the electricity consumption to an estimated 65% lower than has been achievable with previous steam electrolyzer systems is described. This is accomplished with a natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer, which significantly reduces the electricity consumption. Since this natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer replaces one unit of electrical energy by one unit of energy content in natural gas at one-quarter the cost, the hydrogen production cost will be significantly reduced. Also, it is possible to vary the ratio between the electricity and the natural gas supplied to the system in response to fluctuations in relative prices for these two energy sources. In one approach an appropriate catalyst on the anode side of the electrolyzer will promote the partial oxidation of natural gas to CO and hydrogen, called Syn-Gas, and the CO can also be shifted to CO{sub 2} to give additional hydrogen. In another approach the natural gas is used in the anode side of the electrolyzer to burn out the oxygen resulting from electrolysis, thus reducing or eliminating the potential difference across the electrolyzer membrane.

Pham, A.Q.; Wallman, P.H.; Glass, R.S.

2000-04-18

112

Natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer  

DOEpatents

An efficient method of producing hydrogen by high temperature steam electrolysis that will lower the electricity consumption to an estimated 65 percent lower than has been achievable with previous steam electrolyzer systems. This is accomplished with a natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer, which significantly reduces the electricity consumption. Since this natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer replaces one unit of electrical energy by one unit of energy content in natural gas at one-quarter the cost, the hydrogen production cost will be significantly reduced. Also, it is possible to vary the ratio between the electricity and the natural gas supplied to the system in response to fluctuations in relative prices for these two energy sources. In one approach an appropriate catalyst on the anode side of the electrolyzer will promote the partial oxidation of natural gas to CO and hydrogen, called Syn-Gas, and the CO can also be shifted to CO.sub.2 to give additional hydrogen. In another approach the natural gas is used in the anode side of the electrolyzer to burn out the oxygen resulting from electrolysis, thus reducing or eliminating the potential difference across the electrolyzer membrane.

Pham, Ai-Quoc (San Jose, CA); Wallman, P. Henrik (Berkeley, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01

113

Oil and natural gas on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On Earth, according to conventional theory, the largest, by mass and volume, identifiable trace of past life is subsurface oil and natural gas deposits. Nearly all coal and oil on Earth and most sedimentary source rocks associated with coal, oil, and natural gas contain molecules of biological origin and is proof of past life. If Mars possessed an Earth-like biosphere in the past, Mars may contain subsurface deposits of oil and natural gas indicating past life. Life might still exist in these deposits. Subsurface oil and natural gas on Mars would probably cause seepage of hydrocarbon gases such as methane at favorable locations on the Martian surface. Further, if Mars contains substantial subsurface* life, the most detectable signature of this life on the Martian surface would be gases generated by the life percolating up to the surface and venting into the Martian atmosphere. In this paper, systems that can detect evidence of subsurface oil and gas, including ground penetrating radar and infrared gas sensors are explored. The limitations and future prospects of infrared gas detection and imaging technologies are explored. The power, mass, and volume requirements for infrared instruments able to detect venting gases, especially methane, from an aerobot is estimated. The maximum range from the infrared sensor to the gas vent and the minimum detectable gas density or fraction of the Martian atmosphere -- as appropriate for the instrument type -- is estimated. The bit rate and bit error rate requirements for transmitting the data back to Earth are also estimated.

McGowan, John F.

2000-12-01

114

Compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas as alternative fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of alternative fuels in the transportation industry has gained a strong support in recent years. In this paper an attempt was made to evaluate the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (NG) by 25 LPG-bifuel and 14 NG-bifuel vehicles that are operated by 33 transit systems throughout Nebraska. A set of performance measures such

Massoum Moussavi; Motasem Al-Turk

1993-01-01

115

Vessel having natural gas liquefaction capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is disclosed a vessel having natural gas liquefaction capabilities formed of a plurality of self-contained liquefaction assemblies, each of which being disposed in a separate liquefaction compartment.

Kniel

1977-01-01

116

Fourth international conference on liquefied natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papers were presented concerning world trade in LNG, LNG transport, natural gas liquefaction, LNG handling, LNG storage, and economic and legal aspects. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. (JRD)

1974-01-01

117

Natural gas 1996 - issues and trends  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents a summary of the latest data and information relating to the U.S. natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and financial aspects of the industry.

NONE

1996-12-01

118

Nitrogen Removal From Low Quality Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas provides more than one-fifth of all the primary energy used in the United States. It is especially important in the residential sector, where it supplies nearly half of all the energy consumed in U.S. homes. However, significant quantities of natural gas cannot be produced economically because its quality is too low to enter the pipeline transportation system without some type of processing, other than dehydration, to remove the undesired gas fraction. Such low-quality natural gas (LQNG) contains significant concentration or quantities of gas other than methane. These non- hydrocarbons are predominantly nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide, but may also include other gaseous components. The nitrogen concentrations usually exceeds 4%. Nitrogen rejection is presently an expensive operation which can present uneconomic scenarios in the potential development of natural gas fields containing high nitrogen concentrations. The most reliable and widely used process for nitrogen rejection from natural gas consists of liquefying the feed stream using temperatures in the order of - 300{degrees}F and separating the nitrogen via fractionation. In order to reduce the gas temperature to this level, the gas is compressed, cooled by mullet-stream heat exchangers, and expanded to low pressure. Significant energy for compression and expensive materials of construction are required. Water and carbon dioxide concentrations must be reduced to levels required to prevent freezing. SRI`s proposed research involves screening new nitrogen selective absorbents and developing a more cost effective nitrogen removal process from natural gas using those compounds. The long-term objective of this project is to determine the technical and economical feasibility of a N{sub 2}2 removal concept based on complexation of molecular N{sub 2} with novel complexing agents. Successful development of a selective, reversible, and stable reagent with an appropriate combination of capacity and N{sub 2} absorption/desorption characteristics will allow selective separation of N{sub 2} from LQNG.

Alvarado, D.B.; Asaro, M.F.; Bomben, J.L.; Damle, A.S.; Bhown, A.S.

1997-10-01

119

PVT measurements for five natural gas mixtures  

E-print Network

Major Subject: Chemical Engineering PVT MEASUREMENTS FOR FIVE NATURAL GAS MIXTURES A Thesis by PHILIP PARAYIL SIMON Approved as to style and content by: James C. Holste (Chair of Committee) Kenneth N. Marsh (Member) Randolph C. Wilhoit (Member...) Raymond W. Flumerfelt (Head of Department) August 1991 ABSTRACT PVT Measurements for Five Natural Gas Mixtures (August 1991) Philip Parayil Simon, B. Tech. , Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. James C. Holste...

Simon, Philip Parayil

1991-01-01

120

About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines  

EIA Publications

This information product provides the interested reader with a broad and non-technical overview of how the U.S. natural gas pipeline network operates, along with some insights into the many individual pipeline systems that make up the network. While the focus of the presentation is the transportation of natural gas over the interstate and intrastate pipeline systems, information on subjects related to pipeline development, such as system design and pipeline expansion, are also included.

2007-01-01

121

Cryogenic plant for natural gas liquefaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is essential to develop an efficient, compact, and safe plant for recondensation of natural gas vapors formed during shipping\\u000a of liquefied natural gas (LNG) by large methane tankers. A test bench that simulates the operation of a full-scale cryogenic\\u000a plant for production of up to 2884 kg\\/h LNG has been built for comprehensive studies. The refrigeration required for this

Yu. S. Bukholdin; S. V. Sukhostavets; I. I. Petukhov

2007-01-01

122

Effects of natural gas contaminants on corrosion in compressed natural gas storage cylinders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes work being performed to define natural gas contaminant concentration levels necessary to insure that internal corrosion of compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders does not constitute a hazard over the lifetimes of the cylinders. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) tests have been performed on typical steel and aluminum CNG cylinder materials using representative natural gases collected from

F. F. Jr. Lyle; H. C. Jr. Burghard

1986-01-01

123

Process for liquefaction of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuous process for natural gas liquefaction permits the use of recirculated cooled gas as the cooling medium in the heat exchangers. The gas is first regulated to an input pressure above 800 psig, cooled at the input pressure down to about 0°F, and expanded to reduce the pressure to 600 psig or less at a temperature of about -100°F.

1979-01-01

124

Thailand natural-gas project moves ahead  

Microsoft Academic Search

The longest offshore pipeline currently under construction in the world is the 264-mile 34-in. submarine transmission line connecting Union Oil's natural gas production platform in the Gulf of Thailand to the 99-mile 28-in. onshore pipeline being laid from the landfall point to Bangkok. The entire facility will be operating by Sept. 15, 1981. Custody of the gas will be transferred

R. N. Knapp-Fisher; S. Paritpokee

1981-01-01

125

Dual mixed refrigerant natural gas liquefaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process and apparatus is described for liquefying natural gas using two closed cycle, multicomponent refrigerants wherein a low level refrigerant cools and liquefies the gas by indirect heat exchange and a high level refrigerant cools and partially liquefies the low level refrigerant by indirect multistage heat exchange. The high level refrigerant is phase separated in order to use lighter

Y.-N. Liu; J. W. Pervier

1985-01-01

126

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. KPS and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on field site selection. ChevronTexaco has nominated their Headlee Gas Plant in Odessa, TX for a commercial-scale dehydration test. Potting and module materials testing were initiated. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues.

Howard S. Meyer

2003-04-01

127

18 CFR 157.210 - Mainline natural gas facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Mainline natural gas facilities. 157.210 Section 157...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF...ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline Blanket...

2010-04-01

128

49 CFR 393.68 - Compressed natural gas fuel containers.  

... false Compressed natural gas fuel containers. 393.68 Section 393.68 Transportation...393.68 Compressed natural gas fuel containers... The rules in this section apply to compressed natural gas (CNG)...

2014-10-01

129

77 FR 51795 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets Supplemental Notice of Technical...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No. AD12-12-000...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No....

2012-08-27

130

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues.

Howard S. Meyer

2003-01-01

131

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50--70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project.

Howard S. Meyer

2002-06-30

132

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment has been initiated. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50--70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project.

Howard S. Meyer

2002-06-01

133

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. KPS and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues.

Howard S. Meyer

2002-10-01

134

How Regulators Should Use Natural Gas Price Forecasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas prices are critical to a range of regulatory decisions covering both electric and gas utilities. Natural gas prices are often a crucial variable in electric generation capacity planning and in the benefit-cost relationship for energy-efficiency programs. High natural gas prices can make coal generation the most economical new source, while low prices can make natural gas generation the

Ken Costello

2010-01-01

135

How regulators should use natural gas price forecasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas prices are critical to a range of regulatory decisions covering both electric and gas utilities. Natural gas prices are often a crucial variable in electric generation capacity planning and in the benefit-cost relationship for energy-efficiency programs. High natural gas prices can make coal generation the most economical new source, while low prices can make natural gas generation the

Costello

2010-01-01

136

U. S. natural gas demand through the year 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on predictions by the U.S. Gas Association, the demand for natural gas (PG) in the country may rise by 1.5 times from 1980 to the year 2000. This prediction counts on an increase in the extraction of natural gas in Alaska and on the import of natural gas from Canada and Mexico and in some variants, liquified natural gas

Itteilag

1983-01-01

137

NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS  

SciTech Connect

From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations using laboratory pyrolysis methods have provided much information on the origins of deep gas. Technologic problems are one of the greatest challenges to deep drilling. Problems associated with overcoming hostile drilling environments (e.g. high temperatures and pressures, and acid gases such as CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) for successful well completion, present the greatest obstacles to drilling, evaluating, and developing deep gas fields. Even though the overall success ratio for deep wells is about 50 percent, a lack of geological and geophysical information such as reservoir quality, trap development, and gas composition continues to be a major barrier to deep gas exploration. Results of recent finding-cost studies by depth interval for the onshore U.S. indicate that, on average, deep wells cost nearly 10 times more to drill than shallow wells, but well costs and gas recoveries vary widely among different gas plays in different basins. Based on an analysis of natural gas assessments, many topical areas hold significant promise for future exploration and development. One such area involves re-evaluating and assessing hypothetical unconventional basin-center gas plays. Poorly-understood basin-center gas plays could contain significant deep undiscovered technically-recoverable gas resources.

Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

2002-02-05

138

Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of shale gas, natural gas, coal, and petroleum.  

PubMed

The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. It has been debated whether the fugitive methane emissions during natural gas production and transmission outweigh the lower carbon dioxide emissions during combustion when compared to coal and petroleum. Using the current state of knowledge of methane emissions from shale gas, conventional natural gas, coal, and petroleum, we estimated up-to-date life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings that need to be further addressed. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than conventional natural gas, 23% lower than gasoline, and 33% lower than coal. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas. Moreover, this life-cycle analysis, among other work in this area, provides insight on critical stages that the natural gas industry and government agencies can work together on to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas. PMID:22107036

Burnham, Andrew; Han, Jeongwoo; Clark, Corrie E; Wang, Michael; Dunn, Jennifer B; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi

2012-01-17

139

Natural gas decontrol. Talk has little effect on NGPA applications. [Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though the possibility of decontrol of natural gas prices is being discussed, applications under the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 continue to flood the Texas Railroad Commission. As of mid-March, 33,965 applications had been filed with the TRC seeking ceiling price designations under the Act. During the first part of the year, the commission sponsored seminars in different

Mickey

1981-01-01

140

Natural Gas Prices Forecast Comparison--AEO vs. Natural Gas Markets  

SciTech Connect

This paper evaluates the accuracy of two methods to forecast natural gas prices: using the Energy Information Administration's ''Annual Energy Outlook'' forecasted price (AEO) and the ''Henry Hub'' compared to U.S. Wellhead futures price. A statistical analysis is performed to determine the relative accuracy of the two measures in the recent past. A statistical analysis suggests that the Henry Hub futures price provides a more accurate average forecast of natural gas prices than the AEO. For example, the Henry Hub futures price underestimated the natural gas price by 35 cents per thousand cubic feet (11.5 percent) between 1996 and 2003 and the AEO underestimated by 71 cents per thousand cubic feet (23.4 percent). Upon closer inspection, a liner regression analysis reveals that two distinct time periods exist, the period between 1996 to 1999 and the period between 2000 to 2003. For the time period between 1996 to 1999, AEO showed a weak negative correlation (R-square = 0.19) between forecast price by actual U.S. Wellhead natural gas price versus the Henry Hub with a weak positive correlation (R-square = 0.20) between forecasted price and U.S. Wellhead natural gas price. During the time period between 2000 to 2003, AEO shows a moderate positive correlation (R-square = 0.37) between forecasted natural gas price and U.S. Wellhead natural gas price versus the Henry Hub that show a moderate positive correlation (R-square = 0.36) between forecast price and U.S. Wellhead natural gas price. These results suggest that agencies forecasting natural gas prices should consider incorporating the Henry Hub natural gas futures price into their forecasting models along with the AEO forecast. Our analysis is very preliminary and is based on a very small data set. Naturally the results of the analysis may change, as more data is made available.

Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Lekov, Alex; Dale, Larry

2005-02-09

141

UPGRADING NATURAL GAS VIA MEMBRANE SEPARATION PROCESSES  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the present study is to assess the potential usefulness of membrane separation processes for removing CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S from low-quality natural gas containing substantial amounts of both these ''acid'' gases, e.g., up to 40 mole-% CO{sub 2} and 10 mole-% H{sub 2}S. The membrane processes must be capable of upgrading the crude natural gas to pipeline specifications ({le} 2 mole-% CO{sub 2}, {le} 4 ppm H{sub 2}S). Moreover, these processes must also be economically competitive with the conventional separation techniques, such as gas absorption, utilized for this purpose by the gas industry.

S.A.Stern; P.A. Rice; J. Hao

2000-03-01

142

Venezuela natural gas for vehicles project  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas for Vehicles (NGV) Project in Venezuela describes the development and growth of the NGV project in the country. Venezuela is a prolific oil producer with advanced exploration, production, refining and solid marketing infrastructure. Gas production is 5.2 Bscfd. The Venezuelan Government and the oil state owned company Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), pursued the opportunity of using natural gas for vehicles based on the huge amounts of gas reserves present and produced every day associated with the oil production. A nationwide gas pipeline network crosses the country from south to west reaching the most important cities and serving domestic and industrial purposes but there are no facilities to process or export liquefied natural gas. NGV has been introduced gradually in Venezuela over the last eight years by PDVSA. One hundred forty-five NGV stations have been installed and another 25 are under construction. Work done comprises displacement or relocation of existing gasoline equipment, civil work, installation and commissioning of equipment. The acceptance and usage of the NGV system is reflected in the more than 17,000 vehicles that have been converted to date using the equivalent of 2,000 bbl oil/day.

Marsicobetre, D.; Molero, T. [Corpoven S.A., Miami, FL (United States)

1998-12-31

143

Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbon  

SciTech Connect

Despite technical advances to reduce air pollution emissions, motor vehicles still account for 30 to 70% emissions of all urban air pollutants. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require 100 cities in the United States to reduce the amount of their smog within 5 to 15 years. Hence, auto emissions, the major cause of smog, must be reduced 30 to 60% by 1998. Natural gas con be combusted with less pollutant emissions. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) uses adsorbents and operates with a low storage pressure which results in lower capital costs and maintenance. This paper describes the production of an activated carbon adsorbent produced from an Illinois coal for ANG.

Sun, Jian; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

144

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on field site selection. ChevronTexaco has nominated their Headlee Gas Plant in Odessa, TX for a commercial-scale dehydration test. Design and cost estimation for this new site are underway. A HazOp review was conducted. Potting and module materials testing continued. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues. A status meeting was held in Morgantown, WV with the DOE Project Manager.

Howard S. Meyer

2003-10-01

145

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on field site selection. ChevronTexaco has nominated their Headlee Gas Plant in Odessa, TX for a commercial-scale dehydration test. Design and cost estimation for this new site are underway. Potting and module materials testing continued. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues.

Howard S. Meyer

2003-07-01

146

Market Structure and the Pricing of Electricity and Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

US Electricity and natural gas markets have traditionally been serviced by one of two market structures. In some markets, electricity and natural gas are sold by a regulated dual-product monopolist, while in other markets, electricity and natural gas are sold by separate regulated single-product monopolies. I analyze whether electricity and natural gas prices depend on the market structure and compare

Christopher R. Knittelw

2003-01-01

147

Natural gas strategic plan and program crosscut plans  

SciTech Connect

The natural gas strategic plan recognizes the challenges and opportunities facing increased U.S. natural gas use. Focus areas of research include natural gas supply, delivery, and storage, power generation, industrial, residential and commercial, natural gas vehicles, and the environment. Historical aspects, mission, situation analysis, technology trends, strategic issues, performance indicators, technology program overviews, and forecasting in the above areas are described.

NONE

1995-06-01

148

International Trade in Natural Gas: Golden Age of LNG?  

E-print Network

International Trade in Natural Gas: Golden Age of LNG? Yichen Du and Sergey Paltsev Report No. 271;1 International Trade in Natural Gas: Golden Age of LNG? Yichen Du* and Sergey Paltsev* Abstract The introduction of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as an option for international trade has created a market for natural gas where

Gabrieli, John

149

Development of a thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier.  

SciTech Connect

Praxair, in conjunction with the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is developing a new technology, thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators, for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons/day, has been built and tested. The power source is a natural gas burner. Systems will be developed with liquefaction capacities up to 10,000 to 20,000 gallons per day. The technology, the development project, accomplishments and applications are discussed. In February 2001 Praxair, Inc. purchased the acoustic heat engine and refrigeration development program from Chart Industries. Chart (formerly Cryenco, which Chart purchased in 1997) and Los Alamos had been working on the technology development program since 1994. The purchase included assets and intellectual property rights for thermoacoustically driven orifice pulse tube refrigerators (TADOPTR), a new and revolutionary Thermoacoustic Stirling Heat Engine (TASHE) technology, aspects of Orifice Pulse Tube Refrigeration (OPTR) and linear motor compressors as OPTR drivers. Praxair, in cooperation with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the licensor of the TADOPTR and TASHE patents, is continuing the development of TASHE-OPTR natural gas powered, natural gas liquefiers. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at -161 C (-259 F) at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 TADOPTR invention by Drs. Greg Swift (LANL) and Ray Radebaugh (NIST) demonstrated the first technology to produce cryogenic refrigeration with no moving parts. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators use acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat. The basic driver and refrigerator consist of nothing more than helium-filled heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. The liquefier development program is divided into two components: Thermoacoustically driven refrigerators and linear motor driven refrigerators (LOPTRs). LOPTR technology will, for the foreseeable future, be limited to natural gas liquefaction capacities on the order of hundreds of gallons per day. TASHE-OPTR technology is expected to achieve liquefaction capacities of tens of thousands of gallons per day. This paper will focus on the TASHE-OPTR technology because its natural gas liquefaction capacity has greater market opportunity. LOPTR development will be mentioned briefly. The thermoacoustically driven refrigerator development program is now in the process of demonstrating the technology at a capacity of about 500 gallon/day (gpd) i.e., approximately 42,000 standard cubic feet/day, which requires about 7 kW of refrigeration power. This capacity is big enough to illuminate the issues of large-scale acoustic liquefaction at reasonable cost and to demonstrate the liquefaction of about 70% of an input gas stream, while burning about 30%. Subsequent to this demonstration a system with a capacity of approximately 10{sup 6} standard cubic feet/day (scfd) = 10,000 gpd with a projected liquefaction rate of about 85% of the input gas stream will be developed. When commercialized, the TASHE-OPTRs will be a totally new type of heat-driven cryogenic refrigerator, with projected low manufacturing cost, high reliability, long life, and low maintenance. A TASHE-OPTR will be able to liquefy a broad range of gases, one of the most important being natural gas (NG). Potential NG applications range from distributed liquefaction of pipeline gas as fuel for heavy-duty fleet and long haul vehicles to large-scale liquefaction at on-shore and offshore gas wellheads. An alternative to the thermoacoustic driver, but with many similar technical and market advantages, is the linear motor compressor. Linear motors convert electrical power directly into oscillating linear, or axial, motion. Attachment of a piston to the oscillator results in a direct drive compressor. Such a compressor

Wollan, J. J. (John J.); Swift, G. W. (Gregory W.); Backhaus, S. N. (Scott N.); Gardner, D. L. (David L.)

2002-01-01

150

Natural gas pipeline leaks across Washington, DC.  

PubMed

Pipeline safety in the United States has increased in recent decades, but incidents involving natural gas pipelines still cause an average of 17 fatalities and $133 M in property damage annually. Natural gas leaks are also the largest anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the U.S. To reduce pipeline leakage and increase consumer safety, we deployed a Picarro G2301 Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer in a car, mapping 5893 natural gas leaks (2.5 to 88.6 ppm CH4) across 1500 road miles of Washington, DC. The ?(13)C-isotopic signatures of the methane (-38.2‰ ± 3.9‰ s.d.) and ethane (-36.5 ± 1.1 s.d.) and the CH4:C2H6 ratios (25.5 ± 8.9 s.d.) closely matched the pipeline gas (-39.0‰ and -36.2‰ for methane and ethane; 19.0 for CH4/C2H6). Emissions from four street leaks ranged from 9200 to 38,200 L CH4 day(-1) each, comparable to natural gas used by 1.7 to 7.0 homes, respectively. At 19 tested locations, 12 potentially explosive (Grade 1) methane concentrations of 50,000 to 500,000 ppm were detected in manholes. Financial incentives and targeted programs among companies, public utility commissions, and scientists to reduce leaks and replace old cast-iron pipes will improve consumer safety and air quality, save money, and lower greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:24432903

Jackson, Robert B; Down, Adrian; Phillips, Nathan G; Ackley, Robert C; Cook, Charles W; Plata, Desiree L; Zhao, Kaiguang

2014-02-01

151

Viewing Scenes Occluded by Smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we focus on the problem of reconstructing images of scenes occluded by thick smoke. We propose a simple and\\u000a effective algorithm that creates a single clear image of the scene given only a video sequence as input. Our method is based\\u000a on two key observations. First, an increase in smoke density induces a decrease in both image

Arturo Donate; Eraldo Ribeiro

2006-01-01

152

Mitchell firmly retrenched in natural gas services  

SciTech Connect

The past three years, Mitchell Energy and Development Corp. has undergone a massive restructuring that has changed the face of one of the nation`s largest and best-known natural gas/natural gas liquids companies. Facing a rapidly changing industry that frequently has been stung by volatile swings in energy markets, management of the independent company, founded by George Mitchell in 1946, sold off $300 million in non-core assets; reduced its long-term debt by $400 million; instituted a hiring freeze and reduced its workforce by a third, from 2,900 to 1,950, over the last three years. Mitchell negotiated a buyout of its hugely profitable North Texas gas sales contract with Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America as a means of easing its transition to a market-sensitive price environment and reducing its debt. Mitchell also took operational control. Finally, Mitchell has left the real estate business, culminating July 31 with the sale of its real estate subsidiary, The Woodlands Corporation, for $543 million ($460 million net after-tax), further reducing its workforce to 1,100. On Aug. 18, the company said it will use the proceeds to repurchase common stock, retire another $200 million of public debt, make asset niche energy acquisitions and increase capital spending for existing programs. The result is a renewed focus on its exploration and production and gas gathering, processing and marketing businesses.

Share, J.

1997-09-01

153

Combined natural gas and electricity network pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of competition to electricity generation and commercialization has been the main focus of many restructuring experiences around the world. The open access to the transmission network and a fair regulated tariff have been the keystones for the development of the electricity market. Parallel to the electricity industry, the natural gas business has great interaction with the electricity market

M. S. Morais; J. W. Marangon Lima

2007-01-01

154

Delivery of Hydrogen Produced from Natural Gas  

E-print Network

technologies · Materials development - Research hydrogen embrittlement of metals and requirements for low - Trucks - On-site reforming · Liquid hydrogen · Liquid carriers · Solid carriers (e.g., hydrides) · Other and demonstrate if, and under what conditions, existing natural gas and liquid pipelines are suitable

155

Bibliography on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximately 600 citations concerning safety of liquefied natural gas and liquid methane are presented. Each entry includes the title, author, abstract, source, description of figures, key references, and major descriptors for retrieving the document. An author index is provided as well as an index of descriptors.

Ordin, P. M.

1976-01-01

156

Efficient liquefaction cycles for natural gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural Gas is liquefied for storage and transportation purposes. Large quantity of Natural Gas is liquefied on a daily basis. Therefore, there is a need for efficient refrigeration cycles to liquefy natural gas. Refrigeration cycles are energy intensive processes. In such systems, the compressors are the main power consumers. A given refrigeration task can be achieved by many configurations and use of refrigerant mediums. In principle, all possible configurations utilize vapor compression and/or expander cycles. However, identifying an energy efficient configuration along with the proper choice of refrigerants is not a straightforward technique. In the refrigeration literature, many methods have been proposed to identify efficient refrigeration configurations for a given task. However, these methods rely on detailed simulations and mathematical programming and do not provide much physical insights to design a good refrigeration process. As a result, our motivation is to develop physical insights through systematic evaluation of refrigerants and cycle configurations. We have identified key features of different refrigeration systems for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) applications. This was achieved through detailed simulations and thermodynamic analysis. Such features are essential to understand the limits of different configurations. Moreover, they can lead to process developments and improvements.

Al-Musleh, Easa Ismail

157

Mexican demand for US natural gas  

SciTech Connect

This study describes the Mexican natural gas industry as it exists today and the factors that have shaped the evolution of the industry in the past or that are expected to influence its progress; it also projects production and use of natural gas and estimates the market for exports of natural gas from the United States to Mexico. The study looks ahead to two periods, a near term (1993--1995) and an intermediate term (1996--2000). The bases for estimates under two scenarios are described. Under the conservative scenario, exports of natural gas from the United States would decrease from the 1992 level of 250 million cubic feet per day (MMCF/d), would return to that level by 1995, and would reach about 980 MMCF/D by 2000. Under the more optimistic scenario, exports would decrease in 1993 and would recover and rise to about 360 MMCF/D in 1995 and to 1,920 MMCF/D in 2000.

Kanter, M.A.; Kier, P.H.

1993-09-01

158

Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization  

SciTech Connect

Building upon the partitioning of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) that was conducted last quarter, the goal of the work this quarter has been to conclude evaluation of the Stratos well and the prototypical Green River Deep partition, and perform the fill resource evaluation of the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play, with the goal of defining target areas of enhanced natural fracturing. The work plan for the quarter of November 1-December 31, 1998 comprised four tasks: (1) Evaluation of the Green River Deep partition and the Stratos well and examination of potential opportunity for expanding the use of E and P technology to low permeability, naturally fractured gas reservoirs, (2) Gas field studies, and (3) Resource analysis of the balance of the partitions.

