Sample records for occluded natural gas

  1. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. 270...Agencies § 270.302 Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural gas...

  2. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. 270...Agencies § 270.302 Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural gas...

  3. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. 270...Agencies § 270.302 Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural gas...

  4. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. 270...Agencies § 270.302 Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural gas...

  5. Modeling signal loss in surficial marine sediments containing occluded gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trevor Gardner

    2003-01-01

    The presence of occluded gas in inland lakes, harbor muds, and surficial marine sediments is well documented. Surficial gassy sediments cause underlying beds to be acoustically impenetrable to seismic surveys; therefore, the modeling of signal loss arising from mudline reflection and transmission absorption is of particular interest. The Anderson and Hampton [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 67, 1890-1903 (1980)] model for

  6. Motion of half-occluded zones contributes to avoidance of interocular suppression in natural viewing situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Masahiro

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the effect of motion on avoidance of interocular suppression in the half-occluded zones, which are non-fusible images projected onto the corresponding retinal areas in natural viewing situations. Six and seven adults participating in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively, measured the amount of suppression in the half-occluded zones. In the moving condition, motion of the occluded surface caused motion of the half-occluded zones in Experiment 1; motion of the occluder caused it in Experiment 2. In the static condition, the occluded surface, half-occluded zones, and occluder were static in Experiments 1 and 2. The results obtained from both experiments indicated that the half-occluded zones were less suppressed in the moving condition than in the static condition. These findings demonstrated that motion of the half-occluded zones contributes to the avoidance of interocular suppression in natural viewing situations.

  7. High output neutron tube using an occluded gas ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Walko, R.J.; Rochau, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    A neutron tube capable of generating 10/sup 10/ 14 MeV neutrons in a 1.2 ms pulse has been developed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for use in flow measurements using the Pulsed Neutron Activation technique. The tube consists of an occluded deuterium gas ion source, a single gap accelerator and a scandium tritide target. A unique feature of the tube design is its complete demountability, permitting easy replacement or modification of critical components. The ion source is a modified version of a stacked occluded washer source. However, in contrast to previous designs, this source utilizes only a single scandium deuteride washer and needs no independent trigger. Outputs of 1.2 x 10/sup 10/ neutrons per pulse from a 250 mA deuterium ion beam at 125 kV have been obtained for over 1500 consecutive operations with a standard deviation of only +- 5%. The ultimate operational lifetime is believed to be in excess of 3000 shots based on the present knowledge of ion source behavior. Recent experiments using nonmagnetic structural components in the ion source resulted in a 26% increase in output with a simultaneous 35% reduction in the source drive current. This implies that even higher outputs with greater source efficiencies may be achievable.

  8. Natural gas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N/A N/A (None; )

    2003-07-27

    Natural gas is used as a means of power in households. Natural gas has no natural odor, so an odor is added to the gas. This is useful because gas leaks can be detected better and it also reduces the risk of accidents in homes.

  9. Seeing motion behind occluders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott N. J. Watamaniuk; Suzanne P. McKee

    1995-01-01

    THE visual system has no difficulty maintaining the identity of an object as it disappears and reappears behind stationary occluders. In the natural world, a moving object may differ from occluders by many characteristics (colour, depth, shape and so on). Scene segmentation based on these characteristics is thought to happen early in visual processing, and to influence how objects, including

  10. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  11. Natural gas annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

  12. Natural Gas Flare

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A natural gas flare. Sometimes, often due to lack of transportation or storage capacity, natural gas that is co-produced with oil will be burned in a flare. This wellpad is in the Tuscaloosa Marine Shale....

  13. Natural gas annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  14. Natural gas annual 1994

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-11-17

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  15. Natural Gas Annual 1996

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    _Natural Gas Annual_ provides information on the "supply and disposition of natural gas in the United States." It contains State level data for production, transmission, storage, deliveries, and price of natural gas. Historical data at the national level are available from the 1930's.

  16. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This report presents current data on the consumption, disposition, production, prices, storage, import and export of natural gas in the United States. Also included are operating and financial data for major interstate natural gas pipeline companies plus data on fillings, ceiling prices, and transportation under the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978. A feature article, entitled Main Line Natural Gas Sales to Industrial Users, 1981, is included. Highlights of this month's publication are: Marketed production of natural gas during 1982 continued its downward trend compared to 1981, with November production of 1511 Bcf compared to 1583 Bcf for November 1981; total natural gas consumption also declined when compared to 1981; as of November 1982, working gas in underground storage was running ahead of a similar period in 1981 by 109 Bcf (3.4 percent); the average wellhead price of natural gas continued to rise in 1982; and applications for determination of maximum lawful prices under the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) showed a decrease from October to November, principally for Section 103 classification wells (new onshore production wells).

  17. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.; Gardner, D.; Hayden, M.; Radebaugh, R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Wollan, J. [Cryenco, Inc. (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It should have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The thermoacoustic natural-gas liquefier (TANGL) is based on our recent invention of the first no-moving-parts cryogenic refrigerator. In short, our invention uses acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat, with no moving parts. The required apparatus comprises nothing more than heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. Its initial experimental success in a small size lead us to propose a more ambitious application: large-energy liquefaction of natural gas, using combustion of natural gas as the energy source. TANGL was designed to be maintenance-free, inexpensive, portable, and environmentally benign.

  18. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This document highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data presented include volume and price, production, consumption, underground storage, and interstate pipeline activities.

  19. Fossil Fuels: Natural Gas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Pratte

    This lesson provides an introduction to the use of natural gas as an energy source. Topics include its advantages (cleanliness, fewer carbon emissions), disadvantages (difficulty in transport and storage), sources, and usage. There is also a discussion of the creation and production of natural gas, the United States' production and reserves, and some potential new sources (coal bed methane, methane hydrates). The lesson includes an activity in which students investigate porosity and permeability in simulated sediments.

  20. Natural Gas Imports and Exports

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, net imports of natural gas in the United States fell to 1,187 billion cubic feet as a result of lower natural gas imports from Canada. On a regional basis, natural gas net imports changed most significantly in the Northeast, North Central, and South regions. Net changes in natural gas imports in other regions were less significant in 2014. These trends are discussed in the U.S. Natural Gas Imports and Exports 2014 report.

  1. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-05

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1989, and production volumes for the year 1989 for the total United States and for selected states and state sub-divisions. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production reported separately. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. 28 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. Liquefied natural gas processing

    SciTech Connect

    Rambo, C.L.; Wilkinson, J.D.; Hudson, H.M.

    1992-05-19

    This patent describes improvement in a process for the separation of liquefied natural gas containing methane, C{sub 2} components, C{sub 3} components and heavier hydrocarbon components. The improvement comprises a distillation stream is withdrawn from an upper region of the fractionation column and thereafter divided into the more volatile fraction and a recycle stream; the recycle stream is directed in heat exchange relation with at least a portion of the liquefied natural gas whereby the compressed recycle stream is cooled sufficiently to substantially condense it, while the liquefied natural gas portion is heated; the substantially condensed compressed recycle stream is supplied to the fractionation column at a top column feed position; the heated liquefied natural gas portion is supplied to the fractionation column at a mid-column feed position; and the quantity and pressure of the compressed recycle stream and the temperatures of the feed streams to the fractionation column are effective to maintain column overhead temperature at a temperature whereby the major portion of the C{sub 2} components, C{sub 3} components and heavier hydrocarbon components is recovered in the relatively less volatile fraction.

  3. Natural gas purchases

    SciTech Connect

    Grenier, E.J. Jr. [Partner, Sutherland, Asbill and Brennan, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    In the 1970`s gas and boilers were like oil and water as far as policy makers were concerned, culminating in the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act (perhaps a more appropriate title would have been the Fuel Non-Use Act or the Gas Non-Use Act). But now, the last two Administrations have made gas the centerpiece of their energy and environmental strategies, including promotion of gas use for boilers and electric generation. The FERC`s Order 636 almost completes the Commission`s restructuring of the gas industry that began with Order 380 (eliminating commodity minimum bills) and progressed sharply with Orders 436 and 500. It is Order 636 that has transformed the interstate pipeline business into a transportation business, with the pipelines virtually out of the merchant business altogether because the Commission is not resting on its laurels after completing implementation of Order 636. Rather, it is exploring new ways to expand the growing competitive market for gas, including the possibility of using market-based rates for interstate pipeline transportation services. Methods for the procurement of natural gas supplies are discussed.

  4. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Group

    1997-05-01

    Cryenco and Los Alamos are collaborating to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that will have no moving parts and require no electrical power. It will have useful efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at only 115 Kelvin at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 invention of the thermoacoustically driven orifice pulse-tube refrigerator (TA-DOPTR) provides cryogenic refrigeration with no moving parts for the first time. In short, this invention uses acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat. The required apparatus consists of nothing more than helium-filled heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. In the Cryenco-Los Alamos collaboration, the authors are developing a version of this invention suitable for use in the natural-gas industry. The project is known as acoustic liquefier for short. The present program plans call for a two-phase development. Phase 1, with capacity of 500 gallon per day (i.e., approximately 40,000 scfd, requiring a refrigeration power of about 7 kW), is large enough to illuminate all the issues of large-scale acoustic liquefaction without undue cost, and to demonstrate the liquefaction of 60--70% of input gas, while burning 30--40%. Phase 2 will target versions of approximately 10{sup 6} scfd = 10,000 gallon per day capacity. In parallel with both, they continue fundamental research on the technology, directed toward increased efficiency, to build scientific foundations and a patent portfolio for future acoustic liquefiers.

  5. Natural gas monthly, April 1999

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1999-05-06

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. There are two feature articles in this issue: Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends, Executive summary; and Special report: Natural gas 1998: A preliminary summary. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  6. Natural gas monthly, December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report presents information of interest to organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data are presented on natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

  7. Natural Gas Exports from Iran

    EIA Publications

    2012-01-01

    This assessment of the natural gas sector in Iran, with a focus on Iran’s natural gas exports, was prepared pursuant to section 505 (a) of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 (Public Law No: 112-158). As requested, it includes: (1) an assessment of exports of natural gas from Iran; (2) an identification of the countries that purchase the most natural gas from Iran; (3) an assessment of alternative supplies of natural gas available to those countries; (4) an assessment of the impact a reduction in exports of natural gas from Iran would have on global natural gas supplies and the price of natural gas, especially in countries identified under number (2); and (5) such other information as the Administrator considers appropriate.

  8. Natural gas monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  9. Natural gas monthly, October 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  10. Natural gas monthly, July 1997

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  11. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-29

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  12. Adsorbent storage of natural gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gurevich

    1996-01-01

    The natural-gas vehicle represents a cost-competitive, lower-emission alternative to the gasoline-fueled vehicle. The immediate challenge that confronts the natural-gas vehicle is extension of its driving range. This paper addresses the question of driving range by reviewing the storage technologies for natural gas. Technical comparisons are made between storage systems for adsorbent, liquefied and compressed natural gas, and estimates are made

  13. Natural gas monthly: September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  14. Natural gas monthly: December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. Articles are included which are designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  15. Natural gas monthly, April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-04-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  16. Natural gas monthly, October 1998

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  17. Natural Gas Monthly, March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-03-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  18. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  19. Natural gas monthly, June 1999

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  20. Natural gas monthly, July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  1. Sulfur removal from natural gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hakka

    1974-01-01

    Elemental sulfur entrained in natural gas at the well is removed by first contacting the natural gas with an aqueous solution of 5 to 50 wt % of monoethanolamine and then separating the sulfur-containing aqueous solution from the natural gas.

  2. Natural gas monthly, November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  3. Natural gas monthly, January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  4. Natural gas monthly, February 1999

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  5. Natural gas monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is the executive summary from Natural Gas 1994: Issues and Trends. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  6. Natural gas monthly, November 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``US natural gas imports and exports-1995``. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  7. Natural gas monthly, October 1997

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article in this issue is a special report, ``Comparison of Natural Gas Storage Estimates from the EIA and AGA.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  8. Natural gas monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured articles for this month are: Opportunities with fuel cells, and revisions to monthly natural gas data.

  9. Natural gas monthly, April 1997

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are present3ed each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas pipeline and system expansions.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  10. Natural gas monthly, April 1998

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Estimates extend through April 1998 for many data series. The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, feature articles are presented designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This issue contains the special report, ``Natural Gas 1997: A Preliminary Summary.`` This report provides information on natural gas supply and disposition for the year 1997, based on monthly data through December from EIA surveys. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  11. Natural gas monthly, September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  12. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-06-01

    In collaboration with Cryenco Inc. and NIST-Boulder, we intend to develop a natural gas-powered natural-gas liquefier which has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It will have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. Progress on the liquefier to be constructed at Cryenco continues satisfactorily. The thermoacoustic driver is still ahead of the pulse tube refrigerator, because of NIST`s schedule. We completed the thermoacoustics design in the fall of 1994, with Los Alamos providing physics input and checks of all aspects, and Cryenco providing engineering to ASME code, drafting, etc. Completion of this design represents a significant amount of work, especially in view of the many unexpected problems encountered. Meanwhile, Cryenco and NIST have almost completed the design of the pulse tube refrigerator. At Los Alamos, we have assembled a half-size scale model of the thermoacoustic portion of the 500 gal/day TANGL. This scale model will enable easy experimentation in harmonic suppression techniques, new stack geometries, new heat-exchanger geometries, resonator coiling, and other areas. As of March 1995, the scale model is complete and we are performing routine debugging tests and modifications.

  13. Natural gas monthly, May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-05-24

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  14. Natural gas monthly, March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The March 1998 edition of the Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. This report also features an article on the correction of errors in the drilling activity estimates series, and in-depth drilling activity data. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  15. Natural gas monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-25

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The NGM also features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  16. Natural gas monthly, October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-05

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. 16 figs., 33 tabs.

  17. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by transmission companies. Compressor stations at required distances boost the pressure that is lost through friction as the gas moves through the steel pipes (EPA 2000). The natural gas system is generally described in terms of production, processing and purification, transmission and storage, and distribution (NaturalGas.org 2004b). Figure 1.1-2 shows a schematic of the system through transmission. This report focuses on the transmission pipeline, compressor stations, and city gates.

  18. Natural gas monthly, February 1998

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through February 1998 for many data series, and through November 1997 for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the natural gas data contained in this issue are: Preliminary estimates for January and February 1998 show that dry natural gas production, net imports, and consumption are all within 1 percent of their levels in 1997. Warmer-than-normal weather in recent months has resulted in lower consumption of natural gas by the residential sector and lower net withdrawals of gas from under round storage facilities compared with a year ago. This has resulted in an estimate of the amount of working gas in storage at the end of February 1998 that is 18 percent higher than in February 1997. The national average natural gas wellhead price is estimated to be $3.05 per thousand cubic feet in November 1997, 7 percent higher than in October. The cumulative average wellhead price for January through November 1997 is estimated to be $2.42 per thousand cubic feet, 17 percent above that of the same period in 1996. This price increase is far less than 36-percent rise that occurred between 1995 and 1996. 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  19. Natural gas monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-05

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector oganizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 33 tabs.

  20. Natural gas monthly - January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This highlight discusses changes in natural gas supply, demand, and prices for the first three quarters of 1995 (January thru September) compared to the same periods in 1993 and 1994. Production for the first three quarters of 1995 lagged year-earlier levels while natural gas consumption has continued a steady upward movement. Total U.S. natural gas production through the first three quarters at 14.1 trillion cubic feet, was less than 1 percent below the 1994 period, but remained well ahead of the comparable 1993 period. The three leading producing States (Texas, Louisiana, and Oklahoma) contributed nearly 70 percent of the total. Natural gas consumption totaled 16.0 trillion cubic feet for the first three quarters, 4 percent above the same period in 1994. Net imports of natural gas reached 2.0 trillion cubic feet by the end of the third quarter 1995 and accounted for nearly 13 percent of total consumption during this period.

  1. Natural gas leak mapper

    DOEpatents

    Reichardt, Thomas A. (Livermore, CA); Luong, Amy Khai (Dublin, CA); Kulp, Thomas J. (Livermore, CA); Devdas, Sanjay (Albany, CA)

    2008-05-20

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  2. Crude oil and natural gas pricing. Chapters 300 to 499: natural gas liquids, natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, P.D.

    1980-01-01

    This text analyzes the federal statutes and regulations that affect the pricing and allocation of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. It does not cover refined products or imported crude oil except where necessary to place major decisions in historical context. Chapter 300 concerns natural gas liquids. For historical rather than logical reasons, these are regulated as an offshoot of crude oil controls rather than as a by-product of natural gas production. In December 1979, the Economic Regulatory Administration (ERA) deregulated butane and natural gasoline. However, it did not amend 10 CFR 212.161-212.173, and it did not deregulate propane or propane mixtures. Decontrol will be covered in the first update to this book. Chapters 400 to 468 concern natural gas. Although a great deal of attention has been focused on the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA), there has been no satisfactory description of the extent to which the Natural Gas Act (NGA; passed in 1938 and amended by the Phillips decision in 1954) still applies. This is quite a problem, since the NGPA is written in vague terms that encourage producers to disregard the NGA. The problem is compounded by the Federal Power Commission's (FPC) approach to regulatory development, which has scattered crucial regulations throughout 18 CFR. All Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) natural gas production regulations should be repealed, arranged into a systematic grouping, and reissued in a consolidated subpart of 18 CFR. Shortly after the publication of this text, the author will petition the FERC to commence a rulemaking proceeding to that effect. Chapters 480 to 498 will cover the use of natural gas. These chapters will be issued in the first revision to this text as general summaries since the programs do not directly affect gas producers.

  3. China develops natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    As of 1981, more than 60 natural gas fields with a total annual output of 12.74 billion cu m have been discovered in China, placing the country among the top 12 gas producers in the world. In addition, there are prospects for natural gas in the Bohai-North China Basin and the Qaidam Basin, NW. China, providing a base for further expansion of the gas industry. Gas reservoirs have been found in 9 different geologic ages: Sinian, Cambrian, Ordovician, Carboniferous, Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Tertiary, and Quaternary. Of the 60 gas field now being exploited, there are more than 40 fields in Sichuan. The Sichuan Basin gas industry is described in detail.

  4. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a lower heat transfer rate in the internal heat exchanger than was designed. It is believed that the fins on the heat-exchanger tubes did not make proper contact with the tubes transporting the chilled glycol, and pairs of fins were too close for interior areas of fins to serve as hydrate collection sites. A correction of the fabrication fault in the heat exchanger fin attachments could be easily made to provide faster formation rates. The storage success with the POC process provides valuable information for making the process an economically viable process for safe, aboveground natural-gas storage.

  5. 40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065...Calibration Standards § 1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, natural gas for testing must meet the...

  6. 40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065...Calibration Standards § 1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, natural gas for testing must meet the...

  7. 40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065...Calibration Standards § 1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, natural gas for testing must meet the...

  8. 40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065...Calibration Standards § 1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, natural gas for testing must meet the...

  9. Natural Gas Monthly August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. Explanatory notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication.

  10. Denmark prepares for natural gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffs

    1979-01-01

    Denmark will import natural gas from the German Ruhrgas network to reduce its dependence on oil, although oil will continue to be the major energy source. A national program of energy conservation includes conversion of oil-fired power statons to either coal or to a co-generation system with district heating and the increased use of gas to supply more of the

  11. Natural gas monthly, March 1999

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly contains estimates for March 1999 for many natural gas data series at the national level. Estimates of national natural gas prices are available through December 1998 for most series. Highlights of the data contained in this issue are listed below. Preliminary data indicate that the national average wellhead price for 1998 declined to 16% from the previous year ($1.96 compared to $2.32 per thousand cubic feet). At the end of March, the end of the 1998--1999 heating season, the level of working gas in underground natural gas storage facilities is estimated to be 1,354 billion cubic feet, 169 billion cubic feet higher than at the end of March 1998. Gas consumption during the first 3 months of 1999 is estimated to have been 179 billion cubic feet higher than in the same period in 1998. Most of this increase (133 billion cubic feet) occurred in the residential sector due to the cooler temperatures in January and February compared to the same months last year. According to the National Weather Service, heating degree days in January 1999 were 15% greater than the previous year while February recorded a 5% increase.

  12. Natural gas monthly, February 1997

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents estimates of natural gas supply and consumption through February 1997. Estimates of natural gas prices are through November 1996 except electric utility prices that are through October 1996. Cumulatively for January through February 1997, the daily average rates for several data series remain close to those of 1996. (Comparing daily rates accounts for the fact that February 1996 had 29 days.) Daily total consumption for January through February is estimated to be 83 billion cubic feet per day, 1 percent higher than during the same period in 1996. Similarly, the estimate of average daily production of 53 billion cubic feet is 1.5 percent higher than in 1996, while daily net imports during the first 2 months of 1997 are virtually unchanged from 1996.

  13. Nitrogen removal from natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    According to a 1991 Energy Information Administration estimate, U.S. reserves of natural gas are about 165 trillion cubic feet (TCF). To meet the long-term demand for natural gas, new gas fields from these reserves will have to be developed. Gas Research Institute studies reveal that 14% (or about 19 TCF) of known reserves in the United States are subquality due to high nitrogen content. Nitrogen-contaminated natural gas has a low Btu value and must be upgraded by removing the nitrogen. In response to the problem, the Department of Energy is seeking innovative, efficient nitrogen-removal methods. Membrane processes have been considered for natural gas denitrogenation. The challenge, not yet overcome, is to develop membranes with the required nitrogen/methane separation characteristics. Our calculations show that a methane-permeable membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 4 to 6 would make denitrogenation by a membrane process viable. The objective of Phase I of this project was to show that membranes with this target selectivity can be developed, and that the economics of the process based on these membranes would be competitive. Gas permeation measurements with membranes prepared from two rubbery polymers and a superglassy polymer showed that two of these materials had the target selectivity of 4 to 6 when operated at temperatures below - 20{degrees}C. An economic analysis showed that a process based on these membranes is competitive with other technologies for small streams containing less than 10% nitrogen. Hybrid designs combining membranes with other technologies are suitable for high-flow, higher-nitrogen-content streams.

  14. Natural gas monthly, January 1997

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This publication, the Natural Gas Monthly, presents the most recent data on natural gas supply, consumption, and prices from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Of special interest in this issue are two articles summarizing reports recently published by EIA. The articles are {open_quotes}Natural Gas Productive Capacity{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Outlook for Natural Gas Through 2015,{close_quotes} both of which precede the {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} section. With this issue, January 1997, changes have been made to the format of the Highlights section and to several of the tabular and graphical presentations throughout the publication. The changes to the Highlights affect the discussion of developments in the industry and the presentation of weekly storage data. An overview of the developments in the industry is now presented in a brief summary followed by specific discussions of supply, end-use consumption, and prices. Spot and futures prices are discussed as appropriate in the Price section, together with wellhead and consumer prices.

  15. China's synthetic natural gas revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chi-Jen; Jackson, Robert B.

    2013-10-01

    China has recently pushed for investments in large-scale coal-fuelled synthetic natural gas plants. The associated carbon emissions, water needs and wider environmental impacts are, however, mostly neglected and could lock the country into an unsustainable development path.

  16. Fueling up with natural gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Stodolsky; D. J. Santini

    1993-01-01

    A careful analysis is needed of the energy efficiency of the fuel cycle (the efficiency of the conversion from resource extraction to final use by consumers) and the environmental impact of natural gas fuels. This information can help policy makers decide which fuels could be used to displace imported oil, maintain air quality, and be the basis of a new

  17. 75 FR 70350 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ...Administration [USCG-2010-0993] Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application AGENCY...received an application for the licensing of a natural gas deepwater port and the application...

  18. Natural gas hydrates - issues for gas production and geomechanical stability 

    E-print Network

    Grover, Tarun

    2008-10-10

    Natural gas hydrates are solid crystalline substances found in the subsurface. Since gas hydrates are stable at low temperatures and moderate pressures, gas hydrates are found either near the surface in arctic regions or in deep water marine...

  19. Marcellus Shale: Natural Gas Energy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This webpage from the EFMR Monitoring Group provides information on the extraction of natural gas from Pennsylvania's Marcellus Shale formation. Users may read a brief overview of the extraction efforts and the environmental concerns involved. A lesson plan and resource guide is available for download in PDF file format. The document includes a number of in-class activities for elementary, middle and high school grade levels. Academic standards and a list of links are also included.

  20. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  1. Natural gas 1995: Issues and trends

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Natural Gas 1995: Issues and Trends addresses current issues affecting the natural gas industry and markets. Highlights of recent trends include: Natural gas wellhead prices generally declined throughout 1994 and for 1995 averages 22% below the year-earlier level; Seasonal patterns of natural gas production and wellhead prices have been significantly reduced during the past three year; Natural gas production rose 15% from 1985 through 1994, reaching 18.8 trillion cubic feet; Increasing amounts of natural gas have been imported; Since 1985, lower costs of producing and transporting natural gas have benefitted consumers; Consumers may see additional benefits as States examine regulatory changes aimed at increasing efficiency; and, The electric industry is being restructured in a fashion similar to the recent restructuring of the natural gas industry.

  2. Underground Natural Gas Working Storage Capacity

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Working natural gas storage capacity increased by about 2% in the lower 48 states between November 2011 and November 2012, according to Underground Working Natural Gas Storage Capacity, released by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA).

  3. Pipeline Politics: Natural Gas in Eurasia 

    E-print Network

    Landrum, William W.; Llewellyn, Benjamin B.; Limesand, Craig M.; Miller, Dante J.; Morris, James P.; Nowell, Kathleen S.; Sherman, Charlotte L.

    2010-01-01

    Eurasia is a major source of oil and natural gas, and events in the region have a great potential to destabilize global security patterns. Supplies of natural gas and oil from Eurasia are vital for the functioning of ...

  4. Natural gas monthly, October 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636 prompted an increase of natural gas market centers (trading hubs) across the United States and Canada. These regulations allow customers (end users) to select services directly from producers and marketers. Pipeline companies must provide transportation unbundled from sales services, provide open access to transportation, and provide open access to storage. FERC Order 636-B also requires market centers to be fairly small, i.e., a 30-mile radius around a central point. Some market centers are designed to offer a variety of physical services, including storage, parking, wheeling, pooling, balancing, and peaking. Financial or transactional services, such as title transfers, capacity release, nomination, electronic trading, risk management, and credit are also being offered. The Electronic Bulletin Board (EBB) services through these centers will provide a variety of information on pricing; weather; cash trading to match bids; physical gas offers; as well as financial, regulatory, and industry news.

  5. Impact of gas composition on natural gas storage by adsorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José P. B. Mota

    1999-01-01

    Adsorption storage is the most promising low-pressure alternative for storing natural gas, but some operational difficulties hinder the success of this technology. From a modeling perspective, this article addresses the impact of gas composition on the cyclic behavior of adsorptive natural gas storage systems. The cyclic operation of an onboard storage reservoir is modeled as a series of consecutive two-step

  6. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-18

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  7. Economics of natural gas conversion processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Gradassi; N. Wayne Green

    1995-01-01

    Industry and academia have been pursuing the conversion of natural gas to higher valued products. Potential process routes include the manufacture of olefins and chemical intermediates, gasoline, and distillate fuels. All indirect manufacturing routes start with a synthesis gas step, which requires expensive steam reforming or partial oxidation of the natural gas feed. The direct routes to conversion seek to

  8. natural gas-fired combined cycle plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olav Bolland; Henriette Undrum

    Three concepts for capturing CO from natural gas-fired combined gasysteam turbine power plants are evaluated 2 and compared in this paper: (A) separation of CO from exhaust gas coming from a standard gas turbine power 2 plant, usingchemical absorption by amine solutions. (B) Gas turbine combined cycle (CC) usinga semi-closed g as turbine with near to stoichiometric combustion using oxygen

  9. 78 FR 46581 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ...Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import Liquefied Natural Gas During June 2013 FE Docket Nos. CONOCOPHILLIPS...orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and to import liquefied natural gas....

  10. Natural gas technologies at Kennedy Space Center

    SciTech Connect

    Sirmons, R.L.

    1997-06-01

    In 1994 Kennedy Space Center`s local gas distribution company (LDC), City Gas Company of Florida, undertook the construction of over 25 miles of high pressure natural gas piping to provide natural gas service to Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The Space Center, originally constructed in the 1960`s had used various grades of fuel oil throughout its history. But in the 1990`s concern about sulfur oxide emissions from hot water boilers, fuel spills, fuel prices, energy security, and federal mandates to use alternative fuels prompted KSC to investigate using natural gas as its primary fuel. Since completion of the pipeline in mid 1994, almost 4.5 million therms of natural gas have been used, displacing 2.9 million gallons of No. 2 fuel oil, and avoiding over 140 tons of air pollution. Another indicator of KSC`s effective switch to natural gas is that in 1993, KSC was by far the largest single consumer of petroleum fuel in NASA consuming 341 billion BTU`s, over 37% of all the petroleum fuel used by all NASA sites combined. In 1995, KSC petroleum fuel use had dropped to only 29 billion BTU`s while natural gas consumption was 308 billion BTU`s. These successes have encouraged KSC to explore other options for the use of natural gas at the Space Center. Under study at the present is natural gas cooling, fuel cells, and off road equipment fueling.

