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1

High output neutron tube using an occluded gas ion source  

SciTech Connect

A neutron tube capable of generating 10/sup 10/ 14 MeV neutrons in a 1.2 ms pulse has been developed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for use in flow measurements using the Pulsed Neutron Activation technique. The tube consists of an occluded deuterium gas ion source, a single gap accelerator and a scandium tritide target. A unique feature of the tube design is its complete demountability, permitting easy replacement or modification of critical components. The ion source is a modified version of a stacked occluded washer source. However, in contrast to previous designs, this source utilizes only a single scandium deuteride washer and needs no independent trigger. Outputs of 1.2 x 10/sup 10/ neutrons per pulse from a 250 mA deuterium ion beam at 125 kV have been obtained for over 1500 consecutive operations with a standard deviation of only +- 5%. The ultimate operational lifetime is believed to be in excess of 3000 shots based on the present knowledge of ion source behavior. Recent experiments using nonmagnetic structural components in the ion source resulted in a 26% increase in output with a simultaneous 35% reduction in the source drive current. This implies that even higher outputs with greater source efficiencies may be achievable.

Walko, R.J.; Rochau, G.E.

1980-01-01

2

Tomographic 4D Reconstruction of Gas Flows in the Presence of Occluders  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method that allows for reconstructing non-stationary, time-varying gas flows around mov- ing objects. Our work extends the background ori- ented Schlieren tomography (3D-BOS) acquisition technique to capture gas flows also in the presence of occluding objects. An algorithm is presented that exploits the unique properties of BOS background patterns to robustly segment occluding objects. Nu- merical issues

Kai Berger; Ivo Ihrke; Bradley Atcheson; Wolfgang Heidrich; Marcus A. Magnor

2009-01-01

3

Natural gas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Natural gas is used as a means of power in households. Natural gas has no natural odor, so an odor is added to the gas. This is useful because gas leaks can be detected better and it also reduces the risk of accidents in homes.

N/A N/A (None;)

2003-07-27

4

Natural Gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural gas is a naturally occurring mixture of simple hydrocarbons and nonhydrocarbons that exists as a gas at ordinary pressures and temperatures. In the raw state, as produced from the earth, natural gas consists principally of methane (CH4) and ethane (C2H4), with fractional amounts of propane (C3H8), butane (C4H10), and other hydrocarbons, pentane (C5H12) and heavier. Occasionally, small traces of light aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene and toluene may also be present.

Maddox, Robert N.; Moshfeghian, Mahmood; Ldol, James D.; Johannes, Arland H.

5

Natural gas  

SciTech Connect

The abundance of the world reserves of natural gas and the excellence of its qualities as a fuel and a petrochemical feedstock should enable natural gas to increase its penetration on international energy markets. However, the geographic distribution of its proved reserves coincides less and less with the distribution of its consumption. Therefore, the increase in international gas trade appears more and more to be of vital necessity for the world development of its markets. On the basis of a study carried out within the Association Technique de l'Industrie du Gas en France (ATG), the present paper will attempt to analyse the outlook for international gas trade between now and the year 2000.

Valais, M.; Khayat, A.

1988-01-01

6

World Natural Gas: 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report, tables are presented for natural gas production by countries; gross production of natural gas by type of well; natural gas used for repressuring or wasted by countries, and world natural gas trade. (ERA citation 05:034565)

1979-01-01

7

World Natural Gas: 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Natural gas production by countries is presented in tabular form for the years 1972 through 1976. Data are also presented on natural gas used for repressuring or wasted and on world natural gas trade. (ERA citation 04:051121)

1978-01-01

8

Natural Gas Annual 1996  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Natural Gas Annual_ provides information on the "supply and disposition of natural gas in the United States." It contains State level data for production, transmission, storage, deliveries, and price of natural gas. Historical data at the national level are available from the 1930's.

9

Geopolitics of natural gas  

SciTech Connect

This examines the role of gas in the world energy supply/demand. Special attention is paid to Western Europe, the Soviet Union, and the natural gas exporting countries. Forecasts of global energy demand until 2000 and data on Western Europe's proven natural gas reserves as per January 1982 are provided.

Russell, J.

1983-01-01

10

Natural gas treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel, low-cost gas-treating unit developed by Gulf Oil Corp. is particularly suited to the removal of moisture and higher hydrocarbons from natural gas at many small fields where conventional methods would be too expensive. Natural gas, after mixing with antifreeze, is cooled at about pipeline pressure by countercurrent heat exchange with a refrigerant to condense higher boiling point hydrocarbons.

1978-01-01

11

Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryenco and Los Alamos are collaborating to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that will have no moving parts and require no electrical power. It will have useful efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at only 115 Kelvin at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 invention of the thermoacoustically

1997-01-01

12

Natural Gas Hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on gas clathrates (commonly called hydrates), which are crystalline compounds that occur when water form a cage-like structure around smaller guest molecules. Gas hydrates of interest to the natural gas hydrocarbon industry are composed of water and eight molecules: methane, ethane, propane, isobutane, normal butane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide. Hydrate formation is possible in any

E. Sloan Jr.; E. D. Jr

1991-01-01

13

Natural gas monthly  

SciTech Connect

This document highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data presented include volume and price, production, consumption, underground storage, and interstate pipeline activities.

NONE

1996-05-01

14

Fossil Fuels: Natural Gas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the use of natural gas as an energy source. Topics include its advantages (cleanliness, fewer carbon emissions), disadvantages (difficulty in transport and storage), sources, and usage. There is also a discussion of the creation and production of natural gas, the United States' production and reserves, and some potential new sources (coal bed methane, methane hydrates). The lesson includes an activity in which students investigate porosity and permeability in simulated sediments.

Pratte, John

15

Natural Gas Monthly, June 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monthly report on the natural gas industry covers: dry gas production (wet marketed production minus extraction loss); consumption of natural gas; the average wellhead price of natural gas; the average city-gate price for natural gas delivered to dis...

1988-01-01

16

Safer Liquid Natural Gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After the disaster of Staten Island in 1973 where 40 people were killed repairing a liquid natural gas storage tank, the New York Fire Commissioner requested NASA's help in drawing up a comprehensive plan to cover the design, construction, and operation of liquid natural gas facilities. Two programs are underway. The first transfers comprehensive risk management techniques and procedures which take the form of an instruction document that includes determining liquid-gas risks through engineering analysis and tests, controlling these risks by setting up redundant fail safe techniques, and establishing criteria calling for decisions that eliminate or accept certain risks. The second program prepares a liquid gas safety manual (the first of its kind).

1976-01-01

17

Geopolitics of natural gas  

SciTech Connect

With almost as many vital economic interests as there were attendees, two natural gas international conferences were held in North America during September and October, to share experience and forecasts. On September 26, the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) and the Calgary Chamber of Commerce sponsored the International Gas Markets Conference and drew 400 persons. And on October 5-6, at the University of Colorado at Boulder, USA, the International Research Center for Energy and Economic Development (ICEED) held its Tenth International Energy Conference on Economic and Political Issues of Natural Gas in International Trade, drawing some 200 experts. The latter seminar was preceded by a two-day seminar on Asian Energy Supplies and Requirements, which also featured natural gas in many of its presentations. To provide an overview of some of these pressing questions, Energy Detente reports on these two comprehensive seminars on natural gas. This issue also presents the fuel price/tax series and the principal industrial fuel prices for the Eastern Hemisphere for November 1983.

Not Available

1983-11-09

18

Future natural gas supplies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite recent optimism about the outlook for the future supply of domestic conventional natural gas, the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) finds insufficient evidence to clearly justify either an optimistic or a pessimistic view. In a technical memorandum entitled “U.S. Natural Gas Availability: Conventional Gas Supply Through the Year 2000,” released recently by Rep. Philip R. Sharp (D-Ind,), chairman of the Subcommittee on Fossil and Synthetic Fuels of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, OTA concluded that substantial technical uncertainties prevented a reliable estimation of the likely natural gas production rates for later in this century. Even ignoring the potential for significant changes in gas prices and technology, OTA estimated that conventional gas production by the lower 48 states in the year 2000 could range from 9 to 19 trillion cubic feet (TCF) (0.25 to 0.53 trillion cubic meters), compared to 1982 production of 17.5 TCF. Similarly, production in the year 1990 could range from 13 to 20 TCF.

19

Building natural gas locomotives  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a liquefied natural gas-fueled locomotive built by Morrison Knudsen which includes a Caterpillar 1200-horsepower V-16, a monofuel management system with double-wall super-insulated cryogenic tanks, and microprocessor-based controls. Efforts by railroad companies to reduce operating costs and meet future emissions standards have led engineers to look for innovative ways to design trains. In January, Morrison Knudsen Corp. of Boise, Idaho, powered its way into the locomotive manufacturing business when it introduced the natural gas-fueled MK1200G, to be used mostly around railroad company yards and on trips shorter than 50 miles.

O'Conner, L.

1994-04-01

20

What Drives Natural Gas Prices?  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, fuel switching between natural gas and residual fuel oil kept natural gas prices closely aligned with those for crude oil. More recently, however, the number of U.S. facilities able to switch between natural gas and residual fuel oil has declined, and over the past seven years, U.S. natural gas prices have been on an upward trend with

Stephen P. A. Brown; Mine K. Yucel

2008-01-01

21

US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves  

SciTech Connect

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1989, and production volumes for the year 1989 for the total United States and for selected states and state sub-divisions. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production reported separately. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. 28 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

Not Available

1990-10-05

22

Natural gas in North Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost all natural gas produced in North Dakota is casinghead gas from oil pools in the Madison group along the Nesson anticline and from pools in Burke County. Relatively minor quantities of dry gas are produced from the gas fields of North Dakota part of the Cedar Creek anticline. Only the natural gas from these areas is used commercially; the

S. B. Anderson; W. P. Eastwood

1968-01-01

23

Natural gas monthly, December 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report presents information of interest to organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data are presented on natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

NONE

1995-12-01

24

Natural gas monthly, July 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

NONE

1997-07-01

25

Natural gas monthly, June 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

NONE

1997-06-01

26

Natural gas monthly, July 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1994-07-20

27

Natural gas monthly, November 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1995-12-05

28

Economics of natural gas upgrading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas could be an important alternative energy source in meeting some of the market demand presently met by liquid products from crude oil. This study was initiated to analyze three energy markets to determine if greater use could be made of natural gas or natural gas derived products and if those products could be provided on an economically competitive

J. H. Hackworth; R. W. Koch

1995-01-01

29

Natural gas pipeline technology overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern

S. M. Folga

2007-01-01

30

World natural gas trends and gas projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study first analyses worldwide supply/demand trends of natural gas. Then it forecasts a high increase in gas demand especially in Asia, and emphasizes the need to secure future supply sources for gas imports. Several issues concerning future gas marke...

Y. H. Park K. J. Oh S. S. Choi

1994-01-01

31

Natural gas monthly, May 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

NONE

1997-05-01

32

Natural gas monthly, May 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured articles for this month are: Opportunities with fuel cells, and revisions to monthly natural gas data.

Not Available

1994-05-25

33

Natural gas monthly, June 1996  

SciTech Connect

The natural gas monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article for this month is Natural Gas Industry Restructuring and EIA Data Collection.

NONE

1996-06-24

34

Natural gas monthly, June 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is the executive summary from Natural Gas 1994: Issues and Trends. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

Not Available

1994-06-01

35

Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993  

SciTech Connect

The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

Not Available

1993-11-10

36

Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier  

SciTech Connect

In collaboration with Cryenco Inc. and NIST-Boulder, we intend to develop a natural gas-powered natural-gas liquefier which has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It will have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. Progress on the liquefier to be constructed at Cryenco continues satisfactorily. The thermoacoustic driver is still ahead of the pulse tube refrigerator, because of NIST`s schedule. We completed the thermoacoustics design in the fall of 1994, with Los Alamos providing physics input and checks of all aspects, and Cryenco providing engineering to ASME code, drafting, etc. Completion of this design represents a significant amount of work, especially in view of the many unexpected problems encountered. Meanwhile, Cryenco and NIST have almost completed the design of the pulse tube refrigerator. At Los Alamos, we have assembled a half-size scale model of the thermoacoustic portion of the 500 gal/day TANGL. This scale model will enable easy experimentation in harmonic suppression techniques, new stack geometries, new heat-exchanger geometries, resonator coiling, and other areas. As of March 1995, the scale model is complete and we are performing routine debugging tests and modifications.

Swift, G.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-06-01

37

Crude oil and natural gas pricing. Chapters 300 to 499: natural gas liquids, natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This text analyzes the federal statutes and regulations that affect the pricing and allocation of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. It does not cover refined products or imported crude oil except where necessary to place major decisions in historical context. Chapter 300 concerns natural gas liquids. For historical rather than logical reasons, these are regulated as an

1980-01-01

38

Natural-gas price puzzle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rectifying natural-gas underpricing and distortions in production has benefited the overall economy, but transition costs are large, and problems and strains continue. The natural-gas price story began with the 1954 price controls that developed into a wasteful, inefficient, and unfair system of too-low gas prices that resulted in the 1978 Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA). While meeting a number of

1983-01-01

39

Natural gas monthly, September 1998  

SciTech Connect

The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1998-09-01

40

Understanding Natural Gas Price Decontrol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1978, the Congress passed the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA), which allowed gradual increases in the price of natural gas at the wellhead. The legislation sought to raise the price of most gas to the equivalent of the act's projected price of oil by 198...

1983-01-01

41

Liquefied Natural Gas Transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chicago Bridge & Iron Company's tanks and associated piping are parts of system for transferring liquefied natural gas from ship to shore and storing it. LNG is a "cryogenic" fluid meaning that it must be contained and transferred at very low temperatures, about 260 degrees below Fahrenheit. Before the LNG can be pumped from the ship to the storage tanks, the two foot diameter transfer pipes must be cooled in order to avoid difficulties associated with sharp differences of temperature between the supercold fluid and relatively warm pipes. Cooldown is accomplished by sending small steady flow of the cryogenic substance through the pipeline; the rate of flow must be precisely controlled or the transfer line will be subjected to undesirable thermal stress.

1980-01-01

42

Natural gas conversion process  

SciTech Connect

The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

Not Available

1992-01-01

43

Natural gas monthly, February 1996  

SciTech Connect

The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1996-03-01

44

Natural gas monthly, January 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured article for this month is on US coalbed methane production.

Not Available

1994-02-01

45

Natural gas pipeline technology overview.  

SciTech Connect

The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by transmission companies. Compressor stations at required distances boost the pressure that is lost through friction as the gas moves through the steel pipes (EPA 2000). The natural gas system is generally described in terms of production, processing and purification, transmission and storage, and distribution (NaturalGas.org 2004b). Figure 1.1-2 shows a schematic of the system through transmission. This report focuses on the transmission pipeline, compressor stations, and city gates.

Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

2007-11-01

46

Natural gas monthly, February 1998  

SciTech Connect

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through February 1998 for many data series, and through November 1997 for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the natural gas data contained in this issue are: Preliminary estimates for January and February 1998 show that dry natural gas production, net imports, and consumption are all within 1 percent of their levels in 1997. Warmer-than-normal weather in recent months has resulted in lower consumption of natural gas by the residential sector and lower net withdrawals of gas from under round storage facilities compared with a year ago. This has resulted in an estimate of the amount of working gas in storage at the end of February 1998 that is 18 percent higher than in February 1997. The national average natural gas wellhead price is estimated to be $3.05 per thousand cubic feet in November 1997, 7 percent higher than in October. The cumulative average wellhead price for January through November 1997 is estimated to be $2.42 per thousand cubic feet, 17 percent above that of the same period in 1996. This price increase is far less than 36-percent rise that occurred between 1995 and 1996. 6 figs., 26 tabs.

NONE

1998-02-01

47

Natural Gas Industry and Markets  

EIA Publications

This special report provides an overview of the supply and disposition of natural gas in 2004 and is intended as a supplement to the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Natural Gas Annual 2004 (NGA). Unless otherwise stated, all data and figures in this report are based on summary statistics published in the NGA 2004.

Information Center

2006-03-03

48

Natural Gas Imports and Exports  

EIA Publications

In the face of unprecedented levels of domestic natural gas production, net imports of natural gas into the United States fell 23% in 2012. A combination of both higher exports and lower imports led to a decline in net imports. In 2012, total imports decreased by 10% to 3,135 Bcf, while total exports increased by 8% to 1,619 Bcf.

2013-07-23

49

Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

50

Natural gas leak mapper  

DOEpatents

A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

Reichardt, Thomas A. (Livermore, CA); Luong, Amy Khai (Dublin, CA); Kulp, Thomas J. (Livermore, CA); Devdas, Sanjay (Albany, CA)

2008-05-20

51

Natural gas monthly - January 1996  

SciTech Connect

This highlight discusses changes in natural gas supply, demand, and prices for the first three quarters of 1995 (January thru September) compared to the same periods in 1993 and 1994. Production for the first three quarters of 1995 lagged year-earlier levels while natural gas consumption has continued a steady upward movement. Total U.S. natural gas production through the first three quarters at 14.1 trillion cubic feet, was less than 1 percent below the 1994 period, but remained well ahead of the comparable 1993 period. The three leading producing States (Texas, Louisiana, and Oklahoma) contributed nearly 70 percent of the total. Natural gas consumption totaled 16.0 trillion cubic feet for the first three quarters, 4 percent above the same period in 1994. Net imports of natural gas reached 2.0 trillion cubic feet by the end of the third quarter 1995 and accounted for nearly 13 percent of total consumption during this period.

NONE

1996-01-01

52

Deaths involving natural gas inhalation.  

PubMed

Death due to gas inhalation is accidental or suicidal. Natural gas can be a cause of death as a result of oxygen replacement in the atmosphere. Three male victims who were killed from gas inhalation are described in this study. One 19-year-old man attempted suicide using a combination of plastic bag suffocation and natural gas tube in his mouth. The other victim (24 years old man) attempted suicide by natural gas inhalation, and the cause of death of the third victim was inhalation of the vapor from a furnace that contained crude oil or gasoline. Methanol was detected in blood and liver samples by headspace gas chromatography (HSGC) and headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HSGCMS). Carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) and other drugs and poisons were not detected in blood and liver samples. PMID:20430818

Maryam, Akhgari; Elham, Bazmi

2010-07-01

53

Natural Gas Hydrates Update 1998-2000  

EIA Publications

Significant events have transpired on the natural gas hydrate research and development front since "Future Supply Potential of Natural Gas Hydrates" appeared in Natural Gas 1998 Issues and Trends and in the Potential Gas Committee's 1998 biennial report.

David F. Morehouse

2001-04-25

54

Natural gas hydrates – A promising source of energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas hydrates are clathrate physical compounds, in which the molecules of gas are occluded in crystalline cells, consisting of water molecules retained by the energy of hydrogen bonds. All gases can form hydrates under different pressures and temperatures. The crystalline structure of solid gas hydrate crystals has a strong dependence on gas composition, pressure, and temperature. Presently, three crystalline structures

Yuri F. Makogon

2010-01-01

55

Compressed natural gas measurement issues  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition`s Measurement and Metering Task Group (MMTG) was established on July 1st, 1992 to develop suggested revisions to National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) Handbook 44-1992 (Specifications, Tolerances, and Other Technical Requirements for Weighing and Measuring Devices) and NIST Handbook 130-1991 (Uniform Laws & Regulations). Specifically, the suggested revisions will address the sale and measurement of compressed natural gas when sold as a motor vehicle fuel. This paper briefly discusses the activities of the MMTG and its interaction with NIST. The paper also discusses the Institute of Gas Technology`s (IGT) support of the MMTG in the area of natural gas composition, their impact on metering technology applicable to high pressure fueling stations as well as conversion factors for the establishment of ``gallon gasoline equivalent`` of natural gas. The final portion of this paper discusses IGT`s meter research activities and its meter test facility.

Blazek, C.F.; Kinast, J.A.; Freeman, P.M.

1993-12-31

56

Natural Gas Prices Forecast Comparison AEO vs. Natural Gas Markets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper evaluates the accuracy of two methods to forecast natural gas prices: using the Energy Information Administration's Annual Energy Outlook forecasted price (AEO) and the Henry Hub compared to U.S. Wellhead futures price. A statistical analysis i...

G. Wong-Parodi A. Lekov L. Dale

2004-01-01

57

North American Natural Gas Markets  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

Not Available

1989-02-01

58

Natural gas hydrates storage project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since economical and environmental conditions could be positively affected by greater use of natural gas, especially for peak-loading events of power plants, the feasibility of overcoming a major impediment of safe, above-ground storage in heavily populat...

R. E. Rogers

1999-01-01

59

Natural Gas Monthly August 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. Explanatory notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication.

NONE

1998-08-01

60

Transportation of Liquefied Natural Gas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents a factual description of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) system and facilities, and the Federal regulatory process that governs their development and operations. Key portions of the LNG system that are vulnerable to technological or po...

1977-01-01

61

Natural gas monthly, November 1997  

SciTech Connect

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through November for many data series, and through August for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the most recent data estimates are: (1) Preliminary estimates of dry natural gas production and total consumption available through November 1997 indicate that both series are on track to end the year at levels close to those of 1996. Cumulative dry production is one-half percent higher than in 1996 and consumption is one-half percent lower. (2) Natural gas production is estimated to be 52.6 billion cubic feet per day in November 1997, the highest rate since March 1997. (3) After falling 8 percent in July 1997, the national average wellhead price rose 10 percent in August 1997, reaching an estimated $2.21 per thousand cubic feet. (4) Milder weather in November 1997 compared to November 1996 has resulted in significantly lower levels of residential consumption of natural gas and net storage withdrawls than a year ago. The November 1997 estimates of residential consumption and net withdrawls are 9 and 20 percent lower, respectively, than in November 1996.

NONE

1997-11-01

62

Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect

Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a lower heat transfer rate in the internal heat exchanger than was designed. It is believed that the fins on the heat-exchanger tubes did not make proper contact with the tubes transporting the chilled glycol, and pairs of fins were too close for interior areas of fins to serve as hydrate collection sites. A correction of the fabrication fault in the heat exchanger fin attachments could be easily made to provide faster formation rates. The storage success with the POC process provides valuable information for making the process an economically viable process for safe, aboveground natural-gas storage.

Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

2006-03-31

63

Natural gas production from Arctic gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural gas hydrates of the Messoyakha field in the West Siberian basin of Russia and those of the Prudhoe Bay-Kuparuk River area on the North Slope of Alaska occur within a similar series of interbedded Cretaceous and Tertiary sandstone and siltstone reservoirs. Geochemical analyses of gaseous well-cuttings and production gases suggest that these two hydrate accumulations contain a mixture

1993-01-01

64

Natural gas conversion process  

SciTech Connect

Work continued on Task No. 3. Particular attention was given to the back pressure control at the two gaseous effluent outlets and to the incineration of these effluents prior to their disposal. Temperature of the riser/regenerator and steam requirements were predicted from the gasification kinetics of coke and of coal char experimentally determined at atmospheric pressure, but at somewhat lower temperatures by H. Heinemann. The results of interactions of CH4 molecules with a Hydrogen Plasma in the adsorbed layer at the surface of refractory oxides were compared with those in the gas phase in order to select the optimum temperature range in the Cyclone reactor.

Gondouin, M.

1991-01-01

65

Natural gas monthly, February 1997  

SciTech Connect

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents estimates of natural gas supply and consumption through February 1997. Estimates of natural gas prices are through November 1996 except electric utility prices that are through October 1996. Cumulatively for January through February 1997, the daily average rates for several data series remain close to those of 1996. (Comparing daily rates accounts for the fact that February 1996 had 29 days.) Daily total consumption for January through February is estimated to be 83 billion cubic feet per day, 1 percent higher than during the same period in 1996. Similarly, the estimate of average daily production of 53 billion cubic feet is 1.5 percent higher than in 1996, while daily net imports during the first 2 months of 1997 are virtually unchanged from 1996.

NONE

1997-02-01

66

Natural gas: Removing the obstacles  

SciTech Connect

Defining and then figuring out how to remove whatever obstacles may be blocking the wider use of natural gas was the purpose of a conference held early last month in Phoenix, Arizona. The unique, three-day event was jointly sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC). It drew an overflow crowd of more than 500, with a registration list that read like a Who's Who of the natural gas industry. This article summarizes some of the main points of this conference.

Romo, C.

1992-03-15

67

Separation of liquid hydrocarbons from natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethane and other hydrocarbons of higher boiling point are separated as a liquid from natural gas to leave a gas consisting principally of methane for delivery to a pipeline. The natural gas is passed in countercurrent heat exchange with the liquid product and with the pipeline gas to cool the natural gas to a temperature at which a major part

1977-01-01

68

Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EIA attributes a more competitive industry and increases in pipeline capacity as major factors affecting increased natural gas demand in Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends. According to this recently released report, Natural gas demand has increased in the United States by fourteen percent since 1990 and electric utility consumption of natural gas rose about seventeen percent from 1990 to 1998.

69

Turkey's Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey's natural gas (NG) production is very small and is almost all imported. Turkish natural gas production in 2000, 23 billion cubic feet (Bcf), met around 4% of domestic natural gas consumption requirements. NG consumption is estimated at around 700 Bcf in year 2002, accounting for around 17% of Turkey's total energy consumption. Turkish natural gas demand had been projected

Mustafa Balat; Nuray Ozdemir

2005-01-01

70

New Nanomembrane Could Purify Natural Gas -- TIPSHEETS  

NSF Publications Database

... News Tip: New Nanomembrane Could Purify Natural Gas NSF Recognized for Innovation in Extending ... gas at the nanoscale, which may lead to a clean, efficient purification method. Natural gas is a ...

71

EIA's Natural Gas Production Data  

EIA Publications

This special report examines the stages of natural gas processing from the wellhead to the pipeline network through which the raw product becomes ready for transportation and eventual consumption, and how this sequence is reflected in the data published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA).

Information Center

2009-04-09

72

Staff Handbook on Natural Gas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Department of Commerce created a Natural Gas Action Group early in the fall of 1975 to assist industrial firms and the communities they serve to cope with the effects of potentially severe and crippling curtailment situations. This action group was trained to assess a specific local situation, review the potential for remedial action and…

Gorges, H. A., Ed.; Raine, L. P., Ed.

73

Natural gas monthly, January 1997  

SciTech Connect

This publication, the Natural Gas Monthly, presents the most recent data on natural gas supply, consumption, and prices from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Of special interest in this issue are two articles summarizing reports recently published by EIA. The articles are {open_quotes}Natural Gas Productive Capacity{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Outlook for Natural Gas Through 2015,{close_quotes} both of which precede the {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} section. With this issue, January 1997, changes have been made to the format of the Highlights section and to several of the tabular and graphical presentations throughout the publication. The changes to the Highlights affect the discussion of developments in the industry and the presentation of weekly storage data. An overview of the developments in the industry is now presented in a brief summary followed by specific discussions of supply, end-use consumption, and prices. Spot and futures prices are discussed as appropriate in the Price section, together with wellhead and consumer prices.

NONE

1997-01-01

74

Monte Carlo valuation of natural gas investments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this evaluation of energy assets related to natural gas, our particular focus is on a base load natural gas combined cycle power plant and a liquefied natural gas facility in a realistic setting. We also value several American-type investment options following the least squares Monte Carlo approach. We calibrate mean-reverting stochastic processes for gas and electricity prices by using

Luis M. Abadie; José M. Chamorro

2009-01-01

75

Natural gas and electricity optimal power flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the combined natural gas and electric optimal power flow (GEOPF) problem is presented. It shows fundamental modeling of the natural gas network to be used for the GEOPF, and describes the equality constraints, which describe the energy transformation between gas and electric networks at combined nodes (i.e., generators). We also present the formulation of the natural gas

Seungwon An; Qing Li; Thomas W. Gedra

2003-01-01

76

Compressed natural gas measurement issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition`s Measurement and Metering Task Group (MMTG) was established on July 1st, 1992 to develop suggested revisions to National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) Handbook 44-1992 (Specifications, Tolerances, and Other Technical Requirements for Weighing and Measuring Devices) and NIST Handbook 130-1991 (Uniform Laws & Regulations). Specifically, the suggested revisions will address the sale and measurement

C. F. Blazek; J. A. Kinast; P. M. Freeman

1993-01-01

77

Marcellus Shale: Natural Gas Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage from the EFMR Monitoring Group provides information on the extraction of natural gas from Pennsylvania's Marcellus Shale formation. Users may read a brief overview of the extraction efforts and the environmental concerns involved. A lesson plan and resource guide is available for download in PDF file format. The document includes a number of in-class activities for elementary, middle and high school grade levels. Academic standards and a list of links are also included.

2012-12-05

78

Consolidated Natural Gas raises dividend  

SciTech Connect

The Consolidated Natural Gas Co. has increased the common stock dividend to an indicated annual rate of $1.92 a share from $1.90. At the same time, the board approved a $344 million capital budget for 1993. On a quarterly basis, the dividend would rise from 47.5 cents a share to 48 cents. The first dividend at the new rate is payable Feb. 16, 1993, to shareholders of record on Jan. 15, 1993. The planned 1993 expenditures include approximately $120 million for exploration and production activities, $112 million for gas transmission and $111 million for gas distribution. For 1992, the company's capital budget was $426 million. The lower level of capital spending planned for 1993 is due mainly to the completion in 1992 of major interstate pipeline construction projects by the company's CNG Transmission Corp. subsidiary.

Not Available

1993-02-01

79

75 FR 70350 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [USCG-2010-0993] Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application AGENCY...received an application for the licensing of a natural gas deepwater port and the application...