NONE

1999-06-01

159

Natural gas legislation: a consumer's perspective  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates three major legislative proposals: accelerated decontrol of both old and new wellhead prices as proposed by the Reagan administration (S.615, H.R. 1760); imposition of new natural gas price controls at lower levels as proposed by Congressman Gephardt (H.R. 2154); and conversion of interstate gas pipelines to common carriage as proposed by Senators Dixon and Percy and by Congressman Corcoran (S. 1119, H.R. 2565). The reference or base case scenario used in the evaluation is a continuation of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA) with no legislative modifications. First, projections of wellhead and burner-tip natural gas prices are presented for the period 1983-1990, and then consumer benefits under the different scenarios are estimated. All projections presented assume that legislation takes effect as of January 1, 1983 and that normal weather patterns are experienced. All prices identified in the report are given in 1982 dollars unless otherwise indicated. 5 figs., 1 tab.

Lemon, J.R.

1983-08-01

160

DRAFT DRAFT Electricity and Natural Gas Sector Description  

E-print Network

DRAFT DRAFT Electricity and Natural Gas Sector Description For Public Distribution AB 32 Scoping of electricity and natural gas; including electricity generation, combined heat and power, and electricity and natural gas end uses for residential and commercial purposes. Use of electricity and/or gas for industrial

161

Conversion of a Waste Gas to Liquid Natural Gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The choice of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a heavy-duty vehicular fuel is growing rapidly due to improved LNG economics, diesel price uncertainties caused by the dependence on imported crude oil, liabilities associated with environmental and health concerns, and governmental programs related to concerns over greenhouse gas emissions. However, vehicle owners who wish to use LNG are impeded by a lack of refueling infrastructure and reliable supply of inexpensive fuel. These barriers are being overcome by the development of innovative purifier/liquefier systems that economically convert a wide array of distributed, low cost methane gas sources into high quality LNG. This paper describes the engineering design, manufacture, installation, and initial operations of two such systems. One unit was a pilot-scale system using an innovative cryogenic freezing process to remove bulk concentrations of carbon dioxide from the landfill gas (LFG). The second unit converts stranded well gas containing ˜ 18% nitrogen gas into LNG. The paper closes with a summary of lessons learned from these two installations and directions for future improvements.

Gongaware, D. F.; Barclay, M. A.; Barclay, J. A.; Skrzypkowski, M. P.

2004-06-01

162

Interfuel substitution and natural gas trade in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Institutional changes in North American natural gas markets have created much uncertainty about the prospects for gas trade between Canada, Mexico, and the US. This dissertation describes the formulations of the Gas Trade Model (GTM) and the submodel of US gas demand. Together, they provide a modeling framework within which international gas trade after the deregulation of the US natural

Beltramo

1986-01-01

163

Gas extrusion in natural products total synthesis.  

PubMed

The thermodynamic driving force from the release of a gaseous molecule drives a broad range of synthetic transformations. This review focuses on gas expulsion in key reactions within natural products total syntheses, selected from the past two decades. The highlighted examples survey transformations that generate sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbonyl sulfide, or nitrogen through polar, radical, pericyclic, photochemical, or organometallic mechanisms. Of particular interest are applications wherein the gas extrusion enables formation of a synthetically challenging motif, such as an unusually hindered or strained bond. PMID:22940671

Jiang, Xuefeng; Shi, Lei; Liu, Hui; Khan, Akbar H; Chen, Jason S

2012-11-14

164

Natural biodegradation may suffice at natural gas production sites  

SciTech Connect

Biodegradation of organic contaminants in soil and ground water by indigenous microbes is very common, but the contribution of this intrinsic process to site remediation has sometimes been overlooked as too slow or ineffective. Some recent RCRA corrective measure studies and CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility studies are challenging this mentality. One recent investigation evaluated the potential for intrinsic bioremediation to act as the sole remedial measure at a natural gas production site, possibly supporting a no-intervention decision. The site in question is contaminated with hydrocarbon condensate from natural gas production wells. Amoco Oil (Tulsa, Oklahoma), which operates the wells, evaluated intrinsic aerobic and anaerobic bioremediation at that location. Preliminary results are promising. This evaluation is described in this paper. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab.

NONE

1996-05-01

165

Evaluation of Natural Gas Systems: A Comparison Study for Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

With global warming, natural gas is becoming one of the critical energy sources in the world due to low-level emission of greenhouse gases. For that reason, natural gas consumption is increasing rapidly in the world. Turkey, which is a natural bridge between Europe and the Middle East, is a developing country in the world. The demand for natural gas has

F. E. Boran; K. Boran

2012-01-01

166

Liquid natural gas regasification combined with adsorbed natural gas filling system.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article provides an introduction to innovative method of Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) physical exergy practical utilization. The energy spent to liquefy natural gas (a thermodynamic minimum is about 0.13 kWh/l of LNG depending on pressure and chemical composition) can be partly recovered in the system making use either of the LNG low temperature (111 K) or its ability to increase the pressure in a storage vessel by heat absorption from the environment. The paper presents estimation of the LNG physical exergy and its dependence on the pressure and temperature. Then description and comparison of available natural gas storage methods (liquefaction, compression, adsorption) is given, with a special attention paid to Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG) technology. Original data concerning adsorption isotherms of methane with activated carbon MaxsorbIII are presented. A concept of ANG storage technology coupled with the LNG regasification, is a promising technique of utilization of the LNG cold exergy. The energy efficient combination of ANG with LNG may help market progress of adsorption technology in natural gas storage and distribution. The ANG/LNG coupling is especially perspective in case of small capacity and distributed natural gas deposits exploitation.

Roszak, Eliza Anna; Chorowski, Maciej

2012-06-01

167

Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the work this quarter has been to partition and high-grade the Greater Green River basin for exploration efforts in the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play and to initiate resource assessment of the basin. The work plan for the quarter of July 1-September 30, 1998 comprised three tasks: (1) Refining the exploration process for deep, naturally fractured gas reservoirs; (2) Partitioning of the basin based on structure and areas of overpressure; (3) Examination of the Kinney and Canyon Creek fields with respect to the Cretaceous tight gas play and initiation of the resource assessment of the Vermilion sub-basin partition (which contains these two fields); and (4) Initiation analysis of the Deep Green River Partition with respect to the Stratos well and assessment of the resource in the partition.

NONE

1998-11-30

168

Regulation, competition in natural gas industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional regulatory and rate-making tools are not adequate to deal with today`s natural-gas market, according to Richard P. O`Neill and Charles S. Whitmore of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission in Washington, D.C. {open_quotes}Competitive market forces can substitute for many activities that traditionally have been regulated,{close_quotes} say O`Neill and Whitmore. {open_quotes}However, market-based solutions are only effective if traditional regulations is replaced

C. S. Whitmore

1995-01-01

169

Failure analysis of natural gas pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incident involving failures of 6months old API 5L X42 (NPS8) and SDR 17, 125mm medium density polyethylene pipe (MDPE) supplying natural gas to an industrial customer has caused serious 7h supply disruption. Study was performed to identify the most probable cause of the pipes failures. The study conducted by reviewing the existing design and construction data, visual physical inspection, pipe

Z. A. Majid; R. Mohsin; Z. Yaacob; Z. Hassan

2010-01-01

170

Soluble surfactants favorably modify fluid structure and wall shear stress profiles during near-occluding bubble motion in a computational model of intravascular gas embolism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finite sized gas bubble motion in a blood vessel causes temporal and spatial gradients of shear stress at the endothelial cell surface lining the vessel wall as the bubble approaches the cell, moves over it and passes it by. Rapid reversals occur in the sign of the shear stress imparted to the cell surface during this motion. The sign-reversing shear is a potently coupled source of cell surface mechanical stretch, potentiating cell injury. The presence of a suitable soluble surfactant in the bulk medium considerably reduces the level of the shear stress gradients imparted to the cell surface as compared to an equivalent surfactant-free system. The bubble shape and the film thickness between the bubble and the vessel wall are also different. Furthermore, the bubble residence time near the proximity of a cell surface changes in comparison. These results based on our modeling may help explain several phenomena observed in experimental studies related to gas embolism, a significant problem in cardiac surgery and decompression sickness.

Swaminathan, T. N.; Ayyaswamy, P. S.; Eckmann, D. M.

2009-11-01

171

Development of natural gas rotary engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of natural gas-fueled rotary engines was pursued on the parallel paths of converted Mazda automotive engines and of establishing technology and demonstration of a test model of a larger John Deer Technologies Incorporated (JDTI) rotary engine with power capability of 250 HP per power section for future production of multi-rotor engines with power ratings 250, 500, and 1000 HP and upward. Mazda engines were converted to natural gas and were characterized by a laboratory which was followed by nearly 12,000 hours of testing in three different field installations. To develop technology for the larger JDTI engine, laboratory and engine materials testing was accomplished. Extensive combustion analysis computer codes were modified, verified, and utilized to predict engine performance, to guide parameters for actual engine design, and to identify further improvements. A single rotor test engine of 5.8 liter displacement was designed for natural gas operation based on the JDTI 580 engine series. This engine was built and tested. It ran well and essentially achieved predicted performance. Lean combustion and low NOW emission were demonstrated.

Mack, J. R.

1991-08-01

172

Oil & Natural Gas Technology DOE Award No.: FWP 49462  

E-print Network

Used by Marcellus Shale Gas Producers Submitted by: John A. Veil Argonne National Laboratory Argonne productive oil and gas activities in the country today are shale gas plays. Figure 1 ­ U.S. Natural Gas. Shale Gas Resources in the United States Important shale gas formations are found in many parts

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

173

TANG et al.: DETECTION AND TRACKING OF OCCLUDED PEOPLE 1 Detection and Tracking of Occluded People  

E-print Network

TANG et al.: DETECTION AND TRACKING OF OCCLUDED PEOPLE 1 Detection and Tracking of Occluded People Siyu Tang tang@mpi-inf.mpg.de Mykhaylo Andriluka andriluka@mpi-inf.mpg.de Bernt Schiele schiele;2 TANG et al.: DETECTION AND TRACKING OF OCCLUDED PEOPLE Figure 1: Detection results at equal error rate

174

An economic analysis of Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG)  

E-print Network

This report includes a discussion of the potential production of stranded natural gas reserves through the implementation of Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) in a world of growing energy demand followed by an analysis ...

Marmolejo, Phillip Christian

2014-01-01

175

International Trade in Natural Gas: Golden Age of LNG?  

E-print Network

The introduction of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as an option for international trade has created a market for natural gas where global prices may eventually be differentiated by the transportation costs between world ...

Du, Y.

176

The pricing of natural gas in U.S. markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stephen Brown and Mine Yücel examine how different natural gas users and the market institutions serving them affect the transmission of price changes throughout various markets for natural gas. Electrical utilities and industrial users buy much of their natural gas in a competitive spot market served by brokers and interstate pipeline companies. In contrast, most commercial and residential customers are

Stephen P. A. Brown; Mine K. Yücel

1993-01-01

177

Security-Constrained Unit Commitment With Natural Gas Transmission Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of this paper focuses on the development of a security-based methodology for the solution of short-term SCUC when considering the impact of natural gas transmission system. The proposed methodology examines the interdependency of electricity and natural gas in a highly complex transmission system. The natural gas transmission system is modeled as a set of nonlinear equations. The proposed

Cong Liu; Mohammad Shahidehpour; Yong Fu; Zuyi Li

2009-01-01

178

Application research of price discrimination method in natural gas pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural gas industry is an important industry which involves the national economy and the people's livelihood. There is great significance for introducing the investment and expanding the market to research natural gas pricing. From the regulated economics analysis, this paper has presented some problems existing in natural gas price formulation in China. Moreover, there are many methods on pricing

Chen Shao-gang; Xue Feng

2009-01-01

179

U.S. Natural Gas Supply to 2030 Larry Hughes  

E-print Network

that this is the reference case; the "side cases", based upon the volume of projected LNG (liquefied natural gas) importsERG/200603 U.S. Natural Gas Supply to 2030 Larry Hughes Energy Research Group Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Dalhousie University 29 March 2006 #12;Hughes: U.S. natural gas outlook 1

Hughes, Larry

180

Compressed natural gas vehicles: Motoring towards a cleaner Beijing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper first describes the state-of-the-art of compressed natural gas (CNG) technologies and evaluates the market prospects for CNG vehicles in Beijing. An analysis of the natural gas resource supply for fleet vehicles follows. The costs and benefits of establishing natural gas filling stations and promoting the development of vehicle technology are evaluated. The quantity of GHG reduction is calculated.

Guo Xiao Yan; Wang Tian Min

1997-01-01

181

Control method for mixed refrigerant based natural gas liquefier  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a natural gas liquefaction system having a refrigerant storage circuit, a refrigerant circulation circuit in fluid communication with the refrigerant storage circuit, and a natural gas liquefaction circuit in thermal communication with the refrigerant circulation circuit, a method for liquefaction of natural gas in which pressure in the refrigerant circulation circuit is adjusted to below about 175 psig by

Kenneth J. Kountz; Patrick M. Bishop

2003-01-01

182

Natural Gas Imports by South Asia: Pipelines or Pipedreams?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There must be few other situations where there are eager purchasers of natural gas (India and Pakistan), willing suppliers of natural gas (Turkmenistan, Iran, Qatar and Oman), and yet, no pipeline. The distances involved are modest, and techno-economic viability appears straightforward. This paper examines in detail the policy, technology, and economics of an overland pipeline supplying natural gas to Pakistan

Rahul Tongia; V. S. Arunachalam

1998-01-01

183

DEVELOPMENT OF A THERMOACOUSTIC NATURAL GAS LIQUEFIER-UPDATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators are being developed for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons\\/day, has been built and tested. The power source is a natural gas burner. Systems are developed with liquefaction

J. WOLLAN; G. SWIFT

2001-01-01

184

INTEGRATED NATURAL GAS-ELECTRICITY RESOURCE ADEQUACY PLANNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latin America has emerged in the recent years as one of the most dynamic regions for natural gas and electricity developments. The continent boasts abundant natural gas reserves and high-growth energy markets. The need to diversify away from heavy investments on hydropower and expensive oil is driving many countries to promote natural gas use, especially for power generation. On the

Luiz Augusto Barroso; Thomas J Hammons; Hugh Rudnick

185

Outlook bright for U.S. natural gas resources  

SciTech Connect

This series of articles by Advanced Resources International (ARI) and the US Geological Survey (USGS) provides a fresh look at new technologies and emerging natural gas plays. It begins, in this article, with three topics: (1) an overview of the controversy surrounding the adequacy of domestic natural gas resources; (2) a look at emerging gas resources in light of advances in technology; and (3) a review of the most frequently referenced natural gas assessments. Future articles in this series will address emerging natural gas resources that may add to the US resource base: deep gas resources (two parts); Barnett shale gas resources; moving into the resource pyramid, a summary of poorly understood but potentially significant emerging gas plays--such as sub-basalt gas plays, deep coalbed methane, and new shale gas resources--not yet included in resource assessments; and gas hydrates.

Kuuskraa, V.A. [Advanced Resources International Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

1998-04-13

186

21 CFR 870.1370 - Catheter tip occluder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Catheter tip occluder. 870.1370 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...Devices § 870.1370 Catheter tip occluder. (a) Identification. A catheter tip occluder is a device...

2013-04-01

187

Natural gas gathering and transportation issues, 1998 Texas perspective  

SciTech Connect

In 1996 and 1997, the natural gas industry was intensely focused on the debate surrounding proposed new rules governing the gathering and transportation of natural gas in Texas by the Railroad Commission. This paper reviews that debate and several other regulatory issues that could impact the natural gas and gas processing industries over the next few years. In addition to the review of the Code of Conduct, this paper focuses on results of the informal complaint process, implementation of new legislation requiring the approval of construction of sour gas pipelines and several other natural gas related issues.

Kitchens, R.L. [Railroad Commission of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1998-12-31

188

Comparative analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) used by transit agencies in Texas. Research report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a detailed comparative analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG). The study provides data on two alternative fuels used by transit agencies in Texas. First, we examine the `state-of-the- art` in alternative fuels to established a framework for the study. Efforts were made to examine selected characteristics of two types of natural gas

Lede

1997-01-01

189

Evaluation of the effects of natural gas contaminants on corrosion in compressed natural gas storage systems: Phase 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes a research program that was conducted to define natural gas contaminant levels necessary to insure that internal corrosion of compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders does not constitute a hazard over the lifetimes of the cylinders. A literature search was performed and companies in the natural gas transmission and distribution industries were contacted: to identify and determine the

Fred F. Lyle; F. F. Jr

1989-01-01

190

Mathematical simulation of the process of condensing natural gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presents a two-dimensional unsteady model of heat transfer in terms of condensation of natural gas at low temperatures. Performed calculations of the process heat and mass transfer of liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks of cylindrical shape. The influence of model parameters on the nature of heat transfer. Defined temperature regimes eliminate evaporation by cooling liquefied natural gas. The obtained dependence of the mass flow rate of vapor condensation gas temperature. Identified the possibility of regulating the process of "cooling down" liquefied natural gas in terms of its partial evaporation with low cost energy.

Tastandieva, G. M.

2015-01-01

191

Supply Chain Optimization for the Liquefied Natural Gas Business  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of natural gas as an energy source is increasing. Natural gas has traditionally been transported in pipelines,\\u000a but ships are more efficient for transportation over long distances. When the gas is cooled down to liquid state it is called\\u000a liquefied natural gas (LNG). The LNG supply chain consists of exploration, extraction, liquefaction, transportation, storage and regasification.\\u000a Maritime transportation

Roar Grønhaug; Marielle Christiansen

192

Liquefied natural gas: safety issues, public concerns, and decision making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas is an important, widely used fossil fuel which is convenient and relatively non-polluting. Because U.S. domestic suppliers have been declining since 1972, suppliers have sought to import additional gas in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG), which is 1\\/600 the volume of natural gas and is therefore convenient for transportation and storage. If present plans and proposals

A. J. Van Horn; R. Wilson

1976-01-01

193

Compressed natural gas storage optimization for natural gas vehicles. Final report, August 1993December 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major obstacle confronting the widespread acceptance of natural gas vehicles (NGV) is their substantial cost premium over conventionally fueled vehicles. Currently, as much as 70 percent of the cost premium can be related to on-board storage costs. Market growth is dependent on making NGVs more affordable and storage costs are the primary element. This report identifies and assesses the

M. E. Richards; C. F. Blazek; C. Webster; J. Wong; L. Gambone

1996-01-01

194

Development of a liquid natural gas pump and its application to directinjection liquid natural gas engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct injection gas engines operated with liquid natural gas (LNG)\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009look promising because the energy density-volume ratio of LNG is\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009three times higher than that of compressed natural gas (CNG) and\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009pressurization of LNG to injection pressures is much easier and expends\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009less energy. Based on these considerations, a prototype of an LNG\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009high-pressure pump, which can achieve a pressure

Y Goto

2002-01-01

195

Restricted Natural Gas Supply Case (released in AEO2005)  

EIA Publications

The restricted natural gas supply case provides an analysis of the energy-economic implications of a scenario in which future gas supply is significantly more constrained than assumed in the reference case. Future natural gas supply conditions could be constrained because of problems with the construction and operation of large new energy projects, and because the future rate of technological progress could be significantly lower than the historical rate. Although the restricted natural gas supply case represents a plausible set of constraints on future natural gas supply, it is not intended to represent what is likely to happen in the future.

2005-01-01

196

History of natural-gas consumption in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of the natural-gas industry illustrates a complex interplay of technological advancement, economic activity, federal regulation, and competition among fuels. These factors have all influenced the industry's growth and stability. Historical statistics document how, over recent decades, gas exploration and development activities have varied greatly from high levels to low levels. Perceptions and estimates of the Nation's natural-gas resource

Fanelli

1993-01-01

197

INVENTORY OF METHANE LOSSES FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives the second year's results of an ongoing 4-year program undertaken jointly by the Gas Research Institute and the U.S. EPA to assess the methane (CH4) losses from the U.S. natural gas industry. he program's objective is to assess the acceptability of natural gas as ...

198

Analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) release prevention systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is playing an important role in meeting the energy needs of the U.S. and other countries. Since one unit volume of LNG is equivalent to 600 unit volumes of natural gas, liquefaction permits large volumes of gas to be economically stored and transported. In the United States, LNG has a twenty-year record of safe handling and

P. J. Pelto; E. G. Baker

1984-01-01

199

Renewable Natural Gas Clean-upp Challenges and Applications  

E-print Network

for a sustainable gas network", 2010 4 #12;5 Renewable Natural Gas is... Renewable Natural Gas is... > Methane pproduced from diggesters Animal manure (dairy cows, swine) Waste water treatment facilitiesWaste water treatment facilities > Methane from Landfills >> RNG produced from thermal chemical processes like

200

Development of the Natural Gas Resources in the Marcellus Shale  

E-print Network

Development of the Natural Gas Resources in the Marcellus Shale New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia for informational purposes only and does not support or oppose development of the Marcellus Shale natural gas information regarding shale gas well development, ancillary facilities asso- ciated with that development

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

201

Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure  

PubMed Central

Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH4 leakage were capped at a level 45–70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH4 losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

Alvarez, Ramón A.; Pacala, Stephen W.; Winebrake, James J.; Chameides, William L.; Hamburg, Steven P.

2012-01-01

202

Feed gas drier precooling in mixed refrigerant natural gas liquefaction processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for the liquefaction of a natural gas feedstream using two closed cycle, multicomponent refrigerants wherein a high level refrigerant cools a low level refrigerant and the low level refrigerant cools and liquefies the natural gas feedstream which includes: cooling and liquefying a natural gas stream by heat exchange with a low level multicomponent refrigerant in a

Y. N. Liu; C. L. Newton

1988-01-01

203

New liquefaction process of natural gas  

SciTech Connect

New liquefaction process of natural gas has been developed to improve process thermal efficiency and usage of industrial standard equipment. The new process consists of pre-cooling section which uses mixed refrigerant with brazed aluminum plate-fin exchangers or spool wound heat exchanger, and liquefaction section by iso-entropic expander. As a result of design study, thermal efficiency of the new liquefaction process is confirmed to be in the highest level compared with other liquefaction processes. Also, since the new liquefaction process is constructed with industrial commonly available equipment, it can be readily adapted to liquefaction plants of any capacity without requiring expensive and specially designed equipment. 6 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Kikkawa, Yoshitsugi; Nakamura, Moritaka [Chiyoda Corp., Yokohama (Japan)

1996-12-31

204

Pretreatment of raw natural gas prior to liquefaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

UOP Inc.'s new process for pretreating raw wellhead gas prior to liquefaction reduces: (1) the liquefaction refrigeration power requirements by utilizing the energy recovered in expanding the raw gas; and (2) the volume of gas that must be dried in expensive dessicant beds prior to liquefaction. High-pressure raw natural gas is prepared for liquefaction by first removing water and acid

Colton

1978-01-01

205

Pretreatment of raw natural gas prior to liquefaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process to pretreat raw wellhead gas prior to liquefaction reduces the liquefaction refrigeration power requirements by utilizing the energy recovered in expanding the raw gas and decreases the volume of gas that must be dried in expensive desiccant beds prior to liquefaction. Basic steps in the process comprise sweetening and drying the raw natural gas at a pressure above

Colton

1979-01-01

206

Statistical Modeling of Corrosion Failures in Natural Gas Transmission Pipelines  

E-print Network

Natural gas pipelines are a critical component of the U.S. energy infrastructure. The safety of these pipelines plays a key role for the gas industry. Therefore, the understanding of failure characteristics and their consequences are very important...

Cobanoglu, Mustafa Murat

2014-03-28

207

An internal seal for repairing natural gas mains  

E-print Network

Joint leakage from low pressure natural gas distribution mains (typical value: 0.25 ft[superscript 3] at 6 inwg gas pressure) is a persistent source of maintenance problems for utitlites. External encapsulation is the usual ...

Cooper, Samuel A.

1984-01-01

208

A New Global Unconventional Natural Gas Resource Assessment  

E-print Network

In 1997, Rogner published a paper containing an estimate of the natural gas in place in unconventional reservoirs for 11 world regions. Rogner's work was assessing the unconventional gas resource base, and is now considered to be very conservative...

Dong, Zhenzhen

2012-10-19

209

Alaskan Natural Gas Pipeline Developments (released in AEO2007)  

EIA Publications

The Annual Energy Outlook 2007 reference case projects that an Alaska natural gas pipeline will go into operation in 2018, based on the Energy Information Administration's current understanding of the projects time line and economics. There is continuing debate, however, about the physical configuration and the ownership of the pipeline. In addition, the issue of Alaskas oil and natural gas production taxes has been raised, in the context of a current market environment characterized by rising construction costs and falling natural gas prices. If rates of return on investment by producers are reduced to unacceptable levels, or if the project faces significant delays, other sources of natural gas, such as unconventional natural gas production and liquefied natural gas imports, could fulfill the demand that otherwise would be served by an Alaska pipeline.

2007-01-01

210

Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)  

SciTech Connect

Energy independence and fuel savings are hallmarks of the nation’s energy strategy. The advancement of natural gas reciprocating engine power generation technology is critical to the nation’s future. A new engine platform that meets the efficiency, emissions, fuel flexibility, cost and reliability/maintainability targets will enable American manufacturers to have highly competitive products that provide substantial environmental and economic benefits in the US and in international markets. Along with Cummins and Waukesha, Caterpillar participated in a multiyear cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to create a 50% efficiency natural gas powered reciprocating engine system with a 95% reduction in NOx emissions by the year 2013. This platform developed under this agreement will be a significant contributor to the US energy strategy and will enable gas engine technology to remain a highly competitive choice, meeting customer cost of electricity targets, and regulatory environmental standard. Engine development under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) program was divided into phases, with the ultimate goal being approached in a series of incremental steps. This incremental approach would promote the commercialization of ARES technologies as soon as they emerged from development and would provide a technical and commercial foundation of later-developing technologies. Demonstrations of the Phase I and Phase II technology were completed in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Program tasks in Phase III included component and system development and testing from 2009-2012. Two advanced ignition technology evaluations were investigated under the ARES program: laser ignition and distributed ignition (DIGN). In collaboration with Colorado State University (CSU), a laser ignition system was developed to provide ignition at lean burn and high boost conditions. Much work has been performed in Caterpillar’s DIGN program under the ARES program. This work has consisted of both modeling and single cylinder engine experiments to quantify DIGN performance. The air handling systems of natural gas engines dissipate a percentage of available energy as a result of both flow losses and turbomachinery inefficiencies. An analytical study was initiated to increase compressor efficiency by employing a 2-stage inter-cooled compressor. Caterpillar also studied a turbo-compound system that employs a power turbine to recover energy from the exhaust gases for improved engine efficiency. Several other component and system investigations were undertaken during the final phase of the program to reach the ultimate ARES goals. An intake valve actuation system was developed and tested to improve engine efficiency, durability and load acceptance. Analytical modeling and materials testing were performed to evaluate the performance of steel pistons and compacted graphite iron cylinder head. Effort was made to improve the detonation sensing system by studying and comparing the performance of different pressure sensors. To reduce unburned hydrocarbon emissions, different camshafts were designed and built to investigate the effect of exhaust valve opening timing and value overlap. 1-D & 3-D coupled simulation was used to study intake and exhaust manifold dynamics with the goal of reducing load in-balance between cylinders. Selective catalytic reduction with on-board reductant generation to reduce NOx emissions was also engine tested. An effective mean to successfully deploy ARES technologies into the energy markets is to deploy demonstration projects in the field. In 2010, NETL and Caterpillar agreed to include a new “opportunity fuel” deliverable and two field demonstrations in the ARES program. An Organic Rankine Cycle system was designed with production intent incorporating lessons learned from the Phase II demonstration. Unfortunately, business conditions caused Caterpillar to cancel this demonstration in 2011. Nonetheless, Caterpillar partnered with a local dealer to deploy an ARES class engine using syngas from a biomass gasifier as

Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

2009-09-30

211

Natural Gas Processing Plants in the United States: 2010 Update  

EIA Publications

This special report presents an analysis of natural gas processing plants in the United States as of 2009 and highlights characteristics of this segment of the industry. The purpose of the paper is to examine the role of natural gas processing plants in the natural gas supply chain and to provide an overview and summary of processing plant characteristics in the United States, such as locations, capacities, and operations.

