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1

[Fatal occupational accidents in Lombardy].  

PubMed

All fatal occupational accidents compensated in Lombardy from 1984 to 1989 were analyzed (1259 cases): significant differences between geographical distribution of fatal occupational accidents and workers were observed. Males accounted for about 95% of fatalities; an excess of cases was shown in both young and elderly workers. Death was the consequence of injuries involving most frequently the head, thorax and spinal cord. An excess of fatalities was observed in agriculture and, at a lower level, in manufacturing industries; small enterprises were involved in approximately 25% of fatalities occurring in the manufacturing industries and services. Employers were the victims of fatal accidents in 50% of cases in agriculture and in 70% of cases in craft industries. Construction, agriculture and transport accounted for about 50% of all fatalities. About 50% of fatal occupational accidents were related to vehicle use: the victim was the driver in the majority of cases, sometimes the victim was run over by a vehicle or fell from a vehicle. The results agree with some previous observations (e.g.: sex and age distribution; construction, agriculture and transport as working activities at high accident risk); but some original observations have emerged, in particular about the frequency of employers as victims and the role of vehicles in the genesis of fatal occupational accidents. If further studies confirm these latter observations, important developments could follow in preventive action design and implementation. PMID:8815364

Pianosi, G

2

Rollover Accident Model and Injury Mechanism of Occupants in Bus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to analyze injury mechanism of occupants in buses when rollover accidents occur, causes of rollover accident and rolling process were analyzed. And rollover accidents were classified to tripped rollover and un-tripped rollover, critical collision force model and rollover velocity model were established. Roller model was applied to calculate vehicles position. Main injured parts of occupants after rollover accidents

Zhang Wenhui; Li Shengqin

2010-01-01

3

Epidemiological analysis of serious occupational accidents in southern Finland.  

PubMed

The aims of this article were, on the one hand, to indicate the risk groups exposed to serious occupational accidents and, on the other hand, to examine what makes serious occupational accidents 'serious'. We compared the data on 99 serious occupational accidents gathered by ourselves to the information from official statistics. The results showed that the risk of a serious accident was highest for a man working in the manufacturing industry, at a construction site, or in transporting, and who was in his first year of service. Typical serious occupational accidents were falls from heights, accidents with machines, and getting run over by moving vehicles. The most general injuries were fractures, loss of extremities, and injuries to internal organs. Serious occupational accidents differ from minor accidents as regards type of accident and injured part of the body. PMID:7846482

Salminen, S T

1994-09-01

4

Study of Heavy Truck Occupant Crash Protection: Accident Data Analyses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results from previously published studies and analyses of selected automated accident data files were combined to determine what percentage of heavy truck accidents involve significant injury to truck occupants, and which subsets are amenable to applicati...

T. A. Ranney

1983-01-01

5

Eyewitness testimony in occupational accident investigations: towards a research agenda.  

PubMed

Accident investigation is frequently cited as the cornerstone of an effective occupational health and safety program. We suggest that the literature on accident investigation is based on a model of witnesses as neutral and accurate recording devices. The literature on eyewitness testimony and criminal investigation offers strikingly different conclusions. We review these findings and point to their implication for research on accident investigation in occupational health and safety contexts. PMID:15055344

Kelloway, E Kevin; Stinson, Veronica; MacLean, Carla

2004-02-01

6

Longitudinal relationship between economic development and occupational accidents in China.  

PubMed

The relativity between economic development and occupational accidents is a debated topic. Compared with the development courses of both economic development and occupational accidents in China during 1953-2008, this paper used statistic methods such as Granger causality test, cointegration test and impulse response function based on the vector autoregression model to investigate the relativity between economic development and occupational accidents in China from 1953 to 2008. Owing to fluctuation and growth scale characteristics of economic development, two dimensions including economic cycle and economic scale were divided. Results showed that there was no relationship between occupational accidents and economic scale during 1953-1978. Fatality rate per 10(5) workers was a conductive variable to gross domestic product per capita during 1979-2008. And economic cycle was an indicator to occupational accidents during 1979-2008. Variation of economic speed had important influence on occupational accidents in short term. Thus it is necessary to adjust Chinese occupational safety policy according to tempo variation of economic growth. PMID:21094300

Song, Li; He, Xueqiu; Li, Chengwu

2010-08-21

7

Eyewitness Testimony in Occupational Accident Investigations: Towards a Research Agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accident investigation is frequently cited as the cornerstone of an effective occupational health and safety program. We suggest that the literature on accident investigation is based on a model of witnesses as neutral and accurate recording devices. The literature on eyewitness testimony and criminal investigation offers strikingly different conclusions. We review these findings and point to their implication for research

E. Kevin Kelloway; Veronica Stinson; Carla MacLean

2004-01-01

8

Evaluation and Control of Occupational Accident Potential (513). Student Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A student manual considering evaluation and control of workplace accident potential is presented. The plan consists of a 5 day 40 contact hour course in the workshop format for professional occupational safety and health workers. It was prepared for the N...

1980-01-01

9

General assessment of the occupational accidents that occurred in Turkey between the years 2000 and 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational accidents still constitute one of the major problems in Turkey, as they do all over the world. Every year, nearly one thousand people die due to occupational accidents and two thousand people are injured, becoming temporarily or permanently disabled. This leads to social and economic problems for these people. As a result, families suffer from occupational accidents socially and

Sinan Unsar; Necdet Sut

2009-01-01

10

Fatal occupational accidents in Danish fishing vessels 1989-2005.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to study the circumstances and incidence rates of fatal accidents in inspection obligated and non-inspection obligated Danish fishing vessels to identify areas for prevention. Information about the fatalities came from maritime authority reports, including vessel disaster reports, post mortem reports, maritime inquiries and police reports. The person- and vessel years at risk came from the Danish Directorate of Fisheries. During the period 1989-2005, 114 fatalities occurred. Sixty-one of the fatalities occurred in 36 vessel disasters mainly caused by foundering/capsizing due to stability changes in rough weather and collisions; 39 fatal occupational accidents mainly occurred on the larger inspection obligated trawlers during fishing. In the remaining 14 other fatal accidents, the main causal factors were difficult embarking/disembarking conditions by darkness in foreign ports and alcohol intoxication. In the period 1995-2005, the overall incidence rate was 10 per 10,000 fishermen per year with no down-going trend during that period. The fatal accident rates are still too high, despite the efforts to reduce the risk. Increased focus on regular and repeated safety training for all fishermen and improved safety measures are needed, especially in the underscored areas of sea disasters concerning small vessels and occupational accidents on big vessels. Better registration of time at risk for fishermen is needed to validate the effect of the safety measures. PMID:18642168

Laursen, Lise H; Hansen, Henrik L; Jensen, Olaf C

2008-06-01

11

Occupational accidents in Russia and the Russian Arctic  

PubMed Central

Background According to official statistics, the rate of occupational accidents (OAs) and fatal injuries in Russia decreased about 5-fold and 2-fold, respectively, from 1975 to 2010, but working conditions during this period had the opposite trend; for example, the number of people who work in unfavourable and hazardous conditions (particularly since 1991) has increased significantly. Methods This review summarises the results of a search of the relevant peer-reviewed literature published in Russia and official statistics on OAs and occupational safety in Russia and the Russian Arctic in 1980–2010. Results The occupational safety system in Russia has severely deteriorated in the last 2 decades, with legislators tending to promote the interests of industry and business, resulting in the neglect of occupational safety and violation of workers’ rights. The majority of workers are employed in conditions that do not meet rules of safety and hygiene. More than 60% of OAs can be attributed to management practices – violation of safety regulations, poor organisation of work, deficiency of certified occupational safety specialists and inadequate personnel training. Research aimed at improving occupational safety and health is underfunded. There is evidence of widespread under-reporting of OAs, including fatal accidents. Three federal agencies are responsible for OAs recording; their data differ from each other as they use different methodologies. The rate of fatal OAs in Russia was 3–6 times higher than in Scandinavian countries and about 2 times higher compared to United States and Canada in 2001. In some Russian Arctic regions OAs levels are much higher. Conclusions Urgent improvement of occupational health and safety across Russia, especially in the Arctic regions, is needed.

Dudarev, Alexey A.; Karnachev, Igor P.; Odland, Jon ?yvind

2013-01-01

12

Epilepsy and occupational accidents in Brazil: a national statistics study.  

PubMed

Epilepsy may restrict the patient's daily life. It causes lower quality of life and increased risk for work-related accidents (WRA). The aim of this study is to analyze the implantation of the Epidemiologic and Technical Security System Nexus (ETSSN) and WRA patterns among patients with epilepsy. Data regarding WRA, between 1999 and 2008, on the historical database of WRA Infolog Statistical Yearbook from Brazilian Ministry of Social Security were reviewed. There was a significant increase of reported cases during the ten year period, mainly after the establishment of the ETSSN. The increased granted benefits evidenced the epidemiologic association between epilepsy and WRA. ETSSN possibly raised the registration of occupational accidents and granted benefits. However, the real number of WRA may remain underestimated due to informal economy and house workers' accidents which are usually not included in the official statistics in Brazil. PMID:21625761

Lunardi, Mariana dos Santos; Soliman, Lucas Alexandre Pedrollo; Pauli, Carla; Lin, Katia

2011-01-01

13

The software tool storybuilder and the analysis of the horrible stories of occupational accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

To construct models for quantifying occupational risk for the Workgroup Occupational Risk Model (WORM) project for the Ministry SZW in the Netherlands, scenarios had to be built from accident histories. For this purpose the storybuilder has been developed, tailor-made software that provides a totally new way of analysing and presenting accident data. It enables details of hundreds of accidents to

L. J. Bellamy; B. J. M. Ale; J. Y. Whiston; M. L. Mud; H. Baksteen; A. R. Hale; I. A. Papazoglou; A. Bloemhoff; M. Damen; J. I. H. Oh

2008-01-01

14

Work-related accidents and occupational diseases in veterinarians and their staff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: We assessed the occupational hazards in veterinary practice by analysing accident insurance data in order to stimulate strategies to prevent occupational accidents and diseases in veterinarians and their staff. Methods: Approximately 10,000 veterinary practices comprising about 27,500 veterinarians and their staff are covered by the Institution of Statutory Accident Insurance of the Health and Welfare Service (BGW). Each year

Albert Nienhaus; Christoph Skudlik; Andreas Seidler

2005-01-01

15

Analysis of injury severity and vehicle occupancy in truck and non-truckinvolved accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact that large trucks have on accident severity has long been a concern in the accident analysis literature. One important measure of accident severity is the most severely injured occupant in the vehicle. Such data are routinely collected in state accident data files in the U.S. Among the many risk factors that determine the most severe level of injury

Li-Yen Chang; Fred Mannering

1999-01-01

16

Implementation Proposal For The Assessment of Occupational Accident Costs in Terms of Quality Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational accidents, whether they are work-related or not, are defined as unplanned and unforeseen incidents which cause one or more than one workers to get ill, injured or lose their lifes. The increase in occupational accidents in recent years, together with the decrease in productivity and production efficiency, has mooted direct and indirect costs for companies. Quality costs are the

Suleyman Yukcu; Seckin Gonen

2009-01-01

17

Accident patterns and prevention measures for fatal occupational falls in the construction industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contributing factors to 621 occupational fatal falls have been identified with respect to the victim's individual factors, the fall site, company size, and cause of fall. Individual factors included age, gender, experience, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Accident scenarios were derived from accident reports. Significant linkages were found between causes for the falls and accident events. Falls

Chia-Fen Chi; Tin-Chang Chang; Hsin-I Ting

2005-01-01

18

Social categories, just world belief, locus of control, and causal attributions of occupational accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workers (N=34), managers (N=35) and safety inspectors (N=33) read descriptions of an occupational accident. In one condition, the accident had serious consequences, in the second\\u000a condition consequences were less severe. Social category has an effect on the attribution of responsibility for the accident.\\u000a Safety inspectors seem inclined to attribute responsibility to the organization whereas managers attribute the lowest level\\u000a of

Herman Steensma; Eveline den Hartigh; Elsbeth Lucardie I

1994-01-01

19

Biomechanical analysis of occupant kinematics in rollover motor vehicle accidents: dynamic spit test.  

PubMed

A better understanding of occupant kinematics in rollover accidents helps to advance biomechanical knowledge and to enhance the safety features of motor vehicles. While many rollover accident simulation studies have adopted the static approach to delineate the occupant kinematics in rollover accidents, very few studies have attempted the dynamic approach. The present work was designed to study the biomechanics of restrained occupants during rollover accidents using the steady-state dynamic spit test and to address the importance of keeping the lap belt fastened. Experimental tests were conducted using an anthropometric 50% Hybrid III dummy in a vehicle. The vehicle was rotated at 180 degrees/second and the dummy was restrained using a standard three-point restraint system. The lap belt of the dummy was fastened either by using the cinching latch plate or by locking the retractor. Three configurations of shoulder belt harness were simulated: shoulder belt loose on chest with cinch plate, shoulder belt under the left arm and shoulder belt behind the chest. In all tests, the dummy stayed within the confinement of the vehicle indicating that the securely fastened lap belt holds the dummy with dynamic movement of 3 1/2" to 4". The results show that occupant movement in rollover accidents is least affected by various shoulder harness positions with a securely fastened lap belt. The present study forms a first step in delineating the biomechanics of occupants in rollover accidents. PMID:15850090

Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Clarke, Richard; Herbst, Brian; Meyer, Steve

2005-01-01

20

[Street cleaners: occupational accidents in the city of Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, Brazil].  

PubMed

The work of street sweepers is to sweep waste materials thrown at public streets. It is considered insalubrious due to the close contact that exposes workers to agents present in the urban waste. As street orderlies perform their duties in an open environment, they are submitted to different types of problems. The purpose of this study is to investigate the registered occupational accidents occurred among street orderlies in the city of Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, during 1993 and 1994. Authors aimed at verifying: the number of works that suffered accidents and the notified occupational accidents; data related to the identification of those accidents at the employer company and specific data regarding the occupational accidents. Therefore, authors analyzed the occupational health reports recorded at the National Institute of Social Security at the Regional Bureau of Health (RBH) and at the employer company. Results were shown to the employers and to the RBH. Authors organized meetings to discuss with them the occupational problems they found. PMID:9592554

da Silveira, E A; Robazzi, M L; Luis, M A

1998-01-01

21

[Possibilities, limitations and results in accident prevention in non-occupational accidents, especially in road traffic].  

PubMed

Traffic accident occurrence in Switzerland has undergone a positive development, in spite of the fact that the number of motor vehicles in use and the overall driving performance have increased. The main features of accident occurrence are illustrated, alcohol and driving too fast being the most frequent accident causes. The construction of a motorway network, the use of safety-belts and the introduction of general speed limits play the most important part in the positive development of accident occurrence. PMID:2346700

Jung, H

1990-01-01

22

Analysis of Occupant Restraint Issues from State Accident Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using police-reported crash data from a variety of states, this three-year project (1987-1990) dealt with a series of occupant restraint questions defined by NHTSA, plus other topical issues that emerged, such as the use of automatic restraints in the pop...

C. St. Cyr D. W. Reinfurt J. R. Stewart M. G. Hirsch W. W. Hunter

1990-01-01

23

Analysing factors related to slipping, stumbling, and falling accidents at work: Application of data mining methods to Finnish occupational accidents and diseases statistics database.  

PubMed

The utilisation of data mining methods has become common in many fields. In occupational accident analysis, however, these methods are still rarely exploited. This study applies methods of data mining (decision tree and association rules) to the Finnish national occupational accidents and diseases statistics database to analyse factors related to slipping, stumbling, and falling (SSF) accidents at work from 2006 to 2007. SSF accidents at work constitute a large proportion (22%) of all accidents at work in Finland. In addition, they are more likely to result in longer periods of incapacity for work than other workplace accidents. The most important factor influencing whether or not an accident at work is related to SSF is the specific physical activity of movement. In addition, the risk of SSF accidents at work seems to depend on the occupation and the age of the worker. The results were in line with previous research. Hence the application of data mining methods was considered successful. The results did not reveal anything unexpected though. Nevertheless, because of the capability to illustrate a large dataset and relationships between variables easily, data mining methods were seen as a useful supplementary method in analysing occupational accident data. PMID:22877702

Nenonen, Noora

2012-08-09

24

An unusual occupational accident: fall into a sewage plant tank with lethal outcome.  

PubMed

Occupational accidents, often presenting with lethal outcomes, are a rarely reported issue in forensic literature. However, these incidents are part of medicolegal casework with special regard to reconstruction, liabilities and insurance law-related issues, respectively. We report on a lethal occupational accident in a metropolitan sewage plant. When performing routine controls, a technician fell into an overflow sewer and was immediately pulled into a 30 cm diameter drain. Rescue efforts were initiated immediately, but had to be terminated due to gas warning. Rescue teams continued the search, however, the body remained undiscoverable. Forty-eight hours later, the cadaver was found in an adjacent digester tank, from where it was finally rescued. It was concluded, that the body had been transported between the overflow sewer and the digester tank through a 120 m pipeline with several 90 degrees bendings and branch connections with a minimum diameter of 25 cm at the discharge valve. On medicolegal examination, the cadaver showed marked signs of advanced decomposition caused by anaerobic microorganisms in the 37 degrees C biomass environment. Moreover, as a consequence of the passage of the pipeline system, signs of massive trauma (several comminuted and compound fractures) were disclosed at autopsy. To us, this is the first report on a lethal occupational accident in a sewage plant; our observations demonstrate the rapid progress of putrefaction in a warm anaerobic bacterial environment and the massive trauma sustained. PMID:15734108

Padosch, Stephan A; Dettmeyer, Reinhard B; Kröner, Lars U; Preuss, Johanna; Madea, Burkhard

2005-04-20

25

[The role of the occupational physician in the assessment of accident risk].  

PubMed

The prevention of accidents at work in Italy is a target still to be reached for the safety of workers in workplaces, despite the innovative provisions introduced by the Legislative Decree 81/08 and the decrease of the number of total and fatal accidents occurred in the period 2001-2008, as reported in the statistics of the Italian Workers' Compensation Authority (INAIL). The occupational physician performs a very important role in the accident risk assessment, based on his biomedical and ergonomic knowledge. His role is carried out during the phase of safety risk assessment, contributing to assess plants, machines, tools, personal protective equipments, to be used by the workers. His knowledge of the health status of workers, acquired by medical surveillance and aimed to prevent accidents by providing the fitness for work evaluation in relation to the presence of diabetes mellitus, musculoskeletal diseases, sleep disorders, or to the assumption of hypnotic drugs, when the employee works at height or as driver such as in the transport or construction industry, is not less important. Unfortunately, this latter role of the occupational physician is limited because the Italian Safety Legislation does not provide for the sanitary surveillance of all the workers employed in factories. PMID:21438303

Basso, A; Lovreglio, P; D'Errico, M N; Panuzzo, L; Ferrara, F; Lepera, A; Serra, R; Milano, V; Nesta, D; Soleo, L

26

The Minnesota Fatal Accident Circumstances and Epidemiology Study. Surveillance of occupational fatalities.  

PubMed

This report describes the Minnesota Fatal Accident Circumstances and Epidemiology Study (MN FACE), a new federally funded initiative to study fatal injuries in the workplace. Its primary objective is to reduce occupational fatalities. Fatalities due to falls, electrocutions, and asphyxiation caused by entry into confined spaces are currently investigated in Minnesota. MN FACE determines risk factors associated with fatalities then develops interventions for their mitigation or elimination. A comprehensive, statewide surveillance system, including state agencies, associations, organized labor, and industry, has been established to reduce the amount of bias in reporting. PMID:1406525

Madery-Wygonik, G; Brondum, J; Parker, D

1992-08-01

27

Using Occupational Safety and Health Administration accident investigations to study patterns in work fatalities.  

PubMed

Investigations of fatalities by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) provide the most detailed available information about traumatic workplace deaths that are potentially related to violations of existing safety standards. Comparison of the number of such deaths investigated by OSHA from 1977 to 1986 with the comparable category of deaths reported to the Bureau of Labor Statistics Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses indicates that the overall magnitudes have been roughly similar. The OSHA data contain more information than other sources and are especially valuable for analyses of fatalities at smaller workplaces. The OSHA data show that death rates decline sharply with establishment size; the inverted "U" pattern for lost workday injury rates is absent. Because accident investigations are conducted as part of an administrative system, the OSHA data can be influenced by changes in administrative policies. Changes over time in the percent of fatalities in which violations of OSHA standards were cited have clearly been influenced by changes in OSHA citation policy and thus do not provide a valid measure of the rate of violation-caused deaths. Realization of the epidemiological value of this data source depends upon a commitment from OSHA to maintain consistency in investigating accidents and to improve its data collection methods. PMID:2258771

Mendeloff, J M; Kagey, B T

1990-11-01

28

Risk Communication as a Tool for Training Apprentice Welders: A Study about Risk Perception and Occupational Accidents  

PubMed Central

The present study has aimed to identify the perceptions of apprentice welders about physical, chemical, biological, and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed; identify types of occupational accidents involving apprentice welders; and report the development of a socioenvironmental education intervention as a tool for risk communication for apprentice welders. A quantitative study was performed with 161 apprentice welders in Southern Brazil in 2011. Data collection was performed via structured interviews with the apprentice welders about risk perception, occupational accidents, and time experienced in welding. The data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: physical (96.9%), chemical (95%), physiological (86.3%), and biological (51.5%). In this sample, 39.7% of apprentice welders reported occupational accidents and 27.3% reported burning. The inferential analysis showed that the frequency of risk perception factors increases with the length of experience, and apprentice welders who have experienced accidents during welding activity perceive a higher amount of risk factors than those who have never experienced them. It is concluded that apprentice welders perceive risks and that they tend to relate risks with the occurrence of occupational accidents as an indicator of the dangerous nature of their activity.

Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Severo, Luana de Oliveira; Borges, Anelise Miritz; Vaz, Joana Cezar; Turik, Claudia

2012-01-01

29

[Rehabilitation after occupational accidents in professional dancers: advice with due regard to dance specific aspects].  

PubMed

The highly specialized occupation of professional dancers is a combination of sport and artistic expression. The exertion is only possible with a fully operative body. Although professional dancers may be compared with elite athletes and acute injuries frequently happen, dancers do not seem to be granted an appropriate therapy after accidents as compared with athletes. Although even minor injuries may potentially endanger the career of a professional dancer, physiotherapeutic or physical treatment methods are applied in every tenth case only. Alternative and holistic concepts such as Pilates or dance-specific re-integration that proved successful in professional dancers, are used in even fewer instances. The aim of this study is to develop a rehabilitation concept for professional dancers focusing on dance-medicine aspects. It has been taken into account that the best physical outcomes are reflected in an optimized, holistic, dance-specific therapy and rehabilitation. Intensifying and exploiting dance-specific methods of treatment can not only reduce costs in the end but can even contribute to reducing the duration of rehabilitation after injuries of dancers. Preconditions for realization of the rehabilitative model are a high qualification of all persons working in the rehabilitative field as well as a marked willingness to cooperate in the various dance fields. Both gender-specific and dance-style particularities are to be taken into account to ensure a successful rehabilitation. PMID:21976298

Wanke, E M; Quarcoo, D; Uibel, S; Groneberg, D A

2011-10-05

30

Relationships between Some Individual Characteristics and Occupational Accidents in the Construction Industry: A Case-Control Study on 880 Victims of Accidents Occurred during a Two-Year Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between Some Individual Characteristics and Occupational Accidents in the Construction Industry: A Case-Control Study on 880 Victims of Accidents Occurred during a Two- Year Period: Nearkasen CHAU, et al. National Institute for Health and Medical Research (INSERM), Unit 420, Faculté de Médecine —This case-control study assessed the relationships between certain individual characteristics (age, body mass index, training, length of

Nearkasen CHAU; Jean-Marie MUR; Lahoucine BENAMGHAR; Christian SIEGFRIED; Jean-Louis DANGELZER; Martine FRANCAIS; Régis JACQUIN; Alain SOURDOT

2002-01-01

31

Occupational hazards in hospitals: accidents, radiation, exposure to noxious chemicals, drug addiction and psychic problems, and assault.  

PubMed Central

Except for infectious diseases all the main occupational hazards affecting health workers are reviewed: accidents (explosions, fires, electrical accidents, and other sources of injury); radiation (stochastic and non-stochastic effects, protective measures, and personnel most at risk); exposure to noxious chemicals, whose effects may be either local (allergic eczema) or generalised (cancer, mutations), particular attention being paid to the hazards presented by formol, ethylene oxide, cytostatics, and anaesthetic gases; drug addiction (which is more common among health workers than the general population) and psychic problems associated with promotion, shift work, and emotional stress; and assault (various types of assault suffered by health workers, its causes, and the characterisation of the most aggressive patients).

Gestal, J J

1987-01-01

32

[Characteristics of occupational accidents in the building industry and public works in Senegal].  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to appreciate the magnitude of work accidents in a building construction sector, to specify their type and characteristics. A retrospective study was undergone in a big building construction industry in Senegal. Data were collected from records of accidents reported to the Social Security Administration between 1994--1996. We looked for characteristics of accidents as well as workers involved in accident. 244 accidents were collected in a three years period, i e 81.5/year, 132 work injuries involved temporaryworkers. 55.73% occurred in chantiers, and 1/3 in working room. Moving and handle objects generated most accidents (36,47%). Wounds and contusions were the most frequent lesion (51,62.%). Arms and feets were concerned in 51.63%, and ocular lesions were noticed in 13.94%. These accidents generate an overall number of 3055 days lost. Work injuries in the building construction sector in Senegal are identical to those described in othercountries. Prevention measures requires improvement of working conditions, education of workers and availability of personal protective equipment's. PMID:15773178

Mbaye, I; Fall, M C; Sarr, E H; Ouatara, B; Sow, M L

2001-01-01

33

Crashworthiness: An Illustrated Commentary on Occupant Survival in General Aviation Accidents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is an illustrated commentary on crash survival in general aviation aircraft. Photographs, drawings, and discussion present some basic concepts of crash forces; mechanisms of injury to occupants; and the roles of shoulder harnesses, lapbelts, a...

D. L. Lowrey S. M. Wicks W. R. Kirkham

1983-01-01

34

Occupational vehicular accident claims: a workers' compensation analysis of Oregon truck drivers 1990-1997.  

PubMed

This study used workers' compensation data from Oregon from 1990 to 1997 to examine workers' compensation claims from vehicular accidents by truck drivers, and to calculate claim rate estimates using baseline data derived from the US Bureau of Census' Current Population Surveys. During this period, 1168 valid injury claims due to vehicular accidents were filed representing an accident claim rate of 50.3 (95% CI: 45.1-55.5) per 10,000 truck drivers annually. There were 19 work-related vehicular accident fatalities recorded in the data over the 8-year period. Of all claimants, males constituted the majority (80.7%), most were 35 years of age or younger (51.4%) and had less than 1 year of job tenure (51.0%). Truck driver claim rates due to vehicular accidents were lowest during the 6 a.m. to 12 p.m. period. The average amount of compensable lost work days per injury claim was 57.8 days (S.D.=124.7) and the median claim time was 16.0 days with the inter-quartile range being 53.5 days. The amount of lost work reported increased with the claimant's age. A total of US$ 11,642,635 was paid in claims for vehicular accidents of truck drivers in Oregon over the time examined, which averaged US$ 9966 per claim, with a median claim amount of US$ 2590 and inter-quartile range of US$ 7670. Claims citing sprains were the most frequently recorded injury experienced from vehicular accidents. PMID:15878413

McCall, Brian P; Horwitz, Irwin B

2005-07-01

35

Mortality from occupational accidents to United Kingdom fishermen 1961-80.  

PubMed Central

After the catastrophic losses of three Hull deep sea trawlers in 1968, the Committee of Inquiry into Trawler Safety (CITS) was established. Fourteen months later, CITS reported on factors affecting the safety of deep sea trawlers and their crews. Pre-CITS (1961-70) and post-CITS (1971-80) crude mortality rates for accidents at work are compared for "deep sea" fishermen (those working on vessels greater than or equal to 24.4 m (80 feet) registered length) and "inshore" fishermen (those working on vessels less than 24.4 m). The ratio of deep sea to inshore fishermen had changed from 1:1.5 (1961) to 1:7.0 (1980), reflecting the radical restructuring of the fishing fleet that began in the early 1970s. Between 1961 and 1980, there were 909 recorded deaths at sea of United Kingdom fishermen. Of these, 711 (78%) were due to accidents (either from vessel losses or personal accidents) and 198 (22%) were due to unspecified disease, homicide, and suicide. Comparison of pre-CITS and post-CITS mean death rates showed an increase (+39%) for deep sea fishermen, a decrease (-4%) for inshore fisherman, and an increase (+2%) for both combined. For deep sea fishermen, there were synchronous increases in mortality from vessel losses (+32%) and from personal accidents (+49%, p less than 0.05) whereas the overall rate for inshore fishermen reflected a decrease (-33%, p less than 0.01) in deaths from personal accidents but an increase (+52%) in deaths from vessel losses. Although pre-CITS mortality rates exhibited no statistically significant difference between deep sea fisherman was significantly greater (p< 0.02). Compared with coal miners, fishermen were, on average, four times more likely to die from accidents at work. If CITS had reasonable cause for concern in 1969, the grounds for similar concern did not diminish because the evidence suggests that deep sea fishermen were at no lesser risk of death from accidents after CITS reported than before. Overall, both groups of fishermen experienced an accident mortality rate between 1961 and 1980 that showed no indication of improvement.

Reilly, M S

1985-01-01

36

Asbestos-related occupational cancers compensated under the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance in Korea.  

PubMed

Compensation for asbestos-related cancers occurring in occupationally-exposed workers is a global issue; this is also an issue in Korea. To provide basic information regarding compensation for workers exposed to asbestos, 60 cases of asbestos-related occupational lung cancer and mesothelioma that were compensated during 15 yr; from 1993 (the year the first case was compensated) to 2007 by the Korea Labor Welfare Corporation (KLWC) are described. The characteristics of the cases were analyzed using the KLWC electronic data and the epidemiologic investigation data conducted by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute (OSHRI) of the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA). The KLWC approved compensation for 41 cases of lung cancer and 19 cases of mesothelioma. Males accounted for 91.7% (55 cases) of the approved cases. The most common age group was 50-59 yr (45.0%). The mean duration of asbestos exposure for lung cancer and mesothelioma cases was 19.2 and 16.0 yr, respectively. The mean latency period for lung cancer and mesothelioma cases was 22.1 and 22.6 yr, respectively. The major industries associated with mesothelioma cases were shipbuilding and maintenance (4 cases) and manufacture of asbestos textiles (3 cases). The major industries associated with lung cancer cases were shipbuilding and maintenance (7 cases), construction (6 cases), and manufacture of basic metals (4 cases). The statistics pertaining to asbestos-related occupational cancers in Korea differ from other developed countries in that more cases of mesothelioma were compensated than lung cancer cases. Also, the mean latency period for disease onset was shorter than reported by existing epidemiologic studies; this discrepancy may be related to the short history of occupational asbestos use in Korea. Considering the current Korean use of asbestos, the number of compensated cases in Korea is expected to increase in the future but not as much as developed countries. PMID:19367039

Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Kang, Seong-Kyu

2009-04-01

37

Quantification method analysis of the relationship between occupant injury and environmental factors in traffic accidents.  

PubMed

Injury analysis following a vehicle crash is one of the most important research areas. However, most injury analyses have focused on one-dimensional injury variables, such as the AIS (Abbreviated Injury Scale) or the IIS (Injury Impairment Scale), at a time in relation to various traffic accident factors. However, these studies cannot reflect the various injury phenomena that appear simultaneously. In this paper, we apply quantification method II to the NASS (National Automotive Sampling System) CDS (Crashworthiness Data System) to find the relationship between the categorical injury phenomena, such as the injury scale, injury position, and injury type, and the various traffic accident condition factors, such as speed, collision direction, vehicle type, and seat position. Our empirical analysis indicated the importance of safety devices, such as restraint equipment and airbags. In addition, we found that narrow impact, ejection, air bag deployment, and higher speed are associated with more severe than minor injury to the thigh, ankle, and leg in terms of dislocation, abrasion, or laceration. PMID:21094332

Ju, Yong Han; Sohn, So Young

2010-10-16

38

Descriptive Study of Occupational Accidents and their Causes among Electricity Distribution Company Workers at an Eight-year Period in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Occupational accidents are unplanned events that cause damage. The socio-economic impacts and human costs of accidents are tremendous around the world. Many fatalities happen every year in workplaces such as electricity distribution companies. Some electrical injuries are electrocution, electric shock, and burns. This study was conducted in an electricity distribution company (with rotational 12-hour shift work) in Iran during an 8-year period to survey descriptive factors of injuries. Methods Variables collected included accident time, age of injured worker, employment type, work experience, injury cause, educational background, and other information about accidents. Results Results indicated that most of the accidents occurred in summer, and 51.3% were during shift work. Worker negligence (malpractice) was the cause of 75% of deaths. Type of employment had a significant relationship with type of injuries (p < 0.05). Most injuries were electrical burns. Conclusion High rate of accidents in summer may be due to the warm weather or insufficient professional skills in seasonal workers. Shift workers are at risk of sleep complaints leading to a high rate of work injuries. Acquiring knowledge about safety was related to job experiences. Temporary workers have no chance to work all year like permanent workers, therefore impressive experiences may be less in them. Because the lack of protective equipment and negligence are main causes of accidents, periodical inspections in workshops are necessary.

Rahmani, Abdolrasoul; Khadem, Monireh; Madreseh, Elham; Aghaei, Habib-Allah; Raei, Mehdi; Karchani, Mohsen

2013-01-01

39

Prospective audit of the pattern, severity and circumstances of injury sustained by vehicle occupants as a result of road traffic accidents.  

PubMed Central

The pattern and severity of injuries sustained by 174 vehicle occupants consecutively admitted to the Accident and Emergency Department of the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary were prospectively documented. Drivers (DR) accounted for 66% of the patients, 20% were front seat passengers (FSP) and 14% were rear seat passengers (RSP). Injured patients were more likely to be male, young, intoxicated and not wearing a seat-belt. The position of the patient within the vehicle at the time of the accident and point of impact significantly affected the pattern of injury sustained. The majority of injuries were sustained by the upper body and the pattern of injury is discussed. Most accidents occurred at low speeds and higher speeds were associated with an increased severity of injury. Seat-belts reduced the overall severity of injuries, in particular those to the face and chest, but may increase the risk of neck injury. Head-rests do not appear to influence the incidence of neck injury. Clinically apparent alcohol intoxication was associated with a markedly increased risk of severe injury.

Bradbury, A; Robertson, C

1993-01-01

40

Model development for health promotion and control of agricultural occupational health hazards and accidents in Pathumthani, Thailand.  

PubMed

In Thailand, agriculture is one of the major occupations; however, there is no comprehensive agricultural occupational health promotion and disease prevention model available. Objectives of this study were to empower farmers to study occupational health and safety situation in rice farming and to develop model to promote their health and prevent occupational health hazards among them. This participatory action research was performed in Tambol Klong 7, Klongluang district, Pathumthani, Thailand. The 24 rice farmers from 9 villages were voluntarily recruited as members of research team called farmer-leader research group. This group had a monthly meeting to discuss issues of agricultural occupational health and safety during 3 yr study period. At first stage, farmer-leader research group analyzed occupational health and safety during rice farming process. After we had results from situation analysis, farmer-leader research group decided which problems would be solved first. We developed model to solve those problems during the second stage. Finally, model was implemented to farmers in the study area. During first stage, results of questionnaires showed that there were 3 major occupational health and safety problems among these farmers; symptoms from pesticide exposure (65% of respondents), musculoskeletal problems during various process (16.6%-75.9%), and injuries during various process (1.1%-83.2%). From these results, farmer-leader research group decided to deal with pesticide problem. There was an experiment comparing using biofertilizers and bio pest-control with using chemical fertilizers and pesticides in the rice paddy. Results showed that the biological field produced the same amount of rice as the chemical field but cost less money than the chemical one. Benefits from using biofertilizers and bio pest-control were having higher profit, less exposure to chemicals, and good mental health from higher profit. After this experiment, biofertilizers and bio pest-control were disseminated to rice-farmers and students and teachers in local schools. At the end of study, we found that there were networks of farmers and networks of students-teachers using biological methods. This study showed that participation with farmers could create a real sustainable model to promote farmers' health and prevent them from occupational health hazards. PMID:16294922

Buranatrevedh, Surasak; Sweatsriskul, Peeungjun

2005-10-01

41

The safety climate and its relationship to safety practices, safety of the work environment and occupational accidents in eight wood-processing companies.  