  11. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. Natural gas annual 1993 supplement: Company profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1993 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of 45 selected companies in the natural gas industry. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the companies profiled. The companies in this report are interstate pipeline companies or local distribution companies (LDC`s). Interstate pipeline companies acquire gas supplies from company owned production, purchases from producers, and receipts for transportation for account of others. Pipeline systems, service area maps, company supply and disposition data are presented.

  14. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this study is to research technologies and methodologies that will reduce the costs associated with the operation and maintenance of underground natural gas storage. This effort will include a survey of public information to determine the amount of natural gas lost from underground storage fields, determine the causes of this lost gas, and develop strategies and remedial designs to reduce or stop the gas loss from selected fields. Phase I includes a detailed survey of US natural gas storage reservoirs to determine the actual amount of natural gas annually lost from underground storage fields. These reservoirs will be ranked, the resultant will include the amount of gas and revenue annually lost. The results will be analyzed in conjunction with the type (geologic) of storage reservoirs to determine the significance and impact of the gas loss. A report of the work accomplished will be prepared. The report will include: (1) a summary list by geologic type of US gas storage reservoirs and their annual underground gas storage losses in ft{sup 3}; (2) a rank by geologic classifications as to the amount of gas lost and the resultant lost revenue; and (3) show the level of significance and impact of the losses by geologic type. Concurrently, the amount of storage activity has increased in conjunction with the net increase of natural gas imports as shown on Figure No. 3. Storage is playing an ever increasing importance in supplying the domestic energy requirements.

  15. Natural gas annual 1994: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data fro the Nation from 1930 to 1994, and by State from 1967 to 1994.

  16. Development of a thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Wollan; Gregory W. Swift; S. N. Backhaus; D. L. Gardner

    2002-01-01

    Praxair, in conjunction with the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is developing a new technology, thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators, for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons\\/day, has been built and tested. The power

  17. IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Jason M. Keith

    2005-02-01

    This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.

  18. Tackling with Natural Monopoly in Electricity and Natural Gas Industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Özgür Arslan; Hasan Kazdagùli

    \\u000a This chapter attempts to provide a theoretical work on natural monopoly versus perfect markets through concentrating on the\\u000a energy sector. In specific we discuss the natural monopolistic structure of Turkish natural gas and electricity markets by\\u000a comparing those of various countries in Europe. In this vein, our chapter starts with the introduction of natural monopoly\\u000a in both electricity and natural

  19. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 ...Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national...

  20. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 ...Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national...

  1. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 ...Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national...

  2. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 ...Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national...

  3. SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    COOK,Z.

    1999-02-01

    The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports provide both the backdrop and the impetus for this study.

  4. Natural gas price deregulation: a selected bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    White, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Congress has not been enthusiastic about natural gas deregulation, particularly those members from states whose voters are tied to natural-gas systems heavily for space-heating, i.e., the Mid-West and Northeast. A 1978 law gradually deregulates some of those prices, depending upon the depth at which the gas comes from and how old the discovery is (and thus came under regulation). The President has backed away somewhat from rapid decontrol of natural gas prices, especially in an election year. As the 1983 Congressional session ended, bills that would have made changes were left in committee. The implications for public administration are that natural gas deregulation presents a case study of the difficulties of making substantial administrative changes in politically-sensitive and recessionary times. 197 references.

  5. Natural gas contracts in efficient portfolios

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1994-12-01

    This report addresses the {open_quotes}contracts portfolio{close_quotes} issue of natural gas contracts in support of the Domestic Natural Gas and Oil Initiative (DGOI) published by the U.S. Department of Energy in 1994. The analysis is a result of a collaborative effort with the Public Service Commission of the State of Maryland to consider {open_quotes}reforms that enhance the industry`s competitiveness{close_quotes}. The initial focus of our collaborative effort was on gas purchasing and contract portfolios; however, it became apparent that efficient contracting to purchase and use gas requires a broader consideration of regulatory reform. Efficient portfolios are obtained when the holder of the portfolio is affected by and is responsible for the performance of the portfolio. Natural gas distribution companies may prefer a diversity of contracts, but the efficient use of gas requires that the local distribution company be held accountable for its own purchases. Ultimate customers are affected by their own portfolios, which they manage efficiently by making their own choices. The objectives of the DGOI, particularly the efficient use of gas, can be achieved when customers have access to suppliers of gas and energy services under an improved regulatory framework. The evolution of the natural gas market during the last 15 years is described to account for the changing preferences toward gas contracts. Long-term contracts for natural gas were prevalent before the early 1980s, primarily because gas producers had few options other than to sell to a single pipeline company, and this pipeline company, in turn, was the only seller to a gas distribution company.

  6. The Canoe Ridge Natural Gas Storage Project

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Steve P.; Spane, Frank A.; Johnson, Vernon G.

    2003-06-18

    In 1999 the Pacific Gas and Electric Gas Transmission Northwest (GTN) drilled a borehole to investigate the feasibility of developing a natural gas-storage facility in a structural dome formed in Columbia River basalts in the Columbia Basin of south-central Washington State. The proposed aquifer storage facility will be an unconventional one where natural gas will be initially injected (and later retrieved) in one or multiple previous horizons (interflow zones) that are confined between deep (>700 meters) basalt flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. This report summarizes the results of joint investigations on that feasibility study by GTN and the US Department of Energy.

  7. Natural gas annual 1992: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-22

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. The 1992 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production top its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1988 to 1992 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. Volume 2 of this report presents State-level historical data.

  8. Natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer

    DOEpatents

    Pham, Ai-Quoc (San Jose, CA); Wallman, P. Henrik (Berkeley, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    An efficient method of producing hydrogen by high temperature steam electrolysis that will lower the electricity consumption to an estimated 65 percent lower than has been achievable with previous steam electrolyzer systems. This is accomplished with a natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer, which significantly reduces the electricity consumption. Since this natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer replaces one unit of electrical energy by one unit of energy content in natural gas at one-quarter the cost, the hydrogen production cost will be significantly reduced. Also, it is possible to vary the ratio between the electricity and the natural gas supplied to the system in response to fluctuations in relative prices for these two energy sources. In one approach an appropriate catalyst on the anode side of the electrolyzer will promote the partial oxidation of natural gas to CO and hydrogen, called Syn-Gas, and the CO can also be shifted to CO.sub.2 to give additional hydrogen. In another approach the natural gas is used in the anode side of the electrolyzer to burn out the oxygen resulting from electrolysis, thus reducing or eliminating the potential difference across the electrolyzer membrane.

  9. Combustion gas properties. 2: Natural gas fuel and dry air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wear, J. D.; Jones, R. E.; Trout, A. M.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    A series of computations has been made to produce the equilibrium temperature and gas composition for natural gas fuel and dry air. The computed tables and figures provide combustion gas property data for pressures from 0.5 to 50 atmospheres and equivalence ratios from 0 to 2.0. Only samples tables and figures are provided in this report. The complete set of tables and figures is provided on four microfiche films supplied with this report.

  10. Conversion of a Waste Gas to Liquid Natural Gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. F. Gongaware; M. A. Barclay; J. A. Barclay; M. P. Skrzypkowski

    2004-01-01

    The choice of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a heavy-duty vehicular fuel is growing rapidly due to improved LNG economics, diesel price uncertainties caused by the dependence on imported crude oil, liabilities associated with environmental and health concerns, and governmental programs related to concerns over greenhouse gas emissions. However, vehicle owners who wish to use LNG are impeded by a

  11. 75 FR 13524 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ...External Affairs, Northern Natural Gas Company, 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124, or phone at (402)398-7103, or e-mail at mike.loeffler@nngco.com. There are two ways to become involved in the Commission's review...

  12. Natural gas contracting in the '80s

    SciTech Connect

    La Grone, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    As the casinghead gas became recognized by state regulatory agencies as a valuable natural resource, they began issuing no-flare orders. This had the effect of forcing producers to shut in oil production until they made arrangements for using or marketing the gas. Low pressure gathering systems were built into the oil fields. Most of the casinghead gas produced in this country is now processed for the extraction of liquefiable hydrocarbons, and the residue gas sold to pipeline compaines. Regulations concerning casinghead gas are discussed.

  13. Tapping methane hydrates for unconventional natural gas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppel, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Methane hydrate is an icelike form of concentrated methane and water found in the sediments of permafrost regions and marine continental margins at depths far shallower than conventional oil and gas. Despite their relative accessibility and widespread occurrence, methane hydrates have never been tapped to meet increasing global energy demands. With rising natural gas prices, production from these unconventional gas deposits is becoming economically viable, particularly in permafrost areas already being exploited for conventional oil and gas. This article provides an overview of gas hydrate occurrence, resource assessment, exploration, production technologies, renewability, and future challenges.

  14. 7 CFR 2900.4 - Natural gas requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natural gas requirements. 2900.4 Section 2900...AGRICULTURAL USES AND VOLUMETRIC REQUIREMENTS-NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT § 2900.4 Natural gas requirements. For purposes of...

  15. 10 CFR 221.11 - Natural gas and ethane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natural gas and ethane. 221.11 Section 221...DEFENSE PRODUCTION ACT Exclusions § 221.11 Natural gas and ethane. The supply of natural gas and ethane are excluded from this...

  16. Natural Gas as a Boiler Fuel of Choice in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Kmetz, W. J.

    1992-01-01

    Natural gas is abundant, clean burning, and cost competitive with other fuels. In addition to superior economic fundamentals, the expanded use of natural gas will be enhanced by political and industry leaders. Natural gas therefore will continue...

  17. 77 FR 51795 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ...Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets Supplemental Notice of Technical...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No. AD12-12-000...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No....

  18. 75 FR 66046 - Capacity Transfers on Intrastate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ...Capacity Transfers on Intrastate Natural Gas Pipelines October 21, 2010. AGENCY...of firm capacity on intrastate natural gas pipelines providing interstate...services under section 311 of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and...

  19. 77 FR 69781 - Enhanced Natural Gas Market Transparency

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ...No. RM13-1-000] Enhanced Natural Gas Market Transparency AGENCY: Federal...made to its regulations under the natural gas market transparency provisions of section 23 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), as adopted in...

  20. 7 CFR 2900.4 - Natural gas requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Natural gas requirements. 2900.4 Section 2900...AGRICULTURAL USES AND VOLUMETRIC REQUIREMENTS-NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT § 2900.4 Natural gas requirements. For purposes of Section...

  1. 49 CFR 393.68 - Compressed natural gas fuel containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Compressed natural gas fuel containers. 393.68 ...Systems § 393.68 Compressed natural gas fuel containers. (a) Applicability...this section apply to compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel containers...

  2. 26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21 Section... § 48.4041-21 Compressed natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of...imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel...

  3. 7 CFR 2900.4 - Natural gas requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Natural gas requirements. 2900.4 Section 2900...AGRICULTURAL USES AND VOLUMETRIC REQUIREMENTS-NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT § 2900.4 Natural gas requirements. For purposes of Section...

  4. 18 CFR 157.210 - Mainline natural gas facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Mainline natural gas facilities. 157.210 Section...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES...ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline...

  5. 26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21 Section... § 48.4041-21 Compressed natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of...imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel...

  6. 18 CFR 157.210 - Mainline natural gas facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Mainline natural gas facilities. 157.210 Section...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES...ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline...

  7. 49 CFR 393.68 - Compressed natural gas fuel containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Compressed natural gas fuel containers. 393.68 ...Systems § 393.68 Compressed natural gas fuel containers. (a) Applicability...this section apply to compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel containers...

  8. 7 CFR 2900.4 - Natural gas requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Natural gas requirements. 2900.4 Section 2900...AGRICULTURAL USES AND VOLUMETRIC REQUIREMENTS-NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT § 2900.4 Natural gas requirements. For purposes of Section...

  9. 7 CFR 2900.4 - Natural gas requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Natural gas requirements. 2900.4 Section 2900...AGRICULTURAL USES AND VOLUMETRIC REQUIREMENTS-NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT § 2900.4 Natural gas requirements. For purposes of Section...

  10. 26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21 Section... § 48.4041-21 Compressed natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of...imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel...

  11. 18 CFR 157.210 - Mainline natural gas facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Mainline natural gas facilities. 157.210 Section...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES...ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline...

  12. 49 CFR 393.68 - Compressed natural gas fuel containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Compressed natural gas fuel containers. 393.68 ...Systems § 393.68 Compressed natural gas fuel containers. (a) Applicability...this section apply to compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel containers...

  13. 49 CFR 393.68 - Compressed natural gas fuel containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Compressed natural gas fuel containers. 393.68 ...Systems § 393.68 Compressed natural gas fuel containers. (a) Applicability...this section apply to compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel containers...

  14. 18 CFR 157.210 - Mainline natural gas facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Mainline natural gas facilities. 157.210 Section...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES...ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline...

  15. Natural gas annual 1992: Supplement: Company profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The data for the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement : Company Profiles are taken from Form EIA-176, (open quotes) Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition (close quotes). Other sources include industry literature and corporate annual reports to shareholders. The companies appearing in this report are major interstate natural gas pipeline companies, large distribution companies, or combination companies with both pipeline and distribution operations. The report contains profiles of 45 corporate families. The profiles describe briefly each company, where it operates, and any important issues that the company faces. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the 45 large companies profiled.

  16. Volatility in natural gas and oil markets

    E-print Network

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    2003-01-01

    Using daily futures price data, I examine the behavior of natural gas and crude oil price volatility since 1990. I test whether there has been a significant trend in volatility, whether there was a short-term increase in ...

  17. About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines

    EIA Publications

    2007-01-01

    This information product provides the interested reader with a broad and non-technical overview of how the U.S. natural gas pipeline network operates, along with some insights into the many individual pipeline systems that make up the network. While the focus of the presentation is the transportation of natural gas over the interstate and intrastate pipeline systems, information on subjects related to pipeline development, such as system design and pipeline expansion, are also included.

  18. Regenerable sorbent for natural gas desulfurization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gökhan Alptekin; Sarah DeVoss; Margarita Dubovik; John Monroe; Robert Amalfitano; Gordon Israelson

    2006-01-01

    Sulfur-containing odorants are normally added to propane and natural gas supplies to facilitate leak detection. The sulfur\\u000a in these fuels can poison the catalysts used in fuel-cell fuel-processing systems, thereby inactivating the surfaces of the\\u000a fuel-cell anodes and resulting in degraded power generation performance. The sulfur content of natural gas or any hydrocarbon\\u000a fuel needs to be reduced to very

  19. Natural Gas Regulatory Policy: Current Issues

    E-print Network

    Watkins, G.

    NATURAL GAS REGULATORY roLICY: CURRENT ISSUES G. GAIL WATKINS Railroad Commission of Texas Austin, Texas ABSTRACT Many changes have occurred in recent months in both federal and state natural gas regulation. Those changes have increased.... Federal Regulation a. Self-implementing transportation b. Service obligation c. Pipeline capacity brokering d. Non-regulated and partially regulated sales e. FERC Order No. 500 f. Rate treatments impacts 2. State Regulation a...

  20. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a project to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. his study will measure or calculate all gas industry CH4 emissions--from production at the wellhead, through the system, to the customer's meter. missions downstream of the consu...

  1. Convert natural gas into clean transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Agee, M.A. [Syntroleum Corp., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1997-03-01

    A new process economically converts natural gas into synthetic transportation fuels that are free of sulfur, metals, aromatics and are clear in appearance. The process, developed by Syntroleum Corp., is energy self-sufficient and can be implemented in sizes small enough to fit a large number of the world`s gas fields. The process is described.

  2. Is the American elm (Ulmus americana) injured by natural gas. [Natural gas from broken mains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gustafson

    1950-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine if elm trees are injured by excaping natural gas through the soil from broken mains. The trees grown in tubs and an air-gas mixture was administered through pipes into the soil. Results revealed that there was an injurious effect of the gas on the roots. Concentrations of natural gas in air from 2.5 to 4.0%

  3. 78 FR 21349 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, To Export Compressed Natural Gas, Vacating Prior Authority and Denying Request for Rehearing During January...

  4. 77 FR 31838 - Notice of Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ...Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During April 2012 AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy...12-34-NG Northwest Natural Gas Company............ 12-41-NG...

  5. Performance study using natural gas, hydrogen-supplemented natural gas and hydrogen in AVL research engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Duebel; K. Schmillen; B. Nagalingam

    1983-01-01

    Performance tests with natural gas, hydrogen-supplemented CH4, and H2-fueled configurations of the AVL research engine are reported. A comparison is made of the properties of H2 and natural gas, noting that natural gas benefits such as heating value, higher ignition energy, and narrow ignition limits are at least partially offset by H2 wide ignition limits which allow elimination of throttling,

  6. Natural gas price increases in Los Angeles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-31

    Natural gas price increases in recent years captured congressional and public attention. To determine which factors contributed to an average price increase of 61% in the Los Angeles, California, area between April 1981 and April 1983, GAO obtained and analyzed information from the distribution company which sells gas to retail customers in Los Angeles, the state agency which regulates it, and the distribution company's four principal pipeline company suppliers. GAO found that about three quarters of the price increase was due to: (1) the depletion of old and less expensive gas reserves and the addition of new and higher cost reserves; (2) price increases permitted by federal regulation; (3) increased imports of relatively expensive Canadian natural gas; (4) contract clauses affecting purchases by the distribution company and its pipeline suppliers; and (5) a decline in gas consumption which made purchasing patterns and company operations less efficient. The remaining increases stemmed from operating costs. 1 figure, 14 tables.

  7. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of shale gas, natural gas, coal, and petroleum.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Andrew; Han, Jeongwoo; Clark, Corrie E; Wang, Michael; Dunn, Jennifer B; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi

    2012-01-17

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. It has been debated whether the fugitive methane emissions during natural gas production and transmission outweigh the lower carbon dioxide emissions during combustion when compared to coal and petroleum. Using the current state of knowledge of methane emissions from shale gas, conventional natural gas, coal, and petroleum, we estimated up-to-date life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings that need to be further addressed. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than conventional natural gas, 23% lower than gasoline, and 33% lower than coal. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas. Moreover, this life-cycle analysis, among other work in this area, provides insight on critical stages that the natural gas industry and government agencies can work together on to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas. PMID:22107036

  8. Economic evaluation of natural gas hydrate as an alternative for natural gas transportation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Javanmardi; Kh. Nasrifar; S. H. Najibi; M. Moshfeghian

    2005-01-01

    Based on a proposed process for conversion of natural gas to natural gas hydrate, NGH, the amortized total capital investment, operation and maintenance costs and total cost for production of NGH have been obtained. The effects of different operational conditions such as seawater temperature as cooling media and hydrate storage temperature have been investigated. The economic parameters for marine transportation

  9. International Trade in Natural Gas: Golden Age of LNG?

    E-print Network

    Gabrieli, John

    International Trade in Natural Gas: Golden Age of LNG? Yichen Du and Sergey Paltsev Report No. 271;1 International Trade in Natural Gas: Golden Age of LNG? Yichen Du* and Sergey Paltsev* Abstract The introduction of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as an option for international trade has created a market for natural gas where

  10. Oil & Natural Gas Technology DOE Award No.: FWP 49462

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    Used by Marcellus Shale Gas Producers Submitted by: John A. Veil Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, and gas shales. Figure 1 shows EIA projections of the source of natural gas supplies through 2030 productive oil and gas activities in the country today are shale gas plays. Figure 1 ­ U.S. Natural Gas

  11. The solar thermal decarbonization of natural gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Hirsch; M. Epstein; A. Steinfeld

    2001-01-01

    The endothermic decomposition of natural gas into a carbon-rich condensed phase and a hydrogen-rich gas phase, using concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat, is considered as a model reaction for conducting a 2nd-law analysis of a solar decarbonization process in which carbon is removed from fossil fuels prior to their use for power generation. The theoretical

  12. Natural gas decontrol. Talk has little effect on NGPA applications. [Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Mickey, V.

    1981-05-01

    Even though the possibility of decontrol of natural gas prices is being discussed, applications under the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 continue to flood the Texas Railroad Commission. As of mid-March, 33,965 applications had been filed with the TRC seeking ceiling price designations under the Act. During the first part of the year, the commission sponsored seminars in different parts of the state to explain the provisions of the Act and the commission's procedures in handling applications filed under the NGPA. Title 1 of the NGPA contains the wellhead pricing provisions. Eight major categories of domestically-produced gas with certain statutory maximum price levels are applied to all first sales. In Texas the TRC has jurisdiction over 4 of these categories: Section 102 - new natural gas; Section 103 - new, onshore production natural gas; Section 107 - high-cost natural gas; and Section 108 - stripper well natural gas. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission in Washington has jurisdiction over the other categories which include: Section 104 - sales of natural gas dedicated to interstate commerce; Section 105 - sales under existing intrastate contracts; Section 106 - sales under roll-over contracts; and Section 109 - other categories.

  13. Soluble surfactants favorably modify fluid structure and wall shear stress profiles during near-occluding bubble motion in a computational model of intravascular gas embolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaminathan, T. N.; Ayyaswamy, P. S.; Eckmann, D. M.

    2009-11-01

    Finite sized gas bubble motion in a blood vessel causes temporal and spatial gradients of shear stress at the endothelial cell surface lining the vessel wall as the bubble approaches the cell, moves over it and passes it by. Rapid reversals occur in the sign of the shear stress imparted to the cell surface during this motion. The sign-reversing shear is a potently coupled source of cell surface mechanical stretch, potentiating cell injury. The presence of a suitable soluble surfactant in the bulk medium considerably reduces the level of the shear stress gradients imparted to the cell surface as compared to an equivalent surfactant-free system. The bubble shape and the film thickness between the bubble and the vessel wall are also different. Furthermore, the bubble residence time near the proximity of a cell surface changes in comparison. These results based on our modeling may help explain several phenomena observed in experimental studies related to gas embolism, a significant problem in cardiac surgery and decompression sickness.

  14. Natural gas price increases in Detroit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-11

    Natural gas prices increased an average 38 percent in the Detroit, Michigan, area between January 1981 and January 1983. GAO found that about two-thirds of the price increase was due to (1) the depletion of old and less expensive gas reserves and the addition of new and higher cost reserves and (2) price increases permitted by federal regulation. Another major reason for the price increase was a decline in gas consumption which made purchasing patterns and company operations less cost-efficient. The remaining increase stemmed from operating costs. 1 fig., 13 tabs.

  15. Development of a thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier.

    SciTech Connect

    Wollan, J. J. (John J.); Swift, G. W. (Gregory W.); Backhaus, S. N. (Scott N.); Gardner, D. L. (David L.)

    2002-01-01

    Praxair, in conjunction with the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is developing a new technology, thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators, for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons/day, has been built and tested. The power source is a natural gas burner. Systems will be developed with liquefaction capacities up to 10,000 to 20,000 gallons per day. The technology, the development project, accomplishments and applications are discussed. In February 2001 Praxair, Inc. purchased the acoustic heat engine and refrigeration development program from Chart Industries. Chart (formerly Cryenco, which Chart purchased in 1997) and Los Alamos had been working on the technology development program since 1994. The purchase included assets and intellectual property rights for thermoacoustically driven orifice pulse tube refrigerators (TADOPTR), a new and revolutionary Thermoacoustic Stirling Heat Engine (TASHE) technology, aspects of Orifice Pulse Tube Refrigeration (OPTR) and linear motor compressors as OPTR drivers. Praxair, in cooperation with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the licensor of the TADOPTR and TASHE patents, is continuing the development of TASHE-OPTR natural gas powered, natural gas liquefiers. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at -161 C (-259 F) at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 TADOPTR invention by Drs. Greg Swift (LANL) and Ray Radebaugh (NIST) demonstrated the first technology to produce cryogenic refrigeration with no moving parts. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators use acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat. The basic driver and refrigerator consist of nothing more than helium-filled heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. The liquefier development program is divided into two components: Thermoacoustically driven refrigerators and linear motor driven refrigerators (LOPTRs). LOPTR technology will, for the foreseeable future, be limited to natural gas liquefaction capacities on the order of hundreds of gallons per day. TASHE-OPTR technology is expected to achieve liquefaction capacities of tens of thousands of gallons per day. This paper will focus on the TASHE-OPTR technology because its natural gas liquefaction capacity has greater market opportunity. LOPTR development will be mentioned briefly. The thermoacoustically driven refrigerator development program is now in the process of demonstrating the technology at a capacity of about 500 gallon/day (gpd) i.e., approximately 42,000 standard cubic feet/day, which requires about 7 kW of refrigeration power. This capacity is big enough to illuminate the issues of large-scale acoustic liquefaction at reasonable cost and to demonstrate the liquefaction of about 70% of an input gas stream, while burning about 30%. Subsequent to this demonstration a system with a capacity of approximately 10{sup 6} standard cubic feet/day (scfd) = 10,000 gpd with a projected liquefaction rate of about 85% of the input gas stream will be developed. When commercialized, the TASHE-OPTRs will be a totally new type of heat-driven cryogenic refrigerator, with projected low manufacturing cost, high reliability, long life, and low maintenance. A TASHE-OPTR will be able to liquefy a broad range of gases, one of the most important being natural gas (NG). Potential NG applications range from distributed liquefaction of pipeline gas as fuel for heavy-duty fleet and long haul vehicles to large-scale liquefaction at on-shore and offshore gas wellheads. An alternative to the thermoacoustic driver, but with many similar technical and market advantages, is the linear motor compressor. Linear motors convert electrical power directly into oscillating linear, or axial, motion. Attachment of a piston to the oscillator results in a direct drive compressor. Such a compressor

  16. Remote sensing of gas emissions on natural gas flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haus, Rainer; Wilkinson, Rob; Heland, Jörg; Schäfer, Klaus

    1998-07-01

    Emissions from operational natural gas flares are examined by a remote sensing technique using a commercial moderate-resolution Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer. The thermal radiation emitted by the post-combustion gas is analysed to determine plume temperatures and concentrations of 0963-9659/7/4/020/img5 and 0963-9659/7/4/020/img6. The multicomponent air pollution software (MAPS) is applied which is based on radiative transfer line-by-line calculations and least-squares fit procedures. Emission rates and combustion efficiencies are calculated which indicate that the local environmental impact of methane emissions from natural gas flares is small, while significant amounts of carbon dioxide are released.

  17. Mitchell firmly retrenched in natural gas services

    SciTech Connect

    Share, J.

    1997-09-01

    The past three years, Mitchell Energy and Development Corp. has undergone a massive restructuring that has changed the face of one of the nation`s largest and best-known natural gas/natural gas liquids companies. Facing a rapidly changing industry that frequently has been stung by volatile swings in energy markets, management of the independent company, founded by George Mitchell in 1946, sold off $300 million in non-core assets; reduced its long-term debt by $400 million; instituted a hiring freeze and reduced its workforce by a third, from 2,900 to 1,950, over the last three years. Mitchell negotiated a buyout of its hugely profitable North Texas gas sales contract with Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America as a means of easing its transition to a market-sensitive price environment and reducing its debt. Mitchell also took operational control. Finally, Mitchell has left the real estate business, culminating July 31 with the sale of its real estate subsidiary, The Woodlands Corporation, for $543 million ($460 million net after-tax), further reducing its workforce to 1,100. On Aug. 18, the company said it will use the proceeds to repurchase common stock, retire another $200 million of public debt, make asset niche energy acquisitions and increase capital spending for existing programs. The result is a renewed focus on its exploration and production and gas gathering, processing and marketing businesses.

  18. IMPROVED NATURAL GAS STORAGE WELL REMEDIATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C. Furness; Donald O. Johnson; Michael L. Wilkey; Lynn Furness; Keith Vanderlee; P. David Paulsen

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the research conducted during Budget Period One on the project ''Improved Natural Gas Storage Well Remediation''. The project team consisted of Furness-Newburge, Inc., the technology developer; TechSavants, Inc., the technology validator; and Nicor Technologies, Inc., the technology user. The overall objectives for the project were: (1) To develop, fabricate and test prototype laboratory devices using sonication and

  19. Advanced Liquid Natural Gas Onboard Storage System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg Harper; Charles Powars

    2003-01-01

    Cummins Westport Incorporated (CWI) has designed and developed a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel system that includes a reciprocating pump with the cold end submerged in LNG contained in a vacuum-jacketed tank. This system was tested and analyzed under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced LNG Onboard Storage System (ALOSS) program. The pumped LNG fuel system developed by

  20. Combined natural gas and electricity network pricing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Morais; J. W. Marangon Lima

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of competition to electricity generation and commercialization has been the main focus of many restructuring experiences around the world. The open access to the transmission network and a fair regulated tariff have been the keystones for the development of the electricity market. Parallel to the electricity industry, the natural gas business has great interaction with the electricity market

  1. Efficient liquefaction cycles for natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Musleh, Easa Ismail

    Natural Gas is liquefied for storage and transportation purposes. Large quantity of Natural Gas is liquefied on a daily basis. Therefore, there is a need for efficient refrigeration cycles to liquefy natural gas. Refrigeration cycles are energy intensive processes. In such systems, the compressors are the main power consumers. A given refrigeration task can be achieved by many configurations and use of refrigerant mediums. In principle, all possible configurations utilize vapor compression and/or expander cycles. However, identifying an energy efficient configuration along with the proper choice of refrigerants is not a straightforward technique. In the refrigeration literature, many methods have been proposed to identify efficient refrigeration configurations for a given task. However, these methods rely on detailed simulations and mathematical programming and do not provide much physical insights to design a good refrigeration process. As a result, our motivation is to develop physical insights through systematic evaluation of refrigerants and cycle configurations. We have identified key features of different refrigeration systems for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) applications. This was achieved through detailed simulations and thermodynamic analysis. Such features are essential to understand the limits of different configurations. Moreover, they can lead to process developments and improvements.