2010-11-17

80

Natural gas and gas hydrate accumulations within permafrost in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudden natural gas blowouts from within the permafrost sections in West and East Siberia and some results of permafrost core samples study are presented. Topics covered include gas geochemistry, blowout intensity (gas flow rate), depth interval and permafrost rock peculiarities in places of these gas releases. Although microbial gas is widespread within permafrost, thermogenic gas can also occasionally migrate from

V. S. Yakushev; E. M. Chuvilin

2000-01-01

81

Natural gas 1995: Issues and trends  

SciTech Connect

Natural Gas 1995: Issues and Trends addresses current issues affecting the natural gas industry and markets. Highlights of recent trends include: Natural gas wellhead prices generally declined throughout 1994 and for 1995 averages 22% below the year-earlier level; Seasonal patterns of natural gas production and wellhead prices have been significantly reduced during the past three year; Natural gas production rose 15% from 1985 through 1994, reaching 18.8 trillion cubic feet; Increasing amounts of natural gas have been imported; Since 1985, lower costs of producing and transporting natural gas have benefitted consumers; Consumers may see additional benefits as States examine regulatory changes aimed at increasing efficiency; and, The electric industry is being restructured in a fashion similar to the recent restructuring of the natural gas industry.

NONE

1995-11-01

82

Natural Gas Price Increases in Kansas City.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Substantial recent increases in natural gas prices have focused considerable congressional and public attention on natural gas issues. To determine which factors contributed to an almost double-price increase in the Kansas City metropolitan area between J...

1984-01-01

83

Natural Gas Supply/Demand Accounting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a complete accounting scheme for natural gas, tracing withdrawals of natural gas from the wellhead to deliveries to final consumers. Then the utility of this methodology is exemplified through some specific applications. These applicat...

C. Everett W. Trapmann

1979-01-01

84

Method for liquefaction of natural gas  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method of altering the heating value of a liquefied natural gas by adding higher heating value components is disclosed. A portion of the liquefied natural gas is used to cool the higher heating value component stream prior to combining the higher heating value components with the liquefied natural gas to obtain a combined stream having a heating value greater than the liquefied natural gas.

2013-02-26

85

Drying compressed natural gas with silica gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the feasibility of using the heat of compressed natural gas to regenerate the sorbent, an investigation of gas drying with silica gel at 20 MPa and regeneration of the silica gel at relatively low temperature in a pilot unit was performed. Prior to this drying method, in automotive gas-filling compressor stations, compressed natural gas was subjected

G. V. Vyalkina; Z. A. Nabutovskii; V. I. Popov; E. N. Torevskii

1986-01-01

86

World Natural Gas, 1978. Energy Data Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

World marketed production of natural gas in 1978 totaled 51,749 billion cubic feet as compared with 50,100 billion cubic feet during 1977. The following data are presented in tabular form: natural gas production by country; gross production of natural gas...

1980-01-01

87

40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065...Calibration Standards § 1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, natural gas for testing must meet the...

2013-07-01

88

EROSIVE WEAR OF NATURAL GAS PIPELINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erosive wear can be caused by a water jet burst from leaked water pipe laid side by side to natural gas pipeline. The erosive wear behavior of natural gas pipeline eroded by sand and water jetting was investigated. This work present the erosive wear analysis of API 5L X42, steel grade pipeline which normally used for distributing natural gas to

ZULKIFLI ABDUL MAJID; RAHMAT MOHSIN; FADHLI OMAR

89

Analysis of Industrial Demand for Natural Gas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several analysts have proposed the theory that there is a frustrated demand for natural gas in the United States. According to this theory, the natural gas curtailments of the 1970s have convinced industrial users that natural gas is not reliable. The use...

D. B. Reister

1983-01-01

90

Natural Gas Production and Consumption: 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data are presented in tabular form on the salient statistics of natural gas in the United States (1972 to 1976); gross withdrawals and disposition of natural gas in the United States (1975 to 1976); quantity and value of marketed production of natural gas...

1978-01-01

91

Storing natural gas as frozen hydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of natural gas hydrates is a well-known problem in the petroleum and natural gas industries. Hydrates are solid materials that form when liquid water and natural gas are brought in contact under pressure. Hydrate formation need not be a problem. On the contrary, it can be an advantage. The volume of hydrates is much less than that of

J. S. Gudmundsson; A. A. Khokhar; M. Parlaktuna

1994-01-01

92

US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

Not Available

1993-10-18

93

Natural Gas Exports and Macroeconomic Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alberta, in volumetric terms, is Canada's leading exporter of natural gas, crude oil, bitumen, and coal. Alberta natural gas shipments to other Canadian provinces and exports to the United States have developed into an increasingly important component of Alberta economy. This article attempts to measure the impact of gas production and exports on different sectors of the Alberta economy as

ABBAS NAINI

1998-01-01

94

Natural gas safety: How sure are we  

SciTech Connect

This article examines natural gas distribution system safety and the public's response to natural gas disasters. Topics include cases of disaster, public and media response, the commission's actions and response, investigation and emergency actions to assure public safety, safety regulations, cathodic protection, and new gas safety rules developed.

Steinmeier, W.D. (Missouri Public Service Commission, Jefferson City (United States))

1991-08-01

95

Assessment of Natural Gas Resources in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past thirty years, the Geological Survey of Canada, provincial governments and industry have conducted assessments of natural gas resources. The Canadian Gas Potential Committee made the most recent study. It reported on the assessment of the natural gas resources in Canada in its second report published in September 2001, and that report forms the basis for this paper.

Robert A. Meneley

96

Natural gas safety: How sure are we  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines natural gas distribution system safety and the public's response to natural gas disasters. Topics include cases of disaster, public and media response, the commission's actions and response, investigation and emergency actions to assure public safety, safety regulations, cathodic protection, and new gas safety rules developed.

Steinmeier

1991-01-01

97

Analysis of Restricted Natural Gas Supply Cases  

EIA Publications

The four cases examined in this study have progressively greater impacts on overall natural gas consumption, prices, and supply. Compared to the Annual Energy Outlook 2004 reference case, the no Alaska pipeline case has the least impact; the low liquefied natural gas case has more impact; the low unconventional gas recovery case has even more impact; and the combined case has the most impact.

James Kendell

2004-03-01

98

Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy,

M. Rood Werpy; D. Santini; A. Burnham; M. Mintz

2010-01-01

99

Natural gas applications in waste management  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is engaged in several projects related to the use of natural gas for waste management. These projects can be classified into four categories: cyclonic incineration of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes; fluidized-bed reclamation of solid wastes; two-stage incineration of liquid and solid wastes; natural gas injection for emissions control. 5 refs., 8 figs.

Tarman, P.B.

1991-01-01

100

Global Natural Gas Market Trends, 2. edition  

SciTech Connect

The report provides an overview of major trends occurring in the natural gas industry and includes a concise look at the drivers behind recent rapid growth in gas usage and the challenges faced in meeting that growth. Topics covered include: an overview of Natural Gas including its history, the current market environment, and its future market potential; an analysis of the overarching trends that are driving a need for change in the Natural Gas industry; a description of new technologies being developed to increase production of Natural Gas; an evaluation of the potential of unconventional Natural Gas sources to supply the market; a review of new transportation methods to get Natural Gas from producing to consuming countries; a description of new storage technologies to support the increasing demand for peak gas; an analysis of the coming changes in global Natural Gas flows; an evaluation of new applications for Natural Gas and their impact on market sectors; and, an overview of Natural Gas trading concepts and recent changes in financial markets.

NONE

2007-07-15

101

Nitrogen Removal From Low Quality Natural Gas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Significant quantities of natural gas cannot be produced economically because its quality is too low to enter the pipeline transportation system without some type of processing, other than dehydration, to remove the undesired gas fraction. Such low-qualit...

D. B. Alvarado M. F. Asaro J. L. Bomben A. S. Damle A. S. Bhown

1997-01-01

102

Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.  

SciTech Connect

The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

2012-01-27

103

Natural gas hydrates; vast resource, uncertain future  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gas hydrates are naturally occurring icelike solids in which water molecules trap gas molecules in a cagelike structure known as a clathrate. Although many gases form hydrates in nature, methane hydrate is by far the most common; methane is the most abundant natural gas. The volume of carbon contained in methane hydrates worldwide is estimated to be twice the amount contained in all fossil fuels on Earth, including coal.

Collett, T. S.

2001-01-01

104

Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends  

SciTech Connect

Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the US natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and the financial and environmental aspects of the industry. The report consists of seven chapters and five appendices. Chapter 1 presents a summary of various data trends and key issues in today`s natural gas industry and examines some of the emerging trends. Chapters 2 through 7 focus on specific areas or segments of the industry, highlighting some of the issues associated with the impact of natural gas operations on the environment. 57 figs., 18 tabs.

NONE

1999-06-01

105

78 FR 46581 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import Liquefied Natural Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import Liquefied Natural Gas During June 2013 FE Docket Nos. CONOCOPHILLIPS...orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and to import liquefied natural gas....

2013-08-01

106

U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report  

SciTech Connect

The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

NONE

1996-11-01

107

Natural gas annual 1993 supplement: Company profiles  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1993 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of 45 selected companies in the natural gas industry. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the companies profiled. The companies in this report are interstate pipeline companies or local distribution companies (LDC`s). Interstate pipeline companies acquire gas supplies from company owned production, purchases from producers, and receipts for transportation for account of others. Pipeline systems, service area maps, company supply and disposition data are presented.

Not Available

1995-02-01

108

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2002 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2002, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 2002.

Rafi Zeinalpour

2003-12-01

109

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2003 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2003, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 2003.

Rafi Zeinalpour

2004-11-01

110

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 1996 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996.

Rafi Zeinalpour

1997-11-01

111

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2005 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2004, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 2005

Rafi Zeinalpour

2006-12-05

112

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2004 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2004, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 2004.

Rafi Zeinalpour

2005-11-30

113

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2000 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2000, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 2000.

Rafi Zeinalpour

2001-12-01

114

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 1999 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1999, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1999.

Rafi Zeinalpour

2000-12-01

115

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2001 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2001, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 2001.

Rafi Zeinalpour

2002-11-01

116

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 1998 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1998, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1998.

Rafi Zeinalpour

1999-12-01

117

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 1995 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995.

Rafi Zeinalpour

1996-11-01

118

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 1993 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1993, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1993.

Rafi Zeinalpour

1994-11-01

119

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 1997 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997.

Rafi Zeinalpour

1998-12-01

120

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 1994 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1994, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1994.

Rafi Zeinalpour

1995-10-01

121

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2006 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2004, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 2006

Information Center

2007-12-31

122

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2007 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2004, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 2007

Information Center

2009-02-10

123

40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...b) of this section, natural gas for testing must meet the specifications...Fuel Specifications for Natural Gas Item Value 1 Methane...Maximum, 0.001 mol/mol. Oxygen Maximum, 0.001 mol/mol. Inert gases (sum of CO2 and N2 )...

2010-07-01

124

GLOBAL NATURAL GAS MARKET: REALITY OR EXPECTATION?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural gas market all over the world has been suering tremendous changes for the past decades, not only because of market liberalization, but also due to industry restructuring and the strong expansion of lique…ed natural gas market (LNG) which brought the missing mechanism to achieve the integration of the regional markets, or, perhaps, the formation of a unique global

Marcela Ferreira Ramos; Amanda Pimenta Carlos; Rafael Martins de Souza

2009-01-01

125

Majors' Shift to Natural Gas, The  

EIA Publications

The Majors' Shift to Natural Gas investigates the factors that have guided the United States' major energy producers' growth in U.S. natural gas production relative to oil production. The analysis draws heavily on financial and operating data from the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS)

Bruce Bawks

2001-09-01

126

Midcontinent natural gas reservoirs and plays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas reservoirs of the mid-continent states of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Arkansas (northern part) have produced 103 trillion cubic ft (tcf) of natural gas. Oklahoma has produced the most, having a cumulative production of 71 tcf. The major reservoirs (those that have produced more than 10 billion ft[sup 3]) have been identified and organized into 28 plays based on geologic

1993-01-01

127

World resources of natural gas - a discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional natural-gas resources are ultimately recoverable in the world in about the same quantities as crude oil. Like crude oil, there are also unconventional sources of natural gas that may someday be recovered in significant quantities. However, the availability of these unconventional resources at high flow rates and acceptable costs are not well understood. Further, the element hydrogen, available in

1993-01-01

128

Centrifuge for separating helium from natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra Centrifuge Nederland N.V.'s improved centrifuge for separating helium from natural gas comprises a hollow cylindrical rotor, designated as a separating drum, within a stationary housing. Natural gas liquids that condense under pressure in the separating drum pass through openings in the drum into the space between the drum and housing. In this space, a series of openings, or throttling

F. H. Theyse; F. E. T. Kelling

1980-01-01

129

How EIA Estimates Natural Gas Production  

EIA Publications

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes estimates monthly and annually of the production of natural gas in the United States. The estimates are based on data EIA collects from gas producing states and data collected by the U. S. Minerals Management Service (MMS) in the Department of Interior. The states and MMS collect this information from producers of natural gas for various reasons, most often for revenue purposes. Because the information is not sufficiently complete or timely for inclusion in EIA's Natural Gas Monthly (NGM), EIA has developed estimation methodologies to generate monthly production estimates that are described in this document.

Information Center

2004-02-01

130

Natural Gas Supply Subprogram Status Report, 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document discusses the status of 1987 ongoing and 1988 planned activities in GRI's Natural Gas Supply research and development program to ensure the cost-effective recovery of gas from marginal resources. Areas covered are tight gas sands, eastern dev...

1987-01-01

131

Natural gas exports and macroeconomic performance  

SciTech Connect

Alberta, in volumetric terms, is Canada`s leading exporter of natural gas, crude oil, bitumen, and coal. Alberta natural gas shipments to other Canadian provinces and exports to the United States have developed into an increasingly important component of Alberta economy. This article attempts to measure the impact of gas production and exports on different sectors of the Alberta economy as the energy producing province of Canada.

Naini, A. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Economics and Policy Development

1998-08-01

132

Mechanochemical transformations of natural gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical transformations of hydrates of natural gas from the Irelyakh gas and oil field of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)\\u000a upon vigorous mechanical treatment were studied. It was found that a general feature of mechanochemical transformations of\\u000a natural gas hydrates is an increase in the carbon chain length of hydrocarbons forming the hydrates. It was shown that the\\u000a constitution of

L. P. Kalacheva; E. Yu. Shits; A. F. Fedorova

2009-01-01

133

GRI's (Gas Research Institute's) unconventional natural gas subprogram. Status report  

SciTech Connect

This document discusses the status of 1983 ongoing and planned activities in GRI's Unconventional Natural Gas Subprogram. The program is part of a broad research program technologies for providing new gas supplies from natural and synthetic sources while also addressing economic, environmental, and safety issues. Project areas supporting the subprogram are tight gas sands, eastern Devonian gas shales, co-production of gas and water, and methane form coal deposits. Presented are objectives and goals, accomplishments, strategy and basis for each project area, and a 1983 status review sheet for projects within the project area.

Not Available

1983-12-01

134

Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities.  

SciTech Connect

In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions that reduce petroleum use in the transportation sector - we have examined the state of natural gas vehicle technology, current market status, energy and environmental benefits, implications regarding advancements in European natural gas vehicle technologies, research and development efforts, and current market barriers and opportunities for greater market penetration. The authors contend that commercial intracity trucks are a prime area for advancement of this fuel. Therefore, we examined an aggressive future market penetration of natural gas heavy-duty vehicles that could be seen as a long-term goal. Under this scenario using Energy Information Administration projections and GREET life-cycle modeling of U.S. on-road heavy-duty use, natural gas vehicles would reduce petroleum consumption by approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil per day, while another 400,000 barrels of oil per day reduction could be achieved with significant use of natural gas off-road vehicles. This scenario would reduce daily oil consumption in the United States by about 8%.

Rood Werpy, M.; Santini, D.; Burnham, A.; Mintz, M.; Energy Systems

2010-11-29

135

Natural gas: key to refining future  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. Refinery capacity and product mix requirements depend largely on what happens in the natural gas industry. Potential changes in gas prices could cause large portions of the fuels market to switch between gas and fuel oil, upsetting refinery process schemes and demands for amount and type of crude. Almost one-third of current U.S. gas demand potentially is switchable to

M. Kelly; J. N. McCutchen

1984-01-01

136

US Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2001 Annual Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A newly updated publication is available from the US Energy Information Administration. The report, entitled "US Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2001 Annual Report," contains national and state estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids in the United States. The over 170-page document has chapters with titles such as National Summaries, New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields, Large Reservoir Declines, Natural Gas Plant Liquids, and Top 100 Oil Fields for 2001. Those interested can download the entire report, individual chapters, appendices, a glossary, and even previous reports for links offered by on the site.

2002-01-01

137

Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for

C. E. Clark; J. Han; A. Burnham; J. B. Dunn; M. Wang

2012-01-01

138

High-sulfur natural gas project opens  

SciTech Connect

The Astrakhan' high-sulfur natural gas project, under development since 1981, yielded its first natural gas, gas liquids and recovered sulfur in late December 1986 and early January 1987. The gas project, in the desert north of Astrakhan', is being developed from the base settlement of Aksarayskiy, a railroad junction north of Astrakhan'. The initial stage now in operation has a throughput capacity of three billion cubic meters of natural gas; it is to be doubled later in 1987, to six billion m/sup 3/. Astrakhan's is the third major sour gas project to be developed in the Soviet Union; the others are at Orenburg, in the southern Urals, and at Mubarek, in the Uzbek SSR of Central Asia.

Shabad, T.

1986-07-01

139

Coordinated scheduling of electricity and natural gas infrastructures with a transient model for natural gas flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on transient characteristics of natural gas flow in the coordinated scheduling of security-constrained electricity and natural gas infrastructures. The paper takes into account the slow transient process in the natural gas transmission systems. Considering their transient characteristics, natural gas transmission systems are modeled as a set of partial differential equations (PDEs) and algebraic equations. An implicit finite difference method is applied to approximate PDEs by difference equations. The coordinated scheduling of electricity and natural gas systems is described as a bi-level programming formulation from the independent system operator's viewpoint. The objective of the upper-level problem is to minimize the operating cost of electric power systems while the natural gas scheduling optimization problem is nested within the lower-level problem. Numerical examples are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed solution and to compare the solutions for steady-state and transient models of natural gas transmission systems.

Liu, Cong; Shahidehpour, Mohammad; Wang, Jianhui

2011-06-01

140

Assessment of future natural gas vehicle concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of Natural Gas Vehicles is progressing rapidly under the stimulus of recent vehicle emission regulations. The development is following what can be viewed as a three step progression. In the first step, contemporary gasoline or diesel fueled automobiles are retrofitted with equipment enabling the vehicle to operate on either natural gas or standard liquid fuels. The second step is the development of vehicles which utilize traditional internal combustion engines that have been modified to operate exclusively on natural gas. These dedicated natural gas vehicles operate more efficiently and have lower emissions than the dual fueled vehicles. The third step is the redesigning, from the ground up, of a vehicle aimed at exploiting the advantages of natural gas as an automotive fuel while minimizing its disadvantages. The current report is aimed at identifying the R&D needs in various fuel storage and engine combinations which have potential for providing increased efficiency, reduced emissions, and reductions in vehicle weight and size. Fuel suppliers, automobile and engine manufacturers, many segments of the natural gas and other industries, and regulatory authorities will influence or be affected by the development of such a third generation vehicle, and it is recommended that GRI act to bring these groups together in the near future to begin, developing the focus on a 'designed-for-natural-gas' vehicle.

Groten, B.; Arrigotti, S.

1992-10-01

141

Measurement of void volume of a fuel rod and the exchange of occluded gases from mixed carbide fuel with filling gas helium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of gaseous impurities in the filling gas of a fuel pin is detriental to the thermal performance of a nuclear reactor fuel. The composition of the filling gas does not remain constant throughout the life of the fuel pin. The gas exchange phenomena that occur between the cover gas and impurity gases affect the fuel performance more severely

G. A. Rama Rao; S. G. Kukarni; V. Venugoopal; V. K. Manchanda; G. L. Goswami

1995-01-01

142

Energy resource potential of natural gas hydrates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The discovery of large gas hydrate accumulations in terrestrial permafrost regions of the Arctic and beneath the sea along the outer continental margins of the world's oceans has heightened interest in gas hydrates as a possible energy resource. However, significant to potentially insurmountable technical issues must be resolved before gas hydrates can be considered a viable option for affordable supplies of natural gas. The combined information from Arctic gas hydrate studies shows that, in permafrost regions, gas hydrates may exist at subsurface depths ranging from about 130 to 2000 m. The presence of gas hydrates in offshore continental margins has been inferred mainly from anomalous seismic reflectors, known as bottom-simulating reflectors, that have been mapped at depths below the sea floor ranging from about 100 to 1100 m. Current estimates of the amount of gas in the world's marine and permafrost gas hydrate accumulations are in rough accord at about 20,000 trillion m3. Disagreements over fundamental issues such as the volume of gas stored within delineated gas hydrate accumulations and the concentration of gas hydrates within hydrate-bearing strata have demonstrated that we know little about gas hydrates. Recently, however, several countries, including Japan, India, and the United States, have launched ambitious national projects to further examine the resource potential of gas hydrates. These projects may help answer key questions dealing with the properties of gas hydrate reservoirs, the design of production systems, and, most important, the costs and economics of gas hydrate production.

Collett, T. S.

2002-01-01

143

Natural gas contracts in efficient portfolios  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the {open_quotes}contracts portfolio{close_quotes} issue of natural gas contracts in support of the Domestic Natural Gas and Oil Initiative (DGOI) published by the U.S. Department of Energy in 1994. The analysis is a result of a collaborative effort with the Public Service Commission of the State of Maryland to consider {open_quotes}reforms that enhance the industry`s competitiveness{close_quotes}. The initial focus of our collaborative effort was on gas purchasing and contract portfolios; however, it became apparent that efficient contracting to purchase and use gas requires a broader consideration of regulatory reform. Efficient portfolios are obtained when the holder of the portfolio is affected by and is responsible for the performance of the portfolio. Natural gas distribution companies may prefer a diversity of contracts, but the efficient use of gas requires that the local distribution company be held accountable for its own purchases. Ultimate customers are affected by their own portfolios, which they manage efficiently by making their own choices. The objectives of the DGOI, particularly the efficient use of gas, can be achieved when customers have access to suppliers of gas and energy services under an improved regulatory framework. The evolution of the natural gas market during the last 15 years is described to account for the changing preferences toward gas contracts. Long-term contracts for natural gas were prevalent before the early 1980s, primarily because gas producers had few options other than to sell to a single pipeline company, and this pipeline company, in turn, was the only seller to a gas distribution company.

Sutherland, R.J.

1994-12-01

144

North American Natural Gas Markets. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group`s findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

Not Available

1989-02-01

145

Refueling stations for natural gas vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The unavailability of natural gas vehicle (NGV) refueling stations constitutes one of the major barriers to the wide spread utilization of natural gas in the transportation market. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate the current technical and economic status of compressed natural gas vehicle refueling stations and to identify the components or design features that offer the greatest potential for performance improvements and/or cost reductions. Both fast-fill- and slow-fill-type refueling systems will be discussed. 4 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

Blazek, C.F.; Kinast, J.A.; Biederman, R.T.; Jasionowski, W.

1991-01-01

146

Natural gas annual 1992: Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. The 1992 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production top its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1988 to 1992 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. Volume 2 of this report presents State-level historical data.

Not Available

1993-11-22

147

Natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer  

DOEpatents

An efficient method of producing hydrogen by high temperature steam electrolysis that will lower the electricity consumption to an estimated 65 percent lower than has been achievable with previous steam electrolyzer systems. This is accomplished with a natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer, which significantly reduces the electricity consumption. Since this natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer replaces one unit of electrical energy by one unit of energy content in natural gas at one-quarter the cost, the hydrogen production cost will be significantly reduced. Also, it is possible to vary the ratio between the electricity and the natural gas supplied to the system in response to fluctuations in relative prices for these two energy sources. In one approach an appropriate catalyst on the anode side of the electrolyzer will promote the partial oxidation of natural gas to CO and hydrogen, called Syn-Gas, and the CO can also be shifted to CO.sub.2 to give additional hydrogen. In another approach the natural gas is used in the anode side of the electrolyzer to burn out the oxygen resulting from electrolysis, thus reducing or eliminating the potential difference across the electrolyzer membrane.

Pham, Ai-Quoc (San Jose, CA); Wallman, P. Henrik (Berkeley, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01

148

Nitrogen Removal from Natural Gas: Phase II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

SRI identified (bis)tricyclohexylphosphine molybdenum tricarbonyl as a candidate component in an absorption system for upgrading substandard natural gas to pipeline standards by removing nitrogen. The molybdenum compound reacted selectively with nitrogen ...

D. C. Bomberger J. L. Bomben A. Amirbahman M. Asaro

1999-01-01

149

Method for dismantling a natural gas holder  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of dismantling a natural gas holder. The holder has vertical support columns disposed around the periphery of the holder to which the enclosure shell of the holder is attached.

Settlemier, B.R.; Bone, S.R.; Tolivaisa, J.; Nugent, J.E.

1990-10-30

150

Natural Gas Supply Subprogram Status Report, 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1986 status report presents tactical objectives, goals, accomplishments, strategies, and contract status of ongoing projects in GRI's Natural Gas Supply R&D Subprogram that mainly address unconventional supply sources which cannot be economically expl...

1986-01-01

151

REGULATORY REFORM: LESSONS FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines regulatory reform and some possible consequences of reform designed to increase the role that competition plays in the interstate natural gas pipeline industry. The analysis first provides a conceptual framework for viewing the \\

RONALD R. BRAEUTIGAM

1990-01-01

152

Natural gas 1996 - issues and trends  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents a summary of the latest data and information relating to the U.S. natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and financial aspects of the industry.

NONE

1996-12-01

153

Natural gas flow through critical nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Empirical method for calculating both the mass flow rate and upstream volume flow rate through critical flow nozzles is determined. Method requires knowledge of the composition of natural gas, and of the upstream pressure and temperature.

Johnson, R. C.

1969-01-01

154

Physical Properties of Natural Gas Hydrate Deposits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Natural gas hydrates form in polar regions and in ocean bottom sediments and they may represent a considerable energy resource. Unfortunately, so little is known about the physical properties of hydrate deposits that it is difficult to develop geophysical...

C. Pearson

1982-01-01

155

Natural Gas Price Increases: A Preliminary Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Natural gas prices in many cities are expected to increase substantially this winter. This preliminary analysis addresses--how much prices have increased since 1970 to residential, industrial, and other users nationwide and to residential users in selecte...

1982-01-01

156

Natural Gas Price Increases in Los Angeles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Natural gas price increases in recent years captured congressional and public attention. To determine which factors contributed to an average price increase of 61 percent in the Los Angeles, California, area between April 1981 and April 1983, GAO obtained...

1984-01-01

157

Natural gas as a powerplant fuel  

SciTech Connect

The industry's ability to manage this clean'' fuel resource speaks volumes about its current dominance for capacity additions. This article examines whether natural gas can become the fuel of choice for large-scale baseload capacity. Once banned by Congress as a power-plant fuel by the Fuel Use Act of 1978 (FUA), natural gas is now the current powerplant fuel of choice.'' And most forecasts predict that natural gas will continue to play a dominant role in certain industry sectors, most notably the non-utility-generation (NUG) market, although overall it may not dominate to the extent that many of its proponents suggest. In any case, two major areas are important to better understand natural-gas-fired generation: Resource economics and risk management.

Not Available

1994-02-01

158

Phase equilibria in natural gas systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously unavailable information on the phase equilibria of helium-bearing natural gas is presented. The solubility of helium in the equilibrium liquid phases, the percentage of helium condensed, and equilibrium coefficient data for methane, nitrogen, and helium are considered.

L. W. Brandt; L. Stroud; J. E. Miller

1961-01-01

159

Helium in Natural Gas in the Witwatersrand  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING a visit to the Union of South Africa in the spring of 1957 I observed escapes of natural gas associated with faults and fissures in the underground workings of some of the gold-uranium mines of the Witwatersrand.

S. H. U. Bowie

1958-01-01

160

Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication provides information on the interstate pipeline companies' supply of natural gas in the United States during calendar year 1990, for use by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for regulatory purposes. It also provides information to ...

1992-01-01

161

Nitrogen Removal From Low Quality Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas provides more than one-fifth of all the primary energy used in the United States. It is especially important in the residential sector, where it supplies nearly half of all the energy consumed in U.S. homes. However, significant quantities of natural gas cannot be produced economically because its quality is too low to enter the pipeline transportation system without some type of processing, other than dehydration, to remove the undesired gas fraction. Such low-quality natural gas (LQNG) contains significant concentration or quantities of gas other than methane. These non- hydrocarbons are predominantly nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide, but may also include other gaseous components. The nitrogen concentrations usually exceeds 4%. Nitrogen rejection is presently an expensive operation which can present uneconomic scenarios in the potential development of natural gas fields containing high nitrogen concentrations. The most reliable and widely used process for nitrogen rejection from natural gas consists of liquefying the feed stream using temperatures in the order of - 300{degrees}F and separating the nitrogen via fractionation. In order to reduce the gas temperature to this level, the gas is compressed, cooled by mullet-stream heat exchangers, and expanded to low pressure. Significant energy for compression and expensive materials of construction are required. Water and carbon dioxide concentrations must be reduced to levels required to prevent freezing. SRI`s proposed research involves screening new nitrogen selective absorbents and developing a more cost effective nitrogen removal process from natural gas using those compounds. The long-term objective of this project is to determine the technical and economical feasibility of a N{sub 2}2 removal concept based on complexation of molecular N{sub 2} with novel complexing agents. Successful development of a selective, reversible, and stable reagent with an appropriate combination of capacity and N{sub 2} absorption/desorption characteristics will allow selective separation of N{sub 2} from LQNG.