PubMed

Employees continuously observe their work environment and the actions of their fellow workers and superiors, and they use such observations as a basis for the creation of cognitive models associated with safety. These models regulate their actions in the workplace and thus have an influence on safety. This study attempts to define the structure of the safety climate as perceived by workers and the correlations between the safety climate, on the one hand, and the safety practices of the company, the safety level of the work environment and occupational accidents on the other. The variables used in this study were the same as those employed in two previous Finnish safety climate studies carried out in the plywood industry, shipyards, the forestry industry, building construction and stevedoring. The safety climate was measured by means of a questionnaire. Workers from four sawmills, two plywood factories and two parquet plants participated. The total number of participants was 508 in 1990 and 548 in 1993. The variables formed four factors, whose contents and reliabilities closely resembled the results obtained in the earlier studies. These results indicate that the structure of the safety climate among Finnish workers is quite stable. The safety climate correlated both with the safety level of the work environment and with the safety practices of the company, but the correlation between the safety climate and the safety of the work environment was stronger. This result differs from those of the previous studies, in which the safety climate was defined specifically in terms of an individual's perceptions of the safety practices of the company and of the behavior of other employees. The two safety climate factors that described a company's attitudes to safety and its safety precautions correlated with the accident rates. The better the safety climate of the company was, the lower was the accident rate. Four companies with an accident rate below the average for the wood-processing industry had a better safety climate than four similar companies with an accident rate above the average. PMID:10994603

Varonen, U; Mattila, M

2000-11-01

42

Supplemental National Crash Severity Study Accident Reconstruction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study collected accident data that would allow determination of the relationships between occupant injury and accident severity. The measure of severity most commonly used to characterize an accident is the velocity change experienced by the passenger...

D. J. Segal M. T. McGrath N. Balasubramanian

1980-01-01

43

Sleepiness of Occupational Drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drowsiness and sleeping at the wheel are now identified as the reasons behind fatal crashes and highway accidents caused by occupational drivers. For many years, fatigue has been associated to risk of accidents but the causes of this symptom were unclear. Extensive or nocturnal driving was associated to accidents but few reports differentiated fatigue from sleepiness. In the early nineties,

Pierre PHILIP

2005-01-01

44

Fostering shared decision making by occupational therapists and workers involved in accidents resulting in persistent musculoskeletal disorders: A study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background From many empirical and theoretical points of view, the implementation of shared decision making (SDM) in work rehabilitation for pain due to a musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) is justified but typically the SDM model applies to a one on one encounter between a healthcare provider and a patient and not to an interdisciplinary team. Objectives To adapt and implement an SDM program adapted to the realities of work rehabilitation for pain associated with a MSD. More specific objectives are to adapt an SDM program applicable to existing rehabilitation programs, and to evaluate the extent of implementation of the SDM program in four rehabilitation centres. Method For objective one, we will use a mixed perspective combining a theory-based development program/intervention and a user-based perspective. The users are the occupational therapists (OTs) and clinical coordinators. The strategies for developing an SDM program will include consulting the scientific literature and group consensus with clinicians-experts. A sample of convenience of eight OTs, four clinical coordinators and four psychologists all of whom have been working full-time in MSD rehabilitation for more than two years will be recruited from four collaborating rehabilitation centres. For objective two, using the same criteria as for objective one, we will first train eight OTs in SDM. Second, using a descriptive design, the extent to which the SDM program has been implemented will be assessed through observations of the SDM process. The observation data will be triangulated with the dyadic working alliance questionnaire, and findings from a final individual interview with each OT. A total of five patients per trained OT will be recruited, for a total of 40 patients. Patients will be eligible if they have a work-related disability for more than 12 weeks due to musculoskeletal pain and plan to start their work rehabilitation programs. Discussion This study will be the first evaluation of the program and it is expected that improvements will be made prior to a broader-scale implementation. The ultimate aim is to improve the quality of decision making, patients' quality of life, and reduce the duration of their work-related disability by improving the services offered during the rehabilitation process.

2011-01-01

45

World commercial aircraft accidents  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

Kimura, C.Y.

1993-01-01

46

Supplemental national crash severity study accident reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accident data was collected that allows determination of the relationships between occupant injury and accident severity. The measure of severity most commonly used to characterize an accident is the velocity change experienced by the passenger compartment during the collision. In some 52 percent of the accidents contained in the pre-April 1978 National Crash Severity Study (NCSS) data file, these velocity

D. J. Segal; M. T. McGrath; N. Balasubramanian

1980-01-01

47

[Occupational accidents in the fishing industry. A survey of fishing-related accidents treated at the Bornholm Central Hospital in Rønne as well as in general practice 1987-1990].  

PubMed

Over a two year period from 1987-1989 all fishing-related injuries treated in the Emergency Room at Bornholm's central hospital in Rønne and at some general practices were registered prospectively. One hundred injuries were registered altogether. Accidents occurring in connection with putting out and recovering apparatus constituted respectively 14% and 36%. Working with the trawler scoop was responsible for 18% of the accidents and was the most common direct cause, followed by work with winches which constituted 11%. Falls made up almost a quarter of the accidents. Finger injuries constituted 33%, and hand and wrist injuries 17%. Trawler scoop injuries most commonly involved the fingers and hands and fish-cleaning injuries the hands, wrists and fingers. Prophylactic efforts concerning safety in work with trawler scoops, winches and steering systems should be made. PMID:7652952

Jensen, O; Christensen, S; Kjaersgaard, E

1995-04-10

48

[Expert opinions in German statutory accident insurance].  

PubMed

German statutory accident insurance covers employees and trainees against occupational accidents, employers bear the inherent charges. Expert opinion is obtained, in particular, for discussing causality questions and for rating accidental health disorders. Causality has to be estimated based on the "theory of essential condition", health disorders have to be substantiated without any reasonable doubt. Reduction in earning capacity due to an accident may not consider the individual kind of occupation and has to be rated by an abstract approach. PMID:22161230

Widder, B; Gaidzik, P W

2011-12-12

49

Improving occupant safety in coach rollover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coach rollover is one of the most hazardous accident type for coach occupants. Risk of fatalities in rollover is about five times higher than in any other coach accident types. This paper presents an analysis of the problem and countermeasures to reduce the severity of these accidents. First, some data regarding severity and type of injuries, based on ?in depth?

L. Martinez; F. Aparicio; A. Garcia; J. Paez; G. Ferichola

2003-01-01

50

ENHANCED COACH AND B US OCCUPANT SAFETY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the EC countries approximately 30000 persons are injured as bus or coa ch occupants in accidents with transportation in the size of more than 5000 kg every year. Some 150 of these persons suffer fatal injuries. The kind of accidents which occur throughout EC countries cover collisions, single accidents as well as \\

Erich Mayrhofer; Hermann Steffan; Heinz Hoschopf

51

Accident Reviews: M113 Accident, AMV Accident, Environmental Injuries, Field Training Accident, Tactical Parachuting Accident, Physical Training Accident, Weapons-Handling Accident.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains reviews on various kinds of accidents: armored personnel carriers, environmental injuries, field training accidents, tactical parachuting accidents, physical training accidents and weapon-handing accidents.

1985-01-01

52

Occupational allergens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational agents are important in a significant number of respiratory diseases. More than 250 occupational substances have\\u000a been reported to cause occupational asthma. Occupational allergens are the subset of agents causing occupational diseases\\u000a through an IgE-mediated mechanism. These allergens may be classified as being of either high or low molecular weight. The\\u000a more common occupational allergens and the industries at

Francis Lachowsky; Manuel Lopez

2001-01-01

53

Conducting in-depth accident studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1983 the Accident Research Unit at the Institute for Consumer Ergonomics began a major study, sponsored by the UK Department of Transport and three motor companies, to investigate the causes of injury to occupants in car accidents. This study has been under way for nearly ten years and the database of information is one of the most comprehensive of

Pete Thomas; Mo Bradford

1995-01-01

54

Pattern of accident distribution in the telecommunications industry.  

PubMed Central

Examination of the accident records from the telecommunication industry covering some 100 000 engineers over a 12-month period showed that 25% of accidents resulting in more than three days' sick leave gave rise to back injuries. Handling accidents and falls accounted for 65% of three-day-plus accidents; handling accidents alone gave rise to 65% of back injuries. The absolute numbers of accidents have been compared with the total population of engineers to estimate the effects of age or occupation on levels of hazard; certain occupations constituting 33% of the engineers' population suffered 70% of all three-day-plus accidents. Accidents occurred most frequently in the group aged from 31 to 48 years. Other significant factors affecting the occurrence of accidents were time of year and duty experience of the workers.

Davis, P R; Sheppard, N J

1980-01-01

55

Fatal traffic injuries among pedestrians, bicyclists and motor vehicle occupants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate characteristic injuries of pedestrians and bicyclists (unprotected) compared to motor vehicle occupants’ (protected) in fatal traffic accidents. Cases of 664 fatal traffic accidents (371 pedestrians, 45 bicyclists, and 248 motor vehicle occupants) were collected from 1999 to 2001 using the database of the Forensic Institute in Budapest. Autopsy reports were analyzed. Location

K. Tör?; M. Hubay; P. Sótonyi; E. Keller

2005-01-01

56

Radiotherapy Accidents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major benefit of a Quality Assurance system in a radiotherapy centre is that it reduces the likelihood of an accident. For over 20 years I have been the interface in the UK between the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine and the media — newspapers, radio and TV — and so I have learned about radiotherapy accidents from personal experience. In some cases, these accidents did not become public and so the hospital cannot be identified. Nevertheless, lessons are still being learned.

Mckenzie, Alan

57

Occupational health in Brazil.  

PubMed

Brazil is a recently industrialised country with marked contrasts in social and economic development. The availability of public/private services in its different regions also varies. Health indicators follow these trends. Occupational health is a vast new field, as in other developing countries. Occupational medicine is a required subject in graduation courses for physicians. Specialisation courses for university graduated professionals have more than 700 hours of lectures and train occupational health physicians, safety engineers and nursing staff. At the technical level, there are courses with up to 1300 hours for the training of safety inspectors. Until 1986 about 19,000 occupational health physicians, 18,000 safety engineers and 51,000 safety inspectors had been officially registered. Although in its infancy, postgraduation has attracted professionals at university level, through residence programmes as well as masters and doctors degrees, whereby at least a hundred good-quality research studies have been produced so far. Occupational health activities are controlled by law. Undertakings with higher risks and larger number of employees are required to hire specialised technical staff. In 1995 the Ministry of Labour demanded programmes of medical control of occupational health (PCMSO) for every worker as well as a programme of prevention of environmental hazards (PPRA). This was considered as a positive measure for the improvement of working conditions and health at work. Physicians specialising in occupational medicine are the professionals more often hired by the enterprises. Reference centres (CRSTs) for workers' health are connected to the State or City Health Secretariat primary health care units. They exist in more populated areas and are accepted by workers as the best way to accomplish the diagnosis of occupational diseases. There is important participation by the trade unions in the management of these reference centres. For 30 years now employers organisations have also kept specialised services for safety and occupational health. Although they are better equipped they are less well used by the workers than the CRSTs. At the federal level, activities concerned with occupational health are connected to three ministries: Labour, Health and Social Security. The Ministry of Labour enacts legislation on hygiene, safety and occupational medicine, performs inspections through its regional units and runs a number of research projects. The Ministry of Health provides medical care for workers injured or affected by occupational diseases and also has surveillance programmes for certain occupational diseases. The Ministry of Social Security provides rehabilitation and compensation for registered workers. In spite of a decrease in the number of accidents at work during the past 25 years, working conditions have not improved. Changes in the laws of social security in the 1970s discouraged registration and reporting of occupational injuries and diseases. In consequence death rates due to accidents increased. With the implementation of the CRSTs, the recorded incidence of occupational diseases has risen, not only because of improved diagnosis, but also because of stronger pressure from the unions and better organisation of public services and enterprises. PMID:9342620

Bedrikow, B; Algranti, E; Buschinelli, J T; Morrone, L C

1997-01-01

58

Rehabilitation of occupational electrical injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In France, during the 14-year period between 1980 and 1993, the mean annual number of fatal electrical accidents was 138-(118 of them occurring to males). The rehabilitation of occupational electrical injuries among the personnel of Electricite´ de France (EDF) remains a priority concern, but the author is not able to say that a formal program has been designed specially for

E. Gourbiere

1996-01-01

59

Nuclear accidents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Accidents at nuclear power plants can be especially devastating to people and the environment. This article, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to nuclear accidents at Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and Tokaimura. Students explore the incidents by examining possible causes, environmental impacts, and effects on life.

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

60

Occupational Asthma  

MedlinePLUS

Occupational Asthma: Tips to Remember Occupational asthma is caused by inhaling fumes, gases, dust or other potentially harmful substances while "on the job." Often, your symptoms are worse during ...

61

Occupational asthma.  

PubMed

This article review recent developments in the study of occupational asthma and implications for the overall understanding of asthma. Occupational asthma is a clinical syndrome caused by many different agents. Contribution of studies of experimental inhalation challenge using occupational agents to the knowledge of asthmatic reactions and their mechanisms is discussed. Investigations in the occupational environment into predisposing factors and persistence or recovery after exposure to an allergic agent or nonspecific irritant are reviewed. Approaches to diagnosing asthma in the occupational environment and to assessing functional impairment and disability are outlined. Directions for future research are identified. PMID:3556062

Chan-Yeung, M; Malo, J L

1987-06-01

62

Supplemental national crash severity study accident reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accident data was collected that allows determination of the relationships between occupant injury and accident severity. The measure of severity most commonly used to characterize an accident is the velocity change experienced by the passenger compartment during the collision. In some 52 percent of the accidents contained in the pre-April 1978 National Crash Severity Study (NCSS) data file, these velocity changes were established with the CRASH computer program. A substantial number of the remaining cases were reconstructable with other methods. Procedures were developed to estimate velocity changes in two car accidents in which the damage to 484 additional accidents from the pre-April 1978 NCSS file were reconstructed to the point of having velocity change estimates for the vehicles involved.

Segal, D. J.; McGrath, M. T.; Balasubramanian, N.

1980-09-01

63

Recommendations for Injury Prevention in Transport Aviation Accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1996, a national objective was established to reduce the rate of fatal accidents in aviation. To assist in determining the best methods for improving aircraft crash survivability, a combined approach was used involving database research and the examination of case studies of transport aviation accidents. The results of the study include recommendations for maintaining occupiable space, enhancing occupant restraint,

Anita E. Grierson; Lisa E. Jones

2000-01-01

64

Occupational Asthma  

PubMed Central

Bronchospasm is a common cause of morbidity in the workplace. More than 100 agents are now recognized as occupational causes of asthma and numerous agents can cause exacerbations of preexisting asthma. Because of the large number of potential causative agents and the complexity of modern industrial processes, knowledge of the characteristic clinical features of occupational asthma is the key to recognizing this disease. Early diagnosis of occupational asthma is important in preventing long-term morbidity. Present evidence that prolonged exposure to some work-encountered agents can cause asthma that persists for years after the end of exposure suggests that avoidance is the only acceptable countermeasure against this disease.

Sheppard, Dean

1982-01-01

65

Occupational health in Central America.  

PubMed

The 12.4 million economically active population (EAP) of the seven Central American countries includes a large informal sector. Social security covers only 14-60%. No surveillance of occupational safety and health (OSH) hazards or accidents exists. Extrapolating the incidence of occupational accidents among insured Costa Rican workers to the Central American EAP yields two million accidents yearly, still a gross underestimate. Occupational diseases are underreported, misdiagnosed, and not recognized as such. A number of regional OSH programs aim at modernization of the labor administrations and address the formal sector, in particular textile maquila, in connection with free trade agreements. The weak role of the ministries of health is expected to strengthen under the Pan American Health Organization OSH program. Employers largely influence new policies. Workers' influence on OSH policies has been weak, with only about 10% unionization rate and scarce resources and OSH knowledge. Informal workers, however, are getting organized. OSH research is underdeveloped and not linked to policy making. Construction, agriculture, and general un/underemployment are considered priorities for intervention. The informal sector needs to be included in national and regional OSH policies. Regional collaboration and international development support are of strategic importance to achieve sustainable improvement in OSH. PMID:12019679

Wesseling, Catharina; Aragón, Aurora; Morgado, Hugo; Elgstrand, Kaj; Hogstedt, Christer; Partanen, Timo

66

Occupational Health  

MedlinePLUS

Occupational health problems occur at work or because of the kind of work you do. These problems can include ... by exposure to radiation Exposure to germs in health care settings Good job safety and prevention practices ...

67

Occupational cancer  

SciTech Connect

Cancer resulting from occupational exposure is now receiving major attention, focusing on identification, regulation, and control of cancer-causing agents. Such cancer can result from exposure to chemicals and ionizing and nonionizing radiation. Extended exposure (often years) and an extended latent period of perhaps decades may intervene before tumor appearance. Although the actual extent of occupational cancer is in debate, estimates have ranged from 4 to 15 per cent of all cancer.

Nelson, N.

1987-07-01

68

Fatal occupational falls in the Taiwan construction industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined fatal occupational falls in the Taiwan construction industry. Data extracted from 1062 work-related accident reports filed in the years 1996–2007 in annual reports by the Council of Labor Affairs (CLA) were analyzed in terms of gender, age, and work experience of the accident victim as well as activity at the time of the incident, personal protective equipment

Yen-Hui Lin; Chih-Yong Chen; Teng-Wei Wang

2012-01-01

69

Fatal occupational falls in the Taiwan construction industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined fatal occupational falls in the Taiwan construction industry. Data extracted from 1062 work-related accident reports filed in the years 1996–2007 in annual reports by the Council of Labor Affairs (CLA) were analyzed in terms of gender, age, and work experience of the accident victim as well as activity at the time of the incident, personal protective equipment

Yen-Hui Lin; Chih-Yong Chen; Teng-Wei Wang

2011-01-01

70

Relation between occupational safety management and firm performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational accidents severely deteriorate human capital, and hence negatively affect the productivity and competitiveness of countries. But despite this, we still observe a scarcity of preventive practices, an unsatisfactory management commitment and an absence of safety culture among Spanish firms. The result is evident in firms’ high accident rates. This situation is a consequence of the general belief among firms

Beatriz Fernández-Muñiz; José Manuel Montes-Peón; Camilo José Vázquez-Ordás

2009-01-01

71

World commercial aircraft accidents. Second edition, 1946--1992  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

Kimura, C.Y.

1993-01-01

72

Comparison of crash response with different occupant support concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that, together with improved protection structures and energy dissipation systems, a favourable occupant position with sufficient support and restraint could reduce fatalities in aviation accidents. The crash responses of three different occupant positions were compared to justify the proposal of supporting a pilot in the rather unusual prone position. The normal seated and supine seated positions have

Schalk Willem van der Merwe Meintjes; R. J. Huyssen; N. J. Theron

2004-01-01

73

[Minor and major work accidents in a Puglia business in the food sector: a 10-year study].  

PubMed

At present no official data are available for those occupational accidents which, according to current law, are not subject to notification to the Italian National Institute for Insurance of Occupational Accidents (INAIL) and which are conventionally called "minor" accidents. They can be divided into accidents with prognosis from 1 to 3 days (franchises) and accidents which do not cause absence from work (medications). The already mentioned lack of data, which is not confined to Italy, is reflected in the small number of articles published in Italian and international journals. Also information regarding the possible relationships between "minor" accidents and the life habits of injured workers, are rare. The aim of this study was to provide detailed data on the characteristics of the different kinds of occupational accidents occurring in a food factory in Apulia, southern Italy, from 1985 to 1994, as well as to verify whether any relationship existed between the different types of occupational accidents and the consumption of cigarettes and alcohol by injured workers. The company's accident register yielded data on injuries which caused absence from work; the nursing service register provided information about accidents which did not determine absence from work; personal health documents gave details of worker life habits; and the company pay roll showed the amount of "worked hours". "Minor" accidents represented 70% of all accidents occurring during the ten year period studied. "Blue collars" had more frequent and serious occupational injuries, in comparison with "technical employees". "Minor" accidents, and especially "medications", occurred more frequently during one-shift work than during three-shift work. As work seniority increased, the number of "major" accidents decreased and number of accidents without absence from work rose. Contusions were the most frequent lesions and were responsible for the majority of the 3 kinds of accidents. "Medications" together with injuries notified to INAIL ("major" accidents), mostly involved upper limbs; "franchises" were mostly head interested. About 50% of all causes of occupational accidents were mainly associated with unsafe environmental and working situations, whereas the remaining 50% were mainly associated with unsafe behaviour by workers. Heavy smokers showed a higher frequency of "major" accidents. As alcohol consumption rose, she did number of accidents with absence from work. "Minor" accidents, particularly the "medicated" ones, represented the greatest part of occupational injuries. All the considered causes and circumstances contributed to determine the different kinds of accidents. Thereby, it appears necessary for prevention purposes to obtain information about any kind of injury in the different manufacturing sectors. Finally, it seems dutiful to inform workers about the relationships between life habits and occupational accidents. PMID:10217938

Di Lorenzo, L; Zocchetti, C; Platania, A; De Francesco, G; De Metrio, R; Pirris, A; Gigante, M R

74

Radiation accidents  

SciTech Connect

It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity.

Saenger, E.L.

1986-09-01

75

Occupant Protection. Traffic Safety Facts, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides statistical information on the benefits of occupant restraint systems in U.S. motor vehicle accidents. Data tables include: (1) estimated number of lives saved by restraint systems (seat belts, air bags, child restraints), 1975-2000; (2) cumulative estimated number of lives saved by safety belt use, 1975-2000; and (3)…

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

76

Traffic Safety Facts, 2001: Occupant Protection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides statistical information on the benefits of occupant restraint systems in U.S. motor vehicle accidents. Data tables include: (1) estimated number of lives saved by restraint systems (seat belts, air bags, child restraints), 1975-2001; (2) cumulative estimated number of lives saved by safety belt use, 1975-2001; and (3)…

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

77

Internal dose assessment in radiation accidents.  

PubMed

Although numerous models have been developed for occupational and medical internal dosimetry, they may not be applicable to an accident situation. Published dose coefficients relate effective dose to intake, but if acute deterministic effects are possible, effective dose is not a useful parameter. Consequently, dose rates to the organs of interest need to be computed from first principles. Standard bioassay methods may be used to assess body contents, but, again, the standard models for bioassay interpretation may not be applicable because of the circumstances of the accident and the prompt initiation of decorporation therapy. Examples of modifications to the standard methodologies include adjustment of biological half-times under therapy, such as in the Goiania accident, and the same effect, complicated by continued input from contaminated wounds, in the Hanford 241Am accident. PMID:14526980

Toohey, R E

2003-01-01

78

[Occupational cardiovascular diseases and phlebopathies].  

PubMed

The focus of the occupational physician to diseases of the cardiovascular system has always been high in relation to the presence in the work of specific risk factors, but also because of the high incidence and prevalence of disease in the general population cardiology chronic-degenerative diseases. The non-specificity and multifactorial diseases of the cardiovascular system, make an etiologic diagnosis of occupational disease extremely difficult. For this reason, increasingly, the occupational physician is faced with the specialist cardiologist on diseases that can be defined as work-related. Among the clinical conditions most frequently encountered by the occupational physician, considered to include hypertension, ischemic heart disease and arrhythmias. Exposure to work risk factors such as: high or low temperatures, the MMC, exposure to electromagnetic fields, and also those related to organization and psycho-social, including night work and work-related stress related, or exposure to chemicals such as organic solvents, especially halogenated, or nitrates, or carbon monoxide, are an aggravating factor in the clinical context of cardiovascular disease primarily unrelated to the etiology. All this underlines also the issue of fitness to work with high risk of accidents for the worker himself and to others, especially the suspension work, driving of vehicles in general, the roles of monitoring and oversight to senior management. From the above, the importance of careful assessment by the occupational physician and the need for good cooperation with the specialist cardiologist, for the formulation of the assessment of suitability for specific tasks. PMID:21438248

Picciotto, D

79

OCCUPATIONAL CANCERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental factors play a big role in the formation of cancer. According to what we know today, 80% of cases of cancer are caused by the effects of environmental factors. Included among the environmental factors are those that can be found in the workplace and occupational factors. The first comprehensive investigation in this field was conducted by R. Doll and

Nazmi Bilir

80

Fatal Car Occupant Injuries after Car Lorry Collisions  

PubMed Central

All deaths from road accidents in certain areas and periods were studied. Analysis of 224 deaths to car occupants from collisions between cars and lorries showed that such accidents were the commonest cause of death for car occupants on motorways and link roads. The impacts were such that relatively poor protection could be given by occupant restraint systems. Collisions of cars into the rear of lorries caused the most severe injuries; most of these accidents occurred at night. The traffic characteristics of cars and lorries are largely incompatible and increase the likelihood of collisions and of extremely severe injuries to car occupants. Some reduction in deaths may be expected from making lorries more conspicuous and eliminating the rear overhang. More fundamental measures are segregation of lorries from cars and return of traffic to railways. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3

Gissane, William; Bull, John

1973-01-01

81

Occupational asthma.  

PubMed Central

Occupational asthma is probably much more common than is generally realized. Though many causes have been described, undoubtedly many more are yet to be recognized. One of the diagnostic difficulties lies in the fact that in most forms of this disease a late asthmatic reaction occurs in the evening rather than at work. The pathogenetic mechanisms differ in various forms of occupational asthma. In some, an immunologic mechanism is likely; in others, a "pharmacologic" action of the offending agent is implicated. Asthma due to inhalation of dusts of western red cedar, isocyanates, detergent enzymes and textiles is considered in detail. Periodic examination of workers at risk is of value for early diagnosis and prevention of irrversible airway obstruction.

Chan-Yeung, M.; Grzybowski, S.

1976-01-01

82

Occupational Orientation: Health Occupations. Experimental Curriculum Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These experimental curriculum materials for one of five clusters developed for the occupational program in Illinois include a series of learning activity packages (LAPs) designed to acquaint the student with the wide range of occupational choices available in the health occupations field. The 28 LAPs, each with a different occupation focus, are…

Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.

83

Burns in the domestic environment: characteristics and circumstances of accidents.  

PubMed

This study characterizes burn accidents in the domestic environment and identifies the circumstances of accidents affecting children, adults or elderly people who need supervision or care. Demographic data and burn characteristics of 61 domestic environment burn victims were collected. The family members of 13 children and one aged adult, who needed supervision or special care, were selected to answer a semi-structured interview. Two thematic groups were identified: social and environmental factors that might have contributed to the burn accidents and circumstances involving the accidents. Risk factors were: low socioeconomic and educational levels of mothers and those responsible for the children at the moment of the accident, small houses considering the number of occupants and unsafe kitchen equipment. Although cases of domestic violence were not identified there was neglect from caregivers. Health professionals should be attentive and investigate the circumstances of accidents involving vulnerable individuals. PMID:20721435

Vendrusculo, Tatiane Meda; Balieiro, Carmem Roberta Baldin; Echevarría-Guanilo, Maria Elena; Farina Junior, Jayme Adriano; Rossi, Lídia Aparecida

84

Chronic cough due to occupational factors.  

PubMed

Within the large variety of subtypes of chronic cough, either defined by their clinical or pathogenetic causes, occupational chronic cough may be regarded as one of the most preventable forms of the disease. Next to obstructive airway diseases such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which are sometimes concomitant with chronic cough, this chronic airway disease gains importance in the field of occupational medicine since classic fiber-related occupational airway diseases will decrease in the future. Apart from acute accidents and incidental exposures which may lead to an acute form of cough, there are numerous sources for the development of chronic cough within the workplace. Over the last years, a large number of studies has focused on occupational causes of respiratory diseases and it has emerged that chronic cough is one of the most prevalent work-related airway diseases. Best-known examples of occupations related to the development of cough are coal miners, hard-rock miners, tunnel workers, or concrete manufacturing workers. As chronic cough is often based on a variety of non-occupational factors such as tobacco smoke, a distinct separation into either occupational or personally -evoked can be difficult. However, revealing the occupational contribution to chronic cough and to the symptom cough in general, which is the commonest cause for the consultation of a physician, can significantly lead to a reduction of the socioeconomic burden of the disease. PMID:16722562

Groneberg, David A; Nowak, Dennis; Wussow, Anke; Fischer, Axel

2006-02-02

85

World commercial aircraft accidents: 1st edition, 1946--1991  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. This report is organized into six chapters. The first chapter is the introduction. The second chapter contains the compilation of accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft from 1952 to 1991. The third chapter presents a compilation of accidents involving world commercial turboprop aircraft from 1952 to 1991. The fourth chapter presents a compilation of accidents involving world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines from 1946 to 1991. Each accident compilation or database in chapters two, three and four is presented in chronological order. Each accident is presented with information the following categories: date of accident, airline or operator and its flight number (if known), type of flight, type of aircraft and model, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage resulting from accident, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, references used to compile the information, and finally cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident. The fifth chapter presents a list of all commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities. Chapter six presents the commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types by flight phase. Future editions of this report will have additional follow-on chapters which will present other studies still in preparation at the time this edition was being prepared.

Kimura, C.Y.

1992-02-01

86

[Occupational medicine insight into the problem of occupational stress in the construction industry].  

PubMed

According to the present study, in addition to the high accident rate, work in the building trade is characterized by intense muscle strain and constrained physical posture. In bricklaying, for example, a worker moves by hand up to seven tons of stone per shift. Consequently, various health complaints occur far more frequently in this occupation than in the other occupational groups, for instance, back complaints (71%), severe fatigue (58%), pain in the arms and hands (42%), headache (40%) and leg pain (34%). The most complained of factors include effects of the weather (74%), draft (50%), noise (55%), air pollution via dust (53%), skin contact with dirt and harmful substances (47%), moving heavy objects by hand (53%), adverse posture during work (47%), and a high risk of accidents (47%). Besides technical and organizational measures, the prevention of health impairments in employees in the building trade should be promoted by purposive care by works services of occupational medicine. PMID:3687226

Buchberger, J; Nemecek, J; Fahrni, M

1987-01-01

87

[Occupational injuries and diseases in transport industry].  

PubMed

In order to identify the specific risk and injury factors related to rail freight/transport, road haulage/transport, and business conveyance, the INAIL data/memory bank was searched for occupational diseases and injuries/accidents. In road haulage and business conveyance, osteoarticular diseases prevail, while in rail freight asbestos diseases are predominant. The permanent disability is more severe in road haulage than in business conveyance. Occupational injuries are more frequent in road transport and business conveyance in northern regions of Italy and consisted mainly in sprains/strains and dislocations. More frequently the workers recovered without serious hangovers. PMID:23405648

Parrini, L

88

Firearms accidents in Northern India (1980-2000).  

PubMed

This paper investigates firearms accidents from the last two decades (1980-2000), with information received from the three North Indian states, Chandigarh, Delhi and Himachal Pradesh and from the military and paramilitary organisations working in the region. In this study 139 cases were analysed for evaluation of various parameters such as type of accident, type of firearm used, age, sex, occupation and caste of victim, day of the week and the season in which the accident occurred, place of incident and location of wound. Information was extracted from the case histories and First Information Reports (FIR), and also from autopsy and injury reports. The accidents were self-inflicted in nine cases while another person fired the weapon in 130 cases. Most accidents occurred during hunting or from mishandling the firearm. Gun cleaning accidents rarely occurred and few cases were due to technical defects of the firearm. Shotguns and rifles caused most of the accidents. Shotgun accidents occurred mostly in rural areas whereas the cases involving rifles and handguns were from urban areas. Victims were predominantly male with a mean age of 26 and 30 years for males and females respectively. Victims' occupations were principally agricultural followed by service class and housewives. The most aggressive community was the Kshatriya caste. Most of the accidents occurred during the winter season and on days between Sunday and Tuesday. Accident locations were most commonly the forest, the fields or the home. The chest and head were the most common anatomical sites of injury. All accidental cases were the result of only one firing. It is important to mention that, based on these findings, firearm accidents could be reduced significantly if firearm holders were better trained regarding the handling and safety aspects of their guns, particularly farmers to whom firearm licences are granted specifically for the protection of crops. PMID:16454464

Singh, B P

2006-01-01

89

Occupational asthma.  

PubMed Central

Occupational asthma is important both as a potentially curable and preventable cause of asthma and as a model of adult onset asthma. It is induced by sensitization to a specific agent inhaled at work; for many of its causes, including inhaled proteins and the low molecular weight chemicals acid anhydrides and reactive dyes, it is probably IgE dependent. The risk of developing specific IgE and associated asthma is markedly increased in cigarette smokers, probably as a consequence of non-specific damage to the respiratory mucosa. Asthma caused by several agents, which include some of its most frequent causes, isocyanates, colophony and plicatic acid (Western Red Cedar) persists in some 50% of cases for years, and possibly indefinitely, after avoidance of exposure. The development of chronic symptomatic asthma seems particularly to occur in those with longer duration of symptomatic exposure.

Newman Taylor, A. J.

1988-01-01

90

Occupational asthma.  

PubMed Central

Many toxic compounds found in air emissions may induce bronchoconstriction. In the workplace, workers are exposed to these compounds, often in much higher concentrations. Some of these compounds act as sensitizers. Of these, some compounds induce asthma by producing specific IgE antibodies to the compound or its protein conjugate, while others induce asthma through yet unidentified immunologic mechanisms. Some compounds, when inhaled in high concentrations, act as irritants and produce bronchoconstriction probably by inducing acute airway inflammation. The latter condition is called Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome (RADS) or irritant-induced asthma. Occupational asthma is an excellent model to study the pathogenesis and the natural history of adult onset asthma because the responsible agent can be identified, complete avoidance is possible, and exposure can be measured or estimated.

Chan-Yeung, M

1995-01-01

91

Occupational therapy for patients with chronic diseases: CVA, rheumatoid arthritis and progressive diseases of the central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial proportion of the patients treated by occupational therapists have a chronic disease. The aim of this study was to describe the outlines of occupational therapy treatment for three specific groups of chronic diseases: progressive neurological diseases, cerebrovascular accident and rheumatoid arthritis. A total of 143 therapists, working in 49 occupational therapy departments in The Netherlands, were asked to

M.-J. Driessen; J. Dekker; G. Lankhorst; J. van der Zee

1997-01-01

92

Occupational Classification System Manual  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers may gain insight into the Bureau of Labor Statistics and Census Bureau occupational codes via the Occupational Classification System Manual (OCSM). A list of Major Occupation Group titles (MOGs) is provided as well as links to the Census Occupation Index--an alphabetical list of approximately 30,000 occupational titles. Further guidance in locating the proper occupation classification for research queries is outlined in the articles "Using the OCSM" and "Using the Census Index."

93

Electrical hazards and accidents  

SciTech Connect

This book contains proceedings of Electrical Hazards and Accidents. Topics covered include: Electrical Systems; Electrical and Lightning Accidents and Fires; Conductors and Overcurrent Protection; OSHA Standards and Requirements; and High Voltage Systems: Design.