  2. Bibliography on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordin, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    Approximately 600 citations concerning safety of liquefied natural gas and liquid methane are presented. Each entry includes the title, author, abstract, source, description of figures, key references, and major descriptors for retrieving the document. An author index is provided as well as an index of descriptors.

  3. Mexican demand for US natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kanter, M.A.; Kier, P.H.

    1993-09-01

    This study describes the Mexican natural gas industry as it exists today and the factors that have shaped the evolution of the industry in the past or that are expected to influence its progress; it also projects production and use of natural gas and estimates the market for exports of natural gas from the United States to Mexico. The study looks ahead to two periods, a near term (1993--1995) and an intermediate term (1996--2000). The bases for estimates under two scenarios are described. Under the conservative scenario, exports of natural gas from the United States would decrease from the 1992 level of 250 million cubic feet per day (MMCF/d), would return to that level by 1995, and would reach about 980 MMCF/D by 2000. Under the more optimistic scenario, exports would decrease in 1993 and would recover and rise to about 360 MMCF/D in 1995 and to 1,920 MMCF/D in 2000.

  4. Minimizing liquid contaminants in natural gas liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.L. [Pall Industrial Process Filtration, East Hills, NY (United States); Wines, T.H. [Pall Scientific and Laboratory Services, Port Washington, NY (United States); Williamson, K.M. [Pall Process Equipment Development, Cortland, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In processing natural gas liquids, significant contamination occurs with liquid dispersions and emulsions. Natural gas liquids (NGL) and liquid petroleum gas (LPG) streams are treated with caustic to remove residual organic sulfur compounds such as mercaptans and with amines to remove hydrogen sulfide. In both cases a liquid/liquid contactor is used. Significant amounts of the caustic or amine can be carried over into the product stream in process units that are running at rates above design capacity, are treating high sulfur feed stocks, or have other operational problems. The carried over liquid results in off-spec products, excessive loses of caustic or amine, and can cause operating problems in downstream processes. In addition, water is a significant contaminant which can cause LPG and natural gasoline to be off-specification. This paper discusses a new technique for separating very stable liquid dispersions of caustic, amine, or water from natural gas liquids using liquid/liquid cartridge coalescers constructed with specially formulated polymer and fluoropolymer medium with enhanced surface properties. In addition, factors influencing the coalescer mechanism will be discussed including interfacial tension, concentration of surface active compounds, steric repulsion, and electrostatic charge affects. Results from field tests, operating data from commercial installations, and economic benefits will also be presented.

  5. 21 CFR 870.1370 - Catheter tip occluder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Catheter tip occluder. 870.1370 Section 870...Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1370 Catheter tip occluder. (a) Identification. A catheter tip occluder is a device that is...

  6. Development of a natural Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Godec; M. Haas; W. Pepper; J. Rose

    1993-01-01

    Recent dramatic changes in natural gas markets have significant implications for the scope and direction of DOE`s upstream as well as downstream natural gas R&D. Open access transportation changes the way gas is bought and sold. The end of the gas deliverability surplus requires increased reserve development above recent levels. Increased gas demand for power generation and other new uses

  7. Natural gas hydrates on the North Slope of Alaska

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Collett

    1991-01-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, mainly methane, in which a solid-water lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure, or clathrate. These substances often have been regarded as a potential (unconventional) source of natural gas. Significant quantities of naturally occurring gas hydrates have been detected in many regions of the Arctic including Siberia, the Mackenzie

  8. Conversion of a Waste Gas to Liquid Natural Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gongaware, D. F.; Barclay, M. A.; Barclay, J. A.; Skrzypkowski, M. P.

    2004-06-01

    The choice of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a heavy-duty vehicular fuel is growing rapidly due to improved LNG economics, diesel price uncertainties caused by the dependence on imported crude oil, liabilities associated with environmental and health concerns, and governmental programs related to concerns over greenhouse gas emissions. However, vehicle owners who wish to use LNG are impeded by a lack of refueling infrastructure and reliable supply of inexpensive fuel. These barriers are being overcome by the development of innovative purifier/liquefier systems that economically convert a wide array of distributed, low cost methane gas sources into high quality LNG. This paper describes the engineering design, manufacture, installation, and initial operations of two such systems. One unit was a pilot-scale system using an innovative cryogenic freezing process to remove bulk concentrations of carbon dioxide from the landfill gas (LFG). The second unit converts stranded well gas containing ˜ 18% nitrogen gas into LNG. The paper closes with a summary of lessons learned from these two installations and directions for future improvements.

  9. Natural gas legislation: a consumer's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, J.R.

    1983-08-01

    This report evaluates three major legislative proposals: accelerated decontrol of both old and new wellhead prices as proposed by the Reagan administration (S.615, H.R. 1760); imposition of new natural gas price controls at lower levels as proposed by Congressman Gephardt (H.R. 2154); and conversion of interstate gas pipelines to common carriage as proposed by Senators Dixon and Percy and by Congressman Corcoran (S. 1119, H.R. 2565). The reference or base case scenario used in the evaluation is a continuation of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA) with no legislative modifications. First, projections of wellhead and burner-tip natural gas prices are presented for the period 1983-1990, and then consumer benefits under the different scenarios are estimated. All projections presented assume that legislation takes effect as of January 1, 1983 and that normal weather patterns are experienced. All prices identified in the report are given in 1982 dollars unless otherwise indicated. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Method and apparatus for dispensing compressed natural gas and liquified natural gas to natural gas powered vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis A.; Clark, Michael L.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Palmer, Gary L.

    2005-05-31

    A fueling facility and method for dispensing liquid natural gas (LNG), compressed natural gas (CNG) or both on-demand. The fueling facility may include a source of LNG, such as cryogenic storage vessel. A low volume high pressure pump is coupled to the source of LNG to produce a stream of pressurized LNG. The stream of pressurized LNG may be selectively directed through an LNG flow path or to a CNG flow path which includes a vaporizer configured to produce CNG from the pressurized LNG. A portion of the CNG may be drawn from the CNG flow path and introduced into the CNG flow path to control the temperature of LNG flowing therethrough. Similarly, a portion of the LNG may be drawn from the LNG flow path and introduced into the CNG flow path to control the temperature of CNG flowing therethrough.

  11. LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS

    SciTech Connect

    VANDOR,D.

    1999-03-01

    This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

  12. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1999-04-30

    In March, work continued on characterizing probabilities for determining natural fracturing associated with the GGRB for the Upper Cretaceous tight gas plays. Structural complexity, based on potential field data and remote sensing data was completed. A resource estimate for the Frontier and Mesa Verde play was also completed. Further, work was also conducted to determine threshold economics for the play based on limited current production in the plays in the Wamsutter Ridge area. These analyses culminated in a presentation at FETC on 24 March 1999 where quantified natural fracture domains, mapped on a partition basis, which establish ''sweet spot'' probability for natural fracturing, were reviewed. That presentation is reproduced here as Appendix 1. The work plan for the quarter of January 1, 1999--March 31, 1999 comprised five tasks: (1) Evaluation of the GGRB partitions for structural complexity that can be associated with natural fractures, (2) Continued resource analysis of the balance of the partitions to determine areas with higher relative gas richness, (3) Gas field studies, (4) Threshold resource economics to determine which partitions would be the most prospective, and (5) Examination of the area around the Table Rock 4H well.

  13. Liquid natural gas regasification combined with adsorbed natural gas filling system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roszak, Eliza Anna; Chorowski, Maciej

    2012-06-01

    The article provides an introduction to innovative method of Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) physical exergy practical utilization. The energy spent to liquefy natural gas (a thermodynamic minimum is about 0.13 kWh/l of LNG depending on pressure and chemical composition) can be partly recovered in the system making use either of the LNG low temperature (111 K) or its ability to increase the pressure in a storage vessel by heat absorption from the environment. The paper presents estimation of the LNG physical exergy and its dependence on the pressure and temperature. Then description and comparison of available natural gas storage methods (liquefaction, compression, adsorption) is given, with a special attention paid to Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG) technology. Original data concerning adsorption isotherms of methane with activated carbon MaxsorbIII are presented. A concept of ANG storage technology coupled with the LNG regasification, is a promising technique of utilization of the LNG cold exergy. The energy efficient combination of ANG with LNG may help market progress of adsorption technology in natural gas storage and distribution. The ANG/LNG coupling is especially perspective in case of small capacity and distributed natural gas deposits exploitation.

  14. Occluded object imaging via optimal camera selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tao; Zhang, Yanning; Tong, Xiaomin; Ma, Wenguang; Yu, Rui

    2013-12-01

    High performance occluded object imaging in cluttered scenes is a significant challenging task for many computer vision applications. Recently the camera array synthetic aperture imaging is proved to be an effective way to seeing object through occlusion. However, the imaging quality of occluded object is often significantly decreased by the shadows of the foreground occluder. Although some works have been presented to label the foreground occluder via object segmentation or 3D reconstruction, these methods will fail in the case of complicated occluder and severe occlusion. In this paper, we present a novel optimal camera selection algorithm to solve the above problem. The main characteristics of this algorithm include: (1) Instead of synthetic aperture imaging, we formulate the occluded object imaging problem as an optimal camera selection and mosaicking problem. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed method is the first one for occluded object mosaicing. (2) A greedy optimization framework is presented to propagate the visibility information among various depth focus planes. (3) A multiple label energy minimization formulation is designed in each plane to select the optimal camera. The energy is estimated in the synthetic aperture image volume and integrates the multi-view intensity consistency, previous visibility property and camera view smoothness, which is minimized via Graph cuts. We compare our method with the state-of-the-art synthetic aperture imaging algorithms, and extensive experimental results with qualitative and quantitative analysis demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of our approach.

  15. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-11-30

    The goal of the work this quarter has been to partition and high-grade the Greater Green River basin for exploration efforts in the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play and to initiate resource assessment of the basin. The work plan for the quarter of July 1-September 30, 1998 comprised three tasks: (1) Refining the exploration process for deep, naturally fractured gas reservoirs; (2) Partitioning of the basin based on structure and areas of overpressure; (3) Examination of the Kinney and Canyon Creek fields with respect to the Cretaceous tight gas play and initiation of the resource assessment of the Vermilion sub-basin partition (which contains these two fields); and (4) Initiation analysis of the Deep Green River Partition with respect to the Stratos well and assessment of the resource in the partition.

  16. Decarbonized hydrogen and electricity from natural gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Consonni; Federico Viganò

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses configuration, attainable performances and thermodynamic features of stand-alone plants for the co-production of de-carbonized hydrogen and electricity from natural gas (NG) based on commercially available technology.We focus on the two basic technologies currently used in large industrial applications: fired tubular reformer (FTR) and auto-thermal reformer (ATR). In both cases we assume that NG is pre-heated and humidified

  17. Helium production in natural gas reservoirs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. B. Pereira; J. A. S. Adams

    1982-01-01

    About 11,000 published natural gas analyses of helium are used in the estimation of the average global scale accumulation and concentration of radiogenic helium in sediments. Simple lognormal statistics is employed to derive a net accumulation rate between 1†105 to 6.7†105 helium atoms per cubic meter of reservoir rock per second. This acccumulation rate permitted to infer an average helium

  18. Helium production in natural gas reservoirs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. B. Pereira; J. A. S. Adams

    1982-01-01

    About 11,000 published natural gas analyses of helium are used in the estimation of the average global scale accumulation and concentration of radiogenic helium in sediments. Simple lognormal statistics is employed to derive a net accumulation rate between 1dagger10⁵ to 6.7dagger10⁵ helium atoms per cubic meter of reservoir rock per second. This acccumulation rate permitted to infer an average helium

  19. Radiation from Large Liquefied Natural Gas Fires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. G. MAY; W. McQUEEN

    1973-01-01

    Radiation from flames of burning Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) has been measured. The burning pool was contained in a trench. A range of burning rates from 13,500 to 40,000 BBL\\/D of LNG was studied. Measurements were made from ground level, 300 to 600 ft. from flame center and from several elevated points. Measured flux varied from about 60 to 480

  20. Failure analysis of natural gas pipes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. A. Majid; R. Mohsin; Z. Yaacob; Z. Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Incident involving failures of 6months old API 5L X42 (NPS8) and SDR 17, 125mm medium density polyethylene pipe (MDPE) supplying natural gas to an industrial customer has caused serious 7h supply disruption. Study was performed to identify the most probable cause of the pipes failures. The study conducted by reviewing the existing design and construction data, visual physical inspection, pipe

  1. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-09-30

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas producers, trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the tenth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period include: {lg_bullet} 2004 SWC Final Project Reports distribution; {lg_bullet} Exhibit and present at the Midcontinent Oil and Gas Prospect Fair, Great Bend, KS, September 12, 2006; {lg_bullet} Participate and showcase current and past projects at the 2006 Oklahoma Oil and Gas Trade Expo, Oklahoma City, OK, October 26, 2006; {lg_bullet} Finalize agenda and identify exhibitors for the northeastern US, Fall SWC Technical Transfer Workshop, Pittsburghhh, PA, November 9, 2006; {lg_bullet} Continue distribution of the public broadcast documentary, ''Independent Oil: Rediscovering American's Forgotten Wells''; {lg_bullet} Communications/outreach; and {lg_bullet} New members update.

  2. Development of natural gas rotary engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, J. R.

    1991-08-01

    Development of natural gas-fueled rotary engines was pursued on the parallel paths of converted Mazda automotive engines and of establishing technology and demonstration of a test model of a larger John Deer Technologies Incorporated (JDTI) rotary engine with power capability of 250 HP per power section for future production of multi-rotor engines with power ratings 250, 500, and 1000 HP and upward. Mazda engines were converted to natural gas and were characterized by a laboratory which was followed by nearly 12,000 hours of testing in three different field installations. To develop technology for the larger JDTI engine, laboratory and engine materials testing was accomplished. Extensive combustion analysis computer codes were modified, verified, and utilized to predict engine performance, to guide parameters for actual engine design, and to identify further improvements. A single rotor test engine of 5.8 liter displacement was designed for natural gas operation based on the JDTI 580 engine series. This engine was built and tested. It ran well and essentially achieved predicted performance. Lean combustion and low NOW emission were demonstrated.

  3. Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status and Outlook, The

    EIA Publications

    2003-01-01

    The Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status & Outlook was undertaken to characterize the global liquefied natural gas (LNG) market and to examine recent trends and future prospects in the LNG market.

  4. Natural Gas Procurement Challenges for a Project Financed Cogeneration Facility 

    E-print Network

    Good, R. L.; Calvert, T. B.; Pavlish, B. A.

    1988-01-01

    A decision to project finance a 110 megawatt combined cycle cogeneration facility in 1986 in place of conventional internal financing greatly changed the way in which natural gas was normally procured by Union Carbide Corporation. Natural gas supply...

  5. Natural gas storage - end user interaction. Task 2. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    New opportunities have been created for underground gas storage as a result of recent regulatory developments in the energy industry. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636 directly changed the economics of gas storage nationwide. This paper discusses the storage of natural gas, storage facilities, and factors affecting the current, and future situation for natural gas storage.

  6. Issues in Global Natural Gas: A Primer and Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bright Erakpoweri Okogu

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the rising profile of natural gas in global energy, factors constraining its further development, the gas contracting process, and the absence of a global market, which is analyzed in the context of the economic rent in the gas price and the opaque nature of gas contracts. A proposal for rationalizing the trade to ease these constraints is

  7. Issues in Global Natural GasA Primer and Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bright Okogu

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the rising profile of natural gas in global energy, factors constraining its further development, the gas contracting process, and the absence of a global market, which is analyzed in the context of the economic rent in the gas price and the opaque nature of gas contracts. A proposal for rationalizing the trade to ease these constraints is

  8. Natural gas treating with molecular sieves. Pt. 2. Regeneration, economics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1972-01-01

    Regeneration considerations are often the key to successful and economical application of molecular sieves for natural gas sweetening. In effect, molecular sieves remove the sulfur compounds from the feed stream and concentrate them into a smaller regeneration gas stream. Because a molecular sieve natural gas sweetener concentrates the hydrogen sulfide from the feed stream in a smaller regeneration gas stream,

  9. Hydrogen-Enhanced Natural Gas Vehicle Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, Dan; Collier, Kirk

    2009-01-22

    The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of HCNG fuel (30 to 50% hydrogen by volume and the remainder natural gas) to reduce emissions from light-duty on-road vehicles with no loss in performance or efficiency. The City of Las Vegas has an interest in alternative fuels and already has an existing hydrogen refueling station. Collier Technologies Inc (CT) supplied the latest design retrofit kits capable of converting nine compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled, light-duty vehicles powered by the Ford 5.4L Triton engine. CT installed the kits on the first two vehicles in Las Vegas, trained personnel at the City of Las Vegas (the City) to perform the additional seven retrofits, and developed materials for allowing other entities to perform these retrofits as well. These vehicles were used in normal service by the City while driver impressions, reliability, fuel efficiency and emissions were documented for a minimum of one year after conversion. This project has shown the efficacy of operating vehicles originally designed to operate on compressed natural gas with HCNG fuel incorporating large quantities of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). There were no safety issues experienced with these vehicles. The only maintenance issue in the project was some rough idling due to problems with the EGR valve and piping parts. Once the rough idling was corrected no further maintenance issues with these vehicles were experienced. Fuel economy data showed no significant changes after conversion even with the added power provided by the superchargers that were part of the conversions. Driver feedback for the conversions was very favorable. The additional power provided by the HCNG vehicles was greatly appreciated, especially in traffic. The drivability of the HCNG vehicles was considered to be superior by the drivers. Most of the converted vehicles showed zero oxides of nitrogen throughout the life of the project using the State of Nevada emissions station.

  10. Natural gas markets and the creation of an export gas pipeline system in Eastern Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. G. Saneev; A. D. Sokolov; S. P. Popov

    2003-01-01

    The world natural gas markets are analysed, with a special focus on the countries of Northeast Asia (NEA). The natural gas demands of China, Japan and South Korea, until the year 2020, is projected, considering a possible share of Russian gas. The resource potential of natural gas from the Siberian platform and the Sakhalin shelf is given as a sound

  11. Visual Simulation of Offshore Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Terminals

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Visual Simulation of Offshore Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Terminals in a Decision-Making Context1, Berkeley. 3/ Liquified Natural Gas Act Stats, 1977, Chap. 855, Page 2506 (effective Sept. 17, 1977 potential offshore Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) sites and the types of terminals that might occupy those

  12. Measurements of Methane Emissions at Natural Gas Production Sites

    E-print Network

    Lightsey, Glenn

    Measurements of Methane Emissions at Natural Gas Production Sites in the United States #12;Why = 21 #12;Need for Study · Estimates of methane emissions from natural gas production , from academic in assumptions in estimating emissions · Measured data for some sources of methane emissions during natural gas

  13. Nitrogen rejection from natural gas integrated with NGL recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Davis; D. M. Herron; J. W. Pervier; H. L. Vines

    1985-01-01

    A process is set forth for the recovery of methane, nitrogen and natural gas liquids (Câ\\/sub +\\/) from a natural gas feed stream wherein the recovery can be made at high pressure by the integration of a nitrogen rejection stage including a heat pump driven distillation column and a natural gas liquids stage. Nitrogen can be rejected over a wide

  14. 10 CFR 221.11 - Natural gas and ethane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Natural gas and ethane. 221.11 Section 221.11...PRODUCTION ACT Exclusions § 221.11 Natural gas and ethane. The supply of natural gas and ethane are excluded from this...

  15. 10 CFR 221.11 - Natural gas and ethane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Natural gas and ethane. 221.11 Section 221.11...PRODUCTION ACT Exclusions § 221.11 Natural gas and ethane. The supply of natural gas and ethane are excluded from this...

  16. 10 CFR 221.11 - Natural gas and ethane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Natural gas and ethane. 221.11 Section 221.11...PRODUCTION ACT Exclusions § 221.11 Natural gas and ethane. The supply of natural gas and ethane are excluded from this...

  17. 10 CFR 221.11 - Natural gas and ethane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Natural gas and ethane. 221.11 Section 221.11...PRODUCTION ACT Exclusions § 221.11 Natural gas and ethane. The supply of natural gas and ethane are excluded from this...

  18. Cost of Natural Gas Used in Manufacturing Sector Has Fallen

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    Natural gas has been an important exception to the trend of rising prices for energy sources used by manufacturers. Production of natural gas in the United States increased rapidly beginning in 2007 as a result of resources found in shale formations. That increase in supply has in turn lowered the price of natural gas to manufacturers

  19. Outlook bright for U.S. natural gas resources

    SciTech Connect

    Kuuskraa, V.A. [Advanced Resources International Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1998-04-13

    This series of articles by Advanced Resources International (ARI) and the US Geological Survey (USGS) provides a fresh look at new technologies and emerging natural gas plays. It begins, in this article, with three topics: (1) an overview of the controversy surrounding the adequacy of domestic natural gas resources; (2) a look at emerging gas resources in light of advances in technology; and (3) a review of the most frequently referenced natural gas assessments. Future articles in this series will address emerging natural gas resources that may add to the US resource base: deep gas resources (two parts); Barnett shale gas resources; moving into the resource pyramid, a summary of poorly understood but potentially significant emerging gas plays--such as sub-basalt gas plays, deep coalbed methane, and new shale gas resources--not yet included in resource assessments; and gas hydrates.

  20. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-12-31

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The SWC represents a partnership between U.S. petroleum and natural gas producers, trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the NETL. This document serves as the eleventh quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the Fall SWC Technology Transfer Workshop for the northeastern U.S., in Pittsburgh, PA, on November 9, 2006, and organizing and identifying projects to exhibit during the SWC/Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) joint reception on November 8, 2006; (2) Distributing a paper copy of the Texas Tech 2004 Final Report and a revised, complete compact disc of all 2004 final reports; (3) Invoicing current and potential members for FY2007; (4) Soliciting nominations for the 2007-2008 Executive Council seats; and (5) Communications and outreach.

  1. Natural gas prices and contractual terms

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, A. (Ohio State Univ., School of Public Administration, Columbus, OH (US)); Henderson, J.S. (National Regulatory Research Inst., Columbus, OH (USA))

    1988-01-01

    Recent changes in the natural gas transportation program have resulted in greater freedom for local distributors to contract for gas supplies. The authors examine a sample of recent long-term contracts to determine the relation between the initial price in the contract and other factors, such as the nonprice terms of the agreement and market conditions, as measured by a corresponding spot price. Non-price contractual terms are classified as affecting the future flexibility of the parties to adjust either the price or the quantities to be taken. Data envelopment analysis is used to calculate a performance index for each contract. The method can be used by state public utility regulators to focus attention on particular contracts in discussions with utility managers.

  2. Reduction of sulfuric acid by natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kogtev, S.E.; Nikandrov, I.S.

    1987-12-01

    The reduction of sulfuric acid to sulfur dioxide was studied to obtain a higher yield of sulfur dioxide. The reactions which take place in the presence of excess methane were listed. Gibbs energy reactions were presented showing the thermodynamic probability for the occurrence of the reactions within a wide temperature range. Gas analysis for the content of sulfur and carbon dioxides, methane hydrogen, hydrogen sulfate, and carbon monoxide was performed chromatographically using a katharometer and sequential columns packed with Polysorb 1 and NaX zeolite. It was shown that through high-temperature reduction of sulfuric acid by natural gas, the yield of sulfur dioxide could be raised to 100% at 1173 K.

  3. Environmental data energy technology characterizations: natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    Environmental Data Energy Technology Characterizations are publications which are intended to provide policy analysts and technical analysts with basic environmental data associated with key energy technologies. This publication provides backup documentation on natural gas. The transformation of the energy in gas into a more useful form is described in this document in terms of major activity areas in the gas cycle; that is, in terms of activities which produce either an energy product or a fuel leading to the production of an energy product in a different form. The activities discussed in this document are exploration, extraction, purification, power-plants, storage and transportation of natural gas. These activities represent both well-documented and non-documented activity areas. The former activities are characterized in terms of actual operating data with allowance for future modification where appropriate. Emissions are assumed to conform to environmental standards. The other activity areas examined are those like exploration and extraction, where reliance on engineering studies provided the data. The organization of the chapters in this volume is designed to support the tabular presentation in the summary. Each chapter begins with a brief description of the activity under consideration. The standard characteristics, size, availability, mode of functioning, and place in the fuel cycle are presented. Next, major legislative and/or technological factors influencing the commercial operation of the activity are offered. Discussions of resources consumed, residuals produced, and economics follow. To aid in comparing and linking the different activity areas, data for each area are normalized to 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy output from the activity.

  4. Lightweight Tanks for Storing Liquefied Natural Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Single-walled, jacketed aluminum tanks have been conceived for storing liquefied natural gas (LNG) in LNG-fueled motor vehicles. Heretofore, doublewall steel tanks with vacuum between the inner and outer walls have been used for storing LNG. In comparison with the vacuum- insulated steel tanks, the jacketed aluminum tanks weigh less and can be manufactured at lower cost. Costs of using the jacketed aluminum tanks are further reduced in that there is no need for the vacuum pumps heretofore needed to maintain vacuum in the vacuum-insulated tanks.

  5. Fuel tank for liquefied natural gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A storage tank is provided for storing liquefied natural gas on, for example, a motor vehicle such as a bus or truck. The storage tank includes a metal liner vessel encapsulated by a resin-fiber composite layer. A foam insulating layer, including an outer protective layer of epoxy or of a truck liner material, covers the composite layer. A non-conducting protective coating may be painted on the vessel between the composite layer and the vessel so as to inhibit galvanic corrosion.

  6. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) dispenser verification device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Maotao; Yang, Jie-bin; Zhao, Pu-jun; Yu, Bo; Deng, Wan-quan

    2013-01-01

    The composition of working principle and calibration status of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) dispenser in China are introduced. According to the defect of weighing method in the calibration of LNG dispenser, LNG dispenser verification device has been researched. The verification device bases on the master meter method to verify LNG dispenser in the field. The experimental results of the device indicate it has steady performance, high accuracy level and flexible construction, and it reaches the international advanced level. Then LNG dispenser verification device will promote the development of LNG dispenser industry in China and to improve the technical level of LNG dispenser manufacture.

  7. Competitive position of natural gas: Industrial baking

    SciTech Connect

    Minsker, B.S.; Salama, S.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Industrial baking is one of the largest natural gas consumers in the food industry. In 1985, bread, rolls, cookies, and crackers accounted for over 82 percent of all baked goods production. Bread accounting for 46 percent of all production. The baking industry consumed approximately 16 trillion Btu in 1985. About 93 percent was natural gas, while distillate fuel oil accounted for seven percent, and electricity accounted for much less than one percent. The three main types of baking ovens are the single lap, tunnel, and Lanham ovens. In the single lap oven, trays carry the product back and forth through the baking chamber once. The single lap oven is the most common type of oven and is popular due to its long horizontal runs, extensive steam zone, and simple construction. The tunnel oven is slightly more efficient and more expensive that the single lap oven. IN the tunnel oven, the hearth is a motorized conveyor which passes in a straight line through a series of heating zones, with loading and unloading occurring at opposite ends of the oven. The advantages of the tunnel oven include flexibility with respect to pan size and simple, accurate top and bottom heat control. The tunnel oven is used exclusively in the cookie and cracker baking, with the product being deposited directly on the oven band. The most recently developed type of oven is the Lanham oven. The Lanham oven is the most efficient type of oven, with a per pound energy consumption approaching the practical minimum for baking bread. Between one--half and two--thirds of all new industrial baking ovens are Lanham ovens. In the Lanham oven, the product enters the oven near the top of the chamber, spirals down through a series of heating zones, and exits near the bottom of the oven. The oven is gas--fired directly by ribbon burners. 31 refs.

  8. Restricted Natural Gas Supply Case (released in AEO2005)

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    The restricted natural gas supply case provides an analysis of the energy-economic implications of a scenario in which future gas supply is significantly more constrained than assumed in the reference case. Future natural gas supply conditions could be constrained because of problems with the construction and operation of large new energy projects, and because the future rate of technological progress could be significantly lower than the historical rate. Although the restricted natural gas supply case represents a plausible set of constraints on future natural gas supply, it is not intended to represent what is likely to happen in the future.