2011-01-01

212

Natural Gas Liquefaction Process for Small-scale LNG Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of natural gas liquefaction, the small-scale natural gas liquefier has been attracting more and more attentions home and abroad, thanks to its small volume, mobile transportation, easy start-up and shut-down, as well as skid-mounted package. A study was made to choose the optimum liquefaction process to improve the economy of small-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant. The

Cao Wensheng

2012-01-01

213

Natural Gas as a Boiler Fuel of Choice in Texas  

E-print Network

as the base year. The staff natural gas price forecast is developed by first forecasting crude oil prices for a 20-year period. Then, the historical relationship between crude oil and natural gas is used to forecast a natural gas nationwide spot (contract... of Cosl/wcll ----f"- I990SlmmBlu each fuel. The lighter (lower) band has as its midpoint the staff forecast annual "expected" values of natural gas price. The darker (upper) band contains the range of expected values of crude oil with the annual...

Kmetz, W. J.

214

A real loser. [Natural gas resource planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Energy Policy Act requires states to consider the adoption of gas integrated resource planning (IRP). In Illinois, gas IRP has not only been considered, but implemented as well. Some respected regulators and utility planners have tried to promote gas IRP as a wonderful tool by explaining all of its theoretical benefits. But the reality is that gas IRP

R. K. Kretschmer; L. J. Mraz

1994-01-01

215

Lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of coal, conventional and unconventional natural gas for electricity generation  

EPA Science Inventory

An analysis of the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with natural gas use recently published by Howarth et al. (2011) stated that use of natural gas produced from shale formations via hydraulic fracturing would generate greater lifecycle GHG emissions than petro...

216

Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common

Collett

1992-01-01

217

Speaker to Address Impact of Natural Gas Production on Greenhouse Gas Emissions When used for power generation, Marcellus Shale natural gas can significantly reduce carbon  

E-print Network

generation, Marcellus Shale natural gas can significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions, but questions have been raised whether development of shale gas resources results in an overall lower greenhouse gas, "Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Marcellus Shale Gas," appeared in Environmental Research Letters

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

218

Asian natural gas pipeline proposed for easing energy, feedstock strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly every country on the program at the recent Asian Natural Gas 5 Conference in Singapore reported on attempts to maximize the use of natural gas as a fuel and a feedstock. But no one made a more startling presentation than Masaru Hirata, chairman of the National Pipeline Research Society of Japan. His proposal: construct an international trunk pipeline network

Haggin

1994-01-01

219

Natural Gas: Major Legislative and Regulatory Actions (1935 - 2008)  

EIA Publications

This special report Web-based product presents a chronology of some of the key federal legislative and regulatory actions that have helped shape the natural gas market, with particular emphasis on policy directives from 1978 to October 2008. Separate reports provide brief descriptions of specific legislation, regulations, or policies, and their impacts on the natural gas market.

2009-01-01

220

Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas  

EIA Publications

The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas report, published today, is a Congressionally-requested study examining the energy trends and developments in the Americas over the past decade. The report focuses on liquid fuels and natural gas—particularly reserves and resources, production, consumption, trade, and investment—given their scale and significance to the region.

2014-01-01

221

State-of-the-art Natural Gas Pipe Inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The safety of the Unites States' natural gas supply is of prime importance since 30% of the energy produced in the country is derived from it. Natural gas is supplied through a million miles of vast pipeline network (1). Pipeline companies have an impressive safety record due to the proactive role of standards and inspection of pipelines. Since the

Venugopal K. Varma

222

The Natural Gas Sector in Bolivia: An Overview1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: This paper provides a thorough overview of the natural gas sector in Bolivia, with the purpose of identifying critical questions to be answered in subsequent research. The paper shows that the Bolivian benefits from natural gas exports are rather limited. The sector generates very little employment, there are few linkages with the rest of the economy, and most of

ANDEAN COMPETITIVENESS PROJECT; Lykke E. Andersen; Mauricio Meza

223

New economics of natural gas production in the Appalachian states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since at least 1920, production of natural gas in the Appalachian states has fluctuated between 400 and 500 billion cu ft\\/yr. Among the factors limiting expansion in drilling, recompletion of old wells, and introduction of new technology is the adverse wellhead prices paid to producers by purchasers under regulations applied by the federal government under the US Natural Gas Act

Jaworek

1979-01-01

224

Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle (NGNGV) Program Brochure  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Technologies is initiating the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle (NGNGV) Program to develop commercially viable medium- and heavy-duty natural gas vehicles. These new vehicles will incorporate advanced alternative fuel vehicle technologies that were developed by DOE and others.

Elling, J.

2000-10-26

225

Dual mixed refrigerant natural gas liquefaction with staged compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and process for liquefying natural gas using two closed-cycle, multicomponent refrigerants; a low level refrigerant which cools the natural gas and a high level refrigerant which cools the low level refrigerant wherein the improvement comprises phase separating the high level refrigerant after compression and fully liquefying the vapor phase stream against external cooling fluid after additional compression.

1985-01-01

226

PROJECTIONS OF REGIONAL FUEL OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents delivered regional oil and natural gas price forecasts for the industrial and electric utility sectors. Delivered energy price projections by Federal region through the year 2045 are provided for distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, and natural gas. Methodo...

227

Patenting trends in natural gas fischer-tropsch synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical transformation of Natural Gas through Fischer-Tropsch synthesis into liquid hydrocarbons which can be directly consumed as fuels has become of major interest. This is mainly due to two factors: (i) severe restrictions imposed by environmental laws promoting clean fuels; and, (ii) trends in the global energy scenario towards increased reserves of Natural Gas.The present research consists of analysis

Adelaide Antunes; Maria Simone Alencar; Fernando Tibau; Daniel Hoefle; Andressa Gusmão; Angela Ribeiro; Rodrigo Cartaxo

2007-01-01

228

76 FR 22825 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems AGENCY: Environmental...30, 2010 EPA promulgated Subpart W: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems of the Greenhouse...calculating greenhouse gas emissions for the petroleum and natural gas systems source...

2011-04-25

229

Competition in Natural Gas Pipeline Wellhead Supply Purchases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout most of the last three decades, interstate natural gas pipeline companies-operating mainly as private carriers, buying gas supplies in the field and reselling them downstream'-have competed primarily on the basis of nonprice terms. Under the regime of wellhead regulation stemming from Phillips,' in upstream (field) markets binding price ceilings meant thatinterpipeline competition in gas purchases was governed principally by

Harry G. Broadman

1987-01-01

230

Evaluation of Natural Gas Pipeline Materials and Infrastructure for  

E-print Network

Evaluation of Natural Gas Pipeline Materials and Infrastructure for Hydrogen/Mixed Gas Service Retrofitting Existing NG Pipelines fro Hydrogen/Hythane Service New Pipeline Installation and ROW Lower South Carolina Electric and Gas University of South Carolina Praxair Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group

231

Natural gas imports and exports, fourth quarter report 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

None

2000-03-01

232

Natural gas imports and exports, third quarter report 2000  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

None

2000-12-01

233

Natural gas imports and exports, first quarter report 2000  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent reporting quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

None

2000-06-01

234

Natural gas to buoy Trinidad and Tobago petroleum sector  

SciTech Connect

Trinidad and Tobago's petroleum sector remains at a crossroads. While heavily reliant on oil and gas for domestic energy consumption and hard currency export earnings, the small Caribbean island nation faces some tough choices in reviving its hydrocarbon sector in the 1990s. Exploration and production of crude oil have stagnated in recent years, and domestic refinery utilization remains low at 36%. However, substantial natural gas reserves in Trinidad and Tobago offer the promise of a burgeoning natural gas based economy with an eye to liquefied natural gas and gas based petrochemical exports. Any solutions will involve considerable outlays by the government as well as a sizable infusion of capital by foreign companies. Therein lie some of the hard choices. The article describes the roles of oil and gas, foreign investment prospects, refining status, refining problems, gas sector foreign investment, and outlook for the rest of the 1990's.

Not Available

1993-03-01

235

3 , LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) -165oC  

E-print Network

Temperature to be maintained Gravity Contents in 1 m3 solid liquid -20oC -162oC 0.85 ~ 0.95 0.42 ~ 0.47 Natural Gas : 170 Nm3 Water : 0.8 m3 Natural Gas : 600 Nm3 #12; . PNG LNG . . , . 170cc 1cc -20oC -162oC LNG , . #12; LNG Boil-Off Gas (BOG

Hong, Deog Ki

236

System and method for producing substitute natural gas from coal  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a system and method for producing substitute natural gas and electricity, while mitigating production of any greenhouse gasses. The system includes a hydrogasification reactor, to form a gas stream including natural gas and a char stream, and an oxygen burner to combust the char material to form carbon oxides. The system also includes an algae farm to convert the carbon oxides to hydrocarbon material and oxygen.

Hobbs, Raymond (Avondale, AZ)

2012-08-07

237

Advanced Liquid Natural Gas Onboard Storage System  

SciTech Connect

Cummins Westport Incorporated (CWI) has designed and developed a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel system that includes a reciprocating pump with the cold end submerged in LNG contained in a vacuum-jacketed tank. This system was tested and analyzed under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced LNG Onboard Storage System (ALOSS) program. The pumped LNG fuel system developed by CWI and tested under the ALOSS program is a high-pressure system designed for application on Class 8 trucks powered by CWI's ISX G engine, which employs high-pressure direct injection (HPDI) technology. A general ALOSS program objective was to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of a pumped LNG fuel system relative to on-vehicle fuel systems that require the LNG to be ''conditioned'' to saturation pressures that exceeds the engine fuel pressure requirements. These advantages include the capability to store more fuel mass in given-size vehicle and station tanks, and simpler lower-cost LNG refueling stations that do not require conditioning equipment. Pumped LNG vehicle fuel systems are an alternative to conditioned LNG systems for spark-ignition natural gas and port-injection dual-fuel engines (which typically require about 100 psi), and they are required for HPDI engines (which require over 3,000 psi). The ALOSS program demonstrated the feasibility of a pumped LNG vehicle fuel system and the advantages of this design relative to systems that require conditioning the LNG to a saturation pressure exceeding the engine fuel pressure requirement. LNG tanks mounted on test carts and the CWI engineering truck were repeatedly filled with LNG saturated at 20 to 30 psig. More fuel mass was stored in the vehicle tanks as well as the station tank, and no conditioning equipment was required at the fueling station. The ALOSS program also demonstrated the general viability and specific performance of the CWI pumped LNG fuel system design. The system tested as part of this program is designed to be used on Class 8 trucks with CWI ISX G HPDI engines. Extensive test cart and engineering truck tests of the pump demonstrated good durability and the high-pressure performance needed for HPDI application. The LNG tanks manufactured by Taylor-Wharton passed SAE J2343 Recommended Practice drop tests and accelerated road-load vibration tests. NER and hold-time tests produced highly consistent results. Additional tests confirmed the design adequacy of the liquid level sensor, vaporizer, ullage volume, and other fuel system components. While the testing work performed under this program focused on a high-pressure pumped LNG fuel system design, the results also validate the feasibility of a low-pressure pumped fuel system. A low-pressure pumped fuel system could incorporate various design refinements including a simpler and lighter-weight pump, which would decrease costs somewhat relative to a high-pressure system.

Greg Harper; Charles Powars

2003-10-31

238

Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Cummins ARES program, in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE), is to develop advanced natural gas engine technologies that increase engine system efficiency at lower emissions levels while attaining lower cost of ownership. The goals of the project are to demonstrate engine system achieving 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) in three phases, 44%, 47% and 50% (starting baseline efficiency at 36% BTE) and 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx system out emissions (starting baseline NOx emissions at 2 – 4 g/bhp-hr NOx). Primary path towards above goals include high Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), improved closed cycle efficiency, increased air handling efficiency and optimized engine subsystems. Cummins has successfully demonstrated each of the phases of this program. All targets have been achieved through application of a combined set of advanced base engine technologies and Waste Heat Recovery from Charge Air and Exhaust streams, optimized and validated on the demonstration engine and other large engines. The following architectures were selected for each Phase: Phase 1: Lean Burn Spark Ignited (SI) Key Technologies: High Efficiency Turbocharging, Higher Efficiency Combustion System. In production on the 60/91L engines. Over 500MW of ARES Phase 1 technology has been sold. Phase 2: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) System Key Technologies: Advanced Ignition System, Combustion Improvement, Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Base engine technologies intended for production within 2 to 3 years Phase 3: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust and Charge Air Waste Heat Recovery System Key Technologies: Lower Friction, New Cylinder Head Designs, Improved Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Intended for production within 5 to 6 years Cummins is committed to the launch of next generation of large advanced NG engines based on ARES technology to be commercialized worldwide.

Pike, Edward

2014-03-31

239

Texas plant treats natural gas for use as alternative fuel  

SciTech Connect

Pushed by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County is using clean-burning liquefied methane to fuel some of Houston`s city buses. Houston Metro`s primary supply of liquefied methane is a 12 MMscfd amine-treating unit in Willis, TX. The willis plant uses Dow Chemical Co.`s GAS/SPEC process to treat natural gas. The GAS/SPEC process uses a specialty amine solvent to remove carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and hydrogen sulfide from natural gas. To convert natural gas to a liquid, processors cool the gas to cryogenic temperatures and compress it. If the gas contains carbon dioxide, the CO{sub 2} will freeze, subsequently blocking transmission lines and damaging equipment. Processors therefore must remove CO{sub 2} from natural gas to prevent these problems. The natural gas processed at the Willis amine treater contains 1.5--2.5% CO{sub 2}. During treatment, the CO{sub 2} concentration is reduced to 50 ppm. The solvent used in the Willis plant is called GAS/SPEC CS-Plus. Dow makes seven other solvents for use with the process.

NONE

1996-02-19

240

40 CFR Table W - 1A of Subpart W-Default Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production W Table... MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions...Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production...

2012-07-01

241

Use of natural gas distribution systems to deliver hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

A complex system of gas distribution equipment, consisting of many kinds of pipes, fittings, meters, regulators, valves, and other equipment typical of present-day gas distribution systems, was constructed in the laboratory at the Institute of Gas Technology. The equipment was hooked up in a loop system. The system was operated on natural gas for a few weeks before being switched to pure hydrogen for a 6-month test. The results of the test are summarized.

Gregory, D.P.

1980-01-01

242

Offshore LNG (liquefied natural gas) production and storage systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A barge, outfitted with gas liquefaction processing equipment and liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks, is suggested as a possible way to exploit remote offshore gas production. A similar study with a barge-mounted methanol plant was conducted several years ago, also using remote offshore feed gas. This barge-mounted, LNG system is bow-moored to a single point mooring through which feed

Barden

1982-01-01

243

Methane and the greenhouse-gas footprint of natural gas from shale formations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluate the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas obtained by high-volume hydraulic fracturing from shale formations,\\u000a focusing on methane emissions. Natural gas is composed largely of methane, and 3.6% to 7.9% of the methane from shale-gas\\u000a production escapes to the atmosphere in venting and leaks over the life-time of a well. These methane emissions are at least\\u000a 30% more

Robert W. Howarth; Renee Santoro; Anthony Ingraffea

2011-01-01

244

Research and Development Concerning Coalbed Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect

The Powder River Basin in northeastern Wyoming is one of the most active areas of coalbed natural gas (CBNG) development in the western United States. This resource provides clean energy but raises environmental concerns. Primary among these is the disposal of water that is co-produced with the gas during depressurization of the coal seam. Beginning with a few producing wells in Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) in 1987, CBNG well numbers in this area increased to over 13,600 in 2004, with projected growth to 20,900 producing wells in the PRB by 2010. CBNG development is continuing apace since 2004, and CBNG is now being produced or evaluated in four other Wyoming coal basins in addition to the PRB, with roughly 3500-4000 new CBNG wells permitted statewide each year since 2004. This is clearly a very valuable source of clean fuel for the nation, and for Wyoming the economic benefits are substantial. For instance, in 2003 alone the total value of Wyoming CBNG production was about $1.5 billion, with tax and royalty income of about $90 million to counties, $140 million to the state, and $27 million to the federal government. In Wyoming, cumulative CBNG water production from 1987 through December 2004 was just over 380,000 acre-feet (2.9 billion barrels), while producing almost 1.5 trillion cubic feet (tcf) of CBNG gas statewide. Annual Wyoming CBNG water production in 2003 was 74,457 acre-feet (577 million barrels). Total production of CBNG water across all Wyoming coal fields could total roughly 7 million acre-feet (55.5 billion barrels), if all of the recoverable CBNG in the projected reserves of 31.7 tcf were produced over the coming decades. Pumping water from coals to produce CBNG has been designated a beneficial water use by the Wyoming State Engineer's Office (SEO), though recently the SEO has limited this beneficial use designation by requiring a certain gas/water production ratio. In the eastern part of the PRB where CBNG water is generally of good quality, most of it is discharged to surface drainages or to soil (for irrigation). CBNG water quality generally declines when moving from the Cheyenne River drainage northwestward to the Belle Fourche, Little Powder, and Powder River drainages and in the central and western part of the PRB, most CBNG water goes to evaporation-infiltration ponds or is discharged directly to surface drainages. Concerns center on the salinity of the water, usually measured as total dissolved solids (TDS), or electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). Other management options currently in use include injection, managed irrigation (with additives to mitigate the effects of high salinity), atomization, and treatment by reverse osmosis or ion exchange. A key water quality issue is the cumulative effect of numerous CBNG water discharges on the overall water quality of basin streams. This leads to one of the most contentious issues in CBNG development in Wyoming's PRB: Montana's concern about the potential downstream effects of water quality degradation on rivers flowing north into Montana. Many of the benefits and costs associated with CBNG development have been debated, but dealing with CBNG water quantity and quality arguably has been the most difficult of all the issues. Given the importance of these issues for continued development of CBNG resources in Wyoming and elsewhere, the DOE-NETL funded project presented here focuses on CBNG co-produced water management. The research was organized around nine separate, but interrelated, technical project tasks and one administrative task (Task 1). The nine technical project tasks were pursued by separate research teams at the University of Wyoming, but all nine tasks were coordinated to the extent possible in order to maximize information gained about CBNG co-produced waters. In addition to project management in Task 1, the key research tasks included: (2) estimating groundwater recharge rates in the PRB; (3) groundwater contamination of trace elements from CBNG disposal ponds; (4) use of environmental tracers in assessing wate

William Ruckelshaus

2008-09-30

245

On the retrograde condensation behavior of lean natural gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of liquid dropout in natural gas pipelines may cause operational problems during storage, transport, and processing. Therefore, the availability of a model that accurately predicts the amount of liquid formed is of great importance for the natural gas industry. The objective of this study is to develop a thermodynamic model for the accurate prediction of the amount of liquid formed in natural gas pipelines at transportation conditions. As input, the model requires an accurate gas analysis. A modified Peng-Robinson equation of state was selected for the phase equilibrium calculations. Interaction parameters were optimized from experimental data at conditions of practical interest, i.e., at pressures 10 < p < 70 bar and at temperatures 250 < T < 290 K. For a number of “keysystems,” the interaction parameters were calculated from new accurate solubility data of heavy hydrocarbons in some of the main constituents of natural gas like methane and nitrogen. Also, an extensive experimental program was carried out to study the influence of minute amounts of nitrogen, ethane and carbon dioxide in methane on the solubility behavior of decane in these gas mixtures. From a sensitivity analysis, it could be concluded that the liquid dropout is influenced mainly by the concentration and characterization of C7-C13 fractions. In this work, two characterization procedures to represent these fractions are compared. For two types of lean natural gas, the model predictions are compared with field measurement data, recently supplied by the Dutch natural gas industry.

Voulgaris, M. E.; Peters, C. J.; de Swaan Arons, J.

1995-05-01

246

Liquefied Natural Gas: Global Challenges (released in AEO2008)  

EIA Publications

U.S. imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in 2007 were more than triple the 2000 total, and they are expected to grow in the long term as North Americas conventional natural gas production declines. With U.S. dependence on LNG imports increasing, competitive forces in the international markets for natural gas in general and LNG in particular will play a larger role in shaping the U.S. market for LNG. Key factors currently shaping the future of the global LNG market include the evolution of project economics, worldwide demand for natural gas, government policies that affect the development and use of natural resources in countries with LNG facilities, and changes in seasonal patterns of LNG trade.

2008-01-01

247

Regional limitations on the hedging effectiveness of natural gas futures  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the extent to which limitations in the transportation system for the natural gas market in the United States narrows the effectiveness of the NYMEX natural gas future contract as a hedging instrument and why a second contract with a different delivery point was approved during 1995. We find that the NYMEX contract is an effective hedging instrument for gas sold into pipelines for consumption in southern, eastern and Midwestern states, but does not provide an effective hedge for gas sold for Rocky Mountain and West Coast states. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

Brinkmann, E.J.; Rabinovitch, R. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

248

DEVELOPMENT OF A THERMOACOUSTIC NATURAL GAS LIQUEFIER-UPDATE  

SciTech Connect

Thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators are being developed for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons/day, has been built and tested. The power source is a natural gas burner. Systems are developed with liquefaction capacities up to 10,000 to 20,000 gallons per day. The technology, the development project, accomplishments and applications are discussed.

J. WOLLAN; G. SWIFT

2001-05-01

249

Major Utilization of Natural Gas for Turkey's Energy Necessity in Recent Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present article is to investigate major utilization of natural gas in Turkey and its historical development. Natural gas consumption was recently made available in Turkey, and demand has since grown quickly. Indigenous natural gas production is very small; almost all natural gas is imported. Current natural gas production in Turkey meets only 3% of indigenous consumption

M. F. Demirbas; H. Balat

2008-01-01

250

Extraction of odorizing sulfur compounds from natural gas and reodorization therewith  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linde AG's new approach permits natural gas odorants to be removed from natural gas before it is liquefied by peakshaving plants and to be saved for reinjection when the natural gas is vaporized. The odorants, mainly organic sulfur compounds, are removed by scrubbing natural gas prior to natural gas liquefaction and then freed of other impurities such as COâ, HâO,

A. Kruis; H. Karwat

1975-01-01

251

Complementarity Problems in Restructured Natural Gas Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The restructuring of the gas industry did not so far generate the same modeling activity as in electricity. While the literature\\u000a of activity in electricity market models is now abundant, it is still rather scant on the gas side. This paper surveys some\\u000a of the existing models and attempts to take advantage of the wealth of knowledge available in electricity

Steven Gabriel; Yves Smeers

2005-01-01

252

Natural gas hydrates on the North Slope of Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, mainly methane, in which a solid-water lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure, or clathrate. These substances often have been regarded as a potential (unconventional) source of natural gas. Significant quantities of naturally occurring gas hydrates have been detected in many regions of the Arctic including Siberia, the Mackenzie River Delta, and the North Slope of Alaska. On the North Slope, the methane-hydrate stability zone is areally extensive beneath most of the coastal plain province and has thicknesses as great as 1000 meters in the Prudhoe Bay area. Gas hydrates have been identified in 50 exploratory and production wells using well-log responses calibrated to the response of an interval in one well where gas hydrates were recovered in a core by ARCO Alaska and EXXON. Most of these gas hydrates occur in six laterally continuous Upper Cretaceous and lower Tertiary sandstone and conglomerate units; all these gas hydrates are geographically restricted to the area overlying the eastern part of the Kuparuk River Oil Field and the western part of the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field. The volume of gas within these gas hydrates is estimated to be about 1.0 {times} 10{sup 12} to 1.2 {times} 10{sup 12} cubic meters (37 to 44 trillion cubic feet), or about twice the volume of conventional gas in the Prudhoe Bay Field. Geochemical analyses of well samples suggest that the identified hydrates probably contain a mixture of deep-source thermogenic gas and shallow microbial gas that was either directly converted to gas hydrate or first concentrated in existing traps and later converted to gas hydrate. The thermogenic gas probably migrated from deeper reservoirs along the same faults thought to be migration pathways for the large volumes of shallow, heavy oil that occur in this area. 51 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Collett, T.S.

1991-01-01

253

Natural gas imports and exports: First quarter report 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Fuels Programs prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports with the OFP. This quarter`s focus is market penetration of gas imports into New England. Attachments show the following: % takes to maximum firm contract levels and weighted average per unit price for the long-term importers, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters, volumes and prices for gas imported on short-term or spot market basis, and gas exported short-term to Canada and Mexico.

NONE

1995-07-01

254

Natural gas value chain. Topical report, August 1995-February 1996  

SciTech Connect

A study is reported which developed a representation of the natural gas value chain depicting all key activities of the industry in the finding and production of natural gas. The data provides the basis for quantifying and reporting revenues, expenses, and margins along the value chain. The database of performance and operational information on many segments of the value chain is based on three years of data from 39 companies primarily engaged in the finding, drilling, and producing of natural gas, including both large and small independent oil and gas companies as well as integrated majors. The data is representative of approximately 17% of total U.S. domestic production and 47% of gas processed in the United States. This report includes an overall industry value chain with national data summarizing performance, and the subsets of the overall value chain with supporting regional data. Appendixes outline the source and use of data and explain the calculation of value added ratio.

Roussel, D.C.

1996-05-01

255

In situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvent with natural gas  

SciTech Connect

A bioremediation system for the removal of chlorinated solvents from ground water and sediments is described. The system involves the the in-situ injection of natural gas (as a microbial nutrient) through an innovative configuration of horizontal wells.

Rabold, D.E.

1996-12-31

256

Radon measurement of natural gas using alpha scintillation cells.  

PubMed

Due to their sensitivity and ease of use, alpha-scintillation cells are being increasingly utilized for measurements of radon ((222)Rn) in natural gas. Laboratory studies showed an average increase of 7.3% in the measurement efficiency of alpha-scintillation cells when filled with less-dense natural gas rather than regular air. A theoretical calculation comparing the atomic weight and density of air to that of natural gas suggests a 6-7% increase in the detection efficiency when measuring radon in the cells. A correction is also applicable when the sampling location and measurement laboratory are at different elevations. These corrections to the measurement efficiency need to be considered in order to derive accurate concentrations of radon in natural gas. PMID:25261866

Kitto, Michael E; Torres, Miguel A; Haines, Douglas K; Semkow, Thomas M

2014-12-01

257

Liquid absorbent solutions for separating nitrogen from natural gas  

DOEpatents

Nitrogen-absorbing and -desorbing compositions, novel ligands and transition metal complexes, and methods of using the same, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Redmond, OR); Lyon, David K. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

2000-01-01

258

Evaluation of capacity release transactions in the natural gas industry  

E-print Network

The purpose of this thesis is to analyze capacity release transactions in the natural gas industry and to state some preliminary conclusions about how the capacity release market is functioning. Given FERC's attempt to ...

Lautzenhiser, Stephen

1994-01-01

259

Clean-running lube oil for natural gas engines  

SciTech Connect

Phillips 66 has completed extensive laboratory and field development of a new industrial lubricant incorporating a proprietary additive package, designed specifically for two- and four-cycle natural gas engines. Phillips 66 engineers say the commercially available Eclipse T 20W-40 ashless multigrade oil offers four distinct benefits for natural gas engines. The oil runs cleaner, is barium-free, offers the performance benefits of a multi-viscosity oil, and significantly reduces engine deposits, ring sticking and sludge. The new oil is recommended for all two-cycle natural-gas-fueled engines such as Clark, Cooper-Bessemer and Ajax, as well as Caterpillar four-cycle natural gas engines. Other four-cycle engines also have experienced reduced engine deposits and reduced downtime with Eclipse T oil and specific preventive maintenance practices, the company says. 2 figs.