Greenwald, E.K. (College of Engineering, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States))

1991-01-01

94

Accident Data Availability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Accident information is valuable for identifying problem areas or locations of interest. This project investigates alternate forms of dissemination for the accident information. Costs, capabilities, and compatibility are reviewed for integration of the ac...

P. Martin J. Perrin B. Hansen A. Barrios

2000-01-01

95

Occupational hazards at the work place  

PubMed Central

Industrial accidents and injuries are prevalent amongst the industrialised world. Accident related research has long attempted to find common denominators among the human and environmental antecedents of occupational hazards. Chemical substances can adversely effect one or several of the body systems, with resulting symptoms which may not fit in a specific disease pattern. While occupational health physicians will be familiar with hazards of particular industries, general physicians or chiropractic clinicians may easily overlook industrial poisoning as a cause of symptoms because of its relative rarity. Even though awareness of chiropractic and use of chiropractic care has been increasing, there are still millions of Canadians who know little or nothing about chiropractic and are not part of its utilization profile.

Dhami, MSI; Vernon, H

1985-01-01

96

Developing an Occupational Health Program: The Team Approach  

PubMed Central

Occupational health and safety programs involve professionals in occupational medicine and nursing, industrial hygiene, safety and accident prevention, psychology, sociology and health physics. Occupational health programs should allow regular health evaluations of workers, and the recognition, evaluation, and control of environmental hazards. When designing in-plant medical facilities, accommodation should be made for possible future expansion, disabled people, and an access route for an ambulance. Treatment and prevention facilities should be separate. Patients' records must be complete and kept confidential. The occupational health program must also be evaluated regularly. Education of management and the work force is necessary to ensure that the environment is safe and to prevent accidents. Special programs may be introduced, based on the particular risks, toxicants, and problems in different industries. Imagesp1912-a

Prossin, Albert

1985-01-01

97

Alcohol and accidents in Switzerland--a critical review.  

PubMed

The analysis of alcohol-related traffic accidents points to a negative relationship between the average amount of alcohol consumed and the percentage of alcohol-related accidents. The data show that the officially registered problem-rates among drivers under the influence of alcohol depend primarily neither on consumption trends nor on general preventive factors, but, rather on the capacity for accident detection, the recording practices of the authorities and a less tolerant public opinion. Regional differences in the willingness to enforce control measures are related to varying cultural drinking contexts. The under-reporting of occupational accidents reflects an undue emphasis in insurance statistics which are based on a guilt/moral concept which is used to justify sanctions, such as cuts in insurance benefits. It is clear from the empirical evidence, that the broad press coverage on 'alcohol-related' ski accidents proves to be a typical case of problem amplification. PMID:8358269

Fahrenkrug, H; Klingemann, H K

1993-07-01

98

The role of OSHA violations in serious workplace accidents.  

PubMed

California accident investigations for 1976 show that violations of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's safety standards were a contributing factor in 13% to 19% of the 645 deaths reported to the workers' compensation program during that year. However, a panel of safety engineers judged that only about 50% of these violations could have been detected if an inspector had visited the day before the accident. These findings indicate that the potential gains from stronger enforcement of current standards are limited but not insignificant. The likelihood that a violation contributed to a serious accident varied considerably among accident types, industries, and size classes of plants. These findings can be used to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the OSHA program by means of better targeting of inspections and accident investigations, more intelligent assessment of which violations should be penalized most heavily, and the provision of information to employers and workers about which violations are most consequential. PMID:6726484

Mendeloff, J

1984-05-01

99

Contiguous HOV Lane Safety: A Before and After Comparison of Accident Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research studies have investigated increases in accident rates related to high occupancy vehicle (HOV) freeway lanes. Accidents were found to be concentrated at ingress\\/egress locations for barrier- or buffer-separated HOV lanes. However, in Northern California, HOV lanes on freeways are contiguous. That is, the HOV lane is immediately adjacent to the other lanes of traffic so that entering and

Carol Pearce; David Stanek

100

Survivability of Accidents Involving Part 121 U.S. Air Carrier Operations, 1983 through 2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Despite the growing demands on the U.S. aviation system, the system continues to maintain a high level of safety. There are two ways to prevent fatalities in air travel: by preventing accidents, and by protecting aircraft occupants in the accidents that d...

2001-01-01

101

[Work-related accidents and diseases in migrant workers].  

PubMed

It is estimated that in Italy there are about 4 million migrant workers, accounting for 10% of total workforce. They are heavily involved in the so-called "3D jobs" (dangerous, dirty and demanding/degrading). The available data, from literature as well as national official sources, show an overall higher risk of occupational accidents in migrant workers as compared with the natives and a relevant prevalence of occupational diseases, with an increasing trend in the last few years. Within such a framework, Occupational Physician is clearly called to play a proactive role. PMID:22187916

Arici, C; Porru, S

102

Maori Occupational Segregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many schemata of occupational classification. One of the more satisfactory is the Smith scheme which classified white-collar occupations into six groups. This schema was adapted by Hill and Brosnan to include blue-collar occupations and used to compare the occupational distribution of New Zealand's major ethnic groups as at the 1981 census. This article uses that revised schema to

Peter Brosnan

1987-01-01

103

Occupational Therapy Assistant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of occupational therapy assistant, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 16 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general as well as those specific to the occupation of occupational therapy assistant. The…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

104

Occupational Therapy Assistant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of occupational therapy assistant, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 16 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general as well as those specific to the occupation of occupational therapy assistant. The…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

105

Drudgery, accidents and injuries in Indian agriculture.  

PubMed

The Indian farming employs 225 million workforce to cover 140 million hectares of total cultivated land. In spite of rapid farm mechanization (e.g., 149 million farm machinery), the vast resource-poor family farming has primary dependence on traditional methods (e.g., 520 million hand tools and 37 million animal-drawn implements are in operation). The work drudgery, the traumatic accidents and injuries are the major concerns to examine options for ergonomics intervention and betterment of work in crop production activities. This review summarizes human energy expenditure in crop production activities, to assess the job severity, tools and machinery, and formulate the basis to reorganize work and work methods. While the farm mechanization is more in the northern India, the accidents were more in the villages in southern India. On average of the four regions, the tractor incidents (overturning, falling from the tractor, etc.) were highest (27.7%), followed by thresher (14.6%), sprayer/duster (12.2%), sugarcane crusher (8.1%) and chaff cutter (7.8%) accidents. Most of the fatal accidents resulted from the powered machinery, with the annual fatality rate estimated as 22 per 100,000 farmers. The hand tools related injuries (8% of the total accidents) were non-fatal in nature. In spite of the enactment of legislation, the shortcomings in production and monitoring of the machinery in field use may be responsible for the high rate of accidents (e.g., 42 thresher accidents/1,000 mechanical threshers/year in southern India). Due to the lack of technical capability of the local artisans, adhering to safety and design standards is impractical to the implements fabricated in the rural areas. The analysis emphasizes that the effective safety and health management may be possible through legislative enabling of the local infra-structure, such as block development authority and primary health services, to permeate occupational health and safe work practices in the farming sector. PMID:15128164

Nag, Pranab Kumar; Nag, Anjali

2004-04-01

106

Distributed Vision-Based Accident Management for Assisted Living  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of assisting vulnerable people and their carers to reduce the occurrence, and concomitant consequences, of accidents in the home. A wireless sensor network employing multiple sensing and event detection modalities and distributed processing is pro- posed for smart home monitoring applications. Distributed vision-based analysis is used to detect occupant's posture, and features from multiple cameras are

Hamid K. Aghajan; Juan Carlos Augusto; Chen Wu; Paul J. Mccullagh; Julie-ann Walkden

2007-01-01

107

The Mechanization of Logging Operations in Sweden and its Effect on Occupational Safety and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the effect on occupational safety and health of increasing mechanization and improved ergonomics in Swedish forestry has been analyzed by using data on accidents and health hazards for chainsaw operators and logging-machine opera- tors. In 1990 the accident frequency rate was 63 and 17 respectively, indicating a risk reduction of 73% by mechanization compared to chainsaw-base d

Sven-Åke Axelsson

108

[ACN (Automatic Collision Notification)--reducing fatalities in traffic accidents by automated accident reporting].  

PubMed

To improve patient's outcome of seriously injured occupants after vehicle accident rescue should be performed as soon as possible. While the rescue-time-period after EMS alarming is well-defined the rescue-time-period before EMS-alarm is very variable from minutes to several hours. To reduce the rescue-time-period between accident occurrence and EMS-alarm the Automatic Collision Notification (ACN) was developed. The ACN is a new invehicle-equipment which detects a severe vehicle crash and alarms via cellular phone the EMS automatically. Simultaneously the exact accident location is transmitted (GPS). Official data of the European Community predict a 15% reduction of road traffic fatalities with ACN. Thereby the economical benefit of about 561 million [symbol: see text] could be calculated for Germany 2000. PMID:12704910

Pieske, O; Lob, G; Messner, G; Lange, W; Haberl, J

2002-01-01

109

Estimation of reduced life expectancy from serious occupational injuries in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the loss of life expectancy and potential working life in Taiwan, between 1986 and 2000, from various types of occupational accidents resulting in mortality or permanent disability. The databases on occupational mortality and permanent disability were obtained from the Bureau of Labor Insurance, with this information then being linked to national death registry data to construct the

Jiune-Jye Ho; Jing-Shiang Hwang; Jung-Der Wang

2006-01-01

110

Accident cause analysis method based on traffic accident information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the characteristics of data base and data of road traffic accident in China. On the basis of specific analysis of accident cause, this article offers classification and layer for accident data of road traffic accident information system in China, provides traffic accident causes analysis method based on rough set and gives quantitative analysis for the contribution of

Xi Jianfeng; Chen Xiaodong; Wang Shuangwei; Zhurong Tao

2010-01-01

111

Killer crashes: fatal road traffic accidents in the UK.  

PubMed

Road traffic accidents are responsible for over 3000 deaths per year in the UK, according to Department for Transport (2004a) figures. Although progress is being made in a number of areas, vehicle occupant fatalities have not been falling in line with casualty reduction targets for the year 2010. A sample of 1185 fatal vehicle occupant cases was considered, from ten UK police forces, from the years 1994-2005 inclusive. The main findings were: (1) over 65% of the accidents examined involved driving at excessive speed, a driver in excess of the legal alcohol limit, or the failure to wear a seat belt by a fatality, or some combination of these. (2) Young drivers have the great majority of their accidents by losing control on bends or curves, typically at night in rural areas and/or while driving for 'leisure' purposes. These accidents show high levels of speeding, alcohol involvement and recklessness. (3) Older drivers had fewer accidents, but those fatalities they were involved in tended to involve misjudgement and perceptual errors in 'right of way' collisions, typically in the daytime on rural rather than urban roads. Blameworthy right of way errors were notably high for drivers aged over 65 years, as a proportion of total fatal accidents in that age group. PMID:20159105

Clarke, David D; Ward, Patrick; Bartle, Craig; Truman, Wendy

2009-12-23

112

The occupational impact of sleep quality and insomnia symptoms.  

PubMed

While the importance of assessing the occupational consequences of insomnia is emphasized in clinical nosologies and research guidelines, there is little consensus on which aspects of occupational performance should be assessed, the most methodologically justifiable measures of insomnia and work performance, and how outcomes should be reported. The present review was designed to summarize and methodologically critique the assessment of those aspects of occupational performance most impacted by (or most frequently associated with) insomnia symptoms. The 30 studies which met the review inclusion criteria broadly addressed six domains of occupational functioning: absenteeism; workplace accidents; productivity; punctuality; job satisfaction and career progression. Collectively, study outcomes support the conclusions that insomnia symptoms: are consistently associated with excess absenteeism; elevate accident risk in the workplace; reduce subjectively experienced workplace productivity (at least in the shorter term); inhibit career progression; and can degrade job satisfaction. Study outcomes do not support the conclusion that people with insomnia are significantly less punctual than other workers. The overall value of the occupational sleep-health literature, however, is limited by a lack of comparability among studies. In particular, there is a clear need to standardize definitions of sleep and occupational outcomes, and to recognize the confounding influence of health variables on occupational performance and sleep. PMID:22401983

Kucharczyk, Erica R; Morgan, Kevin; Hall, Andrew P

2012-03-07

113

Deterrence and Compensation: Legal Liability in Occupational Safety and Health.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study examines the manner in which penal and civil liability contribute to the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases and to the compensation of their victims. It surveys the law and practice of countries with different legal systems with r...

F. Morgenstern

1982-01-01

114

Zero-inflated Poisson modeling to evaluate occupational safety interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the data collected on occupational safety involves accident or injury counts. Traditional approaches to analyzing this type of population-based count data, including the Poisson model and the Negative Binomial model, do not take into consideration the relatively few events and hence, many observed zeros. In this paper, we propose a Zero-Inflated Poisson (ZIP) model to evaluate the effectiveness

Philip J. W. Carrivick; Andy H. Lee; Kelvin K. W. Yau

2003-01-01

115

Occupational risks and challenges of seafaring.  

PubMed

Seafarers are exposed to a high diversity of occupational health hazards onboard ships. Objective: The aim of this article is to present a survey of the current, most important hazards in seafaring including recommendations on measures how to deal with these problems. Methods: The review is based on maritime expert opinions as well a PubMed analysis related to the occupational risks of seafaring. Results: Despite recent advances in injury prevention, accidents due to harmful working and living conditions at sea and of non-observance of safety rules remain a main cause of injury and death. Mortality in seafaring from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is mainly caused by increased risks and impaired treatment options of CVD at sea. Further, shipboard stress and high demand may lead to fatigue and isolation which have an impact on the health of onboard seafarers. Communicable diseases in seafaring remain an occupational problem. Exposures to hazardous substances and UV-light are important health risks onboard ships. Because of harsh working conditions onboard including environmental conditions, sufficient recreational activities are needed for the seafarers' compensation both onboard and ashore. However, in reality there is often a lack of leisure time possibilities. Discussion: Seafaring is still an occupation with specific work-related risks. Thus, a further reduction of occupational hazards aboard ships is needed and poses a challenge for maritime health specialists and stakeholders. Nowadays, maritime medicine encompasses a broad field of workplaces with different job-related challenges. PMID:20661002

Oldenburg, Marcus; Baur, Xaver; Schlaich, Clara

2010-07-22

116

Accidents in the north. Some aspects on snowmobile accidents and moose-car collisions.  

PubMed

Snowmobile accidents and moose-car crashes are typical accidents in Northern Sweden. In this region there is about 1 snowmobile/10 inhabitants. The present paper combines previously published studies. The studies on snowmobile accidents are based on a material comprising all 61 fatally injured snowmobile drivers from the four northern counties of Sweden during the period 1973-1987. The helmet usage was analyzed in two clinical study populations including 200 injured from the county of Västerbotten from two periods 1979-1980 and 1985-86. Of the fatally injured (median age 32 years) 86% were driving under the influence of alcohol with a mean blood alcohol concentration of 0.17 g/ml. Serious head injuries were uncommon among persons driving without a helmet in the clinical material. Only in about 6% of the cases an open face helmet would probably have had an injury reducing effect. Drunken driving is an important etiological factor for fatal snowmobile accidents. Preventive measures must include information that the Traffic Temperance Law also applies to snowmobile riding. A helmet law for snowmobile riders does not seem to be motivated from the injury reduction point of view. According to official Swedish police statistics more than 400 car occupants are injured annually in crashes with a moose. The crash mechanism is special. Because of its long legs the body of the moose hits directly against the windshield, windshield pillars and front roof. During a period of three years 154 injured passenger car occupants were treated in the hospitals in Umeå and Skellefteå. Of both the front and rear seat occupants 80% suffered laceration injuries from glass or glass splinters.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1285819

Björnstig, U

1992-01-01

117

Acoustic Accident Detection System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research we considered the development of a system for automatically detecting and reporting traffic accidents at intersections. A system with these properties would be a great benefit in determining the cause of accidents and could also be useful in determining features of the intersection that relate to safety. A complete system would automatically detect and record traffic conditions

Charles Harlow; Yu Wang

2002-01-01

118

Civil aircraft accident investigation.  

PubMed

This talk reviews some historic aircraft accidents and some more recent. It reflects on the division of accident causes, considering mechanical failures and aircrew failures, and on aircrew training. Investigation results may lead to improved aircraft design, and to appropriate crew training. PMID:24057309

Haines, Daniel

2013-01-01

119

Sport accidents in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injuries among children during sporting activities are common. This study is a one year study including children between five and fourteen years of age who sustained their injuries during sporting activities and were treated at Trondheim Regional and University Hospital. Sport accidents account for 27 per cent of all childhood accidents in this age group. Fifty-three per cent of the

Y Sahlin

1990-01-01

120

Research by accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article addresses the issue of uncertainty in technological knowledge. “Research by accident” is seen as a central cognitive process to generate (unanticipated) knowledge about the characteristics of a technology. In the example of nuclear weapons, scientific programs have initially led to a sequency of unanticipated discoveries — a process of research by accident that subsequently reveals properties and characteristics

Thomas C. Schelling

1996-01-01

121

Anatomy of an Accident.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The findings of industrial safety engineers in the areas of accident causation and prevention are wholly applicable to adventure programs. Adventure education instructors can use safety engineering concepts to assess the risk in a particular activity, understand factors that cause accidents, and intervene to minimize injuries and damages if…

Mobley, Michael

1984-01-01

122

Health Occupations Cluster Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intended to assist the vocational teacher in designing and implementing a cluster program in health occupations, this guide suggests ideas for teaching the specific knowledge and skills that qualify students for entry-level employment in the health occupations field. The knowledge and skills are applicable to 12 occupations: dental assistant;…

Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

123

Vertical Differentiation among Occupations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is reported that research on the socioeconomic achievement process has begun to generate anomalous findings, many of which involve occupational status as conventionally measured. The author proposes a theory of vertical occupational differentiation based on the role activities of occupational incumbents. (Author/RLV)|

Spaeth, Joe L.

1979-01-01

124

International occupational health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working conditions for the majority of the world's workers do not meet the minimum standards and guidelines set by international agencies. Occupational health and safety laws cover only about 10 percent of the population in developing countries, omitting many major hazardous industries and occupations. With rare exception, most countries defer to the United Nations the responsibility for international occupational health.

Joseph LaDou

2003-01-01

125

[Research on accidents in a tire-producing plant].  

PubMed

In the autumn of 1987 the U.S.L. health service (prevention, hygiene and occupational safety section) began a study about the accidents in a firm manufacturing tyres, placed in its own area. The retrospective enquiry starts from the analysis of typology, diffusion and seriousness of occupational accidents. The firm's accident register has been analyzed and integrated with other necessary information provided by the firm, by I.N.A.I.L. and by the air force metereological service. The study has been carried out on data concerning the following years: 1984-1985-1986. The accidents considered, implied absence from work and were divided as follows: for absence up till 3 days (in franchise), and more than 3 days (indemnified), applying the average value calculated on one year of the three analyzed. Every accident has been analyzed per year, month, day, hour of event. According to the classes: circumstances, kind of lesion, site of lesion, period of absence from work. The indices of: frequency, seriousness, incidence, mean duration have been calculated. The average monthly values of temperature: max and min. of the area and to the average monthly amount of processed elastomer (rate of production). The statistics we obtained, justified the study and showed the operative solution. The aspect of sanitary education and the general psychological aspect regarding the accident have been considered. Moreover the general operative solutions for the firm and specific ones for every department and for every position have been shown and faced up to. In this way, according to the risks that have emerged from the enquiries on previous accidents and thanks to direct inspection. it was possible to prevent accidents. PMID:2530033

Mete, R; Sabatucci, A

1989-09-30

126

The occupational meaning of smell.  

PubMed

The sense of smell has its meaning for a successful performance of certain occupations. It has further a protective meaning. The acuity of smell often changes for different reasons. The prolonged or repeated smelling is combined with the process of smell adaptation, fatigue and habituation. They diminish the flavour sensations and increase the risk of work accidents. Some chemical compounds are characterized by a quick and high adaptation. The occupational changes of smell can be peripheral or central. The qualitative changes of the smell perception are numerous, but they have little sense in industrial hygiene. The hypersensibilisation can be temporal or lasting, where a change of profession is sometimes inevitable. The values of smell thresholds (detection, recognition, distinction) of 25 substances are given. The sensitivity of smell is greater at the smell threshold concentrations. The smell thresholds are put among the main basic properties of chemical compounds which decide about the values of MAC and about the possibilities of their passing over. 68 substances ranged according to their basic characteristics in three groups were studied. There was statistical dependence between the molecular weight, the boiling point, smell thresholds of detection and recognition. In two groups of matters there was a dependence between the threshold of irritation and the smell threshold of recognition and distinction. The regression was linear with the majority of dependencies. PMID:3989290

Naus, A

1985-01-01

127

Work-related versus non-work-related road accidents, developments in the last decade in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research was to analyze the changes that have affected work-related road accidents between 1997 and 2006, using police data. The study focused on drivers aged between 14 and 64 years. The characteristics considered were the age, gender, type of vehicle and occupation of the individuals involved and the location, time and severity of the accident. Two

Barbara Charbotel; Jean Louis Martin; Mireille Chiron

2010-01-01

128

Studying work practices: a key factor in understanding accidents on the level triggered by a balance disturbance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidents on the level (AOL) rank second amongst the most numerous and serious occupational accidents with days lost in France and are a major health and safety problem in every sector of activity. The case study described in this paper was conducted at a metallurgical company with 300 employees. The aims of this work were dual: 1) to extend the

C. Derosier; S. Leclercq; P. Rabardel; P. Langa

2008-01-01

129

Persistence of airline accidents.  

PubMed

This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. PMID:20618386

Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

2010-10-01

130

Occupational Employment Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

US occupations are featured in this information-rich resources from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The 1996 Occupational Employment Statistics Survey differs from previous surveys in that it includes wage data by occupation for the first time. The site contains a description of the survey and complete national and state data for 760 occupations in seven major areas. Included are occupation title, number of employees, hourly mean and median wage, and an OES code number that provides information about the occupation and its employment distribution by wage range where surveyed (distribution is for the national survey only). An occupational search engine is forthcoming. The site also contains information about previous OES surveys back to 1988.

131

Occupational injuries in Ghana.  

PubMed

Household interviews were used to survey 21,105 persons living in 431 urban and rural sites in Ghana, to determine the nature and extent of their occupational injuries. Annual occupational injury rates were 11.5 injuries/1000 persons in the urban areas and 44.9/1000 in the rural areas. Occupational injuries had higher mortality, longer disability, and higher treatment costs than non-occupational injuries. There were substantial occupational injury rates among children, especially in rural areas. In the urban areas, the largest numbers of injuries were to drivers (12.7% of urban occupational injuries) and traders (19.4%), most of which were road-traffic-related. In the rural areas, most injuries (71.6%) were to farm workers. Occupational injuries are a substantial burden in Ghana. Priorities include improving road safety and improving the prevention and treatment of injuries from nonmechanized farming. PMID:16130964

Mock, Charles; Adjei, Samuel; Acheampong, Frederick; Deroo, Lisa; Simpson, Kate

132

Physician Flight Accidents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis of physician flight accidents during the period 1964-1965 is presented. More than thirty physicians sustained fatal injuries while piloting light aircraft: a fatality record four times the ratio of physician pilots in the general aviation pilo...

S. R. Mohler S. F. Freud J. E. Veregge E. L. Umberger

1966-01-01

133

Accident Risk Forecasting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliography represents literature acquired since the establishment of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in 1967, as related to accident forecasting. It is comprised of NHTSA contract reports, reports of other organizations c...

L. Flynn

1977-01-01

134

Safety Is No Accident.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Liability suits involving accidents in park and recreation areas are expensive and intangible costs are incalculable. Risk management practices related to park planning, personnel, and administrative practices are discussed. (MT)|

Christiansen, Monty L.

1985-01-01

135

FATAL ACCIDENT REPORTING SYSTEM (FARS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) database consist of three relational tables, containing data on automobile accidents on public U.S. roads that resulted in the death of one or more people within 30 days of the accident. Truck and trailer accidents are also included....

136

Listing Occupational Carcinogens  

PubMed Central

The occupational environment has been a most fruitful one for investigating the etiology of human cancer. Many recognized human carcinogens are occupational carcinogens. There is a large volume of epidemiologic and experimental data concerning cancer risks in different work environments. It is important to synthesize this information for both scientific and public health purposes. Various organizations and individuals have published lists of occupational carcinogens. However, such lists have been limited by unclear criteria for which recognized carcinogens should be considered occupational carcinogens, and by inconsistent and incomplete information on the occupations and industries in which the carcinogenic substances may be found and on their target sites of cancer. Based largely on the evaluations published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and augmented with additional information, the present article represents an attempt to summarize, in tabular form, current knowledge on occupational carcinogens, the occupations and industries in which they are found, and their target organs. We have considered 28 agents as definite occupational carcinogens, 27 agents as probable occupational carcinogens, and 113 agents as possible occupational carcinogens. These tables should be useful for regulatory or preventive purposes and for scientific purposes in research priority setting and in understanding carcinogenesis.

Siemiatycki, Jack; Richardson, Lesley; Straif, Kurt; Latreille, Benoit; Lakhani, Ramzan; Campbell, Sally; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Boffetta, Paolo

2004-01-01

137

Accident management information needs  

SciTech Connect

In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Accident Management Research Program, a methodology has been developed for identifying the plant information needs necessary for personnel involved in the management of an accident to diagnose that an accident is in progress, select and implement strategies to prevent or mitigate the accident, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies. This report describes the methodology and presents an application of this methodology to a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with a large dry containment. A risk-important severe accident sequence for a PWR is used to examine the capability of the existing measurements to supply the necessary information. The method includes an assessment of the effects of the sequence on the measurement availability including the effects of environmental conditions. The information needs and capabilities identified using this approach are also intended to form the basis for more comprehensive information needs assessment performed during the analyses and development of specific strategies for use in accident management prevention and mitigation. 3 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Nelson, W.R.; Meyer, O.R. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

1990-04-01

138

Abdominal Injury Patterns in Real Frontal Crashes: Influence of Crash Conditions, Occupant Seat and Restraint Systems  

PubMed Central

An in-depth study was conducted through the analysis of medical reports and crash data from real world accidents. The objective was to investigate the abdominal injury patterns among car occupants in frontal crashes. The influence of the type of restraint system, the occupant seat, the age and the crash severity was investigated. The results indicate that the risk of abdominal AIS 3+ injuries increased with crash severity and decreased with the introduction of belt retractors. Rear belted passengers were observed to be more likely injured than front belted occupants. The organs injured in frontal crashes for belted occupants were mainly hollow organs especially jejunum, ileum and mesentery.

Lamielle, S.; Cuny, S.; Foret-Bruno, JY.; Petit, P.; Vezin, P.; Verriest, JP.; Guillemot, H.

2006-01-01

139

Estimation of an Occupational Choice Model when Occupations Are Misclassified  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper develops an empirical occupational choice model that corrects for misclassification in occupational choices and measurement error in occupation-specific work experience. The model is used to estimate the extent of measurement error in occupation data and quantify the bias that results from ignoring measurement error in occupation codes…

Sullivan, Paul

2009-01-01

140

Occupational lung cancer  

SciTech Connect

The author addresses the attribution of lung cancer to cigarette smoking and the problems of confounding synergistic effects of occupational and other carcinogenic risk factors, as well as the divergent trends of declining smoking rates and increasing rates of lung cancer. He also reviews the existing literature to document associations between lung cancer and occupational exposures. Finally, interventions for prevention of occupational lung cancer are discussed.

Cone, J.E.

1987-04-01

141

Occupational cancer in Italy.  

PubMed Central

This article is a discussion of occupational cancer in Italy. The introduction provides the necessary context of Italian industrialization and occupational health regulation. This is followed by a review of Italian epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer risks considered in terms of relative measures of risk and attributable risk of carcinogenic agents or exposure circumstances. We attempt to establish the number of workers exposed to carcinogens in Italy and the intensity of their exposures. Finally, the Italian system of compensation for occupational cancer is discussed. Several cohort and case-control studies have addressed the issue of occupational risks, mostly among male workers. The results of these studies suggest that the growing incidence of and mortality by mesothelioma is explained by the widespread and intense exposure to asbestos in some Italian industrial settings. A high attributable risk of lung tumors among male populations in industrial areas of northern Italy is explained by occupational exposures. However, insufficient data are available for clear definition of the extent and intensity of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. In Italy, we must prioritize and maximize resources in occupational cancer epidemiology and revitalize the role of national institutions. Recent legislation has established new regulations on the handling of carcinogenic substances in industrial settings, a new list of occupational diseases, and a national registry of mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. These legislative changes are expected to have positive effects.

Merler, E; Vineis, P; Alhaique, D; Miligi, L

1999-01-01

142

International occupational health.  

PubMed

Working conditions for the majority of the world's workers do not meet the minimum standards and guidelines set by international agencies. Occupational health and safety laws cover only about 10 percent of the population in developing countries, omitting many major hazardous industries and occupations. With rare exception, most countries defer to the United Nations the responsibility for international occupational health. The UN's international agencies have had limited success in bringing occupational health to the industrializing countries. The International Labor Organization (ILO) conventions are intended to guide all countries in the promotion of workplace safety and in managing occupational health and safety programs. ILO conventions and recommendations on occupational safety and health are international agreements that have legal force only if they are ratified by ILO member states. The most important ILO Convention on Occupational Safety and Health has been ratified by only 37 of the 175 ILO member states. Only 23 countries have ratified the ILO Employment Injury Benefits Convention that lists occupational diseases for which compensation should be paid. The World Health Organization (WHO) is responsible for the technical aspects of occupational health and safety, the promotion of medical services and hygienic standards. Limited WHO and ILO funding severely impedes the development of international occupational health. The U.S. reliance on international agencies to promote health and safety in the industrializing countries is not nearly adequate. This is particularly true if occupational health continues to be regarded primarily as an academic exercise by the developed countries, and a budgetary triviality by the international agencies. Occupational health is not a goal achievable in isolation. It should be part of a major institutional development that touches and reforms every level of government in an industrializing country. Occupational health and safety should be brought to industrializing countries by a comprehensive consultative program sponsored by the United States and other countries that are willing to share the burden. Occupational health and safety program development is tied to the economic success of the industrializing country and its industries. Only after the development of a successful legal and economic system in an industrializing country is it possible to incorporate a successful program of occupational health and safety. PMID:12971685

LaDou, Joseph

2003-08-01

143

[Accidents in the workplace caused by alcohol intoxication].  

PubMed

Fatal accidents in the workplace can be caused by work conditions, aggravation of a chronic disease or alcohol intoxication. The purpose of this paper was to show the influence of ethyl alcohol on accidents in the workplace with regard to the occupation and age of the examined individuals. A group of victims whose deaths resulted from other external factors (suicide, poisoning by non alcoholic agents, etc.) was separated and not included. Statistical analysis of the autopsies carried out in the Forensic Medicine Department, Silesian University of Medicine, Katowice in the years 1992-2001 showed that accidents in the workplace amounted to 4-6% of the total number of deaths in the space of a year with alcohol (ethanol) being the causative factor in 3-15%. PMID:15782781

Rygol, Krystian; Kabiesz-Neniczka, Stanisáwa; Olszowy, Zofia

144

Burnout among occupational therapists.  

PubMed

Objectives. Using Maslach's Burnout Inventory (MBI), this study examined burnout among full-time staff occupational therapists including the extent of their burnout; how occupational therapists' burnout compared to four health care professions, and if type of health care setting impacts their level of burnout. Method. The MBI was mailed to each subject in the random sample (n = 3000) of occupational therapists who were American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) members. Results. Occupational therapists displayed a higher level of emotional exhaustion, and lower levels of depersonalization and personal accomplishment. Differences were found in the levels of occupational therapists' burnout when compared to four health care professions. Occupational therapists working in chronic care health care settings demonstrated higher levels of burnout than those working in other health care settings. Conclusion. The occupational therapist should strive to match their skills, interests, life style, and experience to the appropriate health care setting to promote a good person-environment fit to decrease burnout and promote quality patient care and personal health. PMID:23941190

Painter, Jane; Akroyd, Duane; Elliot, Sharon; Adams, Robert D

2003-01-01

145

Testosterone and Occupational Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Archival data on 4,462 military veterans linked higher levels of serum testosterone to lower-status occupations. A structural equation model was supported in which higher testosterone, mediated through lower intellectual ability, greater antisocial behavior, and lower education, leads away from white-collar occupations. Contains 49 references.…

Dabbs, James M., Jr.

1992-01-01

146

Occupational Hazard for Teachers?  

MedlinePLUS

... Dallas Friday, October 18, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Occupational Health Speech and Communication Disorders FRIDAY, Oct. 18 (HealthDay ... HealthDay . All rights reserved. More Health News on: Occupational Health Speech and Communication Disorders Recent Health News Page ...

147

Occupational Mobility of Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Special Labor Force Report shows that 8.7 percent of workers changed occupations between January, 1972, and January, 1973. The article discusses and tabulates data related to current patterns of mobility; demographic characteristics; flows among occupations; distribution by age, sex, and race; and job and industrial mobility. (Author/MW)|

Byrne, James J.

1975-01-01

148

Occupations, U. S. A.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The booklet divides job titles, selected from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles, into 15 career clusters: agribusiness and natural resources, business and office education, communication and media, construction, consumer and home economics, fine arts and humanities, health occupations, hospitality and recreation, manufacturing, marine…

Geneva Area City Schools, OH.

149

Sex and occupational choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared the omnibus personality inventory score patterns of 275 males and 248 females graduating in majors classified into the 5 occupational categories of J. Holland (see pa, vol. 40:12652) in a 5 * 2 multivariate analysis of variance design. Although significant differences were found by sex and occupational category, it was the significant interaction effect which supported the conclusion that

Harriett A. Rose; Charles F. Elton

1971-01-01

150

Cabinetmaker. Occupational Analysis Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains the analysis of the occupation of cabinetmaker, or joiner, that is accepted by the Canadian Council of Directors as the national standard for the occupation. The front matter preceding the analysis includes exploration of the development of the analysis, structure of the analysis, validation method, scope of the…

Chinien, Chris; Boutin, France

151

Bricklayer. Occupational Analyses Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This analysis covers tasks performed by a bricklayer, an occupational title some provinces and territories of Canada have also identified as bricklayer-mason, brick and stone mason, and mason. A guide to analysis discusses development, structure, and validation method; scope of the occupation; trends; and safety. To facilitate understanding the…

Cap, Orest; Cap, Ihor; Semenovych, Viktor

152

Accidents in Childhood  

PubMed Central

The causes of injury to 17,141 children brought to the emergency department of a large pediatric hospital in one year were studied. The leading causes of injury were: falls, 5682; cuts or piercings, 1902; poisonings, 1597; and transportation accidents, 1368. Included in these are 587 falls on or down stairs, 401 cuts due to glass, 630 poisonings from household or workshop substances, 510 poisonings from salicylate tablets, and 449 accidents involving bicycles or tricycles. Other findings included 333 injuries to fingers or hands in doors, usually car doors; 122 instances of pulled arms; 384 ingestions and 53 inhalations of foreign bodies; 60 alleged sexual assaults, 58 chemical burns, 127 wringer injuries, and four attempted suicides. A rewarding opportunity in accident prevention exists for hospitals that undertake to compile and distribute pertinent source data.

Keddy, J. Arthur

1964-01-01

153

Accident prevention manual  

SciTech Connect

Among the many common needs and goals are the safety and well-being of families, ourselves, fellow employees, and the continuing success of this organization. To these ends--minimizing human suffering and economic waste--the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Accident Prevention Program and this Accident Prevention Manual (APM) are dedicated. The BPA Accident Prevention Program is revised as necessary to ensure compliance with relevant Federal safety and health standards. The mandatory rules herein express minimum requirements for dealing with the principal hazards inherent in daily work activities. These and other written requirements, which neither can nor should provide complete coverage of all work situations, must be continually reinforced through the sound and mature safety judgments of all workers on each assigned task. In the event of conflicting judgments, the more conservative interpretation shall prevail pending review and resolution by management.