  9. INVENTORY OF METHANE LOSSES FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives the second year's results of an ongoing 4-year program undertaken jointly by the Gas Research Institute and the U.S. EPA to assess the methane (CH4) losses from the U.S. natural gas industry. he program's objective is to assess the acceptability of natural gas as ...

  10. DIRECT USE OF NATURAL GAS: ANALYSIS AND POLICY OPTIONS

    E-print Network

    is competitive even as a base-load electricity generation resource, that is, to operate at high capacity factors Paper 94-41 August 11, 1994 Introduction Lower natural gas prices, apparently adequate gas supplies to meet loads during most conditions. Considering the use of natural gas-fired generation for meeting base-load

  11. Systems analysis of hydrogen supplementation in natural gas pipelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Hermelee; M. Beller; J. DAcierno

    1981-01-01

    The potential for hydrogen supplementation in natural gas pipelines is analyzed for a specific site from both mid-term (1985) and long-term perspectives. The concept of supplementing natural gas with the addition of hydrogen in the existing gas pipeline system serves to provide a transport and storage medium for hydrogen while eliminating the high investment costs associated with constructing separate hydrogen

  12. Carburizing with natural gas at the rostsel'mash works

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Z. Berling; D. S. Lesnykh

    1961-01-01

    1.Natural gas of the origin indicated, without any pretreatment [this is doubted by the Russian editor], is recommended as a carburizer.2.The waste gases can be used as protective atmospheres in heat treating furnaces.3.The use of natural gas for gas carburizing released one of the furnaces and resulted in 57,000 rub. annual saving.

  13. 18 CFR 284.3 - Jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... false Jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act. 284.3 Section 284...ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED...CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY...

  14. 18 CFR 284.3 - Jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false Jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act. 284.3 Section 284...ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED...CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY...

  15. 18 CFR 284.3 - Jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... false Jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act. 284.3 Section 284...ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED...CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY...

  16. 18 CFR 284.3 - Jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... false Jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act. 284.3 Section 284...ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED...CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY...

  17. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Ramón A.; Pacala, Stephen W.; Winebrake, James J.; Chameides, William L.; Hamburg, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH4 leakage were capped at a level 45–70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH4 losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

  18. Feed gas drier precooling in mixed refrigerant natural gas liquefaction processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. N. Liu; C. L. Newton

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for the liquefaction of a natural gas feedstream using two closed cycle, multicomponent refrigerants wherein a high level refrigerant cools a low level refrigerant and the low level refrigerant cools and liquefies the natural gas feedstream which includes: cooling and liquefying a natural gas stream by heat exchange with a low level multicomponent refrigerant in a

  19. Development of natural gas from multiple geologic strata

    SciTech Connect

    Byrer, C.W.

    1992-12-31

    The successful commercial efforts described in this report involve shallow, multiple gas-strata of coals, sands, and shales. The potential for West Virginia to develop gas from these multiple strata involving coalbeds is great. The shallow-gas strata represent a large natural gas resource in west Virginia which could be very beneficial, not only to the gas and coal industries, but to local municipalities, institutions, and existing state industries as well. Coalbed gas in West Virginia is an abundant, shallow source of natural gas which could help supply cheaper energy for local industrial (or energy) parks for maintaining and attracting industry in the State. This gas resource could also help West Virginia become an even greater exporter of natural gas to the ever-growing eastern US, New England, and mid-western gas markets.

  20. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-11-30

    The work plan for October 1, 1997 to September 30, 1998 consisted of investigation of a number of topical areas. These topical areas were reported in four quarterly status reports, which were submitted to DOE earlier. These topical areas are reviewed in this volume. The topical areas covered during the year were: (1) Development of preliminary tests of a production method for determining areas of natural fracturing. Advanced Resources has demonstrated that such a relationship exists in the southern Piceance basin tight gas play. Natural fracture clusters are genetically related to stress concentrations (also called stress perturbations) associated with local deformation such a faulting. The mechanical explanation of this phenomenon is that deformation generally initiates at regions where the local stress field is elevated beyond the regional. (2) Regional structural and geologic analysis of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). Application of techniques developed and demonstrated during earlier phases of the project for sweet-spot delineation were demonstrated in a relatively new and underexplored play: tight gas from continuous-typeUpper Cretaceous reservoirs of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). The effort included data acquisition/processing, base map generation, geophysical and remote sensing analysis and the integration of these data and analyses. (3) Examination of the Table Rock field area in the northern Washakie Basin of the Greater Green River Basin. This effort was performed in support of Union Pacific Resources- and DOE-planned horizontal drilling efforts. The effort comprised acquisition of necessary seismic data and depth-conversion, mapping of major fault geometry, and analysis of displacement vectors, and the development of the natural fracture prediction. (4) Greater Green River Basin Partitioning. Building on fundamental fracture characterization work and prior work performed under this contract, namely structural analysis using satellite and potential field data, the GGRB was divided into partitions that will be used to analyze the resource potential of the Frontier and Mesaverde Upper Cretaceous tight gas play. A total of 20 partitions were developed, which will be instrumental for examining the Upper Cretaceous play potential. (5) Partition Analysis. Resource assessment associated with individual partitions was initiated starting with the Vermilion Sub-basin and the Green River Deep (which include the Stratos well) partitions (see Chapter 5). (6) Technology Transfer. Tech transfer was achieved by documenting our research and presenting it at various conferences.

  1. Carbon dioxid sequestration in natural gas hydrates: Thermodynamic considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Schicks; B. Beeskow-Strauch; M. Luzi; M. Girod; J. Erzinger

    2009-01-01

    Due to the increasing energy demands natural gas hydrates become more and more of interest. The huge amount of hydrocarbons - mainly CH4 - stored in natural hydrate reservoirs suggest the use of natural gas hydrates as an energy resource. However, the combustion of this fossil fuel results in an undesired increase of CO2 in the atmosphere. Therefore, a combination

  2. Environmental consequences of increased natural-gas usage

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, F. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Energy use is the primary cause of many environmental problems in the United States and around the world. Fossil fuels, including coal, oil, and natural gas, supply roughly 90 percent of our energy needs in the United States, and they are directly responsible for urban and industrial air pollution and acid rain. Combustion emissions from fossil fuels also contribute to the Earth's greenhouse effect, and they may play an important role in ozone depletion in the stratosphere, and oxidant depletion in the troposphere. Natural gas, which is mostly methane, is the least polluting of the fossil fuels. Upon combustion, natural gas produces lower CO[sub 2], CO, NO[sub x], SO[sub 2], and particulate emissions than either oil or coal. This means that substitution of natural gas for oil and coal can help mitigate air pollution and the human contribution to the greenhouse effect. However, methane is itself a potent greenhouse gas, and increased production and consumption of natural gas must be conducted in such a way that gas leakages are minimized. Natural gas compares well to the other fossil fuels in terms of water quality, preservation of natural ecosystems, and safety. These combined advantages may give natural gas a more prominent role in the US energy mix. Like other fossil fuels though, natural gas is nonrenewable and, therefore, not a permanent solution to our energy needs. 40 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  3. A New Global Unconventional Natural Gas Resource Assessment 

    E-print Network

    Dong, Zhenzhen

    2012-10-19

    In 1997, Rogner published a paper containing an estimate of the natural gas in place in unconventional reservoirs for 11 world regions. Rogner's work was assessing the unconventional gas resource base, and is now considered to be very conservative...

  4. Simulation and integration of liquefied natural gas (lng) processes

    E-print Network

    Al-Sobhi, Saad Ali

    2009-05-15

    gas (LNG). When there is a considerable distance involved in transporting natural gas, LNG is becoming the preferred method of supply because of technical, economic, and political reasons. Thus, LNG is expected to play a major role in meeting...

  5. A New Global Unconventional Natural Gas Resource Assessment

    E-print Network

    Dong, Zhenzhen

    2012-10-19

    In 1997, Rogner published a paper containing an estimate of the natural gas in place in unconventional reservoirs for 11 world regions. Rogner's work was assessing the unconventional gas resource base, and is now considered to be very conservative...

  6. Experimental apparatus for simultaneous dehydration and sweetening of natural gas 

    E-print Network

    Pace, Christopher Lee

    1997-01-01

    An experimental apparatus was designed and built for the purpose of studying the feasibility of solvent mixtures for the simultaneous dehydration and sweetening of natural gas. The apparatus is versatile and can be used to study gas-solvent systems...

  7. An internal seal for repairing natural gas mains

    E-print Network

    Cooper, Samuel A.

    1984-01-01

    Joint leakage from low pressure natural gas distribution mains (typical value: 0.25 ft[superscript 3] at 6 inwg gas pressure) is a persistent source of maintenance problems for utitlites. External encapsulation is the usual ...

  8. Natural gas price regulation - its problems and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    May, H.S. Jr.; White, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA), frequently is accorded the dubious distinction of being the most complex, ambiguous, and internally inconsistent piece of legislation ever passed by Congress. This work takes a brief look at the history of natural gas pricing policy, analyzes the ways in which the NGPA fits into this historical perspective, discusses the achievements and shortcomings of that statute, and speculates about the future of natural gas regulation. Few would disagree that from a standpoint of economic efficiency and public policy decontrol of at least new natural gas is warranted. The simple fact is that if the price level for natural gas is kept artificially low, there will be less natural gas produced than the demand for it. Despite what is coming to be an increasing perception that deregulation would be generally beneficial, the NGPA fell far short of the ultimate goal of deregulation.

  9. Alaskan Natural Gas Pipeline Developments (released in AEO2007)

    EIA Publications

    2007-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook 2007 reference case projects that an Alaska natural gas pipeline will go into operation in 2018, based on the Energy Information Administration's current understanding of the projects time line and economics. There is continuing debate, however, about the physical configuration and the ownership of the pipeline. In addition, the issue of Alaskas oil and natural gas production taxes has been raised, in the context of a current market environment characterized by rising construction costs and falling natural gas prices. If rates of return on investment by producers are reduced to unacceptable levels, or if the project faces significant delays, other sources of natural gas, such as unconventional natural gas production and liquefied natural gas imports, could fulfill the demand that otherwise would be served by an Alaska pipeline.

  10. Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-01-31

    The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

  11. Reduced Nitrogen and Natural Gas Consumption at Deepwell Flare 

    E-print Network

    Williams, C.

    2004-01-01

    REDUCED NITROGEN AND NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION AT DEEPWELL FLARE Carl L. Williams Lyondell Chemical Company ABSTRACT Facing both an economic downturn and the liklihood of steep natural gas price increases, company plants were challenged... savings opportunity regarding the supply of nitrogen and natural gas to a deepwell flare. A small flow of nitrogen is required to maintain minimum velocity in the flare stack. A 2? nitrogen line was used for this purpose. However, this line had...

  12. Impact of inerts, diluents and trace constituents in natural gas on the natural gas industry and the interstate pipeline grid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Chao; K. Crippen

    1995-01-01

    This report addresses gas quality concerns that have arisen industry-wide. The traditional properties affecting gas quality and interchangeability are the BTU content, relative density (specific gravity), the hydrogen to carbon ratio, and hydrocarbon dew point. These properties are directly related to the major and minor component composition of natural gas. Components that have a bearing on gas quality and interchangeability

  13. IMPROVED NATURAL GAS STORAGE WELL REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Furness; Donald O. Johnson; Michael L. Wilkey; Lynn Furness; Keith Vanderlee; P. David Paulsen

    2001-12-01

    This report summarizes the research conducted during Budget Period One on the project ''Improved Natural Gas Storage Well Remediation''. The project team consisted of Furness-Newburge, Inc., the technology developer; TechSavants, Inc., the technology validator; and Nicor Technologies, Inc., the technology user. The overall objectives for the project were: (1) To develop, fabricate and test prototype laboratory devices using sonication and underwater plasma to remove scale from natural gas storage well piping and perforations; (2) To modify the laboratory devices into units capable of being used downhole; (3) To test the capability of the downhole units to remove scale in an observation well at a natural gas storage field; (4) To modify (if necessary) and field harden the units and then test the units in two pressurized injection/withdrawal gas storage wells; and (5) To prepare the project's final report. This report covers activities addressing objectives 1-3. Prototype laboratory units were developed, fabricated, and tested. Laboratory testing of the sonication technology indicated that low-frequency sonication was more effective than high-frequency (ultrasonication) at removing scale and rust from pipe sections and tubing. Use of a finned horn instead of a smooth horn improves energy dispersal and increases the efficiency of removal. The chemical data confirmed that rust and scale were removed from the pipe. The sonication technology showed significant potential and technical maturity to warrant a field test. The underwater plasma technology showed a potential for more effective scale and rust removal than the sonication technology. Chemical data from these tests also confirmed the removal of rust and scale from pipe sections and tubing. Focusing of the underwater plasma's energy field through the design and fabrication of a parabolic shield will increase the technology's efficiency. Power delivered to the underwater plasma unit by a sparkplug repeatedly was interrupted by sparkplug failure. The lifecycle for the plugs was less than 10 hours. An electrode feed system for delivering continuous power needs to be designed and developed. As a result, further work on the underwater plasma technology was terminated. It needs development of a new sparking system and a redesign of the pulsed power supply system to enable the unit to operate within a well diameter of less than three inches. Both of these needs were beyond the scope of the project. Meanwhile, the laboratory sonication unit was waterproofed and hardened, enabling the unit to be used as a field prototype, operating at temperatures to 350 F and depths of 15,000 feet. The field prototype was extensively tested at a field service company's test facility before taking it to the field site. The field test was run in August 2001 in a Nicor Gas storage field observation well at Pontiac, Illinois. Segmented bond logs, gamma ray neutron logs, water level measurements and water chemistry samples were obtained before and after the downhole demonstration. Fifteen tests were completed in the field. Results from the water chemistry analysis showed an increase in the range of calcium from 1755-1984 mg/l before testing to 3400-4028 mg/l after testing. For magnesium, the range increased from 285-296 mg/l to 461-480 mg/l. The change in pH from a range of 3.11-3.25 to 8.23-8.45 indicated a buffering of the acidic well water, probably due to the increased calcium available for buffering. The segmented bond logs showed no damage to the cement bond in the well and the gamma ray neutron log showed no increase in the amount of hydrocarbons present in the formation where the testing took place. Thus, the gas storage bubble in the aquifer was not compromised. A review of all the field test data collected documents the fact that the application of low-frequency sonication technology definitely removes scale from well pipe. Phase One of this project took sonication technology from the concept stage through a successful ''proof-of-concept'' downhole application in a natural gas storage field

  14. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

    2009-09-30

    Energy independence and fuel savings are hallmarks of the nation’s energy strategy. The advancement of natural gas reciprocating engine power generation technology is critical to the nation’s future. A new engine platform that meets the efficiency, emissions, fuel flexibility, cost and reliability/maintainability targets will enable American manufacturers to have highly competitive products that provide substantial environmental and economic benefits in the US and in international markets. Along with Cummins and Waukesha, Caterpillar participated in a multiyear cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to create a 50% efficiency natural gas powered reciprocating engine system with a 95% reduction in NOx emissions by the year 2013. This platform developed under this agreement will be a significant contributor to the US energy strategy and will enable gas engine technology to remain a highly competitive choice, meeting customer cost of electricity targets, and regulatory environmental standard. Engine development under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) program was divided into phases, with the ultimate goal being approached in a series of incremental steps. This incremental approach would promote the commercialization of ARES technologies as soon as they emerged from development and would provide a technical and commercial foundation of later-developing technologies. Demonstrations of the Phase I and Phase II technology were completed in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Program tasks in Phase III included component and system development and testing from 2009-2012. Two advanced ignition technology evaluations were investigated under the ARES program: laser ignition and distributed ignition (DIGN). In collaboration with Colorado State University (CSU), a laser ignition system was developed to provide ignition at lean burn and high boost conditions. Much work has been performed in Caterpillar’s DIGN program under the ARES program. This work has consisted of both modeling and single cylinder engine experiments to quantify DIGN performance. The air handling systems of natural gas engines dissipate a percentage of available energy as a result of both flow losses and turbomachinery inefficiencies. An analytical study was initiated to increase compressor efficiency by employing a 2-stage inter-cooled compressor. Caterpillar also studied a turbo-compound system that employs a power turbine to recover energy from the exhaust gases for improved engine efficiency. Several other component and system investigations were undertaken during the final phase of the program to reach the ultimate ARES goals. An intake valve actuation system was developed and tested to improve engine efficiency, durability and load acceptance. Analytical modeling and materials testing were performed to evaluate the performance of steel pistons and compacted graphite iron cylinder head. Effort was made to improve the detonation sensing system by studying and comparing the performance of different pressure sensors. To reduce unburned hydrocarbon emissions, different camshafts were designed and built to investigate the effect of exhaust valve opening timing and value overlap. 1-D & 3-D coupled simulation was used to study intake and exhaust manifold dynamics with the goal of reducing load in-balance between cylinders. Selective catalytic reduction with on-board reductant generation to reduce NOx emissions was also engine tested. An effective mean to successfully deploy ARES technologies into the energy markets is to deploy demonstration projects in the field. In 2010, NETL and Caterpillar agreed to include a new “opportunity fuel” deliverable and two field demonstrations in the ARES program. An Organic Rankine Cycle system was designed with production intent incorporating lessons learned from the Phase II demonstration. Unfortunately, business conditions caused Caterpillar to cancel this demonstration in 2011. Nonetheless, Caterpillar partnered with a local dealer to deploy an ARES class engine using syngas from a biomass gasifier as

  15. A study of natural gas extraction in Marcellus shale

    E-print Network

    Boswell, Zachary (Zachary Karol)

    2011-01-01

    With the dramatic increases in crude oil prices there has been a need to find reliable energy substitutions. One substitution that has been used in the United States is natural gas. However, with the increased use of natural ...

  16. Methane hydrates and the future of natural gas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppel, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    For decades, gas hydrates have been discussed as a potential resource, particularly for countries with limited access to conventional hydrocarbons or a strategic interest in establishing alternative, unconventional gas reserves. Methane has never been produced from gas hydrates at a commercial scale and, barring major changes in the economics of natural gas supply and demand, commercial production at a large scale is considered unlikely to commence within the next 15 years. Given the overall uncertainty still associated with gas hydrates as a potential resource, they have not been included in the EPPA model in MITEI’s Future of Natural Gas report. Still, gas hydrates remain a potentially large methane resource and must necessarily be included in any consideration of the natural gas supply beyond two decades from now.

  17. Stability of natural gas in the deep subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, C.

    1996-07-01

    Natural gas is becoming increasingly important as a fuel because of its widespread occurrence and because it has a less significant environmental impact than oil. Many of the known gas accumulations were discovered by accident during exploration for oil, but with increasing demand for gas, successful exploration will require a clearer understanding of the factors that control gas distribution and gas composition. Natural gas is generated by three main processes. In oxygen-deficient, sulfate-free, shallow (few thousand feet) environments bacteria generate biogenic gas that is essentially pure methane with no higher hydrocarbons ({open_quotes}dry gas{close_quotes}). Gas is also formed from organic matter ({open_quotes}kerogen{close_quotes}), either as the initial product from the thermal breakdown of Type III, woody kerogens, or as the final hydrocarbon product from all kerogen types. In addition, gas can be formed by the thermal cracking of crude oil in the deep subsurface. The generation of gas from kerogen requires higher temperatures than the generation of oil. Also, the cracking of oil to gas requires high temperatures, so that there is a general trend from oil to gas with increasing depth. This produces a well-defined {open_quotes}floor for oil{close_quotes}, below which crude oil is not thermally stable. The possibility of a {open_quotes}floor for gas{close_quotes} is less well documented and understanding the limits on natural gas occurrence was one of the main objectives of this research.

  18. Natural gas price decontrol: a comparison of two bills

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    As the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 approaches its 1985 partial deregulation date, Congress is once again considering natural gas pricing policy. The major issue in gas pricing policy today may be how to improve the efficiency and competitiveness of the gas market, rather than the redistribution of income from consumers to gas producers. This report examines two approaches to gas pricing policy, the decontrol provisions found in S. 1715, as reported by the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee, and the extended controls found in legislation proposed by Congressman Gephardt (H.R. 2154). These bills are compared to the existing provisions of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA), which serves as the base case. The NGPA allows much of the nation's gas to reach a competitive price in 1985, but preserves controls on some gas, notably low-cost gas from older fields sold in interstate markets. The results of this analysis indicate that, by 1990, the gas price differences resulting from these three measures are slight, and that the effects of the two new proposals on the natural gas market and on the economy, are often negligible when compared to the NGPA.

  19. In Situ Raman Analyses of Natural Gas and Gas Hydrates at Hydrate Ridge, Oregon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. T. Peltzer; S. N. White; R. M. Dunk; P. G. Brewer; A. D. Sherman; K. Schmidt; K. C. Hester; E. D. Sloan

    2004-01-01

    During a July 2004 cruise to Hydrate Ridge, Oregon, MBARI's sea-going laser Raman spectrometer was used to obtain in situ Raman spectra of natural gas hydrates and natural gas venting from the seafloor. This was the first in situ analysis of gas hydrates on the seafloor. The hydrate spectra were compared to laboratory analyses performed at the Center for Hydrate

  20. Assessment of gas industry practices for odorization of natural gas. Final report Dec 80Sep 81

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larocque

    1981-01-01

    A review of gas industry practices for odorization of natural gas was performed. The review included an examination of regulatory requirements and relevant case law to identify technical aspects of odorization which have been questioned during litigation. Usage patterns for natural gas odorants and odorant injection equipment were examined on the basis of industry interviews and results of a previous

  1. 77 FR 26534 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental Gas Pipe...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ...External Affairs, Northern Natural Gas Company, 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124, or phone at (402) 398-7103, or email at mike.loeffler@nngco.com. There are two ways to become involved in the Commission's review of...

  2. Occluding Contours for Multi-View Stereo Brian Curless

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Richard

    - other surface further away (e.g., wall) that it partially oc- cludes. In principle, occluding contoursOccluding Contours for Multi-View Stereo Qi Shan Brian Curless Yasutaka Furukawa Carlos Hernandez leverages occluding contours (aka "inter- nal silhouettes") to improve the performance of multi-view stereo

  3. Methodology for estimating volumes of flared and vented natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, T.R.; Gautier, D.L. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The common perception in the United States that natural gas produced with oil is a valuable commodity probably dates from the 1940's. Before that time, most operators regarded natural gas associated with or dissolved in oil as a nuisance. Indeed, most associated/dissolved natural gas produced in the United States before World War II probably was flared or vented to the atmosphere. This situation has changed in the United States, where flaring and venting have decreased dramatically in recent years, in part because of environmental concerns, but also because of the changing view of the value of natural gas. The idea that gas is a nuisance is beginning to change almost everywhere, as markets for gas have developed in Europe, Japan, and elsewhere, and as operators have increasingly utilized or reinjected associated-dissolved gas in their oil-production activities. Nevertheless, in some areas natural gas continues to be flared or vented to the atmosphere. Gas flares in Russia, the Niger Delta, and the Middle East are some of the brightest lights on the nighttime Earth. As we increasingly consider the global availability and utility of natural gas, and the environmental impacts of the consumption of carbon-based fuels, it is important to know how much gas has been flared or vented, how much gas is currently being flared or vented, and the distribution of flaring or venting through time. Unfortunately, estimates of the volumes of flared and vented gas are generally not available. Despite the inconsistency and inavailability of data, the extrapolation method outlined provides a reliable technique for estimating amounts of natural gas flared and vented through time. 36 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Assessing climate benefits of natural gas and coal electricity generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Myhrvold, Nathan; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-04-01

    A transition from a system of coal electricity generation to near-zero emission electricity generation will be central to any effort to mitigate climate change. Natural gas is increasingly seen as a 'bridge fuel' for transitions form coal to near-zero emission energy sources. However, various studies use different metrics to estimate the climate impact of natural gas utilization, and led to differing conclusions. Thus, there is a need to identify the key factors affecting the climate effects of natural gas and coal electricity production, and to present these climate effects in as clear and transparent a way as possible. Here, we identify power plant efficiency and methane leakage rate as the key factors that explain most of the variance in greenhouse gas emissions by natural gas and coal power plants. We then develop a power plant GHG emission model, apply available life-cycle parameters to calculate associated CO2 and CH4 emissions and assess climate effects. Simple underlying physical changes can be obscured by abstract evaluation metrics, thus we base our discussion on temperature changes over time. We find that, during the period of plant operation, if there is substantial natural gas leakage, natural gas plants can produce greater near-term warming than a coal plant with the same power output. If leakage rates can be made to be low and efficiency high, natural gas plants can produce some reduction in near-term warming. However, without carbon capture and storage natural gas power plants cannot achieve the deep reductions that would be required to avoid substantial contribution to additional global warming. Achieving climate benefits from the use of natural gas depends on building high-efficiency natural gas plants, controlling methane leakage, and on developing a policy environment that assures a transition to future lower-emission technologies. For more information please see http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/9/11/114022/article .

  5. Dual mixed refrigerant natural gas liquefaction with staged compression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus and process for liquefying natural gas using two closed-cycle, multicomponent refrigerants; a low level refrigerant which cools the natural gas and a high level refrigerant which cools the low level refrigerant wherein the improvement comprises phase separating the high level refrigerant after compression and fully liquefying the vapor phase stream against external cooling fluid after additional compression.

  6. Natural Gas Pipeline Leaks Across Washington, DC Robert B. Jackson,,,

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Robert B.

    Natural Gas Pipeline Leaks Across Washington, DC Robert B. Jackson,,, * Adrian Down, Nathan G of Engineering, Durham, North Carolina 27708 United States ABSTRACT: Pipeline safety in the United States has increased in recent decades, but incidents involving natural gas pipelines still cause an average of 17

  7. Constraints on injection of propane into natural gas transmission lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. W. Bodle; M. I. Scott

    1982-01-01

    When propane (or a related natural gas liquid) is used to supplement natural gas sendout by direct injection into a transmission line, certain constraints on design and operating variables are necessary to prevent problems of noninterchangeability, condensation, and thermal-stressing of the pipe wall. The paper discusses analytical techniques for assessing each type of problem. 7 figures.

  8. Tax Treatment of Natural Gas The "landowner" referred to in

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    Tax Treatment of Natural Gas Marcellus Education Fact Sheet The "landowner" referred and tax op- tions available to you as a result T he Marcellus shale geological formation underlies almost in this previously un- tapped formation. The Marcellus shale natural gas boom is creating unprecedented

  9. Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas report, published today, is a Congressionally-requested study examining the energy trends and developments in the Americas over the past decade. The report focuses on liquid fuels and natural gas—particularly reserves and resources, production, consumption, trade, and investment—given their scale and significance to the region.

  10. Natural Gas: Major Legislative and Regulatory Actions (1935 - 2008)

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    This special report Web-based product presents a chronology of some of the key federal legislative and regulatory actions that have helped shape the natural gas market, with particular emphasis on policy directives from 1978 to October 2008. Separate reports provide brief descriptions of specific legislation, regulations, or policies, and their impacts on the natural gas market.

  11. Low-quality natural gas sulfur removal\\/recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Amo; R. W. Baker; V. D. Helm; T. Hofmann; K. A. Lokhandwala; I. Pinnau; M. B. Ringer; T. T. Su; L. Toy; J. G. Wijmans

    1998-01-01

    A significant fraction of U.S. natural gas reserves are subquality due to the presence of acid gases and nitrogen; 13% of existing reserves (19 trillion cubic feed) may be contaminated with hydrogen sulfide. For natural gas to be useful as fuel and feedstock, this hydrogen sulfide has to be removed to the pipeline specification of 4 ppm. The technology used

  12. Microbial activities in soil near natural gas leaks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Adamse; J. Hoeks; J. A. M. Bont; J. F. Kessel

    1972-01-01

    From the present experiments it may be concluded that in the surroundings of natural gas leaks, methane, ethane and possibly some other components of the natural gas are oxidized by microbial activities as long as oxygen is available. This is demonstrated by an increased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production, as well as by increased numbers of different types of

  13. West Virginia University 1 Department of Petroleum and Natural Gas

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    The objective of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering (PNGE) graduate programs is to educate and train men and women who will be capable of performing at the highest levels of the petroleum and natural gas and Completion · Reservoir Engineering · Formation Evaluation · CO2 Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery

  14. Adsorption of natural gas and biogas components on activated carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel A. A. C. Esteves; Marta S. S. Lopes; Pedro M. C. Nunes; José P. B. Mota

    2008-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for the adsorption equilibria of methane, ethane, propane, butane, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen, as well as natural gas odorants tert-butyl mercaptan and tetrahydrothiophene, on an activated carbon with the desirable characteristics for use in a guard bed for adsorbed natural gas storage, but that can also be applied for separation of biogas components, such as carbon

  15. Monthly Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production Report

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    Natural gas production (gross withdrawals) from data collected on Form EIA-914 (Monthly Crude Oil, Lease Condensate, and Natural Gas Production Report) for Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico, Texas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, Wyoming, other states and lower 48 states. Alaska data are from the Alaska state government and included to obtain a U.S. total.