Alvarado, D.B.; Asaro, M.F.; Bomben, J.L.; Damle, A.S.; Bhown, A.S.

1997-10-01

162

USSR: development of its natural gas industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas production in Russia currently stands at 13 tcf compared to US production of 20 tcf. Russian production is expected to increase to 15.4 tcf in 1980 and will surpass the US production total by 1985 (estimated 24.72 tcf). Natural gas reserves in the USSR are estimated at 990 tcf, amounting to a 72-yr life index at the 1976

Lippitt; H. F. II

1979-01-01

163

Natural Gas and the Marcellus Shale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homework problem introduces students to Marcellus shale natural gas and how an unconventional reservoir rock can become an attractive hydrocarbon target. It is designed to expand students' understanding of hydrocarbon resources by introducing an unconventional natural gas play. Students explore the technological factors that make conventional source rocks attractive reservoir rocks and how this advance impacts both U.S. energy supply and the environment.

Halsor, Sid; Collection, Serc -.

164

Natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium Implications for the origin of natural gas  

PubMed Central

It is broadly accepted that so-called 'thermal' gas is the product of thermal cracking, 'primary' thermal gas from kerogen cracking, and 'secondary' thermal gas from oil cracking. Since thermal cracking of hydrocarbons does not generate products at equilibrium and thermal stress should not bring them to equilibrium over geologic time, we would not expect methane, ethane, and propane to be at equilibrium in subsurface deposits. Here we report compelling evidence of natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium. Molecular compositions are constrained to equilibrium, and isotopic compositions are also under equilibrium constraints: The functions [(CH4)*(C3H8)] and [(C2H6)2] exhibit a strong nonlinear correlation (R2 = 0.84) in which the quotient Q progresses to K as wet gas progresses to dry gas. There are striking similarities between natural gas and catalytic gas generated from marine shales. A Devonian/Mississippian New Albany shale generates gas with Q converging on K over time as wet gas progresses to dry gas at 200°C. The position that thermal cracking is the primary source of natural gas is no longer tenable. It is challenged by its inability to explain the composition of natural gas, natural gases at thermodynamic equilibrium, and by the existence of a catalytic path to gas that better explains gas compositions.

2009-01-01

165

Natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium. Implications for the origin of natural gas.  

PubMed

It is broadly accepted that so-called 'thermal' gas is the product of thermal cracking, 'primary' thermal gas from kerogen cracking, and 'secondary' thermal gas from oil cracking. Since thermal cracking of hydrocarbons does not generate products at equilibrium and thermal stress should not bring them to equilibrium over geologic time, we would not expect methane, ethane, and propane to be at equilibrium in subsurface deposits. Here we report compelling evidence of natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium. Molecular compositions are constrained to equilibrium, [Formula in text] and isotopic compositions are also under equilibrium constraints: [Formula in text].The functions [(CH4)*(C3H8)] and [(C2H6)2] exhibit a strong nonlinear correlation (R2 = 0.84) in which the quotient Q progresses to K as wet gas progresses to dry gas. There are striking similarities between natural gas and catalytic gas generated from marine shales. A Devonian/Mississippian New Albany shale generates gas with Q converging on K over time as wet gas progresses to dry gas at 200 degrees C. The position that thermal cracking is the primary source of natural gas is no longer tenable. It is challenged by its inability to explain the composition of natural gas, natural gases at thermodynamic equilibrium, and by the existence of a catalytic path to gas that better explains gas compositions. PMID:19531233

Mango, Frank D; Jarvie, Daniel; Herriman, Eleanor

2009-01-01

166

Effects of natural gas contaminants on corrosion in compressed natural gas storage cylinders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes work being performed to define natural gas contaminant concentration levels necessary to insure that internal corrosion of compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders does not constitute a hazard over the lifetimes of the cylinders. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) tests have been performed on typical steel and aluminum CNG cylinder materials using representative natural gases collected from

F. F. Jr. Lyle; H. C. Jr. Burghard

1986-01-01

167

METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a project to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. his study will measure or calculate all gas industry CH4 emissions--from production at the wellhead, through the system, to the customer's meter. missions downstream of the consu...

168

Natural gas liquids remain strong petrochemical feedstock  

SciTech Connect

The supply of petrochemical feedstocks in the USA are discussed. The US petrochemical network starts with three main sources, i.e., olefins, aromatics, and natural gas. Petrochemical technology has been pushed to lower costs and improve yields in the face of a determined market drive from new petrochemical producing regions with vast supplies of low-cost gas liquids.

Greek, B.F.

1984-03-12

169

The environmental impact of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlining the environmental impact of natural gas firstly describes the recent and increasing importance of gas in Western Europe, and its discovery in the North Sea. The effects resulting from its utilisation are also described. These include the effect on the implementation of the Clean Air Act and the changes brought about in land use pattern. In making

C. Hibberd

1977-01-01

170

Natural Gas Price Increases in Detroit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Natural gas prices increased an average 38 percent in the Detroit, Michigan, area between January 1981 and January 1983. GAO found that about two-thirds of the price increase was due to (1) the depletion of old and less expensive gas reserves and the addi...

1985-01-01

171

18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 ...Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resourcesânatural gas. (a)(1) The national...

2010-04-01

172

18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 ...Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resourcesânatural gas. (a)(1) The national...

2009-04-01

173

NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep

Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

2002-01-01

174

Viscosity Prediction for Natural Gas Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The viscosity of multicomponent natural gas-mixtures containing hydrocarbons (C1 through C7) is predicted by modifying a previously published dilute-gas viscosity model and extending its applicability to a wide range of temperature and pressure conditions including liquid and gas states. Nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and helium are also included among components of mixtures for which published viscosity data are available. The

Z. Shan; R. T Jacobsen; S. G. Penoncello

2001-01-01

175

Ideal-gas thermodynamic properties for natural-gas applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculating caloric properties from a thermal equation of state requires information such as isobaric heat capacities in the ideal-gas state as a function of temperature. In this work, values for the parameters of thecp0 correlation proposed by Aly and Lee were newly determined for 21 pure gases which are compounds of natural gas mixtures. The values of the parameters were

M. Jaeschke; P. Schley

1995-01-01

176

Compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas as alternative fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of alternative fuels in the transportation industry has gained a strong support in recent years. In this paper an attempt was made to evaluate the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (NG) by 25 LPG-bifuel and 14 NG-bifuel vehicles that are operated by 33 transit systems throughout Nebraska. A set of performance measures such

Massoum Moussavi; Motasem Al-Turk

1993-01-01

177

Combustion gas properties. 2: Natural gas fuel and dry air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of computations has been made to produce the equilibrium temperature and gas composition for natural gas fuel and dry air. The computed tables and figures provide combustion gas property data for pressures from 0.5 to 50 atmospheres and equivalence ratios from 0 to 2.0. Only samples tables and figures are provided in this report. The complete set of tables and figures is provided on four microfiche films supplied with this report.

Wear, J. D.; Jones, R. E.; Trout, A. M.; Mcbride, B. J.

1985-01-01

178

26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21 Section... § 48.4041-21 Compressed natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of...imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel...

2013-04-01

179

49 CFR 393.68 - Compressed natural gas fuel containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Compressed natural gas fuel containers. 393.68 ...Systems § 393.68 Compressed natural gas fuel containers. (a) Applicability...this section apply to compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel containers...

2013-10-01

180

77 FR 69781 - Enhanced Natural Gas Market Transparency  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. RM13-1-000] Enhanced Natural Gas Market Transparency AGENCY: Federal...made to its regulations under the natural gas market transparency provisions of section 23 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), as adopted in...

2012-11-21

181

18 CFR 157.210 - Mainline natural gas facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Mainline natural gas facilities. 157.210 Section...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES...ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline...

2010-04-01

182

18 CFR 157.210 - Mainline natural gas facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Mainline natural gas facilities. 157.210 Section...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES...ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline...

2009-04-01

183

Natural gas hydrates: myths, facts and issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas hydrates are solid-like substances naturally occurring beneath the oceans and in polar regions. They contain vast, and potentially unstable, reserves of methane and other natural gases. Many believe that, if released in the environment, the methane from hydrates would be a considerable hazard to marine ecosystems, coastal populations and infrastructures, or worse, that it would dangerously contribute to global

2004-01-01

184

NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS  

SciTech Connect

From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations using laboratory pyrolysis methods have provided much information on the origins of deep gas. Technologic problems are one of the greatest challenges to deep drilling. Problems associated with overcoming hostile drilling environments (e.g. high temperatures and pressures, and acid gases such as CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) for successful well completion, present the greatest obstacles to drilling, evaluating, and developing deep gas fields. Even though the overall success ratio for deep wells is about 50 percent, a lack of geological and geophysical information such as reservoir quality, trap development, and gas composition continues to be a major barrier to deep gas exploration. Results of recent finding-cost studies by depth interval for the onshore U.S. indicate that, on average, deep wells cost nearly 10 times more to drill than shallow wells, but well costs and gas recoveries vary widely among different gas plays in different basins. Based on an analysis of natural gas assessments, many topical areas hold significant promise for future exploration and development. One such area involves re-evaluating and assessing hypothetical unconventional basin-center gas plays. Poorly-understood basin-center gas plays could contain significant deep undiscovered technically-recoverable gas resources.

Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

2002-02-05

185

77 FR 31838 - Notice of Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During April 2012 AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy...12-34-NG Northwest Natural Gas Company............ 12-41-NG...

2012-05-30

186

78 FR 21349 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, To Export Compressed Natural Gas, Vacating Prior Authority and Denying Request for Rehearing During January...

2013-04-10

187

Advance Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, 2000 Annual Report. November 2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids proved reserves estimates increased in 2000. Exploratory and development drilling was focused on natural gas in 2000. Natural gas proved reserves additions replaced 152 percent of gas production. Such u...

2001-01-01

188

Geologic studies of deep natural gas resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1995, the USGS estimated a mean resource of 114 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered technically recoverable natural gas in plays deeper than 15,000 feet/4,572 meters in onshore regions of the United States. This volume summarizes major conclusions of ongoing work. Chapters A and B address the areal extent of drilling and distribution of deep basins in the U.S. Chapter C summarizes distribution of deep sedimentary basins and potential for deep gas in the former Soviet Union. Chapters D and E are geochemical papers addressing source-rock issues and deep gas generation. Chapter F develops a probabilistic method for subdividing gas resources into depth slices, and chapter G analyzes the relative uncertainty of estimates of deep gas in plays in the Gulf Coast Region. Chapter H evaluates the mechanism of hydrogenation of deep, high-rank spent kerogen by water, with subsequent generation of methane-rich HC gas.

edited by Dyman, T. S.; Kuuskraa, V. A.

2001-01-01

189

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves. 2006 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2006 Annual Report is the 30th prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill its responsibility to gather and report annual proved reserves estimates. The EIA annual re...

2007-01-01

190

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves: 2007 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2007 Annual Report is the 31st prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill its responsibility to gather and report annual proved reserves estimates. The EIA annual re...

2009-01-01

191

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, 1998 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1998, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1998. Estimates are p...

D. F. Morehouse J. H. Wood R. M. Zeinalpour R. S. Green S. G. Grape

1999-01-01

192

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves: 2004 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2004, as well as production volumes for the United States and producing States and State subdivisions for the year 2004. Estimates are ...

J. H. Wood R. Zeinalpour R. S. Green S. G. Grape

2005-01-01

193

Economic evaluation of natural gas hydrate as an alternative for natural gas transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a proposed process for conversion of natural gas to natural gas hydrate, NGH, the amortized total capital investment, operation and maintenance costs and total cost for production of NGH have been obtained. The effects of different operational conditions such as seawater temperature as cooling media and hydrate storage temperature have been investigated. The economic parameters for marine transportation

J. Javanmardi; Kh. Nasrifar; S. H. Najibi; M. Moshfeghian

2005-01-01

194

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, 2001 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2001 Annual Report is the 25th prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill its responsibility to gather and report annual proved reserves estimates. The EIA annual re...

2002-01-01

195

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, 2002 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2002 Annual Report is the 26th prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill its responsibility to gather and report annual proved reserves estimates. The EIA annual re...

2002-01-01

196

UPGRADING NATURAL GAS VIA MEMBRANE SEPARATION PROCESSES  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the present study is to assess the potential usefulness of membrane separation processes for removing CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S from low-quality natural gas containing substantial amounts of both these ''acid'' gases, e.g., up to 40 mole-% CO{sub 2} and 10 mole-% H{sub 2}S. The membrane processes must be capable of upgrading the crude natural gas to pipeline specifications ({le} 2 mole-% CO{sub 2}, {le} 4 ppm H{sub 2}S). Moreover, these processes must also be economically competitive with the conventional separation techniques, such as gas absorption, utilized for this purpose by the gas industry.

S.A.Stern; P.A. Rice; J. Hao

2000-03-01

197

The solar thermal decarbonization of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endothermic decomposition of natural gas into a carbon-rich condensed phase and a hydrogen-rich gas phase, using concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat, is considered as a model reaction for conducting a 2nd-law analysis of a solar decarbonization process in which carbon is removed from fossil fuels prior to their use for power generation. The theoretical

D. Hirsch; M. Epstein; A. Steinfeld

2001-01-01

198

The efficient use of natural gas in transportation  

SciTech Connect

Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

1992-01-01

199

The efficient use of natural gas in transportation  

SciTech Connect

Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

1992-04-01

200

Implications of Disruption to Natural Gas Deliverability  

SciTech Connect

This project was sponsored by Department of Energy/Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability and managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The primary purpose of the project was to analyze the capability of the natural gas production, transmission and supply systems to continue to provide service in the event of a major disruption in capacity of one or more natural gas transmission pipelines. The project was specifically designed to detail the ability of natural gas market to absorb facility losses and efficiently reallocate gas supplies during a significant pipeline capacity disruption in terms that allowed federal and state agencies and interests to develop effective policies and action plans to prioritize natural gas deliveries from a regional and national perspective. The analyses for each regional study were based on four primary considerations: (1) operating conditions (pipeline capacity, storage capacity, local production, power dispatch decision making and end user options); (2) weather; (3) magnitude and location of the disruption; and, (4) normal versus emergency situation. The detailed information contained in the region reports as generated from this project are Unclassified Controlled Information; and as such are subject to disclosure in accordance with the Freedom of Information Act. Therefore, this report defines the regions that were analyzed and the basic methodologies and assumptions used to completing the analysis.

Science Applications International

2008-09-30

201

Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbon  

SciTech Connect

Despite technical advances to reduce air pollution emissions, motor vehicles still account for 30 to 70% emissions of all urban air pollutants. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require 100 cities in the United States to reduce the amount of their smog within 5 to 15 years. Hence, auto emissions, the major cause of smog, must be reduced 30 to 60% by 1998. Natural gas con be combusted with less pollutant emissions. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) uses adsorbents and operates with a low storage pressure which results in lower capital costs and maintenance. This paper describes the production of an activated carbon adsorbent produced from an Illinois coal for ANG.

Sun, Jian; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

202

Natural gas hydrate occurrence and issues  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Naturally occurring gas hydrate is found in sediment of two regions: (1) continental, including continental shelves, at high latitudes where surface temperatures are very cold, and (2) submarine outer continental margins where pressures are very high and bottom-water temperatures are near 0??C. Continental gas hydrate is found in association with onshore and offshore permafrost. Submarine gas hydrate is found in sediment of continental slopes and rises. The amount of methane present in gas hydrate is thought to be very large, but the estimates that have been made are more speculative than real. Nevertheless, at the present time there has been a convergence of ideas regarding the amount of methane in gas hydrate deposits worldwide at about 2 x 1016 m3 or 7 x 1017 ft3 = 7 x 105 Tcf [Tcf = trillion (1012) ft3]. The potentially large amount of methane in gas hydrate and the shallow depth of gas hydrate deposits are two of the principal factors driving research concerning this substance. Such a large amount of methane, if it could be commercially produced, provides a potential energy resource for the future. Because gas hydrate is metastable, changes of surface pressure and temperature affect its stability. Destabilized gas hydrate beneath the sea floor leads to geologic hazards such as submarine mass movements. Examples of submarine slope failures attributed to gas hydrate are found worldwide. The metastability of gas hydrate may also have an effect on climate. The release of methane, a 'greenhouse' gas, from destabilized gas hydrate may contribute to global warming and be a factor in global climate change.

Kvenvolden, K. A.

1994-01-01

203

Infants' representations of three-dimensional occluded objects.  

PubMed

Infants' ability to represent objects has received significant attention from the developmental research community. With the advent of eye-tracking technology, detailed analysis of infants' looking patterns during object occlusion have revealed much about the nature of infants' representations. The current study continues this research by analyzing infants' looking patterns in a novel manner and by comparing infants' looking at a simple display in which a single three-dimensional (3D) object moves along a continuous trajectory to a more complex display in which two 3D objects undergo trajectories that are interrupted behind an occluder. Six-month-old infants saw an occlusion sequence in which a ball moved along a linear path, disappeared behind a rectangular screen, and then a ball (ball-ball event) or a box (ball-box event) emerged at the other edge. An eye-tracking system recorded infants' eye-movements during the event sequence. Results from examination of infants' attention to the occluder indicate that during the occlusion interval infants looked longer to the side of the occluder behind which the moving occluded object was located, shifting gaze from one side of the occluder to the other as the object(s) moved behind the screen. Furthermore, when events included two objects, infants attended to the spatiotemporal coordinates of the objects longer than when a single object was involved. These results provide clear evidence that infants' visual tracking is different in response to a one-object display than to a two-object display. Furthermore, this finding suggests that infants may require more focused attention to the hidden position of objects in more complex multiple-object displays and provides additional evidence that infants represent the spatial location of moving occluded objects. PMID:20926138

Woods, Rebecca J; Wilcox, Teresa; Armstrong, Jennifer; Alexander, Gerianne

2010-12-01

204

Development of a thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier.  

SciTech Connect

Praxair, in conjunction with the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is developing a new technology, thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators, for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons/day, has been built and tested. The power source is a natural gas burner. Systems will be developed with liquefaction capacities up to 10,000 to 20,000 gallons per day. The technology, the development project, accomplishments and applications are discussed. In February 2001 Praxair, Inc. purchased the acoustic heat engine and refrigeration development program from Chart Industries. Chart (formerly Cryenco, which Chart purchased in 1997) and Los Alamos had been working on the technology development program since 1994. The purchase included assets and intellectual property rights for thermoacoustically driven orifice pulse tube refrigerators (TADOPTR), a new and revolutionary Thermoacoustic Stirling Heat Engine (TASHE) technology, aspects of Orifice Pulse Tube Refrigeration (OPTR) and linear motor compressors as OPTR drivers. Praxair, in cooperation with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the licensor of the TADOPTR and TASHE patents, is continuing the development of TASHE-OPTR natural gas powered, natural gas liquefiers. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at -161 C (-259 F) at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 TADOPTR invention by Drs. Greg Swift (LANL) and Ray Radebaugh (NIST) demonstrated the first technology to produce cryogenic refrigeration with no moving parts. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators use acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat. The basic driver and refrigerator consist of nothing more than helium-filled heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. The liquefier development program is divided into two components: Thermoacoustically driven refrigerators and linear motor driven refrigerators (LOPTRs). LOPTR technology will, for the foreseeable future, be limited to natural gas liquefaction capacities on the order of hundreds of gallons per day. TASHE-OPTR technology is expected to achieve liquefaction capacities of tens of thousands of gallons per day. This paper will focus on the TASHE-OPTR technology because its natural gas liquefaction capacity has greater market opportunity. LOPTR development will be mentioned briefly. The thermoacoustically driven refrigerator development program is now in the process of demonstrating the technology at a capacity of about 500 gallon/day (gpd) i.e., approximately 42,000 standard cubic feet/day, which requires about 7 kW of refrigeration power. This capacity is big enough to illuminate the issues of large-scale acoustic liquefaction at reasonable cost and to demonstrate the liquefaction of about 70% of an input gas stream, while burning about 30%. Subsequent to this demonstration a system with a capacity of approximately 10{sup 6} standard cubic feet/day (scfd) = 10,000 gpd with a projected liquefaction rate of about 85% of the input gas stream will be developed. When commercialized, the TASHE-OPTRs will be a totally new type of heat-driven cryogenic refrigerator, with projected low manufacturing cost, high reliability, long life, and low maintenance. A TASHE-OPTR will be able to liquefy a broad range of gases, one of the most important being natural gas (NG). Potential NG applications range from distributed liquefaction of pipeline gas as fuel for heavy-duty fleet and long haul vehicles to large-scale liquefaction at on-shore and offshore gas wellheads. An alternative to the thermoacoustic driver, but with many similar technical and market advantages, is the linear motor compressor. Linear motors convert electrical power directly into oscillating linear, or axial, motion. Attachment of a piston to the oscillator results in a direct drive compressor. Such a compressor

Wollan, J. J. (John J.); Swift, G. W. (Gregory W.); Backhaus, S. N. (Scott N.); Gardner, D. L. (David L.)

2002-01-01

205

Vehicle fuel of the future. [Compressed natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the first uses for natural gas could become one of the most important uses of natural gas in the future. Compressed natural gas has the potential to power many millions of vehicles in North America and around the world, in almost any application and for almost any purpose. The idea of using natural or manufactured gas to fuel

1986-01-01

206

Natural gas pipeline\\/producer contracts: a preliminary analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to obtain a preliminary assessment of current natural gas contract provisions in the event of the deregulation of natural gas prices. The principal focus of the study is interstae natural gas contracts in force prior to the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA). Also included in the study are pre-NGPA contracts in the intrastate markets, post-NGPA offshore

R. ONeill; J. Heinkel; R. Stokes

1981-01-01

207

Evaluation Of Empirical Correlations For Natural Gas Hydrate Predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great number of petroleum engineering calculations require knowledge of natural gas hydrate formation conditions. Ideally, natural gas hydrate formation conditions are determined experimentally in the laboratory, but these data are not always available. Correlations are consequently used to determine values for natural gas hydrate formation conditions. In this research, the correlations of natural gas hydrate formation conditions determined by

Khaled Ahmed

2004-01-01

208

United States Imports and Exports of Natural Gas 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tables are presented on the following items: summary of US pipeline imports and exports of natural gas; volume and cost of natural gas pipeline imports; volume and cost of natural gas pipeline exports; volume and cost of liquefied natural gas imports; and...

1979-01-01

209

Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of shale gas, natural gas, coal, and petroleum.  

PubMed

The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. It has been debated whether the fugitive methane emissions during natural gas production and transmission outweigh the lower carbon dioxide emissions during combustion when compared to coal and petroleum. Using the current state of knowledge of methane emissions from shale gas, conventional natural gas, coal, and petroleum, we estimated up-to-date life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings that need to be further addressed. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than conventional natural gas, 23% lower than gasoline, and 33% lower than coal. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas. Moreover, this life-cycle analysis, among other work in this area, provides insight on critical stages that the natural gas industry and government agencies can work together on to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas. PMID:22107036

Burnham, Andrew; Han, Jeongwoo; Clark, Corrie E; Wang, Michael; Dunn, Jennifer B; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi

2012-01-17

210

Natural Gas: Imports and Exports Fourth Quarter Report, 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Oil and Gas Global Security and Supply, Office of Natural Gas Regulatory Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly ...

2007-01-01

211

Mitchell firmly retrenched in natural gas services  

SciTech Connect

The past three years, Mitchell Energy and Development Corp. has undergone a massive restructuring that has changed the face of one of the nation`s largest and best-known natural gas/natural gas liquids companies. Facing a rapidly changing industry that frequently has been stung by volatile swings in energy markets, management of the independent company, founded by George Mitchell in 1946, sold off $300 million in non-core assets; reduced its long-term debt by $400 million; instituted a hiring freeze and reduced its workforce by a third, from 2,900 to 1,950, over the last three years. Mitchell negotiated a buyout of its hugely profitable North Texas gas sales contract with Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America as a means of easing its transition to a market-sensitive price environment and reducing its debt. Mitchell also took operational control. Finally, Mitchell has left the real estate business, culminating July 31 with the sale of its real estate subsidiary, The Woodlands Corporation, for $543 million ($460 million net after-tax), further reducing its workforce to 1,100. On Aug. 18, the company said it will use the proceeds to repurchase common stock, retire another $200 million of public debt, make asset niche energy acquisitions and increase capital spending for existing programs. The result is a renewed focus on its exploration and production and gas gathering, processing and marketing businesses.

Share, J.

1997-09-01

212

Combined natural gas and electricity network pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of competition to electricity generation and commercialization has been the main focus of many restructuring experiences around the world. The open access to the transmission network and a fair regulated tariff have been the keystones for the development of the electricity market. Parallel to the electricity industry, the natural gas business has great interaction with the electricity market

M. S. Morais; J. W. Marangon Lima

2007-01-01

213

Mexican demand for US natural gas  

SciTech Connect

This study describes the Mexican natural gas industry as it exists today and the factors that have shaped the evolution of the industry in the past or that are expected to influence its progress; it also projects production and use of natural gas and estimates the market for exports of natural gas from the United States to Mexico. The study looks ahead to two periods, a near term (1993--1995) and an intermediate term (1996--2000). The bases for estimates under two scenarios are described. Under the conservative scenario, exports of natural gas from the United States would decrease from the 1992 level of 250 million cubic feet per day (MMCF/d), would return to that level by 1995, and would reach about 980 MMCF/D by 2000. Under the more optimistic scenario, exports would decrease in 1993 and would recover and rise to about 360 MMCF/D in 1995 and to 1,920 MMCF/D in 2000.

Kanter, M.A.; Kier, P.H.

1993-09-01

214

New Methodology for Natural Gas Production Estimates  

EIA Publications

A new methodology is implemented with the monthly natural gas production estimates from the EIA-914 survey this month. The estimates, to be released April 29, 2010, include revisions for all of 2009. The fundamental changes in the new process include the timeliness of the historical data used for estimation and the frequency of sample updates, both of which are improved.

Information Center

2010-04-26

215

Effective kinetic inhibitors for natural gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetic inhibition is a new means of preventing flow channel blockage by natural gas hydrates. In kinetic inhibition the system is allowed to exist within the hydrate thermodynamic stability zone, so that small crystals are stabilized without agglomerating to larger hydrate masses which plug pipelines. A hydrate formation mechanism is reviewed to suggest the new inhibition method. Macroscopic experiments on

J. P. Lederhos; J. P. Long; A. Sum; R. L. Christiansen; E. D. Sloan

1996-01-01

216

Natural Gas Hydrates in the Alaskan Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of in-situ natural gas hydrates in the arctic North Slope of Alaska is governed by several thermodynamic and geologic parameters, such as mean annual surface temperature, geothermal gradients above and below the base of the permafrost, pore-fluid salinity, permafrost base depth and temperature, subsurface pressure, and composition. Accurate knowledge of these parameters is necessary to determine the depths

S. P. Godbole; V. A. Kamath; C. Ehlig-Economides

1988-01-01

217

Analysis of Restricted Natural Gas Supply Cases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This analysis of four scenarios that restrict future natural gas supply responds to a request by Representative Barbara Cubin, Chairman of the Subcommittee on Energy and Mineral Resources of the U.S. House Committee on Resources, on February 3, 2004. The ...

2004-01-01

218

Teaching about Natural Gas and the Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article contains a foldout entitled Natural Gas and the Environment for use in helping students become more aware of the relationships that exist between humans and the environment. Suggestions for classroom integration of this subject into your curriculum are also provided. (ZWH)

Shewell, John

1994-01-01

219

Bibliography on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximately 600 citations concerning safety of liquefied natural gas and liquid methane are presented. Each entry includes the title, author, abstract, source, description of figures, key references, and major descriptors for retrieving the document. An author index is provided as well as an index of descriptors.

Ordin, P. M.

1976-01-01

220

Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization  

SciTech Connect

Building upon the partitioning of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) that was conducted last quarter, the goal of the work this quarter has been to conclude evaluation of the Stratos well and the prototypical Green River Deep partition, and perform the fill resource evaluation of the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play, with the goal of defining target areas of enhanced natural fracturing. The work plan for the quarter of November 1-December 31, 1998 comprised four tasks: (1) Evaluation of the Green River Deep partition and the Stratos well and examination of potential opportunity for expanding the use of E and P technology to low permeability, naturally fractured gas reservoirs, (2) Gas field studies, and (3) Resource analysis of the balance of the partitions.

NONE

1999-06-01

221

Soluble surfactants favorably modify fluid structure and wall shear stress profiles during near-occluding bubble motion in a computational model of intravascular gas embolism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finite sized gas bubble motion in a blood vessel causes temporal and spatial gradients of shear stress at the endothelial cell surface lining the vessel wall as the bubble approaches the cell, moves over it and passes it by. Rapid reversals occur in the sign of the shear stress imparted to the cell surface during this motion. The sign-reversing shear is a potently coupled source of cell surface mechanical stretch, potentiating cell injury. The presence of a suitable soluble surfactant in the bulk medium considerably reduces the level of the shear stress gradients imparted to the cell surface as compared to an equivalent surfactant-free system. The bubble shape and the film thickness between the bubble and the vessel wall are also different. Furthermore, the bubble residence time near the proximity of a cell surface changes in comparison. These results based on our modeling may help explain several phenomena observed in experimental studies related to gas embolism, a significant problem in cardiac surgery and decompression sickness.

Swaminathan, T. N.; Ayyaswamy, P. S.; Eckmann, D. M.