Not Available

1998-05-01

154

[Occupational morbidity in Ulianovsk region].  

PubMed

Retrospective analysis of occupational morbidity in Ulianovsk region proved a definite trend to increase in occupational diseases number. The authors necessitated creation of programs on occupational diseases prevention in the region. PMID:17004507

Shapoval, N S; Fomin, P G; Tseloval'nikova, N V; Nesterova, I G

2006-01-01

155

Occupational Injuries, Illnesses and Fatalities  

MedlinePLUS

... NAICS and SOC Hours-based fatal injury rates Corrections to "Nonfatal Occupational Injuries and Illnesses Requiring Days ... about Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries Database (FI) Correction to news release "Nonfatal Occupational Injuries and Illnesses ...

156

[Market oriented occupational medicine].  

PubMed

The history and the recent state of occupational medicine in Hungary, and its relation with governmental labor organizations are analyzed. In the past 20 years, large "socialist" factories were replaced by smaller companies employing fewer workers. They have been forced to establish contract with occupational health providers. Many of them offer primary care services, whereas family physicians having a board examination in occupational medicine are allowed to work in this field as well. The market of occupational medicine is less regulated, and ethical rules are not always considered. Undercutting prices is a common practice. The recent system could be improved by some regulations which should be respected. There is no reason to make rough changes establishing a new market for profit oriented insurance companies, and to allow employees and employers to work without specification neglecting international agreements. Occupational medicine should be supervised again by the health authorities instead of economists who have quite different, short-term priorities. PMID:22951411

Rurik, Imre; Cseh, Károly

2012-09-01

157

Perspectives in Occupational Dermatology  

PubMed Central

Because large surface areas of the skin are exposed directly to the environment, skin is an organ particularly vulnerable to occupationally induced disease. Statistics show that, excluding accidental injury, nearly half of all occupational illnesses occur in this organ; a fourth of all workers suffering from occupational skin disease lose an average of 10 to 12 workdays. The constant evolution of new industrial chemicals and methods of manufacture continue to bring new skin hazards and disease into the workplace. Occupational health physicians and practitioners, who usually have minimal training in dermatology, must diagnose and treat unfamiliar diseases in a setting of even less familiar, often overwhelming, technology. A thorough understanding of cutaneous defense mechanisms, clinical patterns of occupational skin disease and methods for establishing accurate diagnoses is essential.

Mathias, C. G. Toby; Maibach, Howard I.

1982-01-01

158

Occupational lung cancer.  

PubMed

Lung cancer is a multifactorial disease. Hereditary, genetic, and environmental factors interact in its genesis. The principal risk factor for lung cancer is smoking. However, the workplace provides an environment in which there is a risk of exposure to carcinogens. The International Agency for Research on Cancer currently lists 19 substances/work situations/occupations that have been proven to be associated with lung cancer (group 1). Thorough occupational history taking is not widely practiced in patients with lung cancer, which has a negative impact on the investigation of causality and, consequently, on the identification of cases of occupational cancer. The objectives of this review were to list the agents that are recognized as causes of lung cancer, to discuss the contribution of occupation to the development of the disease, to cite national studies on the subject, and to propose a list of procedures that are essential to the appropriate investigation of causality between lung cancer and occupation. PMID:21225183

Algranti, Eduardo; Buschinelli, José Tarcísio Penteado; De Capitani, Eduardo Mello

159

Occupational Infection in Korea  

PubMed Central

Occupational infection is a human disease caused by work-associated exposure to microbial agents through human and environmental contact. According to the literature, occupational infection was the third leading cause of occupational disease (861 cases, 8.0%), and health care, agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers were risk groups in Korea. In addition, most high-risk groups have not been protected by workers' compensation, which could lead to underestimation of the exact spectrum and magnitude of the problem, and may also result in a lack of development and implementation of occupational infection management. Through a review of national guidelines and documentations on prevention and control of occupational infection, a management strategy would promote adherence to worker safety regulations if it is explicit with regard to the agent and mode of infection in each of the high-risk groups.

Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Jeong, Jae Sim

2010-01-01

160

The Fukushima radiation accident: consequences for radiation accident medical management.  

PubMed

The March 2011 radiation accident in Fukushima, Japan, is a textbook example of a radiation accident of global significance. In view of the global dimensions of the accident, it is important to consider the lessons learned. In this context, emphasis must be placed on consequences for planning appropriate medical management for radiation accidents including, for example, estimates of necessary human and material resources. The specific characteristics of the radiation accident in Fukushima are thematically divided into five groups: the exceptional environmental influences on the Fukushima radiation accident, particular circumstances of the accident, differences in risk perception, changed psychosocial factors in the age of the Internet and globalization, and the ignorance of the effects of ionizing radiation both among the general public and health care professionals. Conclusions like the need for reviewing international communication, interfacing, and interface definitions will be drawn from the Fukushima radiation accident. PMID:22951483

Meineke, Viktor; Dörr, Harald

2012-08-01

161

Aircraft accident construction set: performance engineering applied to accident reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

For some time aircraft accident investigation has been a reverse engineering procedure. Failure analysis has taken a strict engineering approach, disregarding many of the alternatives relating to cause. As aircraft become automated, many relating factors will need to be considered in order to build an accurate reconstruction of an accident. The Aircraft Accident Construction Set will provide the investigator with

James W. Blanchard

1992-01-01

162

Burnout in occupational therapists.  

PubMed

Burnout is a job-related condition involving feelings of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach & Jackson, 1981a) is the instrument most widely used to measure job-related stress in human service professions, such as occupational therapy. This study explored the application of the Maslach Burnout Inventory for use with occupational therapists. The subjects were 99 registered occupational therapists residing in the southeastern United States. Mean scores lower than the aggregate occupational norms provided by the test's authors on the Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization subscales supported the need to develop specific norms for occupational therapists. Results of this study indicate that use of the aggregate norms would underestimate the level of experienced burnout. Correlational analyses delineated significant relationships between age and Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization, education and Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization, years of work as an occupational therapist and Depersonalization and Personal Accomplishment, years in the present position and Personal Accomplishment (intensity only), hours of direct patient contact and Emotional Exhaustion (intensity only), and hours of direct patient contact and Depersonalization (frequency only). These correlates of burnout furnish clues for understanding the development of work-related stress in occupational therapists. PMID:3223504

Rogers, J C; Dodson, S C

1988-12-01

163

Physics in Accident Investigations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes physics formulas which can be used by law enforcement officials to determine the possible velocity of vehicles involved in traffic accidents. These include, among others, the slide to stop-level road, slide to stop-sloping roadway, and slide to stop-two different surfaces formulas. (JN)|

Brake, Mary L.

1981-01-01

164

The epistemics of accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human intervention has played a critical role in the causes of many major accidents. At Three Mile Island, the operators isolated a reactor from its heat sink. The pilots of the Boeing 737 at Kegworth managed to shut down their one functioning engine. Staff continued to allow trains to deposit passengers in Kings’ Cross after the fire had started. In

C. W. Johnson

1997-01-01

165

Accident and emergency monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a set of practical quality audit criteria relevant to the examination of nursing care delivered to patients and relatives in hospital Accident and Emergency (A & E) departments. The project was initiated by senior nurse managers at the North Staffordshire Royal Infirmary, UK, conducted in partnership with Leeds Polytechnic (now the Leeds Metropolitan University),

J. Dutton

1995-01-01

166

Stress, violations and accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sources of stress among Western Australian car and truck drivers were investigated using an extended version of the Driver Behaviour Inventory (DBI) developed by Gulian et a\\/(1989). The associations between reported stress and drivers' accident or violation records were also examined. The DBI was mailed to two groups each of 500 truck drivers with 'high' or 'low' traffic violation involvements

L. R. Hartley; J. El Hassani

1994-01-01

167

Accident reconstruction methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

While reconstructing a car accident, there are several questions that must be answered, such as the movement of all the vehicles involved or of other people involved, or of objects from the point of first visual contact to their rest positions. Time history of velocities, positions as well as crash-related data such as velocity changes, deformation energies, or passenger loads

Hermann Steffan

2009-01-01

168

Accident characterization methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is preparing NUREG-1150 to examine the risk from a selected group of nuclear power plants. NUREG-1150 will provide technical bases for comparison of NRC research to industry results and resolution of numerous severe accident issues. In support of NUREG-1150, Sandia National Laboratories has directed the production of Level 3 Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) for the

A. L. Camp; F. T. Harper

1986-01-01

169

1976 Hanford Americium Accident.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the 2.5-year medical course of a 64-year-old Hanford nuclear chemical operator who was involved in an accident in an americium recovery facility in August 1976. He was heavily externally contaminated with americium, sustained a substa...

K. R. Heid B. D. Breitenstein H. E. Palmer B. J. McMurray N. Wald

1979-01-01

170

Profile of an Accident.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Depicts two helicopter crashes which happen on the same day, within the same area, not because of chance or fate, but because of carelessness and hastiness. Procedures are outlined by the accident investigation board as to why the mishaps occured, and why...

1994-01-01

171

Factbook on U.S. Pedestrian Accidents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three sets of accident data files have been analyzed to obtain a greater understanding of the personal, situational, and vehicle-related factors involved in pedestrian accidents. These include all fatal pedestrian accidents contained in the Fatal Accident...

A. C. Wolfe J. O'Day

1981-01-01

172

Occupational health impacts: offshore crane lifts in life cycle assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aim, and Scope  The identification and assessment of environmental tradeoffs is a strongpoint of life cycle assessment (LCA). A tradeoff made\\u000a in many product systems is the exchange of potential for occupational accidents with the additional use of energy and materials.\\u000a Net benefits of safety measures with respect to human health are best illustrated if the consequences avoided and health

Johan Pettersen; Edgar G. Hertwich

2008-01-01

173

Applying STAMP in Accident Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accident models play a critical role in accident investigation and analysis. Most traditional models are based on an underlying chain of events. These models, however, have serious limitations when used for complex, socio-technical systems. Previously, Leveson proposed a new accident model (STAMP) based on system theory where the basic concept is not an event but a constraint. This paper shows

Nancy Leveson; Mirna Daouk; Nicolas Dulac; Karen Marais

2003-01-01

174

Systematic strategies for the third industrial accident prevention plan in Korea.  

PubMed

To minimize industrial accidents, it's critical to evaluate a firm's priorities for prevention factors and strategies since such evaluation provides decisive information for preventing industrial accidents and maintaining safety management. Therefore, this paper proposes the evaluation of priorities through statistical testing of prevention factors with a cause analysis in a cause and effect model. A priority matrix criterion is proposed to apply the ranking and for the objectivity of questionnaire results. This paper used regression method (RA), exponential smoothing method (ESM), double exponential smoothing method (DESM), autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model and proposed analytical function method (PAFM) to analyze trends of accident data that will lead to an accurate prediction. This paper standardized the questionnaire results of workers and managers in manufacturing and construction companies with less than 300 employees, located in the central Korean metropolitan areas where fatal accidents have occurred. Finally, a strategy was provided to construct safety management for the third industrial accident prevention plan and a forecasting method for occupational accident rates and fatality rates for occupational accidents per 10,000 people. PMID:23047079

Kang, Young-sig; Yang, Sung-hwan; Kim, Tae-gu; Kim, Day-sung

2012-10-08

175

Estimation of reduced life expectancy from serious occupational injuries in Taiwan.  

PubMed

This study assesses the loss of life expectancy and potential working life in Taiwan, between 1986 and 2000, from various types of occupational accidents resulting in mortality or permanent disability. The databases on occupational mortality and permanent disability were obtained from the Bureau of Labor Insurance, with this information then being linked to national death registry data to construct the survival function. A Monte Carlo simulation method was subsequently used to extrapolate the survival rate for up to 600 months, to derive the life expectancy for different types of occupational accidents leading to permanent disability (n=81,249). Based upon the life table for each calendar year, the life expectancy lost by age-gender cohort was also estimated for cases of mortality (n=20,001). In those cases resulting in permanent occupational disability, variations in the expected years of life lost (EYLL) were demonstrated by different occupational injuries, ranging from 7.4 to 13.6 years per case. The overall EYLL through permanent occupational disability is found to be almost identical to that of occupational mortality, with a ratio of 1.04:1. We conclude that permanent disability resulting from occupational injuries has a significant impact on society as a whole. PMID:16712760

Ho, Jiune-Jye; Hwang, Jing-Shiang; Wang, Jung-Der

2006-05-18

176

Paternal occupation and anencephaly  

SciTech Connect

It has been suggested that paternal occupational exposures to pesticides and solvents increase the risk of neural tube defects in offspring. With the use of Texas livebirth, fetal death, and linked livebirth-death records, the authors conducted a population-based case-control study among 1981-1986 Texas births to examine the association between paternal occupation and anencephalic births. Fathers employed in occupations associated with solvent exposure were more likely to have offspring with anencephaly (odds ratio (OR) = 2.53), with painters having the highest risk (OR = 3.43). A lesser association was found for fathers employed in occupations involving pesticide exposure (OR = 1.28). Further studies are indicated to clarify these associations.

Brender, J.D.; Suarez, L. (Texas Department of Health, Austin (USA))

1990-03-01

177

Occupational Peripheral Neuropathies  

PubMed Central

Neither clinical nor laboratory evaluation can distinguish occupational neuropathies from neuropathies due to other causes. A worker may suffer either from mechanical injury of individual nerves or from a toxic polyneuropathy that is usually axonal in type. A thorough occupational and environmental history and the recognition of clusters of cases are important in determining the diagnosis. Electrophysiologic studies are helpful in detecting neuropathies in patients who have been occupationally exposed to neurotoxins but have no symptoms. Prevention of occupational neuropathies depends on clinical vigilance, industrial hygiene surveys, biologic monitoring and periodic examination of workers exposed to neurotoxic chemicals. The development of more sophisticated methods of prevention and early detection of peripheral nerve involvement depend on understanding the mechanisms of action of toxins and the pathophysiology of the lesions they cause.

Lotti, Marcello; Becker, Charles E.; Aminoff, Michael J.

1982-01-01

178

Occupational Contact Dermatitis: Hairdressers  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Occupational contact dermatitis occurs in about half of all hairdressers and makes hairdressers susceptible to most skin diseases.\\u000a The clinical manifestations are typically seen as hand eczema. The hand eczema starts often at the time of hairdressing apprenticeship,\\u000a and protective gloves are very important for preventing eczema in this occupation. Persulfates are (almost) always used in\\u000a bleaching procedures in hairdressing

Heidi Søsted

179

Occupant thermal comfort evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout the automotive industry there has been an increasing concern and focus on the thermal comfort of occupants. Manufacturers are continuously striving to improve heating and air conditioning performance to comply with expanding customer needs. To optimize these systems, the technology to acquire data must also be enhanced. In this evaluation, the standard use of isolated thermocouple location technology is compared to utilizing infrared thermal vision in an air conditioning performance assessment. Infrared data on an actual occupant is correlated to breath and air conditioning output temperatures measured by positioned thermocouples. The use of infrared thermal vision highlights various areas of comfort and discomfort experienced by the occupant. The evaluation involves utilizing an infrared thermal vision camera to film an occupant in the vehicle as the following test procedure is run. The vehicle is soaked in full sun load until the interior temperature reaches a minimum of 150 degrees F (65.6 degrees Celsius). The occupant enters the vehicle and takes an initial temperature reading. The air conditioning is turned on to full cold, full fan speed, and recirculation mode. While being filmed, the driver drives for sixty minutes at 30 miles per hour (48.3 kph). The thermocouples acquire data in one minute intervals while the infrared camera films the cooling process of the occupant.

Ghiardi, Gena L.

1999-03-01

180

Tractor accidents in Swedish traffic.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to reach a better understanding of accidents on Swedish roads involving tractors and to suggest ways of preventing them. In an earlier study we analyzed police-reported fatal accidents and accidents that led to physical injuries from 1992 to 2005. During each year of this period, tractors were involved in 128 traffic accidents on average, an average of 7 people were killed, 44 sustained serious injuries, and 143 sustained slight injuries. The number of fatalities in these tractor accidents was about 1.3% of all deaths in traffic accidents in Sweden. Cars were most often involved in the tractor accidents (58%) and 15% were single vehicle accidents. The mean age of the tractor driver involved was 39.8 years and young drivers (15-24 years) were overrepresented (30%). We are now increasing the data collected with the years 2006-2010 in order to study the changes in the number of accidents. Special attention will be given to the younger drivers and to single vehicle accidents. Based on the results we aim to develop suggestions for reducing road accidents, e.g. including measures for making farm vehicles more visible and improvement of the training provided at driving schools. PMID:22317543

Pinzke, Stefan; Nilsson, Kerstin; Lundqvist, Peter

2012-01-01

181

Fatality Reduction by Air Bags. Analyses of Accident Data through Early 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fatality risk of front-seat occupants of passenger cars and light trucks equipped with air bags is compared to the corresponding risk in similar vehicles without air bag, based on statistical analyses of Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) data fro...

C. J. Kahane

1996-01-01

182

Investigating Accidents in the Workplace. A Manual for Compliance Safety and Health Officers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was developed for Compliance Safety and Health Officers (CSHO) of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to help them carry out their responsibilities when investigating workplace accidents. The content is presented in four sections. The first overviews the investigative roles of CSHO officers, including…

Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Washington, DC.

183

Accident prevention and Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 with particular reference to anhydrous hydrogen fluoride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sections of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 that refer to accident prevention are to be found in Title III. Two significant requirements of the CAAA in this respect relate to the responsibilities of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), which has promulgated a new Process Safety Management (PSM) standard and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),

Geoffrey D. Kaiser

1993-01-01

184

COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF REAL WORLD CRASHES: A BASIS FOR ACCIDENT RECONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on an accident reconstruction methodology by estimating the errors introduced into reconstruction analysis as a result of assumptions made due to lack of data availability and other uncertainties. Mathematical models are used to show the sensitivity of their results, i.e., occupant kinematics, injury predictions, etc., to changes in these assumptions. For demonstration purposes, a real world crash

Vikas Hasija; Erik G. Takhounts; Stephen A. Ridella

185

Biological effects of radiation accidents on humans. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the impact of radiation accidents on humans. Citations discuss exposure assessment, malfunction and misuse of radiation sources, dosimetry, radiation epidemiology, radiation-induced neoplasms, and nuclear facility licensing. Environmental and occupational exposures, case studies, nuclear fallout, and radiation effects on food chains are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-06-01

186

Accident prevention manual  

SciTech Connect

Among our many common needs and goals are the safety and well-being of our families, ourselves, our fellow employees, and the continuing success of our organization. To these ends--minimizing human suffering and economic waste--the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Accident Prevention Program and this Accident Prevention Manual (APM) are dedicated. The BPA Accident Prevention Program is revised as necessary to ensure compliance with relevant Federal safety and health standards. The mandatory rules herein express minimum requirements for dealing with the principal hazards inherent in daily work activities. These and other written requirements, which neither can nor should provide complete coverage of all work situations, must be continually reinforced through the sound and mature safety judgments of all workers on each assigned task. The APM is divided into two distinct sections: (1) Rules, and (2) Switching and Clearance Procedure (Operating Bulletin No. 2). For added awareness, the life-or-death Safety Rules are captioned in red; both in the index and throughout the text.

Not Available

1996-06-01

187

Accident rates and types among self-employed private forest owners.  

PubMed

Half of all Swedish forests are owned by private individuals, and at least 215,000 people work in these privately owned forest holdings. However, only lethal accidents are systematically monitored among self-employed forest workers. Therefore, data from the registries of the Swedish Work Environment Authority, the Labor Insurance Organization and the regional University Hospital in Umeå were gathered to allow us to perform a more in-depth assessment of the rate and types of accidents that occurred among private forest owners. We found large differences between the registries in the type and number of accidents that were reported. We encountered difficulties in defining "self-employed forest worker" and also in determining whether the accidents that did occur happened during work or leisure time. Consequently, the estimates for the accident rate that we obtained varied from 32 to > or = 4300 injured persons per year in Sweden, depending on the registry that was consulted, the definition of the sample population that was used, and the accident severity definition that was employed. Nevertheless, the different registries gave a consistent picture of the types of accidents that occur while individuals are participating in self-employed forestry work. Severe accidents were relatively common, as self-employed forestry work fatalities constituted 7% of the total number of fatalities in the work authority registry. Falling trees were associated with many of these fatal accidents as well as with accidents that resulted in severe non-fatal injuries. Thus, unsafe work methods appeared more related to the occurrence of an accident than the equipment that was being used at the time of the accident (e.g., a chainsaw). Improvement of the workers' skills should therefore be considered to be an important prevention measure that should be undertaken in this field. The challenges in improving the safety in these smallest of companies, which fall somewhere between the purview of occupational and consumer safety, are exemplified and discussed. PMID:20728623

Lindroos, Ola; Burström, Lage

2010-06-01

188

[Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].  

PubMed

It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power. PMID:22514916

Takada, Jun

2012-03-01

189

Occupational asthma in Korea.  

PubMed

Occupational asthma (OA) is the leading occupational respiratory disease. Cases compensated as OA by the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service (COMWEL) (218 cases), cases reported by a surveillance system (286 cases), case reports by related scientific journals and cases confirmed by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute (OSHRI) over 15 yr from 1992 to 2006 were analyzed. Annual mean incidence rate was 1.6 by compensation and 3.5 by surveillance system, respectively. The trend appeared to increase according to the surveillance system. Incidence was very low compared with other countries. The most frequently reported causative agent was isocyanate followed by reactive dye in dyeing factories. Other chemicals, metals and dust were also found as causative agents. OA was underreported according to compensation and surveillance system data. In conclusion, a more effective surveillance system is needed to evaluate OA causes and distribution, and to effectively prevent newly developing OA. PMID:21258586

Oh, Sung Soo; Kim, Kyoo Sang

2010-12-15

190

Occupation and gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupations-for example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration. PMID:12782770

Raj, A; Mayberry, J F; Podas, T

2003-05-01

191

Occupational lung cancer  

SciTech Connect

The overall importance of occupational agents as a cause of lung cancer has been a controversial subject since the 1970s. A federal report, released in the late 1970s, projected a surprisingly high burden of occupational lung cancer; for asbestos and four other agents, from 61,000 to 98,000 cases annually were attributed to these agents alone. Many estimates followed, some much more conservative. For example, Doll and Peto estimated that 15% of lung cancer in men and 5% in women could be attributed to occupational exposures. A number of population-based case-control studies also provide relevant estimates. In a recent literature review, Vineis and Simonato cited attributable risk estimates for occupation and lung cancer that ranged from 4% to 40%; for asbestos alone, the estimates ranged from 1% to 5%. These estimates would be expected to vary across locations and over time. Nevertheless, these recent estimates indicate that occupation remains an important cause of lung cancer. Approaches to Prevention. Prevention of lung cancer mortality among workers exposed to agents or industrial processes that cause lung cancer may involve several strategies, including eliminating or reducing exposures, smoking cessation, screening, and chemo-prevention. For example, changes in industrial processes that have eliminated or reduced exposures to chloromethyl ethers and nickel compounds have provided evidence of reduced risk of lung cancer following these changes. Although occupational exposures are important causes of lung cancer, cigarette smoking is the most important preventable cause of lung cancer. For adults, the work site offers an important location to target smoking cessation efforts. In fact, the work site may be the only place to reach many smokers.

Coultas, D.B.; Samet, J.M. (Department of Medicine, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque (United States))

1992-06-01

192

Occupational Exposure to HIV Among Health Care Providers: A Qualitative Study in Yunnan, China  

PubMed Central

With the HIV/AIDS epidemic spreading, health care providers (HCPs) in China are facing a growing risk of occupational exposure to and infection with HIV. There is a need to describe occupational exposure cases and compliance with postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) guidelines among HCPs. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 33 HCPs in Yunnan Province, China. Information about occupational exposures the HCPs and their co-workers experienced was collected and analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Most occupational exposure accidents happened during emergencies, when HCPs did not have time to consider self-protection. Exposure to HIV caused exposed HCPs severe adverse psychological pressure, such as stress and anxiety. Compliance with PEP guidelines among participants was poor; barriers to better compliance were identified. This study underscored the importance of institutional support in promoting compliance with PEP guidelines among exposed providers. Further training and emphasis on universal precautions and PEP guidelines may reduce the risk of occupational infections.

Lin, Chunqing; Li, Li; Wu, Zunyou; Wu, Sheng; Jia, Manhong

2009-01-01

193

Reported occupational injuries at Swedish recycling centres – based on official statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swedish recycling centres are manned facilities for waste collection. There is no special category in the official injury statistics for employees at recycling centres, which precludes a straightforward analysis of reported occupational injuries. This study aimed at identifying the frequency of reported accidents and diseases and the type of events that contribute to such injuries at recycling centres, based on

I.-L. Engkvist; R. Svensson; J. Eklund

2011-01-01

194

Occupational and environmental health problems of the developing oil shale industry: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American oil shale industry is on the threshold of commercial industrial development. Potential occupational hazards include shalosis or oil shale pneumoconiosis, dermatoses, cancer of the skin, lung, and possibly other sites, and accidents. Air, water, and solid waste pollution problems are complicated by the aridity of the Green River oil shale formation located in Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming. The

William N. Rom; Jeffrey S. Lee; Bobby F. Craft

1981-01-01

195

Cardiac injuries in car occupants in fatal motor vehicle collisions – An autopsy-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor vehicle accidents contribute widely to population morbidity and mortality around the world, and cardiac injuries are a major factor determining outcome. Autopsy reports from 380 motor vehicle occupants who died in motor vehicle crashes in Adelaide, Australia, and Hamburg, Germany, over a 6-year period were reviewed, analysing the presence and type of cardiac injuries and their correlation with factors

Elisabeth E. Turk; Yee-Wah Tsang; Anisha Champaneri; Klaus Pueschel; Roger W. Byard

2010-01-01

196

[Occupational allergies to bromelain].  

PubMed

The protease bromelain originating from the pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus) finds frequent use in industry. Exposure to enzyme dusts has long been known to cause occupational allergies. The present paper reviews the results of the evaluation of literature data concerning occupational airway sensitization due to bromelain. Cases of specific airway sensitization caused by bromelain could be shown clearly by the presented studies. Since the symptoms, results of skin prick tests, detection of specific IgE antibodies and results of specific bronchoprovocation tests are consistent, an immunological mechanism can be assumed. PMID:17342576

van Kampen, V; Merget, R; Brüning, T

2007-03-01

197

The randomness of accident counts.  

PubMed

Road accident occurrence is generally assumed to be governed by a random process. Experience analysing accident count series indicates a need for testing the randomness of such a series, and a simple statistical test is described. The test is a modified one-sample runs test, which can be used to assist the identification of three distinct patterns constituting non-randomness (namely, a trend, a discontinuity and over-correction). The test is designed for the preliminary analysis of accident count data, and its use is demonstrated, using both artificial and actual accident count series. PMID:3730092

Nicholson, A J

1986-06-01

198

Bicycle Accidents to School Aged Children.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Boys are involved in more motor vehicle accidents than are girls. Nighttime accidents account for relatively few accidents. However, severity of accident is increased at dark. A different type of accident occurs when the bicycle is used as a toy or as a m...

F. J. Vilardo J. H. Anderson

1969-01-01

199

Occupational Orientation: Industrial Oriented Occupations. Experimental Curriculum Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These experimental curriculum materials, for one of five clusters developed for the occupational orientation program in Illinois, contain teacher references and a series of learning activity packages (LAPs) designed to acquaint the student with the wide range of occupational choices available in the industrial oriented occupations field. The 30…

Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.

200

Accident characterization methodology  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is preparing NUREG-1150 to examine the risk from a selected group of nuclear power plants. NUREG-1150 will provide technical bases for comparison of NRC research to industry results and resolution of numerous severe accident issues. In support of NUREG-1150, Sandia National Laboratories has directed the production of Level 3 Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) for the Surry, Sequoyah, Peach Bottom, and Grand Gulf nuclear power plants. The Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) at Sandia has been responsible for the Level 1 portion of the analyses, which includes estimation of core damage frequency and characterization of the dominant sequences. The ASEP analyses are being documented in NUREG/CR-4550. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe and evaluate the methodology utilized in these analyses. The methodology will soon be published in more detail as Reference 5. The results produced for NUREG/CR-4550 using this methodology are summarized in another paper to be presented at this conference.

Camp, A.L.; Harper, F.T.

1986-01-01

201

On the recurrence of occupational injuries and workers' compensation claims.  

PubMed

This paper represents the first study to estimate counts of individual occupational injuries and claims over long spells of working life (up to 13 years) in the USA. It explores data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. I found that 37% of all surveyed workers who had experienced one on-the-job accident reported at least one additional injury, but only 56% of all occupational injuries and illnesses resulted in workers' compensation claims. I estimated different count models to assess the effect of different individual worker and job characteristics on individual injury counts and workers' compensation claims counts. Lower educational levels, less tenure, work in dangerous industries and unskilled occupations, and job demands are found to be important determinants of multiple on-the-job injuries. The most interesting results, however, refer to the role played by individuals' pre-injury characteristics: early exposure to dangerous jobs is among the main determinants of higher counts of occupational injuries later in life. Early health limitations are also significant predictors of recurrent workers' compensation claims. These results provide new evidence about the important role played by both the health and the socioeconomic status of young people as determinants of their future occupational injuries. PMID:22539203

Galizzi, Monica

2012-04-27

202

Identifying Occupationally Specific Affective Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from two groups of cosmetology instructors (n=15) and two groups of machinist instructors (n=17) validated the Occupational Affective Behavior Analysis instrument as capable of identifying affective behaviors viewed as important to success in a given occupation. (SK)

Pucel, David J.

1993-01-01

203

Occupational Roles in Children's Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares children's literature of the 1930s and that of recent times in terms of occupational roles and sex typing. Little change was found in number or type of women's occupations despite the recent political, social and economic changes. (MS)

Hillman, Judith Stevinson

1976-01-01

204

Occupational health and radiation hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors discuss occupational health hazards for personnel due to laser, infrared, ultraviolet, and microwave radiations. Dose-response relationships and medical surveillance of occupational diseases are also discussed.

Michaelson

1979-01-01

205

Occupational Cancer Surveillance: New Approaches.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Occupational Cancer Incidence Surveillance Study, a case/referent study on occupational risk factors for cancer, was conducted in the tricountry Detroit metropolitan area in Michigan. Subjects include black and white men and women. Telephone interview...

G. M. Swanson

1995-01-01

206

Occupant Behavior in Building Fires.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The increasing prominence of high rise buildings having many occupants intensifies the need for better information about the behavior of occupants during fire emergencies. Fire researchers have indicated that it is often not feasible to evacuate buildings...

A. I. Rubin A. Cohen

1974-01-01

207

Technical and Occupational Shops.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet presents suggested plans and specifications for and discusses facilities common to technical and occupational shops. Drawings, room plans, and text illustrate specifications for drafting rooms, a welding shop, an automechanics shop, an auto body shop, and a high school greenhouse. Also included are facility designs for agricultural…

Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto. School Planning and Building Research Section.

208

Occupational Hazards of Farriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A farrier is a specialist in the shoeing of horses. It has been estimated that in the United States over 8 million horses are ridden for show and pleasure. These horses need hoof and leg care. The farrier does give this care and in so doing is subject to occupational hazards. These hazards cover a wide range and include bites

ALBERT C. HOLLER

1984-01-01

209

Diversified Occupations I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide consists of materials for use in presenting the first year of a two-year course in diversified occupations that is designed to teach job search and job-holding skills to disadvantaged and English as a second language (ESL) students. Addressed in the 25 units included in the guide are the following topics: the purposes of…

Noto, Jody

210

Occupational Therapy and Neuropsychiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that increasing evidence of neurophysiological etiologies for mental illness must be taken into account in rationalizing the effectiveness of occupational therapy for psychiatric disorders. The role of activity in metabolizing stress hormones is describes as a possible mechanism of therapeutic effectiveness. The sensory integrative effects of certain activities are also postulated to contribute to improvement in selected

Lorna Jean King

1983-01-01

211

Cluster Guide. Accounting Occupations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on a recent task inventory of key occupations in the accounting cluster taken in the Portland, Oregon, area, this curriculum guide is intended to assist administrators and teachers in the design and implementation of high school accounting cluster programs. The guide is divided into four major sections: program organization and…

Beaverton School District 48, OR.

212

Occupational fatalities in Israel.  

PubMed

Occupational fatal injuries are a worldwide problem. Certain occupations pose a greater risk than others. The purpose of this study was to estimate the death rates from occupational injuries in Israel over a period of 30 months, and to examine the trends in the light of the large numbers of foreign workers who have been brought into the country in the last decade. Two-thirds of the occupational fatalities were in the construction business, mostly owing to falls from a height resulting in death from multiple trauma. About one-third of these victims were foreign workers, even though they comprise only 20% of the work force in this field. Negligible amounts of alcohol were detected in a number of cases. The construction industry is recognized worlwide as a high-risk area claiming many lives each year. The findings in this study suggest that too little attention is given to safety regulations in general, and particularly concerning foreign workers in Israel. PMID:15335480

Yanai, O; Goldin, L; Kugel, C; Hiss, J

1999-09-01

213

Cluster Guide. Accounting Occupations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a recent task inventory of key occupations in the accounting cluster taken in the Portland, Oregon, area, this curriculum guide is intended to assist administrators and teachers in the design and implementation of high school accounting cluster programs. The guide is divided into four major sections: program organization and…

Beaverton School District 48, OR.

214

Managing occupational therapy burnout.  

PubMed

Burnout has been conceptualized as an ineffective coping response to stress experienced on the job. This article will explore the construct of burnout as reported in the literature of the helping professions. An emphasis will be placed on prevention and remediation strategies, particularly those aimed at organizational causes of burnout for occupational therapists. PMID:23944860

Brollier, C; Cyranowski, J; Bender, D; Velletri, C

1986-01-01

215

Occupational lead exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative measures of saccadic eye movements were examined in 52 lead exposed autobody shop workers and 52 age matched controls with no history of occupational lead exposure. Three characteristics of saccadic eye movements were studied: 1) saccade accuracy; 2) number of overshoots; and 3) maximum velocity. The results indicated that workers exposed to inorganic lead showed a decrease in saccade

Linda Glickman; José A. Valciukas; Ruth Lilis; Irving Weisman

1984-01-01

216

Occupational Orientation in Virginia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the development, implementation, and field testing of Virginia's three-year Clusters Approach to Career Orientation (CACO) Project designed to generate an activity-based, across-the-board curriculum for pre-exploratory students relating to appropriateness in occupational choice. (TA)|

Ressler, Ralph

1978-01-01

217

Miscellaneous Occupational Lung Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case is presented of a rare occupational lung disease for which the workplace etiology may have been overlooked. The authors review 4 such diseases, which are important to recognize not only because cessation of exposure can lead to clinical improvement, but also because other cases of these conditions may be identified in the workplace.

M. Sarper Erdogan; Christopher J. Martin

2008-01-01

218

Predicting occupational lung diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis aims at demonstrating the development, validation, and application of prediction models for occupational lung diseases. Prediction models are developed to estimate an individual’s probability of the presence or future likelihood of occurrence of an outcome (i.e. disease of interest or its related condition). These models are used to assist clinical decision making for individuals, or to stratify individuals

E. Suarthana

2008-01-01

219

Occupational Clothing Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed to provide individualized, hands-on experience for secondary or postsecondary students in gainful homemaking programs, this occupational clothing curriculum contains eight learning modules. The following topics are covered in the modules: plant production for the needle trades (needle trade structure and operation, terminology, history,…

Fraser, Annette J.

220

Occupational skin disease.  