  16. MULTIMEDIA ASSESSMENT OF THE NATURAL GAS PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an assessment of the air and water pollution potential of the natural gas processing industry, based on a review of publicly available literature. It reviews natural gas processing operations and discusses the potential air and water emissions from the...

  17. 75 FR 35779 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ...Natural Gas Act, for a certificate of public convenience and necessity authorizing the increase in certificated capacity at its Redfield storage field, located in Dallas County, Iowa, and to provide 2.0 Bcf of firm natural gas storage service at...

  18. Natural gas vehicles stall on way to market

    SciTech Connect

    Gushee, D.E. [Congressional Research Service, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The outlook for increased use of natural gas for fueling autos depends primarily on comparative fuel prices and comparative vehicle prices, according to David E. Gushee, a senior fellow in environmental policy at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. Compressed natural gas may be a more efficient fuel than gasoline, but costs of fuel distribution and engine design can add significantly to its total price. Currently, natural gas is less expensive than gasoline at the retail level, but this price advantage depends on government and industry subsidies. For natural gas to stay competitive in the future, these subsidies likely will have to continue, says Gushee. The pump price of natural gas will have to remain low if natural gas-powered vehicles are to succeed in the market place, because such vehicles currently cost about $2,500 to $5,000 more than a comparable gasoline-powered car. Gushee says that even with mass production, the projected price difference will be about $800 per car. The challenges facing compressed natural gas are daunting, especially considering that even in nations where natural gas receives significant tax advantages, its penetration has not exceeded 15 percent.

  19. An econometric analysis of the market for natural gas futures

    SciTech Connect

    Walls, W.D. [Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    1995-12-31

    This research tests a form of the efficient markets hypothesis in the market for natural gas futures. Unlike other studies of future markets, the test for market efficiency is conducted at numerous locations which comprise the natural gas spot market in addition to the delivery location specified in the futures contract. Natural gas spot and futures prices are found to be nonstationary and accordingly are modeled using recently developed maximum likelihood cointegrated with nearly all of the spot market prices across the national network of gas pipelines. The hypothesis of market efficiency can be rejected in 3 of the 13 spot markets. 29 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. An ionic liquid process for mercury removal from natural gas.

    PubMed

    Abai, Mahpuzah; Atkins, Martin P; Hassan, Amiruddin; Holbrey, John D; Kuah, Yongcheun; Nockemann, Peter; Oliferenko, Alexander A; Plechkova, Natalia V; Rafeen, Syamzari; Rahman, Adam A; Ramli, Rafin; Shariff, Shahidah M; Seddon, Kenneth R; Srinivasan, Geetha; Zou, Yiran

    2015-05-14

    Efficient scrubbing of mercury vapour from natural gas streams has been demonstrated both in the laboratory and on an industrial scale, using chlorocuprate(II) ionic liquids impregnated on high surface area porous solid supports, resulting in the effective removal of mercury vapour from natural gas streams. This material has been commercialised for use within the petroleum gas production industry, and has currently been running continuously for three years on a natural gas plant in Malaysia. Here we report on the chemistry underlying this process, and demonstrate the transfer of this technology from gram to ton scale. PMID:25722100

  1. Evaluation of Natural Gas Pipeline Materials and Infrastructure for

    E-print Network

    Evaluation of Natural Gas Pipeline Materials and Infrastructure for Hydrogen/Mixed Gas Service Retrofitting Existing NG Pipelines fro Hydrogen/Hythane Service New Pipeline Installation and ROW Lower South Carolina Electric and Gas University of South Carolina Praxair Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group

  2. Natural gas poised to penetrate deeper into electric generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Swanekamp

    1995-01-01

    This article describes how advancements in gas supply, distribution and storage, coupled with new options in combustion equipment, continue to expand the use of natural gas for electric generation. The challenge is to meet the increasing demand while keeping prices competitive with other fuels--and keep a small band of skeptics at bay. To prepare for the projected growth in gas

  3. Procedure for preparation for shipment of natural gas storage vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amawd, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    A method for preparing a natural gas storage vessel for shipment is presented. The gas is stored at 3,000 pounds per square inch. The safety precautions to be observed are emphasized. The equipment and process for purging the tank and sampling the exit gas flow are described. A diagram of the pressure vessel and the equipment is provided.

  4. Distributed control and measurement system for natural gas metering application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelia POPA

    2010-01-01

    Application of a natural gas distribution system, using distributed control and management methods, layered on 2 management levels, each applying closed loop control methods on the batch available for control. Local controlled processes include gas quality determinations, gas flow and pressure measurement and regulation, filtering and overcompensation. Central controlled processes include data gathering from all local processing nodes, data processing

  5. Dutch natural gas strategy: historic perspective and challenges ahead

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Weijermars; S. M. Luthi

    2011-01-01

    We highlight a watershed in the natural gas legacy of the Netherlands: after 50 years of successful gas development, production output of conventional fields will decline from 2010 onwards. The projected decline in Dutch gas output will lead to a loss of future income for the State. In the past, E&P companies were prepared to compete for access to Dutch

  6. Optimization Problems in Natural Gas Transportation Systems

    E-print Network

    Roger Z. Rios-Mercado

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... The literature reveals three major groups of gas pipeline systems, ... (line-packing problems), gas quality satisfaction (pooling problems), and ... Category 1: Applications -- OR and Management Sciences (Transportation ).

  7. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E. [eds.

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  9. Development of a natural Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Godec, M.; Haas, M.; Pepper, W.; Rose, J.

    1993-12-31

    Recent dramatic changes in natural gas markets have significant implications for the scope and direction of DOE`s upstream as well as downstream natural gas R&D. Open access transportation changes the way gas is bought and sold. The end of the gas deliverability surplus requires increased reserve development above recent levels. Increased gas demand for power generation and other new uses changes the overall demand picture in terms of volumes, locations and seasonality. DOE`s Natural Gas Strategic Plan requires that its R&D activities be evaluated for their ability to provide adequate supplies of reasonably priced gas. Potential R&D projects are to be evaluated using a full fuel cycle, benefit-cost approach to estimate likely market impact as well as technical success. To assure R&D projects are evaluated on a comparable basis, METC has undertaken the development of a comprehensive natural gas technology evaluation framework. Existing energy systems models lack the level of detail required to estimate the impact of specific upstream natural gas technologies across the known range of geological settings and likely market conditions. Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM) research during FY 1993 developed and implemented this comprehensive, consistent natural gas system evaluation framework. Rather than a isolated research activity, however, GSAM represents the integration of many prior and ongoing natural gas research efforts. When complete, it will incorporate the most current resource base description, reservoir modeling, technology characterization and other geologic and engineering aspects developed through recent METC and industry gas R&D programs.

  10. Texas plant treats natural gas for use as alternative fuel

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-02-19

    Pushed by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County is using clean-burning liquefied methane to fuel some of Houston`s city buses. Houston Metro`s primary supply of liquefied methane is a 12 MMscfd amine-treating unit in Willis, TX. The willis plant uses Dow Chemical Co.`s GAS/SPEC process to treat natural gas. The GAS/SPEC process uses a specialty amine solvent to remove carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and hydrogen sulfide from natural gas. To convert natural gas to a liquid, processors cool the gas to cryogenic temperatures and compress it. If the gas contains carbon dioxide, the CO{sub 2} will freeze, subsequently blocking transmission lines and damaging equipment. Processors therefore must remove CO{sub 2} from natural gas to prevent these problems. The natural gas processed at the Willis amine treater contains 1.5--2.5% CO{sub 2}. During treatment, the CO{sub 2} concentration is reduced to 50 ppm. The solvent used in the Willis plant is called GAS/SPEC CS-Plus. Dow makes seven other solvents for use with the process.

  11. Natural Gas and Cellulosic Biomass: A Clean Fuel Combination? Determining the Natural Gas Blending Wall in Biofuel Production.

    PubMed

    M Wright, Mark; Seifkar, Navid; Green, William H; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2015-07-01

    Natural gas has the potential to increase the biofuel production output by combining gas- and biomass-to-liquids (GBTL) processes followed by naphtha and diesel fuel synthesis via Fischer-Tropsch (FT). This study reflects on the use of commercial-ready configurations of GBTL technologies and the environmental impact of enhancing biofuels with natural gas. The autothermal and steam-methane reforming processes for natural gas conversion and the gasification of biomass for FT fuel synthesis are modeled to estimate system well-to-wheel emissions and compare them to limits established by U.S. renewable fuel mandates. We show that natural gas can enhance FT biofuel production by reducing the need for water-gas shift (WGS) of biomass-derived syngas to achieve appropriate H2/CO ratios. Specifically, fuel yields are increased from less than 60 gallons per ton to over 100 gallons per ton with increasing natural gas input. However, GBTL facilities would need to limit natural gas use to less than 19.1% on a LHV energy basis (7.83 wt %) to avoid exceeding the emissions limits established by the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2) for clean, advanced biofuels. This effectively constitutes a blending limit that constrains the use of natural gas for enhancing the biomass-to-liquids (BTL) process. PMID:26010031

  12. Heating of the Natural Gas at the Gas-distributive Installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenko, Olena; Balins'kyi, Ivan; Shpak, Grygoriy

    2012-11-01

    Heating of natural gas on the gas-distributive installations is carried out for prevention of creation of gas hydrates in gas pressure controller. There are a few methods of heating of natural gas: complete heating of gas and heating of gas pressure controller. The indicated methods have a row of failings, the delivered from which is possible at the use of vortex tube. Work of vortex tube consists of the simultaneous making of two streams: heated and frappe. The heated stream is used for a serve on a gas pressure controller which shuts out it freezing. Little price, insignificant sizes, absence of motive details helps to use a vortex tube for heating of natural gas on the gasdistributive installations.

  13. Method for mapping a natural gas leak

    DOEpatents

    Reichardt, Thomas A. (Livermore, CA); Luong, Amy Khai (Dublin, CA); Kulp, Thomas J. (Livermore, CA); Devdas, Sanjay (Albany, CA)

    2009-02-03

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formatted into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimposed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  14. The selective adsorption of hydrogen sulfide from natural gas streams 

    E-print Network

    Fails, James Clayton

    1959-01-01

    possible commercial application of the molecular sieves in sweetening sour natural gas streams' 50 COHCIiUSIOHS CONCLUSIONS The molecular sieves show a decided selectivity in adsorbing hydrogen sulfide from natural ges streamers This seleotivity... capaoity that may be expected decreases as the concentration of carbon dioxide increases' The selectivity shown by the molecular sieves ind1cates a possible commercial application in "sweetening" sour natural gas streams' 52 BIBLIOGRAPHY...

  15. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, Edward

    2014-03-31

    The objective of the Cummins ARES program, in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE), is to develop advanced natural gas engine technologies that increase engine system efficiency at lower emissions levels while attaining lower cost of ownership. The goals of the project are to demonstrate engine system achieving 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) in three phases, 44%, 47% and 50% (starting baseline efficiency at 36% BTE) and 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx system out emissions (starting baseline NOx emissions at 2 – 4 g/bhp-hr NOx). Primary path towards above goals include high Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), improved closed cycle efficiency, increased air handling efficiency and optimized engine subsystems. Cummins has successfully demonstrated each of the phases of this program. All targets have been achieved through application of a combined set of advanced base engine technologies and Waste Heat Recovery from Charge Air and Exhaust streams, optimized and validated on the demonstration engine and other large engines. The following architectures were selected for each Phase: Phase 1: Lean Burn Spark Ignited (SI) Key Technologies: High Efficiency Turbocharging, Higher Efficiency Combustion System. In production on the 60/91L engines. Over 500MW of ARES Phase 1 technology has been sold. Phase 2: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) System Key Technologies: Advanced Ignition System, Combustion Improvement, Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Base engine technologies intended for production within 2 to 3 years Phase 3: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust and Charge Air Waste Heat Recovery System Key Technologies: Lower Friction, New Cylinder Head Designs, Improved Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Intended for production within 5 to 6 years Cummins is committed to the launch of next generation of large advanced NG engines based on ARES technology to be commercialized worldwide.

  16. On Occluding Contour Artifacts in Stereo Vision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radim Sára; Ruzena Bajcsy

    1997-01-01

    Abstract We study occluding contour artifacts in area-based stereo matching: they are false responses of the matching,operator to the occlusion boundary,and cause the objects extend beyond their true boundaries in disparity maps. Most of the matching methods,suffer from these artifacts; the effect is so strong that it cannot be ignored. We show what gives rise to the artifacts and design

  17. Estimating Human Pose from Occluded Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia-Bin Huang; Ming-Hsuan Yang

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a We address the problem of recovering 3D human pose from single 2D images, in which the pose estimation problem is formulated\\u000a as a direct nonlinear regression from image observation to 3D joint positions. One key issue that has not been addressed in\\u000a the literature is how to estimate 3D pose when humans in the scenes are partially or heavily occluded.

  18. Extraction of odorizing sulfur compounds from natural gas and reodorization therewith

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kruis; H. Karwat

    1975-01-01

    Linde AG's new approach permits natural gas odorants to be removed from natural gas before it is liquefied by peakshaving plants and to be saved for reinjection when the natural gas is vaporized. The odorants, mainly organic sulfur compounds, are removed by scrubbing natural gas prior to natural gas liquefaction and then freed of other impurities such as COâ, HâO,

  19. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01...2010-04-01 false Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources...

  20. Liquefied Natural Gas: Global Challenges (released in AEO2008)

    EIA Publications

    2008-01-01

    U.S. imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in 2007 were more than triple the 2000 total, and they are expected to grow in the long term as North Americas conventional natural gas production declines. With U.S. dependence on LNG imports increasing, competitive forces in the international markets for natural gas in general and LNG in particular will play a larger role in shaping the U.S. market for LNG. Key factors currently shaping the future of the global LNG market include the evolution of project economics, worldwide demand for natural gas, government policies that affect the development and use of natural resources in countries with LNG facilities, and changes in seasonal patterns of LNG trade.

  1. Life cycle water consumption for shale gas and conventional natural gas.

    PubMed

    Clark, Corrie E; Horner, Robert M; Harto, Christopher B

    2013-10-15

    Shale gas production represents a large potential source of natural gas for the nation. The scale and rapid growth in shale gas development underscore the need to better understand its environmental implications, including water consumption. This study estimates the water consumed over the life cycle of conventional and shale gas production, accounting for the different stages of production and for flowback water reuse (in the case of shale gas). This study finds that shale gas consumes more water over its life cycle (13-37 L/GJ) than conventional natural gas consumes (9.3-9.6 L/GJ). However, when used as a transportation fuel, shale gas consumes significantly less water than other transportation fuels. When used for electricity generation, the combustion of shale gas adds incrementally to the overall water consumption compared to conventional natural gas. The impact of fuel production, however, is small relative to that of power plant operations. The type of power plant where the natural gas is utilized is far more important than the source of the natural gas. PMID:24004382

  2. 18 CFR 382.202 - Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes. 382...Charges § 382.202 Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and...

  3. 18 CFR 382.202 - Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes. 382...Charges § 382.202 Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and...

  4. 18 CFR 382.202 - Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes. 382...Charges § 382.202 Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and...

  5. 18 CFR 382.202 - Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes. 382...Charges § 382.202 Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and...

  6. 18 CFR 382.202 - Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes. 382...Charges § 382.202 Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and...

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A THERMOACOUSTIC NATURAL GAS LIQUEFIER-UPDATE

    SciTech Connect

    J. WOLLAN; G. SWIFT

    2001-05-01

    Thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators are being developed for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons/day, has been built and tested. The power source is a natural gas burner. Systems are developed with liquefaction capacities up to 10,000 to 20,000 gallons per day. The technology, the development project, accomplishments and applications are discussed.

  8. 40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? ...exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? ...The engine must operate solely on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas....

  9. 40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? ...exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? ...The engine must operate solely on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas....

  10. 40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? ...exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? ...The engine must operate solely on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas....

  11. 40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? ...exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? ...The engine must operate solely on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas....

  12. 40 CFR Table W - 7 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Natural Gas Distribution

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Natural Gas Distribution W Table W Protection...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt...Default Methane Emission Factors for Natural Gas Distribution Natural gas...

  13. 40 CFR Table W - 7 of Subpart W-Default Methane Emission Factors for Natural Gas Distribution

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...W-Default Methane Emission Factors for Natural Gas Distribution W Table W Protection...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt...Default Methane Emission Factors for Natural Gas Distribution Natural gas...

  14. 40 CFR Table W - 7 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Natural Gas Distribution

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Natural Gas Distribution W Table W Protection...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt...Default Methane Emission Factors for Natural Gas Distribution Natural gas...

  15. 75 FR 42737 - Texas Gas Service Company, a Division of ONEOK, Inc. v. El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ...Texas Gas Service Company, a Division of ONEOK, Inc. v. El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Complaint July 9, 2010...ONEOK (TGS) (Complainants) filed a formal complaint against El Paso Natural Gas Company (EPNG) (Respondent) alleging...

  16. Economic Feasibility of Converting Landfill Gas to Natural Gas for Use as a Transportation Fuel in Refuse Trucks

    E-print Network

    Sprague, Stephen M.

    2011-02-22

    better air quality. This research focused on six scenarios: converting landfill gas (LFG) to liquefied natural gas (LNG) for use as a transportation fuel, converting LFG to compressed natural gas (CNG) for use as a transportation fuel, converting LFG...

  17. Assessment of the possibility of forecasting future natural gas curtailments

    SciTech Connect

    Lemont, S.

    1980-01-01

    This study provides a preliminary assessment of the potential for determining probabilities of future natural-gas-supply interruptions by combining long-range weather forecasts and natural-gas supply/demand projections. An illustrative example which measures the probability of occurrence of heating-season natural-gas curtailments for industrial users in the southeastern US is analyzed. Based on the information on existing long-range weather forecasting techniques and natural gas supply/demand projections enumerated above, especially the high uncertainties involved in weather forecasting and the unavailability of adequate, reliable natural-gas projections that take account of seasonal weather variations and uncertainties in the nation's energy-economic system, it must be concluded that there is little possibility, at the present time, of combining the two to yield useful, believable probabilities of heating-season gas curtailments in a form useful for corporate and government decision makers and planners. Possible remedial actions are suggested that might render such data more useful for the desired purpose in the future. The task may simply require the adequate incorporation of uncertainty and seasonal weather trends into modeling systems and the courage to report projected data, so that realistic natural gas supply/demand scenarios and the probabilities of their occurrence will be available to decision makers during a time when such information is greatly needed.

  18. Restoring Equilibrium to Natural Gas Markets: Can Renewable Energy Help?

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Heightened natural gas prices have emerged as a key energy-policy challenge for at least the early part of the 21st century. With the recent run-up in gas prices and the expected continuation of volatile and high prices in the near future, a growing number of voices are calling for increased diversification of energy supplies. Proponents of renewable energy technologies identify these clean energy sources as an important part of the solution. Increased deployment of renewable energy (RE) can hedge natural gas price risk in more than one way, but a recent report by Berkeley Lab evaluates one such benefit in detail: by displacing gas-fired electricity generation, RE reduces natural gas demand and thus puts downward pressure on gas prices. Many recent modeling studies of increased RE deployment have demonstrated that this ''secondary'' effect of lowering natural gas prices could be significant; as a result, this effect is increasingly cited as justification for policies promoting RE. The Berkeley Lab report summarizes recent modeling studies that have evaluated the impact of RE deployment on gas prices, reviews the reasonableness of the results of these studies in light of economic theory and other research, and develops a simple tool that can be used to evaluate the impact of RE on gas prices without relying on a complex national energy model.

  19. State and local responses to natural gas price increases

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-25

    Increasing natural gas prices affect gas customers, the distribution companies that supply them, and the state or local commissions that regulate such sales. This report provides information on state and local responses to higher gas costs in the areas of: rates charged by pipelines to distribution companies; recovery of purchased gas costs by distributors; rates charged by distributors to customers; and efforts by distributors to maintain or expand their markets. The report is based on a survey of 15 states and 37 gas distribution companies.

  20. Natural gas odor level testing: Instruments and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, E.H. [Natural Gas Odorizing, Inc., Baytown, TX (United States)

    1995-12-01

    An odor in natural and LP gases is necessary. The statistics are overwhelming; when gas customers can smell a leak before the percentage of gas in air reaches a combustible mixture, the chances of an accident are greatly reduced. How do gas companies determine if there is sufficient odor reaching every gas customers home? Injection equipment is important. The rate and quality of odorant is important. Nevertheless, precision odorization alone does not guarantee that customers` homes always have gas with a readily detectable odor. To secure that goal, odor monitoring instruments are necessary.

  1. Pipeline Politics: Natural Gas in Eurasia

    E-print Network

    Landrum, William W.; Llewellyn, Benjamin B.; Limesand, Craig M.; Miller, Dante J.; Morris, James P.; Nowell, Kathleen S.; Sherman, Charlotte L.

    2010-01-01

    important to US efforts to reduce its reliance on Middle Eastern energy resources. Presently, pipelines in Eurasia stretch across thousands of miles throughout unstable political regions. Disruptions in gas and oil supplies negatively affect the economies...

  2. 30 CFR 203.73 - How do suspension volumes apply to natural gas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false How do suspension volumes apply to natural gas? 203.73 Section 203.73 Mineral...203.73 How do suspension volumes apply to natural gas? You must measure natural gas production under the...

  3. 78 FR 21934 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ...Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No. AD12-12-000...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets Docket No....

  4. 77 FR 50684 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ...Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No. AD12-12-000...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No....

  5. 77 FR 52020 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice for Mid-Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ...Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice for Mid-Atlantic...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No. AD12-12-000...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No....

  6. 77 FR 50100 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ...Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No. AD12-12-000...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No....

  7. 77 FR 45600 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ...Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No. AD12-12-000...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No....

  8. 75 FR 2126 - Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ...Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation...Natural Gas Transportation Projects Open Season Pre-Filing Workshop January 5, 2010...for commenting upon and holding an open season for an Alaska Natural Gas...

  9. Short-term supply chain management in upstream natural gas systems

    E-print Network

    Selot, Ajay

    2009-01-01

    Natural gas supply chain planning and optimization is important to ensure security and reliability of natural gas supply. However, it is challenging due to the distinctive features of natural gas supply chains. These ...

  10. 10 CFR 503.38 - Permanent exemption for certain fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...certain fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum. 503.38 Section...certain fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum. (a) Eligibility...petitioner proposes to use a mixture of natural gas or petroleum and an alternate...

  11. 18 CFR 380.12 - Environmental reports for Natural Gas Act applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Environmental reports for Natural Gas Act applications. 380.12...12 Environmental reports for Natural Gas Act applications. (a) Introduction...7) If underground storage of natural gas is proposed: (i)...

  12. 18 CFR 157.212 - Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities. 157.212 Section...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES...ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline...

  13. 49 CFR 191.17 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report. ...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report. ...Each operator of a liquefied natural gas facility must submit an...

  14. 30 CFR 560.116 - How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease... § 560.116 How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease? You must measure natural gas production on your eligible...

  15. 10 CFR 503.38 - Permanent exemption for certain fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...certain fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum. 503.38 Section...certain fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum. (a) Eligibility...petitioner proposes to use a mixture of natural gas or petroleum and an alternate...

  16. 49 CFR 191.15 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report... Each operator of a liquefied natural gas plant or facility must...

  17. 40 CFR 80.33 - Controls applicable to natural gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Controls applicable to natural gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...80.33 Controls applicable to natural gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...215,000 standard cubic feet of natural gas per month shall equip each...

  18. 18 CFR 270.303 - Natural gas produced from Devonian shale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Natural gas produced from Devonian shale...Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.303 Natural gas produced from Devonian shale. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is produced from Devonian...

  19. 18 CFR 260.401 - FERC Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions. 260.401 Section...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS...Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions. (a)...

  20. 18 CFR 260.1 - FERC Form No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies. 260.1 Section...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS...No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies. (a)...

  1. 49 CFR 571.303 - Standard No. 303; Fuel system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Fuel system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles. 571.303 Section...Fuel system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles. S1. Scope. This...vehicle fuel systems using compressed natural gas (CNG), including the CNG...

  2. 49 CFR 191.17 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report. ...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report. ...Each operator of a liquefied natural gas facility must submit an...

  3. 30 CFR 203.73 - How do suspension volumes apply to natural gas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false How do suspension volumes apply to natural gas? 203.73 Section 203.73 Mineral Resources...203.73 How do suspension volumes apply to natural gas? You must measure natural gas production under the royalty-suspension...

  4. 10 CFR 503.38 - Permanent exemption for certain fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...certain fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum. 503.38 Section...certain fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum. (a) Eligibility...petitioner proposes to use a mixture of natural gas or petroleum and an alternate...

  5. 40 CFR 80.33 - Controls applicable to natural gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Controls applicable to natural gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...80.33 Controls applicable to natural gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...215,000 standard cubic feet of natural gas per month shall equip each...

  6. 49 CFR 191.17 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report. ...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report. ...Each operator of a liquefied natural gas facility must submit an...

  7. 49 CFR 571.303 - Standard No. 303; Fuel system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Fuel system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles. 571.303 Section...Fuel system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles. S1. Scope. This...vehicle fuel systems using compressed natural gas (CNG), including the CNG...

  8. 49 CFR 191.15 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report... Each operator of a liquefied natural gas plant or facility must...

  9. 18 CFR 157.212 - Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities. 157.212 Section...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES...ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline...

  10. 49 CFR 571.304 - Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel container integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel container integrity. 571... Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel container integrity. S1...for the integrity of compressed natural gas (CNG), motor vehicle fuel...

  11. 40 CFR 80.33 - Controls applicable to natural gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Controls applicable to natural gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...80.33 Controls applicable to natural gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...215,000 standard cubic feet of natural gas per month shall equip each...

  12. 49 CFR 571.304 - Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel container integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel container integrity. 571... Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel container integrity. S1...for the integrity of compressed natural gas (CNG), motor vehicle fuel...

  13. 30 CFR 560.116 - How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease... § 560.116 How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease? You must measure natural gas production on your eligible...

  14. 76 FR 4516 - Revisions to Forms, Statements, and Reporting Requirements for Natural Gas Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ...and Reporting Requirements for Natural Gas Pipelines AGENCY: Federal Energy...statements, and reports for natural gas companies, contained in FERC Form...statements, and reports for natural gas companies, contained in FERC...

  15. 78 FR 19409 - Annual Charge Filing Procedures for Natural Gas Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ...Annual Charge Filing Procedures for Natural Gas Pipelines AGENCY: Federal Energy...revise the filing requirements for natural gas pipelines that choose to recover...adjustment (ACA) clause. Currently, natural gas pipelines utilizing an ACA...

  16. 49 CFR 571.304 - Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel container integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel container integrity. 571... Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel container integrity. S1...for the integrity of compressed natural gas (CNG), motor vehicle fuel...

  17. 18 CFR 260.401 - FERC Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions. 260.401 Section...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS...Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions. (a)...

  18. 75 FR 35700 - Revisions to Forms, Statements, and Reporting Requirements for Natural Gas Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ...and Reporting Requirements for Natural Gas Pipelines June 17, 2010. AGENCY...reporting forms required to be filed by natural gas companies (FERC Form Nos. 2...and Reporting Requirements for Natural Gas Pipelines, Order No. 710,...

  19. 10 CFR 503.38 - Permanent exemption for certain fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...certain fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum. 503.38 Section...certain fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum. (a) Eligibility...petitioner proposes to use a mixture of natural gas or petroleum and an alternate...

  20. 40 CFR 80.33 - Controls applicable to natural gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Controls applicable to natural gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...80.33 Controls applicable to natural gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...215,000 standard cubic feet of natural gas per month shall equip each...

  1. 18 CFR 260.401 - FERC Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions. 260.401 Section...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS...Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions. (a)...

  2. 49 CFR 571.303 - Standard No. 303; Fuel system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Fuel system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles. 571.303 Section...Fuel system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles. S1. Scope. This...vehicle fuel systems using compressed natural gas (CNG), including the CNG...

  3. 30 CFR 260.116 - How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease... § 260.116 How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease? You must measure natural gas production on your eligible...

  4. 49 CFR 571.304 - Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel container integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel container integrity. 571... Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel container integrity. S1...for the integrity of compressed natural gas (CNG), motor vehicle fuel...

  5. 49 CFR 191.15 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report... Each operator of a liquefied natural gas plant or facility must...

  6. 49 CFR 191.17 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report. ...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report. ...Each operator of a liquefied natural gas facility must submit an...

  7. 75 FR 35632 - Transparency Provisions of Section 23 of the Natural Gas Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ...Provisions of Section 23 of the Natural Gas Act Issued June 17, 2010. AGENCY...clarify Form No. 552, under which natural gas market participants must annually...information regarding physical natural gas transactions that use an...