Not Available

1994-04-01

260

Correlation between gas molecular weight, heating value and sonic speed under variable compositions of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation study of likely uncertainties in molecular weight and heating value of the gas mixture as predicted from measured or calculated sonic speed. The sonic speed, molecular weight and heating value of natural gas were studied as a function of random fluctuation of the gas fractions. A method of sonic speed prediction was developed and used for over 50,000

L. Burstein; D. Ingman; Y. Michlin

1999-01-01

261

Life cycle assessment of natural gas power plants in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  The main primary energy for electricity in Thailand is natural gas, accounting for 73% of the grid mix. Electricity generation\\u000a from natural gas combustion is associated with substantial air emissions. The two technologies currently used in Thailand,\\u000a thermal and combined cycle power plant, have been evaluated for the potential environmental impacts in a “cradle-to-grid”\\u000a study according to

Kamalaporn Phumpradab; Shabbir H. Gheewala; Masayuki Sagisaka

2009-01-01

262

Convergence and Divergence of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Prices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research investigates the possibility that WTI crude oil and Henry Hub natural gas prices share a stable link. Economic theory suggests that the two commodities are linked by both supply and demand given that the commodities can be coproduced and many consumers have the ability to switch between the fuels. In general, it would appear that the two commodities support this theory with natural gas prices tracking crude oil prices fairly well until late 2008. However, since the end of 2008 the two price series have diverged and appear to move independently of each other. Reduced fuel switching capabilities in U.S. industry and electric power generation coupled with increased technology and production from shale formations have potentially changed the driving force behind natural gas prices. However, a severe recession has impacted world economies over the same time period making the cause of the disparity between crude oil and natural gas prices unclear. Therefore, this research analyzed the possible long-term link between the two commodities over two timeframes. Using an error correction model that includes exogenous factors affecting the short-run dynamics of natural gas prices over the period January 1999 through September 2008, I find evidence of a long-run cointegrating relationship between natural gas and crude oil prices. Additionally, crude oil prices are found to be weakly exogenous to the system, suggesting causality runs from crude oil to natural gas prices. Extending this series through February 2012 yields much weaker evidence of a cointegrating relationship and provides evidence for the decoupling crude oil and natural gas prices.

Romagus, George M.

263

Costs Associated With Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with fueling infrastructure for compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles. It provides estimated cost ranges for various sizes and types of CNG fueling stations and an overview of factors that contribute to the total cost of an installed station. The information presented is based on input from professionals in the natural gas industry who design, sell equipment for, and/or own and operate CNG stations.

Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

2014-09-01

264

Effect of Increased Natural Gas Exports on Domestic Energy Markets  

EIA Publications

This report responds to an August 2011 request from the Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (DOE\\/FE) for an analysis of "the impact of increased domestic natural gas demand, as exports." Appendix A provides a copy of the DOE\\/FE request letter. Specifically, DOE\\/FE asked the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) to assess how specified scenarios of increased natural gas exports could affect domestic energy markets, focusing on consumption, production, and prices.

2012-01-01

265

ARPA-E: Creating Practical, Affordable Natural Gas Storage Solutions  

ScienceCinema

Allowing people to refuel natural gas vehicles at home could revolutionize the way we power our cars and trucks. Currently, our nation faces two challenges in enabling natural gas for transportation. The first is improving the way gas tanks are built for natural gas vehicles; they need to be conformable, allowing them to fit tightly into the vehicle. The second challenge is improving the way those tanks are refueled while maintaining cost-effectiveness, safety, and reliability. This video highlights two ARPA-E project teams with innovative solutions to these challenges. REL is addressing the first challenge by developing a low-cost, conformable natural gas tank with an interconnected core structure. Oregon State University and OnBoard Dynamics are addressing the second challenge by developing a self-refueling natural gas vehicle that integrates a compressor into its engine-using one of the engine's cylinders to compress gas eliminates the need for an expensive at-home refueling system. These two distinct technologies from ARPA-E's MOVE program illustrate how the Agency takes a multi-pronged approach to problem solving and innovation.

Boysen, Dane; Loukus, Josh; Hansen, Rita

2014-03-13

266

ARPA-E: Creating Practical, Affordable Natural Gas Storage Solutions  

SciTech Connect

Allowing people to refuel natural gas vehicles at home could revolutionize the way we power our cars and trucks. Currently, our nation faces two challenges in enabling natural gas for transportation. The first is improving the way gas tanks are built for natural gas vehicles; they need to be conformable, allowing them to fit tightly into the vehicle. The second challenge is improving the way those tanks are refueled while maintaining cost-effectiveness, safety, and reliability. This video highlights two ARPA-E project teams with innovative solutions to these challenges. REL is addressing the first challenge by developing a low-cost, conformable natural gas tank with an interconnected core structure. Oregon State University and OnBoard Dynamics are addressing the second challenge by developing a self-refueling natural gas vehicle that integrates a compressor into its engine-using one of the engine's cylinders to compress gas eliminates the need for an expensive at-home refueling system. These two distinct technologies from ARPA-E's MOVE program illustrate how the Agency takes a multi-pronged approach to problem solving and innovation.

Boysen, Dane; Loukus, Josh; Hansen, Rita

2014-02-24

267

Meeting future electric power needs with natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to perceptions developed during the 1970s, this article maintains, natural gas will be available at competitive prices to fuel generating systems based on advanced technologies such as combined-cycle, cogeneration, and fuel cell power plants. These gas-fired systems offer both economic and environmental benefits over conventional coal and nuclear systems. The changed outlook for the role of gas in power

B. A. Hedman; G. K. Oates

1984-01-01

268

Easing the natural gas crisis: Reducing natural gas prices through increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Heightened natural gas prices have emerged as a key energy-policy challenge for at least the early part of the 21st century. With the recent run-up in gas prices and the expected continuation of volatile and high prices in the near future, a growing number of voices are calling for increased diversification of energy supplies. Proponents of renewable energy and energy efficiency identify these clean energy sources as an important part of the solution. Increased deployment of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) can hedge natural gas price risk in more than one way, but this paper touches on just one potential benefit: displacement of gas-fired electricity generation, which reduces natural gas demand and thus puts downward pressure on gas prices. Many recent modeling studies of increased RE and EE deployment have demonstrated that this ''secondary'' effect of lowering natural gas prices could be significant; as a result, this effect is increasingly cited as justification for policies promoting RE and EE. This paper summarizes recent studies that have evaluated the gas-price-reduction effect of RE and EE deployment, analyzes the results of these studies in light of economic theory and other research, reviews the reasonableness of the effect as portrayed in modeling studies, and develops a simple tool that can be used to evaluate the impact of RE and EE on gas prices without relying on a complex national energy model. Key findings are summarized.

Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; St. Clair, Matt

2004-12-21

269

Emerging Environmental Markets: Improving the Competitiveness of Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current U.S. regulations focus on market approaches to reduce SO?, NOx, and CO? pollution, allowing affected firms to choose the least-cost compliance alternative. Natural gas, a relatively benign fuel from an environmental perspective, could realize a substantial increase in demand if it is competitive. The viability of gas as an alternative has been questioned due to high forecast price and

Janie M. Chermak

1994-01-01

270

Can a more competitive natural gas industry provide stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the question, ''Can a more competitive natural gas industry provide stability.'' When we discuss a free gas market here, we are primarily referring to a market in which flexible, accurate prices are free to adjust to achieve market equilibrium -- a balance of supply and demand. Implied is the lack of wellhead price regulations and the transmission

D. A. Hanson; T. V. Jennings; J. R. Lemon

1988-01-01

271

Energy recovery from natural-gas pressure-regulator stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the concept of generating electricity using the energy normally wasted by throttling high-pressure gas at natural gas pressure-regulator or depressurization stations. It was found that this concept is technically feasible and that by using this concept: a maximum of 40 MW of electricity could be generated in the TVA region; electricity could be generated at an overall

Hall

1983-01-01

272

Advanced catalytic converter system for natural gas powered diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses the development of catalytic converter for aftertreatment of exhaust gas from diesel engines powered with natural gas. The converter, operated with periodical reversals of the flow, ensures destruction of CO and hydrocarbons, including methane. Both computer simulation and engine testing results are presented.

Vadim O. Strots; Grigorii A. Bunimovich; Yurii Sh. Matros; Ming Zheng; Edward A. Mirosh

1998-01-01

273

ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL NATURAL GAS FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives emissions data from residential natural-gas furnaces and compares selected data to emissions data from residential oil furnaces and woodstoves. atural-gas furnace emissions data are given for carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons, aldehydes, volatile and sem...

274

The development of a natural gas transportation logistics management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient management of the natural gas business chain – based on pipeline transmission networks and taking into consideration the interaction among the main players (e.g., shippers, suppliers, transmission companies and local distribution companies) – requires the use of decision-making support systems. These support systems maximise resources and mitigate contingencies due to gas supply shortfalls, operational contingencies from scheduled and non-scheduled

Sidney Pereira dos Santos; José Eugenio Leal; Fabrício Oliveira

2011-01-01

275

NATURAL GAS FIRED POWER CYCLES WITH INTEGRATED CO 2 CAPTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines two options with natural gas fired power cycles including carbon dioxide capture. One of these is about capturing carbon dioxide by absorption using the absorbent MDEA at elevated pressure integrated in the turbine of the gas turbine. The other option is stoichiometri c combustion with pure oxygen at high pressure in a modified Rankine type cycle -

Olav Bolland; Henriette Undrum; Michel Myhre-Nielsen

276

Natural Gas as a Fuel Option for Heavy Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) is promoting the use of natural gas as a fuel option in the transportation energy sector through its natural gas vehicle program [1]. The goal of this program is to eliminate the technical and cost barriers associated with displacing imported petroleum. This is achieved by supporting research and development in technologies that reduce manufacturing costs, reduce emissions, and improve vehicle performance and consumer acceptance for natural gas fueled vehicles. In collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory, projects are currently being pursued in (1) liquefied natural gas production from unconventional sources, (2) onboard natural gas storage (adsorbent, compressed, and liquefied), (3) natural gas delivery systems for both onboard the vehicle and the refueling station, and (4) regional and enduse strategies. This paper will provide an overview of these projects highlighting their achievements and current status. In addition, it will discuss how the individual technologies developed are being integrated into an overall program strategic plan.

James E. Wegrzyn; Wai Lin Litzke; Michael Gurevich

1999-04-26

277

Control method for mixed refrigerant based natural gas liquefier  

DOEpatents

In a natural gas liquefaction system having a refrigerant storage circuit, a refrigerant circulation circuit in fluid communication with the refrigerant storage circuit, and a natural gas liquefaction circuit in thermal communication with the refrigerant circulation circuit, a method for liquefaction of natural gas in which pressure in the refrigerant circulation circuit is adjusted to below about 175 psig by exchange of refrigerant with the refrigerant storage circuit. A variable speed motor is started whereby operation of a compressor is initiated. The compressor is operated at full discharge capacity. Operation of an expansion valve is initiated whereby suction pressure at the suction pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 30 psig and discharge pressure at the discharge pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 350 psig. Refrigerant vapor is introduced from the refrigerant holding tank into the refrigerant circulation circuit until the suction pressure is reduced to below about 15 psig, after which flow of the refrigerant vapor from the refrigerant holding tank is terminated. Natural gas is then introduced into a natural gas liquefier, resulting in liquefaction of the natural gas.

Kountz, Kenneth J. (Palatine, IL); Bishop, Patrick M. (Chicago, IL)

2003-01-01

278

18 CFR 260.1 - FERC Form No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies. 260.1 Section 260.1...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES...No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies. (a) Prescription....

2010-04-01

279

18 CFR 157.212 - Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities. 157.212 Section 157...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF...ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline Blanket...

2010-04-01

280

18 CFR 260.401 - FERC Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions. 260.401 Section 260...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES...Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions. (a) Prescription....

2010-04-01

281

Short-term supply chain management in upstream natural gas systems  

E-print Network

Natural gas supply chain planning and optimization is important to ensure security and reliability of natural gas supply. However, it is challenging due to the distinctive features of natural gas supply chains. These ...

Selot, Ajay

2009-01-01

282

77 FR 15990 - Proposed Confidentiality Determinations for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Source Category...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Confidentiality Determinations for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Source Category...Confidentiality Determinations for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Source Category...Confidentiality Determinations for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Source...

2012-03-19

283

76 FR 56412 - Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development Program...Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development Program...Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research Program,...

2011-09-13

284

75 FR 11147 - Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development Program...Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development Program...Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development...

2010-03-10

285

78 FR 41047 - Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development Program...Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development Program...Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research Program since...

2013-07-09

286

77 FR 51021 - Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources, Research and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources, Research and Development...Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development Program...Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research Program since...

2012-08-23

287

76 FR 37300 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems: Revisions to Best...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems: Revisions to...monitoring methods in regulations for Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems of the Greenhouse...Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems....

2011-06-27

288

76 FR 59533 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems: Revisions to Best...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems: Revisions to...available monitoring methods for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems source category...final rule affects owners or operators of petroleum and natural gas systems. Regulated...

2011-09-27

289

78 FR 44900 - Communication of Operational Information Between Natural Gas Pipelines and Electric Transmission...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Operational Information Between Natural Gas Pipelines and Electric...explicit authority to interstate natural gas pipelines and public utilities...created electronically using word processing software should be filed in...explicit authority to interstate natural gas pipelines and public...

2013-07-25

290

49 CFR 191.17 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report.  

...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report. 191.17 Section 191.17 Transportation...SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE...systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities:...

2014-10-01

291

76 FR 34070 - Secretary of Energy Advisory Board Natural Gas Subcommittee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...by the Secretary. The Natural Gas Subcommittee was established to...environmental performance of natural gas hydraulic fracturing from shale formations, thereby harnessing...members to hear directly from natural gas stakeholders. Tentative...

2011-06-10

292

Pennsylvania Energy Impacts Assessment Report 1: Marcellus Shale Natural Gas and Wind  

E-print Network

Pennsylvania Energy Impacts Assessment Report 1: Marcellus Shale Natural Gas and Wind #12;1 Pennsylvania Energy Impacts Assessment Report 1: Marcellus Shale Natural Gas and Wind November 15, 2010 Author.....................................................................................................................3 Marcellus Shale Natural Gas

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

293

76 FR 63613 - Secretary of Energy Advisory Board Natural Gas Subcommittee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Energy Advisory Board Natural Gas Subcommittee AGENCY: Department...Advisory Board (SEAB) Natural Gas Subcommittee. SEAB was reestablished...environmental performance of natural gas hydraulic fracturing from shale formations thereby harnessing...

2011-10-13

294

77 FR 45600 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No. AD12-12-000...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No....

2012-08-01

295

78 FR 21934 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No. AD12-12-000...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets Docket No....

2013-04-12

296

77 FR 52020 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice for Mid-Atlantic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice for Mid-Atlantic...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No. AD12-12-000...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No....

2012-08-28

297

77 FR 50684 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No. AD12-12-000...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No....

2012-08-22

298

77 FR 50100 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No. AD12-12-000...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No....

2012-08-20

299

Interfuel substitution and natural gas trade in North America  

SciTech Connect

Institutional changes in North American natural gas markets have created much uncertainty about the prospects for gas trade between Canada, Mexico, and the US. This dissertation describes the formulations of the Gas Trade Model (GTM) and the submodel of US gas demand. Together, they provide a modeling framework within which international gas trade after the deregulation of the US natural gas market can be examined. GTM is a market equilibrium model that allows for interdependence between gas prices and the quantities traded at a single point in time. Regionally disaggregated trade flows are projected between Canada, Mexico, and the US. The model is intended to provide a background for realistic bargaining over international prices and risk sharing in an era when the US market is deregulated, but Canada and Mexico maintain export controls. As a complement to GTM, a submodel of US natural gas demand is developed. It consists of four demand sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, and electric utility. The submodel allows for dynamic adjustment in all four sectors. In addition, it recognizes that interfuel substitution possibilities in the industrial and electric utility sectors are increasing along with the presence of equipment that can burn either gas or fuel oil.

Beltramo, M.A.

1986-01-01

300

Transcatheter closure of hypertensive ductus with amplatzer post infarction muscular VSD occluder after percutaneous retrieval of embolized amplatzer duct occluder  

PubMed Central

Transcatheter closure of a large hypertensive patent ductus arteriosus is challenging with scant data about it. Even more challenging is retrieval of an embolized Amplatzer duct occluder. We report successful closure of a 12 mm large ductus with the Amplatzer muscular VSD occluder (post myocardial infarction) after percutaneous retrieval of the embolized, largest available, 16/14 mm Amplatzer duct occluder. PMID:24987259

Phadke, Milind S; Karur, Satish; Kerkar, Prafulla G

2014-01-01

301

Transcatheter closure of hypertensive ductus with amplatzer post infarction muscular VSD occluder after percutaneous retrieval of embolized amplatzer duct occluder.  

PubMed

Transcatheter closure of a large hypertensive patent ductus arteriosus is challenging with scant data about it. Even more challenging is retrieval of an embolized Amplatzer duct occluder. We report successful closure of a 12 mm large ductus with the Amplatzer muscular VSD occluder (post myocardial infarction) after percutaneous retrieval of the embolized, largest available, 16/14 mm Amplatzer duct occluder. PMID:24987259

Phadke, Milind S; Karur, Satish; Kerkar, Prafulla G

2014-05-01

302

Development and analysis of a natural gas reliquefaction plant for small gas carriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small-scale reliquefaction plant for natural gas boil-off gas from gas tankers has been developed, analysed and experimentally tested in laboratory and in full-scale. The reliquefaction plant is installed onboard a 10?000m3 gas carrier intended for transport of LNG between export and receiving terminals, initially in Scandinavia and in the Baltic Sea. Typical production capacity of a full-scale plant is

P. Nekså; E. Brendeng; M. Drescher; B. Norberg

2010-01-01

303

Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization  

SciTech Connect

During this quarter, work began on the regional structural and geologic analysis of the greater Green River basin (GGRB) in southwestern Wyoming, northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah. The ultimate objective of the regional analysis is to apply the techniques developed and demonstrated during earlier phases of the project to sweet-spot delineation in a relatively new and underexplored play: tight gas from continuous-type Upper Cretaceous reservoirs of the GGRB. The primary goal of this work is to partition and high-grade the greater Green River basin for exploration efforts in the Cretaceous tight gas play. The work plan for the quarter of January 1, 1998--March 31, 1998 consisted of three tasks: (1) Acquire necessary data and develop base map of study area; (2) Process data for analysis; and (3) Initiate structural study. The first task and second tasks were completed during this reporting period. The third task was initiated and work continues.

NONE

1998-09-30

304

Emission factor estimation in regional air quality studies of residential natural gas fuel interchangeability  

E-print Network

in composition. As newer sources of natural gas become available (such as Liquefied Natural Gas and shale gasEmission factor estimation in regional air quality studies of residential natural gas fuel for natural gas burner emissions data. The method is built to compensate for the typically small sample size

Dabdub, Donald

305

Supply Chain Management and Economic Valuation of Real Options in the Natural Gas  

E-print Network

Supply Chain Management and Economic Valuation of Real Options in the Natural Gas and Liquefied options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry, including gas pipeline transportation Natural Gas Industry Mulan Xiaofeng Wang Submitted to the Tepper School of Business in Partial Fulfillment

Sadeh, Norman M.

306

DEVELOPMENT OF A NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN FUEL STATION William E. Liss  

E-print Network

for compressed natural gas vehicles. The integrated natural gas-to-hydrogen system includes a high efficiency Natural Gas Water Gas Clean Up CO2 & Water CO2 Rejection/ Recovery Appliance Quality Hydrogen Compression on leveraging of developments in the stationary PEM fuel cell and compressed natural gas vehicle market sectors

307

Green Engines Development Using Compressed Natural Gas as an Alternative Fuel: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: The Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a gaseous form of natural gas, it have been recognized as one of the promising alternative fuel due to its substantial benefits compared to gasoli ne and diesel. Natural gas is produced from gas wells or tied in w ith crude oil production. Approach: Natural gas is promising alternative fuel to meet

R. A. Bakar; A. R. Ismail

2009-01-01

308

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Efforts this quarter have concentrated on field site selection. ChevronTexaco has signed a contract with Kvaerner process Systems for the 50 MM scf/d dehydration skid at their Headlee Gas Plant in Odessa, TX for a commercial-scale test. This will allow the test to go forth. A new test schedule was established with testing beyond the existing contract completion date. Potting and module materials testing continued. Construction of the bench-scale equipment was started. Additional funding to support the test was obtained through a contract with Research Partnership for Secure Energy for America.

Howard S. Meyer

2004-04-01

309

Natural gas infrastructure investment, regulation and ownership: the Australian case  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study looks at the natural gas industry, with particular reference to recent Australian developments. It connects with the issues of ownership and regulation within the global financial system, using the Australian experience to show how these issues are playing out in this industry. Whether the interaction of independent regulation and competition has attracted more non-government investment in natural

José Alberto Hernández Ibarzábal

2011-01-01

310

Thermodynamic Cycle Selection for Distributed Natural Gas Liquefaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas liquefaction plants with cooling capacities of approximately 100 kW are facilitating the development of a distributed LNG infrastructure. To be economically viable, liquefiers of this scale must be able to operate on a variety of feed gases while offering relatively low capital costs, short delivery time, and good performance. This paper opens with a discussion of a natural

M. A. Barclay; D. F. Gongaware; K. Dalton; M. P. Skrzypkowski

2004-01-01

311

Natural gas the new locomotive fuel  

SciTech Connect

This is a report on modification of a locomotive diesel engine to a dual-fuel engine to determine if the dual fuel engine in railway service will provide high performance, lower fuel and maintenance costs. After the locomotive was modified and the new governor and linkage were installed by General Motors at the BN's Northtown Diesel Shop near Minneapolis, the locomotive went through startup procedures. General Motors participated in startup. Some calibration, adjustments and minor piping changes were required but in general the problems encountered in startups were quite insignificant. The locomotive was connected to the load box (static test) during startup and at 720 RPM exceeded the required output for this test as established by the parties. Operation on straight oil over the range from idle through No. 8 throttle notch and on dual fuel from No. 5 through No. 8 throttle notch was smooth as was the transfer from oil to gas and from gas to oil. The engine exhaust on straight oil was almost clear but on gas it was totally clear. 16 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

Tuskey, L.W.

1984-01-01

312

Comparative analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) used by transit agencies in Texas. Research report  

SciTech Connect

This study is a detailed comparative analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG). The study provides data on two alternative fuels used by transit agencies in Texas. First, we examine the `state-of-the- art` in alternative fuels to established a framework for the study. Efforts were made to examine selected characteristics of two types of natural gas demonstrations in terms of the following properties: energy source characteristics, vehicle performance and emissions, operations, maintenance, reliability, safety costs, and fuel availability. Where feasible, two alternative fuels were compared with conventional gasoline and diesel fuel. Environmental considerations relative to fuel distribution and use are analyzed, with a focus on examining flammability an other safety-related issues. The objectives of the study included: (1) assess the state-of-the-art and document relevant findings pertaining to alternative fuels; (2) analyze and synthesize existing databases on two natural gas alternatives: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG): and (3) compare two alterative fuels used by transit properties in Texas, and address selected aspects of alternative fuels such as energy source characteristics, vehicle performance and emissions, safety, costs, maintenance and operations, environmental and related issues.

Lede, N.W.

1997-09-01

313

Conditions for Fromation of Oceanic Natural Gas Hydrate Deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the widespread nature of oceanic natural gas hydrate and associated gas concentrations on continental margins, natural gas hydrate has yet to be proven to be an economically viable unconventional gas resource. In part, this is because unequivocal models for the formation of economic hydrate deposits do not yet exist and there is no exploration methodology for identifying the high-grade hydrate sweet spots that will constitute economic hydrate deposits. At this time, it appears that the most commercially viable high-grade hydrate deposits consist of naturally permeable strata that hosts a high proportion of solid hydrate filling of original porosity. The different means by which hydrate grows and the optimum conditions for the maintenance of a strong growth dynamic provide a key to predicting the location of potential hydrate deposits. Hydrate has been produced from natural seawater, which is a close approximation of connate water in marine sediments, and a variety of Hydrate Forming Gases (HFG) using several different types of crystallizers in laboratory experiments. The crystallizers have been developed to test a broad range of hydrate growth conditions by controlling pressure, temperature (or temperature gradients), and HFG saturation levels. Growth has been achieved in both aqueous and gaseous media. These results provide insight into formation of natural gas hydrate and may constrain the search for economic hydrate deposits Natural gas hydrate forms in one of three main growth modes in aqueous media; mineralizing solutions, diffusion in aqueous media, and solid diffusion. When the relative potential for growth of these modes are assessed along with geological and ground (pore) water provincing, the most likely locations within the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) for recoverable hydrate natural gas deposits may be identified. The most rapid mode for growth of solid hydrate takes place on the seafloor in the presence of venting. Natural gas-rich fluids and natural gas produce strongly oversaturated seawater in which hydrate will grow rapidly upon cooling by heat transfer with seafloor water. The growth dynamic for incorporation of dissolved hydrate-forming reactants in seafloor hydrate is at a maximum under these conditions and acts in such a way that hydrate grows out into the seawater growth media, which is in effect the mineralizing solution, resulting in large volumes of solid hydrate. Within marine sediments, the same growth dynamic occurs where pore water percolation can deliver a large volume of dissolved HFG that will rapidly be incorporated in growing hydrate as the saturated water is chilled in the GHSZ. These mineralizing solutions cause the diagenetic hydrate mineral deposits to form. In an open groundwater system where the water can rise in porous strata into the GHSZ, and where water movement is restricted, diffusion of dissolved natural gas into the GHSZ in the aqueous media will also be associated with a strong growth dynamic that naturally leads to the formation of solid hydrate and high pore fill. Movement of gas into the GHSZ leads to the formation of hydrate shells on gas bubbles or hydrate-sheathed secondary porosity. In this case or where gas is in direct contact with a hydrate-sediment mixture having essentially no permeability, further hydrate growth is only possible by diffusion of either gas and water through the solid hydrate or an additional supply of hydrate-forming gas (HFG)-saturated water, which is a slower process and does not offer the same potential for high pore filling.

Max, M. M.

2005-12-01

314

Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Lean Natural Gas Engine Applications  

SciTech Connect

Distributed energy is an approach for meeting energy needs that has several advantages. Distributed energy improves energy security during natural disasters or terrorist actions, improves transmission grid reliability by reducing grid load, and enhances power quality through voltage support and reactive power. In addition, distributed energy can be efficient since transmission losses are minimized. One prime mover for distributed energy is the natural gas reciprocating engine generator set. Natural gas reciprocating engines are flexible and scalable solutions for many distributed energy needs. The engines can be run continuously or occasionally as peak demand requires, and their operation and maintenance is straightforward. Furthermore, system efficiencies can be maximized when natural gas reciprocating engines are combined with thermal energy recovery for cooling, heating, and power applications. Expansion of natural gas reciprocating engines for distributed energy is dependent on several factors, but two prominent factors are efficiency and emissions. Efficiencies must be high enough to enable low operating costs, and emissions must be low enough to permit significant operation hours, especially in non-attainment areas where emissions are stringently regulated. To address these issues the U.S. Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission launched research and development programs called Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) and Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (ARICE), respectively. Fuel efficiency and low emissions are two primary goals of these programs. The work presented here was funded by the ARES program and, thus, addresses the ARES 2010 goals of 50% thermal efficiency (fuel efficiency) and <0.1 g/bhp-hr emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). A summary of the goals for the ARES program is given in Table 1-1. ARICE 2007 goals are 45% thermal efficiency and <0.015 g/bhp-hr NOx. Several approaches for improving the efficiency and emissions of natural gas reciprocating engines are being pursued. Approaches include: stoichiometric engine operation with exhaust gas recirculation and three-way catalysis, advanced combustion modes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition, and extension of the lean combustion limit with advanced ignition concepts and/or hydrogen mixing. The research presented here addresses the technical approach of combining efficient lean spark-ignited natural gas combustion with low emissions obtained from a lean NOx trap catalyst aftertreatment system. This approach can be applied to current lean engine technology or advanced lean engines that may result from related efforts in lean limit extension. Furthermore, the lean NOx trap technology has synergy with hydrogen-assisted lean limit extension since hydrogen is produced from natural gas during the lean NOx trap catalyst system process. The approach is also applicable to other lean engines such as diesel engines, natural gas turbines, and lean gasoline engines; other research activities have focused on those applications. Some commercialization of the technology has occurred for automotive applications (both diesel and lean gasoline engine vehicles) and natural gas turbines for stationary power. The research here specifically addresses barriers to commercialization of the technology for large lean natural gas reciprocating engines for stationary power. The report presented here is a comprehensive collection of research conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on lean NOx trap catalysis for lean natural gas reciprocating engines. The research was performed in the Department of Energy's ARES program from 2003 to 2007 and covers several aspects of the technology. All studies were conducted at ORNL on a Cummins C8.3G+ natural gas engine chosen based on industry input to simulate large lean natural gas engines. Specific technical areas addressed by the research include: NOx reduction efficiency, partial oxidation and reforming chemistry, and the effects of sulfur poisons on the partial oxidation

Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Ponnusamy, Senthil [ORNL; Ferguson, Harley Douglas [ORNL; Williams, Aaron M [ORNL; Tassitano, James B [ORNL

2007-09-01

315

Natural gas imports and exports. Fourth quarter report, 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the fourth quarter of 1998 (October through December). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

NONE

1998-12-31

316

Natural gas imports and exports. First quarter report 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico. 14 figs., 9 tabs.