2009-11-01

222

Synergistic combustion of coal with natural gas  

SciTech Connect

Engineers, using an improved coal devolatilization model and a simple char-burnout model, explored possible synergisms in the simultaneous combustion of coal and natural gas in boilers and kilns, for example. In the case of direct use of pulverized coal or of coal-water slurries with gas augmentation, the researchers identified those interactions in cofiring that speed up char burnout. In the second case - the two-stage use of pulverized coal or coal-water slurries with gas augmentation - they discovered that the primary role of the first stage is the methanogasification of coal analogous to, and possibly more effective than the hydrogasification of coal. In both instances, simultaneous coal/gas combustion appeared to be synergistic.

Green, A.E.S.; Pamidimukkala, K.M.

1984-01-01

223

Northern gas fields and NGH technology. A feasibility study to develop natural gas hydrate technology for the international gas markets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two natural gas fields have been studied for three different technological solutions using two different economic theories. The aim was to examine whether a new technology for transporting natural gas, Natural Gas Hydrates (NGH), can compete with the exis...

T. R. Ramsland E. F. Loy S. Doesen

1997-01-01

224

Recognition of Articulated and Occluded Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model-based automatic target recognition system is developed to recognize articulated and occluded objects in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, based on invariant features of the objects. Characteristics of SAR target image scattering centers, azimuth variation, and articulation invariants are presented. The basic elements of the new recognition system are described and performance results are given for articulated, occluded and

Grinnell Jones; Bir Bhanu

1999-01-01

225

DEFINING A RIGHT OF ACCESS TO INTERSTATE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decontrol of the wellhead price of natural gas under the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 ended the general shortage of natural gas, which had begun in the 1960s. It also led to dislocations in gas markets because of regulatory uncertainties that created difficulties in renegotiating contracts made during the shortage period. Together, the decontrol and dislocations led to a

RODNEY T. SMITH; ARTHUR S. DE VANY; ROBERT J. MICHAELS

1990-01-01

226

Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough

Gruy

1998-01-01

227

IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter,

Jason M. Keith

2005-01-01

228

Helium production in natural gas reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 11,000 published natural gas analyses of helium are used in the estimation of the average global scale accumulation and concentration of radiogenic helium in sediments. Simple lognormal statistics is employed to derive a net accumulation rate between 1†105 to 6.7†105 helium atoms per cubic meter of reservoir rock per second. This acccumulation rate permitted to infer an average helium

E. B. Pereira; J. A. S. Adams

1982-01-01

229

Helium production in natural gas reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 11,000 published natural gas analyses of helium are used in the estimation of the average global scale accumulation and concentration of radiogenic helium in sediments. Simple lognormal statistics is employed to derive a net accumulation rate between 1dagger10⁵ to 6.7dagger10⁵ helium atoms per cubic meter of reservoir rock per second. This acccumulation rate permitted to infer an average helium

E. B. Pereira; J. A. S. Adams

1982-01-01

230

US Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves Annual Report 1996: Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EIA has published "the estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids in the United States as of December 31, 1996, compiled from EIA's oil and gas operator survey." The report shows that while reserves of natural gas have increased, crude oil reserves have declined.

231

LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS  

SciTech Connect

This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

VANDOR,D.

1999-03-01

232

Occluded object imaging via optimal camera selection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High performance occluded object imaging in cluttered scenes is a significant challenging task for many computer vision applications. Recently the camera array synthetic aperture imaging is proved to be an effective way to seeing object through occlusion. However, the imaging quality of occluded object is often significantly decreased by the shadows of the foreground occluder. Although some works have been presented to label the foreground occluder via object segmentation or 3D reconstruction, these methods will fail in the case of complicated occluder and severe occlusion. In this paper, we present a novel optimal camera selection algorithm to solve the above problem. The main characteristics of this algorithm include: (1) Instead of synthetic aperture imaging, we formulate the occluded object imaging problem as an optimal camera selection and mosaicking problem. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed method is the first one for occluded object mosaicing. (2) A greedy optimization framework is presented to propagate the visibility information among various depth focus planes. (3) A multiple label energy minimization formulation is designed in each plane to select the optimal camera. The energy is estimated in the synthetic aperture image volume and integrates the multi-view intensity consistency, previous visibility property and camera view smoothness, which is minimized via Graph cuts. We compare our method with the state-of-the-art synthetic aperture imaging algorithms, and extensive experimental results with qualitative and quantitative analysis demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of our approach.

Yang, Tao; Zhang, Yanning; Tong, Xiaomin; Ma, Wenguang; Yu, Rui

2013-12-01

233

Hydrogen-Enhanced Natural Gas Vehicle Program  

SciTech Connect

The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of HCNG fuel (30 to 50% hydrogen by volume and the remainder natural gas) to reduce emissions from light-duty on-road vehicles with no loss in performance or efficiency. The City of Las Vegas has an interest in alternative fuels and already has an existing hydrogen refueling station. Collier Technologies Inc (CT) supplied the latest design retrofit kits capable of converting nine compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled, light-duty vehicles powered by the Ford 5.4L Triton engine. CT installed the kits on the first two vehicles in Las Vegas, trained personnel at the City of Las Vegas (the City) to perform the additional seven retrofits, and developed materials for allowing other entities to perform these retrofits as well. These vehicles were used in normal service by the City while driver impressions, reliability, fuel efficiency and emissions were documented for a minimum of one year after conversion. This project has shown the efficacy of operating vehicles originally designed to operate on compressed natural gas with HCNG fuel incorporating large quantities of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). There were no safety issues experienced with these vehicles. The only maintenance issue in the project was some rough idling due to problems with the EGR valve and piping parts. Once the rough idling was corrected no further maintenance issues with these vehicles were experienced. Fuel economy data showed no significant changes after conversion even with the added power provided by the superchargers that were part of the conversions. Driver feedback for the conversions was very favorable. The additional power provided by the HCNG vehicles was greatly appreciated, especially in traffic. The drivability of the HCNG vehicles was considered to be superior by the drivers. Most of the converted vehicles showed zero oxides of nitrogen throughout the life of the project using the State of Nevada emissions station.

Hyde, Dan; Collier, Kirk

2009-01-22

234

76 FR 12721 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...18, 2011, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103...section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Part...place three horizontal compressor units at its Sunray Compressor Station and associated...

2011-03-08

235

75 FR 48321 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission authorization, enlarge or expand its natural gas distribution facilities. Corning also requests a...requirements ordinarily applicable to interstate natural gas pipelines under the NGA and other such relief the...

2010-08-10

236

Delrin as an occluder material.  

PubMed

Delrin (DR) has been used in biomedical applications for more than 25 years. Because of durability concerns, it was replaced by the expensive Pyrolytic Carbon (PC) in numerous cardiac valves. However, the durability problem could be related to design rather than poor materials selection. Recent reports on brittle fracture of PC, leading to sudden deaths, have prompted a critical comparison between DR and PC in the St. Vincents Mechanical (SVM) heart valves. Three SVM-DR and SVM-PC valves were subjected to accelerated life cycle tests, and examined for wear at 400 million cycles. These results were compared to those of Björk-Shiley Delrin (BS-DR) valves. Wear in BS-DR valves in vivo for more than 17 years were also analyzed and compared. Using a linear (wear depth)-log (cycles) plot, wear rates in mm/log (million cycles) were obtained. The results showed that the wear rates for DR and PC in SVM valves are close. The double reduction in wear rate of the SVM-DR, compared to BS-DR, is probably due to the lower contact stresses of the SVM valves. SVM-DR in vivo should, therefore, have lower wear. The PC discs also showed edge chipping and hairline cracks. The authors conclude that the durability of DR can be improved by design and, since it is more impact resistant than PC, it is a safer, more inexpensive occluder material for cardiac valves. PMID:2252716

Teoh, S H; Martin, R L; Lim, S C; Lee, K H; Mok, C K; Kwok, W C

1990-01-01

237

Arrangement and method for the production of liquid natural gas  

SciTech Connect

An arrangement and a method for the increase in the production of liquid natural gas and the conservation of energy and reduction of flash gas in a liquid natural gas manufacturing installation and, more particularly, the reduction in the quantity of formed flash gas through the novel utilization of a hydraulic expander in the installation for extracting work from the flow of liquid natural gas prior to flashing thereof.

Brundige, V.L. Jr.

1984-06-26

238

Gas exchange measurements in natural systems  

SciTech Connect

Direct knowledge of the rates of gas exchange in lakes and the ocean is based almost entirely on measurements of the isotopes /sup 14/C, /sup 222/Rn and /sup 3/He. The distribution of natural radiocarbon has yielded the average rate of CO/sub 2/ exchange for the ocean and for several closed basin lakes. That of bomb produced radiocarbon has been used in the same systems. The /sup 222/Rn to /sup 226/Ra ratio in open ocean surface water has been used to give local short term gas exchange rates. The radon method generally cannot be used in lakes, rivers, estuaries or shelf areas because of the input of radon from sediments. A few attempts have been made to use the excess /sup 3/He produced by decay of bomb produced tritium in lakes to give gas transfer rates. The uncertainty in the molecular diffusivity of helium and in the diffusivity dependence of the rate of gas transfer holds back the application of this method. A few attempts have been made to enrich the surface waters of small lakes with /sup 226/Ra and /sup 3/H in order to allow the use of the /sup 222/Rn and /sup 3/He methods. While these studies give broadly concordant results, many questions remain unanswered. The wind velocity dependence of gas exchange rate has yet to be established in field studies. The dependence of gas exchange rate on molecular diffusivity also remains in limbo. Finally, the degree of enhancement of CO/sub 2/ exchange through chemical reactions has been only partially explored. 49 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

Broecker, W.S.; Peng, T.H.

1983-01-01

239

Compressed natural gas vehicles: Motoring towards a cleaner Beijing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper first describes the state-of-the-art of compressed natural gas (CNG) technologies and evaluates the market prospects for CNG vehicles in Beijing. An analysis of the natural gas resource supply for fleet vehicles follows. The costs and benefits of establishing natural gas filling stations and promoting the development of vehicle technology are evaluated. The quantity of GHG reduction is calculated.

Guo Xiao Yan; Wang Tian Min

1997-01-01

240

75 FR 67352 - Liberty Natural Gas, LLC; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Pipeline is a part of the Liberty Natural Gas Project, which will include...Vessels that will transport natural gas from sources around the world in a liquid state (LNG) and...reach the Port. The regasified natural gas will then be...

2010-11-02

241

U.S. Natural Gas Imports and Exports, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the face of unprecedented levels of domestic natural gas production, net imports of natural gas into the United States fell 25 percent in 2011. Net imports as a percentage of total natural gas delivered to consumers decreased to around 9 percent in 201...

2012-01-01

242

Expansion of the U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Network  

EIA Publications

Additions in 2008 and Projects through 2011. This report examines new natural gas pipeline capacity added to the U.S. natural gas pipeline system during 2008. In addition, it discusses and analyzes proposed natural gas pipeline projects that may be developed between 2009 and 2011, and the market factors supporting these initiatives.

Information Center

2009-09-30

243

NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES AND PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the second phase of this project, the newly developed membrane module for natural gas dehydration was tested and evaluated in a pilot plant located at a commercial natural gas treatment site. This phase was undertaken jointly with UOP LLC, our commercialization partner. The field test demonstrated that a commercial-size membrane module for natural gas dehydration was successfully manufactured. The

Ben Bikson; Sal Giglia; Jibin Hao

2003-01-01

244

Transportation of natural gas as a hydrate. [submerged vessel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus is described for transporting a natural gas in the form of a hydrate. The method utilizes the pressure and temperature conditions of a submerged vessel to facilitate the formation and maintenance of natural gas as a hydrate during the subsea voyage and the subsequent reconversion of the hydrate to a natural gas when the destination of

Nierman

1976-01-01

245

Erdgas heute und morgen. (Natural gas today and tomorrow).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The situation of natural gas in the Federal Republic of Germany is described, with particular emphasis on the advantages and consequences of natural gas supply. The brochure discusses the role of natural gas on the energy market, the reliability of natura...

1991-01-01

246

Turkey's natural gas necessity, consumption and future perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey is an important candidate to be the “energy corridor” in the transmission of the abundant oil and natural gas resources of the Middle East and Middle Asia countries to the Western market. Furthermore, Turkey is planning to increase its oil and gas pipeline infrastructure to accommodate its increased energy consumption. Naturally, Turkish natural gas usage is projected to increase

A. M. Kiliç

2006-01-01

247

Flowmetering of natural gas pipelines by tracer gas pulse injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the tracer gas pulse injection method for flowmetering of natural gas pipelines. The principle of the measurement consists of detecting the passage of the pulse at two locations along the pipeline, from which the time of passage is calculated. The measurement accuracy depends on how the pulse form evolves due to turbulent diffusion and convective distortion in the pipe, as well as due to the influence of bends. We discuss these factors to evaluate the applicability of the method to pipelines of kilometer distances. We also perform a three-dimensional numerical analysis to understand the spatial pulse dispersion, and numerical analysis shows that the influence of pipe bends was not significant. Both experimental and theoretical results indicate the existence of axial diffusion coefficients, even in pipelines with bends. These results enable us to predict the evolution of the pulse concentration profile. Finally, we demonstrate acceptable precision for practical flowmetering applications in actual utility pipelines.

Takeuchi, Tomoaki; Murai, Yuichi

2010-01-01

248

Evaluation of the Effects of Natural Gas Contaminants on Corrosion in Compressed Natural Gas Storage Systems: Phase 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a research program that was conducted to define natural gas contaminant levels necessary to insure that internal corrosion of compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders does not constitute a hazard over the lifetimes of the cylinders. A ...

F. F. Lyle

1989-01-01

249

Fuel tank for liquefied natural gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A storage tank is provided for storing liquefied natural gas on, for example, a motor vehicle such as a bus or truck. The storage tank includes a metal liner vessel encapsulated by a resin-fiber composite layer. A foam insulating layer, including an outer protective layer of epoxy or of a truck liner material, covers the composite layer. A non-conducting protective coating may be painted on the vessel between the composite layer and the vessel so as to inhibit galvanic corrosion.

DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

250

Lightweight Tanks for Storing Liquefied Natural Gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Single-walled, jacketed aluminum tanks have been conceived for storing liquefied natural gas (LNG) in LNG-fueled motor vehicles. Heretofore, doublewall steel tanks with vacuum between the inner and outer walls have been used for storing LNG. In comparison with the vacuum- insulated steel tanks, the jacketed aluminum tanks weigh less and can be manufactured at lower cost. Costs of using the jacketed aluminum tanks are further reduced in that there is no need for the vacuum pumps heretofore needed to maintain vacuum in the vacuum-insulated tanks.

DeLay, Tom

2008-01-01

251

Risk management of liquefied natural gas installations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In connection with the construction of four major liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in New York City, the New York City Fire Commissioner has asked NASA for assistance. It was decided that the Kennedy Space Center should develop a risk management system (RMS) for the use of the New York Fire Department (NYFD). The RMS provides for a published set of safety regulations by the NYFD. A description of the RMS is presented as an example of an application of aerospace technology to a civilian sector, namely LNG facilities.

Fedor, O. H.; Parsons, W. N.; Coutinho, J. De C.

1976-01-01

252

Changes in Natural Gas Prices and Supplies Since Passage of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Through the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978, the Congress intended to stimulate production and exploration for reserves by permitting producers higher prices for gas from areas where production was previously not economic and for gas produced from new well...

1981-01-01

253

Outlook bright for U.S. natural gas resources  

SciTech Connect

This series of articles by Advanced Resources International (ARI) and the US Geological Survey (USGS) provides a fresh look at new technologies and emerging natural gas plays. It begins, in this article, with three topics: (1) an overview of the controversy surrounding the adequacy of domestic natural gas resources; (2) a look at emerging gas resources in light of advances in technology; and (3) a review of the most frequently referenced natural gas assessments. Future articles in this series will address emerging natural gas resources that may add to the US resource base: deep gas resources (two parts); Barnett shale gas resources; moving into the resource pyramid, a summary of poorly understood but potentially significant emerging gas plays--such as sub-basalt gas plays, deep coalbed methane, and new shale gas resources--not yet included in resource assessments; and gas hydrates.

Kuuskraa, V.A. [Advanced Resources International Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

1998-04-13

254

Environmental effects of submarine seeping natural gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is suspected that most shallow reservoirs of natural gas vent to the surface to some degree. This seeping may be through diffusion of dissolved gas or by a flow of gas bubbles which entrain interstitial water during the rise through the sediments to the surface. Methane bubbles dissolved other gases, notably hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide, during their ascent. Under suitable temperature-pressure conditions gas hydrates may be formed close to or at the seabed Black suphide-rich sediments and mats of sulphur oxidizing bacteria are frequently observed close to the sediments surface at seep sites, including a sharp oxic/anoxic boundary. Animal species associated with these gas seeps include both species which obtain nutrition from symbiotic methane-oxidizing bacteria and species with symbolic sulphur-oxidizing bacteria. It is suspected that at some microseepage an enhanced biomass of meiofauna and macrofauna is supported by a food chain based on free-living and symbiotic sulphur-oxidizing and methane-oxidizing bacteria. The most common seep-related features of sea floor topography are local depressions including pockmark craters. Winnowing of the sediment during their creation leads to an accumulation of larger detritis in the depressions. Where the deprssions overlies salt diapirs they may be filled with hypersaline solutions. In some areas dome-shaped features are associated with seepage and these may be colonized by coral reefs. Other reefs, "hard-grounds", columnar and disc-shaped protrusions, all formed of carbonate-cemented sediments, are common on the sea floor in seep areas. Much of the carbonate appears to be derived from carbon dioxide formed as a result of methane oxidation. The resulting hard-bottoms on the sea floor are often colonized by species not found on the neighboring soft-bottoms. As a result seep areas may be characterized by the presence of a rich epifauna.

Dando, P. R.; Hovland, M.

1992-10-01

255

Advance Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, 2005 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reserves additions replaced 164 percent of 2005 dry gas production as U.S. gas reserves increased for the seventh year in a row. Proved reserves of natural gas increased by 6 percent in 2005, the largest annual increase in natural gas proved reserves sinc...

2006-01-01

256

Evaluation of the effects of natural gas contaminants on corrosion in compressed natural gas storage systems: Phase 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes a research program that was conducted to define natural gas contaminant levels necessary to insure that internal corrosion of compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders does not constitute a hazard over the lifetimes of the cylinders. A literature search was performed and companies in the natural gas transmission and distribution industries were contacted: to identify and determine the

Fred F. Lyle; F. F. Jr

1989-01-01

257

Comparative analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) used by transit agencies in Texas. Research report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a detailed comparative analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG). The study provides data on two alternative fuels used by transit agencies in Texas. First, we examine the `state-of-the- art` in alternative fuels to established a framework for the study. Efforts were made to examine selected characteristics of two types of natural gas

Lede

1997-01-01

258

Natural and artificial nobel gas hydrologic tracers  

SciTech Connect

Noble gas isotopes provide opportunities for ground water tracing. Both naturally occurring tracers and artificially injected tracers can be used. The equilibration of water with the earth`s atmosphere records the temperature and atmospheric pressure during ground water recharge. This temperature/pressure record can be used to distinguish cold recharge from warmer recharge with a resolution of 1-2 C temperature and 500m in altitude. The radioactive decay of U and Th produce large concentrations of 4He in old ground water and this 4He signature can be useful in tracing the small addition of old water (>10,000 yr.) to young water (<100 yr.). The decay of 3H present either form nuclear testing or cosmic ray interactions leads to detectable amounts of 3He in young ground water (<50 yr.). By measuring both 3H and 3He, the mean age of the 3H in the water can be calculated. In addition to these natural tracers, isotopically enriched noble gas isotopes are readily available at low cost and can be used an non-hazardous water tracers. This inert, persistent, and harmless tracing technique can used in many situations at a cost of about one dollar per million gallons of water traced.

Hudson, G.B.

1994-06-01

259

Liquefied natural gas: safety issues, public concerns, and decision making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas is an important, widely used fossil fuel which is convenient and relatively non-polluting. Because U.S. domestic suppliers have been declining since 1972, suppliers have sought to import additional gas in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG), which is 1\\/600 the volume of natural gas and is therefore convenient for transportation and storage. If present plans and proposals

A. J. Van Horn; R. Wilson

1976-01-01

260

Compressed natural gas storage optimization for natural gas vehicles. Final report, August 1993December 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major obstacle confronting the widespread acceptance of natural gas vehicles (NGV) is their substantial cost premium over conventionally fueled vehicles. Currently, as much as 70 percent of the cost premium can be related to on-board storage costs. Market growth is dependent on making NGVs more affordable and storage costs are the primary element. This report identifies and assesses the

M. E. Richards; C. F. Blazek; C. Webster; J. Wong; L. Gambone

1996-01-01

261

Current issues in natural gas lubrication  

SciTech Connect

Because of the ability of natural gas to burn completely relatively easily, supplying excess oxygen to promote complete reactions is a viable alternative to catalysts. Hence, lean burn technology has a natural fit for this industry. Lube oil is not adversely affected by lean burn operation. There is a slight tendency to cause more oil nitration than oxidation, but the real difference is not significant. Operators may notice somewhat more varnish (caramel color) and less sludge (black) as a result. Because the fuel is burned more completely, there is less problem with fuel-derived oil contamination. Also because of the excess air in the combustion chamber, overall cylinder temperature is lower, causing less stress on the oil. Oil life is generally lengthened. One common misconception that lean burn engines require different lubricants may stem from a change at Waukesha Engine Division--Dresser Industries. Waukesha has changed its lube oil requirements for VHP 3521, 5115, 7042, 9390 GL turbocharged and lean burn model engines. The lube oil specification for these engines is 1% to 1.7% ash with the same 0.10% zinc maximum. This change is not because of the lean burn nature of these engines, rather it is because of drastically decreased lube oil consumption. With less oil consumption, less ash is carried to the critical exhaust valve seat area to prevent valve recession.

Reber, J. [Conoco Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1997-10-01

262

Development of a liquid natural gas pump and its application to directinjection liquid natural gas engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct injection gas engines operated with liquid natural gas (LNG)\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009look promising because the energy density-volume ratio of LNG is\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009three times higher than that of compressed natural gas (CNG) and\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009pressurization of LNG to injection pressures is much easier and expends\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009less energy. Based on these considerations, a prototype of an LNG\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009high-pressure pump, which can achieve a pressure

Y Goto

2002-01-01

263

Restricted Natural Gas Supply Case (released in AEO2005)  

EIA Publications

The restricted natural gas supply case provides an analysis of the energy-economic implications of a scenario in which future gas supply is significantly more constrained than assumed in the reference case. Future natural gas supply conditions could be constrained because of problems with the construction and operation of large new energy projects, and because the future rate of technological progress could be significantly lower than the historical rate. Although the restricted natural gas supply case represents a plausible set of constraints on future natural gas supply, it is not intended to represent what is likely to happen in the future.

Information Center

2005-02-01

264

Preliminary report on the commercial viability of gas production from natural gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic studies on simulated gas hydrate reservoirs have been compiled to estimate the price of natural gas that may lead to economically viable production from the most promising gas hydrate accumulations. As a first estimate, $CDN2005 12\\/Mscf is the lowest gas price that would allow economically viable production from gas hydrates in the absence of associated free gas, while an

Matthew R. Walsh; Steve H. Hancock; Scott J. Wilson; Shirish L. Patil; George J. Moridis; Ray Boswell; Timothy S. Collett; Carolyn A. Koh; E. Dendy Sloan

2009-01-01

265

Systems analysis of hydrogen supplementation in natural gas pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for hydrogen supplementation in natural gas pipelines is analyzed for a specific site from both mid-term (1985) and long-term perspectives. The concept of supplementing natural gas with the addition of hydrogen in the existing gas pipeline system serves to provide a transport and storage medium for hydrogen while eliminating the high investment costs associated with constructing separate hydrogen

A. Hermelee; M. Beller; J. DAcierno

1981-01-01

266

INVENTORY OF METHANE LOSSES FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives the second year's results of an ongoing 4-year program undertaken jointly by the Gas Research Institute and the U.S. EPA to assess the methane (CH4) losses from the U.S. natural gas industry. he program's objective is to assess the acceptability of natural gas as ...

267

Direct conversion of natural gas to methanol by controlled oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for converting natural gas containing methane to methanol, comprising: thoroughly and intimately mixing natural gas with gaseous air or oxygen to achieve substantially complete homogeneity of these gases; feeding the resulting gas mixture to an inert reactor under elevated pressure, the inert reactor having an internal surface surrounding a zone in which the gases react. The

H. D. Gesser; N. R. Hunter; L. Morton

1986-01-01

268

Fire detection and suppression in natural gas pipeline compressor stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of fires in natural gas compressor stations is fortunately infrequent. The consequences, however, can be severe. This paper discusses the design concepts and experience of Pacific Gas Transmission Company (PGT) with fire detection and suppression systems in its natural gas pipeline compressor stations.

1987-01-01

269

Impact of Natural Gas Infrastructure on Electric Power Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The restructuring of electricity has introduced new risks associated with the security of natural gas infrastructure on a significantly large scale, which entails changes in physical capabilities of pipelines, operational procedures, sensors and communications, contracting (supply and transportation), and tariffs. This paper will discuss the essence of the natural gas infrastructure for supplying the ever-increasing number of gas-powered units and

MOHAMMAD SHAHIDEHPOUR; Yong Fu; THOMAS WIEDMAN

2005-01-01

270

Performance testing of natural gas plants  

SciTech Connect

Performance testing of natural-gas-extraction plants has become a valuable tool for improving recovery of plants operating below their optimum capabilities or maintaining the optimum recovery once it has been achieved. Many plants, whether turbo-expander, lean oil absorption, or straight refrigeration type, can drift from optimum recovery for one or several of many reasons. Sometimes this drift occurs without the plant operators being aware, or the reduction in recovery may be caused by operating problems of which the operator is aware but feels cannot be solved with the equipment available. A plant performance test may find the unknown problem or the test will show the problem can be solved and recoveries improved with existing equipment. Sometimes a computer simulation of the plant, using the test data, may be required to find or solve the problem.

Herrin, J.P.

1983-01-01

271

Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure.  

PubMed

Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH(4) leakage were capped at a level 45-70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH(4) losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

Alvarez, Ramón A; Pacala, Stephen W; Winebrake, James J; Chameides, William L; Hamburg, Steven P

2012-04-24

272

Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure  

PubMed Central

Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH4 leakage were capped at a level 45–70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH4 losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas.

Alvarez, Ramon A.; Pacala, Stephen W.; Winebrake, James J.; Chameides, William L.; Hamburg, Steven P.

2012-01-01

273

Natural gas conversion process. Sixth quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

Not Available

1992-12-01

274

Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

Andrew Lucero

2009-01-31

275

75 FR 53371 - Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities: Obtaining Approval of Alternative Vapor-Gas Dispersion Models  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Technical Committee on Liquefied Natural Gas of the NFPA. Several years ago...LNG Facilities. Subject: Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities: Obtaining Approval of...used with justification provided for the selection of pool diameter(s),...

2010-08-31

276

Model of joint resource extraction: natural gas and helium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical model is developed to analyze jointly extracted natural resource, as exemplified by natural gas and helium. The model incorporates general properties of joint resources as well as several properties specific to natural gas and helium, and characterizes the behavior of perfectly competitive owners of the joint resource. Under the assumption of perfect foresight, the resulting intertemporal equilibrium is

Hughey

1984-01-01

277

Study on gas hydrates for the solid transportation of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas hydrate typically contains 85 wt.% water and 15 wt.% natural gas, and commonly belongs to cubic structure I and\\u000a II. When referred to standard conditions, 1 m3 solid hydrate contains up to 200 m3 of natural gas depending on pressure and temperature. Such the large volume of natural gas hydrate can be utilized to store\\u000a and transport a

Nam-Jin Kim; Chong-Bo Kim

2004-01-01

278

GRI's (Gas Research Institute's) Natural Gas Supply Subprogram Status Report, 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1989 status report discusses activities within the GRI Natural Gas Supply subprogram. The objectives, strategies, accomplishments, and contract status are described for projects within these project areas: Tight Gas Sands, Eastern Devonian Gas Shales,...