PubMed

Contact dermatitis, the most common occupational skin disease, is characterized by clearly demarcated areas of rash at sites of exposure. The rash improves on removal of the offending agent. In allergic contact dermatitis, even minute exposures to antigenic substances can lead to a skin rash. Common sensitizing agents include nickel and members of the Rhus genus (e.g., poison ivy, poison oak). Severe skin irritants tend to cause immediate red blisters or burns, whereas weaker irritants produce eczematous skin changes over time. An occupational cause should be suspected when rash occurs in areas that are in contact with oil, grease, or other substances. Direct skin testing (patch or scratch) or radioallergosorbent testing may help to identify a specific trigger. Skin cancer can have an occupational link in workers with prolonged exposure to sunlight and certain chemicals, although it can take decades for lesions to develop. In workers with occupational skin disease, workplace changes and protective measures are important to prevent future exposure. PMID:12358214

Peate, W E

2002-09-15

221

Evaluating Occupational Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Stresses the importance of evaluating occupational programs on a regular basis. Offers a brief explanation of the approaches to program evaluation taken at the Dallas County Community College District (TX), South Puget Sound Community College (WA), and Triton College (IL). Offers a list of references on program evaluation. (CBC)|

Long, James P.

1987-01-01

222

Occupational cancer in Britain  

PubMed Central

To estimate the current occupational cancer burden due to past exposures in Britain, estimates of the number of exposed workers at different levels are required, as well as risk estimates of cancer due to the exposures. This paper describes the methods and results for estimating the historical exposures. All occupational carcinogens or exposure circumstances classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as definite or probable human carcinogens and potentially to be found in British workplaces over the past 20–40 years were included in this study. Estimates of the number of people exposed by industrial sector were based predominantly on two sources of data, the CARcinogen EXposure (CAREX) database and the UK Labour Force Survey. Where possible, multiple and overlapping exposures were taken into account. Dose–response risk estimates were generally not available in the epidemiological literature for the cancer–exposure pairs in this study, and none of the sources available for obtaining the numbers exposed provided data by different levels of exposure. Industrial sectors were therefore assigned using expert judgement to ‘higher'- and ‘lower'-exposure groups based on the similarity of exposure to the population in the key epidemiological studies from which risk estimates had been selected. Estimates of historical exposure prevalence were obtained for 41 carcinogens or occupational circumstances. These include exposures to chemicals and metals, combustion products, other mixtures or groups of chemicals, mineral and biological dusts, physical agents and work patterns, as well as occupations and industries that have been associated with increased risk of cancer, but for which the causative agents are unknown. There were more than half a million workers exposed to each of six carcinogens (radon, solar radiation, crystalline silica, mineral oils, non-arsenical insecticides and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin); other agents to which a large number of workers are exposed included benzene, diesel engine exhaust and environmental tobacco smoke. The study has highlighted several industrial sectors with large proportions of workers potentially exposed to multiple carcinogens. The relevant available data have been used to generate estimates of the prevalence of past exposure to occupational carcinogens to enable the occupational cancer burden in Britain to be estimated. These data are considered adequate for the present purpose, but new data on the prevalence and intensity of current occupational exposure to carcinogens should be collected to ensure that future policy decisions be based on reliable evidence.

Van Tongeren, Martie; Jimenez, Araceli S; Hutchings, Sally J; MacCalman, Laura; Rushton, Lesley; Cherrie, John W

2012-01-01

223

Occupational Stresses and Job Satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a test of the hypothesis that some occupational stresses are desirable and some are not, the relationship between 14 sources of occupational stress and 12 aspects of job satisfaction was studied in 228 males, employed full-time and members of one of three professional associations: professional engineers, industrial accountants, or chartered accountants. The occupational stress index was significantly related to

Ronald J. Burke

1976-01-01

224

Masonry. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) for masonry occupations contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

225

Occupational hazards in plastic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of occupational disorders among plastic surgeons has not had much attention in the literature thus far. A case of a plastic surgeon with distal interphalangeal arthrosis, considered to represent an occupational disorder, is presented. In a review of the literature, possible occupational hazards in plastic surgery are discussed.

J. J. Hage; H. M. Suliman; J. Verhagen; F. G. Bouman

1995-01-01

226

Chornobyl Accident, Radiation, and Health Concerns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Chornobyl Accident Facts; (The 1986 Accident, Causes of the Accidental, The Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant Today); Medical and Health Effects of the Accident (Prompt or Early Health Effects, Thyroid Cancer, Leukemia, Teratogenesis - Radiation and...

G. J. Vargo

2000-01-01

227

Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recriticality in a BWR during reflooding of an overheated partly degraded core, i.e. with relocated control rods, has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management strategies, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: (1) the energy deposition in the

W. Frid; F. Höjerup; I. Lindholm; J. Miettinen; L. Nilsson; E. K. Puska; H. Sjövall

2001-01-01

228

First Responders and Criticality Accidents  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

2005-11-01

229

Environmental and occupational exposures in immigrant health.  

PubMed

Immigrants comprise vulnerable populations that are frequently exposed to a multitude of environmental and occupational hazards. The historical context behind state and federal legislation has helped to foster an environment that is particularly hostile toward caring for immigrant health. Current hazards include toxic exposures, air and noise pollution, motor vehicle accidents, crowded living and work environments with inadequate ventilation, poor sanitation, mechanical injury, among many others. Immigrants lack the appropriate training, materials, health care access, and other resources to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental and occupational health risks. This dilemma is exacerbated by current anti-immigrant sentiments, miscommunication between native and immigrant populations, and legislation denying immigrants access to publicly funded medical care. Given that current health policy has failed to address immigrant health appropriately and political impetus is lacking, efforts should also focus on alternative solutions, including organized labor. Labor unions that serve to educate workers, survey work environments, and defend worker rights will greatly alleviate and prevent the burden of disease incurred by immigrants. The nation's health will benefit from improved regulation of living and workplace environments to improve the health of immigrants, regardless of legal status. PMID:21572847

Eamranond, Pracha P; Hu, Howard

2008-09-23

230

Environmental and Occupational Exposures in Immigrant Health  

PubMed Central

Immigrants comprise vulnerable populations that are frequently exposed to a multitude of environmental and occupational hazards. The historical context behind state and federal legislation has helped to foster an environment that is particularly hostile toward caring for immigrant health. Current hazards include toxic exposures, air and noise pollution, motor vehicle accidents, crowded living and work environments with inadequate ventilation, poor sanitation, mechanical injury, among many others. Immigrants lack the appropriate training, materials, health care access, and other resources to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental and occupational health risks. This dilemma is exacerbated by current anti-immigrant sentiments, miscommunication between native and immigrant populations, and legislation denying immigrants access to publicly funded medical care. Given that current health policy has failed to address immigrant health appropriately and political impetus is lacking, efforts should also focus on alternative solutions, including organized labor. Labor unions that serve to educate workers, survey work environments, and defend worker rights will greatly alleviate and prevent the burden of disease incurred by immigrants. The nation’s health will benefit from improved regulation of living and workplace environments to improve the health of immigrants, regardless of legal status.

Eamranond, Pracha P.; Hu, Howard

2008-01-01

231

[Trends in traffic accidents in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil: the increasing involvement of motorcyclists].  

PubMed

In order to describe trends in traffic accidents, mortality, vehicle types, fleet sizes, and victims' characteristics in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, from 1995 to 2008, this study analyzed vehicle rates, traffic accident rates per inhabitant and per vehicle, case-fatality rates, proportional mortality, mortality rates, and rates ratios. The motorcycle fleet increased 241%. Although the case-fatality rate of motorcycle users from 2000 to 2008 decreased, in 2008 they accounted for 49.3% of fatal accidents on public byways in Campinas. Motorcycles were responsible for the highest run-over rate (66.7 pedestrians/1,000 accidents) and highest pedestrian fatality rate (4 deaths/1,000 accidents). Men showed much higher mortality rates than women. Pedestrian victims were mainly elderly; most vehicle occupants in traffic accidents were in the 15 to 29-year age bracket. From 2006 to 2008, nearly 80% of vehicle users 15 to 39 years of age were motorcyclists. Motorcycle accident prevention should be a priority, using multi-institutional measures. PMID:22267064

Marín-León, Leticia; Belon, Ana Paula; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; Almeida, Solange Duarte de Mattos; Restitutti, Maria Cristina

2012-01-01

232

Impact of the accident at the Three Mile Island on the behavior and well-being of nuclear workers. Part II. Job tension, psychophysiological symptoms, and indices of distress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three Mile Island (TMI) workers experienced much greater job tension and lower occupational self-esteem (supervisors only) in comparison with workers interviewed at the Peach Bottom Plant. At the time of the accident, TMI workers reported experiencing more periods of anger, extreme worrry and extreme upset, and more psychophysiological symptoms. Six months after the accident, some persistence of these feelings and

S. V. Kasl; R. F. Chisholm; B. Eskenazi

1981-01-01

233

The Good Occupation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why did U.S. leaders ever think they could transform Iraq? Why did anyone think he or she could occupy a hostile foreign country successfully?\\u000aWhy indeed? Perhaps the reason lies in a mythical past. Perhaps, in other words, the reason for the optimism lies in a tale about an occupation that successfully transformed a backward autocracy into an economically thriving

J. Mark Ramseyer; Yoshiro Miwa

2007-01-01

234

Prevention of Occupational Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevention of occupational asthma related to a work-sensitizing agent ideally would be achieved by avoidance of exposures\\u000a that cause immunologic sensitization and subsequent asthma. There are a few examples in which a sensitizing agent has been\\u000a removed from a work process and others in which exposure has been significantly changed or reduced with associated reduced\\u000a rates of sensitization and disease.

Susan M. Tarlo; Gary M. Liss

2010-01-01

235

Occupancy and Motion Detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a September 11 has changed the way people think about airport, aviation, and security in general. The threat is expanding interest\\u000a in more reliable systems to detect presence of people within the protected perimeters. The occupancy sensors detect the presence\\u000a of people (and sometimes animals) in a monitored area. Motion detectors respond only to moving objects. A distinction between\\u000a the two

Jacob Fraden

236

Prevention of occupational allergies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper two occupational risk groups are described as examples of prevention of work-related allergy: operating-room nurses of the Erasmus Medical Center and greenhouse workers in the western part of The Netherlands (the 'Westland' region). Natural Rubber Latex (NRL) allergy is an important health-care problem in the western world. Due to increasing use of rubber gloves, more workers in

H. de Groot; G. C. M. Groenewoud; A. M. H. Bijl; N. W. de Jong; A. Burdorf; A. W. van Toorenenbergen; T. Blacquiere; C. C. Smeekens; R. Gerth van Wijk

237

Occupational injury among immigrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth in immigrant populations demands an understandign of determinants of their health, including occupational health.\\u000a The study reported here involved a survey of a non-probability non-clinical sample of immigrants. The results indicate that\\u000a length of stay, a proxy for acculturation, had no relationship to injury, but working in a language other than English and\\u000a professing Buddhism did; thus, lack

Wilfreda Thurston; Marja Verhoef

2003-01-01

238

Occupational cancer in Germany.  

PubMed Central

As in probably mostly all other European countries, the incidence of occupational cancer in Germany increased steadily after World War II. In 1994 about 1,600 cases of occupational cancer were compensated--more than ever before. More than half of these cases were lung cancer, most caused either by asbestos (n=545) or by ionizing radiation ((italic)n(/italic)=306). Other frequent target organs of asbestos were the pleura and the peritoneum with 495 cases of mesotheliomas. Asbestos was the single most important risk factor for occupational cancer, causing more than 1000 deaths per year. All other malignant diseases, such as bladder cancer, leukemia, angiosarcoma of the liver, adenocarcinoma of the nose or nasal sinuses, and skin cancer, were comparatively rare. Although primary exposure to ionizing radiation in uranium ore mining occurred in the 1950s and attributable lung cancers seem to be on the decline, this is not true for asbestos, where the peak incidence in lung cancer and mesothelioma has not been reached yet. Images Figure 2

Bruske-Hohlfeld, I

1999-01-01

239

Human occupancy detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the area of security and surveillance technologies, the problem of the arrival in Canada of illegal and undesirable ship and truck cargo loads is steadily increasing. As the volumes of cargo arrivals increase so do the Immigration and Customs problems related to the determination of the validity of those cargo contents. Of special concern to Immigration Control Authorities around the world is the emerging and increasing trend of illegal smuggling of human beings hidden inside of shipping containers. Beginning in 1992, Immigration Control Authorities in Canada observed an escalation of alien people smuggling through the use of cargo shipping containers arriving in the Port of Montreal. This paper will present to the audience the recently completed Immigration Canada Human Occupancy Detection project by explaining the design, development and testing of human occupancy detectors. The devices are designed to electronically detect the presence of persons hiding inside of shipping containers, without the requirement of opening the container doors. The human occupancy detection concepts are based upon the presence of carbon dioxide or other human waste characteristics commonly found inside of shipping containers.

Brown, David A.

1994-10-01

240

Chemical accident prevention under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 enacted recently contain provisions for the prevention of chemical accidents under Title III-Hazardous Air Pollutants. Some of these provisions include: a general duty clause, preparation of a list of substances and thresholds, requirements for the preparation of risk management plans by industry, specific accident prevention regulations, establishment of a Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board, and requirements for the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to promulgate a process safety management standard. These provisions, approaches with respect to process safety management by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and coordination with OSHA are discussed.

Matthiessen, R.C. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-04-01

241

Underreporting of maritime accidents to vessel accident databases.  

PubMed

Underreporting of maritime accidents is a problem not only for authorities trying to improve maritime safety through legislation, but also to risk management companies and other entities using maritime casualty statistics in risk and accident analysis. This study collected and compared casualty data from 01.01.2005 to 31.12.2009, from IHS Fairplay and the maritime authorities from a set of nations. The data was compared to find common records, and estimation of the true number of occurred accidents was performed using conditional probability given positive dependency between data sources, several variations of the capture-recapture method, calculation of best case scenario assuming perfect reporting, and scaling up a subset of casualty information from a marine insurance statistics database. The estimated upper limit reporting performance for the selected flag states ranged from 14% to 74%, while the corresponding estimated coverage of IHS Fairplay ranges from 4% to 62%. On average the study results document that the number of unreported accidents makes up roughly 50% of all occurred accidents. Even in a best case scenario, only a few flag states come close to perfect reporting (94%). The considerable scope of underreporting uncovered in the study, indicates that users of statistical vessel accident data should assume a certain degree of underreporting, and adjust their analyses accordingly. Whether to use correction factors, a safety margin, or rely on expert judgment, should be decided on a case by case basis. PMID:21819835

Hassel, Martin; Asbjørnslett, Bjørn Egil; Hole, Lars Petter

2011-06-12

242

Occupational health psychology: historical roots and future directions.  

PubMed

Occupational health psychology (OHP) is a term first coined by Jonathan Raymond in 1990, yet OHP has historical, international roots dating at least to the early decades of the twentieth century. It involves research and practice to create healthy workplaces. This article has 4 sections. The 1st section discusses psychology's long history of concern for occupational health in industrial organizations, beginning with Hugo Münsterberg's study of industrial accidents and human safety in the late 1800s. The 2nd section focuses on OHP's movement from the convergence of public health and preventive medicine with health and clinical psychology in an industrial/organizational context. The 3rd section addresses the central issues of organizational and individual health through the framework of preventive management. The article concludes with OHP case examples drawn from the Chaparral Steel Company, the U.S. Air Force, and Johnson & Johnson. PMID:9925049

Quick, J C

1999-01-01

243

Distribution and Optical Purity of Methamphetamine Found in Toxic Concentration in a Civil Aviation Accident Pilot Fatality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicological evaluation of postmortem samples collected from a pilot involved in a unique fatal civil aircraft accident is described in this paper. A one-occupant airplane was substantially damaged upon colliding with terrain in poor visibility. Remains of the pilot were found outside the aircraft. Pathological examination revealed multiple blunt force injuries and vascular congestion. The fluorescence polarization immunoassay disclosed 8.0

Arvind K. Chaturvedi; Patrick S. Cardona; John W. Soper; Dennis V. Canfield

2004-01-01

244

Train-pedestrian accidents.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the injury pattern, morbidity, and mortality in pedestrians involved in train accidents. The study was performed in the Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Turkey. Hospital records of 41 cases who were hit by train between the period of 1985-97 were evaluated. Age, gender, mechanism of injury (falling from train, hit by train), suicide attempts, pre-existing illnesses, RTS (Revised Trauma Score) and mortality were evaluated. Sixty-eight per cent (n = 28) of the victims were male. The mean age was 32 (9-72) years. Fifty-nine per cent of the victims had fallen from the train. The rate of suicide attempt was 22% (n = 9). The mean RTS was 10+/-3.6. Survivors had better RTS (11+/-2) than nonsurvivors (3.5+/-2.5) (p < 0.0001, 95% CI = 6.0-9.5). Extremity fractures and lower extremity amputations were frequently encountered. The mortality rate was 17%. The mortality rate was high in victims who were hit by the train (p = 0.00013). Suicide attempts carry a high mortality rate (p = 0.0001). Six mortalities were seen in nine documented suicide attempts. It is concluded that train-pedestrian injuries represent a different type of trauma. The mortality rate in suicide attempts is high. RTS lower than 11 and being hit by train are associated with high mortality. PMID:11132074

Agalar, F; Cakmakci, M; Kunt, M M

2000-06-01

245

Plutonium Accident Resistant Container Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The PARC (plutonium accident resistant container) project resulted in the design, development, and certification testing of a crashworthy air-transportable plutonium package (shipping container) for certification by the USNRC. This PAT-1 (plutonium air tr...

J. A. Andersen

1978-01-01

246

Multidisciplinary Accident Investigation. Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the methodology, results, discussions, conclusions and recommendations pertaining to the investigation of 50 fatal and non-fatal vehicular accidents occurring in the Greater Baltimore metropolitan area from June 28, 1974 to June 30, 1...

R. S. Fisher

1976-01-01

247

Standby after the Chernobyl Accident.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is an investigation concerning standby and actions by SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) and SSI (National Institute of Radiation Protection) due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. It consists of a final report and two appendices. The fin...

1987-01-01

248

CANDU safety under severe accidents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The characteristics of the CANDU reactor relevant to severe accidents are set first by the inherent properties of the design, and second by the Canadian safety/licensing approach. Probabilistic safety assessment studies have been performed on operating CA...

V. G. Snell J. Q. Howieson S. Alikhan G. M. Frescura F. King

1988-01-01

249

Automated Traffic Accident Data Entry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project was to develop a method to automatically enter traffic accident records into an existing database and to provide a computerized method of achiving the forms. This involved redesigning the existing forms, developing a method for...

S. B. Johnson K. Hofer

2000-01-01

250

The TMI2 accident evaluation program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accident at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor, now 10 years old, remains as the United States' worst commercial nuclear reactor accident. Although the consequences of the accident were restricted primarily to the plant itself, the potential consequences of the accident, should it have progressed further, are large enough to warrant close scrutiny of all aspects of

D. J. Osetek; J. M. Broughton; R. R. Hobbins

1989-01-01

251

Aircraft accident reconstruction: comparison of data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results from the reconstruction of nine airplane accidents that occurred during the period of 1992 through 2000. The purpose of this paper is to re-examine previously compiled accident and test data for small airplanes. Comparing accident data from the present study with previous accident data shows the need to include the roll and yaw angles of an

Michael W. Dobbs

2010-01-01

252

Accurate Accident Reconstruction in VANET  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We propose a forensic VANET application to aid an accurate accident reconstruction. Our application provides a new source\\u000a of objective real-time data impossible to collect using existing methods. By leveraging inter-vehicle communications, we compile\\u000a digital evidence describing events before, during, and after an accident in its entirety. In addition to sensors data and\\u000a major components’ status, we provide relative positions

Yuliya Kopylova; Csilla Farkas; Wenyuan Xu

253

Occupational health problems among migrant and seasonal farm workers.  

PubMed Central

Migrant and seasonal farm workers are one of the most underserved and understudied populations in the United States. The total US population of such farm workers has been estimated at 5 million, of whom about 20% live or work in California. Farm workers perform strenuous tasks and are exposed to a wide variety of occupational risks and hazards. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to health care also contribute to existing health problems in this population. Potential farm work-related health problems include accidents, pesticide-related illnesses, musculoskeletal and soft-tissue disorders, dermatitis, noninfectious respiratory conditions, reproductive health problems, health problems of children of farm workers, climate-caused illnesses, communicable diseases, bladder and kidney disorders, and eye and ear problems. Few epidemiologic studies exist of these occupational health problems. No comprehensive epidemiologic studies have assessed the magnitude of occupational health problems among migrant and seasonal farm workers and their dependents. Although the migratory nature of this population makes long-term studies difficult, the development of standardized data collection instruments for health consequences and scientific assessment of farm work exposures and working conditions are vital to characterize and reduce the occupational health risks in farm workers.

Mobed, K; Gold, E B; Schenker, M B

1992-01-01

254

Promoting Occupational Health Nursing Training  

PubMed Central

In 2009, occupational health nursing faculty and professionals at the University of Washington developed an innovative continuing nursing education offering, the OHN Institute. The OHN Institute was designed to meet the following objectives: (1) extend basic occupational health nursing training to non-occupational health nurses in Federal Region X, (2) target new occupational health nurses or those who possessed little or no advanced education in occupational health nursing, and (3) offer a hybrid continuing nursing education program consisting of on-site and distance learning modalities. Evaluation findings suggested that the various continuing nursing education modalities and formats (e.g., asynchronous vs. synchronous, online modules vs. live modules) were essentially comparable in terms of effectiveness. Perhaps most importantly, the OHN Institute evaluation demonstrated that quality continuing nursing education outcomes for occupational health nurses depended largely on knowledgeable and engaging faculty and a compelling vision of desired outcomes, including the application of learned content to professional practice.

Ward, Julie A.; Beaton, Randal D.; Bruck, Annie M.; de Castro, A. B.

2012-01-01

255

Short term hospital occupancy prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inpatient census, or occupancy, is a primary driver of resource use in hospitals. Fluctuations in occupancy complicate decisions\\u000a related to staffing, bed management, ambulance diversions, and may ultimately impact both quality of patient care and nursing\\u000a job satisfaction. We describe our approach in building a computerized model to provide short-term occupancy predictions for\\u000a an entire hospital by nursing unit and

Steven J. Littig; Mark W. Isken

2007-01-01

256

Occupational Mobility and Wage Inequality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we argue that wage inequality and occupational mobility are intimately related. We are motivated by our empirical findings that human capital is occupation specific and that the fraction of workers switching occupations in the U.S. was as high as 16% a year in the early 1970’s and had increased to 21% by the mid?1990’s. We develop a

GUEORGUI KAMBOUROV; IOURII MANOVSKII

2009-01-01

257

The derailment of occupational therapy.  

PubMed

The derailment of occupational therapy, exemplified by the profession's symbiosis with the medical model, its alignment with the rehabilitation movement, and its devaluation of the arts and crafts is the central theme of this article. The occupational behavior paradigm, which represents a recommitment to the values and beliefs of the profession's founders, has emerged to arrest the derailment process and thereby reinstate the substantive goals of occupational therapy. PMID:322498

Shannon, P D

1977-04-01

258

Occupational Sex Segregation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in a Sociology class for undergraduate students. This activity looks as gender and occupation over time in the United States. This activity uses one customized data sets made from combining census information from 1970-1990. It guides students through data manipulation using WebCHIP software found at DataCounts!. To open WebCHIP with the dataset for the activity, please see instructions and links in the exercise documents under teaching materials. For more information on how to use WebCHIP, see the How To section on DataCounts!

Fuller, Theodore

259

Severe accident analysis using dynamic accident progression event trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In present, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. One of the principal deficiencies lies in the static nature of conventional APETs. In the conventional event tree techniques, the sequence of events is pre-determined in a fixed order based on the expert judgments. The main objective of this PhD dissertation was to develop a software tool (ADAPT) for automated APET generation using the concept of dynamic event trees. As implied by the name, in dynamic event trees the order and timing of events are determined by the progression of the accident. The tool determines the branching times from a severe accident analysis code based on user specified criteria for branching. It assigns user specified probabilities to every branch, tracks the total branch probability, and truncates branches based on the given pruning/truncation rules to avoid an unmanageable number of scenarios. The function of a dynamic APET developed includes prediction of the conditions, timing, and location of containment failure or bypass leading to the release of radioactive material, and calculation of probabilities of those failures. Thus, scenarios that can potentially lead to early containment failure or bypass, such as through accident induced failure of steam generator tubes, are of particular interest. Also, the work is focused on treatment of uncertainties in severe accident phenomena such as creep rupture of major RCS components, hydrogen burn, containment failure, timing of power recovery, etc. Although the ADAPT methodology (Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees) could be applied to any severe accident analysis code, in this dissertation the approach is demonstrated by applying it to the MELCOR code [1]. A case study is presented involving station blackout with the loss of auxiliary feedwater system for a pressurized water reactor. The specific plant analyzed is the Zion Nuclear Power Plant, which is a Westinghouse-designed system that has been decommissioned.

Hakobyan, Aram P.

260

Occupational Stress: The Hidden Hazard.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Rationale; Learning objectives; Occupational stress--the hidden hazard (Stress--definitions, elaboration and qualifications, Stressors, Moderating variables, Definition of risk groups, Experiences in stress management).

L. Peck

1982-01-01

261

Occupational Health for Healthcare Providers  

MedlinePLUS

... prevention practices. They can reduce your risk of health problems. Use protective equipment, follow infection control guidelines, ... manage stress. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

262

[Accidents of fulguration].  

PubMed

Fulguration, first electric accident in which the man was a victim, is to day better known. A clap of thunder is decomposed in two elements: lightning, and thunder. Lightning is caused by an electrical discharge, either within a cloud, or between two clouds, or, above all, between a cloud and the surface of the ground. Experimental equipments owned by the French Electricity Company and by the Atomic Energy Commission, have allowed to photograph lightnings and to measure certain physical characteristics (Intensity variable between 25 to 100 kA, voltage variable between 20 to 1 000 kV). The frequency of storms was learned: the isokeraunic level, in France, is about 20, meaning that thunder is heard twenty days during one year. Man may be stricken by thunder by direct hit, by sudden bursting, by earth current, or through various conductors. The electric charge which reached him may go to the earth directly by contact with the ground or may dissipate in the air through a bony promontory (elbow). The total number of victims, "wounded" or deceased, is not now known by statistics. Death comes by insulation breakdown of one of several anatomic cephalic formations: skull, meninx, brain. Many various lesions may happen in survivors: loss of consciousness, more or less long, sensorial or motion deficiencies. All these signs are momentary and generally reversible. Besides one may observe much more intense lesions on the skin: burns and, over all, characteristic aborescence (skin effect by high frequency current). The heart is protected, contrarily to what happens with industrial electrocution. The curative treatment is merely symptomatic : reanimation, surgery for burns or associated traumatic lesions. A prevention is researched to help the lonely man, in the country or in the mountains in the houses (lightning conductor, Faraday cage), in vehicles (aircraft, cars, ships). The mysterious and unforseeable character of lightning still stays, leaving a door opened for numerous investigations. PMID:1008283

Virenque, C; Laguerre, J

263

Job stress, mental health, and accidents among offshore workers in the oil and gas extraction industries.  

PubMed

Psychosocial and occupational stressors among 194 male employees on drilling rig and production platform installations in the United Kingdom and Dutch sectors of the North Sea were studied. Mental well-being and job satisfaction were also assessed, with attention to the incidence of accidents offshore. This occupational group were found to be much less satisfied with their jobs than their onshore counterparts. Although overall mental well-being compared favorably with that of the general population, levels of anxiety were significantly higher. Multivariate analysis showed "relationships at work and at home" to be a strong predictor of both job dissatisfaction and mental ill-health. Type A coronary-prone behavior was also found to be a significant predictor of reduced mental well-being and increased accident rates offshore. PMID:3819891

Cooper, C L; Sutherland, V J

1987-02-01

264

Precision Machining Technologies. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), which is one of a series of OCAPs developed to identify the skills that Ohio employers deem necessary to entering a given occupation/occupational area, lists the occupational, academic, and employability skills required of individuals entering the occupation of precision machinist. The…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

265

Occupational Place in Therapy: Limits to Sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

My research investigates features of occupational engagement which promote creation of a new life after disability. Many researchers have emphasized the influence of place on occupational engagement, meaning, and redeveloping occupational participation (Hasselkus, 2002: Rowles, 2003 & 2008: Shaw, 2009). Hasselkus described therapeutic occupational place (space in which the emergent process of occupation occurs), as one “of intimacy and connection

OdawaraEtsuko

2009-01-01

266

The 2010 Ruth Zemke Lecture in Occupational Science Occupational Therapy\\/Occupational Science\\/Occupational Justice: Moral Commitments and Global Assemblages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty years have passed since occupational science was founded. It is time to reassess the relationship of occupational science to its roots in occupational therapy and also to reopen a discussion of some foundational assumptions. In particular, we need to situate the profession, occupational therapy, and the discipline, occupational science, in relation to the phenomenon of globalization. The internationalization of

Gelya Frank

2011-01-01

267

The 2010 Ruth Zemke Lecture in Occupational Science Occupational Therapy\\/Occupational Science\\/Occupational Justice: Moral Commitments and Global Assemblages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty years have passed since occupational science was founded. It is time to reassess the relationship of occupational science to its roots in occupational therapy and also to reopen a discussion of some foundational assumptions. In particular, we need to situate the profession, occupational therapy, and the discipline, occupational science, in relation to the phenomenon of globalization. The internationalization of

Gelya Frank

2012-01-01

268

Professional Development for Occupational Specialist: Occupational Competency Testing. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The organization, scope, and activities of the Indiana Occupational Competency Testing Center were expanded to accommodate the requirements of the new Occupational Specialist Certificate for secondary vocational teacher credentialling. A pilot project involved three regional sites in the state. The director of the host area site acted as area…

Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN.

269

Occupational light-vehicle use and OHS legislative frameworks: an Australian example.  

PubMed

Occupational light vehicle (OLV) use and associated exposures and hazards in the Australian context are described. Available insurance data indicate that the OLV injury burden, which is greater than that of other work-road users, is growing as OLV use changes incidental to workers' primary occupations and work patterns. Legislation that affects OLV users is reviewed and the shifting of the burden of responsibility for injured or killed OLV users between workers' compensation, motor accident insurance and public health systems is described. Changes to OHS regulatory frameworks are proposed to better address OLV-relevant policy and practice. These issues are relevant for many international jurisdictions. PMID:15875893

Stuckey, Rwth; Lamontagne, Anthony D

270

Workplace accidents in materials transfer in Finland.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to show the proportion of workplace accidents related to materials transfer and to decide whether they were more serious than other kinds of workplace accidents. The research material for this study were statistics and data, available in Finland, regarding workplace accidents and fatal accidents. Twenty-five percent of studied fatal accidents were related to materials transfer; 26.9-27.7% of all workplace accidents in Finland in 2003-2007 were workplace accidents related to materials transfer. Over half (54.7%) of workplace accidents related to materials transfer caused disabilities lasting over 3 days. Most accidents related to materials transfer occurred to men aged 20-49 years. The most common types of injuries were dislocations, sprains and strains. PMID:23294658

Perttula, Pia; Salminen, Simo

2012-01-01

271

Social Networks and Occupational Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social networks help workers to find jobs more easily. But those jobs need not be in occupations in which workers can fully exploit their abilities. If so, then social contacts can generate mismatch between a worker's occupational comparative advantage and his actual productivity. As a result, economies that rely extensively on social networks can exhibit low labor force quality and

Samuel Bentolila; Claudio Michelacci; Javier Suarez

272

CAREER GUIDE FOR DEMAND OCCUPATIONS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS PUBLICATION UPDATES THE "CAREER GUIDE FOR DEMAND OCCUPATIONS" PUBLISHED IN 1959 AND PROVIDES COUNSELORS WITH INFORMATION ABOUT OCCUPATIONS IN DEMAND IN MANY AREAS WHICH REQUIRE PREEMPLOYMENT TRAINING. IT PRESENTS, IN COLUMN FORM, THE EDUCATION AND OTHER TRAINING USUALLY REQUIRED BY EMPLOYERS, HIGH SCHOOL SUBJECTS OF PARTICULAR PERTINENCE TO…

LEE, E.R.; WELCH, JOHN L.

273

Agricultural Occupations Program Planning Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The major program objectives of agricultural occupations courses are (1) to develop agricultural competencies needed by individuals engaged in or preparing to engage in production agriculture, and in agricultural occupations other than production agriculture; (2) to develop an understanding of the career opportunities in agriculture; (3) to…

Hemp, Paul E.; Mayer, Leon

274

CAREER GUIDE FOR DEMAND OCCUPATIONS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THIS PUBLICATION UPDATES THE "CAREER GUIDE FOR DEMAND OCCUPATIONS" PUBLISHED IN 1959 AND PROVIDES COUNSELORS WITH INFORMATION ABOUT OCCUPATIONS IN DEMAND IN MANY AREAS WHICH REQUIRE PREEMPLOYMENT TRAINING. IT PRESENTS, IN COLUMN FORM, THE EDUCATION AND OTHER TRAINING USUALLY REQUIRED BY EMPLOYERS, HIGH SCHOOL SUBJECTS OF PARTICULAR PERTINENCE TO…

LEE, E.R.; WELCH, JOHN L.

275

NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE SURVEY (NOES)  

EPA Science Inventory

From 1981 to 1983, NIOSH conducted the National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES) that collected data on potential occupational exposures to chemical, physical, and biological agents. The survey involved on-site visits to 4,490 establishments in 522 industry types [OMB 1972] em...

276

Performance Specifications for Occupational Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document lists and discusses the development of Maryland's performance specifications for occupational programs. The introduction explains the process used to develop performance standards and specifications for 10 career cluster majors that were identified by a task force of educators and employers as high-demand occupational areas in…

Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore. Div. of Career Technology and Adult Learning.

277

Occupational stress in dental hygienists.  

PubMed

Occupational stress represents a cause of attrition from the field of dental hygiene. However, few studies have examined occupational stress in dental hygienists with a focus on the dynamics of the organization and the concept of emotional labor. The purpose of the study was to investigate the nature of occupational stress (organizational stress and emotional labor) in experienced dental hygienists and to examine the relationship between occupational stressors and manifestations of stress (or personal strain). Two hundred invitations were sent to randomly selected dental hygienists in the Northeast. Only 40 dental hygienists met the inclusion criteria for the study and 30 individuals participated in the study. Participants completed a demographics questionnaire, an Emotional Labor Survey, the Occupational Stress Inventory, and a Musculoskeletal Discomfort Body Map. Overall, levels of occupational stressors, personal strain, and coping resources were within norms. The sample indicated high frequency of musculoskeletal discomfort in the neck (87%), upper back (63.3%), lower back (63.3%), shoulders (53%), and wrists (36.7%). Moderate correlations existed among occupational stressors related to organizational ambiguity, emotional labor, personal strain, and musculoskeletal discomfort. Emotional labor emerged as an occupational stressor that may warrant future investigation. PMID:20448324

Sanders, Martha J; Turcotte, Claudia Michalak

2010-01-01

278

The purpose of occupational medicine.  

PubMed Central

The purposes of occupational medicine are described in terms of its clinical medical, environmental medical, research, and administrative content. Each of these components is essential in different proportions in comprehensive occupational health services for different industries, and can only be satisfactorily provided by occupational physicians and occupational health nurses who are an integral part of their organizations. Two-thirds of the working population in the United Kingdom are without the benefits of occupational medicine. The reorganization of the National Health Service and of local government presents the opportunity to extend occupational health services to many more workers who need them. It is suggested that area health authorities should provide occupational health services for all National Health Service staff and, on an agency basis, for local government and associated services, eventually extending to local industry. Such area health authority based services, merged with the Employment Medical Advisory Service, could conveniently then be part of the National Health Service, as recommended by the British Medical Association, the Society of Occupational Medicine, and the Medical Services Review Committee.