NONE

1997-09-01

317

Evaluation of the age of landfill gas methane in landfill gas-natural gas mixtures using co-occurring constituents.  

PubMed

At a municipal solid waste landfill in southern California (USA) overlying a natural gas reservoir, methane was detected at concentrations of up to 40% (by volume) in perimeter soil gas probes. Stable isotope and (14)C values of methane together with gas composition (major components and volatile organic compounds) data were evaluated to assess the relative contributions of landfill gas and natural gas to the measured methane concentrations. The data was further used to estimate the residence time of the landfill gas in the probes. Results showed that up to 37% of the measured methane was derived from landfill gas. In addition, the landfill gas in the probe samples has undergone extensive alteration due to dissolution of carbon dioxide in pore water. Data further indicates that the measured methane was released from the waste approximately 1.2 to 9.4 years ago, rather than representing evidence of an ongoing release. PMID:23660592

Kerfoot, Henry B; Hagedorn, Benjamin; Verwiel, Mark

2013-06-01

318

Natural Gas Procurement Challenges for a Project Financed Cogeneration Facility  

E-print Network

0-100~ WACOG Gas -Inte~ruptible The UCC plan was: 1. Normal UCC Procurement Practice 2. Back up with WACOG Gas 3. Fuel oil However in Kay 1986, for non gas ~elated ~easons, the ~elationship was seve~ed and UCC had to come up with its own... these criteria as inconsistent with UCC project economics and normal procurement practice. A. TERM OF CONTRACT The trend in the industry was strongly moving away from long term fixed price contracts. Natural Gas prices had moved steadily upward through...

Good, R. L.; Calvert, T. B.; Pavlish, B. A.

319

Autothermal Reforming of Natural Gas to Synthesis Gas  

SciTech Connect

This Project Final Report serves to document the project structure and technical results achieved during the 3-year project titled Advanced Autothermal Reformer for US Dept of Energy Office of Industrial Technology. The project was initiated in December 2001 and was completed March 2005. It was a joint effort between Sandia National Laboratories (Livermore, CA), Kellogg Brown & Root LLC (KBR) (Houston, TX) and Süd-Chemie (Louisville, KY). The purpose of the project was to develop an experimental capability that could be used to examine the propensity for soot production in an Autothermal Reformer (ATR) during the production of hydrogen-carbon monoxide synthesis gas intended for Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) applications including ammonia, methanol, and higher hydrocarbons. The project consisted of an initial phase that was focused on developing a laboratory-scale ATR capable of reproducing conditions very similar to a plant scale unit. Due to budget constraints this effort was stopped at the advanced design stages, yielding a careful and detailed design for such a system including ATR vessel design, design of ancillary feed and let down units as well as a PI&D for laboratory installation. The experimental effort was then focused on a series of measurements to evaluate rich, high-pressure burner behavior at pressures as high as 500 psi. The soot formation measurements were based on laser attenuation at a view port downstream of the burner. The results of these experiments and accompanying calculations show that soot formation is primarily dependent on oxidation stoichiometry. However, steam to carbon ratio was found to impact soot production as well as burner stability. The data also showed that raising the operating pressure while holding mass flow rates constant results in considerable soot formation at desirable feed ratios. Elementary reaction modeling designed to illuminate the role of CO2 in the burner feed showed that the conditions in the burner allow for the direct participation of CO2 in the oxidation chemistry.

Steven F. Rice; David P. Mann

2007-04-13

320

Photodynamic therapy for occluded biliary metal stents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this abstract we describe the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to recanalize occluded biliary metal stents. In patients with jaundice secondary to obstructed metal stents PDT was carried out 72 hours after the administration of m THPC. Red laser light at 652 nm was delivered endoscopically at an energy intensity of 50 J/cm. A week later endoscopic retrograde cholangiogram showed complete recanalization of the metal stent.

Roche, Joseph V. E.; Krasner, Neville; Sturgess, R.

1999-02-01

321

Analysis of natural gas supply strategies at Fort Drum  

SciTech Connect

This analysis investigates strategies for Fort Drum to acquire a reliable natural gas supply while reducing its gas supply costs. The purpose of this study is to recommend an optimal supply mix based on the life-cycle costs of each strategy analyzed. In particular, this study is intended to provide initial guidance as to whether or not the building and operating of a propane-air mixing station is a feasible alternative to the current gas acquisition strategy. The analysis proceeded by defining the components of supply (gas purchase, gas transport, supplemental fuel supply); identifying alternative options for each supply component; constructing gas supply strategies from different combinations of the options available for each supply component and calculating the life-cycle costs of each supply strategy under a set of different scenarios reflecting the uncertainty of future events.

Stucky, D.J.; Shankle, S.A.; Anderson, D.M.

1992-07-01

322

Bioconversion of natural gas to liquid fuel: opportunities and challenges.  

PubMed

Natural gas is a mixture of low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases that can be generated from either fossil or anthropogenic resources. Although natural gas is used as a transportation fuel, constraints in storage, relatively low energy content (MJ/L), and delivery have limited widespread adoption. Advanced utilization of natural gas has been explored for biofuel production by microorganisms. In recent years, the aerobic bioconversion of natural gas (or primarily the methane content of natural gas) into liquid fuels (Bio-GTL) by biocatalysts (methanotrophs) has gained increasing attention as a promising alternative for drop-in biofuel production. Methanotrophic bacteria are capable of converting methane into microbial lipids, which can in turn be converted into renewable diesel via a hydrotreating process. In this paper, biodiversity, catalytic properties and key enzymes and pathways of these microbes are summarized. Bioprocess technologies are discussed based upon existing literature, including cultivation conditions, fermentation modes, bioreactor design, and lipid extraction and upgrading. This review also outlines the potential of Bio-GTL using methane as an alternative carbon source as well as the major challenges and future research needs of microbial lipid accumulation derived from methane, key performance index, and techno-economic analysis. An analysis of raw material costs suggests that methane-derived diesel fuel has the potential to be competitive with petroleum-derived diesel. PMID:24726715

Fei, Qiang; Guarnieri, Michael T; Tao, Ling; Laurens, Lieve M L; Dowe, Nancy; Pienkos, Philip T

2014-01-01

323

Low pressure storage of natural gas on activated carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The introduction of natural gas to the transportation energy sector offers the possibility of displacing imported oil with an indigenous fuel. The barrier to the acceptance of natural gas vehicles (NGV) is the limited driving range due to the technical difficulties of on-board storage of a gaseous fuel. In spite of this barrier, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles are today being successfully introduced into the market place. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate an adsorbent natural gas (ANG) storage system as a viable alternative to CNG storage. It can be argued that low pressure ANG has reached near parity with CNG, since the storage capacity of CNG (2400 psi) is rated at 190 V/V, while low pressure ANG (500 psi) has reached storage capacities of 180 V/V in the laboratory. A program, which extends laboratory results to a full-scale vehicle test, is necessary before ANG technology will receive widespread acceptance. The objective of this program is to field test a 150 V/V ANG vehicle in FY 1994. As a start towards this goal, carbon adsorbents have been screened by Brookhaven for their potential use in a natural gas storage system. This paper reports on one such carbon, trade name Maxsorb, manufactured by Kansai Coke under an Amoco license.

Wegrzyn, J.; Wiesmann, H.; Lee, T.

324

Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions  

SciTech Connect

U.S. natural gas composition is expected to be more variable in the future. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Unconventional gas supplies, like coal-bed methane, are also expected to grow. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from existing domestic natural gas supplies. To allow the greatest use of gas supplies, end-use equipment should be able to accommodate the widest possible gas composition. For this reason, the effect of gas composition on combustion behavior is of interest. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 589K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx emissions. These results vary from data reported in the literature for some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences are discussed.

D. Straub; D. Ferguson; K. Casleton; G. Richards

2006-03-01

325

Testing for market integration crude oil, coal, and natural gas  

SciTech Connect

Prompted by the contemporaneous spike in coal, oil, and natural gas prices, this paper evaluates the degree of market integration both within and between crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets. Our approach yields parameters that can be readily tested against a priori conjectures. Using daily price data for five very different crude oils, we conclude that the world oil market is a single, highly integrated economic market. On the other hand, coal prices at five trading locations across the United States are cointegrated, but the degree of market integration is much weaker, particularly between Western and Eastern coals. Finally, we show that crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets are only very weakly integrated. Our results indicate that there is not a primary energy market. Despite current price peaks, it is not useful to think of a primary energy market, except in a very long run context.

Bachmeier, L.J.; Griffin, J.M. [Texas A& amp; M Univ, College Station, TX (United States)

2006-07-01

326

Natural gas plant advanced control and optimization  

SciTech Connect

Multivariable model-based constraint control and non-linear closed-loop plant-wide economic optimization have been implemented at Petro-Canada`s Empress 2400 MMscfd straddle gas plant. Due to changing product and utility prices, feed quality and availability, pipeline conditions, ambient conditions, and equipment efficiencies, the optimum operating point is constantly moving. Eight control applications manipulate 22 variables to control to 22 setpoints and keep within 21 plant constraints. Product qualities are estimated, with feedback from on-line analyzers, to allow for faster and more reliable control. The optimizer reconciles the plant with its open equation form, first principles models and then sends optimum setpoints to over 40 advanced and proportional integral derivative (PID) controllers. The optimizer simultaneously solves approximately 16,000 equations which describe over 40 major pieces of equipment. The control technology--optimum predictive control (OPC)--resides entirely in the distributed control system (DCS) on a Honeywell Application Module. The optimizer--closed-loop reconciliation and optimization (CRO)--runs on a Digital Alpha series reduced instruction set computing (RISC) based computer that is interfaced to the DCS. Benefits attained have been: improved liquids retention, improved product quality control and reduced utility costs.

Lyne, M.; Pidlisny, D.; Treiber, S.; Powley, G.; Toffolo, R.; Smith, D.; Bell, M.

1996-12-31

327

Liquefaction of natural gas to methanol for shipping and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The penetration of natural gas into distant markets can be substantially increased by a new methanol synthesis process under development at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The new methanol process is made possible by the discovery of a catalyst that drops synthesis temperatures from about 275°C to about 100°C. The new low temperature liquid catalyst can convert synthesis gas completely to

T. E. OHare; R. S. Sapienza; D. Mahajan; G. T. Skaperdas

1986-01-01

328

Effects of gas composition on the performance and emissions of compressed natural gas engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas is considered to be a promising alternative fuel for passenger cars, truck transportation and stationary engines\\u000a providing positive effects both on the environment and energy security. However, since the composition of natural gas fuel\\u000a varies with location, climate and other factors, it is anticipated that such changes in fuel properties will affect emission\\u000a characteristics and performance of CNG

Byung Hyouk Min; Jin Taek Chung; Ho Young Kim

2002-01-01

329

Radiation protection and the environment NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY AT PODRAVINA GAS FIELDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Croatia, natural gas is an important source of e nergy, where its use exceeds other sources by one third. Composed primarily of the met hane, natural gas from Croatian Podravina gas fields, beside other impurities, contains small amounts of radioactive elements. At Gas Treatment Plant (GTP) Molve, technological procedures for purification of natural gas and its distribution are performed.

Jadranka KOVAC; Gordana MAROVIC

330

Compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas conversions: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with conversion companies in six states to convert approximately 900 light-duty Federal fleet vehicles to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The contracts were initiated in order to help the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) during a period

R. C. Motta; K. J. Kelly; W. W. Warnock

1996-01-01

331

Gas Fuel Spray Simulation of Port Injection Compressed Natural Gas Engine Using Injector Nozzle Multi Holes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compressed natural gas (CNG) is the most favorite for fossil fuel substitution. Improvement the new design of the CNG engine injector nozzle holes geometries of the port injection CNG engine can be achieved through increased understanding of the fuel spray process. The objectives of the gas fuel spray simulation of sequential port injection CNG engine using injector nozzle multi holes

Abdul Rahim Ismail; Rosli Abu Bakar

332

Replacing coal with natural gas would reduce warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A debate has raged in the past couple of years as to whether natural gas is better or worse overall than coal and oil from a global warming perspective. The back-and-forth findings have been due to the timelines taken into consideration, the details of natural gas extraction, and the electricity-generating efficiency of various fuels. An analysis by Cathles, which focuses exclusively on potential warming and ignores secondary considerations, such as economic, political, or other environmental concerns, finds that natural gas is better for electricity generation than coal and oil under all realistic circumstances. To come to this conclusion, the author considered three different future fuel consumption scenarios: (1) a business-as-usual case, which sees energy generation capacity continue at its current pace with its current energy mix until the middle of the century, at which point the implementation of low-carbon energy sources dominates and fossil fuel-derived energy production declines; (2) a gas substitution scenario, where natural gas replaces all coal power production and any new oil-powered facilities, with the same midcentury shift; and (3) a low-carbon scenario, where all electricity generation is immediately and aggressively switched to non-fossil fuel sources such as solar, wind, and nuclear.

Schultz, Colin

2012-08-01

333

Natural gas imports and exports. Second quarter report 1995  

SciTech Connect

This quarter`s feature report focuses on natural gas exports to Mexico. OFP invites ideas from the public on future topics dealing with North American natural gas import/export trade. Such suggestions should be left on OFP`s electronic bulletin board. Natural Gas exports to Mexico continued to grow and reached an historic high for the month of June (7.8 Bcf). Two new long-term contracts were activated; Pennsylvania Gas & Water Company began importing 14.7 MMcf per day from TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., and Renaissance Energy (U.S.) Inc. began importing 2.8 MMcf per day from Renaissance Energy Ltd. for resale to Delmarva Power & Light Company. Algerian LNG imports remained stagnant with only one tanker being imported by Pan National Gas Sales, Inc. (Pan National). During the first six months of 1995, data indicates gas imports increased by about 10 percent over the 1994 level (1,418 vs. 1,285 Bcf), with Canadian imports increasing by 14 percent and Algerian imports decreasing by 81 percent. During the same time period, exports increased by 18 percent (83 vs. 70.1 Bcf).

NONE

1995-12-31

334

Fuels Containing Methane of Natural Gas in Solution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While exploring ways of producing better fuels for propulsion of a spacecraft on the Mars sample return mission, a researcher at Johnson Space Center (JSC) devised a way of blending fuel by combining methane or natural gas with a second fuel to produce a fuel that can be maintained in liquid form at ambient temperature and under moderate pressure. The use of such a blended fuel would be a departure for both spacecraft engines and terrestrial internal combustion engines. For spacecraft, it would enable reduction of weights on long flights. For the automotive industry on Earth, such a fuel could be easily distributed and could be a less expensive, more efficient, and cleaner-burning alternative to conventional fossil fuels. The concept of blending fuels is not new: for example, the production of gasoline includes the addition of liquid octane enhancers. For the future, it has been commonly suggested to substitute methane or compressed natural gas for octane-enhanced gasoline as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Unfortunately, methane or natural gas must be stored either as a compressed gas (if kept at ambient temperature) or as a cryogenic liquid. The ranges of automobiles would be reduced from their present values because of limitations on the capacities for storage of these fuels. Moreover, technical challenges are posed by the need to develop equipment to handle these fuels and, especially, to fill tanks acceptably rapidly. The JSC alternative to provide a blended fuel that can be maintained in liquid form at moderate pressure at ambient temperature has not been previously tried. A blended automotive fuel according to this approach would be made by dissolving natural gas in gasoline. The autogenous pressure of this fuel would eliminate the need for a vehicle fuel pump, but a pressure and/or flow regulator would be needed to moderate the effects of temperature and to respond to changing engine power demands. Because the fuel would flash as it entered engine cylinders, relative to gasoline, it would disperse more readily and therefore would mix with air more nearly completely. As a consequence, this fuel would burn more nearly completely (and, hence, more cleanly) than gasoline does. The storage density of this fuel would be similar to that of gasoline, but its energy density would be such that the mileage (more precisely, the distance traveled per unit volume of fuel) would be greater than that of either gasoline or compressed natural gas. Because the pressure needed to maintain the fuel in liquid form would be more nearly constant and generally lower than that needed to maintain compressed natural gas in liquid form, the pressure rating of a tank used to hold this fuel could be lower than that of a tank used to hold compressed natural gas. A mixture of natural gas and gasoline could be distributed more easily than could some alternative fuels. A massive investment in new equipment would not be necessary: One could utilize the present fuel-distribution infrastructure and could blend the gasoline and natural gas at almost any place in the production or distribution process - perhaps even at the retail fuel pump. Yet another advantage afforded by use of a blend of gasoline and natural gas would be a reduction in the amount of gasoline consumed. Because natural gas costs less than gasoline does and is in abundant supply in the United States, the cost of automotive fuel and the demand for imported oil could be reduced.

Sullivan, Thomas A.

2004-01-01

335

U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves  

EIA Publications

U.S. crude oil proved reserves increased for the fifth year in a row in 2013, a net addition of 3.1 billion barrels of proved oil reserves (a 9% increase) according to U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, 2013, released today by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). U.S. natural gas proved reserves increased 10% in 2013, more than replacing the 7% decline in proved reserves seen in 2012, and raising the U.S. total to a record level of 354 trillion cubic feet (Tcf).

2014-01-01

336

18 CFR 284.3 - Jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act. 284.3 Section 284.3 Conservation...ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF...

2010-04-01

337

Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues  

SciTech Connect

The United States has 11 distinct natural gas pipeline corridors: five originate in the Southwest, four deliver natural gas from Canada, and two extend from the Rocky Mountain region. This study assesses the potential to deliver hydrogen through the existing natural gas pipeline network as a hydrogen and natural gas mixture to defray the cost of building dedicated hydrogen pipelines.

Melaina, M. W.; Antonia, O.; Penev, M.

2013-03-01

338

The Oil and Natural Gas Knowledge Management Database from NETL  

DOE Data Explorer

The Knowledge Management Database (KMD) Portal provides four options for searching the documents and data that NETL-managed oil and gas research has produced over the years for DOE’s Office of Fossil Energy. Information includes R&D carried out under both historical and ongoing DOE oil and gas research and development (R&D). The Document Repository, the CD/DVD Library, the Project Summaries from 1990 to the present, and the Oil and Natural Gas Program Reference Shelf provide a wide range of flexibility and coverage.

339

Natural gas development and utilisation pattern in India  

SciTech Connect

In this era of energy consciousness, Natural Gas is destined to play an important role in the economic life of India. The luxury of flaring into atmosphere is over. Rather stocks are being assessed and capital investments are planned for the optimum development and utilisation of gas. In this paper, authors have attempted to tie up various data on different aspects of gas business such as supply, source, production, utilisation pattern and its share in energy and economy. The optimal utilisation plan as discussed here could be of some value to the planners.

Mulchandani, H.K.; Balakrishnan, M.

1984-02-01

340

Water Resources and Natural Gas Production from the Marcellus Shale  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Marcellus Shale is a sedimentary rock formation deposited over 350 million years ago in a shallow inland sea located in the eastern United States where the present-day Appalachian Mountains now stand (de Witt and others, 1993). This shale contains significant quantities of natural gas. New developments in drilling technology, along with higher wellhead prices, have made the Marcellus Shale an important natural gas resource. The Marcellus Shale extends from southern New York across Pennsylvania, and into western Maryland, West Virginia, and eastern Ohio (fig. 1). The production of commercial quantities of gas from this shale requires large volumes of water to drill and hydraulically fracture the rock. This water must be recovered from the well and disposed of before the gas can flow. Concerns about the availability of water supplies needed for gas production, and questions about wastewater disposal have been raised by water-resource agencies and citizens throughout the Marcellus Shale gas development region. This Fact Sheet explains the basics of Marcellus Shale gas production, with the intent of helping the reader better understand the framework of the water-resource questions and concerns.

Soeder, Daniel J.; Kappel, William M.

2009-01-01

341

76 FR 34071 - Secretary of Energy Advisory Board, Natural Gas Subcommittee; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...by the Secretary. The Natural Gas Subcommittee was established...environmental performance of natural gas hydraulic fracturing from shale formations, thereby harnessing...agenda includes presentations from shale gas stakeholders and experts....

2011-06-10

342

76 FR 34070 - Secretary of Energy Advisory Board, Natural Gas Subcommittee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...by the Secretary. The Natural Gas Subcommittee was established...environmental performance of natural gas hydraulic fracturing from shale formations, thereby harnessing...agenda includes presentations from shale gas stakeholders and experts....

2011-06-10

343

Preliminary report on the commercial viability of gas production from natural gas hydrates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Economic studies on simulated gas hydrate reservoirs have been compiled to estimate the price of natural gas that may lead to economically viable production from the most promising gas hydrate accumulations. As a first estimate, $CDN2005 12/Mscf is the lowest gas price that would allow economically viable production from gas hydrates in the absence of associated free gas, while an underlying gas deposit will reduce the viability price estimate to $CDN2005 7.50/Mscf. Results from a recent analysis of the simulated production of natural gas from marine hydrate deposits are also considered in this report; on an IROR basis, it is $US2008 3.50-4.00/Mscf more expensive to produce marine hydrates than conventional marine gas assuming the existence of sufficiently large marine hydrate accumulations. While these prices represent the best available estimates, the economic evaluation of a specific project is highly dependent on the producibility of the target zone, the amount of gas in place, the associated geologic and depositional environment, existing pipeline infrastructure, and local tariffs and taxes. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Walsh, M.R.; Hancock, S.H.; Wilson, S.J.; Patil, S.L.; Moridis, G.J.; Boswell, R.; Collett, T.S.; Koh, C.A.; Sloan, E.D.

2009-01-01

344

Supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

My dissertation concentrates on several aspects of supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry, including gas pipeline transportations, ocean LNG shipping logistics, and downstream storage. Chapter 1 briefly introduces the natural gas and LNG industries, and the topics studied in this thesis. Chapter 2 studies how to value U.S. natural gas pipeline network transport contracts as real options. It is common for natural gas shippers to value and manage contracts by simple adaptations of financial spread option formulas that do not fully account for the implications of the capacity limits and the network structure that distinguish these contracts. In contrast, we show that these operational features can be fully captured and integrated with financial considerations in a fairly easy and managerially significant manner by a model that combines linear programming and simulation. We derive pathwise estimators for the so called deltas and structurally characterize them. We interpret them in a novel fashion as discounted expectations, under a specific weighing distribution, of the amounts of natural gas to be procured/marketed when optimally using pipeline capacity. Based on the actual prices of traded natural gas futures and basis swaps, we show that an enhanced version of the common approach employed in practice can significantly underestimate the true value of natural gas pipeline network capacity. Our model also exhibits promising financial (delta) hedging performance. Thus, this model emerges as an easy to use and useful tool that natural gas shippers can employ to support their valuation and delta hedging decisions concerning natural gas pipeline network transport capacity contracts. Moreover, the insights that follow from our data analysis have broader significance and implications in terms of the management of real options beyond our specific application. Motivated by current developments in the LNG industry, Chapter 3 studies the operations of LNG supply chains facing both supply and price risk. To model the supply uncertainty, we employ a closed-queuing-network (CQN) model to represent upstream LNG production and shipping, via special oceans-going tankers, to a downstream re-gasification facility in the U.S, which sells natural gas into the wholesale spot market. The CQN shipping model analytically generates the unloaded amount probability distribution. Price uncertainty is captured by the spot price, which experiences both volatility and significant seasonality, i.e., higher prices in winter. We use a trinomial lattice to model the price uncertainty, and calibrate to the extended forward curves. Taking the outputs from the CQN model and the spot price model as stochastic inputs, we formulate a real option inventory-release model to study the benefit of optimally managing a downstream LNG storage facility. This allows characterization of the structure of the optimal inventory management policy. An interesting finding is that when it is optimal to sell, it is not necessarily optimal to sell the entire available inventory. The model can be used by LNG players to value and manage the real option to store LNG at a re-gasification facility, and is easy to be implemented. For example, this model is particularly useful to value leasing contracts for portions of the facility capacity. Real data is used to assess the value of the real option to store LNG at the downstream re-gasification facility, and, contrary to what has been claimed by some practitioners, we find that it has significant value (several million dollars). Chapter 4 studies the importance of modeling the shipping variability when valuing and managing a downstream LNG storage facility. The shipping model presented in Chapter 3 uses a "rolling forward" method to generate the independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) unloaded amount in each decision period. We study the merit of the i.i.d. assumption by using simulation and developing an upper bound. We show that the model

Wang, Mulan Xiaofeng

345

Natural Gas Implementation in Turkey. Part 2: Natural Gas Pipeline Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Caspian Sea (CS) region's oil and gas potential has attracted much attention since the breakup of the Soviet Union. The nations in the CS region, namely Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, are already major energy producers, and production will increase with additional investment, technology, and the development of new export outlets. Oil and gas transportation is a

HARUN KEMAL OZTURK; ARIF HEPBASLI

2004-01-01

346

Energy Taxes and Natural Gas Demand in EU-Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Producers or consumers faced with an increase in taxes are usually able to shift parts of it to other levels in the value chain. We examine who is actually bearing the burden of increased energy taxes in the EU-area - consumers or exporters. Traditional tax incidence theory presumes spot markets. Natural gas in the EU-area, however, is to a large

Frank Asche; Petter Osmundsen; Ragnar Tveterås

2001-01-01

347

Estimating Externalities of Natural Gas Fuel Cycles, Report 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes methods for estimating the external costs (and possibly benefits) to human health and the environment that result from natural gas fuel cycles. Although the concept of externalities is far from simple or precise, it generally refers to effects on individuals' well being, that result from a production or market activity in which the individuals do not participate,

L. W. Barnthouse; G. F. Cada; M.-D. Cheng; C. E. Easterly; R. L. Kroodsma; R. Lee; D. S. Shriner; V. R. Tolbert; R. S. Turner

1998-01-01

348

Long-term planning of natural gas networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the forthcoming regulation schemes throughout Europe, new challenges for natural gas network operators arise. The pressure for realising and operating cost-efficient network structures increases as the regulation is based on comparison between network operators and the tolerable costs are set by the network operator with minimal costs. Computer-based optimisation methods, which will also be applied by Regulatory Authorities

Michael Hübner; Hans-Jürgen Haubrich

2008-01-01

349

The rate structure of the natural gas pipeline industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many economists have urged regulatory commissions to pay closer attention to the rate structures of public utility companies. Tele-communications, rail transportation, and electric power are all said to be practical areas of rate structure experimentation. However, the rate structure of the natural gas pipeline industry, a regulated sector of the economy, has received limited comment. This is particularly disappointing since

Curtis A. Cramer

1975-01-01

350

Transferring transmission pricing principles from electricity to natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the application of several electricity transmission cost allocation methods to compute natural gas transmission tariffs. Cost allocation methods that have been implemented include four of the most relevant transmission cost allocation methods that have been considered in the electricity sector. These are analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. In order to do this, equations modeling the flow of

Clodomiro Unsihuay-Vila; Luis Olmos; Ignacio J. Pérez-Arriaga

2008-01-01

351

Natural Gas and Income Distribution in Bolivia 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The increase in Natural Gas sales to Brazil in the coming years will bring about substantial changes in the Bolivian economy. In this paper, we use a general equilibrium model to simulate the changes that will occur in the Bolivian economy and will consider the distributional impacts that are likely to arise from these economic changes.

ANDEAN COMPETITIVENESS PROJECT; Lykke E. Andersen; Robert Faris

352

PRODUCTION OF SYNTHETIC NATURAL GAS FROM BIOMASS - PROCESS INTEGRATED DRYING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opportunities for process integrated feedstock drying in connection with the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) from wet biomass via indirect gasification are investigated in this study. Drying is a very energy-intensive process step - corresponding to about 10% of the dry fuel lower heating value for woody biomass. Process integrated drying offers opportunities for reducing the external energy supply

Stefan Heyne; Simon Harvey

353

Gaseous fueled vehicles: A role for natural gas and hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

The commercialization of gaseous hydrogen fueled vehicles requires both the development of hydrogen fueled vehicles and the establishment of a hydrogen fueling infrastructure. These requirements create a classic chicken and egg scenario in that manufacturers will not build and consumers will not buy vehicles without an adequate refueling infrastructure and potential refueling station operators will not invest the needed capital without an adequate market to serve. One solution to this dilemma is to create a bridging strategy whereby hydrogen is introduced gradually via another carrier. The only contending alternative fuel that can act as a bridge to hydrogen fueled vehicles is natural gas. To explore this possibility, IGT is conducting emission tests on its dedicated natural gas vehicle (NGV) test platform to determine what, if any, effects small quantities of hydrogen have on emissions and performance. Furthermore, IGT is actively developing an adsorbent based low-pressure natural gas storage system for NGV applications. This system has also shown promise as a storage media for hydrogen. A discussion of our research results in this area will be presented. Finally, a review of IGT's testing facility will be presented to indicate our capabilities in conducted natural gas/hydrogen vehicle (NGHV) research. 3 refs., 10 figs.