1989-01-01

279

IMPROVED NATURAL GAS STORAGE WELL REMEDIATION  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the research conducted during Budget Period One on the project ''Improved Natural Gas Storage Well Remediation''. The project team consisted of Furness-Newburge, Inc., the technology developer; TechSavants, Inc., the technology validator; and Nicor Technologies, Inc., the technology user. The overall objectives for the project were: (1) To develop, fabricate and test prototype laboratory devices using sonication and underwater plasma to remove scale from natural gas storage well piping and perforations; (2) To modify the laboratory devices into units capable of being used downhole; (3) To test the capability of the downhole units to remove scale in an observation well at a natural gas storage field; (4) To modify (if necessary) and field harden the units and then test the units in two pressurized injection/withdrawal gas storage wells; and (5) To prepare the project's final report. This report covers activities addressing objectives 1-3. Prototype laboratory units were developed, fabricated, and tested. Laboratory testing of the sonication technology indicated that low-frequency sonication was more effective than high-frequency (ultrasonication) at removing scale and rust from pipe sections and tubing. Use of a finned horn instead of a smooth horn improves energy dispersal and increases the efficiency of removal. The chemical data confirmed that rust and scale were removed from the pipe. The sonication technology showed significant potential and technical maturity to warrant a field test. The underwater plasma technology showed a potential for more effective scale and rust removal than the sonication technology. Chemical data from these tests also confirmed the removal of rust and scale from pipe sections and tubing. Focusing of the underwater plasma's energy field through the design and fabrication of a parabolic shield will increase the technology's efficiency. Power delivered to the underwater plasma unit by a sparkplug repeatedly was interrupted by sparkplug failure. The lifecycle for the plugs was less than 10 hours. An electrode feed system for delivering continuous power needs to be designed and developed. As a result, further work on the underwater plasma technology was terminated. It needs development of a new sparking system and a redesign of the pulsed power supply system to enable the unit to operate within a well diameter of less than three inches. Both of these needs were beyond the scope of the project. Meanwhile, the laboratory sonication unit was waterproofed and hardened, enabling the unit to be used as a field prototype, operating at temperatures to 350 F and depths of 15,000 feet. The field prototype was extensively tested at a field service company's test facility before taking it to the field site. The field test was run in August 2001 in a Nicor Gas storage field observation well at Pontiac, Illinois. Segmented bond logs, gamma ray neutron logs, water level measurements and water chemistry samples were obtained before and after the downhole demonstration. Fifteen tests were completed in the field. Results from the water chemistry analysis showed an increase in the range of calcium from 1755-1984 mg/l before testing to 3400-4028 mg/l after testing. For magnesium, the range increased from 285-296 mg/l to 461-480 mg/l. The change in pH from a range of 3.11-3.25 to 8.23-8.45 indicated a buffering of the acidic well water, probably due to the increased calcium available for buffering. The segmented bond logs showed no damage to the cement bond in the well and the gamma ray neutron log showed no increase in the amount of hydrocarbons present in the formation where the testing took place. Thus, the gas storage bubble in the aquifer was not compromised. A review of all the field test data collected documents the fact that the application of low-frequency sonication technology definitely removes scale from well pipe. Phase One of this project took sonication technology from the concept stage through a successful ''proof-of-concept'' downhole application in a natural gas storage field

James C. Furness; Donald O. Johnson; Michael L. Wilkey; Lynn Furness; Keith Vanderlee; P. David Paulsen

2001-12-01

280

Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)  

SciTech Connect

Energy independence and fuel savings are hallmarks of the nation’s energy strategy. The advancement of natural gas reciprocating engine power generation technology is critical to the nation’s future. A new engine platform that meets the efficiency, emissions, fuel flexibility, cost and reliability/maintainability targets will enable American manufacturers to have highly competitive products that provide substantial environmental and economic benefits in the US and in international markets. Along with Cummins and Waukesha, Caterpillar participated in a multiyear cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to create a 50% efficiency natural gas powered reciprocating engine system with a 95% reduction in NOx emissions by the year 2013. This platform developed under this agreement will be a significant contributor to the US energy strategy and will enable gas engine technology to remain a highly competitive choice, meeting customer cost of electricity targets, and regulatory environmental standard. Engine development under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) program was divided into phases, with the ultimate goal being approached in a series of incremental steps. This incremental approach would promote the commercialization of ARES technologies as soon as they emerged from development and would provide a technical and commercial foundation of later-developing technologies. Demonstrations of the Phase I and Phase II technology were completed in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Program tasks in Phase III included component and system development and testing from 2009-2012. Two advanced ignition technology evaluations were investigated under the ARES program: laser ignition and distributed ignition (DIGN). In collaboration with Colorado State University (CSU), a laser ignition system was developed to provide ignition at lean burn and high boost conditions. Much work has been performed in Caterpillar’s DIGN program under the ARES program. This work has consisted of both modeling and single cylinder engine experiments to quantify DIGN performance. The air handling systems of natural gas engines dissipate a percentage of available energy as a result of both flow losses and turbomachinery inefficiencies. An analytical study was initiated to increase compressor efficiency by employing a 2-stage inter-cooled compressor. Caterpillar also studied a turbo-compound system that employs a power turbine to recover energy from the exhaust gases for improved engine efficiency. Several other component and system investigations were undertaken during the final phase of the program to reach the ultimate ARES goals. An intake valve actuation system was developed and tested to improve engine efficiency, durability and load acceptance. Analytical modeling and materials testing were performed to evaluate the performance of steel pistons and compacted graphite iron cylinder head. Effort was made to improve the detonation sensing system by studying and comparing the performance of different pressure sensors. To reduce unburned hydrocarbon emissions, different camshafts were designed and built to investigate the effect of exhaust valve opening timing and value overlap. 1-D & 3-D coupled simulation was used to study intake and exhaust manifold dynamics with the goal of reducing load in-balance between cylinders. Selective catalytic reduction with on-board reductant generation to reduce NOx emissions was also engine tested. An effective mean to successfully deploy ARES technologies into the energy markets is to deploy demonstration projects in the field. In 2010, NETL and Caterpillar agreed to include a new “opportunity fuel” deliverable and two field demonstrations in the ARES program. An Organic Rankine Cycle system was designed with production intent incorporating lessons learned from the Phase II demonstration. Unfortunately, business conditions caused Caterpillar to cancel this demonstration in 2011. Nonetheless, Caterpillar partnered with a local dealer to deploy an ARES class engine using syngas from a biomass gasifier as

Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

2009-09-30

281

Natural gas recovery, storage, and utilization SBIR program  

SciTech Connect

A Fossil Energy natural-gas topic has been a part of the DOE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program since 1988. To date, 50 Phase SBIR natural-gas applications have been funded. Of these 50, 24 were successful in obtaining Phase II SBIR funding. The current Phase II natural-gas research projects awarded under the SBIR program and managed by METC are presented by award year. The presented information on these 2-year projects includes project title, awardee, and a project summary. The 1992 Phase II projects are: landfill gas recovery for vehicular natural gas and food grade carbon dioxide; brine disposal process for coalbed gas production; spontaneous natural as oxidative dimerization across mixed conducting ceramic membranes; low-cost offshore drilling system for natural gas hydrates; motorless directional drill for oil and gas wells; and development of a multiple fracture creation process for stimulation of horizontally drilled wells.The 1993 Phase II projects include: process for sweetening sour gas by direct thermolysis of hydrogen sulfide; remote leak survey capability for natural gas transport storage and distribution systems; reinterpretation of existing wellbore log data using neural-based patter recognition processes; and advanced liquid membrane system for natural gas purification.

Shoemaker, H.D.

1993-12-31

282

Natural gas from shale: Texas revolution goes global  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Texas experiment in extracting natural gas from the Barnett Shale proved the technical feasibility of shale gas development and brought costs within bounds that promise to give shale gas an important role in global energy supplies for decades to come. ; Shale gas cost estimates vary widely, partly because of limited experience in a few basins and partly because

Robert W. Gilmer; Emily Kerr

2010-01-01

283

Simulation and economic evaluation of natural gas hydrates [NGH] as an alternative to liquefied natural gas [LNG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fact that relatively little is known about the ultimate resource potential of natural gas hydrates, it is certain that gas hydrates are a vast storehouse of natural gas and significant technical challenges need to be met before this enormous resource can be considered an economically producible reserve. In this theoretical study, a simulation scheme was suggested to produce

Babiker K. Abdalla; Nayef A. Abdullatef

2005-01-01

284

18 CFR 284.3 - Jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act. 284.3 Section 284...ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED...CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY...

2009-04-01

285

18 CFR 284.3 - Jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act. 284.3 Section 284...ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED...CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY...

2010-04-01

286

77 FR 65508 - Annual Charge Filing Procedures for Natural Gas Pipelines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...natural gas pipelines resulting from...the natural gas industry...Environmental Analysis 18. The Commission...of natural gas that requires...description and analysis of final rules...standard for pipelines transporting natural gas, stating...

2012-10-29

287

Greenhouse gas and energy analysis of substitute natural gas from biomass for space heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the greenhouse gas and energy balances of the production and use for space heating of substitute natural gas from biomass (bio-SNG) for space heat are analysed. These balances are compared to the use of natural gas and solid biomass as wood chips to provide the same service. The reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions (CO2-eq.) – carbon

Johanna Pucker; Robin Zwart; Gerfried Jungmeier

288

Natural gas for electric generation: The challenge of gas and electric industry coordination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project examines the issues involved in integrating the planning and operation of gas-fired electric generation with the supply of natural gas by pipelines and gas distribution utilities. The report is designed to help electric utilities and their natural gas suppliers understand potential problems and identify approaches that each electric utility can use to develop the solutions that will be

W. R. Hughes; S. Thumb; J. Stamberg; J. Jensen

1992-01-01

289

GRI's (Gas Research Institute's) Natural Gas Supply Subprogram Status Report, 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major focus of GRI's natural gas supply R&D is on the development of new or improved technology to ensure the cost-effective recovery of gas from known, but marginally economic, gas resources. The Natural Gas Supply Subprogram is organized into six pr...

1988-01-01

290

Automated Natural Gas and Crude Helium Measurement System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines--Helium Field Operations has developed an automated system to fulfill its natural gas and crude helium measurement requirements. The system provides current gas flow information, automatic system calibration, daily flow volumes, and a ...

T. R. Spisak

1989-01-01

291

Alaskan Natural Gas Pipeline Developments (released in AEO2007)  

EIA Publications

The Annual Energy Outlook 2007 reference case projects that an Alaska natural gas pipeline will go into operation in 2018, based on the Energy Information Administration's current understanding of the projects time line and economics. There is continuing debate, however, about the physical configuration and the ownership of the pipeline. In addition, the issue of Alaskas oil and natural gas production taxes has been raised, in the context of a current market environment characterized by rising construction costs and falling natural gas prices. If rates of return on investment by producers are reduced to unacceptable levels, or if the project faces significant delays, other sources of natural gas, such as unconventional natural gas production and liquefied natural gas imports, could fulfill the demand that otherwise would be served by an Alaska pipeline.

Information Center

2007-02-22

292

Natural Gas Industry Restructuring and EIA Data Collection  

EIA Publications

The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Reserves and Natural Gas Division has undertaken an in-depth reevaluation of its programs in an effort to improve the focus and quality of the natural gas data that it gathers and reports. This article is to inform natural gas data users of proposed changes and of the opportunity to provide comments and input on the direction that EIA is taking to improve its data.

Information Center

1996-06-01

293

Natural gas recovery, storage, and utilization SBIR program  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Fossil Energy natural-gas topic has been a part of the DOE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program since 1988. To date, 50 Phase SBIR natural-gas applications have been funded. Of these 50, 24 were successful in obtaining Phase II SBIR funding. The current Phase II natural-gas research projects awarded under the SBIR program and managed by METC are presented

1993-01-01

294

Natural Gas Processing Plants in the United States: 2010 Update  

EIA Publications

This special report presents an analysis of natural gas processing plants in the United States as of 2009 and highlights characteristics of this segment of the industry. The purpose of the paper is to examine the role of natural gas processing plants in the natural gas supply chain and to provide an overview and summary of processing plant characteristics in the United States, such as locations, capacities, and operations.

2011-06-17

295

Optimization of natural-gas pipeline systems via dynamic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity and expense of operating natural-gas pipeline systems have made optimum operation and planning of increased interest to the natural-gas pipeline industries. Since the operations of natural-gas pipeline sytems are characterized by inherent nonlinearities and numerous constraints, dynamic programming provides an extremely powerful method for optimizing such systems. This paper summarizes the application of dynamic programming techniques to solve

P. Wong; R. Larson

1968-01-01

296

Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer cont...

T. S. Collett

1992-01-01

297

Computer program for natural gas flow through nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Subroutines, FORTRAN 4 type, were developed for calculating isentropic natural gas mass flow rate through nozzle. Thermodynamic functions covering compressibility, entropy, enthalpy, and specific heat are included.

Johnson, R. C.

1972-01-01

298

Crystallographic study on natural gas hydrates recovered from the eastern Nankai Trough  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas hydrates are crystalline clathrate compounds, which encage a large amount of natural gas. The crystallographic structure of natural gas hydrates depends on the encaged natural gas components. In addition, the amount of hydrate-bound natural gas is attributed to the crystallographic structure. Massive and pore-space natural gas hydrates were obtained from the eastern Nankai Trough area during Japan's Methane

Masato Kida; Hiroyuki Suzuki; Kiyofumi Suzuki; Jiro Nagao; Hideo Narita

2010-01-01

299

Enhanced Prognosis for Abiotic Natural Gas and Petroleum Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prognosis for potential resources of abiotic natural gas and petroleum depends critically upon the nature and circumstances of Earth formation. Until recently, that prognosis has been considered solely within the framework of the so-called \\

J. Marvin Herndon

2006-01-01

300

Natural-gas-supply subprogram status report, 1987  

SciTech Connect

This document discusses the status of 1987 ongoing and 1988 planned activities in GRI's Natural Gas Supply research and development program to ensure the cost-effective recovery of gas from marginal resources. Areas covered are tight gas sands, eastern devonian gas shales, secondary gas recovery technologies, advanced technologies for exploration and production, and methane from coal deposits. Presented are objectives and goals, accomplishments, strategy and basis for each project area, and a status review sheet for projects within the project area.

Not Available

1987-12-01

301

Methane hydrates and the future of natural gas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For decades, gas hydrates have been discussed as a potential resource, particularly for countries with limited access to conventional hydrocarbons or a strategic interest in establishing alternative, unconventional gas reserves. Methane has never been produced from gas hydrates at a commercial scale and, barring major changes in the economics of natural gas supply and demand, commercial production at a large scale is considered unlikely to commence within the next 15 years. Given the overall uncertainty still associated with gas hydrates as a potential resource, they have not been included in the EPPA model in MITEI’s Future of Natural Gas report. Still, gas hydrates remain a potentially large methane resource and must necessarily be included in any consideration of the natural gas supply beyond two decades from now.

Ruppel, Carolyn

2011-01-01

302

Southern Natural modernizes its gas compressor stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how more fuel-efficient gas turbines are taking the place of horizontal compressors which served a gas utility for 50 years. It shows that horizontal engines were labor intensive, fuel inefficient, and that reliability was suspect. It discusses engine block removal, pulsation and manpower requirements.It concludes that the modernization has resulted in plentiful gas supplies, and due to

Harbor

1982-01-01

303

Discussion of gas enrichment mechanism and natural gas origin in marine sedimentary basin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are abundant natural gas resources in Chinese marine sedimentary basin. The exploration hot shots of natural gas are\\u000a the Palaeozoic marine strata here in recent years, and several large scale gas fields have been discovered. Chinese Palaeozoic\\u000a high-post matured and coal measure hydrocarbon source rocks are mainly prone to gas generation in the present. This research\\u000a considered that gas

GuangYou Zhu; WenZhi Zhao; ShuiChang Zhang; YingBo Liang; ZhengJun Wang

2007-01-01

304

New roles for natural gas in the 1990s  

SciTech Connect

A probable increase in the use of natural gas is predicted to occur over the next decade because heightened concerns by the public over air quality are likely to place severe constraints on increased use of coal and petroleum as primary fuels. Congress and the states appear to be preparing to legislate new clean air standards that will be difficult to achieve under present economic conditions using the current mix of hydrocarbon fuels. Natural gas is a favorable fuel for several reasons. Because it has a high hydrogen-to-carbon ratio, it produces the least amount of carbon dioxide per calorie of any of the hydrocarbon fuels. Combustion of gas in modern burners does not produce significant CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, or any of the complex photochemicals responsible for smog and ozone pollution. Supplies of gas are plentiful, with a total domestic recoverable resource base of over 980 tcf estimated by the Potential Gas Agency. Additional gas, not counted in reserve estimates, is present in abandoned fields, where secondary recovery techniques may produce significant quantities. A promising area for increased natural gas usage in the next decade is electrical power generation, either by substituting gas for oil and coal as a boiler fuel or by generating electricity directly using chemical fuel cells powered by natural gas and air. Natural gas-fueled vehicles are another favored technology, due to very low emission levels and because natural gas can be run in a standard automotive engine with only minor mechanical modifications. Vehicles must carry compressed natural gas in high-pressure cylinders, but adsorptive materials are being developed to transport significant quantities at reduced pressure. Current technology can pack a 2,400-psi volume-equivalent of natural gas onto adsorptive material in the same space at only 500 psi.

Soeder, D.J. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA))

1990-05-01

305

Natural gas vehicles stall on way to market  

SciTech Connect

The outlook for increased use of natural gas for fueling autos depends primarily on comparative fuel prices and comparative vehicle prices, according to David E. Gushee, a senior fellow in environmental policy at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. Compressed natural gas may be a more efficient fuel than gasoline, but costs of fuel distribution and engine design can add significantly to its total price. Currently, natural gas is less expensive than gasoline at the retail level, but this price advantage depends on government and industry subsidies. For natural gas to stay competitive in the future, these subsidies likely will have to continue, says Gushee. The pump price of natural gas will have to remain low if natural gas-powered vehicles are to succeed in the market place, because such vehicles currently cost about $2,500 to $5,000 more than a comparable gasoline-powered car. Gushee says that even with mass production, the projected price difference will be about $800 per car. The challenges facing compressed natural gas are daunting, especially considering that even in nations where natural gas receives significant tax advantages, its penetration has not exceeded 15 percent.

Gushee, D.E. [Congressional Research Service, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-08-01

306

Erdgas heute und morgen. (Natural gas today and tomorrow).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the role of natural gas in the energy markets of the former Federal Republic of Germany and in the new provinces of unified Germany, the reliability of energy supplies, the low-pollution, low-CO(sub 2) consumption of natural gas, ene...

1992-01-01

307

Adsorption of natural gas and biogas components on activated carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental results are presented for the adsorption equilibria of methane, ethane, propane, butane, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen, as well as natural gas odorants tert-butyl mercaptan and tetrahydrothiophene, on an activated carbon with the desirable characteristics for use in a guard bed for adsorbed natural gas storage, but that can also be applied for separation of biogas components, such as carbon

Isabel A. A. C. Esteves; Marta S. S. Lopes; Pedro M. C. Nunes; José P. B. Mota

2008-01-01

308

On the Pricing of Natural Gas Pipeline Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pipelines play a critical role in matching the supply and demand of natural gas. The pricing of their capacity is an important problem in practice, both for pipeline companies and shippers, the users of this capacity, including natural gas merchants, producers, and local distribution companies. This paper conducts a normative analysis of how pipeline capacity should be priced by each

Nicola Secomandi

2010-01-01

309

Natural gas imports and exports. Second quarter report  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the second quarter of 1997 (April through June).

NONE

1997-12-31

310

Strategic Petroleum Reserve and Liquefied Natural Gas Supplies. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States is planning to import liquefied natural gas (LNG) to offset the effects of our apparent dwindling natural gas supply. These imports would begin by the 1980s and would come from Algeria, Indonesia, Pakistan, Iran, Nigeria, and possibly th...

R. J. Fink B. A. Bancroft T. M. Palmieri

1977-01-01

311

Natural Gas Transportation - Infrastructure Issues and Operational Trends  

EIA Publications

This report examines how well the current national natural gas pipeline network has been able to handle today's market demand for natural gas. In addition, it identifies those areas of the country where pipeline utilization is continuing to grow rapidly and where new pipeline capacity is needed or is planned over the next several years.

Information Center

2001-10-01

312

A Large Potential Methane Source—Natural Gas Hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas, essentially methane, can be obtained from natural gas hydrate (NGH). NGH reserves are difficult to pinpoint in the subsurface, but large sources have been identified by seismic reflection. This is particularly so below the sea floor near continental shelf plates in the oceans deeper than 300 m as NGH is stable at 4°C and 50 bar pressure. When

R. A. Dawe; S. Thomas

2007-01-01

313

Natural Gas: Major Legislative and Regulatory Actions (1935 - 2008)  

EIA Publications

This special report Web-based product presents a chronology of some of the key federal legislative and regulatory actions that have helped shape the natural gas market, with particular emphasis on policy directives from 1978 to October 2008. Separate reports provide brief descriptions of specific legislation, regulations, or policies, and their impacts on the natural gas market.

Information Center

2009-01-30

314

Testing for Market Integration: Crude Oil, Coal, and Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prompted by the contemporaneous spike in coal, oil, and natural gas prices, this paper evaluates the degree of market integration both within and between crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets. Our approach yields parameters that can be readily tested against a priori conjectures. Using daily price data for five very different crude oils, we conclude that the world oil

Lance J. Bachmeier; James M. Griffin

2006-01-01

315

U.S. oil, natural gas demand still climbing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steady economic growth and slightly lower prices will boost demand for petroleum and natural gas in the US again this year. Economic growth will lag behind last year`s level but will remain strong. Increased worldwide petroleum production should lower oil prices and encourage fuel-switching, which will suppress natural gas prices. In the US, total energy consumption will grow less rapidly

Beck

1997-01-01

316

PROJECTIONS OF REGIONAL FUEL OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents delivered regional oil and natural gas price forecasts for the industrial and electric utility sectors. Delivered energy price projections by Federal region through the year 2045 are provided for distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, and natural gas. Methodo...

317

Coal, oil, natural gas, helium, and uranium in Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data presented in this publication were assembled to assist in developing a fundamental understanding and a geological perspective of occurrence of coal, petroleum, natural gas, helium, and uranium in Arizona. The data are presented in three parts: (1) coals; (2) oil, natural gas, and helium; and (3) uranium. A bibliography is presented at the end of the report. Numerous

H. W. Peirce; S. B. Keith; J. C. Wilt

1970-01-01

318

Process for recovering helium from a natural gas stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for cryogenically separating and recovering a gaseous product stream consisting of at least about 50 volume percent of helium, the balance being substantially nitrogen, from a helium-bearing natural gas received at an elevated temperature and pressure containing helium, nitrogen, methane and condensable Câ and higher hydrocarbon compounds, is described comprising the steps of: cooling the natural gas feed

E. K. Mitchell; D. N. Reed; T. L. Rodkey

1988-01-01

319

75 FR 62519 - Rocky Mountain Natural Gas LLC; KeySpan Gas East Corporation; ECOP Gas Company, LLC; MGTC, Inc...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PR10-136-000 (Not Consolidated)] Rocky Mountain Natural Gas LLC; KeySpan Gas East Corporation; ECOP Gas Company, LLC; MGTC, Inc; Hill-Lake Gas Storage, LLC; Southern California Gas Company; ETC Katy Pipeline, Ltd.; Notice of Baseline...

2010-10-12

320

An econometric analysis of the market for natural gas futures  

SciTech Connect

This research tests a form of the efficient markets hypothesis in the market for natural gas futures. Unlike other studies of future markets, the test for market efficiency is conducted at numerous locations which comprise the natural gas spot market in addition to the delivery location specified in the futures contract. Natural gas spot and futures prices are found to be nonstationary and accordingly are modeled using recently developed maximum likelihood cointegrated with nearly all of the spot market prices across the national network of gas pipelines. The hypothesis of market efficiency can be rejected in 3 of the 13 spot markets. 29 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Walls, W.D. [Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

1995-12-31

321

Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough localized atmospheric contamination to choke air aspirated aircraft engines. The unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft along with their crews and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle may be tied to the natural venting of gas hydrates. The paper describes what gas hydrates are, their formation and release, and their possible link to the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.

Gruy, H.J.

1998-03-01

322

Psychrometric charts for water vapour in natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychrometric charts present in a graphical form physical property data for gas systems involving one or more non-condensing gas components and a single condensing vapour component. Originally limited to studying the humid air system of water vapour in dry air, the theory behind preparing psychrometric charts for water vapour in natural gas is presented. To illustrate the technique two charts

David C. Shallcross

2008-01-01

323

Fundamental principles and applications of natural gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas hydrates are solid, non-stoichiometric compounds of small gas molecules and water. They form when the constituents come into contact at low temperature and high pressure. The physical properties of these compounds, most notably that they are non-flowing crystalline solids that are denser than typical fluid hydrocarbons and that the gas molecules they contain are effectively compressed, give rise

E. Dendy Sloan

2003-01-01

324

Depressurization of natural gas hydrates in berea sandstone cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

D. W. Davidsonet al. [7] were among the first to recognize significant deposits of natural gas clathrate hydrates in the Western Hemisphere. This work discusses the recovery of gas from such deposits, through laboratory measurement and modeling of a depressurization scheme. The work provides a determination of the volume of gas produced and the position of the hydrate interface, as

M. H. Yousif; P. M. Li; M. S. Selim; E. D. Sloan

1990-01-01

325

Capturing fugitive methane emissions from natural gas compressor buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fugitive methane emissions account for about 50% of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Canadian conventional oil and gas sector. Sources include leaks in natural gas transmission facilities such as pipelines and compressor stations. There are three sources of methane emissions in a compressor station. The first is emissions resulting from incomplete combustion in the engine; the second is

R. Litto; R. E. Hayes; B. Liu

2007-01-01

326

The catalytic decomposition of petroleum into natural gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petroleum is believed to be unstable in the earth, decomposing to lighter hydrocarbons at temperatures > 150°C. Oil and gas deposits support this view: gas/oil ratios and methane concentrations tend to increase with depth above 150°C. Although oil cracking is suggested and receives wide support, laboratory pyrolysis does not give products resembling natural gas. Moreover, it is doubtful that the light hydrocarbons in wet gas (C 2?C 4) could decompose over geologic time to dry gas (> 95% methane) without catalytic assistance. We now report the catalytic decomposition of crude oil to a gas indistinguishable from natural gas. Like natural gas in deep basins, it becomes progressively enriched in methane: initially 80% (wet gas) to a final composition of 100% methane (dry gas). To our knowledge, the reaction is unprecedented and unexpectedly robust (conversion of oil to gas is 100% in days, 175°C) with significant implications regarding the stability of petroleum in sedimentary basins. The existence or nonexistence of oil in the deep subsurface may not depend on the thermal stability of hydrocarbons as currently thought. The critical factor could be the presence of transition metal catalysts which destabilize hydrocarbons and promote their decomposition to natural gas.

Mango, Frank D.; Hightower, Joe

1997-12-01

327

Catalytic partial oxidation of natural gas to syngas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We trace the development of catalytic partial oxidation technology for the conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas (CO + H2) from steam reforming to autothermal reforming to direct oxidation. Synthesis gas which has applications in methanol, ammonia and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis has been conventionally produced by endothermic steam reforming processes in fired tube furnaces. Catalytic partial oxidation is much faster,

S. S. Bharadwaj; L. D. Schmidt

1995-01-01

328

Procedure for preparation for shipment of natural gas storage vessel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for preparing a natural gas storage vessel for shipment is presented. The gas is stored at 3,000 pounds per square inch. The safety precautions to be observed are emphasized. The equipment and process for purging the tank and sampling the exit gas flow are described. A diagram of the pressure vessel and the equipment is provided.

Amawd, A. M.

1974-01-01

329

Continuous analysis of helium in natural gas by chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

In extracting helium from natural gas at Bureau of Mines helium plants, a continuous analysis of the helium content of inlet and outlet gas streams is required to determine extraction efficiency. An analyzer, using established principles of gas chromatography to effect the analysis, has been developed to meet this need. It will record the helium content of inlet or discharge

C. L. Klingman; J. D. Marshall

1960-01-01

330

North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E. (eds.)

1989-04-01

331

North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies. Volume 3  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E. [eds.

1989-04-01

332

Natural gas imports and exports, third quarter report 2000  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

None

2000-12-01

333

Natural gas to buoy Trinidad and Tobago petroleum sector  

SciTech Connect

Trinidad and Tobago's petroleum sector remains at a crossroads. While heavily reliant on oil and gas for domestic energy consumption and hard currency export earnings, the small Caribbean island nation faces some tough choices in reviving its hydrocarbon sector in the 1990s. Exploration and production of crude oil have stagnated in recent years, and domestic refinery utilization remains low at 36%. However, substantial natural gas reserves in Trinidad and Tobago offer the promise of a burgeoning natural gas based economy with an eye to liquefied natural gas and gas based petrochemical exports. Any solutions will involve considerable outlays by the government as well as a sizable infusion of capital by foreign companies. Therein lie some of the hard choices. The article describes the roles of oil and gas, foreign investment prospects, refining status, refining problems, gas sector foreign investment, and outlook for the rest of the 1990's.

Not Available

1993-03-01

334

System and method for producing substitute natural gas from coal  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a system and method for producing substitute natural gas and electricity, while mitigating production of any greenhouse gasses. The system includes a hydrogasification reactor, to form a gas stream including natural gas and a char stream, and an oxygen burner to combust the char material to form carbon oxides. The system also includes an algae farm to convert the carbon oxides to hydrocarbon material and oxygen.

Hobbs, Raymond (Avondale, AZ)

2012-08-07

335

Assessment of gas industry practices for odorization of natural gas. Final report Dec 80Sep 81  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of gas industry practices for odorization of natural gas was performed. The review included an examination of regulatory requirements and relevant case law to identify technical aspects of odorization which have been questioned during litigation. Usage patterns for natural gas odorants and odorant injection equipment were examined on the basis of industry interviews and results of a previous

Larocque

1981-01-01

336

In Situ Raman Analyses of Natural Gas and Gas Hydrates at Hydrate Ridge, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a July 2004 cruise to Hydrate Ridge, Oregon, MBARI's sea-going laser Raman spectrometer was used to obtain in situ Raman spectra of natural gas hydrates and natural gas venting from the seafloor. This was the first in situ analysis of gas hydrates on the seafloor. The hydrate spectra were compared to laboratory analyses performed at the Center for Hydrate

E. T. Peltzer; S. N. White; R. M. Dunk; P. G. Brewer; A. D. Sherman; K. Schmidt; K. C. Hester; E. D. Sloan

2004-01-01

337

Development of a natural Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM)  

SciTech Connect

Recent dramatic changes in natural gas markets have significant implications for the scope and direction of DOE`s upstream as well as downstream natural gas R&D. Open access transportation changes the way gas is bought and sold. The end of the gas deliverability surplus requires increased reserve development above recent levels. Increased gas demand for power generation and other new uses changes the overall demand picture in terms of volumes, locations and seasonality. DOE`s Natural Gas Strategic Plan requires that its R&D activities be evaluated for their ability to provide adequate supplies of reasonably priced gas. Potential R&D projects are to be evaluated using a full fuel cycle, benefit-cost approach to estimate likely market impact as well as technical success. To assure R&D projects are evaluated on a comparable basis, METC has undertaken the development of a comprehensive natural gas technology evaluation framework. Existing energy systems models lack the level of detail required to estimate the impact of specific upstream natural gas technologies across the known range of geological settings and likely market conditions. Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM) research during FY 1993 developed and implemented this comprehensive, consistent natural gas system evaluation framework. Rather than a isolated research activity, however, GSAM represents the integration of many prior and ongoing natural gas research efforts. When complete, it will incorporate the most current resource base description, reservoir modeling, technology characterization and other geologic and engineering aspects developed through recent METC and industry gas R&D programs.