Raffle, P A

1975-01-01

279

Rethinking Occupational Deprivation and Boredom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boredom is associated with a range of problematic feelings and behaviour, and may be on the increase. There is a popular assumption supported by occupational science which suggests that the experience arises from a lack of occupation, however, it is not clear why boredom should still exist when most people in affluent societies have more opportunity for engagement than ever

Marion Martin; Gaynor Sadlo; Graham Stew

2012-01-01

280

Occupational asthma due to formaldehyde  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bronchial provocation studies on 15 workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde are described. The results show that formaldehyde exposure can cause asthmatic reactions, and suggest that these are sometimes due to hypersensitivity and sometimes to a direct irritant effect. Three workers had classical occupational asthma caused by formaldehyde fumes, which was likely to be due to hypersensitivity, with late asthmatic reactions

P S Burge; M G Harries; W K Lam; I M OBrien; P A Patchett

1985-01-01

281

The prevention of occupational asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevention of occupational asthma. P. Cullinan, S. Tarlo, B. Nemery. #ERS Journals Ltd 2003. ABSTRACT: There is sufficient understanding of the causation of occupational asthma for preventive action to be appropriate. To date, attempts appear to have been largely unsuccessful and this appears to be largely due to nonscientific\\/technical obstacles. These include the fragmented nature of the disease, its

P. Cullinan; S. Tarlo; B. Nemery

2003-01-01

282

Occupancy Models to Study Wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Many wildlife studies seek to understand changes or differences in the proportion of sites occupied by a species of interest. These studies are hampered,by imperfect detection of these species, which can result in some sites appearing to be unoc- cupied that are actually occupied. Occupancy models solve this problem and produce unbiased estimates of occupancy,and related parameters. Required data

Larissa Bailey; USGS Patuxent Wildlife

283

Foreign Occupation and National Pride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigators from such disparate fields as public opinion research and comparative history agree that foreign occupation tends to provoke nationalist awareness. Engaging this growing body of literature, we focus on the affective side of nationalism—the feeling of national pride—and argue that foreign domination by itself does not necessarily incite this feeling among all members of the population under occupation. Rather,

Mansoor Moaddel; Mark Tessler; Ronald Inglehart

2008-01-01

284

NATIONAL TRAUMATIC OCCUPATIONAL FATALITIES (NTOF)  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities (NTOF) surveillance system is a death certificate-based census of occupational injury deaths. Death certificates are obtained from the 50 States, New York City, and the District of Columbia for decedent's ages 16 years or older with ...

285

Occupational Lung Diseases: Prevention and Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Occupational Lung Diseases: Magnitude of the Problem; Air Pollutants at the Workplace and Their Effects on the Respiratory System; Approaches to the Prevention and Control of Occupational Lung Diseases; Occupational Lung Diseases: Their Causes a...

1991-01-01

286

5 CFR 9701.211 - Occupational clusters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Occupational clusters. 9701.211 Section 9701.211...Structure § 9701.211 Occupational clusters. For the purpose of classifying...coordination with OPM, establish occupational clusters based on factors such as...

2010-01-01

287

5 CFR 9701.211 - Occupational clusters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Occupational clusters. 9701.211 Section 9701.211...Structure § 9701.211 Occupational clusters. For the purpose of classifying...coordination with OPM, establish occupational clusters based on factors such as...

2009-01-01

288

Fatal occupational injuries in a southern state.  

PubMed

Fatal occupational injuries were studied using data from medical examiners' reports in North Carolina for the years 1977-1991. Cases were defined as deaths due to accidents or homicide at the workplace, and populations at risk were estimated from the 1980 and 1990 US Censuses. Mortality rate ratios and proportionate mortality ratios were used as measures of association, and the population attributable risk percentage was used as an indicator of the burden of injury. Standard weights for direct age-adjustment of rates were obtained from the total state workforce. There were 2,524 eligible deaths-83 percent from unintentional traumatic injuries, 14 percent from homicide, and the remainder from other causes. This report focuses on unintentional trauma deaths, which were strongly associated with the wood production, fishing, and transportation industries. Elderly, African-American, and self-employed workers had higher fatality rates than members of other groups. Among male workers, motor vehicle crashes were the principal cause of death on the job, followed by falling objects, machinery, and falls. The industries contributing the largest proportions of these deaths were construction, trucking, agriculture, and logging (population attributable risk percentages were 16.8%, 8.8%, 7.9%, and 6.9%, respectively). The fatality patterns of female workers were different: Numbers of deaths from homicide and unintentional trauma were equal, and 27% of the latter deaths occurred in one catastrophic fire. Decentralized and rural industries were the most hazardous, but many deaths were outside the current jurisdiction of occupational safety and health agencies. These patterns suggest that greater scrutiny of such industries, through both research and intervention, is warranted. PMID:9199538

Loomis, D P; Richardson, D B; Wolf, S H; Runyan, C W; Butts, J D

1997-06-15

289

Prevention of occupational asthma.  

PubMed

Prevention of occupational asthma related to a work-sensitizing agent ideally would be achieved by avoidance of exposures that cause immunologic sensitization and subsequent asthma. There are a few examples in which a sensitizing agent has been removed from a work process and others in which exposure has been significantly changed or reduced with associated reduced rates of sensitization and disease. Additional measures include containment, use of robots, ventilation measures, exposure monitoring, and use of respiratory protective devices. Secondary prevention includes medical surveillance, which may involve periodic respiratory questionnaires, spirometry, and immunologic tests aiming to detect sensitization or disease early to allow intervention and improve outcomes. Education measures for workers to understand the meaning of work-related respiratory symptoms and appropriate workplace safety measures have not been formally evaluated but may also be expected to enhance protective measures and lead to earlier diagnosis. Tertiary prevention includes medical management and workers' compensation. PMID:20424999

Tarlo, Susan M; Liss, Gary M

2010-07-01

290

Occupational risks associated with cigarette smoking: a prospective study.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND. Studies have indicated that cigarette smokers have more occupational accidents and injuries and use more sick time and health benefits than nonsmokers, thereby producing sizeable costs for employers. However, they usually have not controlled for other possible sources of these costs. We analyzed occupational costs associated with smoking while adjusting for a number of potential confounders. METHODS. We conducted a prospective, controlled study of the association between smoking and employment outcomes in 2537 postal employees, adjusting for age, gender, race, drug use, job category, and exercise habits. RESULTS. For smokers, the relative risk for turnover was 1.01 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-1.21); for accidents 1.29 (CI, 1.07-1.55); for injuries 1.40 (CI, 1.11-1.77); for discipline 1.55 (CI, 1.19-2.02). Their mean absence rate was 5.43% compared with 4.06% for nonsmokers. CONCLUSIONS. Our study shows that cigarette smoking is associated with adverse employment outcomes after controlling for a number of possible confounders. This finding has implications for companies formulating smoking policies and considering the establishment of smoking cessation programs.

Ryan, J; Zwerling, C; Orav, E J

1992-01-01

291

Occupational injury fatalities--1994.  

PubMed

Factory workers caught in machinery and construction workers falling or struck by huge beams are images that typically come to mind when considering serious hazards in the workplace. But these types of events account for only a small portion of job-related fatalities each year. Transportation-related fatalities, along with assaults and violent acts during work, made up almost two-thirds of the 6,588 fatal work injuries recorded in 1994. The majority of job-related fatal work events occurred on the streets and highways and in public buildings and in areas such as grocery stores and parking lots. Today the most deadly jobs are found in outdoor occupations such as fishing and timber cutting. In fact, in all 10 jobs studied that have high fatality rates, most workers are affected by severe weather conditions while driving on highways, performing farm chores and working at construction sites. Highway crashes are the primary cause of trucker fatalities; falls are the leading cause of death for roofers, construction laborers and structural metal workers, while tractor rollovers account for a third of farm worker fatalities. Another deadly contributing factor for some workers is homicide, which accounted for 16 percent of job-related fatalities in 1994. Workers most at risk are those who work alone, work late at night and handle varying sums of money. Taxicab drivers are the most susceptible and have a work injury fatality rate nine times higher than the national rate of 5 deaths per 100,000 workers. Others at high risk of homicide include gas station cashiers, grocery store employees and workers in retail eating and drinking establishments. Although the risk of a fatal injury at work varies greatly by occupation and industry, no one is immune. For prevention, workers and employers need to know what jobs are risky, what equipment is dangerous and what activities are hazardous. They also should understand that a fatal incident can happen to anyone. PMID:8718711

Toscano, G; Jack, T

292

Complementary Functions of Occupation and Narrative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have found narratives useful in the study of occupation and occupational science. The imperative to understand and apply narrative approaches to occupational science research and occupational therapy practice cannot be overestimated for its utility in ensuring effective, efficient client-centered and occupation-based research, services, and outcomes.\\u000aThis proposal intends to spark discussion on the relationship of narrative and occupation. The

Toby Ballou Hamilton

2002-01-01

293

Occupational seafood allergy: a review  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Recent years have seen increased levels of production and consumption of seafood, leading to more frequent reporting of allergic reactions in occupational and domestic settings. This review focuses on occupational allergy in the fishing and seafood processing industry.?REVIEW—Workers involved in either manual or automated processing of crabs, prawns, mussels, fish, and fishmeal production are commonly exposed to various constituents of seafood. Aerosolisation of seafood and cooking fluid during processing are potential occupational situations that could result in sensitisation through inhalation. There is great variability of aerosol exposure within and among various jobs with reported allergen concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 5.061(µg/m3). Occupational dermal exposure occurs as a result of unprotected handling of seafood and its byproducts. Occupational allergies have been reported in workers exposed to arthropods (crustaceans), molluscs, pisces (bony fish) and other agents derived from seafood. The prevalence of occupational asthma ranges from 7% to 36%, and for occupational protein contact dermatitis, from 3% to 11%. These health outcomes are mainly due to high molecular weight proteins in seafood causing an IgE mediated response. Cross reactivity between various species within a major seafood grouping also occurs. Limited evidence from dose-response relations indicate that development of symptoms is related to duration or intensity of exposure. The evidence for atopy as a risk factor for occupational sensitisation and asthma is supportive, whereas evidence for cigarette smoking is limited. Disruption of the intact skin barrier seems to be an important added risk factor for occupational protein contact dermatitis.?CONCLUSION—The range of allergic disease associated with occupational exposure to crab is well characterised, whereas for other seafood agents the evidence is somewhat limited. There is a need for further epidemiological studies to better characterise this risk. More detailed characterisation of specific protein antigens in aerosols and associated establishment of dose-response relations for acute and chronic exposure to seafood; the respective roles of skin contact and inhalational exposure in allergic sensitisation and cross reactivity; and the contribution of host associated factors in the development of occupational seafood allergies are important areas for future research.???Keywords: occupational seafood allergy; occupational asthma; protein contact dermatitis

Jeebhay, M; Robins, T; Lehrer, S; Lopata, A

2001-01-01

294

[An experimental study on driver identification of passenger car in vehicle to vehicle accidents].  

PubMed

A series of full-scale vehicle-to-vehicle oblique collision experiments was carried out for providing general data to clarify the question of seating positions. In all test, two unrestrained anthropometric dummies (Hybrid II) were seated on front seats in passenger cars as occupants. The bullet car collided against the target car running with 25 km/h, at 50 km/h, at impact angles of 120 degrees and 150 degrees. Five impact configurations between occupant regions and interior of vehicle were evaluated: head-face/windshield, head-face/A-pillar, chest-abdomen/instrument panel, upper body/inside door and lower extremities/instruments panel. Comparative occupant injuries and vehicle response data were obtained from electronic instrumentation, high-speed movie films and visual observations. No characteristic driver injuries was observed in oblique collision experiments. The crush characteristics of the vehicle interiors and occupant behavior had significant effect in determining the actual injury once contact occurred. The differences of injuries in occupants occurred depend on impact configurations of vehicles. Therefore, on the driver identification, it is important to clarify kinematics of occupants during the impact by an analytical reconstruction. The data and information can be used to determine who was driving in actual traffic accidents for the forensic medicine expert. PMID:2266610

Ueyama, M

1990-08-01

295

Aircraft accident construction set: performance engineering applied to accident reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For some time aircraft accident investigation has been a reverse engineering procedure. Failure analysis has taken a strict engineering approach, disregarding many of the alternatives relating to cause. As aircraft become automated, many relating factors will need to be considered in order to build an accurate reconstruction of an accident. The Aircraft Accident Construction Set will provide the investigator with the opportunity to investigate 'What if?' questions relating to causal factors. The system addressed both the vehicle and the human elements of performance. Significant integration of engineering principles and human factors probability data enhance the outcomes assessment. The pictorial display provides a near real- time image of the vehicle as supported by the engineering data, rather than the more traditional approach of line graphs and interpolative tables. This enables the investigator to consider far more data at a given time than in the past. Interaction between the workstation and the investigator is through a menu system derived from data tables and displayed as ICON symbology. Relational database operations and a user toolbox round out the system. Presentation of this system will provide a fundamental understanding of the capabilities of the system, and an actual air carrier accident will be examined briefly.

Blanchard, James W.

1992-06-01

296

Impact of the accident at the Three Mile Island on the behavior and well-being of nuclear workers. Part II. Job tension, psychophysiological symptoms, and indices of distress  

SciTech Connect

Three Mile Island (TMI) workers experienced much greater job tension and lower occupational self-esteem (supervisors only) in comparison with workers interviewed at the Peach Bottom Plant. At the time of the accident, TMI workers reported experiencing more periods of anger, extreme worrry and extreme upset, and more psychophysiological symptoms. Six months after the accident, some persistence of these feelings and symptoms was evident. Demoralization was greater primarily among TMI non-supervisory workers. The impact of the accident was not greater among TMI workers living closer to the plant. Presence of a preschool child at home enhanced the impact of the accident, but primarily among TMI supervisors. 39 references, 17 tables.

Kasl, S.V. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT); Chisholm, R.F.; Eskenazi, B.

1981-05-01

297

Causes of casualties and the regulation of occupational health and safety in the shipping industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to investigate maritime safety from an occupational hazards perspective as opposed to a maritime\\u000a casualty perspective. It is recognised that safety in shipping should encompass casualties arising from accidents occurring\\u000a in the course of performing normal seafaring duties, not just those arising from technical defects or maritime disasters.\\u000a The paper discusses an investigation involving

Detlef Nielsen; Photis M. Panayides

2005-01-01

298

Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents, Factbook 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents aggregate statistics on buses involved in traffic accidents in 2007. The statistics are derived from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) file, compiled by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. The BI...

A. Matteson J. Woodrooffe L. Jarossi

2010-01-01

299

Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents Factbook 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents aggregate statistics on buses involved in traffic accidents in 2006. The statistics are derived from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) file, compiled by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. The BI...

A. Matteson J. Woodrooffe L. Jarossi

2008-01-01

300

Traffic Accident Analysis and Roadway Visibility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Assessment of existing general purpose data bases for highway safety analysis; Accident data as a tool for highway risk management; Generalized loglinear models of truck accidents rates; Estimation of wet pavement exposure from available weather...

K. K. Mak J. G. Viner L. I. Griffin D. S. Turner C. W. Colson

1988-01-01

301

Occupational health policies on risk assessment in Japan.  

PubMed

Industrial Safety and Health Law (ISH Law) of Japan requires abnormalities identified in evaluations of worker health and working environments are reported to occupational physicians, and employers are advised of measures to ensure appropriate accommodations in working environments and work procedures. Since the 1980s, notions of a risk assessment and occupational safety and health management system were expected to further prevent industrial accidents. In 2005, ISH Law stipulated workplace risk assessment using the wording "employers shall endeavor." Following the amendment, multiple documents and guidelines for risk assessment for different work procedures were developed. They require ISH Laws to be implemented fully and workplaces to plan and execute measures to reduce risks, ranking them from those addressing potential hazards to those requiring workers to wear protective articles. A governmental survey in 2005 found the performance of risk assessment was 20.4% and common reasons for not implementing risk assessments were lack of adequate personnel or knowledge. ISH Law specifies criminal penalties for both individuals and organizations. Moreover, under the Labor Contract Law promulgated in 2007, employers are obliged to make reasonable efforts to ensure employee health for foreseeable and avoidable risks. Therefore, enterprises neglecting even the non-binding provisions of guidelines are likely to suffer significant business impact if judged to be responsible for industrial accidents or occupational disease. To promote risk assessment, we must strengthen technical, financial, and physical support from public-service organizations, encourage the dissemination of good practices to reduce risks, and consider additional employer incentives, including relaxed mandatory regulations. PMID:22953159

Horie, Seichi

2010-09-30

302

[Occupational health problems in epileptics].  

PubMed

From the point of view of occupational medicine some questions are important for epileptics; amongst others: falling, behavior during the paroxysm, shift work dependence of attack, behaviour after an epileptic episode. Occupational capacity depends on the process of epileptic episodes and their frequency. The development of neurology has rendered numerous cures from epilepsy, but the the occupational stigma is difficult in many professions--electrical engineering, working with machinery, milling machines and others. In some professions a care must be taken when hiring epileptics--for instance professions with a fall hazard, jobs connected with public transport or involving crane or excavator operation. PMID:16498976

Romankow, Jacek

303

Occupancy Models to Study Wildlife  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many wildlife studies seek to understand changes or differences in the proportion of sites occupied by a species of interest. These studies are hampered by imperfect detection of these species, which can result in some sites appearing to be unoccupied that are actually occupied. Occupancy models solve this problem and produce unbiased estimates of occupancy and related parameters. Required data (detection/non-detection information) are relatively simple and inexpensive to collect. Software is available free of charge to aid investigators in occupancy estimation.

Bailey, Larissa; Adams, Michael John

2005-01-01

304

Occupational exposures and adult asthma.  

PubMed

Occupational exposures can cause a new onset of asthma in a subset of susceptible workers on the basis of sensitization to a specific work agent or a high-level irritant exposure. Epidemiologic studies give insight into the natural history of occupational asthma, including host factors and environmental factors leading to the development of occupational asthma, the progression, and the potential role of preventive measures. Work-exacerbated asthma has been a focus of studies only recently but is recognized as common among asthmatic workers and is a potential cause of significant morbidity and socioeconomic impact. PMID:18572107

Tarlo, Susan M

2008-08-01

305

Wanted: entrepreneurs in occupational therapy.  

PubMed

The American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) has challenged occupational therapy practitioners to advance the profession so that we may become more "powerful" and "widely recognized" by the year 2017 (AOTA, 2007a). To fully achieve this vision, this article argues that the profession should encourage occupational therapy entrepreneurship. As Herz, Bondoc, Richmond, Richman, and Kroll (2005, p.2) stated, "Entrepreneurship may provide us with the means to achieve the outcomes we need to succeed in the current health care environment." This article also argues the urgency of seizing the many opportunities that entrepreneurship offers and recommends specific actions to be taken by AOTA and by therapists. PMID:21476371

Anderson, Kristin M; Nelson, David L

306

Notes on Road Accident Statistics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Road Research Laboratory has organised courses in traffic and safety for the benefit of police officers and highway engineerings for a number of years. The notes for one of the lectures, dealing with accident statistics form the basis of the report. I...

H. D. Johnson F. Garwood

1971-01-01

307

The Physics of Traffic Accidents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Shows how physics can be used to analyze and prevent traffic accidents by determining critical speeds on curves, the behavior of motor cycles and stability of articulated vehicles, and the visibility that is needed to make a minor road junction safe. (MLH)|

Knight, Peter

1975-01-01

308

Plutonium accident resistant container project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PARC (plutonium accident resistant container) project resulted in the design, development, and certification testing of a crashworthy air-transportable plutonium package (shipping container) for certification by the USNRC. This PAT-1 (plutonium air transportable) package survives a very severe sequential test program of impact, crush, puncture, slash, burn, and water immersion. There is also an individual hydrostatic pressure test. The package

1978-01-01

309

Time Slows Down during Accidents  

PubMed Central

The experienced speed of the passage of time is not constant as time can seem to fly or slow down depending on the circumstances we are in. Anecdotally accidents and other frightening events are extreme examples of the latter; people who have survived accidents often report altered phenomenology including how everything appeared to happen in slow motion. While the experienced phenomenology has been investigated, there are no explanations about how one can have these experiences. Instead, the only recently discussed explanation suggests that the anecdotal phenomenology is due to memory effects and hence not really experienced during the accidents. The purpose of this article is (i) to reintroduce the currently forgotten comprehensively altered phenomenology that some people experience during the accidents, (ii) to explain why the recent experiments fail to address the issue at hand, and (iii) to suggest a new framework to explain what happens when people report having experiences of time slowing down in these cases. According to the suggested framework, our cognitive processes become rapidly enhanced. As a result, the relation between the temporal properties of events in the external world and in internal states becomes distorted with the consequence of external world appearing to slow down. That is, the presented solution is a realist one in a sense that it maintains that sometimes people really do have experiences of time slowing down.

Arstila, Valtteri

2012-01-01

310

Tank Car Accident Data Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of a study of accidents involving railroad tank cars. The study is part of an overall effort to provide improved safety of rail transportation at reduced life-cycle costs. A major goal of the study is to provide a technical...

M. E. Hazel

1991-01-01

311

Severe accident research in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactor safety research program in Canada not only recognizes the unique features of the CANDU reactor, but is supplemented by a strong interaction with the LWR research community. This is especially so in the area of severe accidents. We participate in international programs such as Phebus FP and CSARP to take advantage of cooperative efforts on phenomena that are

1994-01-01

312

Chernobyl accident sequence of events  

SciTech Connect

A chronology of the Chernobyl accident begins with the 1 a.m. reduction to half power on Friday, April 25, and reports significant events until all fires were extinguished at 5 a.m. on Saturday. Mathematical reconstruction derived some of the times. The sequence uses data from the Soviet report.

Not Available

1986-09-01

313

Driving Circumstances and Accidents Among Novice Drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The study evaluated the accident risk of certain driving circumstances and driving motives among novice drivers.Methods. Self-reported exposure and accidents according to driving circumstances and driving motives were compared between young (n = 6,847) and middle-aged (n = 942) male and female novice drivers. For young drivers, self-reported accidents were further compared to fatal accidents (n = 645) in

S. Laapotti; E. Keskinen; M. Hatakka; K. Hernetkoski; A. Katila; M. Peräaho; I. Salo

2006-01-01

314

Multibody Models for Vehicle Accident Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simplified multibody models can be used to reconstruct accidents involving complex dynamics, particularly, in the first stages\\u000a of accident investigation, accidents involving motorcycles and pedestrians [1], [2].\\u000a \\u000a In this work, vehicle models based on multibody dynamics formulations [3] are developed to be used in motorcycle accident reconstruction. The models developed are a four-wheel vehicle, a motorcycle\\u000a and a human biomechanical

Ricardo J. F. Portal; João M. P. Dias

315

Tri-Level Accident Investigation Study. Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Volume 1 is the final technical report of a program that describes accident investigation studies, which incorporate varying levels of accident detail, and accompanying analysis of accident data. In-depth multidisciplinary accident case studies are discus...

P. Cooley J. Beaumont T. Gates J. O'Day D. E. Cleveland

1973-01-01

316

Dublin Accident Lists (1976-1980).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An alphabetical list of streets in Dublin showing accident statistics for the years 1976-1980 is now available. The lists are intended to provide information on number and types of accidents in each street during this period. Accident rates in terms of to...

A. Marry

1982-01-01

317

Work accidents among shiftworkers in industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined the risk potentials and accident patterns amongst the monthly rotating shiftworkers and permanent nightworkers in textile industries. The retrospective- cum-prospective study covered 3470 fatal and non-fatal accidents that had been taken place in 11 textile departments, spinning, weaving, engineering, etc. A detailed questionnaire survey indicates that frequent occurrence of accidents in the industries was a culmination of

P. K. Nag; V. G. Patel

1998-01-01

318

Economic costs of traffic accidents in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to estimate the economic costs of traffic accidents in Jordan during the year of 1996 and to derive unit accident costs for various accident severity levels. The related data were acquired from different sources, including traffic police records, insurance companies, private hospitals and medical centers. In this study, a framework for applying unit casualty

Hashem R Al-Masaeid; Adel A Al-Mashakbeh; Abdalla M Qudah

1999-01-01

319

Scoping the extent of adventure tourism accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the scope and extent of adventure tourism accidents in New Zealand. The concept of tourist well-being is introduced to characterize the emergence of a new research paradigm based on related multidisciplinary evaluations. Analysis of accident claim data from the Accident Rehabilitation and Compensation Insurance Scheme suggests that this tourism practice might be a significant contributor to tourists'

Tim A. Bentley; Stephen J. Page

2001-01-01

320

Severe accident research in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The USNRC research program on light-water-reactor severe accidents is, with extensive international contributions, preeminent in this subject area. The program focuses on accidents that could exceed plant design bases and protection against severe accident risks, particularly with respect to containment integrity. This paper describes the issues and the nature, status, and results of the research. A number of the issues,

E. S. Beckjord; F. Eltawilla

1994-01-01

321

Variety of attentional failures in traffic accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation - Attentional problems have been considered by many authors as one of the main causes of traffic accidents, but the results given leave to presume a certain notional vagueness. Research approach - Analysis of the detailed data gathered at traffic accident scenes (EDA - Etudes Détaillées d'Accidents) is an original tool that can be used for fine definition of

Pierre Van Elslande; Magali Jaffard; Katel Fouquet; Véronique Vatonne

2008-01-01

322

School Bus Accidents and Driver Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examines the rates and types of school bus accidents according to the age of the school bus driver. Accident rates in North Carolina for the school year 1971-72 were analyzed using three sources of data: accident reports, driver and mileage data, and questionnaires administered to a sample of school bus drivers. Data were obtained on…

McMichael, Judith

323

Offshore accidents and effects on their performances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine accidents are some of the risk sources on human life at sea and also make the founded budget to be sank to the deep. In order to prevent these damages and losses, it is necessary to do a proper understanding of these accidents. Offshore systems as of the main parts of ocean structures and their accidents are considered here

H. Sayyaadi; P. Hemati

2004-01-01

324

Dose calculations for severe LWR accident scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a set of precalculated doses based on a set of postulated accident releases and intended for use in emergency planning and emergency response. Doses were calculated for the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) accident categories of the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) using the CRAC (Calculations of Reactor Accident Consequences) code. Whole body and thyroid doses are presented for

T. S. Margulies; J. A. Jr. Martin

1984-01-01

325

Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents findings from the first Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) conducted this survey to collect critical information needed by the agency to develop and implement effective cou...

J. M. Boyle

1995-01-01

326

Occupational Health and Safety Technicians  

MedlinePLUS

... 6 Management, scientific, and technical consulting services 6 Waste management and remediation services 5 Other employers of occupational ... extraction; management, scientific and technical consulting services; and waste management and remediation services. Most private companies either employ ...

327

Occupational Health and Safety Symposia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report consists of papers presented at a symposium to assist physicians with part-time occupational medicine responsibilities. Topics discussed include: epidemiology concepts and methods; identification and rehabilitation of the problem drinker; poten...

1976-01-01

328

Teaching Occupational Health to Physicians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A comprehensive training program is described that prepares students to identify and prevent occupational disease, emphasizing public health. Content areas include epidemiology and biostatistics, toxicology, industrial hygiene, safety and ergonomics, policy issues, administration, and clinical aspects. (Author/LBH)|

Wegman, David H.; And Others

1978-01-01

329

Occupational Exposure to Organophosphorous Compounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The terminal progress report reviews and summarizes work on occupational health hazards inherent in agricultural workplaces consequent to their treatment with organophosphate pesticides. The oxygen analogs of the organophosphothionate pesticides are readi...

R. C. Spear

1977-01-01

330

Occupation and cancer in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Prioritising control measures for occupationally related cancers should be evidence based. We estimated the current burden of cancer in Britain attributable to past occupational exposures for International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) group 1 (established) and 2A (probable) carcinogens.Methods:We calculated attributable fractions and numbers for cancer mortality and incidence using risk estimates from the literature and national data sources

L Rushton; S Bagga; R Bevan; T P Brown; J W Cherrie; P Holmes; L Fortunato; R Slack; M Van Tongeren; C Young; S J Hutchings

2010-01-01

331

Radiology of occupational chest disease  

SciTech Connect

Radiologic manifestations of occupational lung disease are summarized and classified in this book according to the ILO system. The interpretation of chest roentgenograms outlines the progression of each disease and is accompanied with clinically-oriented explanations. Some of the specific diseases covered include asbestosis, coal worker's pneumoconiosis, silicosis, non-mining inhalation of silica and silicates, beryllium induced disease, inhalation of organics and metallics, and occupationally induced asthma.

Solomon, A. (Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel)); Kreel, L.

1989-01-01

332

Study of business ethics in occupational medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the views of specialists in occupational medicine about business ethics in occupational medicine. METHOD: A qualitative study with face to face focus groups and successive reviews of the draft consensus was undertaken of all accredited specialists in occupational medicine who were members of the south Wales and west of England group of the Society of Occupational Medicine,

R Philipp; G Goodman; K Harling; B Beattie

1997-01-01

333

Values and Work Environment: Mapping 32 Occupations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study addresses the relationship between values and occupations. Israeli workers (N = 652; mean age = 47; 43% male) in 32 occupations reported their values using the Portrait Value Questionnaire (Schwartz, Melech, Lehmann, Burgess, Harris, & Owens, 2001), and value scores were aggregated within occupations. Occupations were classified…

Knafo, Ariel; Sagiv, Lilach

2004-01-01

334

Industrial Occupations. Education for Employment Task Lists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The duties and tasks found in these task lists form the basis of instructional content for secondary, postsecondary, and adult occupational training programs for industrial occupations. The industrial occupations are divided into eight clusters. The clusters and occupations are: construction cluster (bricklayer, carpenter, building maintenance…

Lake County Area Vocational Center, Grayslake, IL.

335

Occupational issues of allergic contact dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational contact dermatitis is often of multifactorial origin, and it is difficult to determine the relative significance of the various contributing factors. Contact allergies are relevant in 20–50% of recognised occupational contact dermatitis cases. The reported frequency in different studies varies, depending on differences in how occupational diseases are notified and recognised, in types of occupation in a geographical area,

Klaus E. Andersen

2003-01-01

336

Agricultural Occupations. Education for Employment Task Lists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The duties and tasks found in these task lists form the basis of instructional content for secondary, postsecondary, and adult occupational training programs for agricultural occupations. The agricultural occupations are divided into three clusters. The clusters and occupations are: agricultural business and management cluster…

Lake County Area Vocational Center, Grayslake, IL.

337

Occupational Information 1990/91. Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Nebraska Occupational Information books (volumes I and II) contain information about 386 different occupations in the state and answer questions about specific occupations in detail. The descriptions are arranged according to a U.S. Department of Labor classification system, with occupational titles clustered in general groups of selected…

Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Nebraska Career Information System.

338

Occupational Balance in People With Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to illuminate the concept of occupational balance and to study its relation to occupational engagement as assessed by the Profiles of Occupational Engagement in people with Schizophrenia (POES), health related factors, and quality of life among 72 persons with schizophrenia. Three constructs: being under-occupied, being over-occupied, and having occupational balance, were developed to help

Ulrika Bejerholm

2010-01-01

339

Children's Sextyped Views of Traditional Occupational Roles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined children's views of traditional occupations in a study of 300 elementary school students who viewed photographs of 18 occupations. Results showed for most of the 18 occupational roles, students chose a traditional male or female role. The occupations of homemaker and firefighter received the most stereotyped scores. (JAC)

Barnhart, Ruth S.

1983-01-01

340

Privacy and occupational health services.  

PubMed

Privacy is a key ethical principle in occupational health services. Its importance is emphasised in several laws, in ethical codes of conduct as well as in the literature, yet there is only very limited empirical research on privacy in the occupational health context. Conceptual questions on privacy in the occupational health context are discussed. The baseline assumption is that, in this context, privacy cannot be approached and examined only from the employee's (an individual) vantage point but the employer's (a group) point of view must also be taken into account, and that the concept has several dimensions (physical, social, informational and psychological). Even though privacy is a basic human need, there is no universally accepted definition of the concept and no consensus on whether an organisation can have privacy in the same way as people do. Many of the challenges surrounding privacy in the context of occupational health seem to be associated with the dual loyalties of occupational health professionals towards the employee and employer and with their simultaneous duties of disseminating and protecting information (informational privacy). Privacy is thus not an absolute value, but more research is needed to understand its multidimensional nature in the context of occupational health. PMID:16943333

Heikkinen, A; Launis, V; Wainwright, P; Leino-Kilpi, H

2006-09-01

341

Privacy and occupational health services  

PubMed Central

Privacy is a key ethical principle in occupational health services. Its importance is emphasised in several laws, in ethical codes of conduct as well as in the literature, yet there is only very limited empirical research on privacy in the occupational health context. Conceptual questions on privacy in the occupational health context are discussed. The baseline assumption is that, in this context, privacy cannot be approached and examined only from the employee's (an individual) vantage point but the employer's (a group) point of view must also be taken into account, and that the concept has several dimensions (physical, social, informational and psychological). Even though privacy is a basic human need, there is no universally accepted definition of the concept and no consensus on whether an organisation can have privacy in the same way as people do. Many of the challenges surrounding privacy in the context of occupational health seem to be associated with the dual loyalties of occupational health professionals towards the employee and employer and with their simultaneous duties of disseminating and protecting information (informational privacy). Privacy is thus not an absolute value, but more research is needed to understand its multidimensional nature in the context of occupational health.

Heikkinen, A; Launis, V; Wainwright, P; Leino-Kilpi, H

2006-01-01

342

Occupational Respiratory Cancer in Korea  

PubMed Central

Malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer are representative examples of occupational cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death, and the incidence of malignant mesothelioma is expected to increase sharply in the near future. Although information about lung carcinogen exposure is limited, it is estimated that the number of workers exposed to carcinogens has declined. The first official case of occupational cancer was malignant mesothelioma caused by asbestos exposure in the asbestos textile industry in 1992. Since then, compensation for occupational respiratory cancer has increased. The majority of compensated lung cancer was due to underlying pneumoconiosis. Other main causative agents of occupational lung cancer included asbestos, hexavalent chromium, and crystalline silica. Related jobs included welders, foundry workers, platers, plumbers, and vehicle maintenance workers. Compensated malignant mesotheliomas were associated with asbestos exposure. Epidemiologic studies conducted in Korea have indicated an elevated risk of lung cancer in pneumoconiosis patients, foundry workers, and asbestos textile workers. Occupational respiratory cancer has increased during the last 10 to 20 yr though carcinogen-exposed population has declined in the same period. More efforts to advance the systems for the investigation, prevention and management of occupational respiratory cancer are needed.

Kim, Hyoung Ryoul

2010-01-01

343

Metalworking Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on metalworking occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include blacksmiths, forge shop occupations, welders,…

Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

344

Occupational Component. 36-Level Courses. Teacher Resource Manual. Integrated Occupational Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This 36-level occupational component of Integrated Occupational Program (IOP) consists of 8 occupational clusters composed of 20 occupational courses. Each course contains learning activities so that students in Alberta (Canada) may develop occupational concepts, skills, and attitudes. This teacher's manual consists of the following sections:…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

345

The Influence of Occupational Persona: Why Some but not Others Develop Effective Occupational Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the influence of occupational persona on developing effective occupational strategies to facilitate meaningful occupation. The paper is informed by my doctoral research which analyzed, from an occupational and a feminist perspective, the life stories of six Australian women, all aged over 65. The aim of the research was to understand what influenced the women‚s occupational potential across

Alison Wicks

2004-01-01

346

[Case report: fatal diving-accident. Or: accident while diving?].  