  8. 49 CFR 571.303 - Standard No. 303; Fuel system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Fuel system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles. 571.303 Section...Fuel system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles. S1. Scope. This...vehicle fuel systems using compressed natural gas (CNG), including the CNG...

  9. 30 CFR 203.73 - How do suspension volumes apply to natural gas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false How do suspension volumes apply to natural gas? 203.73 Section 203.73 Mineral Resources...203.73 How do suspension volumes apply to natural gas? You must measure natural gas production under the royalty-suspension...

  10. 18 CFR 270.303 - Natural gas produced from Devonian shale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Natural gas produced from Devonian shale...Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.303 Natural gas produced from Devonian shale. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is produced from Devonian...

  11. 30 CFR 560.116 - How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease... § 560.116 How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease? You must measure natural gas production on your eligible...

  12. 18 CFR 260.1 - FERC Form No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies. 260.1 Section...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS...No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies. (a)...

  13. 78 FR 44900 - Communication of Operational Information Between Natural Gas Pipelines and Electric Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ...Operational Information Between Natural Gas Pipelines and Electric Transmission...explicit authority to interstate natural gas pipelines and public utilities...explicit authority to interstate natural gas pipelines and public...

  14. 30 CFR 203.73 - How do suspension volumes apply to natural gas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false How do suspension volumes apply to natural gas? 203.73 Section 203.73 Mineral Resources...203.73 How do suspension volumes apply to natural gas? You must measure natural gas production under the royalty-suspension...

  15. 18 CFR 260.1 - FERC Form No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies. 260.1 Section...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS...No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies. (a)...

  16. 18 CFR 157.212 - Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities. 157.212 Section...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES...ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline...

  17. 77 FR 65508 - Annual Charge Filing Procedures for Natural Gas Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ...Annual Charge Filing Procedures for Natural Gas Pipelines AGENCY: Federal Energy...revise the filing requirements for natural gas pipelines that choose to recover...adjustment (ACA) clause. Currently, natural gas pipelines utilizing an ACA...

  18. 30 CFR 203.73 - How do suspension volumes apply to natural gas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false How do suspension volumes apply to natural gas? 203.73 Section 203.73 Mineral Resources...203.73 How do suspension volumes apply to natural gas? You must measure natural gas production under the royalty-suspension...

  19. 18 CFR 270.303 - Natural gas produced from Devonian shale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Natural gas produced from Devonian shale...Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.303 Natural gas produced from Devonian shale. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is produced from Devonian...

  20. 18 CFR 260.401 - FERC Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions. 260.401 Section...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS...Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions. (a)...

  1. 18 CFR 270.303 - Natural gas produced from Devonian shale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Natural gas produced from Devonian shale...Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.303 Natural gas produced from Devonian shale. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is produced from Devonian...

  2. 49 CFR 191.15 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report... Each operator of a liquefied natural gas plant or facility must...

  3. 18 CFR 260.1 - FERC Form No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies. 260.1 Section...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS...No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies. (a)...

  4. 18 CFR 157.212 - Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities. 157.212 Section...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES...ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline...

  5. 77 FR 71788 - Notice of Change to the Publication of Natural Gas Wellhead Prices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ...of Change to the Publication of Natural Gas Wellhead Prices AGENCY: U.S...of series in the publication of natural gas wellhead prices and request for...announcing the discontinuation of the natural gas wellhead price series....

  6. 75 FR 11147 - Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ...Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development Program...Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development Program...Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development...

  7. 77 FR 15990 - Proposed Confidentiality Determinations for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Source Category...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ...Confidentiality Determinations for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Source Category...Confidentiality Determinations for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Source Category...Confidentiality Determinations for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Source...

  8. 76 FR 56412 - Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ...Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development Program...Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development Program...Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research Program,...

  9. Natural Gas Pipeline Research: Best Practices in Monitoring Technology

    E-print Network

    Natural Gas Pipeline Research: Best Practices in Monitoring Technology Energy Systems Research pipelines from outofstate supply basins located in the southwestern United States, the Rocky Mountains, and Canada. These pipelines run throughout the state, including underneath high population areas

  10. Optimization for Design and Operation of Natural Gas Transmission Networks 

    E-print Network

    Dilaveroglu, Sebnem 1986-

    2012-08-22

    This study addresses the problem of designing a new natural gas transmission network or expanding an existing network while minimizing the total investment and operating costs. A substantial reduction in costs can be obtained by effectively...

  11. Evaluation of capacity release transactions in the natural gas industry

    E-print Network

    Lautzenhiser, Stephen

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyze capacity release transactions in the natural gas industry and to state some preliminary conclusions about how the capacity release market is functioning. Given FERC's attempt to ...

  12. Use of Laboratory-Supplied Natural Gas in Breakthrough Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiceman, G. A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Natural gas from regular commercial lines contains enough carbon-8 and above hydrocarbon contaminants to serve as a satisfactory sample for breakthrough experiments. Procedures used, typical results obtained, and theoretical background information are provided. (JN)

  13. High-altitude airborne standoff sensing of natural gas leaks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Frish; R. T. Wainner; M. C. Laderer; B. D. Green; M. G. Allen

    2006-01-01

    We describe a standoff sensor for monitoring, from above 3,000 m, the natural gas transmission pipeline infrastructure. Using an EDFA, the sensor amplifies the tunable diode laser beam from a Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy platform.

  14. Experimental Characterization and Molecular Study of Natural Gas Mixtures 

    E-print Network

    Cristancho Blanco, Diego Edison

    2011-08-08

    Natural Gas (NG) plays an important role in the energy demand in the United States and throughout the world. Its characteristics as a clean, versatile and a sustainable source of energy makes it an important alternative ...

  15. Conceptual Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) terminal design for Kuwait

    E-print Network

    Aljeeran, Fares

    2006-08-16

    This research study investigated a new conceptual design for a modular structural configuration incorporating storage for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) within the base of the platform structure. The structure, referred to as a modified gravity base...

  16. Research of Coal Substituting Oil (Natural Gas) in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lifeng

    The complexion that coal gives priority to others resource is decided by the energy production and consume structure. It is difficult to change in the future. With the economy growth, the energy demand is increasing, especially the oil and natural gas. But the resource condition of oil and natural gas are not optimism, domestic production is satisfy to the energy demand difficultly, the direct way is by the import. However the import is affected by the international energy subsituation, and it can affect the energy safety. Whereas the abundant coal resource, the coal can substitute the oil(natural gas).It not only cuts down the dependence on the overseas energy, but also builds up the safety. So, applying the trans-log production function, the text analyses the substitution among capital, coal, oil and natural gas in China.

  17. Liquid absorbent solutions for separating nitrogen from natural gas

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Redmond, OR); Lyon, David K. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen-absorbing and -desorbing compositions, novel ligands and transition metal complexes, and methods of using the same, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  18. Effect of Increased Natural Gas Exports on Domestic Energy Markets

    EIA Publications

    2012-01-01

    This report responds to an August 2011 request from the Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (DOE\\/FE) for an analysis of "the impact of increased domestic natural gas demand, as exports." Appendix A provides a copy of the DOE\\/FE request letter. Specifically, DOE\\/FE asked the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) to assess how specified scenarios of increased natural gas exports could affect domestic energy markets, focusing on consumption, production, and prices.

  19. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis Dalrymple

    2004-01-01

    This first quarter report of 2004 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low-cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove HâS in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This

  20. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

    2001-01-01

    This first quarter report of 2001 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove HâS in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day.

  1. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis Dalrymple

    2003-01-01

    This third quarter report of 2003 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low-cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove HâS in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This

  2. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

    2002-01-01

    This second quarter report of 2002 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove HâS in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day.

  3. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe Lundeen; Girish Srinivas; David W. DeBerry

    2003-01-01

    This fourth quarter report of 2002 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove HâS in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day.

  4. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

    2002-01-01

    This first quarter report of 2002 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove HâS in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day.

  5. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis Dalrymple

    2003-01-01

    This second quarter report of 2003 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove HâS in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day.

  6. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis Dalrymple

    2003-01-01

    This first quarter report of 2003 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove HâS in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day.

  7. Easing the natural gas crisis: Reducing natural gas prices through increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; St. Clair, Matt

    2004-12-21

    Heightened natural gas prices have emerged as a key energy-policy challenge for at least the early part of the 21st century. With the recent run-up in gas prices and the expected continuation of volatile and high prices in the near future, a growing number of voices are calling for increased diversification of energy supplies. Proponents of renewable energy and energy efficiency identify these clean energy sources as an important part of the solution. Increased deployment of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) can hedge natural gas price risk in more than one way, but this paper touches on just one potential benefit: displacement of gas-fired electricity generation, which reduces natural gas demand and thus puts downward pressure on gas prices. Many recent modeling studies of increased RE and EE deployment have demonstrated that this ''secondary'' effect of lowering natural gas prices could be significant; as a result, this effect is increasingly cited as justification for policies promoting RE and EE. This paper summarizes recent studies that have evaluated the gas-price-reduction effect of RE and EE deployment, analyzes the results of these studies in light of economic theory and other research, reviews the reasonableness of the effect as portrayed in modeling studies, and develops a simple tool that can be used to evaluate the impact of RE and EE on gas prices without relying on a complex national energy model. Key findings are summarized.

  8. ARPA-E: Creating Practical, Affordable Natural Gas Storage Solutions

    ScienceCinema

    Boysen, Dane; Loukus, Josh; Hansen, Rita

    2014-03-13

    Allowing people to refuel natural gas vehicles at home could revolutionize the way we power our cars and trucks. Currently, our nation faces two challenges in enabling natural gas for transportation. The first is improving the way gas tanks are built for natural gas vehicles; they need to be conformable, allowing them to fit tightly into the vehicle. The second challenge is improving the way those tanks are refueled while maintaining cost-effectiveness, safety, and reliability. This video highlights two ARPA-E project teams with innovative solutions to these challenges. REL is addressing the first challenge by developing a low-cost, conformable natural gas tank with an interconnected core structure. Oregon State University and OnBoard Dynamics are addressing the second challenge by developing a self-refueling natural gas vehicle that integrates a compressor into its engine-using one of the engine's cylinders to compress gas eliminates the need for an expensive at-home refueling system. These two distinct technologies from ARPA-E's MOVE program illustrate how the Agency takes a multi-pronged approach to problem solving and innovation.

  9. Compression ignition of directly injected natural gas with entrained diesel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C A Laforet; B S Brown; S N Rogak; S R Munshi

    2010-01-01

    A new fuel injector prototype for heavy-duty engines has been developed to use direct-injection natural gas with small amounts of entrained diesel as an ignition promoter. This ‘co-injection’ is quite different from other dual-fuel engine systems where diesel and gas are introduced separately. In an engine with co-injection, diesel and gas are injected simultaneously through one set of nozzle holes

  10. Molten carbonate fuel cells for coal and natural gas fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Krumplet, M.; Ackerman, J.P.; Cook, G.M.; Pierce, R.D.

    1984-02-01

    System designs of molten carbonate fuel cell power plants are described for central stations using coal and on-site generators operating on natural gas. Fuel-to-busbar efficiencies are near 50% in coal based systems with turbine bottoming and in simple gas based systems. Coal based systems with more advanced but not fully developed components, and more complex gas based systems approach 60% efficiency.

  11. Molten carbonate fuel cells for coal and natural gas fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Krumpelt, M.; Cook, G.M.; Pierce, R.D.; Ackerman, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    System designs of molten carbonate fuel cell power plants are described for central stations using coal and on-site generators operating on natural gas. Fuel-to-busbar efficiencies are near 50% in coal based systems with turbine bottoming and in simple gas based systems. Coal based systems with more advanced but not fully developed components, and more complex gas based systems approach 60% efficiency.

  12. Nitrogen removal from natural gas using two types of membranes

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; Wijmans, Johannes G.; Da Costa, Andre R.

    2003-10-07

    A process for treating natural gas or other methane-rich gas to remove excess nitrogen. The invention relies on two-stage membrane separation, using methane-selective membranes for the first stage and nitrogen-selective membranes for the second stage. The process enables the nitrogen content of the gas to be substantially reduced, without requiring the membranes to be operated at very low temperatures.

  13. Natural gas hydrates - issues for gas production and geomechanical stability

    E-print Network

    Grover, Tarun

    2008-10-10

    bearing sediments in offshore environments, I divided these data into different sections. The data included water depths, pore water salinity, gas compositions, geothermal gradients, and sedimentary properties such as sediment type, sediment mineralogy... .................................................................. 9 2.2 Hydrate patterns in sediments .................................................................... 24 3.1 Water depths and penetration for the Blake Ridge..................................... 31 3.2 Geothermal gradients measured...

  14. NATURAL GAS FIRED POWER CYCLES WITH INTEGRATED CO 2 CAPTURE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olav Bolland; Henriette Undrum; Michel Myhre-Nielsen

    This paper examines two options with natural gas fired power cycles including carbon dioxide capture. One of these is about capturing carbon dioxide by absorption using the absorbent MDEA at elevated pressure integrated in the turbine of the gas turbine. The other option is stoichiometri c combustion with pure oxygen at high pressure in a modified Rankine type cycle -

  15. DOE\\/BNL Liquid Natural Gas Heavy Vehicle Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Wegrzyn; Wai-Lin Litzke; Michael Gurevich

    1998-01-01

    As a means of lowering greenhouse gas emissions, increasing economic growth, and reducing the dependency on imported oil, the Department of Energy and Brookhaven National Laboratory (DOE\\/ BNL) is promoting the substitution of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in heavy-vehicles that are currently being fueled by diesel. Heavy vehicles are defined as Class 7 and 8 trucks (> 118,000 pounds GVVV),

  16. Impact of hydrogen injection in natural gas infrastructures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillermo Hernández-Rodríguez; Luc Pibouleau; Catherine Azzaro-Pantel; Serge Domenech

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the framework of a mathematical formulation for modelling and evaluating natural gas (NG) pipeline networks under hydrogen injection. The model development is based on gas transport through pipelines and compressors which compensate for the pressure drops by implying mainly the mass and energy balances on the basic elements of the network. The model was initially implemented for

  17. Advanced catalytic converter system for natural gas powered diesel engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vadim O. Strots; Grigorii A. Bunimovich; Yurii Sh. Matros; Ming Zheng; Edward A. Mirosh

    1998-01-01

    The paper discusses the development of catalytic converter for aftertreatment of exhaust gas from diesel engines powered with natural gas. The converter, operated with periodical reversals of the flow, ensures destruction of CO and hydrocarbons, including methane. Both computer simulation and engine testing results are presented.

  18. Mercury in the natural gas industry in Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Wren; C. W. Farrell

    1995-01-01

    There are an estimated 1,500 natural gas facilities across Canada, most of which used mercury (Hg) in metering equipment at one time or another. Although the use of mercury has ceased, many gas industry buildings still contain detectable levels of Hg in air. Air Hg levels are generally low but indoor remediation is suggested. Worker exposure to the air Hg

  19. ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL NATURAL GAS FURNACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives emissions data from residential natural-gas furnaces and compares selected data to emissions data from residential oil furnaces and woodstoves. atural-gas furnace emissions data are given for carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons, aldehydes, volatile and sem...

  20. Educational Roadmap of Natural Gas and Crude Oil

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This webpage from the Ohio Oil and Gas Energy Education Program will assist classes learning about natural gas, crude oil and fuel production. The page is divided into six sections, focusing on formation, migration, exploration, drilling and production, refinement and finally, end products. Each section has a video demonstration, resources, links and more.

  1. North American Natural Gas: Data Show Supply Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Youngquist; Richard C. Duncan

    2003-01-01

    Natural gas is increasingly the fuel of choice for domestic and industrial use and for electric power generation. With pipelines in all 50 states, gas now fuels more than one-half of United States homes. Demand for all uses is projected to rise. United States production peaked in 1971, and is in decline. The United States in 2002 imported 15% of

  2. Natural Gas as a Fuel Option for Heavy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    James E. Wegrzyn; Wai Lin Litzke; Michael Gurevich

    1999-04-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) is promoting the use of natural gas as a fuel option in the transportation energy sector through its natural gas vehicle program [1]. The goal of this program is to eliminate the technical and cost barriers associated with displacing imported petroleum. This is achieved by supporting research and development in technologies that reduce manufacturing costs, reduce emissions, and improve vehicle performance and consumer acceptance for natural gas fueled vehicles. In collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory, projects are currently being pursued in (1) liquefied natural gas production from unconventional sources, (2) onboard natural gas storage (adsorbent, compressed, and liquefied), (3) natural gas delivery systems for both onboard the vehicle and the refueling station, and (4) regional and enduse strategies. This paper will provide an overview of these projects highlighting their achievements and current status. In addition, it will discuss how the individual technologies developed are being integrated into an overall program strategic plan.

  3. Control method for mixed refrigerant based natural gas liquefier

    DOEpatents

    Kountz, Kenneth J. (Palatine, IL); Bishop, Patrick M. (Chicago, IL)

    2003-01-01

    In a natural gas liquefaction system having a refrigerant storage circuit, a refrigerant circulation circuit in fluid communication with the refrigerant storage circuit, and a natural gas liquefaction circuit in thermal communication with the refrigerant circulation circuit, a method for liquefaction of natural gas in which pressure in the refrigerant circulation circuit is adjusted to below about 175 psig by exchange of refrigerant with the refrigerant storage circuit. A variable speed motor is started whereby operation of a compressor is initiated. The compressor is operated at full discharge capacity. Operation of an expansion valve is initiated whereby suction pressure at the suction pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 30 psig and discharge pressure at the discharge pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 350 psig. Refrigerant vapor is introduced from the refrigerant holding tank into the refrigerant circulation circuit until the suction pressure is reduced to below about 15 psig, after which flow of the refrigerant vapor from the refrigerant holding tank is terminated. Natural gas is then introduced into a natural gas liquefier, resulting in liquefaction of the natural gas.

  4. Supply Chain Management and Economic Valuation of Real Options in the Natural Gas

    E-print Network

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    Supply Chain Management and Economic Valuation of Real Options in the Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas Industry Mulan Xiaofeng Wang Submitted to the Tepper School of Business in Partial Fulfillment options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry, including gas pipeline transportation

  5. Green Engines Development Using Compressed Natural Gas as an Alternative Fuel: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Bakar; A. R. Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: The Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a gaseous form of natural gas, it have been recognized as one of the promising alternative fuel due to its substantial benefits compared to gasoli ne and diesel. Natural gas is produced from gas wells or tied in w ith crude oil production. Approach: Natural gas is promising alternative fuel to meet

  6. Impact of Natural Gas Price Decontrol on Gas Supply, Demand and Prices

    E-print Network

    Schlesinger, B.

    1982-01-01

    and private sources, including the Department of Energy, manufacturers' groups, and the various academic and other research institutes. Although, these generally tend to be increasingly optimistic about the gas supply outlook and the contribution... that gas can make to U.S. energy needs in the future, questions about price deregulation continue to cloud the gas outlook in many minds. Given this, the purposes of this paper are (a) to describe briefly the prospects for natural and supplemental gas...

  7. Gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric analysis of mercaptan odorants in liquefied petroleum gas and liquefied natural gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung-Woon Myung; Soojung Huh; Jinsook Kim; Yunje Kim; Myungsoo Kim; Younggu Kim; Wonho Kim; Byunghoo Kim

    1997-01-01

    A gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric method for the determination of mercaptan odorants (dimethyl sulfide, tert.-butylmercaptan, tetrahydrothiophene) in natural gas has been developed. The gas sample filled in a 5 l Tedlar bag was introduced into the 0.5 ml volume of a sampling loop, separated on a 50 m capillary column coated with 5% phenylmethylsilicone and detected by a mass spectrometer. Natural

  8. 77 FR 12274 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ...energy.gov/programs/gasregulation/authorizations/Orders-2012.html. They are also available for inspection and copying in the Office of Fossil Energy, Office of Natural Gas Regulatory Activities, Docket Room 3E-033, Forrestal...

  9. The characteristics of gas hydrates occurring in natural environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, H.; Moudrakovski, I.; Udachin, K.; Enright, G.; Ratcliffe, C.; Ripmeester, J.

    2009-12-01

    In the past few years, extensive analyses have been carried out for characterizing the natural gas hydrate samples from Cascadia, offshore Vancouver Island; Mallik, Mackenzie Delta; Mount Elbert, Alaska North Slope; Nankai Trough, offshore Japan; Japan Sea and offshore India. With the results obtained, it is possible to give a general picture of the characteristics of gas hydrates occurring in natural environment. Gas hydrate can occur in sediments of various types, from sands to clay, although it is preferentially enriched in sediments of certain types, for example coarse sands and fine volcanic ash. Most of the gas hydrates in sediments are invisible, occurring in the pores of the sediments, while some hydrates are visible, appearing as massive, nodular, planar, vein-like forms and occurring around the seafloor, in the fractures related to fault systems, or any other large spaces available in sediments. Although methane is the main component of most of the natural gas hydrates, C2 to C7 hydrocarbons have been recognized in hydrates, sometimes even in significant amounts. Shallow marine gas hydrates have been found generally to contain minor amounts of hydrogen sulfide. Gas hydrate samples with complex gas compositions have been found to have heterogeneous distributions in composition, which might reflect changes in the composition of the available gas in the surrounding environment. Depending on the gas compositions, the structure type of a natural gas hydrate can be structure I, II or H. For structure I methane hydrate, the large cages are almost fully occupied by methane molecules, while the small cages are only partly occupied. Methane hydrates occurring in different environments have been identified with almost the same crystallographic parameters.

  10. Conceptual Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) terminal design for Kuwait 

    E-print Network

    Aljeeran, Fares

    2006-08-16

    8 Persian Gulf.... The population is around 2 million, with the major natural resources being petroleum, natural gas, fish, and shrimp. Kuwait is located in the upper northwest of the Persian Gulf, and it is small, rich, and has a relatively open economy. It is estimated...

  11. Natural gas imports and exports. Second quarter report, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepared quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the second quarter of 1998 (April through June). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  12. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-09-30

    During this quarter, work began on the regional structural and geologic analysis of the greater Green River basin (GGRB) in southwestern Wyoming, northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah. The ultimate objective of the regional analysis is to apply the techniques developed and demonstrated during earlier phases of the project to sweet-spot delineation in a relatively new and underexplored play: tight gas from continuous-type Upper Cretaceous reservoirs of the GGRB. The primary goal of this work is to partition and high-grade the greater Green River basin for exploration efforts in the Cretaceous tight gas play. The work plan for the quarter of January 1, 1998--March 31, 1998 consisted of three tasks: (1) Acquire necessary data and develop base map of study area; (2) Process data for analysis; and (3) Initiate structural study. The first task and second tasks were completed during this reporting period. The third task was initiated and work continues.

  13. PVT measurements for five natural gas mixtures 

    E-print Network

    Simon, Philip Parayil

    1991-01-01

    OF FIGURES . V11 LIST OF TABLES INTRODUCTION . EXPERIMENT Method Apparatus Data Analysis Sample 10 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 12 CONCLUSIONS 26 LITERATURE CITED 27 APPENDIX A: THE COOLING SYSTEM 29 APPENDIX B: VOLUMETRIC DATA . . 35 TABLE... OF CONTENTS (Continued) Page APPENDIX C: VOLUMETRIC DATA FROM PREVIOUS WORK 47 APPENDIX D 53 VITA 54 LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1. Schematic of the Burnett apparatus. Figure 2. Compressibility factors for the Amarillo gas mixture. Figure 3...

  14. Odorant loss in natural gas distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, E.A.; Pai, P.G.; Carducci, M.I. (Lab. Services, Dept. of Engineering Activity, Michigan Consolidated Gas Co., MI (US))

    1991-04-01

    The loss of odorant compounds (odor fading) was studied using flow reactors which simulated the typical operating conditions of a gas distribution system. A unique method was developed to simulate rust on the inside surface of the pipeline. The study indicated that odorant loss can be impacted by the following operating parameters: Pressure; Temperature; Velocity; Iron oxide compounds; Thickness of iron oxide layer in pipe.

  15. Apparatus for odorizing liquid natural gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mulliner

    1975-01-01

    San Diego Gas and Electric Co. and Dual Fuel Systems, Inc.'s new method odorizes LNG with an odorant in discrete volumes as the LNG is being transferred from a bulk storage vessel to a tanker or the like. The odorant-diluent solution, preferably thiophene-propane (20 parts propane to 1 part thiopene) is introduced into an injection vessel of a predetermined volume.

  16. Predictors of Atrial Septal Defect Occluder Dislodgement.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei-Chieh; Fang, Chih-Yuan; Huang, Chien-Fu; Lin, Ying-Jui; Wu, Chiung-Jen; Fang, Hsiu-Yu

    2015-07-13

    The aim of this study was to identify the factors that influence atrial septal occluder dislodgement in adults and children.From June 2003 to June 2013, a total of 213 patients (115 adults and 98 children) diagnosed with secundum atrial septal defects (ASD) underwent transcatheter closure of their defects with an atrial septal occluder (ASO) in our hospital. The ASO was implanted under transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) guidance. Ten patients suffered from ASO dislodgement, and the other 203 patients comprised the successful group. We compared the preprocedural data related to general demographics, defects, margins, and minor post-implantation complications between the two groups with the goal of identifying the factors that affected ASO dislodgement.Univariate logistic regression analyses identified a high Qp/Qs value, the Qp/Qs ratio > 3.13, ASO size, ASO size greater than 32 mm, ASO size/BSA ratio > 15.13 and IAS erosion, floppiness or aneurysm formation as factors with significant predictive value. Multivariate analysis revealed that a Qp/Qs ratio > 3.13, and interatrial septum (IAS) erosion, floppiness and aneurysm formation post-implantation were independent predictors of ASO dislodgement (P = 0.001 and P = 0.006, respectively) in both adults and children.Percutaneous device closure of ASDs is safe and effective in the current era. The Qp/Qs ratio > 3.13 and IAS erosion, floppiness or aneurysm formation post-implantation might be predictors of ASO dislodgement in adults and children. PMID:26118595

  17. 40 CFR Table W - 2 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing W Table W Protection...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt...Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing Onshore natural...

  18. 18 CFR 284.263 - Exemption from section 7 of Natural Gas Act and certain regulatory conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Exemption from section 7 of Natural Gas Act and certain regulatory conditions...ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED...CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY...

  19. 18 CFR 284.263 - Exemption from section 7 of Natural Gas Act and certain regulatory conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Exemption from section 7 of Natural Gas Act and certain regulatory conditions...ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED...CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY...

  20. 40 CFR Table W - 2 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing W Table W Protection...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt...Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing Onshore natural...

  1. 40 CFR Table W - 2 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing W Table W Protection...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt...Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing Onshore natural...

  2. 40 CFR Table W - 4 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage W Table W Protection...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt...Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage Underground natural...

  3. 40 CFR Table W - 4 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage W Table W Protection...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt...Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage Underground natural...

  4. 18 CFR 284.263 - Exemption from section 7 of Natural Gas Act and certain regulatory conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Exemption from section 7 of Natural Gas Act and certain regulatory conditions...ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED...CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY...

  5. 18 CFR 284.263 - Exemption from section 7 of Natural Gas Act and certain regulatory conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Exemption from section 7 of Natural Gas Act and certain regulatory conditions...ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED...CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY...

  6. 40 CFR Table W - 4 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage W Table W Protection...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt...Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage Underground natural...

  7. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-02-06

    The previous report provided a detailed summary of the work data on the project at the Rulison field. Key to this report was the finding that the regions where wells showed good EURs were spatially associated with faulting. Specifically, areas considered more permeable due to the presence of natural fractures are generally located in the high-side (footwall) of reverse faults. While this association seems to hold in the Rulison seismic data coverage, this association requires corroboration. Thus the work plan for the quarter of July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997 consisted of three tasks: (1) perform detailed fault mapping of Rulison 3-D seismic data with Barrett Resources; (2) review SOCO 2-D seismic fault mapping and structural interpretations; and (3) initial work into developing a predictive method for locating fault-related natural fractures. The first two tasks were initiated and completed during this reporting period. The work involved required at the collaborative effort between the field operators and ARI staff. The third task marks the beginning of quantitative fracture mechanics analysis of the geologic processes that are involved for the development of fault-related natural fractures. The goal of this work is to develop a predictive capability of locating natural fractures prior to drilling.