Godec, M.; Haas, M.; Pepper, W.; Rose, J.

1993-12-31

338

77 FR 20618 - PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Application...PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC (PetroLogistics...cushion gas capacity of its Cavern 25 located in Iberville Parish...PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC, 4470 Bluebonnet...

2012-04-05

339

76 FR 22825 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems AGENCY: Environmental...30, 2010 EPA promulgated Subpart W: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems of the Greenhouse...calculating greenhouse gas emissions for the petroleum and natural gas systems source...

2011-04-25

340

75 FR 5177 - Pipeline Posting Requirements under Section 23 of the Natural Gas Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...expansion of natural gas production in the Barnett Shale Formation.\\100\\ New...oil_gas/natural_gas/feature_articles...all newly added natural gas pipeline capacity for...transport expanding Barnett shale production...

2010-02-01

341

Plentiful natural gas headed for big growth in Mideast  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas is increasingly becoming a major contributor in the industrial development of most Middle Eastern countries. Demand there will rise steeply in coming years. This is because of the abundant and growing natural gas resources in the region, the economic benefits of using local resources, as well as increased emphasis on a cleaner environment. Today, proved reserves of natural gas in the Middle East are 45 trillion cu meters (tcm), or 1,488 trillion cu ft (tcf). This is over 30% of the world's natural gas reserves. A table presents data on reserves and production of natural gas in the region. About 20% of this gross production is rein-injecting for oil field pressure maintenance, 13% is flared or vented, and 7% is accounted as losses. The remaining 60% represents consumption in power generation, water desalination, petrochemicals and fertilizers production, aluminum and copper smelting, and fuel for refineries and other industries. The use of natural gas in these various industries is discussed. Thirteen tables present data on gas consumption by country and sector, power generation capacity, major chemicals derived from natural gas, and petrochemical plant capacities.

Hamid, S.H.; Aitani, A.M. (King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

1995-01-23

342

Experimental Study of the Spider™ Patent Foramen Ovale Occluder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of the Spider™ patent foramen ovale (PFO) occluder for the treatment of PFOs in an animal model. Method: The foramen ovale was punctured to establish an animal model of a PFO. Under fluoroscopic guidance, the PFO was occluded with the Spider PFO occluder. The piglets were electively sacrificed at months 1, 2,

Caojin Zhang; Yigao Huang; Stefan Bertog; Tao Huang; Wenhui Huang; Xinsheng Huang; Donglan Luo

2011-01-01

343

Nickel release after implantation of the Amplatzer occluder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defects is a new and less traumatic technique than open heart surgery. In recent years, patients with a patent foramen ovale sustaining potential paradoxical embolism have also become candidates for interventional closure devices. One of the more popular occluding devices is the Amplatzer septal occluder, which, like many other occluders, is made of nitinol.

Marcus W. Ries; Christoph Kampmann; Hans-Jürgen Rupprecht; Gudrun Hintereder; Gerd Hafner; Jürgen Meyer

2003-01-01

344

Advance Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, 2006 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is an advance summary of EIA's report on domestic proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. It presents key data tables (sorted by fuel and by geographic location) and some highlights of petroleum industry activity that impa...

2007-01-01

345

Development of a Process for Simultaneous Desulfurization, Drying, and Recovery of Natural Gas Liquids from Natural Gas Streams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In general, raw natural gas is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases that may also contain sulfur compounds, water and a small amount of inert gases. Conventional natural gas processing schemes are based on the sequential removal of sulfur compounds, water and h...

S. F. Sciamanna S. Lynn

1986-01-01

346

Conventional natural gas resource potential, Alaska North Slope  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An estimate of total natural gas resource potential of northern Alaska can be obtained by summing known gas reserves in oil and gas fields (35 TCF), mean estimates of undiscovered nonassociated (61 TCF) and associated (12 TCF) gas resources in NPRA, and mean estimates of undiscovered nonassociated (4 TCF) and associated (5 TCF) gas resources in the 1002 area of ANWR; this yields a total of 117 TCF. When estimates of undiscovered gas resources for non-Federal lands are released in 2005, that total will increase by a non-trivial amount. Thus, the conventional natural gas resource potential of onshore and State offshore areas totals well over 100 TCF. The inclusion of the MMS mean estimate (96 TCF) for undiscovered gas resources in the Beaufort and Chukchi planning areas of the Federal offshore extends that total above 200 TCF.

Houseknecht, David W.

2004-01-01

347

Research and Development Concerning Coalbed Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect

The Powder River Basin in northeastern Wyoming is one of the most active areas of coalbed natural gas (CBNG) development in the western United States. This resource provides clean energy but raises environmental concerns. Primary among these is the disposal of water that is co-produced with the gas during depressurization of the coal seam. Beginning with a few producing wells in Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) in 1987, CBNG well numbers in this area increased to over 13,600 in 2004, with projected growth to 20,900 producing wells in the PRB by 2010. CBNG development is continuing apace since 2004, and CBNG is now being produced or evaluated in four other Wyoming coal basins in addition to the PRB, with roughly 3500-4000 new CBNG wells permitted statewide each year since 2004. This is clearly a very valuable source of clean fuel for the nation, and for Wyoming the economic benefits are substantial. For instance, in 2003 alone the total value of Wyoming CBNG production was about $1.5 billion, with tax and royalty income of about $90 million to counties, $140 million to the state, and $27 million to the federal government. In Wyoming, cumulative CBNG water production from 1987 through December 2004 was just over 380,000 acre-feet (2.9 billion barrels), while producing almost 1.5 trillion cubic feet (tcf) of CBNG gas statewide. Annual Wyoming CBNG water production in 2003 was 74,457 acre-feet (577 million barrels). Total production of CBNG water across all Wyoming coal fields could total roughly 7 million acre-feet (55.5 billion barrels), if all of the recoverable CBNG in the projected reserves of 31.7 tcf were produced over the coming decades. Pumping water from coals to produce CBNG has been designated a beneficial water use by the Wyoming State Engineer's Office (SEO), though recently the SEO has limited this beneficial use designation by requiring a certain gas/water production ratio. In the eastern part of the PRB where CBNG water is generally of good quality, most of it is discharged to surface drainages or to soil (for irrigation). CBNG water quality generally declines when moving from the Cheyenne River drainage northwestward to the Belle Fourche, Little Powder, and Powder River drainages and in the central and western part of the PRB, most CBNG water goes to evaporation-infiltration ponds or is discharged directly to surface drainages. Concerns center on the salinity of the water, usually measured as total dissolved solids (TDS), or electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). Other management options currently in use include injection, managed irrigation (with additives to mitigate the effects of high salinity), atomization, and treatment by reverse osmosis or ion exchange. A key water quality issue is the cumulative effect of numerous CBNG water discharges on the overall water quality of basin streams. This leads to one of the most contentious issues in CBNG development in Wyoming's PRB: Montana's concern about the potential downstream effects of water quality degradation on rivers flowing north into Montana. Many of the benefits and costs associated with CBNG development have been debated, but dealing with CBNG water quantity and quality arguably has been the most difficult of all the issues. Given the importance of these issues for continued development of CBNG resources in Wyoming and elsewhere, the DOE-NETL funded project presented here focuses on CBNG co-produced water management. The research was organized around nine separate, but interrelated, technical project tasks and one administrative task (Task 1). The nine technical project tasks were pursued by separate research teams at the University of Wyoming, but all nine tasks were coordinated to the extent possible in order to maximize information gained about CBNG co-produced waters. In addition to project management in Task 1, the key research tasks included: (2) estimating groundwater recharge rates in the PRB; (3) groundwater contamination of trace elements from CBNG disposal ponds; (4) use of environmental tracers in assessing wate

William Ruckelshaus

2008-09-30

348

The carbon isotopic composition of catalytic gas: a comparative analysis with natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea that natural gas is the thermal product of organic decomposition has persisted for over half a century. Crude oil is thought to be an important source of gas, cracking to wet gas above 150°C, and dry gas above 200°C. But there is little evidence to support this view. For example, crude oil is proving to be more stable

Frank D Mango; L. W. Elrod

1999-01-01

349

Process for producing a gas which can be substituted for natural gas. [5 claims  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas which can be substituted for natural gas is produced from a raw gas containing hydrogen and carbon oxides which is produced by the gasification of coal, tar, or heavy residual oils under superatmospheric pressure. The raw gas is cooled, purified to remove catalyst poisons, particularly sulfur compounds, and then subjected to methanation and at least two stages in

W. D. Muller; F. W. Moller; H. Jockel

1977-01-01

350

Life-Cycle Analysis of Shale Gas and Natural Gas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas a...

A. Burnham C. E. Clark J. Han J. B. Dunn M. Wang

2011-01-01

351

An Assessment of Gas Industry Practices for Odorization of Natural Gas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review of gas industry practices for odorization of natural gas was performed. The review included an examination of regulatory requirements and relevant case law to identify technical aspects of odorization which have been questioned during litigation....

G. R. Larocque

1981-01-01

352

On the retrograde condensation behavior of lean natural gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of liquid dropout in natural gas pipelines may cause operational problems during storage, transport, and processing. Therefore, the availability of a model that accurately predicts the amount of liquid formed is of great importance for the natural gas industry. The objective of this study is to develop a thermodynamic model for the accurate prediction of the amount of liquid formed in natural gas pipelines at transportation conditions. As input, the model requires an accurate gas analysis. A modified Peng-Robinson equation of state was selected for the phase equilibrium calculations. Interaction parameters were optimized from experimental data at conditions of practical interest, i.e., at pressures 10 < p < 70 bar and at temperatures 250 < T < 290 K. For a number of “keysystems,” the interaction parameters were calculated from new accurate solubility data of heavy hydrocarbons in some of the main constituents of natural gas like methane and nitrogen. Also, an extensive experimental program was carried out to study the influence of minute amounts of nitrogen, ethane and carbon dioxide in methane on the solubility behavior of decane in these gas mixtures. From a sensitivity analysis, it could be concluded that the liquid dropout is influenced mainly by the concentration and characterization of C7-C13 fractions. In this work, two characterization procedures to represent these fractions are compared. For two types of lean natural gas, the model predictions are compared with field measurement data, recently supplied by the Dutch natural gas industry.

Voulgaris, M. E.; Peters, C. J.; de Swaan Arons, J.

1995-05-01

353

On the retrograde condensation behavior of lean natural gas  

SciTech Connect

The occurrence of liquid dropout in natural gas pipelines may cause operational problems during storage, transport, and processing. Therefore, the availability of a model that accurately predicts the amount of liquid formed is of grate importance for the natural gas industry. The objective of this study is to develop a thermodynamic model for the accurate prediction of the amount of liquid formed in natural gas pipelines at transportation conditions. As input, the model requires an accurate gas analysis. A modified Peng-Robinson equation of state was selected for the phase equilibrium calculations. Interaction parameters were optimized from experimental data at conditions of practical interest, i.e., at pressures 10natural gas like methane and nitrogen. Also, an extensive experimental program was carried out to study the influence of minute amounts of nitrogen, ethane and carbon dioxide in methane on the solubility behavior of decane in these gas mixtures. From a sensitivity analysis, it could be concluded that the liquid dropout is influenced mainly by the concentration and characterization of C{sub 7}-C{sub 13} fractions. In this work, two characterization procedures to represent these fractions are compared. For two types of lean natural gas, the model predictions are compared with field measurement data, recently supplied by the Dutch natural gas industry.

Voulgaris, M.E.; Peters, C.J.; Arons, J. Swaan de [Univ. of Technology, Julianalaan (Netherlands)

1995-05-01

354

Transcatheter closure of hypertensive ductus with amplatzer post infarction muscular VSD occluder after percutaneous retrieval of embolized amplatzer duct occluder  

PubMed Central

Transcatheter closure of a large hypertensive patent ductus arteriosus is challenging with scant data about it. Even more challenging is retrieval of an embolized Amplatzer duct occluder. We report successful closure of a 12 mm large ductus with the Amplatzer muscular VSD occluder (post myocardial infarction) after percutaneous retrieval of the embolized, largest available, 16/14 mm Amplatzer duct occluder.

Phadke, Milind S; Karur, Satish; Kerkar, Prafulla G

2014-01-01

355

Transcatheter closure of hypertensive ductus with amplatzer post infarction muscular VSD occluder after percutaneous retrieval of embolized amplatzer duct occluder.  

PubMed

Transcatheter closure of a large hypertensive patent ductus arteriosus is challenging with scant data about it. Even more challenging is retrieval of an embolized Amplatzer duct occluder. We report successful closure of a 12 mm large ductus with the Amplatzer muscular VSD occluder (post myocardial infarction) after percutaneous retrieval of the embolized, largest available, 16/14 mm Amplatzer duct occluder. PMID:24987259

Phadke, Milind S; Karur, Satish; Kerkar, Prafulla G

2014-05-01

356

Combustion of Illinois coals and chars with natural gas  

SciTech Connect

There are applications where the combined combustion of coal and natural gas offers potential advantages over the use of either coal or natural gas alone. For example, low volatile coals or low volatile chars derived from treatment or gasification processes can be of limited use during to their poor flammability characteristics. However, the use of natural gas in conjunction with the solid fuel can provide the necessary volatiles'' to enhance the combustion. In addition, natural gas provides a clean fuel source of fuel which, in cofiring situations, can extend the usefulness of coals with high sulfur content. The addition of natural gas may reduce SO{sub x} emission through increased sulfur retention in the ash and reduce NO{sub x} emissions by varying local stoichiometry and temperature levels. In this research program, studies of combined coal and natural gas combustion will provide particle ignition, burnout rates and ash characterization, that will help clarify the effect of coal and natural gas and identify the controlling parameters and mechanisms.

Buckius, R.O.

1991-01-01

357

Low-Quality Natural Gas Sulfur Removal/Recovery System  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas provides more than one-fifth of all the primary energy used in the United States. Much raw gas is `subquality`, that is, it exceeds the pipeline specifications for nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and/or hydrogen sulfide content, and much of this low-quality natural gas cannot be produced economically with present processing technology. Against this background, a number of industry-wide trends are affecting the natural gas industry. Despite the current low price of natural gas, long-term demand is expected to outstrip supply, requiring new gas fields to be developed. Several important consequences will result. First, gas fields not being used because of low-quality products will have to be tapped. In the future, the proportion of the gas supply that must be treated to remove impurities prior to delivery to the pipeline will increase substantially. The extent of treatment required to bring the gas up to specification will also increase. Gas Research Institute studies have shown that a substantial capital investment in facilities is likely to occur over the next decade. The estimated overall investment for all gas processing facilities up to the year 2000 alone is approximates $1.2 Billion, of which acid gas removal and sulfur recovery are a significant part in terms of invested capital. This large market size and the known shortcomings of conventional processing techniques will encourage development and commercialization of newer technologies such as membrane processes. Second, much of today`s gas production is from large, readily accessible fields. As new reserves are exploited, more gas will be produced from smaller fields in remote or offshore locations. The result is an increasing need for technology able to treat small-scale gas streams.

Lokhandwala, K.A.; Ringer, M.; Wijams, H.; Baker, R.W.

1997-10-01

358

Methane and the greenhouse-gas footprint of natural gas from shale formations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluate the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas obtained by high-volume hydraulic fracturing from shale formations,\\u000a focusing on methane emissions. Natural gas is composed largely of methane, and 3.6% to 7.9% of the methane from shale-gas\\u000a production escapes to the atmosphere in venting and leaks over the life-time of a well. These methane emissions are at least\\u000a 30% more

Robert W. Howarth; Renee Santoro; Anthony Ingraffea

2011-01-01

359

Liquefied Natural Gas: Global Challenges (released in AEO2008)  

EIA Publications

U.S. imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in 2007 were more than triple the 2000 total, and they are expected to grow in the long term as North Americas conventional natural gas production declines. With U.S. dependence on LNG imports increasing, competitive forces in the international markets for natural gas in general and LNG in particular will play a larger role in shaping the U.S. market for LNG. Key factors currently shaping the future of the global LNG market include the evolution of project economics, worldwide demand for natural gas, government policies that affect the development and use of natural resources in countries with LNG facilities, and changes in seasonal patterns of LNG trade.

Information Center

2008-06-26

360

Natural gas origins of large and medium-scale gas fields in China sedimentary basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

China sedimentary basins present abundant natural gas resource thanks to its unique geological settings. Marine highly-matured\\u000a hydrocarbon source rocks, widespread coal-measure strata and low temperature Quaternary saline strata, etc., indicate the\\u000a wide foreground of China natural gas resources. Up to now, most of the petroliferous basins have been discovered to have wholesale\\u000a natural gas accumulation from Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic to

ShuiChang Zhang; GuangYou Zhu

2008-01-01

361

Recognition of partly occluded objects by fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to visually complete partly occluded objects (so-called “amodal completion”) has been documented in mammals and\\u000a birds. Here, we report the first evidence of such a perceptual ability in a fish species. Fish (Xenotoca eiseni) were trained to discriminate between a complete and an amputated disk. Thereafter, the fish performed test trials in which\\u000a hexagonal polygons were either exactly

Valeria Anna Sovrano; Angelo Bisazza

2008-01-01

362

A Novel Use of Amplatzer Duct Occluder  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   This report describes the use of the Amplatzer patent ductus arteriosus occluder to close a left ventricle to descending\\u000a aorta conduit. The patient was a 10-year-old male who was born with critical aortic stenosis and left ventricular outflow\\u000a tract obstruction. After initial valvotomy, he underwent left ventricular to descending aorta conduit placement. At the age\\u000a of 10, he had

Z. Amin; L. Leatherbury; H. V. Moore; W. B. Strong

2000-01-01

363

DEVELOPMENT OF A THERMOACOUSTIC NATURAL GAS LIQUEFIER-UPDATE  

SciTech Connect

Thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators are being developed for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons/day, has been built and tested. The power source is a natural gas burner. Systems are developed with liquefaction capacities up to 10,000 to 20,000 gallons per day. The technology, the development project, accomplishments and applications are discussed.

J. WOLLAN; G. SWIFT

2001-05-01

364

Gas Supplies of Interstate Natural Gas Pipeline Companies 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication provides information on the total reserves, production, and deliverability capabilities of the 91 interstate pipeline companies. The gas supplies of interstate pipeline companies consist of the certificated, dedicated, recoverable, salabl...

1986-01-01

365

Analyses of natural gases, 1972. [Occurrence of helium in natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Routine analyses and related source data for 299 natural gas samples from 22 states and three foreign countries are presented. All samples were collected during calendar year 1972 as part of a continuous survey of the free world for occurrences of helium in natural gas. This survey has been conducted in the United States since 1917. In late 1965, the

L. E. Cardwell; L. F. Benton

1973-01-01

366

Extraction of odorizing sulfur compounds from natural gas and reodorization therewith  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linde AG's new approach permits natural gas odorants to be removed from natural gas before it is liquefied by peakshaving plants and to be saved for reinjection when the natural gas is vaporized. The odorants, mainly organic sulfur compounds, are removed by scrubbing natural gas prior to natural gas liquefaction and then freed of other impurities such as COâ, HâO,

A. Kruis; H. Karwat

1975-01-01

367

Joint Natural Resources and Government Policy: Helium and Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of jointly extracted natural resources is developed to analyze the effects of taxation policies. Under the assumptions of perfectly competitive resource owners and perfect foresight, the intertemporal equilibrium is described and contrasted with the single resource case. The effects of several subsidies on the equilibrium prices, and the extraction and consumption paths of the two resources, are analyzed

A. M. Hughey

1991-01-01

368

Natural gas origins of the large-medium sized gas fields in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-medium sized gas field refers to the gas field with proved reserves over 100 X 10[sup 8]m[sup 3]. By the end of 1994, 30 large or medium sized gas fields have been found in China (except for Taiwan province), of which the proved gas reserves account for 71% of the total chinese gas reserves. And four origins of the natural

Jinxing Dai; Xianqi Li; Shengfei Qin

1996-01-01

369

Natural gas hydrates on the North Slope of Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, mainly methane, in which a solid-water lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure, or clathrate. These substances often have been regarded as a potential (unconventional) source of natural gas. Significant quantities of naturally occurring gas hydrates have been detected in many regions of the Arctic including Siberia, the Mackenzie River Delta, and the North Slope of Alaska. On the North Slope, the methane-hydrate stability zone is areally extensive beneath most of the coastal plain province and has thicknesses as great as 1000 meters in the Prudhoe Bay area. Gas hydrates have been identified in 50 exploratory and production wells using well-log responses calibrated to the response of an interval in one well where gas hydrates were recovered in a core by ARCO Alaska and EXXON. Most of these gas hydrates occur in six laterally continuous Upper Cretaceous and lower Tertiary sandstone and conglomerate units; all these gas hydrates are geographically restricted to the area overlying the eastern part of the Kuparuk River Oil Field and the western part of the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field. The volume of gas within these gas hydrates is estimated to be about 1.0 {times} 10{sup 12} to 1.2 {times} 10{sup 12} cubic meters (37 to 44 trillion cubic feet), or about twice the volume of conventional gas in the Prudhoe Bay Field. Geochemical analyses of well samples suggest that the identified hydrates probably contain a mixture of deep-source thermogenic gas and shallow microbial gas that was either directly converted to gas hydrate or first concentrated in existing traps and later converted to gas hydrate. The thermogenic gas probably migrated from deeper reservoirs along the same faults thought to be migration pathways for the large volumes of shallow, heavy oil that occur in this area. 51 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Collett, T.S.

1991-01-01

370

Natural gas supply; More efficient recovery at less cost  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on gas supply developments from GRI. These developments represent technology that is now being used in the field or will be available for use soon. Among GRI's natural gas supply R and D activities is its staged field experiment (SFE) project being conducted through the tight gas sands program. An SFE is a well drilled specifically to conduct experiments and gather research data that will lead to increased production and improved recovery of gas from tight gas sand reservoirs. These field-based experiments provide a controlled environment and allow flexibility for conducting experiments that extend beyond typical well drilling and completion operations.

Perry, K.F. (Tight Gas Sands Program, Gas Research Institute, Chicago, IL (US))

1989-02-01

371

Life cycle water consumption for shale gas and conventional natural gas.  

PubMed

Shale gas production represents a large potential source of natural gas for the nation. The scale and rapid growth in shale gas development underscore the need to better understand its environmental implications, including water consumption. This study estimates the water consumed over the life cycle of conventional and shale gas production, accounting for the different stages of production and for flowback water reuse (in the case of shale gas). This study finds that shale gas consumes more water over its life cycle (13-37 L/GJ) than conventional natural gas consumes (9.3-9.6 L/GJ). However, when used as a transportation fuel, shale gas consumes significantly less water than other transportation fuels. When used for electricity generation, the combustion of shale gas adds incrementally to the overall water consumption compared to conventional natural gas. The impact of fuel production, however, is small relative to that of power plant operations. The type of power plant where the natural gas is utilized is far more important than the source of the natural gas. PMID:24004382

Clark, Corrie E; Horner, Robert M; Harto, Christopher B

2013-10-15

372

Clean Air Program: Liquefied Natural Gas Safety in Transit Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines the safety issues relating to the use of Liquefied natural Gas (LNG) in transit service. The surveys consisted of: (1) extensive interviews; (2) review of recrods, procedures, and plans relating to safety; (3) examination of facilities...

D. M. Friedman N. D. Malcosky

1996-01-01

373

In situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvent with natural gas  

SciTech Connect

A bioremediation system for the removal of chlorinated solvents from ground water and sediments is described. The system involves the the in-situ injection of natural gas (as a microbial nutrient) through an innovative configuration of horizontal wells.

Rabold, D.E.

1996-12-31

374

World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Natural Gas Model  

EIA Publications

This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS+) Natural Gas Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

Brian Murphy

2011-09-29

375

Liquid absorbent solutions for separating nitrogen from natural gas  

DOEpatents

Nitrogen-absorbing and -desorbing compositions, novel ligands and transition metal complexes, and methods of using the same, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Redmond, OR); Lyon, David K. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

2000-01-01

376

Risk management technique for liquefied natural gas facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Checklists have been compiled for planning, design, construction, startup and debugging, and operation of liquefied natural gas facilities. Lists include references to pertinent safety regulations. Methods described are applicable to handling of other hazardous materials.

Fedor, O. H.; Parsons, W. N.

1975-01-01

377

Use of Laboratory-Supplied Natural Gas in Breakthrough Phenomena.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Natural gas from regular commercial lines contains enough carbon-8 and above hydrocarbon contaminants to serve as a satisfactory sample for breakthrough experiments. Procedures used, typical results obtained, and theoretical background information are provided. (JN)

Eiceman, G. A.; And Others

1985-01-01

378

Methanol from Natural Gas for Engine Fuel. Report No. 5.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Well established technology exists for the production of methanol from natural gas by modern low pressure processes. Methanol production by a high pressure process advantageously co-produces higher alcohols but few details of the technology and economics ...

I. F. Rees B. T. Judd B. V. Walker

1976-01-01

379

A Geographic Approach to the Study of Natural Gas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information, tips, references, and materials to high school and college level geography teachers on developing a unit on natural gas. Data are presented in the form of tables, maps, figures, and textual analysis. (Author/DB)

Sheskin, Ira M.

1980-01-01

380

Devices for moisture measurement in natural gas  

SciTech Connect

The Dew Point Tester incorporates a pressure-tight chamber to contain the gas or vapor test sample and valves for controlling gas flow. At one end of the chamber, a clear plastic window is installed to allow observation of the chamber's interior and mirror. The mirror is highly polished stainless steel and is attached at its center to a copper thermometer well. A chiller attached to the thermometer well controls expansion of refrigerant and the temperature of the mirror. The mirror's temperature is indicated by a thermometer whose bulb is located close to the mirror's back surface.

Kahmann, A.R.

1984-04-01

381

Convergence and Divergence of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Prices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research investigates the possibility that WTI crude oil and Henry Hub natural gas prices share a stable link. Economic theory suggests that the two commodities are linked by both supply and demand given that the commodities can be coproduced and many consumers have the ability to switch between the fuels. In general, it would appear that the two commodities support this theory with natural gas prices tracking crude oil prices fairly well until late 2008. However, since the end of 2008 the two price series have diverged and appear to move independently of each other. Reduced fuel switching capabilities in U.S. industry and electric power generation coupled with increased technology and production from shale formations have potentially changed the driving force behind natural gas prices. However, a severe recession has impacted world economies over the same time period making the cause of the disparity between crude oil and natural gas prices unclear. Therefore, this research analyzed the possible long-term link between the two commodities over two timeframes. Using an error correction model that includes exogenous factors affecting the short-run dynamics of natural gas prices over the period January 1999 through September 2008, I find evidence of a long-run cointegrating relationship between natural gas and crude oil prices. Additionally, crude oil prices are found to be weakly exogenous to the system, suggesting causality runs from crude oil to natural gas prices. Extending this series through February 2012 yields much weaker evidence of a cointegrating relationship and provides evidence for the decoupling crude oil and natural gas prices.

Romagus, George M.

382

HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

Microsoft Academic Search

This first quarter report of 2001 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove HâS in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day.

Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

2001-01-01

383

HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

Microsoft Academic Search

This first quarter report of 2002 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove HâS in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day.

Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

2002-01-01

384

Grain size measurements of natural gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane hydrates are present in marine seep systems and occur within the gas hydrate stability zone. Very little is known about their crystallite sizes and size distributions because they are notoriously difficult to measure. Crystal size distributions are usually considered as one of the key petrophysical parameters because they influence mechanical properties and possible compositional changes, which may occur with

Stephan A. Klapp; Susanne Hemes; Helmut Klein; Gerhard Bohrmann; Ian MacDonald; Werner F. Kuhs

2010-01-01

385

ARPA-E: Creating Practical, Affordable Natural Gas Storage Solutions  

ScienceCinema

Allowing people to refuel natural gas vehicles at home could revolutionize the way we power our cars and trucks. Currently, our nation faces two challenges in enabling natural gas for transportation. The first is improving the way gas tanks are built for natural gas vehicles; they need to be conformable, allowing them to fit tightly into the vehicle. The second challenge is improving the way those tanks are refueled while maintaining cost-effectiveness, safety, and reliability. This video highlights two ARPA-E project teams with innovative solutions to these challenges. REL is addressing the first challenge by developing a low-cost, conformable natural gas tank with an interconnected core structure. Oregon State University and OnBoard Dynamics are addressing the second challenge by developing a self-refueling natural gas vehicle that integrates a compressor into its engine-using one of the engine's cylinders to compress gas eliminates the need for an expensive at-home refueling system. These two distinct technologies from ARPA-E's MOVE program illustrate how the Agency takes a multi-pronged approach to problem solving and innovation.