PubMed

This example of a fatal diving accident shows how challenging such cases can be in pre-hospital and clinical care. There is no common mechanism in diving fatalities and more than one group of disorders coming along with decompression sickness. Diving medicine is not an element of medical education, which results in insecurity and hampers adequate therapy of diving incidents. This is aggravated by an insufficient availability of hyperbaric chambers in Germany. PMID:22354401

Böttcher, F; Jüttner, B; Krause, A; Rocha, M; Koppert, W

2012-02-01

347

[Working conditions and occupational morbidity in workers of the Russian Federation].  

PubMed

To create healthy and safe working conditions are constantly in the focus of attention at all governmental levels. To reduce deaths and traumatism from occupational accidents and diseases, by providing safe working conditions is one of the priorities of the demographic policy pursued by the Government of the Russian Federation. In the able-bodied population, the current mortality from natural causes (accidents, poisonings, and traumas, including occupation-related ones) exceeds that by 2.5 and 1.5 times in developed and developing countries, respectively. The worse conditions remain to be those in coal-mining and shipbuilding industries, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, agriculture, tractor-building and agricultural engineering, building materials industry, road-building machinery, logging industry, power machine building, and civil engineering. On-going checks reveal low sanitary culture and industrial discipline, no package of sanitary-and-prophylactic measures, as well as poor knowledge about sanitary legislation requirements in the heads of small-scale business and private undertakings. In 2006, the Russian Federation notified 357 cases of occupational diseases among medical workers, of which there were 196 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis and 39 cases of viral hepatitis. Despite the fact that the cases of occupational diseases are annually on the decrease, these are being underdetected. PMID:19645108

Onishchenko, G G

348

Interview protocols and ergonomics checklist for analysing overexertion back accidents among nursing personnel.  

PubMed

No documented strategy, including preventive strategies, for systematic investigation of overexertion back accidents among nursing personnel has yet been published. One aim of the present study was to develop standardized instruments for the systematic investigation of back accidents among nursing personnel in order to develop preventive strategies. Another aim was to produce a screening tool that could easily be used for identifying potential overexertion back accident hazards. Two structured interview protocols were developed, one for the injured person and one for the supervisor. An ergonomics checklist was designed for the most important spaces according to accident statistics: patient's room, corridor, toilet, and also one for 'other space', eg X-ray and treatment rooms. The instruments were developed by frequent discussions and adjustments in a task force of researchers and occupational health personnel. The protocols were tested in two steps before a final version was established. The construct validity and interobserver reliability of the checklist were tested by ten ergonomists, who checked a patient's room, a toilet and a corridor with some known hazards. The constructed validity agreement was 90% in 19 of 26 items in the checklist. The interobserver reliability had the same figures as the validity for all items in the checklist. The interview protocols and checklist appear to be suitable for systematic investigation of overexertion back accidents. PMID:15677020

Engkvist, I L; Hagberg, M; Wigaeus-Hjelm, E; Menckel, E; Ekenvall, L

1995-06-01

349

Implementation of virtual patients in the training for occupational health in Latin America.  

PubMed

Health professionals trained in occupational health are essential to reduce the burden of occupational accidents and diseases. However, training resources are limited globally. We aimed to promote occupational health and safety (OHS) using virtual patients (VPs) in Brazil, Chile, and Germany. Virtual patients were created in three Latin-American health centers. So-called "partner VPs" comparing the distinct health care systems were designed. Translation, adaptation to different medical and legal systems, expert review, implementation into under- and postgraduate teaching, and user evaluation were performed. Twelve VPs covering traditional and contemporary OHS issues are available in Spanish, Portuguese, and English. Overall, 2371 students used the VPs. The number of Latin American users who evaluated VP content and relevance for their professional career was statistically significantly higher than the number of German students. VPs are a feasible learning method for OHS in middle-income countries. Partner VPs seem to be useful for teaching global aspects. PMID:21344821

Radon, Katja; Carvalho, Denise; Calvo, Maria Julia; Struempell, Stephanie; Herrera, Veronica; Wengenroth, Laura; Kausel, Gudrun; Marchetti, Nella; Rojas, Daniel Segura; Russ, Paul; Hege, Inga

350

Tuberculosis among immigrants in the United Kingdom: the role of occupational health services.  

PubMed Central

Immigrant workers in the United Kingdom account for 7.8% of the working population. Their health problems fall into three groups--imported diseases, occupational accidents, and acquired diseases. In the latter group, tuberculosis is still a major problem. A retrospective study tracing notifiable cases of tuberculosis to points of entry at Heathrow Airport indicates that the majority of immigrants acquire the disease after entry. The occupational health services have a great role to play in detecting the new cases very early and in providing appropriate screening and follow-up. Proper co-ordination between occupational and community health services will give the best results and lead to a rapid decline of the disease.

Khogali, M

1979-01-01

351

Prospective method for estimating occupational health risks in new energy technologies  

SciTech Connect

In design, development, and acceptance of new energy technologies, concern for health and safety is increasingly important. Determining risks for emerging technologies is difficult because health statistics associated with these new alternatives are unavailable. Nevertheless boundaries on such risks must be determined to identify potentially significant hazards and to permit technology comparisons to be made. An approach to determining occupational health costs is to disaggregate labor requirements of an emerging industy by different worker classifications. Risks to workers can then be determined for these classifications from occupational health statistics of related industries. By summing risks for each worker classification, prospective estimates of individual and societal risk from an emerging technology can be developed. Although this approach identifies accident-related effects, it cannot be used to quantitate occupationally induced disease. An example of this method analyzing different photovoltaic fabrication alternatives is given. Individual vs. societal risk is considered in these analyses.

Moskowitz, P.D.; Briggs, T.; Ungers, L.; Hamilton, L.D.

1981-09-01

352

Maxillofacial trauma due to work-related accidents.  

PubMed

Even though numerous reports on maxillofacial trauma exist, only a few give detailed information about work-related maxillofacial injuries. The purpose of this study was to reveal the significance of maxillofacial injuries related to accidents occurring at work by evaluating a large number of patients with maxillofacial injuries over a 9-year period. Out of the 8704 trauma patients treated between 1991 and 1999 in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the University of Innsbruck, Austria, 463 (5.4%) were injured at work. All charts were reviewed and analyzed according to age, gender, cause of accident, occupation, type of injury, location and frequency of fractures. The highest incidence of maxillofacial injury was found among construction workers (a total of 124 patients, 26.8%), followed by craftsmen (102 patients, 22.0%) and office employees (69 patients, 14.9%). The sex distribution showed an overall male-to-female ratio of 11.8:1 and those in the age group most affected were between 20 and 29 years of age. The most frequent cause of injury was a blow in 48.4%, followed by falls and falls over obstacles, accounting for 27.9% and 7.1%, respectively. Of all trauma, 45.4% (210 persons) sustained 423 maxillofacial fractures, 31.7% (147 patients) suffered 232 dento-alveolar injuries, and 21.2% (98 people) showed 430 soft-tissue injuries. One-fifth (20.7%) of all patients displayed concomitant injuries with cerebral and cranial trauma being the most common. The probability of sustaining maxillofacial trauma at work is correlated to the nature of the occupation. Individuals (mostly men) using tools or machines at work are exposed to a much higher risk of work-related maxillofacial trauma. PMID:11936407

Hächl, O; Tuli, T; Schwabegger, A; Gassner, R

2002-02-01

353

Uncovering your hidden occupancy costs.  

PubMed

Senior managers at large companies may not believe that they can have much impact on the "bricks and mortar" of their cost structure. They may even think that occupancy costs are too insignificant to worry about, too technical to analyze, and too fixed to control. But as real estate consultant Mahlon Apgar argues, occupancy costs can hurt a company's earnings, share value, and overall performance. On the other hand, every dollar saved drops straight to the bottom line. Shearson Lehman Brothers, for example, has found that it can save as much as $20 million annually by reducing occupancy costs in its branch offices and headquarters. Managing occupancy costs isn't easy. But it is timely. As companies strive to improve productivity by consolidating functions and downsizing staff, they are saddled with excess office space. Expansions abroad present completely different market conditions that put a premium on reducing occupancy costs. At the same time, the changing nature of work is challenging deeply held beliefs about the workplace, and, consequently, traditional expectations of office space are giving way to innovations that are less costly and more productive. To manage occupancy costs, managers must be able to identify their components, measure their impact, understand what drives them, and develop options to change them. Four basic tools help diagnose problems: a cost history, a loss analysis, a component analysis, and a lease aging profile. Understanding cost drivers like leasing, location, and layout can give executives the insights they need to reduce occupancy costs while improving the effectiveness of facilities to support day-to-day operations. PMID:10126151

Apgar, M

354

Relations of occupational stress to occupational class in Japanese civil servants--analysis by two occupational stress models.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to identify relations between occupational stress and occupational class in Japanese civil servants, using two occupational stress models-the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Model and the Job Demand-Control (JDC) Model. The subjects were employees of three local public organizations. We distributed self-administered questionnaires and assessed occupational stress by ERI and JDC. We used seven occupational categories based on the Standard Occupational Classification for Japan. The data of 6,423 male and 1,606 female subjects were analyzed by logistic regression analysis to obtain odds ratios (OR) for relations between occupational stress and occupational class. In JDC, male clerical workers, transport/communication workers and protective service workers showed a significantly higher OR of being in the high occupational stress group, compared to managers. In ERI, male professionals/technicians, transport/communication workers, clerical workers and protective service workers showed a significantly higher prevalence OR, compared to managers, the two models giving different results. In ERI, female production workers/laborers and clerical workers had a significantly lower prevalence OR, compared to managers. The results of this study showed that occupational stress differed by occupational class and the two occupational stress models gave different results for occupational classes with high occupational stress. PMID:17485869

Kawaharada, Mariko; Saijo, Yasuaki; Yoshioka, Eiji; Sato, Tetsuro; Sato, Hirokazu; Kishi, Reiko

2007-04-01

355

Risk of injury for occupants of motor vehicle collisions from unbelted occupants  

PubMed Central

Objective: Unbelted occupants may increase the risk of injury for other occupants in a motor vehicle collision (MVC). This study evaluated the association between occupant restraint use and the risk of injury (including death) to other vehicle occupants. Design: A population based cohort study. Setting: United States. Subjects: MVC occupants (n = 152 191 unweighted, n = 18 426 684 weighted) seated between a belted or unbelted occupant and the line of the principal direction of force in frontal, lateral, and rear MVCs were sampled from the 1991–2002 National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System. Offset MVCs were not included in the study. Main outcome measure: Risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals for injury (including death) for occupants seated contiguous to unbelted occupants compared to occupants seated contiguous to belted occupants. Risk ratios were adjusted for at risk occupant's sex, age, seating position, vehicle type, collision type, travel speed, crash severity, and at risk occupants' own seat belt use. Results: Exposure to unbelted occupants was associated with a 40% increased risk of any injury. Belted at risk occupants were at a 90% increased risk of injury but unbelted occupants were not at increased risk. Risks were similar for non-incapacitating and capacitating injuries. There was a 4.8-fold increased risk of death for exposed belted occupants but no increased risk of death for unbelted occupants. Conclusions: Belted occupants are at an increased risk of injury and death in the event of a MVC from unbelted occupants.

MacLennan, P; McGwin, G; Metzger, J; Moran, S; Rue, L

2004-01-01

356

FFTF containment of hypothetical accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FFTF facility was evaluated for the consequences of an HCDA followed by failure of in-vessel post-accident heat removal, reactor vessel melt-through, and release of core debris and sodium coolant to the reactor cavity. Two cases are presented based on parameters considered to represent upper limits for rates of chemical and thermal attack of the reactor cavity concrete containment structure.

R. D. Peak; H. C. Martin; R. L. Jensen; D. D. Stepnewski; J. P. Hale

1979-01-01

357

[Occupational diseases in Poland in 1978].  

PubMed

The authors analyse all occupational disease cases found in Poland in 1978. Individual occupational diseases certificates sent to the Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lód? by provincial sanitary-epidemiological stations are information sources. The collected material makes us draw the following concusions: 1. Occupational diseases incidence in Poland in 1978 got increased by 8.7%, compared to 1977. This increase is mainly related to occupational hearing impairment, infectious diseases, diseases of skin and mucous membranes. 2. Occupational intoxications prevalence was decreased. In 1978 the case rate in this group of diseases was lowered by 24%. 3. Among occupational diseases the following were most frequent: hearing impairments, infectious and invasive diseases, conioses, diseases of skin and mucous membranes, vibration disease and poisonings. 4. Most occupational diseases cases in 1978 resulted from many-years occupational exposure to hazardous agents. PMID:6999287

Starzy?ski, Z; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N

1980-01-01

358

Occupations of SSI recipients who work.  

PubMed

This article uses the 2007 American Community Survey to estimate the occupational distribution of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) disability recipients aged 18-61 who work, and it compares their occupational distribution with that of working nonrecipients with and without disabilities. Based on models of occupational choice for working SSI recipients and nonrecipients, predicted occupational distributions are also estimated to understand what occupations are available to SSI recipients. Unlike the nonrecipient populations that are largely composed of sales- and office-based occupations (25 percent), the most common occupations of SSI recipients who work are in services (34 percent) and production, transportation, and material moving (30 percent), although sales- and office-based occupations are also common for SSI recipients (22 percent). The occupational distribution of working SSI recipients is also more concentrated than that of nonrecipient populations. Dissimilarity indices are used to compare the predicted and actual occupational distributions of the SSI recipient population and nonrecipient populations. More than one-half of the difference between the occupations of working SSI recipients and nonrecipients can be explained by demographic characteristics, human capital, and disability type. Additionally, nonemployed SSI recipients have similar predicted occupational distributions as currently employed SSI recipients. Given the estimated occupational distributions and the average earnings of individuals in the most common occupations of SSI recipients, the results suggest that more targeted vocational training may provide expanded opportunities for employment. PMID:19961064

Hemmeter, Jeffrey

2009-01-01

359

Occupational hepatic disorders in Korea.  

PubMed

Occupational hepatic disorders are classified into toxic hepatitis, viral hepatitis, and chemical-induced malignancy in Korea. Toxic hepatitis cases were reported in workers who were exposed to dimethylformamide, dimethylacetamide, or trichloroethylene. Pre-placement medical examination and regular follow-up are necessary to prevent the development of toxic hepatitis. Viral hepatitis was chiefly reported among health care workers such as doctors, nurses and clinical pathology technicians who could easily be exposed to blood. Preventive measures for these groups therefore include vaccination and serum monitoring programs. Hepatic angiosarcoma caused by vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) exposure is a very well known occupational disease and it has not been officially reported in Korea yet. Some cases of hepatocellular carcinoma were legally approved for compensation as an occupational disease largely by overwork and stress, but not supported by enough scientific evidence. Effort to find the evidence of its causal relationship is needed. PMID:21258588

Kim, Hyoung Ryoul; Kim, Tae Woo

2010-12-15

360

Occupational Hepatic Disorders in Korea  

PubMed Central

Occupational hepatic disorders are classified into toxic hepatitis, viral hepatitis, and chemical-induced malignancy in Korea. Toxic hepatitis cases were reported in workers who were exposed to dimethylformamide, dimethylacetamide, or trichloroethylene. Pre-placement medical examination and regular follow-up are necessary to prevent the development of toxic hepatitis. Viral hepatitis was chiefly reported among health care workers such as doctors, nurses and clinical pathology technicians who could easily be exposed to blood. Preventive measures for these groups therefore include vaccination and serum monitoring programs. Hepatic angiosarcoma caused by vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) exposure is a very well known occupational disease and it has not been officially reported in Korea yet. Some cases of hepatocellular carcinoma were legally approved for compensation as an occupational disease largely by overwork and stress, but not supported by enough scientific evidence. Effort to find the evidence of its causal relationship is needed.

Kim, Tae Woo

2010-01-01

361

A program for thai rubber tappers to improve the cost of occupational health and safety.  

PubMed

The purposes of this research were to determine the cost of occupational health and safety and work-related health problems, accidents, injuries and illnesses in rubber tappers by implementing a program in which rubber tappers were provided training on self-care in order to reduce and prevent work-related accidents, injuries and illnesses. Data on costs for healthcare, the prevention and the treatment of work-related accidents, injuries and illnesses were collected by interview using a questionnaire. The findings revealed that there was no relationship between what was spent on healthcare and the prevention of work-related accidents, injuries and illnesses and that spent on the treatment of work-related accidents, injuries and illnesses. The proportion of the injured subjects after the program implementation was significantly less than that before the program implementation (p<0.001). The level of pain after the program implementation was significantly less than that before the program implementation (p<0.05). The treatment costs incurred after the program implementation were significantly less than those incurred before the program implementation (p<0.001). It was demonstrated that this program raised the health awareness of rubber tappers. It strongly empowered the leadership in health promotion for the community. PMID:20562502

Arphorn, Sara; Chaonasuan, Porntip; Pruktharathikul, Vichai; Singhakajen, Vajira; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai

2010-01-01

362

Occupational exposure and lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for male and the second most usual cancer for women after breast cancer. Currently there are available several non-specific cytotoxic agents and several targeted agents for lung cancer therapy. However; early stage diagnosis is still unavailable and several efforts are being made towards this direction. Novel biomarkers are being investigated along with new biopsy techniques. The occupational and environmental exposure to carcinogenic agents is an everyday phenomenon. Therefore until efficient early diagnosis is available, avoidance of exposure to carcinogenic agents is necessary. In the current mini-review occupational and environmental carcinogenic agents will be presented.

Spyratos, Dionysios; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kallianos, Anastasios; Rapti, Aggeliki; Li, Chen; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

2013-01-01

363

OUTLOOK BY DENVER AREA OCCUPATIONS. OCCUPATIONS IN COLORADO, PART II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|EMPLOYMENT STATISTICS FOR 1960, ESTIMATED EMPLOYMENT FOR 1965 AND 1970, ESTIMATES OF ADDITIONAL WORKERS NEEDED BY 1970, AND SALARY INFORMATION ARE PROVIDED FOR A WIDE RANGE OF OCCUPATIONS IN THE DENVER AREA. DATA WERE OBTAINED FROM A DENVER STUDY, "JOBS AND THE FUTURE," BY ROBERT VAUGHAN OF THE MOUNTAIN STATES TELEPHONE CO., 1962, AND THE U.S.…

Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins.

364

On the Relationship Between First Occupation and Current Occupational Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three alternative models are presented to represent the decreased importance of the status of first job on current occupational status overtime; there is evidence that the effects of first job erode with time. Models not explicitly incorporating labor force experience may suffer a serious specification error. (Author/AJ)|

Beck, E. M.; Madans, J. H.

1974-01-01

365

MELCOR analysis of the TMI-2 accident  

SciTech Connect

The MELCOR computer code has been used to analyze the first 174 minutes of the TMI-2 accident. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of analyzing severe accidents in nuclear power plants. Comparison of the code predictions to the available data shows that MELCOR is capable of modeling the key events of the TMI-2 accident and reasonable agreement with the available data is obtained. In particular, the core degradation and hydrogen generation models agree with best-estimate information available for this phase of the accident. While the code uses simplified modeling, all important characteristics of the reactor system and the accident phenomena could be modeled. This exercise demonstrates that MELCOR is applicable to severe accident analysis. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Boucheron, E.A.; Kelly, J.E.

1988-01-01

366

Clinical aspects of the health disturbances in Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident clean-up workers (liquidators) from Latvia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health status of some 6,000 workers from Latvia who went to clean-up the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) site following\\u000a the explosion on 26 April 1986 has been analyzed. The data on these workers have been recorded in the Latvian State Register\\u000a of Occupational disease patients and people exposed to ionizing radiation due to Chernobyl NPP accident (Latvian State

M. E. Eglite; T. J. Zvagule; K. D. Rainsford; J. D. Reste; E. V. ?urbakova; N. N. Kurjane

2009-01-01

367

The accident liability of British car drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data had been collected from a structured sample of just over 18 500 drivers using a postal questionnaire, to determine the relationship between their accident liability—defined as the expected number of accident involvement per year—and their exposure to driving, age, driving experience, sex and socio?economic group. The statistical model developed from this data suggests that accident liability is dependent mainly

G. Maycock; C. R. Lockwóod

1993-01-01

368

Psychiatric consequences of road traffic accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine the psychiatric consequences of being a road traffic accident victim. DESIGN--Follow up study of road accident victims for up to one year. SETTING--Emergency department of the John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford. SUBJECTS--188 consecutive road accident victims aged 18-70 with multiple injuries (motorcycle or car) or whiplash neck injury, who had not been unconscious for more than 15 minutes, and

R Mayou; B Bryant; R Duthie

1993-01-01

369

Skidding Accidents: Wet-Weather Accident Experience, Human Factors, and Legal Aspects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 10 papers deal with the following areas: Skidding accidents, friction numbers, and the legal aspects involved report of the PIARC technical committee on slipperiness and evenness; traffic accidents and road surface skidding resistance; the location an...

K. H. Schulze

1976-01-01

370

Summer activities: incidents and accidents.  

PubMed

Summer invites activities and sports that are unique to this time of year. Although safety is a priority, there are commonly accidents and incidents that occur while individuals are participating in these activities. The prevalence and incidence of several types of injuries and trauma related to water activities, camping, caving, backpacking, and hiking are discussed. Treatment of nonfatal drowning is discussed, along with the pathophysiologic process that must be corrected for optimal outcomes. Summer is a time for outdoor cooking, campfires, and the traditional Fourth of July firework pastimes, which can result in admissions to critical care areas. PMID:23692945

Krau, Stephen D

2013-03-27

371

Systematics of Reconstructed Process Facility Criticality Accidents  

SciTech Connect

The systematics of the characteristics of twenty-one criticality accidents occurring in nuclear processing facilities of the Russian Federation, the United States, and the United Kingdom are examined. By systematics the authors mean the degree of consistency or agreement between the factual parameters reported for the accidents and the experimentally known conditions for criticality. The twenty-one reported process criticality accidents are not sufficiently well described to justify attempting detailed neutronic modeling. However, results of classic hand calculations confirm the credibility of the reported accident conditions.

Pruvost, N.L.; McLaughlin, T.P.; Monahan, S.P.

1999-09-19

372

Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, Vermont, 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Microfiche of standard tabulations produced by the Supplementary Data System (SDS). This document contains 30 tabulations of characteristics of occupational injuries and illnesses related to industry, and occupation of the injured or ill worker related to...

1978-01-01

373

Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, Vermont, 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains 50 tabulations of characteristics of occupational injuries and illnesses related to industry, and occupation of the injured or ill worker related to age. Data were compiled by the Vermont Department of Labor from records of workers'...

1980-01-01

374

Occupational Injuries and Illnesses-Vermont, 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains 50 tabulations of characteristics of occupational injuries and illnesses related to industry, occupation, and age of the injured or ill worker. Data were compiled by the Vermont Department of Labor and Industry from records of worke...

1980-01-01

375

Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, New Mexico, 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains 56 tabulations of occupational injuries and illnesses related to industry, and occupation of the injured or ill worker related to age. The data were compiled by the New Mexico Labor and Industrial Commission from records of workers'...

1980-01-01

376

Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, Tennessee, 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Microfiche of standard tabulations produced by the Supplementary Data System (SDS). This document contains 28 tabulations of characteristics of occupational injuries and illnesses related to industry, and occupation of the injured or ill worker related to...

1979-01-01

377

Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, Utah, 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains 56 tabulations of characteristics of occupational injuries and illnesses related to industry, occupation, duration of employment, sex, wage, and age of the injured or ill worker. Data were compiled by the Utah Industrial Commission ...

1981-01-01

378

Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, Wisconsin, 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains 70 tabulations of characteristics of occupational injuries and illnesses related to industry, occupation, wage, age, and sex of the injured or ill worker, and indemnity compensation of the injury or illness. Data were compiled by th...

1981-01-01

379

Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, Tennessee, 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Microfiche of standard tabulations produced by the Supplementary Data System (SDS). This document contains 30 tabulations of characteristics of occupational injuries and illnesses related to industry, and occupation of the injured or ill worker related to...

1979-01-01

380

Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, Tennessee, 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains 52 tabulations of characteristics of occupational injuries and illnesses related to industry, occupation, wage, sex, and age of the injured or ill worker. Data were compiled by the Tennessee Department of Labor from records of worke...

1981-01-01

381

Use and Perceived Effectiveness of Occupational Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Because counselors lacked practical work experiences, they had difficulty relating to students about occupational information. Administrative problems and the school's philosophy and attitudes were also obstacles in promoting the effective use of occupational information. (Author/CM)|

Young, Darius R.

1981-01-01

382

Occupational Safety and Health. A Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication consists of an annotated bibliography of published sources treating occupational safety and health both generally and specifically. The literature included deals primarily with causes, and possible prevention, of occupational injury and di...

1974-01-01

383

Jobs and Gender: Sex and Occupational Prestige.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based on sample surveys, the reported research provides information on the prestige of predominantly male and predominantly female occupations, the influence of sex of the incumbent on occupational prestige, a prestige score for the housewife, an analysis...

C. E. Bose

1973-01-01

384

Non-occupational exposure to silica dust.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to silica occurs at workplaces in factories like quartz crushing facilities (silica flour milling), agate, ceramic, slate pencil, glass, stone quarries and mines, etc., Non-occupational exposure to silica dust can be from industrial sources in the vicinity of the industry as well as non-industrial sources. Recently, public concern regarding non-occupational or ambient exposure to crystalline silica has emerged making it important to gather information available on non-occupational exposures to silica dust and non-occupational silicosis. This paper reviews various non-occupational exposures reported in literature including some studies by the author. Methodology used in assessment of non-occupational exposures, standards for non-occupational exposures to silica dust and indirect estimation of cumulative risk % are also discussed. PMID:23776316

Bhagia, L J

2012-09-01

385

Role of Atopy in Occupational Skin Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies were conducted to investigate the role of atopy in occupational skin disease. Questionnaires were developed and sent to facilities with one or more closed cases of occupational skin disease, according to the South Carolina Industrial Commission, a...

E. Shmunes

1981-01-01

386

Non-occupational exposure to silica dust  

PubMed Central

Occupational exposure to silica occurs at workplaces in factories like quartz crushing facilities (silica flour milling), agate, ceramic, slate pencil, glass, stone quarries and mines, etc., Non-occupational exposure to silica dust can be from industrial sources in the vicinity of the industry as well as non-industrial sources. Recently, public concern regarding non-occupational or ambient exposure to crystalline silica has emerged making it important to gather information available on non-occupational exposures to silica dust and non-occupational silicosis. This paper reviews various non-occupational exposures reported in literature including some studies by the author. Methodology used in assessment of non-occupational exposures, standards for non-occupational exposures to silica dust and indirect estimation of cumulative risk % are also discussed.

Bhagia, L. J.

2012-01-01

387

Occupational Injuries and Illnesses-Wyoming, 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains 54 tabulations of characteristics of occupational injuries and illnesses related to industry, occupation, and age of the injured or ill worker. Data were compiled by the Wyoming Department of Labor and Statistics from records of wor...

1980-01-01

388

Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, Wyoming, 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document contains 36 tabulations of characteristics of occupational injuries or illnesses related to industry, and occupation of the injured related to age. The data were compiled by the Wyoming Department of Labor from records of workers' compensatio...

1978-01-01

389

Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, Wyoming, 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains 54 tabulations of characteristics of occupational injuries and illnesses related to industry, and occupation of the injured or ill worker related to age. Data were compiled by the Wyoming Department of Labor from records of workers'...

1980-01-01

390

Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, Oregon, 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains 50 tabulations of characteristics of occupational injuries and illnesses related to industry, and occupation of the injured or ill worker related to age. Data were compiled by the Oregon Workmen's Compensation Board from records of ...

1980-01-01

391

Traffic accident segmentation by means of latent class clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic accident data are often heterogeneous, which can cause certain relationships to remain hidden. Therefore, traffic accident analysis is often performed on a small subset of traffic accidents or several models are built for various traffic accident types. In this paper, we examine the effectiveness of a clustering technique, i.e. latent class clustering, for identifying homogenous traffic accident types. Firstly,

Benoît Depaire; Geert Wets; Koen Vanhoof

2008-01-01

392

POSSIBILITIES OF TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS AND RISK CRASH EVALUATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the traffic accident rate on roads and highways and possibilities of risk evaluation related to traffic accident occurrence based on factors that were the causes of accidents. A new term - risk of traffic accident occurrence is a product of probability of accident occurrence and its impacts. The results are presented by way of example that uses

Stodola Jiri

393

Safety Management of Traffic Accident Scene Based on System Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic system is a dynamic complicated one which is constituted of some factors. Traffic accident will happen if these factors mismatch with each other. Safety level of traffic accident scene affects occurrence rate of secondary accident. In order to evaluate safety level of traffic accident scene, prevent from secondary accident happening and protect the policemen, crowds by the scene and

Wen-hui Zhang; Hong-guo Xu; Biao Wu; Sheng-qin Li

2008-01-01

394

Accounting. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Accounting Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) is one of a series of competency lists, verified by expert workers, that have evolved from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from throughout Ohio. This OCAP identifies the…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

395

Allied Health Occupations. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A curriculum is provided for a full-year course that offers a practical and career-oriented exploratory program dealing with allied health careers. Targeted for high school juniors and seniors with little or no life science background and an interest in health occupations, the course is designed to be a hands-on, experience-oriented practical…

Farmington Public Schools, CT.

396

Aerospace/Aviation Science Occupations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The guide was developed to provide secondary students the opportunity to study aviation and aerospace education from the conceptual and career approach coupled with general education specifically related to science. Unit plans were prepared to motivate, develop skills, and offer counseling to the students of aviation science and occupational

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Occupational Education.

397

Drafting. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Drafting Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) is one of a series of competency lists, verified by expert workers, that have evolved from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from throughout Ohio. This OCAP identifies the…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

398

Administrative Support Occupations Skill Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document establishes a set of performance expectations based on current practices in administrative support occupations. It is designed to assist individuals, training providers, employers, management personnel, and professional organizations in matching knowledge, abilities, and interests to knowledge and skills required for success in…

Professional Secretaries International, Kansas City, MO.

399

Education, Occupation, Hierarchy and Earnings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Attempts to estimate a recursive model of earnings distribution with education, occupation, and hierarchy, using individual data for Japanese males. Proves that hierarchical position is very significant in determining earnings level. Compares the influence of education and earnings distribution in Japan and France. Includes 3 tables and 20…

Tachibanaki, Toshiaki

1988-01-01

400

Employment Predictions in Secretarial Occupation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The developments in technology and the intense business life make secretarial work as an indispensable component of business administration. Besides on the job training and in service training at workplaces, with the education given at Secretarial Vocational Lycees, at Vocational High Schools and at university levels, qualified employees are trained. Also the spread of the occupational secretarial courses (on topics

Ali Hal?c?; Burcu Y?lmaz; Murat Kas?mo?lu

2011-01-01

401

Revisiting America's Occupation of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay surveys and evaluates the last decade of English-language scholarship on the Occupation of Japan, locating it within American history, Japanese history, post-colonial studies, and the new international history, noting how new work in each field affects our interpretations.

Laura Hein

2011-01-01

402

Pathways to STEMM Support Occupations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The preceding articles in this issue of the "Peabody Journal of Education" have focused on preparation for and entry into professional positions in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM). This article shifts the focus from professional positions to STEMM support occupations, focusing on the preparation necessary for…

Solberg, V. Scott; Kimmel, Linda G.; Miller, Jon D.

2012-01-01

403

Occupational Safety and Health Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing concern for safety in both the workplace and in consumer products will create many new jobs through the mid-1980's--especially in private industry. The largest number of safety professionals are safety engineers; others include fire protection engineers, industrial hygienists, loss control and occupational health consultants, and…

Wash, Pat

1975-01-01

404

Accountability; Evaluation for Occupational Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Accountability as applied to the educational process is the ability to demonstrate cost effectiveness in meeting predetermined educational philosophy and goals in various contexts. The book addresses itself to the development and utilization of a system of accountability for occupational education because that area lends itself more easily to the…

Johnson, Milo P.; Grafsky, Albert J., Jr.

405

Occupational exposure and urological cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational exposure is definitely a major cause of cancer. In the field of urology, the urinary bladder is the most important target. A classical cause of bladder cancer is exposure to carcinogenic aromatic amines, especially benzidine and ß-naphthylamine. Such exposures were related to work places in the chemical industry, implying production and processing of classical aromatic amines, and in the

Klaus Golka; Andreas Wiese; Giorgio Assennato; Hermann M. Bolt

2004-01-01

406

Chronologic History of Occupational Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To provide a chronologic review of growing knowledge in occupational medicine relating work and work hazards to health, and to provide a perspective on the lessions learned from the frequent inattention or misrepresentation of hazards. Methods: Many books on the social and medical history of work including epidemiology and toxicology were reviewed, as well as published papers and interviews.

Michael Gochfeld

2005-01-01

407

Occupational Therapy in the Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the school setting, an occupational therapist has various rolls. The overall goal of an OT in the school is to help the child master the skills necessary to be successful in a school. This may include handwriting, fine motor skills, organization, modifying the classroom, etc. An OT evaluates the child's developmental performance, observes the child's home and school environment,

Laura Day

2003-01-01

408

Post Occupancy Evaluation in Scotland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Scottish Executive, the devolved government for Scotland, is engaging with stakeholders to achieve excellence in the school estate through Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE). Design of the school environment has a direct impact on teaching and learning, activities which can be supported or frustrated by many building elements. Through a…

Watson, Chris; Thomson, Keith

2004-01-01

409

Sex, Schooling, and Occupational Status.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses a study undertaken to determine the process of occupational achievement among men and women from labor market entry to midlife. Data are based on a longitudinal study of Wisconsin high school seniors. Findings indicated that, in contrast to several earlier studies, there are marked sex differences in the acquisition and maintenance of…

Sewell, William H.; And Others

1980-01-01

410

Employee occupational stress in banking.  

PubMed

Occupational stress literature emphasizes the importance of assessment and management of work related stress. The recognition of the harmful physical and psychological effects of stress on both individuals and organizations is widely studied in many parts of the world. However, in other regions such research is only at the introductory stages. The present study examines occupational stress of employees in the banking sector. A sample of 60 bank employees at different organizational levels and educational backgrounds was used. Data collection utilized the Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI). Results of data analysis provided evidence that employees' educational levels affect the degree of stress they experience in various ways. Bank employees cannot afford the time to relax and "wind down" when they are faced with work variety, discrimination, favoritism, delegation and conflicting tasks. The study also shows the degree to which some employees tend to bring work-related problems home (and take family problems to work) depends on their educational background, the strength of the employees' family support, and the amount of time available for them to relax. Finally, the drinking habits (alcohol) of the employees were found to play a significant role in determining the levels of occupational stress. PMID:15860902

Michailidis, Maria; Georgiou, Yiota

2005-01-01

411

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS, INDIVIDUAL INSTRUCTION MATERIALS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE 79 ITEMS LISTED IN THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY WERE SELECTED FOR THE BENEFIT OF TEACHER-COORDINATORS OF OFFICE OCCUPATIONS PROGRAMS. EXAMPLES OF MATERIAL INCLUDED ARE A COMBINATION TEXTBOOK-WORKBOOK WHICH PROVIDES TRAINING IN ALPHABETIC INDEXING, A COMBINATION TEXTBOOK-WORKBOOK WHICH CONTAINS PENMANSHIP DRILLS AND DIAGNOSTIC DRILLS, A PAPERBOUND BOOK…

Iowa State Dept. of Public Instruction, Des Moines.

412

Maine's Occupational Needs to 1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A survey of Maine industries provides information on occupational growth so that educators, guidance counselors, and directors of educational and training institutions can make assessments of future manpower needs. Projections are made for all segments of the economy which are covered by the Federal Insurance Contributions Act, or about 75…

Clark, David H.

413

Accident Patterns on Arterial Streets in Dublin with Above Average Accident Rate 1980/82.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An examination of the complete list of High Accident Locations in Dublin City showed that a number of urban arterial streets had a higher than average accident rate. It was decided to examine accident patterns on these streets with a view to determining t...