Blazek, C.F.; Jasionowski, W.J.

1991-01-01

354

Compressed natural gas fuel may be the future for Phoenix  

Microsoft Academic Search

It's the law: the future must include cleaner air, and alternative fuels for vehicular engines is one way to achieve it. In Phoenix, a city beset by moderate air quality problems, equipment managers of the Public Works Department's (PWD) fleet say their future seems to be with compressed natural gas (CNG). CNG fuels a pair of refuse packer trucks that

1994-01-01

355

Compressed Natural Gas Bus Safety: A Quantitative Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the fire safety risks associated with compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle systems, comprising primarily a typical school bus and supporting fuel infrastructure. The study determines the sensitivity of the results to variations in component failure rates and consequences of fire events. The components and subsystems that contribute most to fire safety risk are determined. Finally, the results

Samuel Chamberlain; Mohammad Modarres

2005-01-01

356

Development of a compressed natural gas electric hybrid vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A near term compressed natural gas (CNG) parallel electric hybrid vehicle has been developed which utilizes the Plymouth Neon as a base vehicle. The primary aim was to retain all the consumer desired features of the base vehicle as well as providing in addition short range electric capability

M. R. Seal

1995-01-01

357

Removal of methane from compressed natural gas fueled vehicle exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to investigate the modes of methane (CH[sub 4]) removal from simulated compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled vehicle exhaust under net oxidizing, net reducing, and stoichiometric conditions. Model reaction studies were conducted. The results suggest that the oxidation of methane with oxygen contributes to the removal of methane under net oxidizing conditions. In contrast, the

S. Subramanian; R. J. Kudla; M. S. Chattha

1992-01-01

358

Process for the liquefaction and subcooling of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linde AG improved the Claude closed refrigerating cycle for liquefying and subcooling natural gas by using a mixture of nitrogen and methane as the cycle medium. This mixture allows the temperature range of evaporation to be easily adapted to the temperature range of subcooling, improves refrigerating capacity, and compensates for leakage losses of the cycle medium at less cost by

W. Foerg; P. Grimm

1974-01-01

359

An Examination of the International Natural Gas Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractRecent developments in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry, particularly the ongoing projects of liquefaction and regasification and the increasing number of LNG-carriers to be delivered in forthcoming years, have led some specialists to argue that LNG is today at the crossroads between regionalisation and globalisation. Other specialists think that, by 2010, LNG's share of the total international trade of

Ahmed Mazighi

2003-01-01

360

Turkey's Natural Gas, Hydropower, and Geothermal Energy Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with Turkey's natural gas, hydropower, and geothermal energy policies. Turkey has made repeated efforts to increase foreign investment in its power industry. Turkey's energy demand is growing at 8% a year, one of the highest rates in the world. But investment has lagged far behind what is required to ensure reliable supply. Turkey's energy use causes serious

AYHAN DEMIRBAS; AYSE SAHIN-DEMIRBAS; A. HILAL DEMIRBAS

2004-01-01

361

Internal combustion engines fueled by natural gas—hydrogen mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a survey of research papers on utilization of natural gas–hydrogen mixtures in internal combustion engines is carried out. In general, HC, CO2, and CO emissions decrease with increasing H2, but NOx emissions generally increase. If a catalytic converter is used, NOx emission values can be decreased to extremely low levels. Consequently, equivalence zero emission vehicles (EZEV) standards

S. Orhan Akansu; Zafer Dulger; Nafiz Kahraman; T. Nejat Veziro?lu

2004-01-01

362

Development of an autoignition submodel for natural gas engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new autoignition submodel for engine modeling codes. This submodel does not require extensive computational resources and is easily portable to various computational environments. It also considers variation of natural gas composition due to propane addition. Computation results show that the knock occurrence crank angle can be predicted within 2° CA when the model is coupled to

Seref Soylu; Jon Van Gerpen

2003-01-01

363

US Natural Gas Price and Its Influencing Factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research has shown that the Henry Hub natural gas price and the WTI crude oil price are cointegrated in the long run; however, the short term relationship between these two energy prices draws continued discussions and remains inconclusive so far. This paper uses advanced nonlinear time series method MARS VAR to study the dynamic relationship between natural gas price movements and crude oil prices over the past 14 years of daily data. The main finding is that WTI crude oil prices were causally prior to Henry Hub natural gas prices prior to 2004. After this period a decoupling occurred that was captured by the MARS VAR model but not seen in other research using vector error correction model (VECM) that does not support thresholds. Moreover, the out-of-sample forecasting power of MARS VAR is superior to VECM, which based on the cointegration assumption. The research findings may have significant implications of commodity pricing, hedging, and risk management to natural gas local distribution company (LDC), and the Energy Administration.

Kao, Hsing-Chien

364

Estimating Major and Minor Natural Fracture Patterns in Gas  

E-print Network

Identification of infill drilling locations has been challenging with mixed results in gas shales. Natural-two (Isolated) Wells No well in 1000 acre spacing Tier-three (Infill) Wells At least one well 640 acre spacing the stream network: Create the surface model form the points data. Create the flow direction. Shows

Mohaghegh, Shahab

365

Resilience of Natural Gas Networks during Conflicts, Crises and Disruptions  

PubMed Central

Human conflict, geopolitical crises, terrorist attacks, and natural disasters can turn large parts of energy distribution networks offline. Europe's current gas supply network is largely dependent on deliveries from Russia and North Africa, creating vulnerabilities to social and political instabilities. During crises, less delivery may mean greater congestion, as the pipeline network is used in ways it has not been designed for. Given the importance of the security of natural gas supply, we develop a model to handle network congestion on various geographical scales. We offer a resilient response strategy to energy shortages and quantify its effectiveness for a variety of relevant scenarios. In essence, Europe's gas supply can be made robust even to major supply disruptions, if a fair distribution strategy is applied. PMID:24621655

Carvalho, Rui; Buzna, Lubos; Bono, Flavio; Masera, Marcelo; Arrowsmith, David K.; Helbing, Dirk

2014-01-01

366

Natural gas production from hydrate dissociation: An axisymmetric model  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an axisymmetric model for natural gas production from the dissociation of methane hydrate in a confined reservoir by a depressurizing well. During the hydrate dissociation, heat and mass transfer in the reservoir are analyzed. The system of governing equations is solved by a finite difference scheme. For different well pressures and reservoir temperatures, distributions of temperature and pressure in the reservoir, as well as the natural gas production from the well are evaluated. The numerical results are compared with those obtained by a linearization method. It is shown that the gas production rate is a sensitive function of well pressure. The simulation results are compared with the linearization approach and the shortcomings of the earlier approach are discussed.

Ahmadi, G. (Clarkson Univ., Pottsdam, NY); Ji, Chuang (Clarkson Univ., Pottsdam, NY); Smith, D.H.

2007-08-01

367

Resilience of natural gas networks during conflicts, crises and disruptions  

E-print Network

Human conflict, geopolitical crises, terrorist attacks, and natural disasters can turn large parts of energy distribution networks offline. Europe's current gas supply network is largely dependent on deliveries from Russia and North Africa, creating vulnerabililties to social and political instabilities. During crises, less delivery may mean greater congestion, as the pipeline network is used in ways it has not been designed for. Given the importance of the security of natural gas supply, we develop a model to handle network congestion on various geographical scales. We offer a resilient response strategy to energy shortages and quantify its effectiveness for a variety of relevant scenarios. In essence, Europe's gas supply can be made robust even to major supply disruptions, if a fair distribution strategy is applied.

Carvalho, Rui; Bono, Flavio; Masera, Marcelo; Arrowsmith, David K; Helbing, Dirk

2013-01-01

368

21 CFR 870.1370 - Catheter tip occluder.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1370 Catheter tip occluder. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

369

Natural Gas Imports and Exports. Third Quarter Report 1999  

SciTech Connect

The second quarter 1997 Quarterly Report of Natural Gas Imports and Exports featured a Quarterly Focus report on cross-border natural gas trade between the United States and Mexico. This Quarterly Focus article is a follow-up to the 1997 report. This report revisits and updates the status of some of the pipeline projects discussed in 1997, and examines a number of other planned cross-border pipeline facilities which were proposed subsequent to our 1997 report. A few of the existing and proposed pipelines are bidirectional and thus have the capability of serving either Mexico, or the United States, depending on market conditions and gas supply availability. These new projects, if completed, would greatly enhance the pipeline infrastructure on the U.S.-Mexico border and would increase gas pipeline throughput capacity for cross-border trade by more than 1 billion cubic feet (Bcf) per day. The Quarterly Focus is comprised of five sections. Section I includes the introduction as well as a brief historic overview of U.S./Mexican natural gas trade; a discussion of Mexico's energy regulatory structure; and a review of trade agreements and a 1992 legislative change which allows for her cross-border gas trade in North America. Section II looks at initiatives that have been taken by the Mexican Government since 1995to open its energy markets to greater competition and privatization. Section III reviews Mexican gas demand forecasts and looks at future opportunities for U.S. gas producers to supplement Mexico's indigenous supplies in order to meet the anticipated rapid growth in demand. Section IV examines the U.S.-Mexico natural gas trade in recent years. It also looks specifically at monthly import and export volumes and prices and identifies short-term trends in this trade. Finally, Section V reviews the existing and planned cross-border gas pipeline infrastructure. The section also specifically describes six planned pipelines intended to expand this pipeline network and their planned in-service dates.

none

1999-10-01

370

Accounting for fuel price risk: Using forward natural gas prices instead of gas price forecasts to compare renewable to natural gas-fired generation  

SciTech Connect

Against the backdrop of increasingly volatile natural gas prices, renewable energy resources, which by their nature are immune to natural gas fuel price risk, provide a real economic benefit. Unlike many contracts for natural gas-fired generation, renewable generation is typically sold under fixed-price contracts. Assuming that electricity consumers value long-term price stability, a utility or other retail electricity supplier that is looking to expand its resource portfolio (or a policymaker interested in evaluating different resource options) should therefore compare the cost of fixed-price renewable generation to the hedged or guaranteed cost of new natural gas-fired generation, rather than to projected costs based on uncertain gas price forecasts. To do otherwise would be to compare apples to oranges: by their nature, renewable resources carry no natural gas fuel price risk, and if the market values that attribute, then the most appropriate comparison is to the hedged cost of natural gas-fired generation. Nonetheless, utilities and others often compare the costs of renewable to gas-fired generation using as their fuel price input long-term gas price forecasts that are inherently uncertain, rather than long-term natural gas forward prices that can actually be locked in. This practice raises the critical question of how these two price streams compare. If they are similar, then one might conclude that forecast-based modeling and planning exercises are in fact approximating an apples-to-apples comparison, and no further consideration is necessary. If, however, natural gas forward prices systematically differ from price forecasts, then the use of such forecasts in planning and modeling exercises will yield results that are biased in favor of either renewable (if forwards < forecasts) or natural gas-fired generation (if forwards > forecasts). In this report we compare the cost of hedging natural gas price risk through traditional gas-based hedging instruments (e.g., futures, swaps, and fixed-price physical supply contracts) to contemporaneous forecasts of spot natural gas prices, with the purpose of identifying any systematic differences between the two. Although our data set is quite limited, we find that over the past three years, forward gas prices for durations of 2-10 years have been considerably higher than most natural gas spot price forecasts, including the reference case forecasts developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This difference is striking, and implies that resource planning and modeling exercises based on these forecasts over the past three years have yielded results that are biased in favor of gas-fired generation (again, presuming that long-term stability is desirable). As discussed later, these findings have important ramifications for resource planners, energy modelers, and policy-makers.

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

2003-08-13

371

Natural gas: Imports and exports third quarter report 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Fuels Programs prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies with authorizations to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports with the OFP. This report is for the third quarter of 1993 (July--September). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past twelve months (October 1992--September 1993). Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

Not Available

1993-12-31

372

Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Likewise, it is expected that changes to the domestic gas supply may also introduce changes in natural gas composition. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from conventional domestic natural gas supplies. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 588 K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx or CO emissions. These results are different from data collected on some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences will be described.

Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Casleton, K.H.; Richards, G.A.

2007-03-01

373

Central Appalachian basin natural gas database: distribution, composition, and origin of natural gases  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has compiled a database consisting of three worksheets of central Appalachian basin natural gas analyses and isotopic compositions from published and unpublished sources of 1,282 gas samples from Kentucky, Maryland, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. The database includes field and reservoir names, well and State identification number, selected geologic reservoir properties, and the composition of natural gases (methane; ethane; propane; butane, iso-butane [i-butane]; normal butane [n-butane]; iso-pentane [i-pentane]; normal pentane [n-pentane]; cyclohexane, and hexanes). In the first worksheet, location and American Petroleum Institute (API) numbers from public or published sources are provided for 1,231 of the 1,282 gas samples. A second worksheet of 186 gas samples was compiled from published sources and augmented with public location information and contains carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen isotopic measurements of natural gas. The third worksheet is a key for all abbreviations in the database. The database can be used to better constrain the stratigraphic distribution, composition, and origin of natural gas in the central Appalachian basin.

Roman-Colon, Yomayra A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.

2015-01-01

374

Mid-continent natural gas reservoirs and plays  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas reservoirs of the mid-continent states of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Arkansas (northern part) have produced 103 trillion cubic ft (tcf) of natural gas. Oklahoma has produced the most, having a cumulative production of 71 tcf. The major reservoirs (those that have produced more than 10 billion ft[sup 3]) have been identified and organized into 28 plays based on geologic age, lithology, and depositional environment. The Atlas of Major Midcontinent Gas Reservoirs, published in 1993, provides the documentation for these plays. This atlas was a collaborative effort of the Gas Research Institute; Bureau of Economic Geology. The University of Texas at Austin; Arkansas Geological Commission; Kansas Geological survey; and Oklahoma Geological Survey. Total cumulative production for 530 major reservoirs is 66 tcf associated and nonassociated gas. Oklahoma has the highest production with 39 tcf from 390 major reservoirs, followed by Kansas with 26 tcf from 105 major reservoirs. Most of the mid-continent production is from Pennsylvanian (46%) and Permian (41%) reservoirs; Mississippian reservoirs account for 10% production, and lower Paleozoic reservoirs, 3%. The largest play by far is the Wolfcampian Shallow Shelf Carbonate-Hugoton Embayment play with 25 tcf cumulative production, most of which is from the Hugoton and Panoma fields in Kansas and Guymon-Hugoton gas area in Oklahoma. A total of 53% of the mid-continent gas production is from dolostone and limestone reservoirs; 39% is from sandstone reservoirs. The remaining 8% is from chert conglomerate and granite-wash reservoirs. Geologically based plays established from the distribution of major gas reservoirs provide important support for the extension of productive trends, application of new resource technology to more efficient field development, and further exploration in the mid-continent region.

Bebout, D.G. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States))

1993-09-01

375

The Nature of Ionized Gas in Giant Elliptical Galaxies  

E-print Network

I review the current understanding of the origin and nature of ``warm'' ionized gas in giant elliptical galaxies in the light of results of recent imaging and spectroscopic surveys. CCD imaging surveys have revealed that emission-line disks or filaments are (as a rule) associated with dust absorption, even in the X-ray brightest systems. This strongly suggests that the origin of this ionized gas is generally not through ``cooling flows''; galaxy interactions are favored instead. Using data from a new spectrophotometric survey of ``normal'' elliptical galaxies covering the whole optical range, the extended ionized gas in giant ellipticals is found to be --without exception-- of the LINER class, and most probably NOT powered by star formation activity. I discuss two independent pieces of evidence which suggest that the extended gas in giant ellipticals is ionized by means of a distributed source of ionization: (i) A significant correlation exists between the H-alpha+[NII]luminosity and the optical luminosity within the region occupied by the ionized gas, and (ii) the ionization parameter of the gas does not change significantly with galactocentric radius. Two potential sources of ionization are evaluated: Photoionization by old hot stars (of post-AGB and/or AGB-Manque' type) and mechanical energy flux from electron conduction in hot, X-ray-emitting gas.

Paul Goudfrooij

1998-09-04

376

ALGERIAN NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION NETWORK : RELIABLE MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS AND CONTROL, AND EXPERIENCE OF ALGERIA IN THE GAS METERING STATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

st century. Algeria, a gas country, a traditional player in gas industry , an important gas supplier, particularly to Europe, has developed close cooperation relationship with major gas countries operating in the market. The objective is to increase exports and, thus, contribute to meet the increasing demand, particularly in the European market. Algerian natural gas pipelines are operated using sophisticated

Abdelkrim Ainouche

377

METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 10: METERING AND PRESSURE REGULATING STATIONS IN NATURAL GAS TRANSMISSIONS AND DISTRIBUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

378

Roadmap for Development of Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructructure and Analysis of Vehicular Natural Gas Consumption by Niche Sector  

SciTech Connect

Vehicular natural gas consumption is on the rise, totaling nearly 200 million GGEs in 2005, despite declines in total NGV inventory in recent years. This may be attributed to greater deployment of higher fuel use medium- and heavy-duty NGVs as compared to the low fuel use of the natural gas-powered LDVs that exited the market through attrition, many of which were bi-fuel. Natural gas station counts are down to about 1100 from their peak of about 1300. Many of the stations that closed were under-utilized or not used at all while most new stations were developed with greater attention to critical business fundamentals such as site selection, projected customer counts, peak and off-peak fueling capacity needs and total station throughput. Essentially, the nation's NGV fueling infrastructure has been--and will continue--going through a 'market correction'. While current economic fundamentals have shortened payback and improved life-cycle savings for investment in NGVs and fueling infrastructure, a combination of grants and other financial incentives will still be needed to overcome general fleet market inertia to maintain status quo. Also imperative to the market's adoption of NGVs and other alternative fueled vehicle and fueling technologies is a clear statement of long-term federal government commitment to diversifying our nation's transportation fuel use portfolio and, more specifically, the role of natural gas in that policy. Based on the current NGV market there, and the continued promulgation of clean air and transportation policies, the Western Region is--and will continue to be--the dominant region for vehicular natural gas use and growth. In other regions, especially the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic states and Texas, increased awareness and attention to air quality and energy security concerns by the public and - more important, elected officials--are spurring policies and programs that facilitate deployment of NGVs and fueling infrastructure. Because of their high per-vehicle fuel use, central fueling and sensitivity to fuel costs, fleets will continue to be the primary target for NGV deployment and station development efforts. The transit sector is projected to continue to account for the greatest vehicular natural gas use and for new volume growth. New tax incentives and improved life-cycle economics also create opportunities to deploy additional vehicles and install related vehicular natural gas fueling infrastructure in the refuse, airport and short-haul sectors. Focusing on fleets generates the highest vehicular natural gas throughout but it doesn't necessarily facilitate public fueling infrastructure because, generally, fleet operators prefer not to allow public access due to liability concerns and revenue and tax administrative burdens. While there are ways to overcome this reluctance, including ''outside the fence'' retail dispensers and/or co-location of public and ''anchor'' fleet dispensing capability at a mutually convenient existing or new retail location, each has challenges that complicate an already complex business transaction. Partnering with independent retail fuel station companies, especially operators of large ''truck stops'' on the major interstates, to include natural gas at their facilities may build public fueling infrastructure and demand enough to entice the major oil companies to once again engage. Garnering national mass media coverage of success in California and Utah where vehicular natural gas fueling infrastructure is more established will help pave the way for similar consumer market growth and inclusion of public accessibility at stations in other regions. There isn't one ''right'' business model for growing the nation's NGV inventory and fueling infrastructure. Different types of station development and ownership-operation strategies will continue to be warranted for different customers in different markets. Factors affecting NGV deployment and station development include: regional air quality compliance status and the state and/or local political climate regarding mandates and/or in

Stephen C. Yborra

2007-04-30

379

Natural Gas markets:How Sensitive to Crude Oil Price Changes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates sensitivity of U.S. natural gas price to crude oil price changes, using time-varying coefficient models. Identification of the range of variation of the sensitivity of natural gas price to oil price change allows more accurate assessment of upper and minimum risk levels that can be utilized in pricing natural gas derivatives such as gas futures and option

Ibrahim A. Onour

2009-01-01

380

Natural gas markets: how sensitive are they to crude oil price changes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis paper investigates sensitivity of US natural gas price with crude oil price changes, using time-varying coefficient models. Identification of the range of variation of the sensitivity of natural gas price to oil price change allows more accurate assessment of upper and minimum risk levels that can be utilised in pricing natural gas derivatives such as gas futures and option

Ibrahim A. Onour

2009-01-01

381

Apparatus for the liquefaction of natural gas and methods relating to same  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating

Bruce M. Wilding; Dennis N. Bingham; Michael G. McKellar; Terry D. Turner; Kevin T. Raterman; Gary L. Palmer; Kerry M. Klingler; John J. Vranicar

2007-01-01

382

Apparatus For The Liquefaaction Of Natural Gas And Methods Relating To Same  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating

Bruce M. Wilding; Dennis N. Bingham; Michael G. McKellar; Terry D. Turner; Kevin T. Raterman; Gary L. Palmer; Kerry M. Klingler; John J. Vranicar

2005-01-01

383

New Natural Gas Storage and Transportation Capabilities Utilizing Rapid Methane Hydrate Formation Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas (methane as the major component) is a vital fossil fuel for the United States and around the world. One of the problems with some of this natural gas is that it is in remote areas where there is little or no local use for the gas. Nearly 50 percent worldwide natural gas reserves of ~6,254.4 trillion ft3 (tcf)

T. D. Brown; C. E. Taylor; M. Bernardo

2010-01-01

384

Apparatus for the liquefaction of natural gas and methods relating to same  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through an expander creating work

Bruce M. Wilding; Michael G. McKellar; Terry D. Turner; Francis H. Carney

2009-01-01

385

Apparatus For The Liquefaaction Of Natural Gas And Methods Relating To Same  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating

Bruce M. Wilding; Dennis N. Bingham; Michael G. McKellar; Terry D. Turner; Kevin T. Raterman; Gary L. Palmer; Kerry M. Klingler; John J. Vranicar

2003-01-01

386

Production of bio-synthetic natural gas in Canada.  

PubMed

Large-scale production of renewable synthetic natural gas from biomass (bioSNG) in Canada was assessed for its ability to mitigate energy security and climate change risks. The land area within 100 km of Canada's network of natural gas pipelines was estimated to be capable of producing 67-210 Mt of dry lignocellulosic biomass per year with minimal adverse impacts on food and fiber production. Biomass gasification and subsequent methanation and upgrading were estimated to yield 16,000-61,000 Mm(3) of pipeline-quality gas (equivalent to 16-63% of Canada's current gas use). Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of bioSNG-based electricity were calculated to be only 8.2-10% of the emissions from coal-fired power. Although predicted production costs ($17-21 GJ(-1)) were much higher than current energy prices, a value for low-carbon energy would narrow the price differential. A bioSNG sector could infuse Canada's rural economy with $41-130 billion of investments and create 410,000-1,300,000 jobs while developing a nation-wide low-carbon energy system. PMID:20175525

Hacatoglu, Kevork; McLellan, P James; Layzell, David B

2010-03-15

387

Compact high-power MHD electric station on natural gas  

SciTech Connect

The results of preliminary study of the compact combined electric power station (CPS) of high-power, composed from 4 autonomous identical power units, are presented. Each power unit includes the closed cycle disk MHD generator on non-equilibrium plasma with gas turbine and gas turbine power plant (GTPP) of open cycle. The power station is intended for conversion of the chemical energy of natural gas into electric power immediately on a field with the subsequent transmission of it to the existing power system. The proposed electric power of CPS amounts to {approx}16 GWe ({approx}28 GWt) at consumption of a natural gas mass flow rate 590 kg/s. The power of one unit is {approx}4 GWe. A binary combined Brayton cycle on a ground of GTPP with firing of natural gas and MHD generator on inert gas (Ar) of high-pressure (2.5 MPa) is reviewed. It provides CPS efficiency {approx}58%. Conceptual system of power unit include the 3 identical open loops with GTPP and closed loop with high power disk MHD generator. The transformation and transmission systems of electric power from ac generator and dc MHD generator, a direct current with 500 kV voltage by cable to distances up to 600 km, are calculated and designed. The CPS structural block-scheme, multiple-unit scheme of cycles, main components, both parameters and features of power unit, layout and general view of CPS are presented. The minimization of mass and volume of units and CPS as a whole at reasonable meaning of efficiency is fulfilled. The executed designs have shown that the proposed CPS can be accommodated in bulk 140 x 140 x 50 m{sup 3}, thus its complete mass will make {approx}60,000 tons.

Velikhov, E.P.; Bykov, V.P.; Kuznetsov, V.P.; Lavkovsky, S.A.; Topelberg, V.V.; Osipov, M.I.; Panchenko, V.P.

1998-07-01

388

HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

This first quarter report of 2001 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf{trademark} (service mark of Gas Research Institute) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. During this reporting periods new catalyst formulations were tested. The experiments showed that the newest catalyst has slightly better performance, but catalyst TDA No.2 is still superior overall for use with the hybrid CrystaSulf process due to lower costs. Plans for catalyst pelletization and continued testing are described.

Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

2001-05-01

389

New Market Designs and their Effect on Economic Performance in European Union's Natural Gas Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European gas market reform triggered new market designs which aimed to achieve competitive natural gas prices, efficiency gains, and security of gas supply. The paper analyses to what extent the effects of regulation-for-competition in the field of gas transport and related commodity measures on economic performance in the form of natural gas prices, network tariffs, efficiency gains, and investments

Nadine Haase; Hans Bressers

2010-01-01

390

Efficiency of Natural Gas Flares Associated with Shale Formation Wells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydraulic fracturing has increased access and economic viability of shale oil reserves. Currently the Bakken Oil field in North Dakota is experiencing a rapid increase in the drilling of shale oil wells. However, this process typically results in the simultaneous release of natural gas. Low natural gas prices and the lack of local gas pipeline infrastructure have decreased the incentive for companies to capture this natural gas, with many opting to vent or flare the natural gas instead. The impact of these operations on greenhouse gas emissions has not been well characterized. An undocumented variable of interest is the destruction efficiency of methane in active oil field flares. In situ measurements of flare efficiency are difficult to obtain because of the inaccessibility of the flares. In June of 2012 we conducted flights over shale oil wells and flares in the Bakken Formation near Williston, ND using Purdue University's Airborne Laboratory for Atmospheric Research (ALAR) which is equipped with a 0.5 Hz Picarro CO2/CH4/H2O analyzer and a Best Air Turbulence (BAT) probe that measures the wind vectors. In addition, one flare in the Marcellus Formation near Washington, PA was also sampled. Flare signals were identified based on the enhancements of CO2 above the ambient background signal and the corresponding colocated CH4 concentration. Enhancements were isolated by subtracting the background concentrations of CO2 and CH4 to obtain delta CO2 and delta CH4 values. Emission factors to be reported are obtained as the ratio delta CH4 divided by delta CO2. We will report first in situ measurements of natural gas flare efficiency. We observed a variety of meteorological conditions with winds ranging from 4 to 15 m/s and will report on the relationship between wind speed and flare efficiency. We observed very high flare efficiency even under strong winds (at least 99.8% CO2 for all flares). During flare sampling, we observed a number of CH4 enhancements that were uncoupled with CO2 enhancements. In this presentation, we will discuss our investigation of the sources, and relative magnitudes of these direct venting sources.

Stirm, B.; Caulton, D.; Shepson, P.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Mccabe, D. C.; Baum, E.