Boysen, Dane; Loukus, Josh; Hansen, Rita

2014-03-13

386

CANADIAN ENERGY PROSPECTS: NATURAL GAS, TAR SANDS, AND OIL POLICY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a brief overview of recent oil and gas developments in Canada. It describes marketing problems that the Canadian natural gas industry is facing and reports on some encouraging new developments in the recovery of bitumen from the Alberta tar sands deposits. Finally, the paper analyzes the current pricing, royalty, and taxation regime existing in Canada and where

BRIAN L. SCARFE

1985-01-01

387

Natural gas from tight sands: enhancing recovery by stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large quantities of natural gas are trapped in low permeability reservoirs in the western United States. Low flow rates from lenticular formations that contain portions of this gas, plus increasingly high drilling costs, have prevented economic recovery of such resources by conventional methods. Interest in the further evaluation of potential reserves in a particular field, however, has been renewed due

M. S. Greenfield; U. Ahmed; A. M. Jones; J. F. Schatz

1982-01-01

388

Educational Roadmap of Natural Gas and Crude Oil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage from the Ohio Oil and Gas Energy Education Program will assist classes learning about natural gas, crude oil and fuel production. The page is divided into six sections, focusing on formation, migration, exploration, drilling and production, refinement and finally, end products. Each section has a video demonstration, resources, links and more.

2012-12-05

389

The Oscar winners of the natural gas industry  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews the performance of natural gas companies in the past year and recognizes five of them as the Most Profitable, the Most Owners, the Longest Dividend Record, the Most Stock Market Activity, the Coldest, the Best Stock Performance. The reasons for their selection is examined and their performance is compared with other gas utilities.

Burkhardt, D.A.; Krekeler, J.A.

1990-04-12

390

Concept and features of natural gas hydrate pellet carriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas hydrate is a material which contains molecules of gases in the structure like cages formed by molecules of water. Natural gas hydrate (NGH) is in equilibrium state at around 193 K under atmospheric pressure and NGH is expected to be stowed and transported at higher temperature due to its special property so-called \\

S. Ota; H. Kawano; K. Hirai; M. Kamei

2004-01-01

391

Compared chemistry of natural gas hydrates from different oceanic environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas hydrates are generally associated with pockmarks or mud volcanoes on margins. They occurred both in deep sedimentary structures, and sometimes as outcrops on the seafloor. The gas hydrates studied here were collected from gravity sediment cores and occur as small fragments and massive crystal aggregates, mostly disseminated irregularly in the sediment. In most cases, they escape in the

J. Charlou; J. Donval; H. Ondreas; J. Foucher; M. Voisset; B. Chazallon; P. Jean-Baptiste; E. Sauter; D. Levache

2004-01-01

392

A Cost Function for the Natural Gas Transmission Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article estimates the parameters of a cost function for the process of gas transmission based on the two basic capital inputs to the process: pipe and compressors. This in turn allows us to assess the combination of capital, operating, and maintenance costs that minimize the total cost of a natural gas transportation system. We further show that the industry's

Rigoberto Ariel Yépez

2008-01-01

393

The development of a natural gas transportation logistics management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient management of the natural gas business chain – based on pipeline transmission networks and taking into consideration the interaction among the main players (e.g., shippers, suppliers, transmission companies and local distribution companies) – requires the use of decision-making support systems. These support systems maximise resources and mitigate contingencies due to gas supply shortfalls, operational contingencies from scheduled and non-scheduled

Sidney Pereira dos Santos; José Eugenio Leal; Fabrício Oliveira

2011-01-01

394

Natural gas production from hydrate decomposition by depressurization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a parametric study of natural gas production from the decomposition of methane hydrate in a confined reservoir by a depressurizing well. The one-dimensional linearized model suggested by Makogon is used in the analysis. For different well pressures and reservoir temperatures, distributions of temperature and pressure in the porous layer of methane hydrate and in the gas region

Chuang Ji; Goodarz Ahmadi; Duane H. Smith

2001-01-01

395

Modified Chromatograph to Record Helium Content of Natural Gas Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction and procedure for use of a special-purpose chromatograph designed to analyze small amounts of helium in natural gas streams are described. The successful use of ordinary solenoid valves for column switching is unique. Automatic-zero circuitry is mentioned. The instrument to be useful in the reduction of wasted helium in the outlet gas streams from helium extraction plants is shown.

Charles L. Klingman

1961-01-01

396

Modified Chromatograph to Record Helium Content of Natural Gas Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construction and procedure for use of a special-purpose chromatograph designed to analyze small amounts of helium in natural gas streams are described. The successful use of ordinary solenoid valves for column switching is unique. Automatic-zero circuitry is also mentioned. The instrument has proved to be useful in the reduction of wasted helium in the outlet gas streams from helium

Charles L. Klingman

1961-01-01

397

Control method for mixed refrigerant based natural gas liquefier  

DOEpatents

In a natural gas liquefaction system having a refrigerant storage circuit, a refrigerant circulation circuit in fluid communication with the refrigerant storage circuit, and a natural gas liquefaction circuit in thermal communication with the refrigerant circulation circuit, a method for liquefaction of natural gas in which pressure in the refrigerant circulation circuit is adjusted to below about 175 psig by exchange of refrigerant with the refrigerant storage circuit. A variable speed motor is started whereby operation of a compressor is initiated. The compressor is operated at full discharge capacity. Operation of an expansion valve is initiated whereby suction pressure at the suction pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 30 psig and discharge pressure at the discharge pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 350 psig. Refrigerant vapor is introduced from the refrigerant holding tank into the refrigerant circulation circuit until the suction pressure is reduced to below about 15 psig, after which flow of the refrigerant vapor from the refrigerant holding tank is terminated. Natural gas is then introduced into a natural gas liquefier, resulting in liquefaction of the natural gas.

Kountz, Kenneth J. (Palatine, IL); Bishop, Patrick M. (Chicago, IL)

2003-01-01

398

Natural Gas as a Fuel Option for Heavy Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) is promoting the use of natural gas as a fuel option in the transportation energy sector through its natural gas vehicle program [1]. The goal of this program is to eliminate the technical and cost barriers associated with displacing imported petroleum. This is achieved by supporting research and development in technologies that reduce manufacturing costs, reduce emissions, and improve vehicle performance and consumer acceptance for natural gas fueled vehicles. In collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory, projects are currently being pursued in (1) liquefied natural gas production from unconventional sources, (2) onboard natural gas storage (adsorbent, compressed, and liquefied), (3) natural gas delivery systems for both onboard the vehicle and the refueling station, and (4) regional and enduse strategies. This paper will provide an overview of these projects highlighting their achievements and current status. In addition, it will discuss how the individual technologies developed are being integrated into an overall program strategic plan.

James E. Wegrzyn; Wai Lin Litzke; Michael Gurevich

1999-04-26

399

Reliquefaction of boil-off from liquefied natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a process for liquifying boil-off gas resulting from the evaporation of liquified natural gas contained in a storage vessel, the boil-off gas being cooled and liquified in a closed-loop nitrogen refrigeration system and then returned to the storage vessel. The closed loop refrigeration system comprises the following steps: compressing nitrogen as a working fluid in a multi-stage

W. G. Stuber; K. W. Kovak

1989-01-01

400

Role of naturally occurring gas hydrates in sediment transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naturally occurring gas hydrates have the potential to store enormous volumes of both gas and water in semi-solid form in ocean-bottom sediments and then to release that gas and water when the hydrate's equilibrium condition are disturbed. Therefore, hydrates provide a potential mechanism for transporting large volumes of sediments. Under the combined low bottom-water temperatures and moderate hydrostatic pressures that

McIver

1982-01-01

401

40 CFR Table W - 7 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Natural Gas Distribution  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Natural Gas Distribution W Table W Protection...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt...Default Methane Emission Factors for Natural Gas Distribution Natural gas...

2013-07-01

402

Interfuel substitution and natural gas trade in North America  

SciTech Connect

Institutional changes in North American natural gas markets have created much uncertainty about the prospects for gas trade between Canada, Mexico, and the US. This dissertation describes the formulations of the Gas Trade Model (GTM) and the submodel of US gas demand. Together, they provide a modeling framework within which international gas trade after the deregulation of the US natural gas market can be examined. GTM is a market equilibrium model that allows for interdependence between gas prices and the quantities traded at a single point in time. Regionally disaggregated trade flows are projected between Canada, Mexico, and the US. The model is intended to provide a background for realistic bargaining over international prices and risk sharing in an era when the US market is deregulated, but Canada and Mexico maintain export controls. As a complement to GTM, a submodel of US natural gas demand is developed. It consists of four demand sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, and electric utility. The submodel allows for dynamic adjustment in all four sectors. In addition, it recognizes that interfuel substitution possibilities in the industrial and electric utility sectors are increasing along with the presence of equipment that can burn either gas or fuel oil.

Beltramo, M.A.

1986-01-01

403

76 FR 2093 - Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Secretary of Energy's natural gas policy guidelines. Eni USA asserts...to substantial quantities of natural gas sufficient to meet U.S. domestic...forecasts increasing U.S. domestic shale gas production through...

2011-01-12

404

Framework for Estimating Future Lower-48 Natural Gas Processing Costs. Topical Report January-April 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reported study was undertaken to combine the results of the database of the chemical composition of current natural gas reserves and undiscovered natural gas resources with gas production projections taken from the 1994 edition of the Gas Research Ins...

H. E. Vidas D. S. Haverkamp

1994-01-01

405

18 CFR 270.303 - Natural gas produced from Devonian shale.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Natural gas produced from Devonian shale. 270.303 Section...270.303 Natural gas produced from Devonian shale. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is produced from Devonian shale shall file an...

2012-04-01

406

18 CFR 270.303 - Natural gas produced from Devonian shale.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Natural gas produced from Devonian shale. 270.303 Section...270.303 Natural gas produced from Devonian shale. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is produced from Devonian shale shall file an...

2011-04-01

407

18 CFR 270.303 - Natural gas produced from Devonian shale.  

...2014-04-01 false Natural gas produced from Devonian shale. 270.303 Section...270.303 Natural gas produced from Devonian shale. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is produced from Devonian shale shall file an...

2014-04-01

408

78 FR 21934 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No. AD12-12-000...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets Docket No....

2013-04-12

409

77 FR 50100 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No. AD12-12-000...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No....

2012-08-20

410

77 FR 52020 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice for Mid-Atlantic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice for Mid-Atlantic...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No. AD12-12-000...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No....

2012-08-28

411

77 FR 50684 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No. AD12-12-000...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No....

2012-08-22

412

77 FR 45600 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No. AD12-12-000...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No....

2012-08-01

413

77 FR 23105 - Supporting Safe and Responsible Development of Unconventional Domestic Natural Gas Resources  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Responsible Development of Unconventional Domestic Natural Gas...responsible development of unconventional domestic natural gas...reduce our dependence on oil, it is hereby ordered...play by regulating oil and gas activities...efficient development of unconventional domestic natural...

2012-04-17

414

76 FR 37300 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems: Revisions to Best...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems: Revisions to...monitoring methods in regulations for Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems of the Greenhouse...Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems....

2011-06-27

415

78 FR 41047 - Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development Program...Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development Program...Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research Program since...

2013-07-09

416

77 FR 51021 - Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources, Research and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources, Research and Development...Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development Program...Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research Program since...

2012-08-23

417

76 FR 59533 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems: Revisions to Best...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems: Revisions to...available monitoring methods for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems source category...final rule affects owners or operators of petroleum and natural gas systems. Regulated...

2011-09-27

418

77 FR 15990 - Proposed Confidentiality Determinations for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Source Category...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Confidentiality Determinations for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Source Category...Confidentiality Determinations for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Source Category...Confidentiality Determinations for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Source...

2012-03-19

419

49 CFR 191.15 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report... Each operator of a liquefied natural gas plant or facility must...

2013-10-01

420

75 FR 42330 - Elemental Mercury Used in Flow Meters, Natural Gas Manometers, and Pyrometers; Significant New...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Elemental Mercury Used in Flow Meters, Natural Gas Manometers, and Pyrometers; Significant...7439-97-6) for use in flow meters, natural gas manometers, and pyrometers, except...elemental mercury used in flow meters, natural gas manometers, or pyrometers....

2010-07-21

421

77 FR 4220 - Storage Reporting Requirements of Interstate and Intrastate Natural Gas Companies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Requirements of Interstate and Intrastate Natural Gas Companies AGENCY: Federal Energy...requirements for Interstate and Intrastate Natural Gas Companies. The Commission finds...requirements for (1) interstate natural gas companies subject to the...

2012-01-27

422

78 FR 19409 - Annual Charge Filing Procedures for Natural Gas Pipelines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Annual Charge Filing Procedures for Natural Gas Pipelines AGENCY: Federal Energy...revise the filing requirements for natural gas pipelines that choose to recover...adjustment (ACA) clause. Currently, natural gas pipelines utilizing an ACA...

2013-04-01

423

75 FR 35632 - Transparency Provisions of Section 23 of the Natural Gas Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Provisions of Section 23 of the Natural Gas Act Issued June 17, 2010. AGENCY...clarify Form No. 552, under which natural gas market participants must annually...information regarding physical natural gas transactions that use an...

2010-06-23

424

49 CFR 571.304 - Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel container integrity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel container integrity. 571... Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel container integrity. S1...for the integrity of compressed natural gas (CNG), motor vehicle fuel...

2013-10-01

425

75 FR 80758 - Storage Reporting Requirements of Interstate and Intrastate Natural Gas Companies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Requirements of Interstate and Intrastate Natural Gas Companies December 16, 2010...requiring interstate and intrastate natural gas pipelines to report semi-annually...required of interstate and intrastate natural gas companies pursuant to 18 CFR...

2010-12-23

426

49 CFR 191.17 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report. ...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report. ...Each operator of a liquefied natural gas facility must submit an...

2013-10-01

427

75 FR 60095 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy...of foreign sourced liquefied natural gas (LNG) for a two-year period...was filed under section 3 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), as amended by...

2010-09-29

428

75 FR 19954 - Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy...authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously had been...500 Billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural gas on a short-term or spot...

2010-04-16

429

75 FR 38092 - The Dow Chemical Company; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy...authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously had been...390 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural gas on a short-term or spot...

2010-07-01

430

40 CFR 80.33 - Controls applicable to natural gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Controls applicable to natural gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...80.33 Controls applicable to natural gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...215,000 standard cubic feet of natural gas per month shall equip each...

2013-07-01

431

30 CFR 203.73 - How do suspension volumes apply to natural gas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false How do suspension volumes apply to natural gas? 203.73 Section 203.73 Mineral Resources...203.73 How do suspension volumes apply to natural gas? You must measure natural gas production under the royalty-suspension...

2013-07-01

432

30 CFR 560.116 - How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease... § 560.116 How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease? You must measure natural gas production on your eligible...

2013-07-01

433

75 FR 15336 - Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects March 18...prospective applicants for an Alaska natural gas transportation project which Standards...conducting open seasons for Alaska natural gas transportation projects....

2010-03-29

434

75 FR 35700 - Revisions to Forms, Statements, and Reporting Requirements for Natural Gas Pipelines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Reporting Requirements for Natural Gas Pipelines June 17, 2010. AGENCY: Federal...Reporting Requirements for Natural Gas Pipelines, Order No. 710, FERC Stats...relevant to interstate natural gas pipelines and their customers. 3....

2010-06-23

435

78 FR 70163 - Communication of Operational Information between Natural Gas Pipelines and Electric Transmission...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Analysis...interstate natural gas pipelines and public...description and analysis of rules...221\\ For pipeline transportation of natural gas, the SBA...flexibility analysis is required...interstate natural gas pipelines, eight...

2013-11-22

436

18 CFR 157.212 - Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities. 157.212 Section...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES...ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline...

2010-04-01

437

18 CFR 157.212 - Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities. 157.212 Section...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES...ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline...

2009-04-01

438

18 CFR 270.303 - Natural gas produced from Devonian shale.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Natural gas produced from Devonian shale. 270.303 Section...270.303 Natural gas produced from Devonian shale. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is produced from Devonian shale shall file an...

2010-04-01

439

18 CFR 270.303 - Natural gas produced from Devonian shale.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Natural gas produced from Devonian shale. 270.303 Section...270.303 Natural gas produced from Devonian shale. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is produced from Devonian shale shall file an...

2009-04-01

440

76 FR 34070 - Secretary of Energy Advisory Board Natural Gas Subcommittee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...by the Secretary. The Natural Gas Subcommittee was established to...environmental performance of natural gas hydraulic fracturing from shale formations, thereby harnessing...members to hear directly from natural gas stakeholders. Tentative...

2011-06-10

441

76 FR 31318 - Secretary of Energy Advisory Board Natural Gas Subcommittee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...by the Secretary. The Natural Gas Subcommittee was established to...environmental performance of natural gas hydraulic fracturing from shale formations, thereby harnessing...members to hear directly from natural gas stakeholders. Tentative...

2011-05-31

442

76 FR 63613 - Secretary of Energy Advisory Board Natural Gas Subcommittee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Energy Advisory Board Natural Gas Subcommittee AGENCY: Department...Advisory Board (SEAB) Natural Gas Subcommittee. SEAB was reestablished...environmental performance of natural gas hydraulic fracturing from shale formations thereby harnessing...

2011-10-13

443

Evaluation of Hot-Brine Stimulation Technique for Gas Production From Natural Gas Hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermally efficient production of natural gas can be accomplished by the use of hot brine to dissociate solid gas hydrate deposits in the earth. The advantages of brine stimulation over steam or hot-water injection are lower energy requirements for reservoir heating and hydrate dissociation, reduced heat losses, higher gas production, and improved thermal efficiency. In addition, the problems of blockage

Vidyadhar Kamath; Sanjay Godbole

1987-01-01

444

Micro Gas Chromatography Sample Injector for the Analysis of Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a gas sample injection system for gas chromatography, with the specificity of being potentially able to sustain the harsh environment of natural gas. This device integrates six low-leak microvalves made from polyetheretherketone (PEEK) membranes on silicon substrates. We report on the design, operation principle, fabrication, and intrinsic characteristics of the microinjector as well as its measured

Kinda Nachef; Frédéric Marty; Eric Donzier; Bertrand Bourlon; Kamran Danaie; Tarik Bourouina

2012-01-01

445

Experimental study of synthesis gas production by coal and natural gas co-conversion process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A moving bed was used as the reactor in experiments to produce synthesis gas by coal and natural gas co-conversion process. The effects of coal types on the temperature in the flame zone, the ingredients and the H2\\/CO ratio of synthesis gas, together with the methane and steam conversions were investigated by using coke, anthracite, lean and fat coals as

Zhaobin Ouyang; Zhancheng Guo; Dongping Duan; Xueping Song; Zhi Wang

2006-01-01

446

Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NO...

M. Scotto

2010-01-01

447

Odorant loss in natural gas distribution systems  

SciTech Connect

The loss of odorant compounds (odor fading) was studied using flow reactors which simulated the typical operating conditions of a gas distribution system. A unique method was developed to simulate rust on the inside surface of the pipeline. The study indicated that odorant loss can be impacted by the following operating parameters: Pressure; Temperature; Velocity; Iron oxide compounds; Thickness of iron oxide layer in pipe.

Moran, E.A.; Pai, P.G.; Carducci, M.I. (Lab. Services, Dept. of Engineering Activity, Michigan Consolidated Gas Co., MI (US))

1991-04-01

448

Isotope fractionation during natural gas hydrate formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the task of pursuing the origin of hydrate-bound gas, isotope analysis is a well established tool of prediction. The carbon isotope values of methane, ethane, propane and i-butane will strongly indicate the source to either be microbial, thermogenic or of mixed origin. This is due to kinetic fractionation during microbial activity. In microbial CO2 reduction, the microbes tend to

Espen Nesheim Vaular; Djurdjica Corak; Tanja Barth

2010-01-01

449

The carbon isotopic composition of catalytic gas: A comparative analysis with natural gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea that natural gas is the thermal product of organic decomposition has persisted for over half a century. Crude oil is thought to be an important source of gas, cracking to wet gas above 150°C, and dry gas above 200°C. But there is little evidence to support this view. For example, crude oil is proving to be more stable than previously thought and projected to remain intact over geologic time at typical reservoir temperatures. Moreover, when oil does crack, the products do not resemble natural gas. Oil to gas could be catalytic, however, promoted by the transition metals in carbonaceous sediments. This would explain the low temperatures at which natural gas forms, and the high amounts of methane. This idea gained support recently when the natural progression of oil to dry gas was duplicated in the laboratory catalytically. We report here the isotopic composition of catalytic gas generated from crude oil and pure hydrocarbons between 150 and 200°C. ? 13C for C 1 through C 5 was linear with 1/ n ( n = carbon number) in accordance with theory and typically seen in natural gases. Over extended reaction, isobutane and isopentane remained lighter than their respective normal isomers and the isotopic differentials were constant as all isomers became heavier over time. Catalytic methane, initially -51.87‰ (oil = -22.5‰), progressed to a final composition of -26.94‰, similar to the maturity trend seen in natural gases: -50‰ to -20‰. Catalytic gas is thus identical to natural gas in molecular and isotopic composition adding further support to the view that catalysis by transition metals may be a significant source of natural gas.

Mango, Frank D.; Elrod, L. W.

1999-04-01

450

Enhanced Prognosis for Abiotic Natural Gas and Petroleum Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prognosis for potential resources of abiotic natural gas and petroleum\\u000adepends critically upon the nature and circumstances of Earth formation. Until\\u000arecently, that prognosis has been considered solely within the framework of the\\u000aso-called \\

J. Marvin Herndon

2006-01-01

451

Noble gases and radiocarbon in natural gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In samples of pure natural gas hydrates from Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia Margin, virtually no helium and neon components are present providing evidence that the light noble gases are not incorporated into the structure of natural methane hydrates. In contrast, the hydrates contain significant amounts of argon, krypton and xenon. These gases show a distinct fractionation pattern, with the heavier ones

Gisela Winckler; Werner Aeschbach-Hertig; Johannes Holocher; Rolf Kipfer; Ingeborg Levin; Christian Poss; Gregor Rehder; Erwin Suess; Peter Schlosser

2002-01-01

452

Assessment finds more natural gas resources but less oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest report on undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources outside the United States estimates that there are more undiscovered and technically recoverable natural gas and natural gas liquids (NGLs) but less oil than had previously been thought. The 18 April report, issued by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of its World Petroleum Resource Project, estimates that there are 5606 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, compared with 4669 trillion cubic feet in the previous assessment, in 2000, and 167 billion barrels of NGLs compared with an earlier 207 billion barrels. The assessment also estimates that there are 565 billion barrels of oil compared with an earlier 649 billion. About 75% of those resources outside the United States are located in four regions: South America and the Caribbean, sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, and the Arctic provinces portion of North America, according to the new assessment.

Showstack, Randy

2012-05-01

453

Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Lean Natural Gas Engine Applications  

SciTech Connect

Distributed energy is an approach for meeting energy needs that has several advantages. Distributed energy improves energy security during natural disasters or terrorist actions, improves transmission grid reliability by reducing grid load, and enhances power quality through voltage support and reactive power. In addition, distributed energy can be efficient since transmission losses are minimized. One prime mover for distributed energy is the natural gas reciprocating engine generator set. Natural gas reciprocating engines are flexible and scalable solutions for many distributed energy needs. The engines can be run continuously or occasionally as peak demand requires, and their operation and maintenance is straightforward. Furthermore, system efficiencies can be maximized when natural gas reciprocating engines are combined with thermal energy recovery for cooling, heating, and power applications. Expansion of natural gas reciprocating engines for distributed energy is dependent on several factors, but two prominent factors are efficiency and emissions. Efficiencies must be high enough to enable low operating costs, and emissions must be low enough to permit significant operation hours, especially in non-attainment areas where emissions are stringently regulated. To address these issues the U.S. Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission launched research and development programs called Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) and Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (ARICE), respectively. Fuel efficiency and low emissions are two primary goals of these programs. The work presented here was funded by the ARES program and, thus, addresses the ARES 2010 goals of 50% thermal efficiency (fuel efficiency) and <0.1 g/bhp-hr emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). A summary of the goals for the ARES program is given in Table 1-1. ARICE 2007 goals are 45% thermal efficiency and <0.015 g/bhp-hr NOx. Several approaches for improving the efficiency and emissions of natural gas reciprocating engines are being pursued. Approaches include: stoichiometric engine operation with exhaust gas recirculation and three-way catalysis, advanced combustion modes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition, and extension of the lean combustion limit with advanced ignition concepts and/or hydrogen mixing. The research presented here addresses the technical approach of combining efficient lean spark-ignited natural gas combustion with low emissions obtained from a lean NOx trap catalyst aftertreatment system. This approach can be applied to current lean engine technology or advanced lean engines that may result from related efforts in lean limit extension. Furthermore, the lean NOx trap technology has synergy with hydrogen-assisted lean limit extension since hydrogen is produced from natural gas during the lean NOx trap catalyst system process. The approach is also applicable to other lean engines such as diesel engines, natural gas turbines, and lean gasoline engines; other research activities have focused on those applications. Some commercialization of the technology has occurred for automotive applications (both diesel and lean gasoline engine vehicles) and natural gas turbines for stationary power. The research here specifically addresses barriers to commercialization of the technology for large lean natural gas reciprocating engines for stationary power. The report presented here is a comprehensive collection of research conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on lean NOx trap catalysis for lean natural gas reciprocating engines. The research was performed in the Department of Energy's ARES program from 2003 to 2007 and covers several aspects of the technology. All studies were conducted at ORNL on a Cummins C8.3G+ natural gas engine chosen based on industry input to simulate large lean natural gas engines. Specific technical areas addressed by the research include: NOx reduction efficiency, partial oxidation and reforming chemistry, and the effects of sulfur poisons on the partial oxidation

Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Ponnusamy, Senthil [ORNL; Ferguson, Harley Douglas [ORNL; Williams, Aaron M [ORNL; Tassitano, James B [ORNL

2007-09-01

454

Development of a Natural Gas Spark Ignited Direct Injection Combustion System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas is increasingly being utilized for vehicle applications both to reduce vehicle emissions and as an alternate energy source to gasoline and diesel fuels. The composition of natural gas can be used to reduce carbon dioxide emissions while the global distribution of natural gas allows energy independence for regions with gas rather than oil reserves. Utilisation of natural gas

David Caley; Geoff Cathcart

455

Catheter rehabilitation of occluded aberrant pulmonary artery  

PubMed Central

A 10-year old girl underwent a CT angiogram to investigate right lung hypoplasia. This showed a normal bronchial tree, lung parenchyma and pulmonary venous drainage, but an absent right pulmonary artery. Cardiac catheterization with pulmonary vein wedge injections identified a disconnected hypoplastic right pulmonary artery system supplied by an occluded right-sided ductus arteriosus. Transcatheter recanalization of the ductus re-established right pulmonary artery flow and growth. Ultimately, this allowed for complete surgical repair and restoration of normal perfusion of the right lung, leading to complete functional rehabilitation.

Noonan, Patrick M.E.; Ramchandani, Bharat; Barron, David J.; Stumper, Oliver

2013-01-01

456

Natural gas imports and exports. First quarter report 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico. 14 figs., 9 tabs.

NONE

1997-09-01

457

Catching What We Can't See: Manual Interception of Occluded Fly-Ball Trajectories  

PubMed Central

Control of interceptive actions may involve fine interplay between feedback-based and predictive mechanisms. These processes rely heavily on target motion information available when the target is visible. However, short-term visual memory signals as well as implicit knowledge about the environment may also contribute to elaborate a predictive representation of the target trajectory, especially when visual feedback is partially unavailable because other objects occlude the visual target. To determine how different processes and information sources are integrated in the control of the interceptive action, we manipulated a computer-generated visual environment representing a baseball game. Twenty-four subjects intercepted fly-ball trajectories by moving a mouse cursor and by indicating the interception with a button press. In two separate sessions, fly-ball trajectories were either fully visible or occluded for 750, 1000 or 1250 ms before ball landing. Natural ball motion was perturbed during the descending trajectory with effects of either weightlessness (0 g) or increased gravity (2 g) at times such that, for occluded trajectories, 500 ms of perturbed motion were visible before ball disappearance. To examine the contribution of previous visual experience with the perturbed trajectories to the interception of invisible targets, the order of visible and occluded sessions was permuted among subjects. Under these experimental conditions, we showed that, with fully visible targets, subjects combined servo-control and predictive strategies. Instead, when intercepting occluded targets, subjects relied mostly on predictive mechanisms based, however, on different type of information depending on previous visual experience. In fact, subjects without prior experience of the perturbed trajectories showed interceptive errors consistent with predictive estimates of the ball trajectory based on a-priori knowledge of gravity. Conversely, the interceptive responses of subjects previously exposed to fully visible trajectories were compatible with the fact that implicit knowledge of the perturbed motion was also taken into account for the extrapolation of occluded trajectories.