M. McCarthy

1984-01-01

414

Accident evolution and barrier function and accident evolution management modeling of nuclear power plant incidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every analysis of an accident or an incident is founded on a more or less explicit model of what an accident is. On a general level, the current approach models an incident or accident in a nuclear power plant as a failure to maintain a stable state with all variables within their ranges of stability. There are two main sets

Svenson

1992-01-01

415

Older drivers and accidents: A meta analysis and data mining application on traffic accident data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teenage driving and associated accidents have been thoroughly studied. With the graying of our population in the United States, a focus on senior drivers and related accidents is needed. Unfortunately, there is not one comprehensive study that reviews the major existing studies conducted on senior drivers and accidents. In examining the literature, it also appears that data mining has rarely

Evrim Bayam; Jay Liebowitz; William W. Agresti

2005-01-01

416

Occupational health and safety in agriculture: situation and priorities at the beginning of the third millennium.  

PubMed

Agriculture is a human activity, which includes a number of different tasks and occupies a huge number of people worldwide. Estimates of World Bank for 2003 suggest that 51% of globalpopulation lives in rural areas. ILO estimates that 1.3 billion of workers are engaged in agriculture, and they represent almost a half of the total number of economically active subjects (2,838,897,404). In developed countries, agriculture workers are only a small fraction of the whole work force (up to 9% according to ILO data), while in developing countries, especially in Asia, agriculture workers represent up to the 60% of the total work force. Most agriculture workers reside in Asia, in the Pacific (74%) and in Africa (16%). ILO estimates suggest that half of fatal occupational injuries in the world are attributable to agriculture. This means that around 170,000 agriculture workers die every year as a consequence of occupational injuries. Using the same estimate, half of the fatal accidents could be linked to agricultural activities (more than 130 million). Comparing this estimate with the 6.328.217 people injured in war in 2002 or with the 20-50 million injured victims of road accidents, one has a much clearer picture about the importance of preventing agricultural injuries. In a complicated situation such as occupational health and safety problems in agriculture, it is not so easy to select priorities clearly. But "legalization" of agriculture workers could be a key to solving all the other problems. Actual data on fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries in agriculture show that occupational health and safety issues are among the top priorities for that discipline. PMID:17017380

Bulat, P; Somaruga, Chiara; Colosio, C

417

Business Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focusing on business occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include accountants, advertising workers, collections…

Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

418

Mathematics and Related Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focusing on mathematics and related occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include accountants, actuaries,…

Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

419

Occupational Identity Status, Occupational Preference, and Field Dependence in Maori and Pakeha Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational identity status was assessed, using Marcia's (1967) interview method, in Maori (Polynesian) and Pakeha (White) high-school boys. Marcia's method is based on Erikson's (1950) conception of the adolescent stage of ego development, identity v. identity diffusion. More Maoris than Pakehas were occupational identity diffusions: they were not committed to an occupation and had not seriously contemplated possible occupations. More

James W. Chapman; John G. Nicholls

1976-01-01

420

Construction Occupations--Structural. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on structural construction occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include bricklayers, stonemasons, marble…

Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

421

Environmental Scientists and Conservation Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focusing on environmental scientists and conservation occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include foresters,…

Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

422

Occupational Component. 36-Level Courses. Program of Studies/Curriculum Guide. Integrated Occupational Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Integrated Occupational Program (IOP) enables students in Alberta (Canada) who have experienced difficulty in learning to develop essential concepts, skills, and attitudes in the context of one or more occupational clusters. The IOP has four levels: occupational awareness (grades 8-9), career exploration (level 16), occupational orientation…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

423

Estimating sex discrimination in professional occupations with the dictionary of occupational titles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although women have gained entrance into some of the top professional occupations, they appear to have achieved few economic gains from this progress. The extensive occupational segregation existing between men and women in all occupations handicaps investigations of the sources of this persistent inequality. This article proposes an exploratory method for identifying occupations containing comparable work and presents an analysis

Alice Abel Kemp

1990-01-01

424

Co?occupation: The challenges of defining concepts original to occupational science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term co?occupation was coined in the early days of occupational science and has begun to accrue a grouping of studies that shed light on its dynamic. Its lasting nature as a concept original to occupational science may be due to the fact that it is grounded in the interdisciplinary play literature, as well as the interests of occupational scientists

Doris Pierce

2009-01-01

425

Driving Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on driving occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include intercity busdrivers, local transit busdrivers,…

Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

426

Protective and Related Service Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on protective and related service occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include correction officers,…

Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

427

Mothers, perceptions of their occupations and co-occupations when mothering a child with feeding concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occupations of mothering have recently gained attention in occupation-based research, however many aspects of mothering remain virtually unexplored. The purpose of this mixed methods study is to gain insight regarding mothers‚ perceptions of their occupations and co-occupations when mothering a child with feeding concerns. Data is being gathered via survey with two groups, mothers who perceive their children to

Kristin Winston

2007-01-01

428

Occupations and Social Mobility in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The pervasiveness of job-holding, the stability of occupational requisites and rewards, and the consensus on occupational social standing combine to make occupational incumbency the best single indicator of social standing, and occupational change the bes...

R. M. Hauser D. L. Featherman

1976-01-01

429

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards. Beef Production Cluster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document, which is intended as a guide for workforce preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the beef production cluster. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and…

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

430

Home Economics Education Guide for Occupational Foods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to assist home economics teachers in providing a training program to prepare high school students for jobs in foods occupations, this curriculum guide contains a two-year course of study in occupational foods. The first-year program consists of nineteen units, as follow: (1) introduction to food service occupations; (2) sanitation; (3)…

Looney, Era F.

431

Treatment model: Occupational therapy for sexual dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational therapy's health care delivery is concerned in returning patients to as high a level of performance as possible in their activities of daily living. Occupational therapists' efforts, therefore, are concerted toward the patients' ability to successfully resume their various roles. Patients are assisted in managing their household, clothing, bathroom and bed activities, etc. This paper indicates that occupational therapists

Evelyn M. Andamo

1980-01-01

432

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Mechanical Drafting Cluster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document, which is intended as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the mechanical drafting cluster. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and…

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

433

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Automotive Technician Cluster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document, which is intended as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the automotive technician cluster. The document begins with overviews of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and…

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

434

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Architectural Drafting Cluster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document, which is intended as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the architectural drafting cluster. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and…

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

435

[Occupationally mediated morbidity in aviation specialists].  

PubMed

General hygienic evaluation covered workplaces of aviation engineers and technicians and showed that work conditions of these occupations are characterized mainly by exposure to noise and infrasound, that are assigned to hazardous (3.4) and jeopardized (4) classes. Analysis of periodic medical examinations results helped to justify evidence based occupational and occupationally mediated diseases. PMID:21089440

Soldatov, S K; Bukhtiiarov, I V; Zinkin, V N; Swidowy?, V I; Palishkina, E E

2010-01-01

436

Animal Management Technician. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) for animal management technician (AMT) is a competency list verified by expert workers that evolved from a job analysis. It identifies occupational, academic, and employability competencies needed to enter the occupation; lists and clusters them into broader units; and details the competency…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

437

Reported occupational respiratory diseases in Catalonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: A voluntary surveillance system was implemented in Catalonia (Spain) to ascertain the feasibility, incidence, and characteristics of occupational respiratory diseases and compare them with those of the compulsory official system. Methods: In 2002, in collaboration with the Occupational and Thoracic Societies of Catalonia, occupational and chest physicians and other specialists were invited to report, on a bimonthly basis, newly

R Orriols; R Costa; M Albanell; C Alberti; J Castejon; E Monso; R Panades; N Rubira; J-P Zock

2006-01-01

438

Innovative Approaches to Health Occupations Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To improve communications between health occupations educators and health professionals about developments in health occupations education, a compilation of 21 approaches used in health occupations education is presented. Outlines of the 21 different courses are presented, grouped in eight areas: (1) career mobility--modified LPN program for…

Gurney, Elizabeth, Comp.; Kintgen, Jean, Comp.

439

The Sex Factor in Occupational Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article first examines the extent to which a sex-differentiated dual labour market exists in Australia with males being concentrated in different types of occupations from those of females. Factors affecting women's occupational choices are reviewed and the article goes on to report findings on the differences between Western Australian male and female students' occupational aspirations and expectations. It shows

Jan Currie

1982-01-01

440

Nurse Aide. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) for nurse aide (NA) is a competency list verified by expert workers that evolved from a job analysis. It identifies occupational, academic, and employability competencies needed to enter the occupation; lists and clusters them into broader units; and details the competency builders needed to…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

441

Exact voxel occupancy with graph cuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voxel occupancy is one approach for reconstructing the 3-dimensional shape of an object from multiple views. In voxel occupancy, the task is to produce a binary labeling of a set of voxels, that determines which voxels are filled and which are empty. In this paper, we give an energy minimization formulation of the voxel occupancy problem. The global minimum of

Dan Snow; Paul Viola; Ramin Zabih

2000-01-01

442

Occupational lead exposure and blood pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent community studies have suggested that low level lead exposure is significantly associated with blood pressure in the general population. This finding is inconsistent with the results of recent occupational studies of lead exposed workers, although the occupational studies contained serious methodological weaknesses. The present study examined the relation between occupational lead exposure and diastolic and systolic blood pressure in

D K Parkinson; M J Hodgson; E J Bromet; M A Dew; M M Connell

1987-01-01

443

Technical and Occupational Shops. Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The layouts and specifications provided are intended as a guide to school boards, educators, and architects. Drawings and room plans illustrate specifications for girls' occupational shop, graphic arts, carpentry (millwork and building construction shop), boys' occupational shop (mechanical), boys' occupational shop (building construction),…

Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto. School Planning and Building Research Section.

444

Nurse Aide. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) for nurse aide (NA) is a competency list verified by expert workers that evolved from a job analysis. It identifies occupational, academic, and employability competencies needed to enter the occupation; lists and clusters them into broader units; and details the competency builders needed to…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

445

The Allied Occupation of Japan in Retrospect  

Microsoft Academic Search

1995 was the fiftieth anniversary of the start of the Allied Occupation of Japan which lasted until 1952 and was a significant period in Japan's history. In order to make an assessment of the occupation a symposium under the title 'Allied Occupation of Japan' was held on 14 December 1995. Professor Richard B Finn who gave a paper on 'The

Chris Aldous; Richard B Finn

1996-01-01

446

Web-based training in occupational medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The aim of our project was to develop and evaluate an interactive computer-based approach to teach medical students in occupational medicine. To enhance interest in occupational medicine the major focus was on clinical and practical aspects of occupational medicine. Methods. The computer program was designed in HTML and JavaScript. It presents a guided tour of the patient's case history

Inga Hege; Katja Radon; Martin Dugas; Eva Scharrer; Dennis Nowak

2003-01-01

447

Resource Manual for Health Occupations Education Instructors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This resource manual is designed to assist secondary health occupations instructors in implementing their health occupations programs. It contains two types of materials: informational topics and sample forms, letters, memos, and other materials. The manual begins with an overview of the health occupations education program, followed by these…

Feilner, Veronica, Ed.; Robling, Jeannine, Ed.

448

Competencies Needed by Workers in Horticultural Occupations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was undertaken to identify occupational areas in the horticultural industry and to identify, describe, and categorize the mental and physical skills needed by workers in horticultural occupations. Competency lists were developed for these occupational areas: arborist services, farm and garden supply centers, golf course management,…

Kaas, Duane; Kahler, Alan A.

449

Insulator (Heat and Frost). Occupational Analyses Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This analysis covers tasks performed by an insulator, an occupational title some provinces and territories of Canada have also identified as heat and frost insulator. A guide to analysis discusses development, structure, and validation method; scope of the occupation; trends; and safety. To facilitate understanding the nature of the occupation,…

McRory, Aline; Ally, Mohamed

450

School injuries in an occupational health perspective: what do we learn from community based epidemiological studies?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The paper reviews community based epidemiological studies of injuries at school. It discusses their main findings in the light of a frame of analysis that emphasizes multidimensionality of causes, and in a Swedish context, where school injuries are legally regarded as occupational injuries. METHODS: A frame of analysis, inspired by research in the arena of occupational accident, was developed. It employs four key concepts to distinguish between injury and accident sequence, and between situational and structural factors as potential injury determinants. It also stresses the interaction between pupil, school, and community, in injury genesis. In parallel, a review of community based epidemiological studies of school injuries was undertaken after searching the relevant literature. The knowledge gathered from these studies is appraised in the light of the frame of analysis. RESULTS: In general, the studies point to potential risk groups, and to hazardous locations and activities. They address injury characteristics, but largely fail to define typical mechanisms. The literature sheds little light on whether there are particular characteristics of the community, school, or pupil(s)--other than gender and age--that influence injury event occurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Further research should devote attention to the sequences of events culminating in school injuries, and to the structural determinants of accident sequences. In this, surveillance systems might prove to be of great utility.

Laflamme, L.; Menckel, E.

1997-01-01

451

Biomechanical injury evaluation of laminated side door windows and sunroof during rollover accidents.  

PubMed

Significantly more fatalities and serious injuries occur due to ejection in roll over accidents. The present study was conducted to determine the occupant retention and head-neck injury potential aspects of laminated glass in side door windows and sunroofs during roll over accidents. The test protocol for this study was based on National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) studies for advanced glazing. The impact study of 18 kg with head-neck form was conducted on laminated glass of side doors and sunroofs from production vehicles. The drop speed was varied from 11 to 16 kph. The Hybrid III 50% male dummy head-neck form was impacted on the approximately center of the glass portion of the windows. The head injury criteria, head resultant acceleration, and neck loads and moments were quantified. A series of drop tests were conducted on roll down side windows with laminated glass. The head-neck biomechanical parameters were well below the critical value injury tolerance limits. Results indicated that the glass contained the dummy assembly and the head-neck biomechanical parameters were below the critical value injury tolerance limits in simulated rollover accidents. The present study demonstrates that head-neck injury is unlikely due to laminated glass side windows and sunroof laminated glass used in production vehicles during rollover accidents and that the dummy is contained by the laminated glazing. PMID:12724901

Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Carlin, Fred; Friedman, Keith; Meyer, Steve

2003-01-01

452

Public and occupational risks of the Nevada (USA) Test Site.  

PubMed

The Nevada Test Site (NTS), north of Las Vegas, was the scene of hundreds of nuclear weapons tests over four decades, both above- and below ground. There is considerable interest, both in neighboring communities and elsewhere, in the risks it poses. Overall, the greatest risks are nonradioactive in origin, with occupational risks to employees and accident risks in transporting low-level nuclear wastes to the NTS from other Department of Energy (DOE) sites ranking highest. For radiation risks, that to workers handling radioactive materials is much higher than that to the surrounding population, either present or future. Overall, annual risks are small, with all fatalities approximately 0.008% of total Nevada deaths. At the NTS, the government spends about 5000 times more on radiation as opposed to nonradiation deaths. This suggests that at least some resources may be misallocated towards cleanup of public risks and that the occupational risk of cleanup may be much higher than the public risk. Thus risk may be multiplied by well-meaning programs. PMID:11494069

Inhaber, H

2001-10-01

453

Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - summary report  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the Accident Investigation Board Report on the May 14, 1997, Chemical Explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington (DOE/RL-97-59). The referenced report provides a greater level of detail and includes a complete discussion of the facts identified, analysis of those facts, conclusions derived from the analysis, identification of the accident`s causal factors, and recommendations that should be addressed through follow-up action by the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. This companion document provides a concise summary of that report, with emphasis on management issues. Evaluation of emergency and occupational health response to, and radiological and chemical releases from, this accident was not within the scope of this investigation, but is the subject of a separate investigation and report (see DOE/RL-97-62).

Gerton, R.E.

1997-08-07

454

Chainat: a case study in occupational health and safety promotion for farmers.  

PubMed

The high rates of occupationally related injuries, accidents, and deaths in rural Thailand are of particular concern to public health officials, as well as the residents and workers living in these areas. In response to specific concerns raised by local residents and local health officials in Chainat Province, Thailand, the Work Improvement in Neighborhood Development (WIND) programme was introduced and implemented by means of the local Primary Care Unit (PCU). The objective was to improve farmers' knowledge of methods to improve occupational safety and to reduce the occurrence of occupationally related injuries, accidents, and deaths in the area. Local farmers, public health officers, and health volunteers from the PCU played a primary role in the programme, serving as trainers in the initial training of trainer session. Major activities included visiting a local farm to carry out a check-list improvement activity and active discussion among participants about potential improvements. Following the implementation of WIND in Chainat, a number of significant improvements in work conditions were noted, including construction of resting corners, plans to build toilets in the fields, improved knowledge about the dangers of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and increased use of personal protective equipment. Furthermore, participants began making organic fertilizer and had independently developed an organic anti-snail pesticide. This integrative approach, achieved by including many different members of the community, in combination with government support and diligent follow-up, has proved to be particularly successful. PMID:16610542

Arphorn, Sara; Brooks, Richard; Permsirivanich, Panupun

2006-01-01

455

Restrained front seat car occupant fatalities--the nature and circumstances of their injuries.  

PubMed

The circumstances of a rural and urban sample of fatalities in vehicles less than six years old is described. The data originate from an in-depth, multidisciplinary study of accidents conducted in England since 1983. The sample is biased towards collisions that result in occupant injury, and this paper will concentrate on those accidents in which an occupant has been fatally injured. The initial police reporting of the fatalities included 11% of the deaths occurring from natural causes. Of the crash-related deaths with complete data, some 43% were frontal and lateral impacts, and they are analysed in greater detail. Thirty-six percent of restrained occupants died in lateral collisions. In both frontal and lateral crashes, large amounts of intrusion result in direct loading of the head and chest, particularly. Under-run crashes with large trucks constitute 30% of frontal death cases, and only 12% of fatalities received fatal injuries from belt loads. Of those cases, additional loading by unrestrained rear passengers could have been an important feature. Multiplicity of severe injuries is the rule for restrained fatalities, with head injuries as the most common cause of death. Eighty-two percent died within an hour of their crashes. Some consequences for vehicle compatibility in crashes are discussed. PMID:1605813

Mackay, G M; Cheng, L; Smith, M; Parkin, S

1992-06-01

456

49 CFR 801.30 - Records from accident investigations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Records from accident investigations. 801.30 Section 801.30...AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Accident Investigation Records § 801.30 Records from accident investigations. Upon completion of an...

2011-10-01

457

49 CFR 801.30 - Records from accident investigations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Records from accident investigations. 801.30 Section 801.30...AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Accident Investigation Records § 801.30 Records from accident investigations. Upon completion of an...

2012-10-01

458

Work Zone Accident Data Process-Training Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The collection of accident data by law enforcement officials on accidents occurring within construction and maintenance work zones is usually not adequate to assess whether or not the accidents are directly or indirectly related to traffic control or phys...

D. Rubin E. Carter

1985-01-01

459

29 CFR 1960.70 - Reporting of serious accidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Reporting of serious accidents. Agencies must provide the Office of Federal Agency Programs with a summary report of each fatal and catastrophic accident investigation. The summaries shall address the date/time of accident,...

2013-07-01

460

10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304...Situations § 835.1304 Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing...possible, shall provide nuclear accident dosimetry for those individuals. (b)...

2009-01-01

461

10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304...Situations § 835.1304 Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing...possible, shall provide nuclear accident dosimetry for those individuals. (b)...

2010-01-01

462

10 CFR 71.73 - Hypothetical accident conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Hypothetical accident conditions. 71.73...LSA-III Tests 2 § 71.73 Hypothetical accident conditions. (a) Test procedures. Evaluation for hypothetical accident conditions is...

2009-01-01

463

10 CFR 71.73 - Hypothetical accident conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hypothetical accident conditions. 71.73...LSA-III Tests 2 § 71.73 Hypothetical accident conditions. (a) Test procedures. Evaluation for hypothetical accident conditions is...

2010-01-01

464

49 CFR 225.11 - Reporting of accidents/incidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...crossing accidents/incidents described in § 225...equipment accidents/incidents described in § 225...illness accidents/incidents described in § 225.19. (b) The report shall be made on the forms prescribed...

2011-10-01

465

49 CFR 225.11 - Reporting of accidents/incidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...crossing accidents/incidents described in § 225...equipment accidents/incidents described in § 225...illness accidents/incidents described in § 225.19. (b) The report shall be made on the forms prescribed...

2012-10-01

466

Assessment of Accident Risks in the CRBRP. Volume 2. Appendices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Appendices to Volume I include core-related accident-sequence definition, CRBRP risk-assessment sequence-probability determinations, failure-probability data, accident scenario evaluation, radioactive material release analysis, ex-core accident analysis, ...

1977-01-01

467

A Serious Game for Traffic Accident Investigators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In Dubai, traffic accidents kill one person every 37 hours and injure one person every 3 hours. Novice traffic accident investigators in the Dubai police force are expected to "learn by doing" in this intense environment. Currently, they use no alternative to the real world in order to practice. This paper argues for the use of an alternative…

Binsubaih, Ahmed; Maddock, Steve; Romano, Daniela

2006-01-01

468

Cognitive failure analysis for aircraft accident investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present studies were undertaken to investigate the applicability of an information processing approach to human failure in the aircraft cockpit. Using data obtained from official aircraft accident investigation reports, a database of accidents and incidents involving New Zealand civil aircraft between 1982 and 1991 was compiled. In the first study, reports were coded into one of three error stages

DAVID OHARE; MARK WIGGINS; RICHARD BATT; DIANNE MORRISON

1994-01-01

469

Squeal Those Tires! Automobile-Accident Reconstruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Methods use to reconstruct traffic accidents provide settings for real life applications for students in precalculus, mathematical analysis, or trigonometry. Described is the investigation of an accident in conjunction with the local Highway Patrol Academy integrating physics, vector, and trigonometry. Class findings were compared with those of…

Caples, Linda Griffin

1992-01-01

470

An analysis of causation in aerospace accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a short description of common accident models and their limitations, a new model is used to evaluate the causal factors in a mission interruption of the SOHO (SOlar Heliospheric Observatory) spacecraft. The factors in this accident are similar to common factors found in other recent software related aerospace losses

K. A. Weiss; N. Leveson; K. Lundqvist; N. Farid; M. Stringfellow

2001-01-01

471

Method of assessing severe accident management strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accident management can be defined as the innovative use of existing and or alternative resources, systems, and actions to prevent or mitigate a severe accident. A significant number of probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) have been completed that yield the principal plant vulnerabilities. These vulnerabilities can be categorized as (1) dominant sequences with respect to core-melt frequency. (2) dominant sequences with

W. E. Kastenberg; G. Apostolakis; V. K. Dhir; D. Okrent; M. Jae; H. Lim; T. Milici; J. Swider; L. Xing; D. Yu

1991-01-01

472

Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents Codebook 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA), 2006, including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2006 BIFA file is a census of all buses involved in a fatal accident in the...

D. Blower D. Hershberger J. Woodrooffe L. Jarossi

2008-01-01

473

Fuel performance during severe accidents. [PWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the Three Mile Island Unit-2 (TMI-2) accident, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a severe fuel damage test program to evaluate fuel rod and core response during severe accidents similar to TMI-2. This program is underway in the Power Burst Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In preparation for the first test, predictions have been

B. J. Buescher; G. E. Gruen; P. E. MacDonald

1982-01-01

474

Understanding the TMI2 accident: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) on March 28, 1979 has had a profound impact on the nuclear power industry despite the fact that the health consequences to the public were insignificant. There is considerable benefit to the nuclear power industry in understanding the progression of this severe core damage accident and its relationship to the very

R. R. Hobbins; J. M. Broughton; C. M. Allison

1986-01-01

475

MELCOR analysis of the TMI2 accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MELCOR computer code has been used to analyze the first 174 minutes of the TMI-2 accident. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of analyzing severe accidents in nuclear power plants. Comparison of the code predictions to the available data shows that MELCOR is capable of modeling the key

E. A. Boucheron; J. E. Kelly

1988-01-01

476

A scenario of the TMI2 accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is the first of a series of three Nuclear Safety articles summarizing the major research findings from the TMI-2 Accident Evaluation Program (AEP) being conducted by EG and G Idaho, Inc. for the US Department of Energy. The focal point of the AEP is to develop a consistent understanding of the core damage progression (accident scenario) during the

J. M. Broughton; E. L. Tolman; P. Kuan; D. Petti

1988-01-01

477

MELCOR analysis of the TMI2 accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the analysis of the Three Mile Island-2 (TMI-2) standard problem that was performed with MELCOR. The MELCOR computer code is being developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of analyzing severe accident in nuclear power plants. The primary role of MELCOR is to provide realistic predictions of severe accident phenomena and

Boucheron

1990-01-01

478

Consequence calculations for PPCS bounding accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ‘worst case’ assessment of the radiologically significant environmental source term, based on bounding accident analysis of a single blanket cooling loop loss of cooling accident (LOCA), has been performed for Fusion Plant Models A and B of the Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS). This paper describes the calculations of ensuing material mobilisation, transport in the containment, release to the

W. E. Han

2005-01-01

479

49 CFR 845.40 - Accident report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Accident report. 845.40 Section...TRANSPORTATION; ACCIDENT/INCIDENT HEARINGS AND REPORTS Board Reports § 845...warrant such a report. The report will set forth the...reported in a manner and form prescribed by the...

2012-10-01

480

49 CFR 845.40 - Accident report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Accident report. 845.40 Section...TRANSPORTATION; ACCIDENT/INCIDENT HEARINGS AND REPORTS Board Reports § 845...warrant such a report. The report will set forth the...reported in a manner and form prescribed by the...

2011-10-01

481

Injury reduction by the airbag in accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today an increasing number of automobiles are being equipped with additional passive safety devices: driver and passenger airbags. To examine the efficiency of the airbag in real road traffic accidents, a collective study was conducted from 181 traumatology centres throughout Germany. The inquiry was answered by 81 per cent of the medical centres contacted. From the evaluation of 122 accident

E. H. Kuner; W. Schlickewei; D. Oltmanns

1996-01-01

482

Normal Accident at Three Mile Island.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some aspects of the accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant. Explains a number of factors involved including the type of accident, warnings, design and equipment failure, operator error, and negative synergy. Presents alternatives to systems with catastrophic potential. (MK)

Perrow, Charles

1981-01-01

483

Accident risks in nuclear-power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the results of estimates of nuclear-power plant safety based on probabilistic safety analyses and discusses the means used to decrease core damage factors, large release frequency and cancer deaths due to nuclear accidents. Estimates made for new nuclear power plants show that these risks are negligibly small. The radiological effects of the Chernobyl accident are discussed and

A. Strupczewski

2003-01-01

484

Sample-Based Bayesian Accident Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In accident reconstruction, information derived from samples of crash tests can on occasion replace subjective prior information reflecting expert opinion. A method for accomplishing this, based on a straightforward application of Bayesian reasoning as used in statistics, is applied to three-accident scenarios: estimating critical speeds from yaw marks, estimating impact speed from crush, and estimating impact speed from pedestrian throw

Gary A. Davis

2009-01-01

485

Bayesian networks and traffic accident reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attempt to draw rational conclusions about a road accident can be viewed as a problem in uncertain reasoning about a particular event, to which developments in the modeling of uncertain reasoning for artificial intelligence can be applied. Physical principles can be used to develop a structural model for the accident, and this model can then be combined with an

Gary A. Davis; Jianping Pei

2003-01-01

486

Road Safety: Accident Analysis And Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work focuses, in this first phase, on accident analysis and reconstruction, with the purpose of devoting a second phase on the analysis of risk levels. The present paper defines synthetically the analysis of procedures and methodologies related to poor safety conditions, turning in the last part in a applicative example. Since the year 2000, a certain number of accidents

G. e Sillo

487

Traffic accidents during work and work commuting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to analyze both the background of the victims and drivers involved in traffic accidents during work and during the commute to and from work by car or other means and the circumstances of these accidents. The study was based on three independent data sets, of which two were based on compensation claims to insurance

Simo Salminen

2000-01-01

488

Normal Accident at Three Mile Island.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses some aspects of the accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant. Explains a number of factors involved including the type of accident, warnings, design and equipment failure, operator error, and negative synergy. Presents alternatives to systems with catastrophic potential. (MK)|

Perrow, Charles

1981-01-01

489

Accident Trend Monitoring and Exploratory Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report consists of a compilation of a series of accident trend analyses. The report provides a summary of results developed in the initial tests of the accident trend analysis system, documentation of technical methods utilized in the design of the sy...

M. Stein J. Magidson M. Beauregard C. Logan

1986-01-01

490

Sykkelulykker Blant Ungdom (Bicycle Accidents Among Teenagers).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report shows that knowledge of traffic rules does not contribute to reduce the accident risk, or injury risk of young cyclists. Running red lights and cycling in the wrong direction in one-way traffic increase accident and injury risk. Using cycle pat...

T. Bjomskau

2001-01-01

491

Occupational Engagement and Meaning: The Experience of Ikebana Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engagement and meaning are essential properties of occupation that have been associated with well-being in the occupational science literature. A deeper examination of subjective experiences while engaging in particular occupations may illuminate how specific occupational characteristics contribute to the relationship between occupation and well-being. Consequently, this study investigates the concepts of personal meaning and occupational engagement by exploring the experience

Allison M. Watters; Christine Pearce; Catherine L. Backman; Melinda J. Suto

2012-01-01

492

[Occupational bio hazards: current issues].  

PubMed

Over the last decade, there was noted a large advancement of knowledge on living organisms and their products posing a potential occupational risk. Novel risk factors, often new to science, were identified, the role and significance of already known factors better comprehended, and occupational groups endangered by biological hazards more thoroughly recognized. Novel viruses and prions, emerging in different parts of the world, may pose a particular threat to health and life of health care workers, agriculture workers and veterinarians. A new coronavirus (SCoV) that evoked a rapid outbreak of disease described as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in the first half of 2003 may serve as an example. The disease was particularly common among health care workers. Previously discovered zoonotic viruses, Nipah virus in pigs and Hendra virus in horses, may be a cause of fatal encephalitis in animal farmers. Hantaviruses (Puumala, Hantaan, Sin Nombre and others) infecting field rodents may be a cause of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in farmers and laboratory workers. Prions responsible for inducing a zoonotic variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) are considered to be a potential cause of work-related infections in agricultural and health care workers, however, this assumption has not as yet been supported by any conclusive evidence. In many countries, blood-borne occupational infections with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the major epidemiological problem among health care workers, mostly because no vaccine against this virus has been produced to date. Vaccinations effectively restricted the number of occupational infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV), and work-related infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are very rare. Hazardous bioserosols, occurring in many work environments, pose an occupational health hazard of particular importance. Many new biological factors present in organic dusts that may induce work-related allergic and immunotoxic diseases among farmers and workers of the agricultural and wood industries have been identified. Droplet aerosols, which are generated from water, oils, oil-water emulsions and other liquids in various work environments, may contain infectious agents (Legionella spp.) as well as allergic and/or toxic agents. It has been shown that allergens and endotoxins produced by Gram-negative bacteria occurring in oil mist from metalworking fluids may cause occupational respiratory diseases in workers of the metallurgic industry. PMID:15156765

Dutkiewicz, Jacek

2004-01-01

493

Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies could provide an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. This analysis, however, does not take credit for the additional barrier and establishes only the total release fractions for bare unconfined intact commercial SNF assemblies, which may be conservatively applied to confined intact commercial I SNF assemblies.

J. Schulz

2004-11-05

494

Occupational disease surveillance data sources, 1985.  

PubMed Central

Health department epidemiologists in 50 states, New York City, and the District of Columbia were surveyed in 1985 about seven potential data sources for occupational disease surveillance. Reported sources of occupational disease data were: automated workers' compensation claims (63 per cent of the 52 respondents); provider reports (62 per cent); death certificates with occupation or industry (60 per cent); cancer registries with occupational histories (35 per cent); birth certificates with parent's occupation (27 per cent); non-cancer disease registries (13 per cent); and hospital or insurance records (8 per cent).

Muldoon, J T; Wintermeyer, L A; Eure, J A; Fuortes, L; Merchant, J A; Van Lier, S F; Richards, T B

1987-01-01

495

Hospitalizations for Accidents and Injuries in the U.S. Navy: Environmental and Occupational Factors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An epidemiologic analysis of accidental injury hospitalizations was conducted to determine if risk varied by seniority, cause, or duty status for major operational and support activities in the US Navy. Computerized archival medical data were used to sele...

J. C. Helmkamp C. M. Bone

1986-01-01

496

Correlative Investigation of Simulated Occupant Motion and Accident Report in a Helicopter Crash.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1987, an Army Apache helicopter crashed during a training mission at Fort Rucker, Alabama, resulting in fatal injuries to the rear seat pilot and survivable injuries to the front seat copilot. Figure 1 shows the seating configuration of the two pilots....

D. G. Beale N. M. Alem B. P. Butler

1994-01-01

497

Health, environment, safety culture and climate – analysing the relationships to occupational accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large cross?sectional survey was conducted amongst employees in the Norwegian offshore oil and gas industry as part of the ‘Trends in Risk Level’ project initiated by the Norwegian Petroleum Safety Authority in 1999\\/2000. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between health, safety and (work) environment (HSE). Furthermore to examine the effect of HSE?related variables and

Anne Mette Bjerkan

2010-01-01

498

Industrial Fungal Enzymes: An Occupational Allergen Perspective  

PubMed Central

Occupational exposure to high-molecular-weight allergens is a risk factor for the development and pathogenesis of IgE-mediated respiratory disease. In some occupational environments, workers are at an increased risk of exposure to fungal enzymes used in industrial production. Fungal enzymes have been associated with adverse health effects in the work place, in particular in baking occupations. Exposure-response relationships have been demonstrated, and atopic workers directly handling fungal enzymes are at an increased risk for IgE-mediated disease and occupational asthma. The utilization of new and emerging fungal enzymes in industrial production will present new occupational exposures. The production of antibody-based immunoassays is necessary for the assessment of occupational exposure and the development of threshold limit values. Allergen avoidance strategies including personal protective equipment, engineering controls, protein encapsulation, and reduction of airborne enzyme concentrations are required to mitigate occupational exposure to fungal enzymes.

Green, Brett J.; Beezhold, Donald H.

2011-01-01

499

Encopresis: Not just an accident.  

PubMed

Encopresis is a medical condition that can be seen in the school setting with children of all ages, though primarily at the early childhood and elementary level. This condition can cause a great amount of frustration with the student, family, and teachers due to the child's inability to control elimination patterns. The school nurse must be aware of the warning signs that a student may be experiencing encopresis in order to promote treatment. This article will assist the school nurse in understanding typical causes for functional encopresis, knowing how to help a student who soils, and developing an individualized healthcare plan that assists a student to become continent of stool again. Encopresis is not just an accident. PMID:24050041

Mosca, Nancy W; Schatz, Mary L

2013-09-01

500

[Oral contraception and cerebrovascular accidents].  

PubMed

The authors had the opportunity to follow a case of fatal ischemic bilateral cerebral infarctus which occurred in a 28 year old female with a history of migraine (but without any anti-migrainous drug). She had been using a low dose (0.05 mg ethinyl estradiol) oral contraceptive (OC) for 2 years. The previous pathological data of subendothelial thickening and fibrosis with thrombosis were confirmed, but for the 1st time, a marked giant cell reaction was found in close contact with lesions of the internal elastic membrane. Thus, there was evidence of inflammatory thrombo-angeitis obliterans. Biological and immunological abnormalities such as a high rate of anti-ethinyl estradiol antibodies in the serum (polyclonal immunoglobulin IgC) and circulating blood immune complexes seem to be closely related to this inflammatory thrombo-angeitis. These biological and histological findings suggest that vascular accidents related to OCs may be induced by an immunological mechanism. (author's) PMID:7034891

Nick, J; Bakouche, P; Beaumont, V; Vedrenne, C

1981-06-01