2012-12-01

391

NATURAL GAS FOR TRANSPORTATION OR ELECTRICITY? CLIMATE CHANGE IMPLICATIONS Date: 27-Oct-11  

E-print Network

failure: The use of compressed natural gas (CNG) instead of gasoline in cars and instead of dieselNATURAL GAS FOR TRANSPORTATION OR ELECTRICITY? CLIMATE CHANGE IMPLICATIONS Date: 27-Oct-11 Natural reliance on foreign oil, and low environmental impacts are supporting the increased use of natural gas

McGaughey, Alan

392

Natural gas contracts in an emerging competitive market  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas is being viewed by many as the fuel of the 1990s and beyond because of its environmental qualities, relatively low cost and significant domestic resource base. However, in the Fall of 1991, a group of electric utility executives met with then Deputy Secretary of Energy Henson Moore and asserted that an inability to obtain long term gas contracts meant that supplies are unreliable and construction of gas-fueled generating stations is being discouraged. This study was requested by the Deputy Secretary to address the issues surrounding long-term gas contracts and supply reliability. The relationship between supply reliability and contracts is explained in terms of the number of buyers and sellers in a market. With the appropriate state regulatory policies, utilities can contract for gas and obtain reliable supplies at competitive market prices. Public utility commissioners are encouraged to permit utilities a free choice in signing gas contracts, but to allow only competitive market prices to be reflected in allowable fuel costs.

Sutherland, R.J.

1992-11-01

393

Natural gas contracts in an emerging competitive market  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas is being viewed by many as the fuel of the 1990s and beyond because of its environmental qualities, relatively low cost and significant domestic resource base. However, in the Fall of 1991, a group of electric utility executives met with then Deputy Secretary of Energy Henson Moore and asserted that an inability to obtain long term gas contracts meant that supplies are unreliable and construction of gas-fueled generating stations is being discouraged. This study was requested by the Deputy Secretary to address the issues surrounding long-term gas contracts and supply reliability. The relationship between supply reliability and contracts is explained in terms of the number of buyers and sellers in a market. With the appropriate state regulatory policies, utilities can contract for gas and obtain reliable supplies at competitive market prices. Public utility commissioners are encouraged to permit utilities a free choice in signing gas contracts, but to allow only competitive market prices to be reflected in allowable fuel costs.

Sutherland, R.J.

1992-01-01

394

Recognition of partly occluded patterns: a neural network model.  

PubMed

Human beings are often able to read a letter or word partly occluded by contaminating ink stains. However, if the stains are completely erased and the occluded areas of the letter are changed to white, we usually have difficulty in reading the letter. In this article I propose a hypothesis explaining why a pattern is easier to recognize when it is occluded by visible objects than by invisible opaque objects. A neural network model is constructed based on this hypothesis. The visual system extracts various visual features from the input pattern and then attempts to recognize it. If the occluding objects are not visible, the visual system will have difficulty in distinguishing which features are relevant to the original pattern and which are newly generated by the occlusion. If the occluding objects are visible, however, the visual system can easily discriminate between relevant and irrelevant features and recognize the occluded pattern correctly. The proposed model is an extended version of the neocognitron model. The activity of the feature-extracting cells whose receptive fields cover the occluding objects is suppressed in an early stage of the hierarchical network. Since the irrelevant features generated by the occlusion are thus eliminated, the model can recognize occluded patterns correctly, provided the occlusion is not so large as to prevent recognition even by human beings. PMID:11324336

Fukushima, K

2001-04-01

395

The Research Path to Determining the Natural Gas Supply Potential of Marine Gas Hydrates  

SciTech Connect

A primary goal of the U.S. National Interagency Gas Hydrates R&D program is to determine the natural gas production potential of marine gas hydrates. In pursuing this goal, four primary areas of effort are being conducted in parallel. First, are wide-ranging basic scientific investigations in both the laboratory and in the field designed to advance the understanding of the nature and behavior of gas hydrate bearing sediments (GHBS). This multi-disciplinary work has wide-ranging direct applications to resource recovery, including assisting the development of exploration and production technologies through better rock physics models for GHBS and also in providing key data for numerical simulations of productivity, reservoir geomechanical response, and other phenomena. In addition, fundamental science efforts are essential to developing a fuller understanding of the role gas hydrates play in the natural environment and the potential environmental implications of gas hydrate production, a critical precursor to commercial extraction. A second area of effort is the confirmation of resource presence and viability via a series of multi-well marine drilling expeditions. The collection of data in the field is essential to further clarifying what proportion of the likely immense in-place marine gas hydrate resource exists in accumulations of sufficient quality to represent potential commercial production prospects. A third research focus area is the integration of geologic, geophysical, and geochemical field data into an effective suite of exploration tools that can support the delineation and characterization commercial gas hydrate prospects prior to drilling. The fourth primary research focus is the development and testing of well-based extraction technologies (including drilling, completion, stimulation and production) that can safely deliver commercial gas production rates from gas hydrate reservoirs in a variety of settings. Initial efforts will take advantage of the relatively favorable economics of conducting production tests in Arctic gas-hydrate bearing sandstones with the intent of translating the knowledge gained to later testing in marine sandstone reservoirs. The full and concurrent pusuit of each of these research topics is essential to the determining the future production potential of naturally-occuring gas hydrates.

Boswell, R.M.; Rose, K.K.; Baker, R.C.

2008-06-01

396

Essays on the economics of natural gas pipelines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The natural gas pipeline transportation industry is comprised of a primary market and a secondary market. In the primary market, pipelines sell 'firm' transport capacity contracts to gas traders, local distribution companies, and other parties. The (per unit) secondary market value of transport is rarely comparable to the regulated primary market two-part tariff. When and where available capacity in the secondary market is scarce, its value can far exceed the primary market tariffs paid by firm contract holders, generating scarcity rents. The following essays demonstrate that this phenomenon has predictable effects on natural gas spot prices, firm capacity reservations, the pipeline's capacity construction and expansion decisions, and the economic welfare of producers and consumers at the market hubs connected by the pipeline. Chapter 1 provides a theoretical framework for understanding how pipeline congestion affects natural gas spot prices within the context of the current regulatory environment, and empirically quantifies this effect over a specific regional pipeline network. As available pipeline capacity over a given route connecting two hubs becomes scarce, the spot prices for gas at the hubs are driven apart---a phenomenon indicative of some market friction that inhibits the ability of spot price arbitrage to fully integrate the two prices, undermining economic efficiency. The theoretical component of Chapter 1 illuminates a potential source of this friction: the deregulated structure of the secondary market for gas transportation services. To support and quantify the predictions of the theoretical model, the empirical component demonstrates that the effect of congestion on the secondary market value of transport---the key factor in driving apart spot prices---can be quite strong. Coefficient estimates indicate that dramatic increases in transport costs are likely to result from marginal increases in congestion. This result has important implications because upward pressure on the demand for pipeline transport is imminent, owing to the recent surge in available natural gas reserve estimates and the expected growth in consumption demand over the foreseeable future. Chapter 2 derives optimality conditions for capacity and two-part tariff structure in the primary market, when demand for the shipping service in the secondary market is stochastic but stationary. Based on their individual demand distributions, the overall demand distribution, and the two-part tariff structure, natural gas traders reserve firm capacity contracts over a given transportation route served by a single pipeline. The traders' individual demands sum to the aggregate demand for primary market capacity reservations over the route. The aggregate capacity reservation demand function then feeds into the pipeline's profit-maximization problem, which for comparison is analyzed under three alternative regulatory regimes: unregulated monopoly, Ramsey second-best solution, and rate-of-return regulation. For each case, the optimality conditions are parameterized and solved numerically. Results demonstrate that optimal capacity under rate-of-return regulation is lower than what would occur under a Ramsey second-best solution, exacerbating the congestion issue discussed in Chapter 1, and ultimately reducing overall social welfare. Chapter 3 examines a natural gas trader's willingness to contract expanded capacity over a given pipeline route, when demand in the secondary market is stochastic and increasing over time. A discrete time and scale framework provides the template for analyzing the trader's behavior and solving for his optimal expansion contracting strategy through time. Willingness to contract in any period hinges on the trade-off between the value of the option to contract expanded capacity (now or in a future period), and the 'spread option' value of utilizing contracted capacity to ship gas. The rate-of-return regulated primary market two-part tariff and the unregulated secondary market value of transport each affect these option values, but th

Oliver, Matthew E.

397

Noble gases and radiocarbon in natural gas hydrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In samples of pure natural gas hydrates from Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia Margin, virtually no helium and neon components are present providing evidence that the light noble gases are not incorporated into the structure of natural methane hydrates. In contrast, the hydrates contain significant amounts of argon, krypton and xenon. These gases show a distinct fractionation pattern, with the heavier ones preferentially incorporated into the gas hydrate structure. The hydrate methane is devoid of 14C indicating that there is no contribution of a recent (14C-active) organic carbon reservoir to the hydrate carbon pool. On the basis of the ?13C and ?2H signature, it appears that microbial CO2-reduction is the dominant CH4 production pathway.

Winckler, Gisela; Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner; Holocher, Johannes; Kipfer, Rolf; Levin, Ingeborg; Poss, Christian; Rehder, Gregor; Suess, Erwin; Schlosser, Peter

2002-05-01

398

Virtual Instrumentation Corrosion Controller for Natural Gas Pipelines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion is an electrochemical process. Corrosion in natural gas (methane) pipelines leads to leakages. Corrosion occurs when anode and cathode are connected through electrolyte. Rate of corrosion in metallic pipeline can be controlled by impressing current to it and thereby making it to act as cathode of corrosion cell. Technologically advanced and energy efficient corrosion controller is required to protect natural gas pipelines. Proposed virtual instrumentation (VI) based corrosion controller precisely controls the external corrosion in underground metallic pipelines, enhances its life and ensures safety. Designing and development of proportional-integral-differential (PID) corrosion controller using VI (LabVIEW) is carried out. When the designed controller is deployed at field, it maintains the pipe to soil potential (PSP) within safe operating limit and not entering into over/under protection zone. Horizontal deployment of this technique can be done to protect all metallic structure, oil pipelines, which need corrosion protection.

Gopalakrishnan, J.; Agnihotri, G.; Deshpande, D. M.

2012-12-01

399

Enhanced Prognosis for Abiotic Natural Gas and Petroleum Resources  

E-print Network

The prognosis for potential resources of abiotic natural gas and petroleum depends critically upon the nature and circumstances of Earth formation. Until recently, that prognosis has been considered solely within the framework of the so-called "standard model of solar system formation", which is incorrect and leads to the contradiction of terrestrial planets having insufficiently massive cores. By contrast, that prognosis is considerably enhanced (i) by the new vision I have disclosed of Earth formation as a Jupiter-like gas giant; (ii) by core formation contemporaneous with raining out from within a giant gaseous protoplanet rather than through subsequent whole-Earth re-melting after loss of gases; (iii) by the consequences of whole-Earth decompression dynamics, which obviates the unfounded assumption of mantle convection, and; (iv) by the process of mantle decompression thermal-tsunami. The latter, in addition to accounting for much of the heat leaving the Earth's surface, for the geothermal gradient observ...

Herndon, J M

2006-01-01

400

Thermodynamic design of natural gas liquefaction cycles for offshore application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermodynamic study is carried out for natural gas liquefaction cycles applicable to offshore floating plants, as partial efforts of an ongoing governmental project in Korea. For offshore liquefaction, the most suitable cycle may be different from the on-land LNG processes under operation, because compactness and simple operation are important as well as thermodynamic efficiency. As a turbine-based cycle, closed Claude cycle is proposed to use NG (natural gas) itself as refrigerant. The optimal condition for NG Claude cycle is determined with a process simulator (Aspen HYSYS), and the results are compared with fully-developed C3-MR (propane pre-cooled mixed refrigerant) JT cycles and various N2 (nitrogen) Brayton cycles in terms of efficiency and compactness. The newly proposed NG Claude cycle could be a good candidate for offshore LNG processes.

Chang, Ho-Myung; Lim, Hye Su; Choe, Kun Hyung

2014-09-01

401

US production of natural gas from tight reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

For the purposes of this report, tight gas reservoirs are defined as those that meet the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (FERC) definition of tight. They are generally characterized by an average reservoir rock permeability to gas of 0.1 millidarcy or less and, absent artificial stimulation of production, by production rates that do not exceed 5 barrels of oil per day and certain specified daily volumes of gas which increase with the depth of the reservoir. All of the statistics presented in this report pertain to wells that have been classified, from 1978 through 1991, as tight according to the FERC; i.e., they are ``legally tight`` reservoirs. Additional production from ``geologically tight`` reservoirs that have not been classified tight according to the FERC rules has been excluded. This category includes all producing wells drilled into legally designated tight gas reservoirs prior to 1978 and all producing wells drilled into physically tight gas reservoirs that have not been designated legally tight. Therefore, all gas production referenced herein is eligible for the Section 29 tax credit. Although the qualification period for the credit expired at the end of 1992, wells that were spudded (began to be drilled) between 1978 and May 1988, and from November 5, 1990, through year end 1992, are eligible for the tax credit for a subsequent period of 10 years. This report updates the EIA`s tight gas production information through 1991 and considers further the history and effect on tight gas production of the Federal Government`s regulatory and tax policy actions. It also provides some high points of the geologic background needed to understand the nature and location of low-permeability reservoirs.

Not Available

1993-10-18

402

Out of gas: Tenneco in the era of natural gas regulation, 1938--1978  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Federal regulation over the natural gas industry spanned 1938--1978, during which time both the industry and the nature of the regulation changed. The original intent of the law was to reform an industry stagnating because of the Depression, but regulation soon evolved into a public-private partnership to win World War II, then to a framework for the creation and management of a nationwide natural gas grid in the prosperous post-war years, and finally to a confused and chaotic system of wellhead price regulation which produced shortages and discouraged new production during the 1950s and 1960s. By the 1970s, regulation had become ineffective, leading to deregulation in 1978. The natural gas industry operated under the oversight of the Federal Power Commission (FPC) which set gas rates, regulated profits and competition, and established rules for entry and exit into markets. Over the course of four decades, the FPC oversaw the development of a truly national industry built around a system of large diameter pipelines. Tennessee Gas Transmission Company (later Tenneco) was an integral part of this industry. At first, Tenneco prospered under regulation. Regulation provided Tenneco with the means to build its first pipeline and a secure revenue stream for decades. A series of conflicts with the FPC and the difficulties imposed by the Phillips vs. Wisconsin case in 1954 soon interfered with the ambitious long-term goals of Tenneco CEO and president Gardiner Symonds. Tenneco first diversified into unregulated businesses in the 1940s, which accelerated as regulatory changes constrained the company's growth. By the 1960s the company was at the forefront of the conglomeration movement, when Tenneco included a variety of disparate businesses, including oil and gas production, chemicals, consumer packaging, manufacturing, shipbuilding, and food production, among others. Gas transmission became a minority interest in Tenneco's portfolio as newer and larger divisions overshadowed its former core business. The 1970s brought a renewed interest in natural gas and other energy resources as the nation faced chronic energy shortages. As the FPC loosened its low rate policy in the early 1970s to encourage production, Tenneco once again invested heavily in new pipelines and gas exploration, as well as more speculative ventures in Arctic gas, liquefied natural gas, synthetic fuels, and nuclear energy. By 1978, growing public and political support led to deregulation of natural gas, plunging Tenneco into a new era where market forces, not FPC oversight, impacted the gas industry. The deregulation of natural gas in 1978 removed the guaranteed rate of return from Tenneco's bottom line and exposed the weakness of Tenneco's conglomeration---the profitable pipeline had long been used to prop-up weaker businesses. The 1980s and 1990s were characterized by a gradual dissolution of Tenneco.

Raley, David

2011-12-01

403

Can a more competitive natural gas industry provide stability  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses the question, ''Can a more competitive natural gas industry provide stability.'' When we discuss a free gas market here, we are primarily referring to a market in which flexible, accurate prices are free to adjust to achieve market equilibrium -- a balance of supply and demand. Implied is the lack of wellhead price regulations and the transmission of accurate price signals to both suppliers and end-users. Economic efficiency requires that prices respond to changes in conditions such as the world oil price, such as the world oil price, regional demands (for example, those of the Northeast US), sectoral demands (e.g., those of the electric utilities), and environmental policy (select use of gas for emission control, for example). 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Hanson, D.A.; Jennings, T.V.; Lemon, J.R.

1988-01-01

404

The US - Canadian natural gas relationship: at the crossroads  

SciTech Connect

US-Canada natural gas relationships reached an important juncture in early 1983. Pressure to oblige Canada to lower its gas export prices built up in the face of Canada's policy to let the status quo, in which Canada has all time high earnings, stand. The difficulties are caused by the Duncan-Lalonde understanding on Canada's substitution price formula, the uniform border price, and the take-or-pay clauses in US-Canadian contracts. These features lead to an exceedingly rigid system insensitive to market signals. A DOE conference on January 18, 1983, indicated that gas importers think that import prices are too high, and want a pricing scheme that would permit buyers and sellers to negotiate prices. A new system which is market sensitive and flexible with minimal government interference must replace the current system.

Burns, D.H.

1983-06-01

405

A fully biodegradable patent ductus arteriosus occlude.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop a fully degradable occluder for the closure of PDA, which can be deployed percutaneously. The blends of biodegradable poly(?-caprolactone) and poly(L-lactide-co-?-caprolactone) with various compositions were studied as the potential material. The mechanical properties, i.e. elastic modulus and strain recovery, of the blends could be largely tailored by changing the continuous phase component. Moreover, the suitable blends were selected to fabricate a prototype and its in vitro biodegradation rate and blood compatibility, was evaluated. The current results indicate that no adverse effect on the platelet and leukocyte components of the blood. Biocompatibility implantation studies of the device showed acceptable tissue response. Finally, an artificial PDA conduit was created in a pig, and the device deployment was tested from a sheath: the device recovered within 2-3 min of unsheathing and fully sealed the conduit. PMID:25649512

Huang, Ying Ying; Wong, Yee Shan; Chan, Jing Ni; Venkatraman, Subbu S

2015-02-01

406

10 Myths and Realities of Natural Gas and Electricity Purchasing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In deregulated natural gas and electricity markets, many traditional purchasing practices brought from other businesses or even taken from energy's past may not serve end-users well. While there is no one right way to manage purchases in these deregulated markets, there are many important facts and trends that can be helpful in guiding decision-making.This article uses the framework of “myths

Craig Schultz

2010-01-01

407

Access Pricing and Network Expansion in Natural Gas Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss different indirect approaches to cope with local market power in natural gas markets, in particular\\u000a the extension of pipeline capacity as an instrument to combat nodal market power. One perspective, as expressed in Cremer\\u000a and Laffont (Eur. Econ. Rev. 46:928–935, 2002) is that a discriminatory access price can correct for market failure and induce an

Georg Meran; Christian von Hirschhausen; Anne Neumann

2010-01-01

408

Advanced natural gas fuel technologies for military installations. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy conservation efforts reduced Department of Defense (DoD) fossil fuel consumption considerably between FYX5 and FY9 I, yet electricity consumption increased. Electricity consumption accounts for only one-third of DoD energy use, but over half of DoD energy costs. In addition, the production of electricity at coal or nuclear plants often creates environmental concerns, while the use of clean-burning natural gas

M. J. Savoie; P. M. Freeman; C. F. Blazek; N. L. Potts

1994-01-01

409

Natural gas supply: short-term and long-term  

Microsoft Academic Search

In terms of total energy consumed in the U.S., natural gas provides about 30 percent and provides just under 40 percent of domestic energy production. The developments leading to its current supply-demand imbalance are traced in this article. Estimates of the total volume of domestic reserves that can reasonably be expected to be produced in the short- and long-term are

Kalisch

1976-01-01

410

Component cost analysis for compressed natural gas vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Used of compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel in engine applications dominated by gasoline and diesel fuels has well-known advantages. It is a clean-burning, low-cost fuel available from domestic sources. In addition, a pipeline-distribution infrastructure already exists in the United States. Although the cost of converting a small number of gasoline- or diesel-powered vehicles for CNG use is generally known, no

J. B. Rajan; R. R. Sekar

1991-01-01

411

Electrical Network Design Studies for Natural Gas Liquefaction Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process requirements of liquefied natural gas (LNG) plants demand a high level of reliability from the supporting electrical power system. Extensive power system studies are required to confirm that the proposed electrical system meets the stringent design requirements. This paper outlines the load-flow, short-circuit, transient-stability and harmonic studies typically undertaken as part of the front end engineering design (FEED)

R. C. Wilson; C. L. Dall; K. S. Smith

2006-01-01

412

Ozone impacts of natural gas development in the Haynesville Shale.  

PubMed

The Haynesville Shale is a subsurface rock formation located beneath the Northeast Texas/Northwest Louisiana border near Shreveport. This formation is estimated to contain very large recoverable reserves of natural gas, and during the two years since the drilling of the first highly productive wells in 2008, has been the focus of intensive leasing and exploration activity. The development of natural gas resources within the Haynesville Shale is likely to be economically important but may also generate significant emissions of ozone precursors. Using well production data from state regulatory agencies and a review of the available literature, projections of future year Haynesville Shale natural gas production were derived for 2009-2020 for three scenarios corresponding to limited, moderate, and aggressive development. These production estimates were then used to develop an emission inventory for each of the three scenarios. Photochemical modeling of the year 2012 showed increases in 2012 8-h ozone design values of up to 5 ppb within Northeast Texas and Northwest Louisiana resulting from development in the Haynesville Shale. Ozone increases due to Haynesville Shale emissions can affect regions outside Northeast Texas and Northwest Louisiana due to ozone transport. This study evaluates only near-term ozone impacts, but the emission inventory projections indicate that Haynesville emissions may be expected to increase through 2020. PMID:21086985

Kemball-Cook, Susan; Bar-Ilan, Amnon; Grant, John; Parker, Lynsey; Jung, Jaegun; Santamaria, Wilson; Mathews, Jim; Yarwood, Greg

2010-12-15

413

Recognition of partially occluded threat objects using the annealed Hopefield network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recognition of partially occluded objects has been an important issue to airport security because occlusion causes significant problems in identifying and locating objects during baggage inspection. The neural network approach is suitable for the problems in the sense that the inherent parallelism of neural networks pursues many hypotheses in parallel resulting in high computation rates. Moreover, they provide a greater degree of robustness or fault tolerance than conventional computers. The annealed Hopfield network which is derived from the mean field annealing (MFA) has been developed to find global solutions of a nonlinear system. In the study, it has been proven that the system temperature of MFA is equivalent to the gain of the sigmoid function of a Hopfield network. In our early work, we developed the hybrid Hopfield network (HHN) for fast and reliable matching. However, HHN doesn't guarantee global solutions and yields false matching under heavily occluded conditions because HHN is dependent on initial states by its nature. In this paper, we present the annealed Hopfield network (AHN) for occluded object matching problems. In AHN, the mean field theory is applied to the hybird Hopfield network in order to improve computational complexity of the annealed Hopfield network and provide reliable matching under heavily occluded conditions. AHN is slower than HHN. However, AHN provides near global solutions without initial restrictions and provides less false matching than HHN. In conclusion, a new algorithm based upon a neural network approach was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of the automated inspection of threat objects from x-ray images. The robustness of the algorithm is proved by identifying occluded target objects with large tolerance of their features.

Kim, Jung H.; Yoon, Sung H.; Park, Eui H.; Ntuen, Celestine A.

1992-01-01

414

Natural gas: Imports and exports. Third quarter report 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Fuels Programs prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports with the OFP. This report is for the third quarter of 1994 (July--September). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico. During the first nine months of 1994, data indicates gas imports grew by about 13 percent over the 1993 level (1925 vs. 1707 Bcf), with Canadian imports increasingly by 13 percent and Algerian imports decreasing by 17 percent. During the same time period, exports declined by 8 percent (108.6 vs. 117.4 Bcf). Exports to Japan increased 7 percent while exports to Canada decreased 7 percent from the 1993 level (44.2 vs. 41.3 Bcf and 39.3 vs. 42.1 Bcf, respectively). Exports to Mexico declined by 26 percent (25 vs. 34 Bcf).

Not Available

1994-12-31

415

Electricity and Natural Gas Efficiency Improvements forResidential Gas Furnaces in the U.S  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents analysis of the life-cycle costs for individual households and the aggregate energy and economic impacts from potential energy efficiency improvements in U.S. residential furnaces. Most homes in the US are heated by a central furnace attached to ducts for distributing heated air and fueled by natural gas. Electricity consumption by a furnace blower is significant, comparable to

Alex Lekov; Victor Franco; Steve Meyers; James E. McMahon; Michael McNeil; Jim Lutz

2006-01-01

416

Natural gas network pricing and its influence on electricity and gas markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of competition at the electricity generation and commercialization has been the main focus of many restructuring experiences around the world. The open access to the transmission network and a fair regulated tariff are the keystones of the development of the electricity market. The natural gas business has a great interaction with the electricity market in terms of fuel

M. S. Morals; J. W. Marangon Lima

2003-01-01

417

METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 15: GAS-ASSISTED GLYCOL PUMPS  

EPA Science Inventory

The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

418

75 FR 8245 - Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RM81-19-000] Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits February 18...OEP) computes and publishes the project cost and annual limits for natural gas...202) 502-8962. Publication of Project Cost Limits Under Blanket...

2010-02-24

419

76 FR 8293 - Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RM81-19-000] Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits February 8...OEP) computes and publishes the project cost and annual limits for natural gas...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Publication of Project Cost Limits Under Blanket...

2011-02-14

420

77 FR 8724 - Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RM81-19-000] Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits February 9...OEP) computes and publishes the project cost and annual limits for natural gas...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Publication of Project Cost Limits Under Blanket...

2012-02-15

421

Upstream Financial Review of the Global Oil and Natural Gas Industry 2013  

EIA Publications

This analysis focuses on financial and operating trends of the oil and natural gas production business segment, often referred to as upstream operations, of 42 global oil and natural gas producing companies

2014-01-01

422

77 FR 38128 - Withdrawal of TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port Application AGENCY: Maritime...construct, and operate a deepwater port for a liquefied natural gas deepwater port facility, located...

2012-06-26

423

77 FR 63311 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR13-1-000] Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Petition for...Approval Take notice that on October 9, 2012, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) filed a Petition for Rate Approval...

2012-10-16

424

76 FR 35202 - Piedmont Natural Gas Company, Inc.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-495-000] Piedmont Natural Gas Company, Inc.; Notice of Application On June 3, 2011, Piedmont Natural Gas Company, Inc. (Piedmont) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...

2011-06-16

425

75 FR 71733 - Requirements for Measurement Facilities Used for the Royalty Valuation of Processed Natural Gas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...This equipment includes any metering, sampling, or recording devices associated with...BOEMRE to inspect the measurement and sampling equipment of natural gas processing plants...of: Inspecting the measurement and sampling equipment of natural gas processing...

2010-11-24

426

78 FR 8389 - Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. RM81-19-000] Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual...project cost and annual limits for natural gas pipelines blanket construction...limit which may be expended on underground storage testing and development...

2013-02-06

427

77 FR 43280 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AD12-12-000] Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical Conferences On...1\\ Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No. AD12-12-000 (July 5,...

2012-07-24

428

77 FR 41184 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Notice of Technical Conferences  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Notice of Technical Conferences...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets. The regional technical conferences...rates or terms of service in wholesale electricity markets doing business wholly...

2012-07-12

429

78 FR 15719 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Notice of Technical Conference  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AD12-12-000] Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice that...1\\ Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, 141 FERC ] 61,125, at P 11 (2012)...

2013-03-12

430

78 FR 28583 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Notice of Commission Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AD12-12-000] Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Notice of Commission Meeting Take notice that...1\\ Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, 141 FERC ] 61,125, at P 11 (2012)...

2013-05-15

431

77 FR 74180 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Notice of Request for Comments and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AD12-12-000] Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Notice of Request for Comments and Technical Conference...1\\ Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, 141 FERC ] 61,125, at P 5 (2012)...

2012-12-13

432

78 FR 8511 - Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AD12-12-000] Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical Conference As...1\\ Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No. AD12-12-000 (December 7,...

2013-02-06

433

Importance of Low Permeability Natural Gas Reservoirs (released in AEO2010)  

EIA Publications

Production from low-permeability reservoirs, including shale gas and tight gas, has become a major source of domestic natural gas supply. In 2008, low-permeability reservoirs accounted for about 40% of natural gas production and about 35% of natural gas consumption in the United States. Permeability is a measure of the rate at which liquids and gases can move through rock. Low-permeability natural gas reservoirs encompass the shale, sandstone, and carbonate formations whose natural permeability is roughly 0.1 millidarcies or below. (Permeability is measured in darcies.)