  8. Towards a fundamental understanding of natural gas hydrates.

    PubMed

    Koh, Carolyn A

    2002-05-01

    Gas clathrate hydrates were first identified in 1810 by Sir Humphrey Davy. However, it is believed that other scientists, including Priestley, may have observed their existence before this date. They are solid crystalline inclusion compounds consisting of polyhedral water cavities which enclathrate small gas molecules. Natural gas hydrates are important industrially because the occurrence of these solids in subsea gas pipelines presents high economic loss and ecological risks, as well as potential safety hazards to exploration and transmission personnel. On the other hand, they also have technological importance in separation processes, fuel transportation and storage. They are also a potential fuel resource because natural deposits of predominantly methane hydrate are found in permafrost and continental margins. To progress with understanding and tackling some of the technological challenges relating to natural gas hydrate formation, inhibition and decomposition one needs to develop a fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in these processes. This fundamental understanding is also important to the broader field of inclusion chemistry. The present article focuses on the application of a range of physico-chemical techniques and approaches for gaining a fundamental understanding of natural gas hydrate formation, decomposition and inhibition. This article is complementary to other reviews in this field, which have focused more on the applied, engineering and technological aspects of clathrate hydrates. PMID:12122641

  9. Bioconversion of natural gas to liquid fuel: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Fei, Qiang; Guarnieri, Michael T; Tao, Ling; Laurens, Lieve M L; Dowe, Nancy; Pienkos, Philip T

    2014-01-01

    Natural gas is a mixture of low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases that can be generated from either fossil or anthropogenic resources. Although natural gas is used as a transportation fuel, constraints in storage, relatively low energy content (MJ/L), and delivery have limited widespread adoption. Advanced utilization of natural gas has been explored for biofuel production by microorganisms. In recent years, the aerobic bioconversion of natural gas (or primarily the methane content of natural gas) into liquid fuels (Bio-GTL) by biocatalysts (methanotrophs) has gained increasing attention as a promising alternative for drop-in biofuel production. Methanotrophic bacteria are capable of converting methane into microbial lipids, which can in turn be converted into renewable diesel via a hydrotreating process. In this paper, biodiversity, catalytic properties and key enzymes and pathways of these microbes are summarized. Bioprocess technologies are discussed based upon existing literature, including cultivation conditions, fermentation modes, bioreactor design, and lipid extraction and upgrading. This review also outlines the potential of Bio-GTL using methane as an alternative carbon source as well as the major challenges and future research needs of microbial lipid accumulation derived from methane, key performance index, and techno-economic analysis. An analysis of raw material costs suggests that methane-derived diesel fuel has the potential to be competitive with petroleum-derived diesel. PMID:24726715

  10. 40 CFR Table W - 1A of Subpart W-Default Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production W Table W Protection...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt...Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production Onshore...

  11. Natural Gas Occurrence in Groundwater near Oil and Gas Drilling Sites Environmental Concerns in Northeast Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjmand, S.; Abad, J. D.; Liang, X.

    2012-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling techniques have been extensively used to extract unconventional natural gas in the northeast of the United States. Over the past few years, the presence of contaminants in shallow groundwater near drilling sites has created higher awareness of drinking water quality. One key question has been recently raised about the origin and pathways of the contaminants, especially natural gas found in groundwater in neighboring areas of gas drilling sites in northeast Pennsylvania. Methane (CH4), which is the main component of natural gas, is not currently classified as a health hazard when dissolved in drinking water. Yet, it is a threat for explosion and fire hazards. In the Bradford, Susquehanna, Tioga, and Wyoming counties located in northeast Pennsylvania, dissolved methane concentration was measured to be 19.2 mg/l. Maximum concentration was recorded up to 64 mg/l when a warning level of concentration of natural gas in groundwater is only 10 mg/l. Recent studies have been investigating the origin of natural gas found in water wells in these counties based on the isotopic composition of methane, ethane and dissolved inorganic carbon. While Breen et al. (2007) and Osborn et al. (2010 and 2011) claim that the isotopic analysis of methane confirms the thermogenic origin of methane in groundwater in Susquehanna and Wyoming counties, Molofsky et al. (2011) claim that the natural gas origin in the groundwater is not related to fracking activities in the Marcellus Shale but to a geologic origin instead. To better understand the origin of dissolved methane, an integral computer model will be implemented. The model will analyze the potential migration of natural gas to shallow groundwater by using available data. Potential scenarios will include outgassing from wells casing and preferential flow through deep fractures. Currently, the lack of a proper model prevents the prediction and explanation of several of the existing questions. This study focuses on the dissolved methane transport into shallow groundwater nearby gas drilling activities in northeast Pennsylvania.

  12. Effects of gas composition on the performance and emissions of compressed natural gas engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byung Hyouk Min; Jin Taek Chung; Ho Young Kim

    2002-01-01

    Natural gas is considered to be a promising alternative fuel for passenger cars, truck transportation and stationary engines\\u000a providing positive effects both on the environment and energy security. However, since the composition of natural gas fuel\\u000a varies with location, climate and other factors, it is anticipated that such changes in fuel properties will affect emission\\u000a characteristics and performance of CNG

  13. Mathematical model of natural gas flow in pipelines with allowance for the dissociation of gas hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shagapov, V. Sh.; Musakaev, N. G.; Urazov, R. R.

    2008-03-01

    On the basis of the methods and equations of mechanics of multiphase systems a system of ordinary differential equations describing the hydrodynamics and thermal physics of a flow in the gas main in the presence of deposits of gas hydrates on the duct walls has been obtained. Some methods for preventing and controlling the formation of hydrates in the process of natural gas transport in a pipeline have been considered.

  14. Systems for delivering liquified natural gas to an engine

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); O'Brien, James E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Siahpush, Ali S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Brown, Kevin B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01

    A fuel delivery system includes a fuel tank configured to receive liquid natural gas. A first conduit extends from a vapor holding portion of the fuel tank to an economizer valve. A second conduit extends from a liquid holding portion of the fuel tank to the economizer valve. Fluid coupled to the economizer valve is a vaporizer which is heated by coolant from the engine and is positioned below the fuel tank. The economizer valve selectively withdraws either liquid natural gas or vaporized natural gas from the fuel tank depending on the pressure within the vapor holding portion of the fuel tank. A delivery conduit extends from the vaporizer to the engine. A return conduit having a check valve formed therein extends from the delivery conduit to the vapor holding portion of the fuel tank for pressurizing the fuel tank.

  15. Application of landfill gas as a liquefied natural gas fuel for refuse trucks in Texas

    E-print Network

    Gokhale, Bhushan

    2007-04-25

    truck operations. The purpose of this thesis is to develop a methodology that can be used to evaluate the use of LFG generated at landfills as a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) fuel source for refuse trucks in Texas. The methodology simulates the gas...

  16. U.S. oil, natural gas demand still climbing

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, R.J.

    1997-01-27

    Steady economic growth and slightly lower prices will boost demand for petroleum and natural gas in the US again this year. Economic growth will lag behind last year`s level but will remain strong. Increased worldwide petroleum production should lower oil prices and encourage fuel-switching, which will suppress natural gas prices. In the US, total energy consumption will grow less rapidly than economic activity due to continuing improvement in energy efficiency. US petroleum product demand will move up to 1.5% in 1997 to average 18.45 million b/d. And natural gas consumption will be up 0.7% at 22.05 tcf. Despite the oil price increases of 1996, US crude oil production will continue to slide in 1997; Oil and Gas Journal projects a drop of 1.1%. US production has been falling since 1985, except for a modest increase in 1991 related to the Persian Gulf War. The rate of decline has diminished in the past 2 years, but US crude oil production has still fall at an average rate of about 226,000 b/d/year since 1985. The paper discusses the economy, total energy consumption, the oil supply, imports, stocks, refining, refining margins and prices, demand for motor gasoline, jet fuel, distillate fuel, residual fuel oil, and other petroleum products, and natural gas demand and supply.

  17. Fuels Containing Methane of Natural Gas in Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    While exploring ways of producing better fuels for propulsion of a spacecraft on the Mars sample return mission, a researcher at Johnson Space Center (JSC) devised a way of blending fuel by combining methane or natural gas with a second fuel to produce a fuel that can be maintained in liquid form at ambient temperature and under moderate pressure. The use of such a blended fuel would be a departure for both spacecraft engines and terrestrial internal combustion engines. For spacecraft, it would enable reduction of weights on long flights. For the automotive industry on Earth, such a fuel could be easily distributed and could be a less expensive, more efficient, and cleaner-burning alternative to conventional fossil fuels. The concept of blending fuels is not new: for example, the production of gasoline includes the addition of liquid octane enhancers. For the future, it has been commonly suggested to substitute methane or compressed natural gas for octane-enhanced gasoline as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Unfortunately, methane or natural gas must be stored either as a compressed gas (if kept at ambient temperature) or as a cryogenic liquid. The ranges of automobiles would be reduced from their present values because of limitations on the capacities for storage of these fuels. Moreover, technical challenges are posed by the need to develop equipment to handle these fuels and, especially, to fill tanks acceptably rapidly. The JSC alternative to provide a blended fuel that can be maintained in liquid form at moderate pressure at ambient temperature has not been previously tried. A blended automotive fuel according to this approach would be made by dissolving natural gas in gasoline. The autogenous pressure of this fuel would eliminate the need for a vehicle fuel pump, but a pressure and/or flow regulator would be needed to moderate the effects of temperature and to respond to changing engine power demands. Because the fuel would flash as it entered engine cylinders, relative to gasoline, it would disperse more readily and therefore would mix with air more nearly completely. As a consequence, this fuel would burn more nearly completely (and, hence, more cleanly) than gasoline does. The storage density of this fuel would be similar to that of gasoline, but its energy density would be such that the mileage (more precisely, the distance traveled per unit volume of fuel) would be greater than that of either gasoline or compressed natural gas. Because the pressure needed to maintain the fuel in liquid form would be more nearly constant and generally lower than that needed to maintain compressed natural gas in liquid form, the pressure rating of a tank used to hold this fuel could be lower than that of a tank used to hold compressed natural gas. A mixture of natural gas and gasoline could be distributed more easily than could some alternative fuels. A massive investment in new equipment would not be necessary: One could utilize the present fuel-distribution infrastructure and could blend the gasoline and natural gas at almost any place in the production or distribution process - perhaps even at the retail fuel pump. Yet another advantage afforded by use of a blend of gasoline and natural gas would be a reduction in the amount of gasoline consumed. Because natural gas costs less than gasoline does and is in abundant supply in the United States, the cost of automotive fuel and the demand for imported oil could be reduced.

  18. Exploring Occupations for Electronics Technicians in the Natural Gas Industry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This teacher's guide presents a lesson on the electronics technician career path in the natural gas industry. Students will answer the question: "Is a career as an electronics technician in the natural gas industry a good choice for me?" The class will write a one-page paper on this topic. The unit is intended for grades 7-9 and would take three to four 45 minute class periods to complete in full. This document may be downloaded in Microsoft Word file format.

  19. U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    U.S. crude oil proved reserves increased for the fifth year in a row in 2013, a net addition of 3.1 billion barrels of proved oil reserves (a 9% increase) according to U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, 2013, released today by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). U.S. natural gas proved reserves increased 10% in 2013, more than replacing the 7% decline in proved reserves seen in 2012, and raising the U.S. total to a record level of 354 trillion cubic feet (Tcf).

  20. Natural gas development and utilisation pattern in India

    SciTech Connect

    Mulchandani, H.K.; Balakrishnan, M.

    1984-02-01

    In this era of energy consciousness, Natural Gas is destined to play an important role in the economic life of India. The luxury of flaring into atmosphere is over. Rather stocks are being assessed and capital investments are planned for the optimum development and utilisation of gas. In this paper, authors have attempted to tie up various data on different aspects of gas business such as supply, source, production, utilisation pattern and its share in energy and economy. The optimal utilisation plan as discussed here could be of some value to the planners.

  1. Natural Gas Procurement Challenges for a Project Financed Cogeneration Facility

    E-print Network

    Good, R. L.; Calvert, T. B.; Pavlish, B. A.

    ~ation facility in 1986 in place of conventional inteLnal financing g~eatly changed the way in which natu~al gas was normally p~ocu~ed by Union Ca~bide Corpo~ation. Natu~al gas supply secu~ity fo~ the term of financing was a majo~ conceLn of the finencing... the various natural gas supply p~oposals that ultimately ~esulted in the final cont~actu~al a~~angements. While the information p~esented will be deliberately non-specific to the supplie~s involved or the cont~actual terms, the discussion will cove...

  2. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-11-15

    The three tasks were completed during this reporting period. During this quarter, work focused on a local structural analysis of the Table Rock field, greater Green River basin (GGRB) in southwestern Wyoming. The ultimate objective of the local analysis is to apply the techniques developed and demonstrated during earlier phases of the project in the Rulison Field area of the Piceance basin for sweet-spot delineation. The primary goal of this work is to focus in on the Table Rock field area in the northern Washakie basin of the Greater Green River basin in support of Union Pacific Resources and DOE planned horizontal drilling efforts. The work plan for the quarter of April 1, 1998--June 30, 1998 consisted of three tasks: (1) Acquire necessary seismic data and depth-convert, (2) Map major fault geometry and analyze displacement vectors, (3) Develop and initiate a natural fracture prediction study.

  3. Preliminary report on the commercial viability of gas production from natural gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, M.R.; Hancock, S.H.; Wilson, S.J.; Patil, S.L.; Moridis, G.J.; Boswell, R.; Collett, T.S.; Koh, C.A.; Sloan, E.D.

    2009-01-01

    Economic studies on simulated gas hydrate reservoirs have been compiled to estimate the price of natural gas that may lead to economically viable production from the most promising gas hydrate accumulations. As a first estimate, $CDN2005 12/Mscf is the lowest gas price that would allow economically viable production from gas hydrates in the absence of associated free gas, while an underlying gas deposit will reduce the viability price estimate to $CDN2005 7.50/Mscf. Results from a recent analysis of the simulated production of natural gas from marine hydrate deposits are also considered in this report; on an IROR basis, it is $US2008 3.50-4.00/Mscf more expensive to produce marine hydrates than conventional marine gas assuming the existence of sufficiently large marine hydrate accumulations. While these prices represent the best available estimates, the economic evaluation of a specific project is highly dependent on the producibility of the target zone, the amount of gas in place, the associated geologic and depositional environment, existing pipeline infrastructure, and local tariffs and taxes. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Recognition of partially occluded threat objects using the annealed Hopefield network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jung H.; Yoon, Sung H.; Park, Eui H.; Ntuen, Celestine A.

    1992-01-01

    Recognition of partially occluded objects has been an important issue to airport security because occlusion causes significant problems in identifying and locating objects during baggage inspection. The neural network approach is suitable for the problems in the sense that the inherent parallelism of neural networks pursues many hypotheses in parallel resulting in high computation rates. Moreover, they provide a greater degree of robustness or fault tolerance than conventional computers. The annealed Hopfield network which is derived from the mean field annealing (MFA) has been developed to find global solutions of a nonlinear system. In the study, it has been proven that the system temperature of MFA is equivalent to the gain of the sigmoid function of a Hopfield network. In our early work, we developed the hybrid Hopfield network (HHN) for fast and reliable matching. However, HHN doesn't guarantee global solutions and yields false matching under heavily occluded conditions because HHN is dependent on initial states by its nature. In this paper, we present the annealed Hopfield network (AHN) for occluded object matching problems. In AHN, the mean field theory is applied to the hybird Hopfield network in order to improve computational complexity of the annealed Hopfield network and provide reliable matching under heavily occluded conditions. AHN is slower than HHN. However, AHN provides near global solutions without initial restrictions and provides less false matching than HHN. In conclusion, a new algorithm based upon a neural network approach was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of the automated inspection of threat objects from x-ray images. The robustness of the algorithm is proved by identifying occluded target objects with large tolerance of their features.

  5. 77 FR 23105 - Supporting Safe and Responsible Development of Unconventional Domestic Natural Gas Resources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ...of Unconventional Domestic Natural Gas Resources Presidential...of domestic unconventional natural gas by performing the following...such issues as research, natural resource assessment, and...iv) promote interagency communication with stakeholders;...

  6. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Scotto

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NO{sub x} emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of high-flammable content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. The actual NO{sub x} reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammable content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NO{sub x} reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NO{sub x} emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  7. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Mark V. Scotto; Mark A. Perna

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NOx emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of highflammables content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NOx emissions. The actual NOx reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammables content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NOx reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NOx emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NOx emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  8. Assessment of gas industry practices for odorization of natural gas. Final report Dec 80-Sep 81

    SciTech Connect

    Larocque, G.R.

    1981-12-01

    A review of gas industry practices for odorization of natural gas was performed. The review included an examination of regulatory requirements and relevant case law to identify technical aspects of odorization which have been questioned during litigation. Usage patterns for natural gas odorants and odorant injection equipment were examined on the basis of industry interviews and results of a previous study. Prior research on odorant properties was summarized. Odorizer designs were analyzed to determine the sensitivity of odorant injection rate to variations in gas flow rate, temperature, and pressure. Practices for monitoring of gas odorant levels were summarized and their statistical properties were examined. Several areas for potential improvement of odorization equipment and monitoring practices were suggested.

  9. Effect of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 on administrative interpretation of natural-gas sales contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Veis, B.T.

    1981-01-01

    This comment examines the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) natural gas regulatory authority and its policies and procedures for the interpretation of natural gas sales contracts and settlement agreements. It concludes that the FERC has prescribed a workable method for the post Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) interpretation of area rate clauses. The procedures and guidelines established in the Independent Oil and Gas Association, with the exception of the exclusion of evidence of settlement negotiations, promise to be fair to all parties in litigation over the meaning of area rate clauses. The FERC recognized that the limitations of drafting placed on the natural gas industry by the NGA and FERC regulations may have inhibited the free expression of intent in the words of the contract, thus requiring the use of extrinsic evidence. The FERC's formulation of objective textual standards for the interpretation of area rate clauses, when evidence of the parties' intent is absent or inconclusive, provides administrative law judges with clear guidelines and generally allows contracts to be interpreted in accordance with the parties' intent. The author feels the FERC's exclusion of evidence of settlement negotiations is misguided, however, and should be reconsidered. The negotiation of contracts in the context of settlement proceedings should not be a bar to the admissibility of evidence necessary to interpret an ambiguous contract provision. The FERC's position is not supportable in law or policy and should therefore be reversed.

  10. Indriect Measurement Of Nitrogen In A Mult-Component Natural Gas By Heating The Gas

    DOEpatents

    Morrow, Thomas B. (San Antonio, TX); Behring, II, Kendricks A. (Torrance, CA)

    2004-06-22

    Methods of indirectly measuring the nitrogen concentration in a natural gas by heating the gas. In two embodiments, the heating energy is correlated to the speed of sound in the gas, the diluent concentrations in the gas, and constant values, resulting in a model equation. Regression analysis is used to calculate the constant values, which can then be substituted into the model equation. If the diluent concentrations other than nitrogen (typically carbon dioxide) are known, the model equation can be solved for the nitrogen concentration.

  11. Supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mulan Xiaofeng

    My dissertation concentrates on several aspects of supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry, including gas pipeline transportations, ocean LNG shipping logistics, and downstream storage. Chapter 1 briefly introduces the natural gas and LNG industries, and the topics studied in this thesis. Chapter 2 studies how to value U.S. natural gas pipeline network transport contracts as real options. It is common for natural gas shippers to value and manage contracts by simple adaptations of financial spread option formulas that do not fully account for the implications of the capacity limits and the network structure that distinguish these contracts. In contrast, we show that these operational features can be fully captured and integrated with financial considerations in a fairly easy and managerially significant manner by a model that combines linear programming and simulation. We derive pathwise estimators for the so called deltas and structurally characterize them. We interpret them in a novel fashion as discounted expectations, under a specific weighing distribution, of the amounts of natural gas to be procured/marketed when optimally using pipeline capacity. Based on the actual prices of traded natural gas futures and basis swaps, we show that an enhanced version of the common approach employed in practice can significantly underestimate the true value of natural gas pipeline network capacity. Our model also exhibits promising financial (delta) hedging performance. Thus, this model emerges as an easy to use and useful tool that natural gas shippers can employ to support their valuation and delta hedging decisions concerning natural gas pipeline network transport capacity contracts. Moreover, the insights that follow from our data analysis have broader significance and implications in terms of the management of real options beyond our specific application. Motivated by current developments in the LNG industry, Chapter 3 studies the operations of LNG supply chains facing both supply and price risk. To model the supply uncertainty, we employ a closed-queuing-network (CQN) model to represent upstream LNG production and shipping, via special oceans-going tankers, to a downstream re-gasification facility in the U.S, which sells natural gas into the wholesale spot market. The CQN shipping model analytically generates the unloaded amount probability distribution. Price uncertainty is captured by the spot price, which experiences both volatility and significant seasonality, i.e., higher prices in winter. We use a trinomial lattice to model the price uncertainty, and calibrate to the extended forward curves. Taking the outputs from the CQN model and the spot price model as stochastic inputs, we formulate a real option inventory-release model to study the benefit of optimally managing a downstream LNG storage facility. This allows characterization of the structure of the optimal inventory management policy. An interesting finding is that when it is optimal to sell, it is not necessarily optimal to sell the entire available inventory. The model can be used by LNG players to value and manage the real option to store LNG at a re-gasification facility, and is easy to be implemented. For example, this model is particularly useful to value leasing contracts for portions of the facility capacity. Real data is used to assess the value of the real option to store LNG at the downstream re-gasification facility, and, contrary to what has been claimed by some practitioners, we find that it has significant value (several million dollars). Chapter 4 studies the importance of modeling the shipping variability when valuing and managing a downstream LNG storage facility. The shipping model presented in Chapter 3 uses a "rolling forward" method to generate the independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) unloaded amount in each decision period. We study the merit of the i.i.d. assumption by using simulation and developing an upper bound. We show that the model

  12. Accounting for fuel price risk: Using forward natural gas prices instead of gas price forecasts to compare renewable to natural gas-fired generation

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2003-08-13

    Against the backdrop of increasingly volatile natural gas prices, renewable energy resources, which by their nature are immune to natural gas fuel price risk, provide a real economic benefit. Unlike many contracts for natural gas-fired generation, renewable generation is typically sold under fixed-price contracts. Assuming that electricity consumers value long-term price stability, a utility or other retail electricity supplier that is looking to expand its resource portfolio (or a policymaker interested in evaluating different resource options) should therefore compare the cost of fixed-price renewable generation to the hedged or guaranteed cost of new natural gas-fired generation, rather than to projected costs based on uncertain gas price forecasts. To do otherwise would be to compare apples to oranges: by their nature, renewable resources carry no natural gas fuel price risk, and if the market values that attribute, then the most appropriate comparison is to the hedged cost of natural gas-fired generation. Nonetheless, utilities and others often compare the costs of renewable to gas-fired generation using as their fuel price input long-term gas price forecasts that are inherently uncertain, rather than long-term natural gas forward prices that can actually be locked in. This practice raises the critical question of how these two price streams compare. If they are similar, then one might conclude that forecast-based modeling and planning exercises are in fact approximating an apples-to-apples comparison, and no further consideration is necessary. If, however, natural gas forward prices systematically differ from price forecasts, then the use of such forecasts in planning and modeling exercises will yield results that are biased in favor of either renewable (if forwards < forecasts) or natural gas-fired generation (if forwards > forecasts). In this report we compare the cost of hedging natural gas price risk through traditional gas-based hedging instruments (e.g., futures, swaps, and fixed-price physical supply contracts) to contemporaneous forecasts of spot natural gas prices, with the purpose of identifying any systematic differences between the two. Although our data set is quite limited, we find that over the past three years, forward gas prices for durations of 2-10 years have been considerably higher than most natural gas spot price forecasts, including the reference case forecasts developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This difference is striking, and implies that resource planning and modeling exercises based on these forecasts over the past three years have yielded results that are biased in favor of gas-fired generation (again, presuming that long-term stability is desirable). As discussed later, these findings have important ramifications for resource planners, energy modelers, and policy-makers.

  13. Effect of Natural Gas Fuel Addition on the Oxidation of Fuel Cell Anode Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Gemmen; Edward H. Robey, Jr.

    1999-11-01

    The anode exhaust gas from a fuel cell commonly has a fuel energy density between 15 and 25% that of the fuel supply, due to the incomplete oxidation of the input fuel. This exhaust gas is subsequently oxidized (catalytically or non-catalytically), and the resultant thermal energy is often used elsewhere in the fuel cell process. Alternatively, additional fuel can be added to this stream to enhance the oxidation of the stream, for improved thermal control of the power plant, or to adjust the temperature of the exhaust gas as may be required in other specialty co-generation applications. Regardless of the application, the cost of a fuel cell system can be reduced if the exhaust gas oxidation can be accomplished through direct gas phase oxidation, rather than the usual catalytic oxidation approach. Before gas phase oxidation can be relied upon however, combustor design requirements need to be understood. The work reported here examines the issue of fuel addition, primarily as related to molten-carbonate fuel cell technology. It is shown experimentally that without proper combustor design, the addition of natural gas can readily quench the anode gas oxidation. The Chemkin software routines were used to resolve the mechanisms controlling the chemical quenching. It is found that addition of natural gas to the anode exhaust increases the amount of CH3 radicals, which reduces the concentration of H and O radicals and results in decreased rates of overall fuel oxidation.

  14. Dynamics of natural gas adsorption storage systems employing activated carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Barbosa Mota; A. E. Rodrigues; E. Saatdjian; D. Tondeur

    1997-01-01

    Various aspects of the dynamics of natural gas adsorption storage systems employing activated carbon are studied theoretically. The fast charge of the storage system is the first subject addressed. Emphasis is given to thermal effects and hydrodynamics of flow through the carbon bed. In order to study the influence of diffusional resistances on charge dynamics, an intraparticle transport equation governed

  15. US Natural Gas Price and Its Influencing Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Hsing-Chien

    Research has shown that the Henry Hub natural gas price and the WTI crude oil price are cointegrated in the long run; however, the short term relationship between these two energy prices draws continued discussions and remains inconclusive so far. This paper uses advanced nonlinear time series method MARS VAR to study the dynamic relationship between natural gas price movements and crude oil prices over the past 14 years of daily data. The main finding is that WTI crude oil prices were causally prior to Henry Hub natural gas prices prior to 2004. After this period a decoupling occurred that was captured by the MARS VAR model but not seen in other research using vector error correction model (VECM) that does not support thresholds. Moreover, the out-of-sample forecasting power of MARS VAR is superior to VECM, which based on the cointegration assumption. The research findings may have significant implications of commodity pricing, hedging, and risk management to natural gas local distribution company (LDC), and the Energy Administration.