Bosco, Gianfranco; Delle Monache, Sergio; Lacquaniti, Francesco

2012-01-01

458

Increasing Eastern U.S. Natural Gas Reserves from Gas Bearing Shales  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) has initiated a multi-year project directed toward the simulation of natural gas production in the E. Petroliferous basins. The ERDA Eastern Gas Shales Project will be oriented specifically toward determining the true magnitude of potential gas reserves in the Devonian age shale, thoroughly characterizing the shale, and evaluating and improving state-of-the-art gas

William Overby Jr; W. K. Jr

1976-01-01

459

Structure and Composition Analysis of Natural Gas Hydrates: 13C NMR Spectroscopic and Gas Uptake Measurements of Mixed Gas Hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas hydrates are becoming an attractive way of storing and transporting large quantities of natural gas, although there has been little effort to understand the preferential occupation of heavy hydrocarbon molecules in hydrate cages. In this work, we present the formation kinetics of mixed hydrate based on a gas uptake measurement during hydrate formation, and how the compositions of the

Yutaek Seo; Seong-Pil Kang; Wonho Jang

2009-01-01

460

Clinical evaluation of a novel occluder device (Occlutech) for percutaneous  

Microsoft Academic Search

j Abstract Background We investigated the safety, feasibility and usefulness for closure of PFO with the new,nitinol meshwire,PFO- occluder device (Occlutech Figulla-single layer occluder) with an unique braiding technology which allows a 50% reduction of meshwork,material on,the left atrial side in combination,with a greater flexibility as compared,to the Amplatzer,occluder device. Methods,The retention discs of the new PFO Occlutech Figulla single

Florian Krizanic; Horst Sievert; Dietrich Pfeiffer; Thomas Konorza; Markus Ferrari; Hans-Reiner Figulla

2008-01-01

461

Nucleation and Growth of Gas Hydrate in Natural Seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale nucleation of gas hydrate takes place when hydrate-forming gas and seawater are brought together under suitable pressure-temperature conditions or where dissolved hydrate-forming gas in saturated or near-saturated seawater is chilled or brought to higher pressures. Profuse formation of hydrate shells on gas bubbles and nucleation of at least five different forms of gas hydrate have been achieved in fresh natural seawater. Growth of masses of solid gas hydrate takes place when hydrate-forming gas reactant dissolved in seawater is brought into the vicinity of the hydrate. The gas concentration of the enriched water in the vicinity of hydrate is higher than the hydrate equilibrium gas concentration. Hydrate growth under these conditions is accelerated due to the chemical potential difference between the enriched water and the hydrate crystals, which induces mass flux of dissolved hydrate forming gas into new hydrate crystals. As long as water enriched in the hydrate-forming gas is circulated into the vicinity of the hydrate, growth proceeds into the water space. Experimental approaches for growth of examples of solid masses of hydrate are presented. Results of these experiments provide an insight into the growth of gas hydrate under natural conditions where interstitial water in marine sediments is captured by burial from open seawater, and where solid gas hydrate forms on the seafloor. By using fresh natural seawater, which is a chemically and materially complex fluid, our experiments in pressurized, refrigerated reactors should closely track the growth history of solid hydrate in the natural environment. In our model for hydrate growth in sediments, nearly complete pore fill by diagenetic hydrate can best be accomplished by nucleation of hydrate at a point source within the pore water or at a particular point on sediment particulate, with growth outward into the water space that is refreshed with ground water having high concentrations of hydrate-forming gas. Best growth can be achieved by circulation of water through constricting pore space although dissolved gas will also migrate along diffusion gradients.

Holman, S. A.; Osegovic, J. P.; Young, J. C.; Max, M. D.; Ames, A. L.

2003-12-01

462

Gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric analysis of mercaptan odorants in liquefied petroleum gas and liquefied natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric method for the determination of mercaptan odorants (dimethyl sulfide, tert.-butylmercaptan, tetrahydrothiophene) in natural gas has been developed. The gas sample filled in a 5 l Tedlar bag was introduced into the 0.5 ml volume of a sampling loop, separated on a 50 m capillary column coated with 5% phenylmethylsilicone and detected by a mass spectrometer. Natural

Seung-Woon Myung; Soojung Huh; Jinsook Kim; Yunje Kim; Myungsoo Kim; Younggu Kim; Wonho Kim; Byunghoo Kim

1997-01-01

463

Radon exposures from the use of natural gas in buildings.  

PubMed

Low levels of natural radioactivity in the ground produce radon-222 and its decay products which can be entrained with gas streams and become distributed with gas supplies to commercial and domestic users. Levels of radon in blended gas received by most users are comparable with the levels that are present naturally in buildings as a result of ingress from the ground and this is further diluted during the combustion process. For typical rates of gas usage with an average radon level of about 200 Bq x m(-3), the estimated dose from the use of natural gas is estimated at 4 microSv, less than 1% of the dose from radon exposure at the average level in UK homes. Commercial users may receive somewhat higher doses, and the estimate for a critical group is a few tens of microsievert. The total radon emission to the environment is estimated at about 10(13) Bq x y(-1) which represents less than 10(-4) of the natural emission rate from the ground. There is some variability of radon levels in gas from different sources and it would be prudent to keep this source of exposure under review. A standard sampling and measurement protocol has been developed in conjunction with a technical group representing the industry. PMID:11843341

Dixon, D W

2001-01-01

464

Towards a fundamental understanding of natural gas hydrates.  

PubMed

Gas clathrate hydrates were first identified in 1810 by Sir Humphrey Davy. However, it is believed that other scientists, including Priestley, may have observed their existence before this date. They are solid crystalline inclusion compounds consisting of polyhedral water cavities which enclathrate small gas molecules. Natural gas hydrates are important industrially because the occurrence of these solids in subsea gas pipelines presents high economic loss and ecological risks, as well as potential safety hazards to exploration and transmission personnel. On the other hand, they also have technological importance in separation processes, fuel transportation and storage. They are also a potential fuel resource because natural deposits of predominantly methane hydrate are found in permafrost and continental margins. To progress with understanding and tackling some of the technological challenges relating to natural gas hydrate formation, inhibition and decomposition one needs to develop a fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in these processes. This fundamental understanding is also important to the broader field of inclusion chemistry. The present article focuses on the application of a range of physico-chemical techniques and approaches for gaining a fundamental understanding of natural gas hydrate formation, decomposition and inhibition. This article is complementary to other reviews in this field, which have focused more on the applied, engineering and technological aspects of clathrate hydrates. PMID:12122641

Koh, Carolyn A

2002-05-01

465

Asian natural gas pipeline proposed for easing energy, feedstock strains  

SciTech Connect

Nearly every country on the program at the recent Asian Natural Gas 5 Conference in Singapore reported on attempts to maximize the use of natural gas as a fuel and a feedstock. But no one made a more startling presentation than Masaru Hirata, chairman of the National Pipeline Research Society of Japan. His proposal: construct an international trunk pipeline network linking natural gas fields in Central Asia, Southeast Asia, Siberia, and North America with the main markets of Asia, primarily Japan and China. Total length -- 25,500 miles. He cites International Energy Agency data projecting a 70% increase in energy demand in the Pacific region between 1989 and 2000. Natural gas will be expected to satisfy anticipated energy needs into the next century. An important element in Hirata's thinking is the promotion of international cooperation among the beneficiaries of the network. In the Asia-Pacific region, natural gas is more plentiful than oil. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) plants have been built in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Australia. All of them sell LNG to Japan (the world's largest importer of LNG), South Korea, and Taiwan. Additional vast reserves are known to exist in Siberia, near Sakhalin Island, and in the western regions of China. Hirata's network is aimed at bringing the gas from these distant deposits to consumers in the coastal regions of Asia. There are six major parts to the proposed network: Turkmenistan-West China-Japan; Yakutsk-China-Korea-Japan; Alaska-Sakhalin Island-Japan; ASEAN-South China; Within ASEAN; and Australia-ASEAN. The estimated cost of the project is about $66 billion in current dollars.

Haggin, J. (C and EN, Chicago, IL (United States))

1994-06-06

466

Low pressure storage of natural gas on activated carbon  

SciTech Connect

The introduction of natural gas to the transportation energy sector offers the possibility of displacing imported oil with an indigenous fuel. The barrier to the acceptance of natural gas vehicles (NGV) is the limited driving range due to the technical difficulties of on-board storage of a gaseous fuel. In spite of this barrier, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles are today being successfully introduced into the market place. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate an adsorbent natural gas (ANG) storage system as a viable alternative to CNG storage. It can be argued that low pressure ANG has reached near parity with CNG, since the storage capacity of CNG (2400 psi) is rated at 190 V/V, while low pressure ANG (500 psi) has reached storage capacities of 180 V/V in the laboratory. A program, which extends laboratory results to a full-scale vehicle test, is necessary before ANG technology will receive widespread acceptance. The objective of this program is to field test a 150 V/V ANG vehicle in FY 1994. As a start towards this goal, carbon adsorbents have been screened by Brookhaven for their potential use in a natural gas storage system. This paper reports on one such carbon, trade name Maxsorb, manufactured by Kansai Coke under an Amoco license.

Wegrzyn, J.; Wiesmann, H.; Lee, T.

1992-01-01

467

Low pressure storage of natural gas on activated carbon  

SciTech Connect

The introduction of natural gas to the transportation energy sector offers the possibility of displacing imported oil with an indigenous fuel. The barrier to the acceptance of natural gas vehicles (NGV) is the limited driving range due to the technical difficulties of on-board storage of a gaseous fuel. In spite of this barrier, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles are today being successfully introduced into the market place. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate an adsorbent natural gas (ANG) storage system as a viable alternative to CNG storage. It can be argued that low pressure ANG has reached near parity with CNG, since the storage capacity of CNG (2400 psi) is rated at 190 V/V, while low pressure ANG (500 psi) has reached storage capacities of 180 V/V in the laboratory. A program, which extends laboratory results to a full-scale vehicle test, is necessary before ANG technology will receive widespread acceptance. The objective of this program is to field test a 150 V/V ANG vehicle in FY 1994. As a start towards this goal, carbon adsorbents have been screened by Brookhaven for their potential use in a natural gas storage system. This paper reports on one such carbon, trade name Maxsorb, manufactured by Kansai Coke under an Amoco license.

Wegrzyn, J.; Wiesmann, H.; Lee, T.

1992-12-31

468

Bioconversion of natural gas to liquid fuel: opportunities and challenges.  

PubMed

Natural gas is a mixture of low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases that can be generated from either fossil or anthropogenic resources. Although natural gas is used as a transportation fuel, constraints in storage, relatively low energy content (MJ/L), and delivery have limited widespread adoption. Advanced utilization of natural gas has been explored for biofuel production by microorganisms. In recent years, the aerobic bioconversion of natural gas (or primarily the methane content of natural gas) into liquid fuels (Bio-GTL) by biocatalysts (methanotrophs) has gained increasing attention as a promising alternative for drop-in biofuel production. Methanotrophic bacteria are capable of converting methane into microbial lipids, which can in turn be converted into renewable diesel via a hydrotreating process. In this paper, biodiversity, catalytic properties and key enzymes and pathways of these microbes are summarized. Bioprocess technologies are discussed based upon existing literature, including cultivation conditions, fermentation modes, bioreactor design, and lipid extraction and upgrading. This review also outlines the potential of Bio-GTL using methane as an alternative carbon source as well as the major challenges and future research needs of microbial lipid accumulation derived from methane, key performance index, and techno-economic analysis. An analysis of raw material costs suggests that methane-derived diesel fuel has the potential to be competitive with petroleum-derived diesel. PMID:24726715

Fei, Qiang; Guarnieri, Michael T; Tao, Ling; Laurens, Lieve M L; Dowe, Nancy; Pienkos, Philip T

2014-01-01

469

Alaska-US gas line - design considerations for the Alaska segment of ANGTS (Alaska natural gas transportation system)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1968, the largest single discovery of oil and natural gas ever found on the North American continent was made at Prudhoe Bay on the North Slope of Alaska. The Prudhoe Bay field contains over 26 tcf of recoverable natural gas, or ca 13% of the proven domestic gas reserves. To bring this natural gas to the market in the

Hetland

1982-01-01

470

Natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium Implications for the origin of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is broadly accepted that so-called 'thermal' gas is the product of thermal cracking, 'primary' thermal gas from kerogen cracking, and 'secondary' thermal gas from oil cracking. Since thermal cracking of hydrocarbons does not generate products at equilibrium and thermal stress should not bring them to equilibrium over geologic time, we would not expect methane, ethane, and propane to be

Frank D Mango; Daniel Jarvie; Eleanor Herriman

2009-01-01

471

Evaluation of the age of landfill gas methane in landfill gas-natural gas mixtures using co-occurring constituents.  

PubMed

At a municipal solid waste landfill in southern California (USA) overlying a natural gas reservoir, methane was detected at concentrations of up to 40% (by volume) in perimeter soil gas probes. Stable isotope and (14)C values of methane together with gas composition (major components and volatile organic compounds) data were evaluated to assess the relative contributions of landfill gas and natural gas to the measured methane concentrations. The data was further used to estimate the residence time of the landfill gas in the probes. Results showed that up to 37% of the measured methane was derived from landfill gas. In addition, the landfill gas in the probe samples has undergone extensive alteration due to dissolution of carbon dioxide in pore water. Data further indicates that the measured methane was released from the waste approximately 1.2 to 9.4 years ago, rather than representing evidence of an ongoing release. PMID:23660592

Kerfoot, Henry B; Hagedorn, Benjamin; Verwiel, Mark

2013-06-01

472

Why natural gas needs more than a quick fix  

SciTech Connect

Rep. Corcoran feels that current regulations keep the natural gas industry from operating efficiently and effectively, a situation that brings higher prices to both consumers and the industry at a time when competition should be lowering their energy costs. He notes that distribution and pipeline companies and producers are also losing, leaving few defenders of the Natural Gas Policy Act. The institutional history of gas legislation since 1938 suggests that Congress should have learned that government intervention in the market has a negative effect, he observes. Suggestions for reform are to unlock rigid take-or-pay contracts made because of poor economic decisions by the pipeline companies and encouraging pipelines to acquire the cheapest gas. Disallowing automatic passthrough of costs to the consumer is another suggestion. (DCK)

Corcoran, T.

1983-04-01

473

Production of Renewable Natural Gas from Waste Biomass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass energy is expected to make a major contribution to the replacement of fossil fuels. Methane produced from biomass is referred to as bio-methane, green gas, bio-substitute natural gas or renewable natural gas (RNG) when it is used as a transport fuel. Research on upgrading of the cleaned producer gas to RNG is still ongoing. The present study deals with the conversion of woody biomass into fuels, RNG using gasifier. The various effects of parameters like temperature, pressure, and tar formation on conversion were also studied. The complete carbon conversion was observed at 480 °C and tar yield was significantly less. When biomass was gasified with and without catalyst at about 28 s residence time, ~75 % (w/w) and 88 % (w/w) carbon conversion for without and with catalyst was observed. The interest in RNG is growing; several initiatives to demonstrate the thermal-chemical conversion of biomass into methane and/or RNG are under development.

Kumar, Sachin; Suresh, S.; Arisutha, S.

2013-03-01

474

Systems for delivering liquified natural gas to an engine  

DOEpatents

A fuel delivery system includes a fuel tank configured to receive liquid natural gas. A first conduit extends from a vapor holding portion of the fuel tank to an economizer valve. A second conduit extends from a liquid holding portion of the fuel tank to the economizer valve. Fluid coupled to the economizer valve is a vaporizer which is heated by coolant from the engine and is positioned below the fuel tank. The economizer valve selectively withdraws either liquid natural gas or vaporized natural gas from the fuel tank depending on the pressure within the vapor holding portion of the fuel tank. A delivery conduit extends from the vaporizer to the engine. A return conduit having a check valve formed therein extends from the delivery conduit to the vapor holding portion of the fuel tank for pressurizing the fuel tank.

Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); O'Brien, James E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Siahpush, Ali S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Brown, Kevin B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2000-01-01

475

[A mobile sensor for remote detection of natural gas leakage].  

PubMed

The detection of natural gas pipeline leak becomes a significant issue for body security, environmental protection and security of state property. However, the leak detection is difficult, because of the pipeline's covering many areas, operating conditions and complicated environment. A mobile sensor for remote detection of natural gas leakage based on scanning wavelength differential absorption spectroscopy (SWDAS) is introduced. The improved soft threshold wavelet denoising was proposed by analyzing the characteristics of reflection spectrum. And the results showed that the signal to noise ratio (SNR) was increased three times. When light intensity is 530 nA, the minimum remote sensitivity will be 80 ppm x m. A widely used SWDAS can make quantitative remote sensing of natural gas leak and locate the leak source precisely in a faster, safer and more intelligent way. PMID:22512213

Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Wen-qing; Zhang, Yu-jun; Kan, Rui-feng; Ruan, Jun; Wang, Li-ming; Yu, Dian-qiang; Dong, Jin-ting; Han, Xiao-lei; Cui, Yi-ben; Liu, Jian-guo

2012-02-01

476

Structure and thermal expansion of natural gas clathrate hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the structural properties of natural gas hydrate crystals from the Sea of Okhotsk. Using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), it was determined that sediments from four locations contained type I gas hydrate, which encage mostly methane (96–98%) and a small amount of carbon dioxide. For all hydrates, the lattice constant was estimated to be 11.85A? at 113K, which

S. Takeya; M. Kida; H. Minami; H. Sakagami; A. Hachikubo; N. Takahashi; H. Shoji; V. Soloviev; K. Wallmann; N. Biebow; A. Obzhirov; A. Salomatin; J. Poort

2006-01-01

477

Development of a Natural Gas to Hydrogen Fuel Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a hydrogen-fueling infrastructure is a critical element to the introduction of fuel cell-powered vehicles. The importance of direct hydrogen delivery—either as a high- pressure, medium-pressure gas, or liquid—recognizes the technical and economic hurdles facing on-board liquid fuel reforming. This program leverages efforts to develop natural gas reformers for stationary PEM fuel cell power generation as well as

William E. Liss; Mark Richards; Sigmund Gronich

2002-01-01

478

An optimal natural-gas network using minimum spanning tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the design of an optimal natural-gas network. Our proposed network contains two echelons, Town Broad Stations (TBSs), and consumers (demand zones). Here, our aim is a two-stage cost minimization. We first determine locations of the TBS so that the location-allocation cost is minimized. Then, we show how to distribute the flow of gas among the TBS minimizing the

Iraj Mahdavi; A. Mohajeri; M. Arabmaghsudi; M. H. Yahyanejad; F. Taghipourian; N. Mahdavi-Amiri

2010-01-01

479

Occluding junctions and cytoskeletal components in a cultured transporting epithelium  

PubMed Central

MDCK cells form uninterrupted monolayers and make occluding junctions similar to those of natural epithelia. This aricle explores the relationship between these junctions and the cytoskeleton by combining studies on the distribution of microfilaments and microtubules with the effect of drugs, such as colchicines and cytochalasin B, on the degree of tightness of the occluding junctions. To study the degree of tightness, monolayers were prepared by plating MDCK cells on mylon disks coated with collagen. Disks were mounted as flat sheets between two Lucite chambers, and the sealing capacity of the junctions was evaluated by measuring the electrical resistance across the monolayers. Equivalent monolayers on coverslips were used to study the distribution of microtubules and microfilaments by indirect immunofluorescence staining with antibodies against tubulin and actin. This was done both on complete cells and on cytoskeleton preparations in which the cell membranes had been solubilized before fixation. Staining with antiactin shows a reticular pattern of very fine filaments that spread radially toward the periphery where they form a continuous cortical ring underlying the plasma membrane. Staining with antitubulin depicts fibers that extend radially to form a network that occupies the cytoplasm up to the edges of the cell. Colchicine causes a profound disruption of microtubules but only a 27 percent decrease in the electrical resistance of the resting monolayers. Cytochalasin B, when present for prolonged periods, disrupts the cytoplasmic microfilaments and abolishes the electrical resistance. The cortical ring of filaments remains in place but appears fragmented with time. We find that removal of extracellular Ca(++), which causes the tight junctions to open, also causes the microfilaments and microtubules to retract toward the center of the cells. The process of junction opening and fiber retraction is reversed by the restoration of Ca(++). Colchicine has no effect on either the opening or reversal processes, but cytochalasin B inhibits the resealing of the junctions by disorganizing the filaments in the ring and at the apical border of the cells. These cytochalasin B effects are fully reversible. The correlation among cell shape, cytoskeletal patterns, and electrical resistance in the EGTA-opened and resealed monolayers suggests that microfilaments, through their association with plasma membrane components, play a role in positioning the junctional strands and influence the degree of sealing of the occluding junctions.

Meza, I; Ibarra, G; Sabanero, M; Martinez-Palomo, A; Cereijido, M

1980-01-01

480

U.S. oil, natural gas demand still climbing  

SciTech Connect

Steady economic growth and slightly lower prices will boost demand for petroleum and natural gas in the US again this year. Economic growth will lag behind last year`s level but will remain strong. Increased worldwide petroleum production should lower oil prices and encourage fuel-switching, which will suppress natural gas prices. In the US, total energy consumption will grow less rapidly than economic activity due to continuing improvement in energy efficiency. US petroleum product demand will move up to 1.5% in 1997 to average 18.45 million b/d. And natural gas consumption will be up 0.7% at 22.05 tcf. Despite the oil price increases of 1996, US crude oil production will continue to slide in 1997; Oil and Gas Journal projects a drop of 1.1%. US production has been falling since 1985, except for a modest increase in 1991 related to the Persian Gulf War. The rate of decline has diminished in the past 2 years, but US crude oil production has still fall at an average rate of about 226,000 b/d/year since 1985. The paper discusses the economy, total energy consumption, the oil supply, imports, stocks, refining, refining margins and prices, demand for motor gasoline, jet fuel, distillate fuel, residual fuel oil, and other petroleum products, and natural gas demand and supply.

Beck, R.J.

1997-01-27

481

Replacing coal with natural gas would reduce warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A debate has raged in the past couple of years as to whether natural gas is better or worse overall than coal and oil from a global warming perspective. The back-and-forth findings have been due to the timelines taken into consideration, the details of natural gas extraction, and the electricity-generating efficiency of various fuels. An analysis by Cathles, which focuses exclusively on potential warming and ignores secondary considerations, such as economic, political, or other environmental concerns, finds that natural gas is better for electricity generation than coal and oil under all realistic circumstances. To come to this conclusion, the author considered three different future fuel consumption scenarios: (1) a business-as-usual case, which sees energy generation capacity continue at its current pace with its current energy mix until the middle of the century, at which point the implementation of low-carbon energy sources dominates and fossil fuel-derived energy production declines; (2) a gas substitution scenario, where natural gas replaces all coal power production and any new oil-powered facilities, with the same midcentury shift; and (3) a low-carbon scenario, where all electricity generation is immediately and aggressively switched to non-fossil fuel sources such as solar, wind, and nuclear.

Schultz, Colin

2012-08-01

482

Fuels Containing Methane of Natural Gas in Solution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While exploring ways of producing better fuels for propulsion of a spacecraft on the Mars sample return mission, a researcher at Johnson Space Center (JSC) devised a way of blending fuel by combining methane or natural gas with a second fuel to produce a fuel that can be maintained in liquid form at ambient temperature and under moderate pressure. The use of such a blended fuel would be a departure for both spacecraft engines and terrestrial internal combustion engines. For spacecraft, it would enable reduction of weights on long flights. For the automotive industry on Earth, such a fuel could be easily distributed and could be a less expensive, more efficient, and cleaner-burning alternative to conventional fossil fuels. The concept of blending fuels is not new: for example, the production of gasoline includes the addition of liquid octane enhancers. For the future, it has been commonly suggested to substitute methane or compressed natural gas for octane-enhanced gasoline as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Unfortunately, methane or natural gas must be stored either as a compressed gas (if kept at ambient temperature) or as a cryogenic liquid. The ranges of automobiles would be reduced from their present values because of limitations on the capacities for storage of these fuels. Moreover, technical challenges are posed by the need to develop equipment to handle these fuels and, especially, to fill tanks acceptably rapidly. The JSC alternative to provide a blended fuel that can be maintained in liquid form at moderate pressure at ambient temperature has not been previously tried. A blended automotive fuel according to this approach would be made by dissolving natural gas in gasoline. The autogenous pressure of this fuel would eliminate the need for a vehicle fuel pump, but a pressure and/or flow regulator would be needed to moderate the effects of temperature and to respond to changing engine power demands. Because the fuel would flash as it entered engine cylinders, relative to gasoline, it would disperse more readily and therefore would mix with air more nearly completely. As a consequence, this fuel would burn more nearly completely (and, hence, more cleanly) than gasoline does. The storage density of this fuel would be similar to that of gasoline, but its energy density would be such that the mileage (more precisely, the distance traveled per unit volume of fuel) would be greater than that of either gasoline or compressed natural gas. Because the pressure needed to maintain the fuel in liquid form would be more nearly constant and generally lower than that needed to maintain compressed natural gas in liquid form, the pressure rating of a tank used to hold this fuel could be lower than that of a tank used to hold compressed natural gas. A mixture of natural gas and gasoline could be distributed more easily than could some alternative fuels. A massive investment in new equipment would not be necessary: One could utilize the present fuel-distribution infrastructure and could blend the gasoline and natural gas at almost any place in the production or distribution process - perhaps even at the retail fuel pump. Yet another advantage afforded by use of a blend of gasoline and natural gas would be a reduction in the amount of gasoline consumed. Because natural gas costs less than gasoline does and is in abundant supply in the United States, the cost of automotive fuel and the demand for imported oil could be reduced.

Sullivan, Thomas A.

2004-01-01

483

Exploring Occupations for Electronics Technicians in the Natural Gas Industry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher's guide presents a lesson on the electronics technician career path in the natural gas industry. Students will answer the question: "Is a career as an electronics technician in the natural gas industry a good choice for me?" The class will write a one-page paper on this topic. The unit is intended for grades 7-9 and would take three to four 45 minute class periods to complete in full. This document may be downloaded in Microsoft Word file format.

2012-10-16

484

18 CFR 284.263 - Exemption from section 7 of Natural Gas Act and certain regulatory conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Exemption from section 7 of Natural Gas Act and certain regulatory conditions...ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED...CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY...

2010-04-01

485

18 CFR 284.263 - Exemption from section 7 of Natural Gas Act and certain regulatory conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Exemption from section 7 of Natural Gas Act and certain regulatory conditions...ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED...CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY...

2009-04-01

486

40 CFR Table W - 2 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing W Table W Protection...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt...Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing Onshore natural...

2013-07-01

487

40 CFR Table W - 4 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage W Table W Protection...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt...Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage Underground natural...

2013-07-01

488

77 FR 4028 - Orders Granting, Amending and Vacating Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Amending and Vacating Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas...amending and vacating authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas. These Orders are...

2012-01-26

489

Danish Natural Gas Transmission System. Cavern Storage, Ll. Torup Gas Plant. Basic Design Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The storage is a part of the Danish Natural Gas Transmission System, whose other main components are: North Sea Pipeline, Treatment Plant, Land Pipelines, Belt Crossings, Compressor and Meter/Regulator Stations. The system will be monitored from a control...

1981-01-01

490

The Oil and Natural Gas Knowledge Management Database from NETL  

DOE Data Explorer

The Knowledge Management Database (KMD) Portal provides four options for searching the documents and data that NETL-managed oil and gas research has produced over the years for DOE’s Office of Fossil Energy. Information includes R&D carried out under both historical and ongoing DOE oil and gas research and development (R&D). The Document Repository, the CD/DVD Library, the Project Summaries from 1990 to the present, and the Oil and Natural Gas Program Reference Shelf provide a wide range of flexibility and coverage.

491

Natural Gas Occurrence in Groundwater near Oil and Gas Drilling Sites Environmental Concerns in Northeast Pennsylvania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling techniques have been extensively used to extract unconventional natural gas in the northeast of the United States. Over the past few years, the presence of contaminants in shallow groundwater near drilling sites has created higher awareness of drinking water quality. One key question has been recently raised about the origin and pathways of the contaminants, especially natural gas found in groundwater in neighboring areas of gas drilling sites in northeast Pennsylvania. Methane (CH4), which is the main component of natural gas, is not currently classified as a health hazard when dissolved in drinking water. Yet, it is a threat for explosion and fire hazards. In the Bradford, Susquehanna, Tioga, and Wyoming counties located in northeast Pennsylvania, dissolved methane concentration was measured to be 19.2 mg/l. Maximum concentration was recorded up to 64 mg/l when a warning level of concentration of natural gas in groundwater is only 10 mg/l. Recent studies have been investigating the origin of natural gas found in water wells in these counties based on the isotopic composition of methane, ethane and dissolved inorganic carbon. While Breen et al. (2007) and Osborn et al. (2010 and 2011) claim that the isotopic analysis of methane confirms the thermogenic origin of methane in groundwater in Susquehanna and Wyoming counties, Molofsky et al. (2011) claim that the natural gas origin in the groundwater is not related to fracking activities in the Marcellus Shale but to a geologic origin instead. To better understand the origin of dissolved methane, an integral computer model will be implemented. The model will analyze the potential migration of natural gas to shallow groundwater by using available data. Potential scenarios will include outgassing from wells casing and preferential flow through deep fractures. Currently, the lack of a proper model prevents the prediction and explanation of several of the existing questions. This study focuses on the dissolved methane transport into shallow groundwater nearby gas drilling activities in northeast Pennsylvania.

Arjmand, S.; Abad, J. D.; Liang, X.

2012-12-01

492

Performance and Economics of Catalytic Glow Plugs and Shields in Direct Injection Natural Gas Engines for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Subcontractor report details work done by TIAX and Westport to test and perform cost analysis for catalytic glow plugs and shields for direct-injection natural gas engines for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program.

Mello, J. P.; Bezaire, D.; Sriramulu, S.; Weber, R.

2003-08-01

493

Influence of Technological Cycles of Natural Gas Treatment on Radioactive Radon Content in its Composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive gas radon is found in the composition of natural gas. Radon is formed as a result of radioactive decay of natural radionuclides and it goes into the natural gas. Despite the fact that certain part of radon volatilizes or decays in the process of natural gas production, transportation and processing even then a great quantity of radioactive substances come

A. A. GARIBOV; G. F. MIRALAMOV; R. C. H. MAMEDOV; G. Z. VELIBEKOVA

494

Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues  

SciTech Connect

The United States has 11 distinct natural gas pipeline corridors: five originate in