2010-01-01

434

Development of the Miller cycle for natural gas engines  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas is a viable alternative fuel to reduce exhaust emissions. But comparing natural gas engines with base diesel engines, the power output is 20--30% lower and the thermal efficiency is 4--5% lower due to knocking in the gas engine. The Miller cycle with independent presetting of the compression and expansion ratio for gas engines increases the engine efficiency with increased expansion ratio, while engine knocking can be avoided by reducing the compression ratio. A turbocharged inter-cooled spark ignition gas engine was modified to the Miller cycle engine and a thermal efficiency of 38%, 1.14MPa BMEP was attained with a three-way catalyst system compared to a thermal efficiency of 33%, 0.97 Mpa BMEP achieved by the conventional Otto cycle. On the other hand, the higher boost pressure, due to the lower compression ratio for avoiding knocking, caused a higher back pressure. This hinders the advantages of the Miller cycle and it is difficult to improve the engine performance further. Therefore, based on the Miller cycle, other technologies for avoiding knocking were developed to improve engine performance. A two-stage intake cooling system was developed, in which a new inter-cooler is installed in the intake passages close to the cylinder head as a second inter-cooler, besides an ordinary charge cooler. This significantly cools the blow-back mixture from the cylinder in the Late Intake-Closing Method Miller cycle. Besides the two-stage intake cooling system, a new split cooling system was also developed for the Miller cycle, where cooling water flowing to the cylinder head is independent of that flowing to the cylinder block. Cooling water at 313 K is circulated in the cylinder head to extend the knock-free zone and to improve the intake charging efficiency while cooling water at 353 K is circulated in the cylinder block to reduce the friction loss.

Zhang, F.R.; Okamoto, Kazuhisa; Shimogata, Satoshi; Shoji, Fujio [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan). Energy Technology Research Inst.

1996-12-31

435

Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This DOE-funded research into seismic detection of natural fractures is one of six projects within the DOE`s Detection and Analysis of Naturally Fractured Gas Reservoirs Program, a multidisciplinary research initiative to develop technology for prediction, detection, and mapping of naturally fractured gas reservoirs. The demonstration of successful seismic techniques to locate subsurface zones of high fracture density and to guide drilling orientation for enhanced fracture permeability will enable better returns on investments in the development of the vast gas reserves held in tight formations beneath the Rocky Mountains. The seismic techniques used in this project were designed to capture the azimuthal anisotropy within the seismic response. This seismic anisotropy is the result of the symmetry in the rock fabric created by aligned fractures and/or unequal horizontal stresses. These results may be compared and related to other lines of evidence to provide cross-validation. The authors undertook investigations along the following lines: Characterization of the seismic anisotropy in three-dimensional, P-wave seismic data; Characterization of the seismic anisotropy in a nine-component (P- and S-sources, three-component receivers) vertical seismic profile; Characterization of the seismic anisotropy in three-dimensional, P-to-S converted wave seismic data (P-wave source, three-component receivers); and Description of geological and reservoir-engineering data that corroborate the anisotropy: natural fractures observed at the target level and at the surface, estimation of the maximum horizontal stress in situ, and examination of the flow characteristics of the reservoir.

NONE

1997-11-19

436

HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

This first quarter report of 2001 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf (service mark of Gas Research Institute) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. During this reporting period tests were done to determine the effect of hydrocarbons such as n-hexane on catalyst performance with and without H{sub 2}S present. The experiments showed that hexane oxidation is suppressed when H{sub 2}S is present. Hexane represents the most reactive of the C1 to C6 series of alkanes. Since hexane exhibits low reactivity under H{sub 2}S oxidation conditions, and more importantly, does not change the SO{sub 2} selectivity, we can conclude that the C1-C6 hydrocarbons should not significantly interfere with the oxidation of H{sub 2}S into SO{sub 2}. Plans to determine the effect of aromatic compounds on catalyst performance for extended periods, and for catalyst pelletization and continued testing are described.

Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

2001-08-01

437

Value-Added Products from Remote Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect

In Wyoming and throughout the United States, there are natural gas fields that are not producing because of their remoteness from gas pipelines. Some of these fields are ideal candidates for a cogeneration scheme where components suitable for chemical feedstock or direct use, such as propane and butane, are separated. Resulting low- to medium-Btu gas is fired in a gas turbine system to provide power for the separation plant. Excess power is sold to the utility, making the integrated plant a true cogeneration facility. This project seeks to identify the appropriate technologies for various subsystems of an integrated plant to recover value-added products from wet gas and/or retrograde condensate reservoirs. Various vendors and equipment manufacturers will be contacted and a data base consisting of feedstock constraints and output specifications for various subsystems and components will be developed. Based on vendor specifications, gas reservoirs suited for value-added product recovery will be identified. A candidate reservoir will then be selected, and an optimum plant layout will be developed. A facility will then be constructed and operated. The project consists of eight subtasks: Compilation of Reservoir Data; Review of Treatment and Conditioning Technologies; Review of Product Recovery and Separation Technologies; Development of Power Generation System; Integrated Plant Design for Candidate Field; System Fabrication; System Operation and Monitoring; and Economic Evaluation and Reporting. The first five tasks have been completed and the sixth is nearly complete. Systems Operations and Monitoring will start next year. The Economic Evaluation and Reporting task will be a continuous effort for the entire project. The reservoir selected for the initial demonstration of the process is the Burnt Wagon Field, Natrona County, Wyoming. The field is in a remote location with no electric power to the area and no gas transmission line. The design for the gas processing train to produce the liquefied gas products includes three gas compressors, a cryogenic separation unit, and a natural gas powered generator. Based on the equipment specifications, air quality permits for the well field and the gas processing unit were developed and the permits were issued by the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality. Also, to make state and federal reporting easier, three of the four leases that made up the Burnt Wagon were combined. All major equipment has been installed and individual component operability is being conducted. During the next project year, operability testing and the shakedown of the entire system will be completed. Once shakedown is complete, the system will be turned over to the cosponsor for day-to-day operations. During operations, data will be collected through remote linkage to the data acquisition system or analysis of the system performance to develop an economic evaluation of the process.

Lyle A. Johnson

2002-03-15

438

Electricity generation and transmission expansion under uncertainty in natural gas supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas and combined cycle generation plants have become a clean and low cost alternative for electricity generation in Latin America. Abundant natural gas resources in Venezuela, Bolivia, Peru and Argentina have made it attractive for gas networks to develop region wise. Chile chose ten years ago a path of power sector evolution based on Argentinian gas and made heavy

Hugh Rudnick

2005-01-01

439

Limits of Deregulation in the Natural Gas Industry: the European Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a natural gas market that is growing because of the increased use of gas in the generation of electricity, the organization and regulation of the industry is changing, This paper is concerned with the likelihood and desirability of 'deregulation' of the European gas industry. It is argued that prospects for further growth in the use of natural gas are

Jacques Percebois

1995-01-01

440

Natural gas for electric power generation: Strategic issues, risks and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas is again being regarded as a significant fuel for electric power generation. It was once a predominant fuel for utilities in gas-producing areas, but natural gas consumption declined greatly after the 1973 oil shock because of reduced electricity demand and increased coal and nuclear generation. Moreover, wellhead price and other forms of regulation produced gas shortages in the

D. J. Foley; W. R. Hughes; J. T. Jensen; H. A. Mueller; E. N. Oatman; S. L. Thumb

1990-01-01

441

Optimal energy consumption analysis of natural gas pipeline.  

PubMed

There are many compressor stations along long-distance natural gas pipelines. Natural gas can be transported using different boot programs and import pressures, combined with temperature control parameters. Moreover, different transport methods have correspondingly different energy consumptions. At present, the operating parameters of many pipelines are determined empirically by dispatchers, resulting in high energy consumption. This practice does not abide by energy reduction policies. Therefore, based on a full understanding of the actual needs of pipeline companies, we introduce production unit consumption indicators to establish an objective function for achieving the goal of lowering energy consumption. By using a dynamic programming method for solving the model and preparing calculation software, we can ensure that the solution process is quick and efficient. Using established optimization methods, we analyzed the energy savings for the XQ gas pipeline. By optimizing the boot program, the import station pressure, and the temperature parameters, we achieved the optimal energy consumption. By comparison with the measured energy consumption, the pipeline now has the potential to reduce energy consumption by 11 to 16 percent. PMID:24955410

Liu, Enbin; Li, Changjun; Yang, Yi

2014-01-01

442

Final report for the Advanced Natural Gas Vehicle Project  

SciTech Connect

The project objective was to develop the technologies necessary to prototype a dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) powered, mid-size automobile with operational capabilities comparable to gasoline automobiles. A system approach was used to design and develop the engine, gas storage system and vehicle packaging. The 2.4-liter DOHC engine was optimized for natural gas operation with high-compression pistons, hardened exhaust valves, a methane-specific catalytic converter and multi-point gaseous injection. The chassis was repackaging to increase space for fuel storage with a custom-designed, cast-aluminum, semi-trailing arm rear suspension system, a revised flat trunk sheet-metal floorpan and by equipping the car with run-flat tires. An Integrated Storage system (ISS) was developed using all-composite, small-diameter cylinders encapsulated within a high-strength fiberglass shell with impact-absorbing foam. The prototypes achieved the target goals of a city/highway driving range of 300 miles, ample trunk capacity, gasoline vehicle performance and ultra low exhaust emissions.

John Wozniak

1999-02-16

443

Optimal Energy Consumption Analysis of Natural Gas Pipeline  

PubMed Central

There are many compressor stations along long-distance natural gas pipelines. Natural gas can be transported using different boot programs and import pressures, combined with temperature control parameters. Moreover, different transport methods have correspondingly different energy consumptions. At present, the operating parameters of many pipelines are determined empirically by dispatchers, resulting in high energy consumption. This practice does not abide by energy reduction policies. Therefore, based on a full understanding of the actual needs of pipeline companies, we introduce production unit consumption indicators to establish an objective function for achieving the goal of lowering energy consumption. By using a dynamic programming method for solving the model and preparing calculation software, we can ensure that the solution process is quick and efficient. Using established optimization methods, we analyzed the energy savings for the XQ gas pipeline. By optimizing the boot program, the import station pressure, and the temperature parameters, we achieved the optimal energy consumption. By comparison with the measured energy consumption, the pipeline now has the potential to reduce energy consumption by 11 to 16 percent. PMID:24955410

Liu, Enbin; Li, Changjun; Yang, Yi

2014-01-01

444

10 CFR 503.38 - Permanent exemption for certain fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum. 503.38 Section 503.38 Energy...fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum. (a) Eligibility. Section...proposes to use a mixture of natural gas or petroleum and an alternate fuel as a primary...

2011-01-01

445

10 CFR 503.38 - Permanent exemption for certain fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum. 503.38 Section 503.38 Energy...fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum. (a) Eligibility. Section...proposes to use a mixture of natural gas or petroleum and an alternate fuel as a primary...

2012-01-01

446

10 CFR 503.38 - Permanent exemption for certain fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum.  

...fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum. 503.38 Section 503.38 Energy...fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum. (a) Eligibility. Section...proposes to use a mixture of natural gas or petroleum and an alternate fuel as a primary...

2014-01-01

447

10 CFR 503.38 - Permanent exemption for certain fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum. 503.38 Section 503.38 Energy...fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum. (a) Eligibility. Section...proposes to use a mixture of natural gas or petroleum and an alternate fuel as a primary...

2010-01-01

448

10 CFR 503.38 - Permanent exemption for certain fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum. 503.38 Section 503.38 Energy...fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum. (a) Eligibility. Section...proposes to use a mixture of natural gas or petroleum and an alternate fuel as a primary...

2013-01-01

449

Adventures in Energy - An Interactive Look at Oil and Natural Gas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive learning tool from the American Petroleum Institute offers a primer on oil and natural gas by providing several animations with explanatory notes covering topics such as: what are oil and natural gas, exploration and production, processing, oil tankers, refining, pipelines, and oil and natural gas in your life. Each section has several parts and includes a short quiz at the end.

Institute, American P.

450

Active constraint regions for a natural gas liquefaction process Magnus G. Jacobsen a  

E-print Network

Keywords: Self-optimizing control Liquefied natural gas LNG PRICO Disturbances Optimal operation a b s t rActive constraint regions for a natural gas liquefaction process Magnus G. Jacobsen a , Sigurd. This paper addresses optimal operation of a simple natural gas liquefaction process e the PRICO process

Skogestad, Sigurd

451

Notes on Sable Natural Gas Production December 1999 to November 2005  

E-print Network

, as well as its embracing of the proposed liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities at Bear Head and GuysboroERG/200601 Notes on Sable Natural Gas Production December 1999 to November 2005 Larry Hughes Energy;Hughes: Notes on Sable Natural Gas Production 1 1. Background The Sable Offshore Energy Project consists

Hughes, Larry

452

Compression Ratio Influence on Maximum Load of a Natural Gas Fueled HCCI Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the compression ratio influence on maximum load of a Natural Gas HCCI engine. The Volvo TD100 truck engine is controlled in a closed-loop fashion by enriching the Natural Gas mixture with Hydrogen. The first section of the paper illustrates and discusses the potential of using hydrogen enrichment of natural gas to control combustion timing. Cylinder pressure is

Jan-Ola Olsson; Bengt Johansson; Scott Fiveland; Rey Agama; Martin Willi; Dennis Assanis

453

Optimizing the logistics of compressed natural gas transportation by marine vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compressed natural gas (CNG) has been recently proposed as a potentially economical alternative to liquefied natural gas (LNG) for marine transportation of relatively modest amounts of natural gas over short distances. Because the main capital expenditure in a CNG project is on marine transport vessels, careful design of CNG transport fleets and compatible distribution plans is important. In this work,

Michael Nikolaou

2010-01-01

454

Planning and Installation Guide: North Carolina Compressed Natural Gas Fueling Stations  

E-print Network

1 Planning and Installation Guide: North Carolina Compressed Natural Gas Fueling Stations Introduction Are you considering installing a compressed natural gas (CNG) fueling station for your fleet to provide your fleet with fuel. One resource for locating and identifying public compressed natural gas

455

Alternative Fuel Tool Kit Case Study on Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)  

E-print Network

1 5/2014 Alternative Fuel Tool Kit Case Study on Compressed Natural Gas (CNG): Build, which means that they can run on either compressed natural gas or conventional petroleum gasoline. Build adopted natural gas in 2011 because of the fuel's environmental and cost benefits. BuildSense's customers

456

Liquefied natural gas: moving energy from here. [Includes discussion of peak-shaving facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Bureau of Standards has been developing and improving methods for getting natural gas from producer to consumer in the liquefied form. LNG is important to the whole natural gas system because of the economics of transportation and storage. A major factor is the obvious advantage of transporting natural gas as LNG by ship to and from foreign countries

Higgins

1977-01-01

457

Liquefaction, storage and transportation of liquefied natural gas: recent French developments and projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the discovery of large natural gas reserves in the Sahara, a great deal of work has been achieved in France on the transportation of liquefied natural gas. This paper gives a general description of the overall scheme designed for the importation of liquefied natural gas between Arzew and Le Havre. The liquefaction plant, tankers, storage and evaporation units at

M. Pilloy; M. Grenier; M. Perret

1967-01-01

458

78 FR 37878 - Deepwater Port License Application: Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Port Ambrose Deepwater Port  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the Application Liberty Natural Gas, LLC is proposing to construct...own, and operate a liquefied natural gas (LNG) deepwater port...application submitted by Liberty Natural Gas, LLC in 2010. Port...acknowledged and considered in the processing of the Port Ambrose...

2013-06-24

459

75 FR 5177 - Pipeline Posting Requirements under Section 23 of the Natural Gas Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...in Order No. 720, natural gas that requires processing is not fungible with...pipeline downstream of a processing plant makes deliveries of natural gas to more than one...exists to deliver natural gas to a processing plant, some or...

2010-02-01

460

Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) for Hawaii: Policy, Economic, and Technical Questions  

E-print Network

Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) for Hawaii: Policy, Economic, and Technical Questions This report Natural Gas for Hawai`i: Policy Economic and Technical Questions Prepared for the U.S. Department Hawai`i Energy Sustainability Program Task 4: Deliverable on Liquefied Natural Gas Prepared by FACTS

461

77 FR 51794 - East Tennessee Natural Gas, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...under the Natural Gas Act (NGA) as amended...place two standby compressor units and abandon...reciprocating natural gas compressor units and abandon...and update the two compressor units would require...Tennessee Natural Gas, LLC, P.O....

2012-08-27

462

49 CFR 191.15 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report.  

...systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report. 191.15 Section 191.15 Transportation...SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE...operator of a liquefied natural gas plant or facility...a) or (b) of this section, the operator...

2014-10-01

463

Atmospheric emissions and air quality impacts from natural gas production and use.  

PubMed

The US Energy Information Administration projects that hydraulic fracturing of shale formations will become a dominant source of domestic natural gas supply over the next several decades, transforming the energy landscape in the United States. However, the environmental impacts associated with fracking for shale gas have made it controversial. This review examines emissions and impacts of air pollutants associated with shale gas production and use. Emissions and impacts of greenhouse gases, photochemically active air pollutants, and toxic air pollutants are described. In addition to the direct atmospheric impacts of expanded natural gas production, indirect effects are also described. Widespread availability of shale gas can drive down natural gas prices, which, in turn, can impact the use patterns for natural gas. Natural gas production and use in electricity generation are used as a case study for examining these indirect consequences of expanded natural gas availability. PMID:24498952

Allen, David T

2014-01-01

464

Review of State Oil and Natural Gas Environmental Regulations  

SciTech Connect

The State Review Process is a multi-stakeholder process administered by the State Review of Oil and Natural Gas Environmental Regulations (STRONGER), Inc. and is a continuation of work initiated by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) in 1989. The goal of the process is to assist oil and gas producing states in identifying innovative regulatory approaches to reducing environmental and administrative problems associated with the management of oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) industry wastes and to comprehensively assess and improve implementation and enforcement of state regulatory programs. The process consists of initial reviews of states E&P waste management regulatory programs by multi-stakeholder review teams and follow-up reviews to assess states responses to the initial review teams recommendations. Participation of citizens groups and environmental organizations in the state review process is encouraged and environmental training seminars are provided to citizens groups and others who are concerned about E&P waste management practices and interested in participating in state reviews. To date, 20 state programs have been reviewed and nine of these states have had follow-up reviews. The state review process has resulted in significant improvement to states E&P waste management regulatory programs and increased benefits to human health and the environment.

Steve Souders

2005-09-27

465

CAVERN ROOF STABILITY FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE IN BEDDED SALT  

SciTech Connect

This report documents research performed to develop a new stress-based criterion for predicting the onset of damage in salt formations surrounding natural gas storage caverns. Laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the effects of shear stress, mean stress, pore pressure, temperature, and Lode angle on the strength and creep characteristics of salt. The laboratory test data were used in the development of the new criterion. The laboratory results indicate that the strength of salt strongly depends on the mean stress and Lode angle. The strength of the salt does not appear to be sensitive to temperature. Pore pressure effects were not readily apparent until a significant level of damage was induced and the permeability was increased to allow penetration of the liquid permeant. Utilizing the new criterion, numerical simulations were used to estimate the minimum allowable gas pressure for hypothetical storage caverns located in a bedded salt formation. The simulations performed illustrate the influence that cavern roof span, depth, roof salt thickness, shale thickness, and shale stiffness have on the allowable operating pressure range. Interestingly, comparison of predictions using the new criterion with that of a commonly used criterion indicate that lower minimum gas pressures may be allowed for caverns at shallow depths. However, as cavern depth is increased, less conservative estimates for minimum gas pressure were determined by the new criterion.

Kerry L. DeVries; Kirby D. Mellegard; Gary D. Callahan; William M. Goodman

2005-06-01

466

40 CFR Table W - 1A of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural...  

...Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production W Table... MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions...Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production...

2014-07-01

467

40 CFR Table W - 1A of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production W Table... MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions...Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production...

2013-07-01

468

Field test comparison of natural gas engine exhaust valves  

SciTech Connect

As part of a product improvement program, an extensive spark-ignited, turbocharged, natural gas engine exhaust valve test program was conducted using laboratory and field engines. Program objectives were to identify a valve and seat insert combination that increased mean time between overhauls (MTBO) while reducing the risk of premature valve cracking and failure. Following a thorough design review, a large number of valve and seat insert configurations were tested in a popular 900 RPM, 166 BHP (0.123 Mw) per cylinder industrial gas engine series. Material, head geometry, seat angle and other parameters were compared. Careful in-place measurements and post-test inspections compared various configurations and identified optimal exhaust valving for deployment in new units and upgrades of existing engines.

Bicknell, W.B.; Hay, S.C.; Shade, W.N.; Statler, G.R. [Cooper Cameron Corp., Springfield, OH (United States)

1996-12-31

469

Plasma quench technology for natural gas conversion applications  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the experimental demonstration of a process for direct conversion of methane to acetylene in a thermal plasma. The process utilizes a thermal plasma to dissociate methane and form an equilibrium mixture of acetylene followed by a supersonic expansion of the hot gas to preserve the produced acetylene in high yield. The high translational velocities and rapid cooling result in an overpopulation of atomic hydrogen which persists throughout the expansion process. The presence of atomic hydrogen shifts the equilibrium composition by inhibiting complete pyrolysis of methane and acetylene to solid carbon. This process has the potential to reduce the cost of producing acetylene from natural gas. Acetylene and hydrogen produced by this process could be used directly as industrial gases, building blocks for synthesis of industrial chemicals, or oligomerized to long chain liquid hydrocarbons for use as fuels. This process produces hydrogen and ultrafine carbon black in addition to acetylene.

Detering, B.A.; Kong, P.C.; Thomas, C.P. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1995-07-01

470

Origin of marine sour natural gas and gas-filling model for the Wolonghe Gas Field, Sichuan Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical and isotopic composition of natural gases from the Wolonghe Gas Field, Sichuan Basin, Southwest China, was investigated to assess the potential gas sources and reconstruct the gas-filling history of the reservoirs. All natural gases in this field are dominated by gaseous hydrocarbons (C1-C3) with varied amounts of non-hydrocarbon components (CO2, H2S and N2). The H2S content varies with reservoir intervals. It ranges from zero to 1.84% with an average of 0.37% in the Carboniferous reservoir, from 0.05% to 0.76% with an average of 0.30% in the Permian reservoir, and from 1.09% to 18.83% with an average of 5.39% in the Lower Triassic reservoir. The gas dryness coefficient (C1/C1-3) ranges from 0.97 to 1.0 with an average of 0.99. The carbon isotopic compositions of methane and its homologues in the Wolonghe Gas Field vary widely, with ?13C1 ? ?13C2 < ?13C3 in the Carboniferous and Permian gas reservoirs, and ?13C1 < ?13C2 < ?13C3 in the Lower Triassic Jialingjiang Formation gas reservoirs. The ?D1 values range from -140‰ to -100‰, with an average of -124.5‰. The ?34SH2S values in the field extend from 5.7‰ to 31.0‰, with ?34SH2S values in the Lower Triassic Jialingjiang Formation reservoirs being much higher than those in the Carboniferous and Permian reservoirs. The sour natural gases in the field originated from cracking of oil and were sourced from the marine sapropelic organic matter at high maturity levels. The natural gases underwent alteration by thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). Although the limited extent TSR occurred in the Carboniferous and Permian gas reservoirs, the TSR alteration is likely to have caused the high gas dryness and the 13C enrichment of CH4. The present low content of H2S in the Carboniferous and Permian gases would be related to the loss of H2S dissolved in water under the reconstruction of these gas reservoirs. In contrast, the high H2S in the Jialingjiang Formation gases is determined by both the favorable TSR conditions in the Lower Triassic reservoirs and the favorable preservation conditions provided by the Lower-Middle Triassic gypsum. The Wolonghe natural gas system is characterized by multi-pay zones, multi-source supply and multi-type layers. The gas generated from Silurian source rocks migrated into the Carboniferous reservoir through faults and fractures and was trapped beneath the Permian Liangshan Formation shale, whereas the natural gas in the Permian and Lower Triassic Jialingjiang Formation was generated and preserved in its own formations with the overlying gypsum acting as a cap rock.

Liu, Quanyou; Jin, Zhijun; Li, Jian; Hu, Anping; Bi, Changchun

2012-09-01

471

Estimating Externalities of Natural Gas Fuel Cycles, Report 4  

SciTech Connect

This report describes methods for estimating the external costs (and possibly benefits) to human health and the environment that result from natural gas fuel cycles. Although the concept of externalities is far from simple or precise, it generally refers to effects on individuals' well being, that result from a production or market activity in which the individuals do not participate, or are not fully compensated. In the past two years, the methodological approach that this report describes has quickly become a worldwide standard for estimating externalities of fuel cycles. The approach is generally applicable to any fuel cycle in which a resource, such as coal, hydro, or biomass, is used to generate electric power. This particular report focuses on the production activities, pollution, and impacts when natural gas is used to generate electric power. In the 1990s, natural gas technologies have become, in many countries, the least expensive to build and operate. The scope of this report is on how to estimate the value of externalities--where value is defined as individuals' willingness to pay for beneficial effects, or to avoid undesirable ones. This report is about the methodologies to estimate these externalities, not about how to internalize them through regulations or other public policies. Notwithstanding this limit in scope, consideration of externalities can not be done without considering regulatory, insurance, and other considerations because these institutional factors affect whether costs (and benefits) are in fact external, or whether they are already somehow internalized within the electric power market. Although this report considers such factors to some extent, much analysis yet remains to assess the extent to which estimated costs are indeed external. This report is one of a series of reports on estimating the externalities of fuel cycles. The other reports are on the coal, oil, biomass, hydro, and nuclear fuel cycles, and on general methodology.

Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

1998-01-01

472

Compressed natural gas fueled vehicles: The Houston experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Houston's experience in defining the compressed natural gas fueled vehicle research scope and issues is described. It details the ways in which the project met initial expectations and how the project scope, focus, and duration were adjusted in response to unanticipated results. It provides examples of real world successes and failures in efforts to commercialize basic research in adapting a proven technology (natural gas) to a noncommercially proven application (vehicles). Phase one of the demonstration study investigates, develops, documents, and disseminates information regarding the economic, operational, and environmental implications of utilizing compressed natural gas (CNG) in various truck fueling applications. The four truck classes investigated are light duty gasoline trucks, medium duty gasoline trucks, medium duty diesel trucks, and heavy duty diesel trucks. The project researches aftermarket CNG conversions for the first three vehicle classes and original equipment manufactured (OEM) CNG vehicles for light duty gasoline and heavy duty diesel classes. In phase two of the demonstration project, critical issues are identified and assessed with respect to implementing use of CNG fueled vehicles in a large vehicle fleet. These issues include defining changes in local, state, and industry CNG fueled vehicle related codes and standards; addressing vehicle fuel storage limitations; using standardized vehicle emission testing procedures and results; and resolving CNG refueling infrastructure implementation issues and related cost factors. The report identifies which CNG vehicle fueling options were tried and failed and which were tried and succeeded, with and without modifications. The conclusions include a caution regarding overly optimistic assessments of CNG vehicle technology at the initiation of the project.

473

18 CFR 260.300 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 260.300 Section 260...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES...electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. (a) Prescription....

2010-04-01

474

18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of applications...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF...ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Applications for Certificates...

2010-04-01

475

18 CFR 260.9 - Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.9 Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service...

2010-04-01

476

18 CFR 260.2 - FERC Form No. 2-A, Annual report for Nonmajor natural gas companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2-A, Annual report for Nonmajor natural gas companies. 260.2 Section 260.2...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES...2-A, Annual report for Nonmajor natural gas companies. (a) Prescription....

2010-04-01

477

10 CFR 504.8 - Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures-certifying powerplants.  

...Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures-certifying...Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures—certifying...powerplants, OFP may prohibit the use of petroleum or natural gas in such...

2014-01-01

478

10 CFR 504.8 - Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures-certifying powerplants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures-certifying...Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures—certifying...powerplants, OFP may prohibit the use of petroleum or natural gas in such...

2012-01-01

479

10 CFR 504.8 - Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures-certifying powerplants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures-certifying...Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures—certifying...powerplants, OFP may prohibit the use of petroleum or natural gas in such...

2013-01-01

480

10 CFR 504.8 - Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures-certifying powerplants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures-certifying...Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures—certifying...powerplants, OFP may prohibit the use of petroleum or natural gas in such...

2011-01-01