  16. A critique of offshore liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William D. Whitmore; Vern K. Baxter; Shirley L. Laska

    2009-01-01

    The Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002 amended the Deepwater Port Act of 1974 to permit the construction of offshore liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals. Terminals with environmentally destructive open-loop regasification systems were quickly approved in the Gulf of Mexico. This study analyzed the political methods of the George W. Bush administration to determine how it developed offshore LNG. Findings

  17. Evaluation of Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Abbott; Edward Casey; Etop Esen; Douglas Smith; Bruce Burke; Binh Nguyen; Samuel Tam; Paul Worhach; Mahabubul Alam; Juhun Song; James Szybist; Ragini Acharya; Vince Zello; David Morris; Patrick Flynn; Stephen Kirby; Krishan Bhatia; Jeff Gonder; Yun Wang; Wenpeng Liu; Hua Meng; Subramani Velu; Weidong Gu Jian-Ping Shen; Elise Bickford; Chunshan Song; Chao-Yang Wang; Andre Boehman

    2006-01-01

    ConocoPhillips, in conjunction with Nexant Inc., Penn State University, and Cummins Engine Co., joined with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in a cooperative agreement to perform a comprehensive study of new ultra clean fuels (UCFs) produced from remote sources of natural gas. The project study consists of three primary tasks: an environmental Life Cycle

  18. Effect of natural gas odorants on polyvinyl chloride pipe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Knight; A. Verma

    1975-01-01

    From studies of the effect of natural gas odorants on polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene pipe, the University of Saskatchewan and the Saskatchewan Power Corp. conclude that PE pipe is not affected by the odorants, while the mechanical strength of PVC pipe is affected by some. After 10-day exposures to liquid mercaptan-based odorants, the PE samples showed no physical changes and

  19. Internal combustion engines fueled by natural gas—hydrogen mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Orhan Akansu; Zafer Dulger; Nafiz Kahraman; T. Nejat Veziro?lu

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a survey of research papers on utilization of natural gas–hydrogen mixtures in internal combustion engines is carried out. In general, HC, CO2, and CO emissions decrease with increasing H2, but NOx emissions generally increase. If a catalytic converter is used, NOx emission values can be decreased to extremely low levels. Consequently, equivalence zero emission vehicles (EZEV) standards

  20. Review of statistics of interstate natural gas pipeline companies

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1982-06-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the EIA publication Statistics of Interstate Natural Gas Pipeline Companies, DOE/EIA-0145. This review was conducted for the Development, Collection, Processing and Maintenance Branch of the Natural Gas Division. It was intended to review the format, distribution and production costs of the annual publication. The primary focus was examining alternative approaches for reducing the volume and complexity of the data contained in the report. Statistics of Interstate Natural Gas Pipeline Companies presents a tremendous amount of financial and operating detail on interstate pipeline companies subject to the Natural Gas Act. The report consists of more than 250 pages of tabular data with considerable amounts of overlap and redundancy among tables. Along with the obvious options of keeping the report in its current form or eliminating it entirely EIA has the option of condensing and streamlining the report. Primarily this would involve eliminating the appendices with their company level data and/or consolidating some of the 28 composite tables and placing them in a more manageable form. This would also help place a focus on the report which with its numerous, redundant and overlapping tables the current version lacks. Along with the consolidation and streamlining effort EIA could make the detailed information available upon request and at a charge. However, prior to any major revision the user community should be polled to determine how the report is currently used. (DMC)

  1. Producing H2 From Methanol and Natural Gas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This reference sheet provides some information on the process of producing hydrogen from methanol and natural gas. The chemistry involved is described. This document may be useful in support of curriculum on hydrogen as a fuel source or fuel cell technology. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

  2. Insights Into Natural Gas Production From Low-Permeability Reservoirs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Northrop

    1988-01-01

    Insights have been gained into natural gas production from low permeability sandstone reservoirs in the western United States as a result of the US Department of Energy's Multiwell Experiment (MWX). Three wells, between 110 and 215 ft (34-66 m) apart at depth have been drilled at a site southwest of Rifle, Colorado, in the Piceance Basin, where the Cretaceous-age Mesaverde

  3. Membranes for natural gas sweetening and COâ enrichment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Mazur; M. C. Chan

    1982-01-01

    Describes how the Gasep membrane, which has been field tested for sweetening natural gas, can also be used for enhanced oil recovery and oxygen enrichment. The cellulose acetate membrane is produced in flat sheet form and to retain its asymmetric character the membrane is heat-treated and dried by proprietary techniques. This produces a highly selective, dense, active layer with a

  4. Resilience of Natural Gas Networks during Conflicts, Crises and Disruptions

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Rui; Buzna, Lubos; Bono, Flavio; Masera, Marcelo; Arrowsmith, David K.; Helbing, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Human conflict, geopolitical crises, terrorist attacks, and natural disasters can turn large parts of energy distribution networks offline. Europe's current gas supply network is largely dependent on deliveries from Russia and North Africa, creating vulnerabilities to social and political instabilities. During crises, less delivery may mean greater congestion, as the pipeline network is used in ways it has not been designed for. Given the importance of the security of natural gas supply, we develop a model to handle network congestion on various geographical scales. We offer a resilient response strategy to energy shortages and quantify its effectiveness for a variety of relevant scenarios. In essence, Europe's gas supply can be made robust even to major supply disruptions, if a fair distribution strategy is applied. PMID:24621655

  5. Research on airborne infrared leakage detection of natural gas pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Dongjie; Xu, Bin; Xu, Xu; Wang, Hongchao; Yu, Dongliang; Tian, Shengjie

    2011-12-01

    An airborne laser remote sensing technology is proposed to detect natural gas pipeline leakage in helicopter which carrying a detector, and the detector can detect a high spatial resolution of trace of methane on the ground. The principle of the airborne laser remote sensing system is based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). The system consists of an optical unit containing the laser, camera, helicopter mount, electronic unit with DGPS antenna, a notebook computer and a pilot monitor. And the system is mounted on a helicopter. The principle and the architecture of the airborne laser remote sensing system are presented. Field test experiments are carried out on West-East Natural Gas Pipeline of China, and the results show that airborne detection method is suitable for detecting gas leak of pipeline on plain, desert, hills but unfit for the area with large altitude diversification.

  6. 40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table W...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt...Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG...

  7. 40 CFR Table W - 3 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Transmission Compression W ...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt...Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Transmission Compression...

  8. 40 CFR Table W - 3 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Transmission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Transmission Compression W ...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt...Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Transmission Compression...

  9. 40 CFR Table W - 3 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Transmission Compression W ...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt...Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Transmission Compression...

  10. Deliverability on the interstate natural gas pipeline system

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Deliverability on the Interstate Natural Gas Pipeline System examines the capability of the national pipeline grid to transport natural gas to various US markets. The report quantifies the capacity levels and utilization rates of major interstate pipeline companies in 1996 and the changes since 1990, as well as changes in markets and end-use consumption patterns. It also discusses the effects of proposed capacity expansions on capacity levels. The report consists of five chapters, several appendices, and a glossary. Chapter 1 discusses some of the operational and regulatory features of the US interstate pipeline system and how they affect overall system design, system utilization, and capacity expansions. Chapter 2 looks at how the exploration, development, and production of natural gas within North America is linked to the national pipeline grid. Chapter 3 examines the capability of the interstate natural gas pipeline network to link production areas to market areas, on the basis of capacity and usage levels along 10 corridors. The chapter also examines capacity expansions that have occurred since 1990 along each corridor and the potential impact of proposed new capacity. Chapter 4 discusses the last step in the transportation chain, that is, deliverability to the ultimate end user. Flow patterns into and out of each market region are discussed, as well as the movement of natural gas between States in each region. Chapter 5 examines how shippers reserve interstate pipeline capacity in the current transportation marketplace and how pipeline companies are handling the secondary market for short-term unused capacity. Four appendices provide supporting data and additional detail on the methodology used to estimate capacity. 32 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. Fundamental principles and applications of natural gas hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloan, E. Dendy

    2003-11-01

    Natural gas hydrates are solid, non-stoichiometric compounds of small gas molecules and water. They form when the constituents come into contact at low temperature and high pressure. The physical properties of these compounds, most notably that they are non-flowing crystalline solids that are denser than typical fluid hydrocarbons and that the gas molecules they contain are effectively compressed, give rise to numerous applications in the broad areas of energy and climate effects. In particular, they have an important bearing on flow assurance and safety issues in oil and gas pipelines, they offer a largely unexploited means of energy recovery and transportation, and they could play a significant role in past and future climate change.

  12. Summary of Oil and Natural Gas Development Impacts on Prairie Grouse September 2006

    E-print Network

    Beck, Jeffrey L.

    Summary of Oil and Natural Gas Development Impacts on Prairie Grouse September 2006 Jeffrey L. Beck Independent Avenue Grand Junction, CO 81505 Please cite as: Beck, J. L. 2006. Summary of oil and natural gas and Natural Gas Development Impacts on Prairie Grouse 2 disturbances such as oil and gas development

  13. New Natural Gas Storage and Transportation Capabilities Utilizing Rapid Methane Hydrate Formation Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. D. Brown; C. E. Taylor; M. Bernardo

    2010-01-01

    Natural gas (methane as the major component) is a vital fossil fuel for the United States and around the world. One of the problems with some of this natural gas is that it is in remote areas where there is little or no local use for the gas. Nearly 50 percent worldwide natural gas reserves of ~6,254.4 trillion ft3 (tcf)

  14. Central Appalachian basin natural gas database: distribution, composition, and origin of natural gases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Román Colón, Yomayra A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has compiled a database consisting of three worksheets of central Appalachian basin natural gas analyses and isotopic compositions from published and unpublished sources of 1,282 gas samples from Kentucky, Maryland, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. The database includes field and reservoir names, well and State identification number, selected geologic reservoir properties, and the composition of natural gases (methane; ethane; propane; butane, iso-butane [i-butane]; normal butane [n-butane]; iso-pentane [i-pentane]; normal pentane [n-pentane]; cyclohexane, and hexanes). In the first worksheet, location and American Petroleum Institute (API) numbers from public or published sources are provided for 1,231 of the 1,282 gas samples. A second worksheet of 186 gas samples was compiled from published sources and augmented with public location information and contains carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen isotopic measurements of natural gas. The third worksheet is a key for all abbreviations in the database. The database can be used to better constrain the stratigraphic distribution, composition, and origin of natural gas in the central Appalachian basin.

  15. Evidence for natural gas hydrate occurrences in Colombia Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, P.D.; Krason, J.; Dominic, K.

    1987-05-01

    Multichannel and selected single-channel seismic lines of the continental margin sediments of the Colombia basin display compelling evidence for large accumulations of natural gas hydrate. Seismic bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs), interpreted to mark the base of the hydrate stability zone, are pronounced and very widespread along the entire Panama-Colombia lower continental slope. BSRs have also been identified at two locations on the abyssal plain. Water depths for these suspected hydrate occurrences range from 900 to 4000 m. Although no gas hydrate samples have been recovered from this area, biogenic methane is abundant in Pliocene turbidites underlying the abyssal plain. More deeply buried rocks beneath the abyssal plain are thermally mature. Thermogenic gas from these rocks may migrate upward along structural pathways into the hydrate stability zone and form hydrate. Impermeable hydrate layers may form caps over large accumulations of free gas, accounting for the very well-defined BSRs in the area. The abyssal plain and the deformed continental margin hold the highest potential for major economic accumulations of gas hydrate in the basin. The extensive continuity of BSRs, relatively shallow water depths, and promixity to onshore production facilities render the marginal deformed belt sediments the most favorable target for future economic development of the gas hydrate resource within the Colombia basin. The widespread evidence of gas hydrates in the Colombia basin suggests a high potential for conventional hydrocarbon deposits offshore of Panama and Colombia.

  16. Assessing the promise of natural gas hydrates as an unconventional source of energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy Collett

    2007-01-01

    Gas hydrates are a naturally occurring ``ice-like'' combination of natural gas and water that have the potential to provide an immense resource of natural gas from the world's oceans and polar regions. The amount of natural gas contained in the world's gas hydrate accumulations is enormous, but these estimates are speculative and range over three orders-of-magnitude from about 2,800 to

  17. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 10: METERING AND PRESSURE REGULATING STATIONS IN NATURAL GAS TRANSMISSIONS AND DISTRIBUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  18. Roadmap for Development of Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructructure and Analysis of Vehicular Natural Gas Consumption by Niche Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen C. Yborra

    2007-04-30

    Vehicular natural gas consumption is on the rise, totaling nearly 200 million GGEs in 2005, despite declines in total NGV inventory in recent years. This may be attributed to greater deployment of higher fuel use medium- and heavy-duty NGVs as compared to the low fuel use of the natural gas-powered LDVs that exited the market through attrition, many of which were bi-fuel. Natural gas station counts are down to about 1100 from their peak of about 1300. Many of the stations that closed were under-utilized or not used at all while most new stations were developed with greater attention to critical business fundamentals such as site selection, projected customer counts, peak and off-peak fueling capacity needs and total station throughput. Essentially, the nation's NGV fueling infrastructure has been--and will continue--going through a 'market correction'. While current economic fundamentals have shortened payback and improved life-cycle savings for investment in NGVs and fueling infrastructure, a combination of grants and other financial incentives will still be needed to overcome general fleet market inertia to maintain status quo. Also imperative to the market's adoption of NGVs and other alternative fueled vehicle and fueling technologies is a clear statement of long-term federal government commitment to diversifying our nation's transportation fuel use portfolio and, more specifically, the role of natural gas in that policy. Based on the current NGV market there, and the continued promulgation of clean air and transportation policies, the Western Region is--and will continue to be--the dominant region for vehicular natural gas use and growth. In other regions, especially the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic states and Texas, increased awareness and attention to air quality and energy security concerns by the public and - more important, elected officials--are spurring policies and programs that facilitate deployment of NGVs and fueling infrastructure. Because of their high per-vehicle fuel use, central fueling and sensitivity to fuel costs, fleets will continue to be the primary target for NGV deployment and station development efforts. The transit sector is projected to continue to account for the greatest vehicular natural gas use and for new volume growth. New tax incentives and improved life-cycle economics also create opportunities to deploy additional vehicles and install related vehicular natural gas fueling infrastructure in the refuse, airport and short-haul sectors. Focusing on fleets generates the highest vehicular natural gas throughout but it doesn't necessarily facilitate public fueling infrastructure because, generally, fleet operators prefer not to allow public access due to liability concerns and revenue and tax administrative burdens. While there are ways to overcome this reluctance, including ''outside the fence'' retail dispensers and/or co-location of public and ''anchor'' fleet dispensing capability at a mutually convenient existing or new retail location, each has challenges that complicate an already complex business transaction. Partnering with independent retail fuel station companies, especially operators of large ''truck stops'' on the major interstates, to include natural gas at their facilities may build public fueling infrastructure and demand enough to entice the major oil companies to once again engage. Garnering national mass media coverage of success in California and Utah where vehicular natural gas fueling infrastructure is more established will help pave the way for similar consumer market growth and inclusion of public accessibility at stations in other regions. There isn't one ''right'' business model for growing the nation's NGV inventory and fueling infrastructure. Different types of station development and ownership-operation strategies will continue to be warranted for different customers in different markets. Factors affecting NGV deployment and station development include: regional air quality compliance status and the state and/or local political climate regarding mandates and/or in

  19. A Low-Cost Natural Gas/Freshwater Aerial Pipeline

    E-print Network

    Alexander Bolonkin; Richard Cathcart

    2007-01-05

    Offered is a new type of low-cost aerial pipeline for delivery of natural gas, an important industrial and residential fuel, and freshwater as well as other payloads over long distances. The offered pipeline dramatically decreases the construction and operation costs and the time necessary for pipeline construction. A dual-use type of freight pipeline can improve an arid rural environment landscape and provide a reliable energy supply for cities. Our aerial pipeline is a large, self-lofting flexible tube disposed at high altitude. Presently, the term "natural gas" lacks a precise technical definition, but the main components of natural gas are methane, which has a specific weight less than air. A lift force of one cubic meter of methane equals approximately 0.5 kg. The lightweight film flexible pipeline can be located in the Earth-atmosphere at high altitude and poses no threat to airplanes or the local environment. The authors also suggest using lift force of this pipeline in tandem with wing devices for cheap shipment of a various payloads (oil, coal and water) over long distances. The article contains a computed macroproject in northwest China for delivery of 24 billion cubic meter of gas and 23 millions tonnes of water annually.

  20. Review of {sup 222}Rn in natural gas produced from unconventional sources

    SciTech Connect

    Gogolak, C.V.

    1980-11-01

    A review of the literature on trace radioactivity in natural gas and natural gas products has been performed and the consequent radioactivity concentrations and dose rates due to natural radioactive elements in natural gas produced from Devonian shale wells, western tight gas sands, geo-pressurized aquifiers and coal beds have been studied. Preliminary data on {sup 222}Rn concentrations from these energy sources fall within the range observed for more conventional sources. Gas produced from reservoirs with higher than average natural /sup 238/U higher than average levels of {sup 222}Rn. Massive fracturing techniques do not appear to raise the relative concentration of radon in natural gas.

  1. Price convergence across natural gas fields and city markets

    SciTech Connect

    Walls, W.D. [Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    1994-12-31

    This research reports the results of cointegration tests between natural gas spot prices at various production fields, pipeline hubs, and city markets. Cointegration between prices is evidence that spatial arbitrage is enforcing the law of one price across market locations. The results show that prices at certain city markets, Chicago and to a lesser extent California, are cointegrated with prices in field markets. However, the prices at most other locations do not move in step with gas prices in the field markets. Customer access to pipeline transportation, or competitive bypass, may explain why prices at some city markets are more responsive to production field prices than others. 15 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Residential Feedback Devices and Programs: Opportunities for Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.; Tondro, M.

    2012-12-01

    Behavior-based approaches have been a growing interest in the energy efficiency field over recent years and the use of residential energy feedback has garnered particular interest. By providing an increased level of detail, feedback can greatly increase a consumer's understanding of how energy is used in their home. This project reviewed the existing body of research on electricity feedback to identify parallel lessons for gas, discussed the benefits and challenges of different types of feedback, and identifying three feedback options that show strong potential for natural gas savings.

  3. The Process of Natural Gas Extraction From the Marcellus Shale

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bennett, N.S.

    This lesson plan from the Pennsylvania Geological Survey provides an overview of the processes used to extract natural gas from shale gas reservoirs like the Marcellus shale. A detailed outline is provided for instructors to structure a lecture with. Some of the specific topic areas covered include the Marcellus drilling process, Marcellus well completions and water management. This material is intended for high-school age and older students, and the lecture should take one 45 minute class period to complete. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

  4. Out of gas: Tenneco in the era of natural gas regulation, 1938--1978

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raley, David

    2011-12-01

    Federal regulation over the natural gas industry spanned 1938--1978, during which time both the industry and the nature of the regulation changed. The original intent of the law was to reform an industry stagnating because of the Depression, but regulation soon evolved into a public-private partnership to win World War II, then to a framework for the creation and management of a nationwide natural gas grid in the prosperous post-war years, and finally to a confused and chaotic system of wellhead price regulation which produced shortages and discouraged new production during the 1950s and 1960s. By the 1970s, regulation had become ineffective, leading to deregulation in 1978. The natural gas industry operated under the oversight of the Federal Power Commission (FPC) which set gas rates, regulated profits and competition, and established rules for entry and exit into markets. Over the course of four decades, the FPC oversaw the development of a truly national industry built around a system of large diameter pipelines. Tennessee Gas Transmission Company (later Tenneco) was an integral part of this industry. At first, Tenneco prospered under regulation. Regulation provided Tenneco with the means to build its first pipeline and a secure revenue stream for decades. A series of conflicts with the FPC and the difficulties imposed by the Phillips vs. Wisconsin case in 1954 soon interfered with the ambitious long-term goals of Tenneco CEO and president Gardiner Symonds. Tenneco first diversified into unregulated businesses in the 1940s, which accelerated as regulatory changes constrained the company's growth. By the 1960s the company was at the forefront of the conglomeration movement, when Tenneco included a variety of disparate businesses, including oil and gas production, chemicals, consumer packaging, manufacturing, shipbuilding, and food production, among others. Gas transmission became a minority interest in Tenneco's portfolio as newer and larger divisions overshadowed its former core business. The 1970s brought a renewed interest in natural gas and other energy resources as the nation faced chronic energy shortages. As the FPC loosened its low rate policy in the early 1970s to encourage production, Tenneco once again invested heavily in new pipelines and gas exploration, as well as more speculative ventures in Arctic gas, liquefied natural gas, synthetic fuels, and nuclear energy. By 1978, growing public and political support led to deregulation of natural gas, plunging Tenneco into a new era where market forces, not FPC oversight, impacted the gas industry. The deregulation of natural gas in 1978 removed the guaranteed rate of return from Tenneco's bottom line and exposed the weakness of Tenneco's conglomeration---the profitable pipeline had long been used to prop-up weaker businesses. The 1980s and 1990s were characterized by a gradual dissolution of Tenneco.

  5. Virtual Instrumentation Corrosion Controller for Natural Gas Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, J.; Agnihotri, G.; Deshpande, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Corrosion is an electrochemical process. Corrosion in natural gas (methane) pipelines leads to leakages. Corrosion occurs when anode and cathode are connected through electrolyte. Rate of corrosion in metallic pipeline can be controlled by impressing current to it and thereby making it to act as cathode of corrosion cell. Technologically advanced and energy efficient corrosion controller is required to protect natural gas pipelines. Proposed virtual instrumentation (VI) based corrosion controller precisely controls the external corrosion in underground metallic pipelines, enhances its life and ensures safety. Designing and development of proportional-integral-differential (PID) corrosion controller using VI (LabVIEW) is carried out. When the designed controller is deployed at field, it maintains the pipe to soil potential (PSP) within safe operating limit and not entering into over/under protection zone. Horizontal deployment of this technique can be done to protect all metallic structure, oil pipelines, which need corrosion protection.

  6. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Dalrymple

    2003-10-01

    This third quarter report of 2003 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low-cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and off-shore applications. CrystaSulf{reg_sign} (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant site in west Texas.

  7. Can a more competitive natural gas industry provide stability

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.A.; Jennings, T.V.; Lemon, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper addresses the question, ''Can a more competitive natural gas industry provide stability.'' When we discuss a free gas market here, we are primarily referring to a market in which flexible, accurate prices are free to adjust to achieve market equilibrium -- a balance of supply and demand. Implied is the lack of wellhead price regulations and the transmission of accurate price signals to both suppliers and end-users. Economic efficiency requires that prices respond to changes in conditions such as the world oil price, such as the world oil price, regional demands (for example, those of the Northeast US), sectoral demands (e.g., those of the electric utilities), and environmental policy (select use of gas for emission control, for example). 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. A complementarity model for solving stochastic natural gas market equilibria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jifang Zhuang; Steven A. Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a stochastic equilibrium model for deregulated natural gas markets. Each market participant (pipeline operators, producers, etc.) solves a stochastic optimization problem whose optimality conditions, when combined with market-clearing conditions give rise to a certain mixed complementarity problem (MiCP). The stochastic aspects are depicted by a recourse problem for each player in which the first-stage decisions relate to

  9. Natural gas storage with activated carbon from a bituminous coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Sun; Mark J. Rood; Massoud Rostam-Abadi; Anthony A. Lizzio

    1996-01-01

    Granular activated carbons (?20 + 100 mesh; 0.149?0.84 mm) were produced by physical activation and chemical activation with KOH from an Illinois bituminous coal (IBC-106) for natural gas storage. The products were characterized by BET surface area, micropore volume, bulk density, and methane adsorption capacities. Volumetric methane adsorption capacities (VmVs) of some of the granular carbons produced by physical activation

  10. Reduced Nitrogen and Natural Gas Consumption at Deepwell Flare

    E-print Network

    Williams, C.

    2004-01-01

    to identify and quickly implement energy saving projects that would reduce natural gas usage. Unit operating personnel and engineers were challenged to look outside the box and question the status quo. Operating personnel thereupon identified one energy... no flow restriction orifice or working flow meter; rather, an open valve allowed the flow. Investigation determined that whereas the required nitrogen flow for minimum stack velocity was 7.5 scf/m, roughly 667 scf/m were being supplied to the flare...

  11. Tax revenue and innovations in natural gas supply: New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ulibarri, C.A.; Marsh, T.L.

    1994-10-01

    This paper develops an econometric model of natural gas supply at the state-level using New Mexico as a case study. The supply model is estimated using annual time series observations on production levels, delivered prices, proved reserves, existing wells, and extraction costs. The authors validate the model against historical data and then use it to consider the fiscal impacts on state tax revenue from innovations in extraction technologies.

  12. INSTRUMENTATION FOR SURVEYING ACOUSTIC SIGNALS IN NATURAL GAS TRANSMISSION LINES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John L. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Deepak Mehra

    2003-01-01

    In the U.S. natural gas is distributed through more than one million miles of high-pressure transmission pipelines. If all leaks and infringements could be detected quickly, it would enhance safety and U.S. energy security. Only low frequency acoustic waves appear to be detectable over distances up to 60 km where pipeline shut-off valves provide access to the inside of the

  13. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis Dalrymple

    2004-01-01

    This final report describes the objectives, technical approach, results and conclusions for a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept is a configuration of CrystaTech, Inc.'s CrystaSulf{reg_sign} process which utilizes a direct oxidation catalyst upstream of the absorber tower to oxidize a portion of the

  14. Investment portfolios under uncertainty for utilizing natural gas resources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajab Khalilpour; I. A. Karimi

    2011-01-01

    Numerous reasons including lower carbon and sulfur emissions have led to the rapid growth of natural gas (NG) demand. However, more than one-third of world NG reserves are stranded, i.e., either remote (e.g., offshore) or in regions with saturated markets. This reality makes the investment decisions complex and uncertain for NG field developers. In this study, we consider the case

  15. Atmospheric emission characterization of marcellus shale natural gas development sites.

    PubMed

    Goetz, J Douglas; Floerchinger, Cody; Fortner, Edward C; Wormhoudt, Joda; Massoli, Paola; Knighton, W Berk; Herndon, Scott C; Kolb, Charles E; Knipping, Eladio; Shaw, Stephanie L; DeCarlo, Peter F

    2015-06-01

    Limited direct measurements of criteria pollutants emissions and precursors, as well as natural gas constituents, from Marcellus shale gas development activities contribute to uncertainty about their atmospheric impact. Real-time measurements were made with the Aerodyne Research Inc. Mobile Laboratory to characterize emission rates of atmospheric pollutants. Sites investigated include production well pads, a well pad with a drill rig, a well completion, and compressor stations. Tracer release ratio methods were used to estimate emission rates. A first-order correction factor was developed to account for errors introduced by fenceline tracer release. In contrast to observations from other shale plays, elevated volatile organic compounds, other than CH4 and C2H6, were generally not observed at the investigated sites. Elevated submicrometer particle mass concentrations were also generally not observed. Emission rates from compressor stations ranged from 0.006 to 0.162 tons per day (tpd) for NOx, 0.029 to 0.426 tpd for CO, and 67.9 to 371 tpd for CO2. CH4 and C2H6 emission rates from compressor stations ranged from 0.411 to 4.936 tpd and 0.023 to 0.062 tpd, respectively. Although limited in sample size, this study provides emission rate estimates for some processes in a newly developed natural gas resource and contributes valuable comparisons to other shale gas studies. PMID:25897974

  16. Response of Elk to Habitat Modification Near Natural Gas Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dyke, Fred; Fox, Autumn; Harju, Seth M.; Dzialak, Matthew R.; Hayden-Wing, Larry D.; Winstead, Jeffrey B.

    2012-11-01

    Elk (Cervus elaphus) are known to shift habitat use in response to environmental modifications, including those associated with various forms of energy development. The specific behavioral responses underlying these trends, however, have not been effectively studied. To investigate such effects, we examined elk response to habitat alteration near natural gas wells in Las Animas County, Colorado, USA in 2008-2010. We created 10 1-ha openings in forests adjacent to 10 operating natural gas wells by removing standing timber in 2008, with concomitant establishment of 10 1-ha control sites adjacent to the same wells. On each site, we estimated elk use, indexed by pellet density, before and after timber removal. Concurrently, we measured plant production and cover, nutritional quality, species composition and biomass removed by elk and other large herbivores. Species richness and diversity, graminoid and forb cover, and graminoid and forb biomass increased on cut sites following tree removal. Differences were greater in 2010 than in 2009, and elk and deer removed more plant biomass in 2010 than 2009. Elk use of cut sites was 37 % lower than control sites in 2009, but 46 % higher in 2010. The initially lower use of cut sites may be attributable to lack of winter forage on these sites caused by timber removal and associated surface modification. The increased use of cut sites in 2010 suggested that elk possessed the behavioral capacity, over time, to exploit enhanced forage resources in the proximity of habitat modifications and human activity associated with maintenance of operating natural gas wells.

  17. Ozone impacts of natural gas development in the Haynesville Shale.

    PubMed

    Kemball-Cook, Susan; Bar-Ilan, Amnon; Grant, John; Parker, Lynsey; Jung, Jaegun; Santamaria, Wilson; Mathews, Jim; Yarwood, Greg

    2010-12-15

    The Haynesville Shale is a subsurface rock formation located beneath the Northeast Texas/Northwest Louisiana border near Shreveport. This formation is estimated to contain very large recoverable reserves of natural gas, and during the two years since the drilling of the first highly productive wells in 2008, has been the focus of intensive leasing and exploration activity. The development of natural gas resources within the Haynesville Shale is likely to be economically important but may also generate significant emissions of ozone precursors. Using well production data from state regulatory agencies and a review of the available literature, projections of future year Haynesville Shale natural gas production were derived for 2009-2020 for three scenarios corresponding to limited, moderate, and aggressive development. These production estimates were then used to develop an emission inventory for each of the three scenarios. Photochemical modeling of the year 2012 showed increases in 2012 8-h ozone design values of up to 5 ppb within Northeast Texas and Northwest Louisiana resulting from development in the Haynesville Shale. Ozone increases due to Haynesville Shale emissions can affect regions outside Northeast Texas and Northwest Louisiana due to ozone transport. This study evaluates only near-term ozone impacts, but the emission inventory projections indicate that Haynesville emissions may be expected to increase through 2020. PMID:21086985

  18. Are hot-spots occluded from water?

    PubMed

    Moreira, Irina Sousa; Ramos, Rui Miguel; Martins, Joao Miguel; Fernandes, Pedro Alexandrino; Ramos, Maria João

    2014-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are the basis of many biological processes and are governed by focused regions with high binding affinities, the warm- and hot-spots. It was proposed that these regions are surrounded by areas with higher packing density leading to solvent exclusion around them - "the O-ring theory." This important inference still lacks sufficient demonstration. We have used Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the validity of the O-ring theory in the context of the conformational flexibility of the proteins, which is critical for function, in general, and for interaction with water, in particular. The MD results were analyzed for a variety of solvent-accessible surface area (SASA) features, radial distribution functions (RDFs), protein-water distances, and water residence times. The measurement of the average solvent-accessible surface area features for the warm- and hot-spots and the null-spots, as well as data for corresponding RDFs, identify distinct properties for these two sets of residues. Warm- and hot-spots are found to be occluded from the solvent. However, it has to be borne in mind that water-mediated interactions have significant power to construct an extensive and strongly bonded interface. We observed that warm- and hot-spots tend to form hydrogen bond (H-bond) networks with water molecules that have an occupancy around 90%. This study provides strong evidence in support of the O-ring theory and the results show that hot-spots are indeed protected from the bulk solvent. Nevertheless, the warm- and hot-spots still make water-mediated contacts, which are also important for protein-protein binding. PMID:23384183

  19. 78 FR 8511 - Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ...AD12-12-000] Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical Conference As...1\\ Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No. AD12-12-000 (December 7,...

  20. 77 FR 43280 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ...AD12-12-000] Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical Conferences On...1\\ Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No. AD12-12-000 (July 5,...